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Sample records for bilateral sciatic nerve

  1. Co-presentation of unilateral femoral and bilateral sciatic nerve variants in one cadaver: A case report with clinical implications

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    Battaglia Patrick J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present a group of anatomical findings that may have clinical significance. Design This study is an anatomical case report of combined lumbo-pelvic peripheral nerve and muscular variants. Setting University anatomy laboratory. Participants One cadaveric specimen. Methods During routine cadaveric dissection for a graduate teaching program, unilateral femoral and bilateral sciatic nerve variants were observed in relation to the iliacus and piriformis muscle, respectively. Further dissection of both the femoral nerve and accessory slip of iliacus muscle was performed to fully expose their anatomy. Results Piercing of the femoral nerve by an accessory iliacus muscle combined with wide variations in sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle presentations may have clinical significance. Conclusions Combined femoral and sciatic nerve variants should be considered when treatment for a lumbar disc herniation is refractory to care despite positive orthopedic testing.

  2. Schwannomatosis of the sciatic nerve

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    Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Maruyama, Shigeki; Mizuno, Kosaku [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    A 52-year-old woman with schwannomatosis in the left sciatic nerve is presented. The patient had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 or 2. Cutaneous or spinal schwannomas were not detected. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the sciatic nerve revealed more than 15 tumors along the course of the nerve. Histological examination revealed schwannomas consisting of Antoni A and B areas. Immunohistochemical study showed most cells reacting intensely for S-100 protein. The patient underwent conservative follow-up treatment due to the minimal symptoms. The relationship of the disease with NF-2 and plexiform schwannoma is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Muscle potentials evoked by magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve in unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction

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    Van Soens, I.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Van Ham, L. M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve and subsequent recording of the muscle-evoked potential (MEP) was performed in eight dogs and three cats with unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction. Localisation of the lesion in the sciatic nerve was based on the history, clinical neurological examination an

  4. Dog sciatic nerve gap repaired by artificial tissue nerve graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaosong; ZHANG Peiyun; WANG Xiaodong; DING Fei; PENG Luping; CHENG Hongbing

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of repairing dog sciatic nerve damage by using a biodegradable artificial tissue nerve graft enriched with neuroregenerating factors is investigated. The artificial nerve graft was implanted to a 30 mm gap of the sciatic nerve damage in 7 dogs. The dogs with the same nerve damage that were repaired by interposition of the autologous nerve or were given no treatment served as control group 1 or 2, respectively. The observations include gross and morphological observations, immune reaction, electrophysiological examination, fluorescence tracing of the neuron formation and the number of the neurons at the experimental sites, etc. Results showed that 6 months after the implantation of the graft, the regenerated nerve repaired the damage of the sciatic nerve without occurrence of rejection and obvious inflammatory reaction in all 7 dogs, and the function of the sciatic nerve recovered with the nerve conduction velocity of (23.91±11.35)m/s. The regenerated neurons and the forming of axon could be observed under an electron microscope. This proves that artificial tissue nerve graft transplantation can bridge the damaged nerve ends and promote the nerve regeneration.

  5. Neurologic complication after anterior sciatic nerve block.

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    Shah, Shruti; Hadzic, Admir; Vloka, Jerry D; Cafferty, Maureen S; Moucha, Calin S; Santos, Alan C

    2005-05-01

    The lack of reported complications related to lower extremity peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) may be related to the relatively infrequent application of these techniques and to the fact that most such events go unpublished. Our current understanding of the factors that lead to neurologic complications after PNBs is limited. This is partly the result of our inability to conduct meaningful retrospective studies because of a lack of standard and objective monitoring and documentation procedures for PNBs. We report a case of permanent injury to the sciatic nerve after sciatic nerve block through the anterior approach and discuss mechanisms that may have led to the injury. Intraneural injection and nerve injury can occur in the absence of pain on injection and it may be heralded by high injection pressure (resistance).

  6. PUNICA GRANATUM ATTENUATES SCIATIC NERVE LIGATION INDUCED-NEUROPATHIC PAIN

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    Ramica Sharma et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study has been designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of rind of Punica granatum in sciatic nerve ligation induced-neuropathic pain in rats. Surgical procedure was performed with sciatic nerve ligation to develop neuropathic pain in rats. The development of neuropathic pain was assessed by employing behaviour parameters such as hyperalgesia and allodynia. Further, the functionality of sciatic nerve was assessed using the histopathological study of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in sciatic nerve. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, catalase, glutathione and tissue TBARS and Superoxide dismutase (SOD. Rats exposed to sciatic nerve ligation produced marked increase in oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of TBARS and SOD along with decrease in the level of catalase and glutathione. Moreover, it develops neuropathic pain by impairing the normal functions of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in sciatic nerve. Treatment with aqueous extract of Punica granatum extract (100mg/kg, p.o markedly prevented sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress by increasing the pain threshold, by improving the functionality of sciatic nerve, by decreasing serum and tissue TBARS and tissue SOD, by increasing levels of serum glutathione and catalase. It may be concluded that Punica granatum extract reduced the oxidative stress via inhibiting p38MAPK and alleviates neuropathic symptoms and consequently improved the functionality of sciatic nerve and prevents sciatic nerve ligation–induced neuropathic pain.

  7. The level of the sciatic nerve division and its relations to the piriform muscle

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    Ugrenović Slađana Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The sciatic nerve, as the terminal branch of the sacral plexus, leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen beneath the piriform muscle. Afterwards, it separates into the tibial and the common peroneal nerve, most frequently at the level of the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. Higher level of the sciatic nerve division is a relatively frequent phenomenom and it may be the cause of an incomplete block of the sciatic nerve during the popliteal block anesthesia. There is a possibility of different anatomic relations between the sciatic nerve or its terminal branches and the piriform muscle (piriformis syndrome. The aim of this research was to investigate the level of the sciatic nerve division and its relations to the piriform muscle. It was performed on 100 human fetuses (200 lower extremities which were in various gestational periods and of various sex, using microdissection method. Characteristic cases were photographed. Results. Sciatic nerve separated into the tibial and common peroneal nerve in popliteal fossa in 72.5% of the cases (bilaterally in the 66% of the cases. In the remainder of the cases the sciatic nerve division was high (27.5% of the cases in the posteror femoral or in the gluteal region. Sciatic nerve left the pelvis through the infrapiriform foramen in 192 lower extremities (96% of the cases, while in 8 lower extremities (4% of the cases the variable relations between sciatic nerve and piriform muscle were detected. The common peroneal nerve penetrated the piriform muscle and left the pelvis in 5 lower extremities (2.5% of the cases and the tibial nerve in those cases left the pelvis through the infrapiriform foramen. In 3 lower extremities (1.5% of the cases common peroneal nerve left the pelvis through suprapiriform, and the tibial nerve through the infrapiriform foramen. The high terminal division of sciatic nerve (detected in 1/3 of the cases, must be kept in mind during the performing of popliteal

  8. PUNICA GRANATUM ATTENUATES SCIATIC NERVE LIGATION INDUCED-NEUROPATHIC PAIN

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    Ramica Sharma et al.

    2012-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of rind of Punica granatum in sciatic nerve ligation induced-neuropathic pain in rats. Surgical procedure was performed with sciatic nerve ligation to develop neuropathic pain in rats. The development of neuropathic pain was assessed by employing behaviour parameters such as hyperalgesia and allodynia. Further, the functionality of sciatic nerve was assessed using the histopathological study of myelinated and unmyelinate...

  9. Combination of Acellular Nerve Graft and Schwann Cells-Like Cells for Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

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    Songtao Gao; Yan Zheng; Qiqing Cai; Zhansheng Deng; Weitao Yao; Jiaqiang Wang; Xin Wang; Peng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Methods. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), neural electrophysiology (NEP), histological and tra...

  10. Limb immobilization alters functional electrophysiological parameters of sciatic nerve

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.M. Alves; J.H. Leal-Cardoso; F.F.U. Santos-Junior; Carlos, P.S.; Silva, R. C.; Lucci, C.M.; S. N. BAO; Ceccatto, V.M.; R. Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Immobilization, used in clinical practice to treat traumatologic problems, causes changes in muscle, but it is not known whether changes also occur in nerves. We investigated the effects of immobilization on excitability and compound action potential (CAP) and the ultrastructure of the rat sciatic nerve. Fourteen days after immobilization of the right leg of adult male Wistar rats (n=34), animals were killed and the right sciatic nerve was dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were...

  11. Autologous nerve anastomosis versus human amniotic membrane anastomosis A rheological comparison following simulated sciatic nerve injury

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    Guangyao Liu; Qiao Zhang; Yan Jin; Zhongli Gao

    2011-01-01

    The sciatic nerve is biological viscoelastic solid, with stress relaxation and creep characteristics. In this study, a comparative analysis of the stress relaxation and creep characteristics of the sciatic nerve was conducted after simulating sciatic nerve injury and anastomosing with autologous nerve or human amniotic membrane. The results demonstrate that, at the 7 200-second time point, both stress reduction and strain increase in the human amniotic membrane anastomosis group were significantly greater than in the autologous nerve anastomosis group. Our findings indicate that human amniotic membrane anastomosis for sciatic nerve injury has excellent rheological characteristics and is conducive to regeneration of the injured nerve.

  12. Bacterial melanin promotes recovery after sciatic nerve injury in rats

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    Olga V Gevorkyan; Irina B Meliksetyan; Tigran R Petrosyan; Anichka S Hovsepyan

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial melanin, obtained from the mutant strain ofBacillus Thuringiensis, has been shown to promote recovery after central nervous system injury. It is hypothesized, in this study, that bacterial melanin can promote structural and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve transection were intramuscularly administered bacterial melanin. The sciatic nerve transected rats that did not receive intramuscular administration of bacterial melanin served as controls. Behavior tests showed that compared to control rats, the time taken for instrumental conditioned relfex recovery was signiifcantly shorter and the ability to keep the balance on the rotating bar was signiifcantly better in bacterial melanin-treated rats. Histomor-phological tests showed that bacterial melanin promoted axon regeneration after sciatic nerve injury. These ifndings suggest that bacterial melanin exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve, contributes to limb motor function recovery, and therefore can be used for rehabil-itation treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  13. Bacterial melanin promotes recovery after sciatic nerve injury in rats

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    Gevorkyan, Olga. V.; Meliksetyan, Irina B.; Petrosyan, Tigran R.; Hovsepyan, Anichka S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial melanin, obtained from the mutant strain of Bacillus Thuringiensis, has been shown to promote recovery after central nervous system injury. It is hypothesized, in this study, that bacterial melanin can promote structural and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve transection were intramuscularly administered bacterial melanin. The sciatic nerve transected rats that did not receive intramuscular administration of bacterial melanin served as...

  14. Tacrolimus reduces scar formation and promotes sciatic nerve regeneration

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    Jun Que; Quan Cao; Tao Sui; Shihao Du; Ailiang Zhang; Dechao Kong; Xiaojian Cao

    2012-01-01

    A sciatic nerve transection and repair model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by transecting the tendon of obturator internus muscle in the greater sciatic foramen and suturing with nylon sutures. The models were treated with tacrolimus gavage (4 mg/kg per day) for 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Specimens were harvested at 6 weeks of intragastric administration. Masson staining revealed that the collagen fiber content and scar area in the nerve anastomosis of the sciatic nerve injury rats were significantly reduced after tacrolimus administration. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that tacrolimus significantly increased myelinated nerve fiber density, average axon diameter and myelin sheath thickness. Intragastric administration of tacrolimus also led to a significant increase in the recovery rate of gastrocnemius muscle wet weight and the sciatic functional index after sciatic nerve injury. The above indices were most significantly improved at 6 weeks after of tacrolimus gavage. The myelinated nerve fiber density in the nerve anastomosis and the sciatic nerve functions had a significant negative correlation with the scar area, as detected by Spearman’s rank correlation analysis. These findings indicate that tacrolimus can promote peripheral nerve regeneration and accelerate the recovery of neurological function through the reduction of scar formation.

  15. Tacrolimus reduces scar formation and promotes sciatic nerve regeneration☆

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    Que, Jun; Cao, Quan; Sui, Tao; Du, Shihao; Zhang, Ailiang; Kong, Dechao; Cao, Xiaojian

    2012-01-01

    A sciatic nerve transection and repair model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by transecting the tendon of obturator internus muscle in the greater sciatic foramen and suturing with nylon sutures. The models were treated with tacrolimus gavage (4 mg/kg per day) for 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Specimens were harvested at 6 weeks of intragastric administration. Masson staining revealed that the collagen fiber content and scar area in the nerve anastomosis of the sciatic nerve injury rats were si...

  16. Effects of Alcohol Injection in Rat Sciatic Nerve

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    Mazoch, Mathew J.; Cheema, Gulraiz A.; Suva, Larry J.; Thomas, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the injection of dehydrated alcohol has been successful for the treatment of Morton's neuroma in the foot. In this study, we determined the cellular effect of injection of alcohol into and around the sciatic nerve of rats, and measured the extent of cell necrosis and/or any associated histologic or inflammatory changes. Methods Twenty-two male (~375g) Wistar rats were randomized into two groups each receiving alcohol injections into or around the sciatic nerve after nerve exposure under sterile technique. Group 1 rats were injected with a 0.5ml solution of 0.5% Marcaine in the left sciatic nerve as a control group. In the right sciatic nerve a 0.5ml solution of 4% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine was injected. Group 2 rats received 0.5ml of 20%ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the left sciatic nerve and 0.5 ml of 30% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the right sciatic nerve. In each group, the rats were placed in 3 subgroups: intraneural, perineural, perimuscular injections. All rats were sacrificed and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation at day 10 post injection. Results No evidence of alcohol-associated cell necrosis, apoptosis or apparent inflammation was observed in histologic specimens of any injected nerves, perineural tissue, or muscles in controls or experimental groups regardless of concentration of ethanol injected on day 10. Conclusion We concluded that alcohol injection (≤30% ethanol) into and/or around the sciatic nerve or the adjacent muscle of rats has no histologic evidence of necrosis or inflammation to the nerve or surrounding tissue. There was no observable histological change in apoptosis, or cell number, in response to the alcohol injection. PMID:25097192

  17. Delayed Sciatic Nerve Injury Resulting From Myositis Ossificans Traumatica.

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    Guan, Zhe; Wilson, Thomas J; Jacobson, Jon A; Hollon, Todd C; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2016-05-01

    A motorcyclist sustained multiple-system trauma, including a left buttock hematoma requiring decompression and evacuation. Presentation for severe hip pain and lower extremity weakness was delayed. Imaging revealed myositis ossificans traumatica compressing the sciatic nerve in the buttock. The patient underwent sciatic nerve decompression with resection of heterotopic calcification, resulting in improvement in pain and left lower extremity function. This case illustrates the contrast in differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve injury immediately posttrauma and that occurring in a slow, delayed fashion posttrauma. Myositis ossificans may be an underrecognized complication of trauma but should be considered in cases of delayed peripheral nerve injury after trauma. PMID:26548968

  18. Combined posterior lumbar plexus–sciatic nerve block versus combined femoral–obturator–sciatic nerve block for ACL reconstruction

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    Tharwat, Ayman I

    2011-01-01

    Ayman I TharwatAin Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: We compared the efficacy of combined posterior lumbar plexus–sciatic nerve block with that of combined femoral–obturator–sciatic nerve block as anesthesia for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery, because both block combinations have been recommended for lower limb arthroscopic and reconstructive surgery.Methods: Forty-eight patients undergoing elective unilateral anterior cruciate ligament...

  19. Immediate versus delayed primary nerve repair in the rabbit sciatic nerve

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    Ahmet Piskin; Berrin Zhal Altunkaynak; Atilla tlak; Hicabi Sezgin; Ozgr Yazc; Sleyman Kaplan

    2013-01-01

    It is wel known that peripheral nerve injury should be treated immediately in the clinic, but in some instances, repair can be delayed. This study investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed (3 days after injury) neurorrhaphy on repair of transected sciatic nerve in New Zealand rabbits using stereological, histomorphological and biomechanical methods. At 8 weeks after immediate and de-layed neurorrhaphy, axon number and area in the sciatic nerve, myelin sheath and epineurium thickness, Schwann cellmorphology, and the mechanical property of nerve fibers did not differ ob-viously. These results indicate that delayed neurorrhaphy do not produce any deleterious effect on sciatic nerve repair.

  20. Immediate versus delayed primary nerve repair in the rabbit sciatic nerve.

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    Piskin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zühal; Çitlak, Atilla; Sezgin, Hicabi; Yazιcι, Ozgür; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2013-12-25

    It is well known that peripheral nerve injury should be treated immediately in the clinic, but in some instances, repair can be delayed. This study investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed (3 days after injury) neurorrhaphy on repair of transected sciatic nerve in New Zealand rabbits using stereological, histomorphological and biomechanical methods. At 8 weeks after immediate and delayed neurorrhaphy, axon number and area in the sciatic nerve, myelin sheath and epineurium thickness, Schwann cell morphology, and the mechanical property of nerve fibers did not differ obviously. These results indicate that delayed neurorrhaphy do not produce any deleterious effect on sciatic nerve repair. PMID:25206663

  1. Sciatic nerve tumor and tumor-like lesions - uncommon pathologies

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    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Maragakis, Nicholas; Hoeke, Ahmet; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Belzberg, Allan J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Sciatic nerve mass-like enlargement caused by peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or schwannomatosis has been widely reported. Other causes of enlargement, such as from perineuroma, fibromatosis, neurolymphoma, amyloidosis, endometriosis, intraneural ganglion cyst, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are relatively rare. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss normal anatomy of the sciatic nerve and MRI findings of the above-mentioned lesions. (orig.)

  2. Intraneural metastasis of gastric carcinoma leads to sciatic nerve palsy

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    Ichikawa Jiro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soft tissue metastases, in particular intraneural metastasis, from any carcinomas seldom occur. To our knowledge, no case of sciatic nerve palsy due to intraneural metastasis of gastric carcinoma is reported in the literature. Case presentation A case is reported of a 82-year old woman with sciatic nerve palsy with intraneural metastasis of gastric carcinoma. Although she had undergone partial gastrectomy with T2b, N0, M0 two years ago and primary site was cured, she developed sciatic nerve palsy from the carcinoma metastasis directly to the nerve. Operative resection and Histological examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, the same as her primary site adenocarcinoma. Conclusions Sciatica is usually caused by a herniated disc or spinal canal stenosis. Sciatic nerve palsy may be caused by nondiscogenic etiologies that may be either intrapelvic or extrapelvic. It is important to image the entire course of the nerve to distinguish these etiologies quickly. The longer the nerve compression the less likely a palsy will recover. Surgery is a good intervention that simultaneously obtains a tissue diagnosis and decompresses the nerve.

  3. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis

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    Yu, Tao; ZHAO, CHANGFU; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transpl...

  4. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

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    Xing-long Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery.

  5. Immediate versus delayed primary nerve repair in the rabbit sciatic nerve

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    Piskin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zühal; Çιtlak, Atilla; Sezgin, Hicabi; Yazιcι, Ozgür; KAPLAN, Süleyman

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that peripheral nerve injury should be treated immediately in the clinic, but in some instances, repair can be delayed. This study investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed (3 days after injury) neurorrhaphy on repair of transected sciatic nerve in New Zealand rabbits using stereological, histomorphological and biomechanical methods. At 8 weeks after immediate and delayed neurorrhaphy, axon number and area in the sciatic nerve, myelin sheath and epineurium thicknes...

  6. Limb immobilization alters functional electrophysiological parameters of sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J S M; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Santos-Júnior, F F U; Carlos, P S; Silva, R C; Lucci, C M; Báo, S N; Ceccatto, V M; Barbosa, R

    2013-08-01

    Immobilization, used in clinical practice to treat traumatologic problems, causes changes in muscle, but it is not known whether changes also occur in nerves. We investigated the effects of immobilization on excitability and compound action potential (CAP) and the ultrastructure of the rat sciatic nerve. Fourteen days after immobilization of the right leg of adult male Wistar rats (n=34), animals were killed and the right sciatic nerve was dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated at a baseline frequency of 0.2 Hz and tested for 2 min at 20, 50, and 100 Hz. Immobilization altered nerve excitability. Rheobase and chronaxy changed from 3.13 ± 0.05 V and 52.31 ± 1.95 µs (control group, n=13) to 2.84 ± 0.06 V and 59.71 ± 2.79 µs (immobilized group, n=15), respectively. Immobilization altered the amplitude of CAP waves and decreased the conduction velocity of the first CAP wave (from 93.63 ± 7.49 to 79.14 ± 5.59 m/s) but not of the second wave. Transmission electron microscopy showed fragmentation of the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve of immobilized limbs and degeneration of the axon. In conclusion, we demonstrated that long-lasting leg immobilization can induce alterations in nerve function. PMID:23969978

  7. Limb immobilization alters functional electrophysiological parameters of sciatic nerve

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    J.S.M. Alves

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization, used in clinical practice to treat traumatologic problems, causes changes in muscle, but it is not known whether changes also occur in nerves. We investigated the effects of immobilization on excitability and compound action potential (CAP and the ultrastructure of the rat sciatic nerve. Fourteen days after immobilization of the right leg of adult male Wistar rats (n=34, animals were killed and the right sciatic nerve was dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated at a baseline frequency of 0.2 Hz and tested for 2 min at 20, 50, and 100 Hz. Immobilization altered nerve excitability. Rheobase and chronaxy changed from 3.13±0.05 V and 52.31±1.95 µs (control group, n=13 to 2.84±0.06 V and 59.71±2.79 µs (immobilized group, n=15, respectively. Immobilization altered the amplitude of CAP waves and decreased the conduction velocity of the first CAP wave (from 93.63±7.49 to 79.14±5.59 m/s but not of the second wave. Transmission electron microscopy showed fragmentation of the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve of immobilized limbs and degeneration of the axon. In conclusion, we demonstrated that long-lasting leg immobilization can induce alterations in nerve function.

  8. Histological observation on acellular nerve grafts co-cultured with Schwann cells for repairing defects of the sciatic nerve

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    Xiaohong Sun; Jiangyi Tian; Xiaojie Tong; Xu Zhang; Zheng He

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal experiments and clinical studies about tissue engineering method applied to repair nerve injury mainly focus on seeking ideal artificial nerve grafts, nerve conduit and seed cells. Autologous nerve, allogeneic nerve and xenogeneic nerve are used to bridge nerve defects, it is one of the methods to promote the repair of nerve injury by culturing and growing Schwann cells, which can secrete various neurotrophic factor activities, in the grafts.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acellular nerve grafts co-cultured with Schwann cells in repairing defects of sciatic nerve.DESIGN: An observational comparative study.SETTING: Tissue Engineering Laboratory of China Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Tissue Engineering Laboratory of China Medical University between April 2004 and April 2005. Forty neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of 5-8 days (either males or females) and 24 male Wistar rats of 180-220 g were provided by the experimental animal center of China Medical University.METHODS: ① Culture of Schwann cells: The bilateral sciatic nerves and branchial plexus were isolated from the 40 neonatal SD rats. The sciatic nerves were enzymatically digested with collagenase and dispase, isolatd, purified and cultured with the method of speed-difference adhersion, and identified with the SABC immunohistochemical method. ② Model establishment: In vitro Schwann cells were microinjected into 10-mm long acellular nerve grafts repairing a surgically created gap in the rat sciatic nerve.According to the different grafted methods, the animals were randomly divided into three groups: autografts (n=8), acellular nerve grafts (n=8), or acellular nerve grafts with Schwann cells (n=8). ③ The regenerated nerve fiber number and average diameter of myeline sheath after culture were statistically anlayzed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The regenerated nerve ultrastructure, total number and density of myelinated nerve fibers, and the thickness of

  9. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-07-25

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit-repaired sciatic nerve following tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Following poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogenous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  10. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve A mechanical analysis*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yu; Changfu Zhao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Min Luo

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study col ected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, fol owing which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) con-duit-repaired sciatic nerve fol owing tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Fol owing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogen-ous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes peripheral nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Rahim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate the local effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF on transected sciatic nerve regeneration. Methods: Sixty male white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups randomly (n=15. In transected group the left sciatic nerve was transected and the stump was fixed to adjacent muscle. In treatment group the defect was bridged using a silicone graft filled with 10 µL VEGF. In silicone group the graft was filled with phosphate-buffered saline. In sham-operated group the sciatic nerve was ex- posed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups with five animals in each and nerve fibers were studied 4, 8 and 12 weeks after operation. Results: Behavioral test, functional study of sciatic nerve, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indi- ces confirmed a faster recovery of regenerated axons in VEGF group than in silicone group (P<0.05. In immunohistochemi- cal assessment, reactions to S-100 in VEGF group were more positive than that in silicone group. Conclusion: Local administration of VEGF will im- prove functional recovery and morphometric indices of sci- atic nerve. Key words: Peripheral nerves; Nerve regeneration; Sciatic nerve; Vascular endothelial growth factor

  12. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft com...

  13. Sericin protects against diabetes-induced injuries in sciatic nerve and related nerve cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun Song; Zhenjun Yang; Meirong Zhong; Zhihong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Sericin from discarded silkworm cocoons of silk reeling has been used in different fields, such as cosmetology, skin care, nutrition, and oncology. The present study established a rat model of type 2 diabetes by consecutive intraperitoneal injections of low-dose (25 mg/kg) streptozotocin. After intragastrical perfusion of sericin for 35 days, blood glucose levels significantly declined, and the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in L4–6 spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells significantly increased. However, the expression of neuropeptide Y in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells significantly decreased in model rats. These findings indicate that sericin protected the sciatic nerve and related nerve cells against injury in a rat type 2 diabetic model by upregulating the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells, and downregulating the expression of neuropeptide Y in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells.

  14. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-07-15

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  15. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanru Zhang; Hui Zhang; Kaka Katiella; Wenhua Huang

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune re-jection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regenera-tion. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anasto-mosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone.

  16. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt C Danzi; Dario Motti; Donna L Avison; John L Bixby; Vance P Lemmon

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regen-eration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientiifc goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These ifndings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  17. Combination of Acellular Nerve Graft and Schwann Cells-Like Cells for Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Methods. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI, neural electrophysiology (NEP, histological and transmission electron microscope observation, recovery ratio of wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, regenerated myelinated nerve fibers number, nerve fiber diameter, and thickness of the myelin sheath were measured to assess the effect. Results. After six and twelve weeks, the recovery ratio of SFI and wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, NEP, and the result of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers in groups B and C were superior to that of group A (P0.05. Conclusion. The tissue engineering nerve composed of acellular allogenic nerve scaffold and Schwann cells-like cells can effectively repair the nerve defect in rats and its effect was similar to that of the autogenous nerve grafts.

  18. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods:Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group, sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3 and macrophages (CD68 in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly  decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  19. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Feng, Xinhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group), sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3) and macrophages (CD68) in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  20. Effects of Repeated Injection of Local Anesthetic on Sciatic Nerve Blocks Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忱; 刘怀萍

    2004-01-01

    In order to examine whether repeated sciatic nerve blocks showed tachyphylaxis and continuity of sciatic nerve with spinal cord affected development of tachyphylaxis when assayed in vivo by duration of depression compound action potentials (CAP), rats were anesthetized with halothane, ventilated, monitored and supported with stable hemodynamics and temperature. Posterior tibial nerve distally and sciatic nerve in thigh were exposed, placed on bipolar silver electrodes for stimulation and recording respectively. Three sequential sciatic nerve blocks were performed between these electrodes using 0.15 ml of 3 % chloroprocaine. Nine rats were chosen to observe the effects of repeated sciatic nerve blocks on CAP. In another 18 rats, a second investigator exposed the sciatic nerve near its origin at spinal cord and randomly performed nerve cut and sham (n= 9),and closed the incision blinding the electrophysiologic investigator. The results showed that electrical stimulated tibial nerve induced sciatic nerve Aα/β, Aδ, C fiber mediated CAP waves. CAP amplitudes were remained stable during whole experimental procedure. CAP amplitudes were decreased completely with 3% chloroprocaine blocked sciatic nerve and recovered fully. The duration of CAP depression were reduced with repeated blocks. There were no selective blocked effects on Aα/β, Aδ, C fiber mediated CAP. With sciatic nerve cut proximally, there was no statistical significant tachyphylaxis with 3 % chloroprocaine repeated blocked sciatic nerve, and the duration of first and third blocked Aδ fiber mediated CAP was 108±20 and 92±14 min respectively (P>0.05). In normal rats the duration of first and third blocked Aδ fiber mediated CAP was 110±20 and 75±16min respectively (P<0.05). It was suggested that tachyphylaxis to local anesthetics can occur in rats repeated blocked sciatic nerve when assayed in vivo by duration of depression CAP. The continuity of sciatic nerve with spinal cord is one of the

  1. Efficacy of nanofibrous conduits in repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Biazar; Saeed Heidari Keshel; Majid Pouya

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have histomorphological y confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit can be used to repair 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects. However, the repair effects on rat behaviors remain poorly understood. In this study, we used nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit and autologous sciatic nerve to bridge 30-mm-long rat sciatic nerve gaps. Within 4 months after surgery, rat sciatic nerve functional re-covery was evaluated per month by behavioral analyses, including toe out angle, toe spread anal-ysis, walking track analysis, extensor postural thrust, swimming test, open-field analysis and noci-ceptive function. Results showed that rat sciatic nerve functional recovery was similar after nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit and autologous nerve grafting. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit is suitable in use for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes peripheral nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Sima Ahsan; Masoume Masoumi; Keyvan Amini

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the local effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on transected sciatic nerve regeneration.Methods:Sixty male white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups randomly (n=15).In transected group the left sciatic nerve was transected and the stump was fixed to adjacent muscle.In treatment group the defect was bridged using a silicone graft filled with 10μL VEGF.In silicone group the graft was filled with phosphate-buffered saline.In sham-operated group the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated.Each group was subdivided into three subgroups with five animals in each and nerve fibers were studied 4,8 and 12 weeks after operation.Results:Behavioral test,functional study of sciatic nerve,gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices confirmed a faster recovery of regenerated axons in VEGF group than in silicone group (P<0.05).In immunohistochemical assessment,reactions to S-100 in VEGF group were more positive than that in silicone group.Conclusion:Local administration of VEGF will improve functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve.

  3. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, M S; Nagi, O N

    1992-01-01

    Six cases of clinically evident sciatic or peroneal nerve palsy occurred in a consecutive series of 380 total hip arthroplasties (THA). An additional eight cases of peroneal nerve palsy due to pressure from Thomas splint or tight bandages were seen. Factors apparently causing nerve palsy were significant lateralization and lengthening in four cases and dislocation of the hip in one case. The cases with neuroapraxia of the peroneal nerve were seen from the third to the fifth day of Thomas splint immobilization. EMG studies were conducted in all six group 1 patients; at the end of one year the results were good in two cases, fair in three cases, and poor in one case. The results suggest that limb lengthening should be limited to 4 cm to minimize this complication. It was also seen that patients with peroneal nerve palsy due to local compression do well, though some are bothered by mild residual dysesthesia over the dorsum of the foot. In contrast, patients with sciatic nerve palsy do not have such a good outlook. PMID:1345646

  4. Inflammatory cytokines in degeneration, regeneration and maintenance of sciatic nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines play important roles in a variety of pathophysiological changes associated with traumatic injury and demyelinating disorders in the peripheral nervous system. After sciatic nerve injury, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are produced by and act on neurons, Schwann cells, and infiltrating inflammatory cells at the lesion site. Underlying these processes is receptor-mediated activation of intr...

  5. A rare case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocchia, Aron; Reyes, Alma; Wilson, Jon; Les, Kimberly

    2010-05-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis (NF-5) is an extremely rare variant of neurofibromatosis involving a single extremity without pathologic features beyond the midline. A case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the sciatic nerve and its branches is presented with a detailed description of the patient's preoperative findings plus postoperative course through 1-year follow-up. Clinical, histologic, and genetic findings are given along with a brief review of the literature on segmental neurofibromatosis. Last, treatment options and postoperative care recommendations are provided. PMID:20567746

  6. Sciatic nerve block performed with nerve stimulation technique in an amputee a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiring, C.; Kristensen, Billy

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of a sciatic nerve block performed with the nerve stimulation technique. This technique is normally not used in amputees because detection of a motor response to an electrical stimulation is impossible. In our patient the stimulation provoked a phantom sensation of movement in t...

  7. L-carnitine alleviates sciatic nerve crush injury in rats:functional and electron microscopy assessments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ümmü Zeynep Avsar; Umit Avsar; Ali Aydin; Muhammed Yayla; Berna Ozturkkaragoz; Harun Un; Murat Saritemur; Tolga Mercantepe

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats with diabetes mellitus. It is hypothesized that L-carnitine exhibits neuro-protective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats. Rat sciatic nerve was crush injured by a forceps and exhibited degenerative changes. After intragastric administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg L-carnitine for 30 days, axon area, myelin sheath area, axon diameter, myelin sheath diameter, and numerical density of the myelinated axons of injured sciatic nerve were similar to normal, and the function of injured sciatic nerve also improved signiifcantly. These ifndings suggest that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

  8. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  9. Effects of subcutaneous implant of peripheral nerve allograft on the regeneration of defected sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingtang Gao; Dianming Jiang; Hong An

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some experimental studies demonstrate that subcutaneous implant of allograft can significantly decrease lymphocyte infiltration and reduce immunological reaction. However, compared with autologous nerve grafting, what is the effect of nerve regeneration after repair?OBJECTIVE: To observe the local nervous status of the detected part of sciatic nerve repaired through subcutaneously implanting peripheral nerve allograft, and compare the effect with fresh autologous nerve grafting.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Departments of Orthopaedics of Zhengzhou Fifth People's Hospital and First Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University.MATERIALS: Totally 30 healthy adult Wistar male rats, with body mass of (200±20)g, were enrolled. Optical microscope (Olympus biological microscope BHS, Japan), Electron microscope (H-600, Japan),CM-2000 biomedical image analysis system (CM-2000,Beihang) and myoelectricity scanner (KEYPOINT,Denmark) were used in this experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Orthopaedic Laboratory of Chongqing Medical University between October 2000 and April 2002. ① Six rats were chosen as the donors for allogenic nerve grafting,and 15 mm sciatic nerve segment was chosen as graft. The other rats were randomly divided into two groups: allogenic nerve grafting group and autologous nerve grafting group, with 12 rats in each group. In the allogenic nerve grafting group, a skin incision was made on the posterior side of right thigh, and subcutaneous blunt dissection was performed prorsally a little, then allograft was implanted. Two weeks later, sciatic nerve was exposed at the posterior side of left thigh and cut respectively at 5 mm and another 10 mm away from pelvis. The donor nerve (with connective tissue veil) implanted subcutaneously on the right thigh was taken out. Sectioned connective tissue at the proximal end was trimmed and that at the distal end as done but reserved 10 mm in length, and inosculated

  10. Sciatic nerve regeneration using a nerve growth factor-containing fibrin glue membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengzhong Ma; Changliang Peng; Shiqing Wu; Dongjin Wu; Chunzheng Gao

    2013-01-01

    Our previous findings confirmed that the nerve growth factor-containing fibrin glue membrane pro-vides a good microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration;however, the precise mechanism remains unclear. p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays an important role in the regulation of pe-ripheral nerve regeneration. We hypothesized that a nerve growth factor-containing fibrin glue membrane can promote neural regeneration by up-regulating p75NTR expression. In this study, we used a silicon nerve conduit to bridge a 15 mm-long sciatic nerve defect and injected a mixture of nerve growth factor and fibrin glue at the anastomotic site of the nerve conduit and the sciatic nerve. Through RT-PCR and western blot analysis, nerve growth factor-containing fibrin glue membrane significantly increased p75NTR mRNA and protein expression in the Schwann cells at the anasto-motic site, in particular at 8 weeks after injection of the nerve growth factor/fibrin glue mixture. These results indicate that nerve growth factor-containing fibrin glue membrane can promote pe-ripheral nerve regeneration by up-regulating p75NTR expression in Schwann cells.

  11. Effects of tacrolimus (FK506) on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiguo Zhang; Decheng Lü; Shouyu Wang; Chongyang Fu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus (FK506) protects peripheral nerves located in damaged regions by inhibiting T lymphocyte proliferation and activation.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of FK506 on promoting regeneration of rat sciatic nerve. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Laboratory of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Dalian Medical University, China, from September 2007 to September 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 60 adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were equally and randomly divided into model, local administration and systemic administration groups. All rats received a neurotomy of bilateral sciatic nerves to establish models of nerve regeneration chambers. The powder and injection of FK506 were supplied by Fujisawa Pharmaceutical, Japan.METHODS: The regeneration chambers of the model group were infused with 0.2 mL saline. The systemic group were injected with 0.2 mL saline, followed by daily subcutaneous injections of FK506 (1 mg/kg), for 14 days. The local administration group was infused with 0.2 mL FK506 (1 μg/mL).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Local immune response was observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Myelinated nerve fiber number, myelin sheath and nerve fiber thickness were observed using toluidine blue staining. Wet weight of gastrocnemius was evaluated. Compound muscle action potential amplitude, latency, and conduction time were recorded, and motor nerve conduction velocity was calculated using electrophysiology.RESULTS: The total number of myeiinated nerve fibers in the local and systemic administration groups was significantly higher than in the model group. The density of myelinated nerve fibers, myelin sheath thickness and mean axon diameter were significantly increased in the systemic administration group compared with the model group (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte infiltration was decreased in the local and systemic administration groups compared with the model group. The wet weight of rat gastrocnemius in

  12. [Method of studying the microcirculation of the sciatic nerve during life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumova, I L; Chernukh, A M

    1977-02-01

    The authors describe a mehtod of bloodless exposure of the sciatic nerve in rats, of placing it on the light conductor, and of the preparation of microscope MBI-6 for the intravital study of microhemocirculation in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve. Different types of the microvessel network of rat are demonstrated.

  13. Sericin protects against diabetes-induced injuries in sciatic nerve and related nerve cells★

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chengjun; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhong, Meirong; Chen, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Sericin from discarded silkworm cocoons of silk reeling has been used in different fields, such as cosmetology, skin care, nutrition, and oncology. The present study established a rat model of type 2 diabetes by consecutive intraperitoneal injections of low-dose (25 mg/kg) streptozotocin. After intragastrical perfusion of sericin for 35 days, blood glucose levels significantly declined, and the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in L4–6 spinal gan...

  14. Effect of Frankincense Extract on Nerve Recovery in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Damage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of frankincense extract on peripheral nerve regeneration in a crush injury rat model. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and frankincense extract low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. At days 7, 14, 21, and 28 following the surgery, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI, expression of GAP-43, and the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs in vivo and in vitro. At day 7, the SFI in the frankincense extract high-dose group was significantly improved compared with the control group. After day 14, SFI was significantly improved in the medium- and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in GAP-43 expression among the groups at day 7. However, after day 14, expression of GAP-43 in the high-dose group was higher than that in the control group. Histological evaluation showed that the injured nerve of frankincense extract high-dose group recovered better than the other groups 28 days after surgery. Further, S100 immunohistochemical staining, MTT colorimetry, and flow cytometry assays all showed that frankincense extract could promote the proliferation of SCs. In conclusion, frankincense extract is able to promote sciatic nerve regeneration and improve the function of a crushed sciatic nerve. This study provides a new direction for the repair of peripheral nerve injury.

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Repair and Hindlimb Transplant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Damon S.; Wimmers, Eric G.; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Grahammer, Johanna; Christensen, Joani M.; Brat, Gabriel A.; Wu, Lehao W.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Lopez, Joseph; Wallner, Christoph; Furtmüller, Georg J.; Yuan, Nance; Pang, John; Sarkar, Kakali; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of local and intravenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration to augment neuroregeneration in both a sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and rat hindlimb transplant model. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were harvested and purified from Brown-Norway (BN) rats. Sciatic nerve transections and repairs were performed in three groups of Lewis (LEW) rats: negative controls (n = 4), local MSCs (epineural) injection (n = 4), and systemic MSCs (intravenous) injection (n = 4). Syngeneic (LEW-LEW) (n = 4) and allogeneic (BN-LEW) (n = 4) hindlimb transplants were performed and assessed for neuroregeneration after local or systemic MSC treatment. Rats undergoing sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and treated with either local or systemic injection of MSCs had significant improvement in the speed of recovery of compound muscle action potential amplitudes and axon counts when compared with negative controls. Similarly, rats undergoing allogeneic hindlimb transplants treated with local injection of MSCs exhibited significantly increased axon counts. Similarly, systemic MSC treatment resulted in improved nerve regeneration following allogeneic hindlimb transplants. Systemic administration had a more pronounced effect on electromotor recovery while local injection was more effective at increasing fiber counts, suggesting different targets of action. Local and systemic MSC injections significantly improve the pace and degree of nerve regeneration after nerve injury and hindlimb transplantation. PMID:27510321

  16. Immune reactions and nerve repair in mice with sciatic nerve injury 14 days after intraperitoneal injection of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Cao; Zhongping Niu; Yongan Wang; Yiwen Jiang; Haoyu Liu; Binfeng Wang; Weitian Yin; Lisen Li

    2012-01-01

    BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10, 5 or 2.5 mg/kg Brazil for 14 days after sciatic nerve injury. Results demonstrate that the spleen T/B lymphocyte stimulation index and serum circulating immune complex concentration were significantly reduced, and the morphology of the soleus muscle was restored in mice with sciatic nerve injury. These effects of Brazil were dose-dependent. Our experimental findings indicate that Brazil can regulate immune responses after nerve injury and promote sciatic nerve repair.

  17. Axonal autophagy during regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangrong Lu; Zhongxian Piao; Zhenxi Liu; Weiwang Gu; Wanshan Wang; Nngjie Piao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The removal of degenerated axonal debris during Wallerian degeneration is very important for nerve regeneration. However, the mechanism by which debris is removed is not been completely understood. Considerable controversy remains as to the clearance pathway and cells that are involved. OBJECTIVE: To investigate axonal autophagy during removal of degenerated axonal debris by transecting the sciatic nerve in a rat Wallerian degeneration model.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Experimental neuropathological analysis. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory Animal Service Center of the Southern Medical University between January and June 2005. MATERIALS: Fifty-four adult, Wistar rats of either sex, weighing 180-250 g, were obtained from the Laboratory Animal Service Center of the Southern Medical University. Animals were randomly divided into nine groups of six rats. METHODS: Wallerian degeneration was induced by transecting the rat sciatic nerve, and tissue samples from the distal stump were obtained 0.2, 0.4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, and 15 days post-transection. Ultrathin sections were prepared for electron microscopy to study ultrastructure and enzyme cytochemistry staining. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ultrastructure (axon body, autophagic body, and cystoskeleton) of axons and myelin sheaths observed with electron microscopy; acidic phosphatase activity detected by Gomori staining using electron microscopy. RESULTS: The major changes of degenerating axons after transection were axoplasm swelling and separation of axons from their myelin sheath between five hours and two days post-transection. At four days post-transection, the axoplasm condensed and axons were completely separated from the myelin sheath, forming dissociative axon bodies. Vacuoles of different sizes formed in axons during the early phase after lesion. Larger dissociative axon bodies were formed when the axons were completely separated from the myelin sheath during a late phase. The axolemma

  18. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  19. 7, 8-dihydroxycoumarin improves neurological function in a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianshi Du; Qing Zhao; Yingli Zhang; Yu Wang; Ming Ma

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury was treated with intraperitoneal injection of 7, 8-dihydroxycoumarin (10, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg per day). Western blot and real-time PCR results showed that growth associated protein 43 expression was significantly increased in the L4-6 segments of the spinal cord. The amplitude and velocity of motor nerve conduction in the sciatic nerve were significantly increased in model mice. In addition, the appearance of the myelin sheath in the injured sciatic nerve was regular, with an even thickness and clear outline, and the surrounding fibroplasia was not obvious. Our results indicate that 7, 8-dihydroxycoumarin can promote the repair of injured nerve by upregulating growth associated protein 43 expression in the corresponding spinal cord segments of mice with sciatic nerve injury.

  20. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Macher Teodori; Joice Betini; Larissa Salgado de Oliveira; Luciane Lobato Sobral; Sibele Yoko Mattozo Takeda; Maria Imaculada de Lima Montebelo

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P < 0.01). The diameter of axons and...

  1. Alpha-lipoic acid loaded in chitosan conduit enhances sciatic nerve regeneration in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi, Saeed; Heshmatian, Behnam; AMINI, Keyvan; Raisi, Abbas; Azimzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): To investigate the effect of topical administration of alpha-lipoic acid into chitosan conduit on peripheral nerve regeneration using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Materials and Methods: Forty five Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups randomly. A 10-mm gap of sciatic nerve was bridged with a chitosan conduit following surgical preparation and anesthesia. In treatment group, the conduit was filled with 30 µl alpha-lipoic acid (10 mg/kg/bw).It was fille...

  2. Morus alba Enhanced Functional Recovery After Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Mucimapura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Traumatic nerve injury has been recognized as one of the problems commonly found in road traffic crashes. Therefore, searching for the effective substances for promoting the functional recovery of nerve after injury is in required. Accumulating lines of evidence show that free radicals generated after injury contribute the important role to retard functional recovery, thus the substance possessing anti-oxidant could facilitate functional recovery. Based on the effect of antioxidant to promote functional recovery of nerve after injury mentioned earlier, we hypothesized that Morus alba extract, a substance possessing anti-oxidant activity, should be able to facilitate the functional recovery of peripheral nerve after injury. Approach: To elucidate this issue, male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were orally given the aqueous extract of Morus alba at various doses ranging from 0.1, 1 and 10 mg kg-1 BW 5days before and 21 days after sciatic nerve injury. Motor, sensory and sensorimotor coordination were observed every 3 days for 3 weeks by using De Medinacelli method, foot reflex withdrawal test and rotarod test, respectively. Results: The low dose of the extract significantly improved both sensory and motor functions after crush injury. Although sensory function recovers more sooner than the motor function, it fails to show full recovery within weeks. Thus, the present study demonstrates the potential of M. alba extract to enhance functional recovery after crush injury. Conclusion: In conclusion, Morus alba may serve as functional food to promote nerve recovery after injury. However, further studies about the possible active ingredient (s and underlying mechanism (s are required.

  3. Calcium diffusion through perineurium of frog sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium and sucrose permeabilities (PCa or Psucrose) were calculated from the fluxes of 45Ca and [3H]sucrose across perfused everted and normal configurations of the perineurial cylinder isolated from the frog sciatic nerve and from fluxes into an intact nerve segment bathed in Ringer. Mean PCa for influx across the isolated perineurium equaled 10.2 ± 0.6 x 10-7 cm/s compared with Psucrose = 7.4 ± 0.4 x 10-7 cm/s. For efflux, PCa = 27.5 ± 5.0 x 10-7 cm/s and Psucrose = 23.2 ± 4.7 x 10-7 cm/s. The mean ratio of PCa for efflux to PCa for influx was not significantly different from the flux ratio for sucrose. Asymmetrical fluxes across the perineurial cylinder were due presumably to bulk flow and resultant solvent drag out of the lumen caused by perfusion pressure. Calcium accumulated in the perineurial tissue in a saturable manner with a Km of 80 μM and a Bmax of 0.22 μmol/g wet wt. The half time for calcium exchange from the external medium to the nerve was calculated as 3 h. This long half time and the calcium-sequestering ability of the perineurium suggest that the perineurium can stabilize endoneurial calcium during transient changes in the calcium concentration of plasma

  4. A silk sericin/silicone nerve guidance conduit promotes regeneration of a transected sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongjian; Yang, Wen; Chen, Jianghai; Zhang, Jinxiang; Lu, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xiaobo; Huang, Kun; Li, Huili; Chang, Panpan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-28

    Peripheral nerve gap defects lead to significant loss of sensory or motor function. Tissue engineering has become an important alternative to nerve repair. Sericin, a major component of silk, is a natural protein whose value in tissue engineering has just begun to be explored. Here, the first time use of sericin in vivo is reported as a long-term implant for peripheral nerve regeneration. A sericin nerve guidance conduit is designed and fabricated. This conduit is highly porous with mechanical strength matching peripheral nerve tissue. It supports Schwann cell proliferation and is capable of up-regulating the transcription of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in Schwann cells. The sericin conduit wrapped with a silicone conduit (sericin/silicone double conduits) is used for bridging repair of a 5 mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. The sericin/silicone double conduits achieve functional recovery comparable to that of autologous nerve grafting as evidenced by drastically improved nerve function and morphology. Importantly, this improvement is mainly attributed to the sericin conduit as the silicone conduit alone only produces marginal functional recovery. This sericin/silicone-double-conduit strategy offers an efficient and valuable alternative to autologous nerve grafting for repairing damaged peripheral nerve. PMID:26332703

  5. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Macher Teodori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1, those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14, injured rats not submitted to swimming (C, and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S. After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P0.05. Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury.

  6. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, Rosana Macher; Betini, Joice; de Oliveira, Larissa Salgado; Sobral, Luciane Lobato; Takeda, Sibele Yoko Mattozo; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P 0.05). Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury. PMID:21876821

  7. Low-level laser irradiation improves functional recovery and nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve crush rat injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chau-Zen; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Yeh, Ming-Long; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Ho, Mei-Ling; Liang, Jen-I; Chen, Chia-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The development of noninvasive approaches to facilitate the regeneration of post-traumatic nerve injury is important for clinical rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the effective dose of noninvasive 808-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on sciatic nerve crush rat injury model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 experimental groups: a normal group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 8 J/cm(2) and a sciatic nerve crush injury group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 3, 8 or 15 J/cm(2). Rats were given consecutive transcutaneous LLLT at the crush site and sacrificed 20 days after the crush injury. Functional assessments of nerve regeneration were analyzed using the sciatic functional index (SFI) and hindlimb range of motion (ROM). Nerve regeneration was investigated by measuring the myelin sheath thickness of the sciatic nerve using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by analyzing the expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) in sciatic nerve using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. We found that sciatic-injured rats that were irradiated with LLLT at both 3 and 8 J/cm(2) had significantly improved SFI but that a significant improvement of ROM was only found in rats with LLLT at 8 J/cm(2). Furthermore, the myelin sheath thickness and GAP43 expression levels were significantly enhanced in sciatic nerve-crushed rats receiving 808-nm LLLT at 3 and 8 J/cm(2). Taken together, these results suggest that 808-nm LLLT at a low energy density (3 J/cm(2) and 8 J/cm(2)) is capable of enhancing sciatic nerve regeneration following a crush injury. PMID:25119457

  8. Low-level laser irradiation improves functional recovery and nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve crush rat injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Zen Wang

    Full Text Available The development of noninvasive approaches to facilitate the regeneration of post-traumatic nerve injury is important for clinical rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the effective dose of noninvasive 808-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT on sciatic nerve crush rat injury model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 experimental groups: a normal group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 8 J/cm(2 and a sciatic nerve crush injury group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 3, 8 or 15 J/cm(2. Rats were given consecutive transcutaneous LLLT at the crush site and sacrificed 20 days after the crush injury. Functional assessments of nerve regeneration were analyzed using the sciatic functional index (SFI and hindlimb range of motion (ROM. Nerve regeneration was investigated by measuring the myelin sheath thickness of the sciatic nerve using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and by analyzing the expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43 in sciatic nerve using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. We found that sciatic-injured rats that were irradiated with LLLT at both 3 and 8 J/cm(2 had significantly improved SFI but that a significant improvement of ROM was only found in rats with LLLT at 8 J/cm(2. Furthermore, the myelin sheath thickness and GAP43 expression levels were significantly enhanced in sciatic nerve-crushed rats receiving 808-nm LLLT at 3 and 8 J/cm(2. Taken together, these results suggest that 808-nm LLLT at a low energy density (3 J/cm(2 and 8 J/cm(2 is capable of enhancing sciatic nerve regeneration following a crush injury.

  9. Stereological analysis of sciatic nerve in chickens following neonatal pinealectomy: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin Bünyamin; Yenisey Çigdem; Yürüker Sinan; Bozkurt Mehmet; Ünal Burçin; Kaplan Süleyman; Turgut Mehmet; Uyanıkgil Yigit; Baka Meral

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the injury to the peripheral nervous system is a common clinical problem, understanding of the role of melatonin in nerve degeneration and regeneration is incomplete. Methods The current study investigated the effects of neonatal pinealectomy on the sciatic nerve microarchitecture in the chicken. The chickens were divided into two equal groups: unpinealectomized controls and pinealectomized chickens. At the end of the study, biochemical examination of 10 sciatic n...

  10. Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in dorsal root ganglia in sciatic nerve injury rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changma Fu; Zongsheng Yin; Defu Yu; Zuhua Yang

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, have been shown to be involved in pain transmission and repair of sciatic nerve injury. A model of sciatic nerve defect was prepared by dissecting the sciatic nerve at the middle, left femur in female Sprague Dawley rats. The two ends of the nerve were encased in a silica gel tube. L5 dorsal root ganglia were harvested 7, 14 and 28 days post sciatic nerve injury for immunohistochemical staining. Results showed that substance P and cal-citonin gene-related peptide expression increased significantly in dorsal root ganglion of rats with sci-atic nerve injury. This increase peaked at 7 days, declined at 14 days, and reduced to normal levels by 28 days post injury. The findings indicate that the neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, mainly increased in the early stages after sciatic nerve injury.

  11. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated.

  12. Crocin Enhanced Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Crocin is a constituent of saffron and has many biological functions. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal (IP injection of crocin on sciatic nerve regeneration in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four rats were divided into 9 groups: groups 1-4 (intact + normal saline and intact + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively; group 5 (sham surgery + normal saline; groups 6-9 (crush + normal saline and crush + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively. Normal saline and crocin were IP injected for 10 consecutive days after induction of a standard crush injury in left sciatic nerve. Footprints were obtained 1 day before and weekly after induction of nerve injury for evaluation of sciatic functional index (SFI. Blood samples were taken for evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were investigated by light microscopy. Results: Sciatic nerve crush-injured rats showed SFI values reduction, increased plasma MDA levels and produced Wallerian degeneration in sciatic nerve. Crocin at a dose of 5 mg/kg had no significant effects. At doses of 20 and 80 mg/kg, crocin accelerated the SFI recovery, decreased MDA levels and reduced Wallerian degeneration severity. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the neuroprotective effects afforded by crocin may be due in part to reduction of free radicals-induced toxic effects.

  13. Three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy of left femur foci does not damage the sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanlong Xu; Xibin Zhao; Qing Wang; Jungang Sun; Jiangbo Xu; Wenzheng Zhou; Hao Wang; Shigui Yan; Hong Yuan

    2014-01-01

    During radiotherapy to kill femoral hydatid tapeworms, the sciatic nerve surrounding the focus can be easily damaged by the treatment. Thus, it is very important to evaluate the effects of ra-diotherapy on the surrounding nervous tissue. In the present study, we used three-dimensional, conformal, intensity-modulated radiation therapy to treat bilateral femoral hydatid disease in Meriones meridiani. The focus of the hydatid disease on the left femur was subjected to radio-therapy (40 Gy) for 14 days, and the right femur received sham irradiation. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, electron microscopy, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling assays on the left femurs showed that the left sciatic nerve cell structure was normal, with no ob-vious apoptosis after radiation. Trypan blue staining demonstrated that the overall protoscolex structure in bone parasitized withEchinococcus granulosus disappeared in the left femur of the animals after treatment. The mortality of the protoscolex was higher in the left side than in the right side. The succinate dehydrogenase activity in the protoscolex in bone parasitized withEchi-nococcus granulosus was lower in the left femur than in the right femur. These results suggest that three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy achieves good therapeutic effects on the secondary bone in hydatid disease inMeriones meridiani without damaging the morphology or function of the sciatic nerve.

  14. Morphological and functional aspects of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Răducan, Andreea; Mirică, Silvia; Duicu, Oana; Răducan, S; Muntean, Danina; Fira-Mlădinescu, O; Lighezan, Rodica

    2013-01-01

    Experimental models for the investigation of nerve regeneration are critical in studying new strategies able to promote the repair process. The aim of the present work was to characterize morphological and functional aspects of sciatic nerve regeneration after mechanical crush injury in rodents. Morphological changes were assessed after a four minutes sciatic nerve injury induced by means of a standardized compression clip. Rat nerve samples were collected before injury and after 24 hours, four days, two weeks, and four weeks after injury, respectively. In an additional group with unilateral sciatic nerve injury, animals were evaluated for four weeks using walking track analysis and the sciatic static index (SSI) measured in both rearing and normal standing position. Histological study showed important axonal degeneration at four days and axonal regeneration at four weeks after injury. We observed no significant differences between SSI in rearing and normal standing stance and a strong correlation between SSI values measured in the two positions during the evaluation period. Positive correlations were also found for the footprint parameters. Our data provide a baseline characterization of the sciatic nerve crush injury that will further allow the investigation of peripheral nerve regeneration in the presence of potential neuroprotective agents in post-traumatic nerve repair. PMID:24322020

  15. Localized hypertrophic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in children: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, Adrien; Treguier, Catherine; Bruneau, Bertrand; Marin, Franck; Gandon, Yves; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hopital Sud, 16 Boulevard de Bulgarie, BP 90347, Rennes cedex 2 (France); Riffaud, Laurent [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Violas, Philippe [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Michel, Anne [University Hospital, Department of Neurological Functional Explorations, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France)

    2012-08-15

    Localized hypertrophic neuropathy (LHN) of the sciatic nerve in children is a rare condition characterized by a painless neurological deficit in the sciatic nerve territory. To demonstrate the role of MRI using a specific protocol and describe the primary findings in LHN. Imaging in four children (age 2 years to 12 years) is presented. All children presented with lower limb asymmetry. Three had a steppage gait. LHN was confirmed by electrophysiological studies and by MRI of the whole sciatic nerve with a dedicated protocol covering the lumbar spine and the lower limb. There were four direct MRI findings: (1) linear and focal hypertrophy with progressive enlargement of a peripheral nerve or plexus diameter, (2) abnormal hyperintensity of the nerve on T2-weighted images, (3) preserved fascicular configuration, and (4) variable enhancement after intravenous gadolinium administration. In addition there were atrophy and fatty infiltration of innervated muscles. MRI was helpful for determining the extent of lesions and in excluding peripheral nerve compression or tumour. MRI of the whole sciatic nerve is the method of choice for diagnosing LHN of the sciatic nerve. (orig.)

  16. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  17. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salga, Marjorie [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Jourdan, Claire [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Handi-Resp, (EA4047), Versailles (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Neurophysiology, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hangard, Chloe; Carlier, Robert-Yves [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Medical Imaging, Garches (France); Denormandie, Philippe [Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Garches (France); Genet, Francois [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Military Medical Service, Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clamart (France)

    2014-09-14

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  18. Propofol’s effect on the sciatic nerve Harmful or protective?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Sun; Xizhe Zhang; Qi Zhou; Yong’an Wang; Yiwen Jiang; Jian Cao

    2013-01-01

    Propofol can inhibit the inflammatory response and reduce the secretion and harmful effects of as-trocyte-derived proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, after propofol was injected into the injured sciatic nerve of mice, nuclear factor kappa B expression in the L 4-6 segments of the spinal cord in the injured side was reduced, apoptosis was decreased, nerve myelin defects were al eviated, and the nerve conduction block was lessened. The experimental findings indicate that propofol inhibits the inflammatory and immune responses, decreases the expression of nuclear factor kappa B, and reduces apoptosis. These effects of propofol promote regeneration fol owing sciatic nerve injury.

  19. Allograft pretreatment for the repair of sciatic nerve defects:green tea polyphenolsversus radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-hu Zhou; Ping Zhen; Shen-song Li; Xiao-yan Liang; Ming-xuan Gao; Qi Tian; Xu-sheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of nerve allografts by exposure to irradiation or green tea polyphenols can elimi-nate neuroimmunogenicity, inhibit early immunological rejection, encourage nerve regeneration and functional recovery, improve tissue preservation, and minimize postoperative infection. In the present study, we investigate which intervention achieves better results. We produced a 1.0 cm sciatic nerve defect in rats, and divided the rats into four treatment groups: autograft, fresh nerve allograft, green tea polyphenol-pretreated (1 mg/mL, 4°C) nerve allograft, and irradiation-pre-treated nerve allograft (26.39 Gy/min for 12 hours; total 19 kGy). The animals were observed, and sciatic nerve electrophysiology, histology, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out at 6 and 12 weeks after grafting. The circumference and structure of the transplanted nerve in rats that received autografts or green tea polyphenol-pretreated nerve allografts were similar to those of the host sciatic nerve. Compared with the groups that received fresh or irradiation-pre-treated nerve allografts, motor nerve conduction velocity in the autograft and fresh nerve allograft groups was greater, more neurites grew into the allografts, Schwann cell proliferation was evident, and a large number of new blood vessels was observed; in addition, massive myelinated nerve ifbers formed, and abundant microiflaments and microtubules were present in the axoplasm. Our ifndings indicate that nerve allografts pretreated by green tea polyphenols are equivalent to trans-planting autologous nerves in the repair of sciatic nerve defects, and promote nerve regeneration. Pretreatment using green tea polyphenols is better than pretreatment with irradiation.

  20. Sciatica due to malignant nerve sheath tumour of sciatic nerve in the thigh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the supportive non-neural component of the peripheral nerves. An unusual case of pain and weakness of the foot and calf muscles due to a giant MPNST of the sciatic nerve in the posterior compartment of the thigh is presented. The patient was already investigated as a case of sciatica due to a lumbar disc disease with a negative magnetic resonance imaging and then unsuccessfully operated elsewhere twice, with a misdiagnosis of tarsal tunnel syndrome. Neurosurgical referral prompted a diagnostic magnetic resonance study of the thigh, revealing the lesion, which was completely excised microsurgically with total relief in the pain and partial improvement in the weakness and sensations in the sole of the foot.

  1. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Zhao; Zhi-yue Li; Ze-peng Zhang; Zhou-yun Mo; Shi-jie Chen; Si-yu Xiang; Qing-shan Zhang; Min Xue

    2015-01-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neuro-trophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site;their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the micro-spheres at 300-µm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implanta-tion, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve ifbers were observed and dis-tributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury.

  2. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Zhi-Yue; Zhang, Ze-Peng; Mo, Zhou-Yun; Chen, Shi-Jie; Xiang, Si-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Xue, Min

    2015-09-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site; their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the microspheres at 300-μm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implantation, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve fibers were observed and distributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury.

  3. Low-Level Laser Irradiation Improves Functional Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Sciatic Nerve Crush Rat Injury Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chau-Zen Wang; Yi-Jen Chen; Yan-Hsiung Wang; Ming-Long Yeh; Mao-Hsiung Huang; Mei-Ling Ho; Jen-I Liang; Chia-Hsin Chen

    2014-01-01

    The development of noninvasive approaches to facilitate the regeneration of post-traumatic nerve injury is important for clinical rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the effective dose of noninvasive 808-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on sciatic nerve crush rat injury model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 experimental groups: a normal group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 8 J/cm(2) and a sciatic nerve crush injury group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 3, 8...

  4. Variations of Sciatic Nerve Its Exit in Relation to Piriformis Muscle in the Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Desalegn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction- Sciatic nerve is thickest nerve, arising from L4–S3. It leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen distal to the Piriformis and descends lateral to the ischial tuberosity, then travels deep to the gluteus maximus and long head of biceps femoris. Anatomical variations of sciatic nerve can contribute to Piriformis Syndrome and sciatica. In addition to the position of the piriformis muscle there other causes for sciatica such as a posterior dislocation of the hip joint, herniated disc or pressure from the uterus during pregnancy may damage the nerve roots. A cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the department of anatomy dissection laboratory, In Bahr dar, Gondar and Mekelle universities. Eighteen adult two female and sixteen male cadavers were dissected from the gluteal region. The total numbers of gluteal regions were 36 used for the study. The courses of sciatic nerve in relation to piriformis muscle were 3 types of course were observed as it comes out of the pelvic to the gluteal. 92% of the cases, sciatic nerve passes below Piriformis muscle.

  5. Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exercise training on recuperation of sensorimotor function in the early phase of regeneration, and to monitor the long-term effects of exercise on electrophysiological aspects of the regenerating nerve. Design: After sciatic nerve crush in 20 male Wistar rats, o

  6. 7, 8-dihydroxycoumarin improves neurological function in a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury☆

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jianshi; Zhao, Qing; ZHANG, YINGLI; Wang, Yu; Ma, Ming

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury was treated with intraperitoneal injection of 7, 8-dihydroxycoumarin (10, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg per day). Western blot and real-time PCR results showed that growth associated protein 43 expression was significantly increased in the L4-6 segments of the spinal cord. The amplitude and velocity of motor nerve conduction in the sciatic nerve were significantly increased in model mice. In addition, the appearance of the myelin sheath in the inj...

  7. Expression of adenovirus-mediated neurotrophin-3 gene in Schwann cells of sciatic nerve in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锦宇; 黄耀添; 朱庆生; 吕荣

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene in Schwann cells of rat sciatic nerve introduced by an adenovirus vector in vivo. Methods: A recombinant adenovirus vector for NT-3 (Ad-NT-3) was propagated in 293 packaging cells and titered with tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50). Ad-NT-3 was injected directly into the rat sciatic nerve after transection and immediate repair. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to determine the expression of NT-3 in Schwann cells in rat sciatic nerve and the expressive intensity of the tissue slices of the sciatic nerve was measured with LEICA M550 image analysis system. Results: On the 2nd day after injection of Ad-NT-3, positive stain in the Schwann cells was apparent in the vicinity of anastomosis. NT-3 expression increased significantly on the 7th day (P0.05). Compared with the 2nd day group, the 14th and 28th day groups still maintained a relatively high level of NT-3 (P<0.01). Intact and repaired nerves, which were injected with adenovirus encoding LacZ genes (Ad-LacZ) or physiological saline served as controls, showed no NT-3-positive Schwann cells. Conclusions: An adenovirus vector can be used to induce efficiently the expression of NT-3 gene in Schwann cells of rat peripheral nerves following nerve injury and repair, which suggests that neurotrophic factors can be introduced into Schwann cells with an adenovirus vector to promote peripheral nerve regeneration.

  8. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chengdong; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Yang, Kun

    2013-11-25

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  9. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengdong Piao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  10. Immediate and short-term pain relief by acute sciatic nerve press: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wenlong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite much research, an immediately available, instantly effective and harmless pain relief technique has not been discovered. This study describes a new manipulation: a "2-minute sciatic nerve press", for rapid short-term relief of pain brought on by various dental and renal diseases. Methods This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial ran in three hospitals in Anhui Province, China, with an enrollment of 66 out of 111 solicited patients aged 16 to 74 years. Patients were recruited sequentially, by specific participating physicians at their clinic visits to three independent hospitals. The diseases in enrolled dental patients included dental caries, periodontal diseases and dental trauma. Renal diseases in recruits included kidney infections, stones and some other conditions. Patients were randomly assigned to receive the "2-minute sciatic nerve press" or the "placebo press". For the "2-minute sciatic nerve press", pressure was applied simultaneously to the sciatic nerves at the back of the thighs, using the fists while patients lay prone. For the "placebo press", pressure was applied simultaneously to a parallel spot on the front of the thighs, using the fists while patients lay supine. Each fist applied a pressure of 11 to 20 kg for 2 minutes, after which, patients arose to rate pain. Results The "2-minute sciatic nerve press" produced greater pain relief than the "placebo press". Within the first 10 minutes after sciatic pressure, immediate pain relief ratings averaged 66.4% (p Conclusion Two minutes of pressure on both sciatic nerves can produce immediate significant conduction analgesia, providing a convenient, safe and powerful way to overcome clinical pain brought on by dental diseases and renal diseases for short term purposes. Trial registration ACTR 12606000439549

  11. Effects of acute exposure to magnetic field on ionic composition of frog sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the possible interaction between magnetic field and cadmium on ionic composition of frog sciatic nerve. Design: The combined effect of magnetic field and cadmium (1.5mg/kg; in lymphatic sac) were studied in frog sciatic nerves (Rana Esculenta). Sciatic nerve samples were extracted, weighed and mixed in bidistilled water in order to analyze by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionic composition. Setting: Frogs (Rana Esculenta) were reared in swimming-pool (Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Tunisia). Frogs were cared for under the Tunisian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific purpose and the Experimental Protocols were approved by the Ethics Committee. Subjects: Treated and control groups (n=6) weighing 50-100g at the time of experiments were housed in the same condition three weeks before the beginning of the experiments. Results: Acute exposure to magnetic field increased significantly the calcium (+298%, p<0.05) and iron (+50%, p<0.05) contents of frog sciatic nerve, whereas magnesium and copper contents remained unchanged. The association between magnetic field and cadmium, induced marked increase of calcium (+360%, p<0.05), whereas magnesium content remained stable. Conclusions: Magnetic field exposure alters the ionic composition in the frog sciatic nerve, especially calcium and iron. Magnetic field magnifies the effect of cadmium on calcium homeostasis. (author)

  12. Growth-promoting activity of Hominis Placenta extract on regenerating sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-beom SEO; Dong-hee KIM; Seung-kiel PARK; Deok-chun YANG; Uk NAMGUNG; In-sun HAN; Jin-hwan YOON; In-chan SEOL; Yun-sik KIM; Hyun-kyung JO; Joung-jo AN; Kwon-eui HONG; Young-bae SEO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Extract of Hominis Placenta (HP) has been used in oriental medicine as an agent for improving physiological function. The present study was conducted to investigate whether HP treatment in an experimental sciatic nerve injury animal model produces growth-promoting effects on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers after injury. Methods: After HP was injected into a sciatic nerve injury site, changes in protein levels were analyzed in the regenerating nerve area by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining analyses. For quantitative assessment of axonal regeneration, a retrograde tracing technique was used to identify the neuronal cell bodies corresponding to regenerating axons, and the extent of neurite outgrowth in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons prepared from animals that had experienced a sciatic nerve crush injury 7 d before neuron collection was analyzed. Results: Induction levels of axonal growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in the injured sciatic nerves were elevated by HP treatment. HP treatment also upregulated cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) protein levels in the distal stump of the injured sciatic nerve. Induced Cdc2 protein was detected in Schwann cells, suggesting that Cdc2 kinase activity may be involved in the growth-promoting activity of regenerating axons via Schwann cell proliferation. Cell body measurement by retrograde tracing indicated that HP treatment produced significant increases in regenerating motor axons. Finally, HP treatment of cultured DRG sensory neurons significantly increased neurite arborization and elongation.Conclusion: HP promotes the regeneration of injured sciatic axons by upregulating the synthesis of regeneration-related protein factors such as GAP-43 and Cdc2.

  13. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  14. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Oznur Sen; Nevzat Cem Sayilgan; Ayse Cigdem Tutuncu; Mefkur Bakan; Guniz Meyanci Koksal; Huseyin Oz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350 g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intran...

  15. Experimental chronic entrapment of the sciatic nerve in adult hamsters: an ultrastructural and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinz R.A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropathy is a group of clinical disorders involving compression of a peripheral nerve and interference with nerve function mostly through traction injury. We have investigated the chronic compression of peripheral nerves as an experimental procedure for detecting changes in ultrastructural nerve morphology. Adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, N = 30 were anesthetized with a 25% pentobarbital solution and received a cuff around the right sciatic nerve. Left sciatic nerves were not operated (control group. Animals survived for varying times (up to 15 weeks, after which they were sacrificed and both sciatic nerves were immediately fixed with a paraformaldehyde solution. Experimental nerves were divided into segments based upon their distance from the site of compression (proximal, entrapment and distal. Semithin and ultrathin sections were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were qualitatively described and data from semithin sections were morphometrically analyzed both in control and in compressed nerves. We observed endoneurial edema along with both perineurial and endoneurial thickening and also the existence of whorled cell-sparse structures (Renaut bodies in the subperineurial space of compressed sciatic nerves. Morphometric analyses of myelinated axons at the compression sites displayed a remarkable increase in the number of small axons (up to 60% in comparison with the control axonal number. The distal segment of compressed nerves presented a distinct decrease in axon number (up to 40% comparatively to the control group. The present experimental model of nerve entrapment in adult hamsters was shown to promote consistent histopathologic alterations analogous to those found in chronic compressive neuropathies.

  16. Sciatic nerve injury repair:a visualized analysis of research fronts and development trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyao Liu; Rui Jiang; Yan Jin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 3,446 publications regarding sciatic nerve injury repair and protection indexed by Web of Science during 2000-2004 were used for a detailed analysis of temporal-spatial distribu-tion characteristics. Reference co-citation networks of the 100 top-cited publications as per the number of total citations were created using the Web of Science database and the information visualization tool, CiteSpaceIII. The key words that showed high frequency in these publications were included for analyzing the research fronts and development trends for sciatic nerve injury repair and protection. Through word frequency trend analysis, studies on bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, and skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells combined with tissue-engineered scaffold material will become the forefronts in the ifeld of sci-atic nerve injury repair and protection in the near future.

  17. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Garza Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5 received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5 received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5, where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  18. Stromal vascular fraction combined with silicone rubber chamber improves sciatic nerve regeneration in diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Negin Sanaei; Sima Ahsan; Masoume Masoumi-Verki; Fatemeh Khadir; Aram Mokarizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:To study the effects of transplantation of characterized uncultured stromal vascular fraction (SVF) on sciatic nerve regeneration.Methods:A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a silicone conduit filled with SVF.In control group,silicone conduit was filled with phosphate-buffered saline alone.In sham-operated group,the sciatic nerve was only exposed and manipulated.The regenerated nerve fibers were studied 8 and 12 weeks after surgery.Results:Behavioral and functional studies confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in SVF transplanted animals than in control group (p < 0.05).Gastrocnemius muscle mass in SVF transplanted animal was found to be significantly more than that in control group.Morphometric indices of the regenerated fibers showed the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers to be significantly higher in SVF transplanted animals than in control group.In immunohistochemistry,the location of reactions to S-100 in SVF transplanted animals was clearly more positive than that in control group.Conclusion:SVF transplantation combined with silicone conduit could be considered as a readily accessible source of stromal cells that improves functional recovery of sciatic nerve.It may have clinical implications for the surgical management of acute diabetic patients after facial nerve transection.

  19. Presentation of Neurolytic Effect of 10% Lidocaine after Perineural Ultrasound Guided Injection of a Canine Sciatic Nerve: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, DAVID D.; Asif, Asma; Kataria, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenol and alcohol have been used to ablate nerves to treat pain but are not specific for nerves and can damage surrounding soft tissue. Lidocaine at concentrations > 8% injected intrathecal in the animal model has been shown to be neurotoxic. Tests the hypothesis that 10% lidocaine is neurolytic after a peri-neural blockade in an ex vivo experiment on the canine sciatic nerve. Methods Under ultrasound, one canine sciatic nerve was injected peri-neurally with 10 cc saline and anoth...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B was not found statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). The SIR of crushed nerves at distal portion increased at one week after the crush injury, subsequently further increased, and reached a maximum at 2 weeks. The pathological examination revealed myelin

  1. Platelet-rich plasma-induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells versus autologous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsuo Xia; Yajuan Li; Wen Cao; Zhaohua Yu

    2010-01-01

    Autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard of peripheral nerve repair.We previously showed that autologous platelet-rich plasma(PRP)contains high concentrations of growth factors and can induce in vitro cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs)to differentiate into Schwann cells.Here we used PRP-induced BMSCs combined with chemically extracted acellular nerves to repair sciatic nerve defects and compared the effect with autologous nerve grafting.The BMSCs and chemically extracted acellular nerve promoted target muscle wet weight restoration,motor nerve conduction velocity,and axonal and myelin sheath regeneration,with similar effectiveness to autologous nerve grafting.This finding suggests that PRP induced BMSCs can be used to repair peripheral nerve defects.

  2. Restorative effect and mechanism of mecobalamin on sciatic nerve crush injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Gan; Minquan Qian; Keqin Shi; Gang Chen; Yanglin Gu; Wei Du; Guoxing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Mecobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 containing a central metal element (cobalt), is one of the most important mediators of nervous system function. In the clinic, it is often used to accelerate recovery of peripheral nerves, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we performed sciatic nerve crush injury in mice, followed by daily intraperitoneal administra-tion of mecobalamin (65 μg/kg or 130 μg/kg) or saline (negative control). Walking track analysis, histomorphological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR showed that mecobalamin signiifcantly improved functional recovery of the sciatic nerve, thickened the myelin sheath in myelinated nerve ifbers, and increased the cross-sectional area of target muscle cells. Further-more, mecobalamin upregulated mRNA expression of growth associated protein 43 in nerve tissue ipsilateral to the injury, and of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor, brain-derived nerve growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor) in the L4–6 dorsal root ganglia. Our ifndings indicate that the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of mecobalamin after sciatic nerve injury involves the upregulation of multiple neurotrophic factor genes.

  3. Feasibility Study on MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Sciatic Nerve in a Swine Model: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, Elena A., E-mail: kayee@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics (United States); Gutta, Narendra Babu, E-mail: gnbabu.aiims@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Monette, Sebastien, E-mail: monettes@mskcc.org [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Gulati, Amitabh, E-mail: gulatia@mskcc.org; Loh, Jeffrey, E-mail: jeffreyloh@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Anesthesiology-Critical Care (United States); Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan, E-mail: srimaths@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Ezell, Paula C., E-mail: paula.ezell@intusurg.com [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Erinjeri, Joseph P., E-mail: erinjerj@mskcc.org; Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org; Maybody, Majid, E-mail: maybodym@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    IntroductionSpastic patients often seek neurolysis, the permanent destruction of the sciatic nerve, for better pain management. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) may serve as a noninvasive alternative to the prevailing, more intrusive techniques. This in vivo acute study is aimed at performing sciatic nerve neurolysis using a clinical MRgHIFU system.MethodsThe HIFU ablation of sciatic nerves was performed in swine (n = 5) using a HIFU system integrated with a 3 T MRI scanner. Acute lesions were confirmed using T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI and histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The animals were euthanized immediately following post-ablation imaging.ResultsReddening and mild thickening of the nerve and pallor of the adjacent muscle were seen in all animals. The HIFU-treated sections of the nerves displayed nuclear pyknosis of Schwann cells, vascular hyperemia, perineural edema, hyalinization of the collagenous stroma of the nerve, myelin sheet swelling, and loss of axons. Ablations were visible on CE MRI. Non-perfused volume of the lesions (5.8–64.6 cc) linearly correlated with estimated lethal thermal dose volume (4.7–34.2 cc). Skin burn adjacent to the largest ablated zone was observed in the first animal. Bilateral treatment time ranged from 55 to 138 min, and preparation time required 2 h on average.ConclusionThe acute pilot study in swine demonstrated the feasibility of a noninvasive neurolysis of the sciatic nerve using a clinical MRgHIFU system. Results revealed that acute HIFU nerve lesions were detectable on CE MRI, gross pathology, and histology.

  4. Feasibility Study on MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Sciatic Nerve in a Swine Model: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IntroductionSpastic patients often seek neurolysis, the permanent destruction of the sciatic nerve, for better pain management. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) may serve as a noninvasive alternative to the prevailing, more intrusive techniques. This in vivo acute study is aimed at performing sciatic nerve neurolysis using a clinical MRgHIFU system.MethodsThe HIFU ablation of sciatic nerves was performed in swine (n = 5) using a HIFU system integrated with a 3 T MRI scanner. Acute lesions were confirmed using T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI and histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The animals were euthanized immediately following post-ablation imaging.ResultsReddening and mild thickening of the nerve and pallor of the adjacent muscle were seen in all animals. The HIFU-treated sections of the nerves displayed nuclear pyknosis of Schwann cells, vascular hyperemia, perineural edema, hyalinization of the collagenous stroma of the nerve, myelin sheet swelling, and loss of axons. Ablations were visible on CE MRI. Non-perfused volume of the lesions (5.8–64.6 cc) linearly correlated with estimated lethal thermal dose volume (4.7–34.2 cc). Skin burn adjacent to the largest ablated zone was observed in the first animal. Bilateral treatment time ranged from 55 to 138 min, and preparation time required 2 h on average.ConclusionThe acute pilot study in swine demonstrated the feasibility of a noninvasive neurolysis of the sciatic nerve using a clinical MRgHIFU system. Results revealed that acute HIFU nerve lesions were detectable on CE MRI, gross pathology, and histology

  5. Gait phase detection from sciatic nerve recordings in functional electrical stimulation systems for foot drop correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jun-Uk; Song, Kang-Il; Han, Sungmin; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kang, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Dosik; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Choi, Kuiwon; Youn, Inchan

    2013-05-01

    Cutaneous afferent activities recorded by a nerve cuff electrode have been used to detect the stance phase in a functional electrical stimulation system for foot drop correction. However, the implantation procedure was difficult, as the cuff electrode had to be located on the distal branches of a multi-fascicular nerve to exclude muscle afferent and efferent activities. This paper proposes a new gait phase detection scheme that can be applied to a proximal nerve root that includes cutaneous afferent fibers as well as muscle afferent and efferent fibers. To test the feasibility of this scheme, electroneurogram (ENG) signals were measured from the rat sciatic nerve during treadmill walking at several speeds, and the signal properties of the sciatic nerve were analyzed for a comparison with kinematic data from the ankle joint. On the basis of these experiments, a wavelet packet transform was tested to define a feature vector from the sciatic ENG signals according to the gait phases. We also propose a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier and investigate whether it could be used successfully to discriminate feature vectors into the stance and swing phases. In spite of no significant differences in the rectified bin-integrated values between the stance and swing phases, the sciatic ENG signals could be reliably classified using the proposed wavelet packet transform and GMM classification methods.

  6. Gait phase detection from sciatic nerve recordings in functional electrical stimulation systems for foot drop correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutaneous afferent activities recorded by a nerve cuff electrode have been used to detect the stance phase in a functional electrical stimulation system for foot drop correction. However, the implantation procedure was difficult, as the cuff electrode had to be located on the distal branches of a multi-fascicular nerve to exclude muscle afferent and efferent activities. This paper proposes a new gait phase detection scheme that can be applied to a proximal nerve root that includes cutaneous afferent fibers as well as muscle afferent and efferent fibers. To test the feasibility of this scheme, electroneurogram (ENG) signals were measured from the rat sciatic nerve during treadmill walking at several speeds, and the signal properties of the sciatic nerve were analyzed for a comparison with kinematic data from the ankle joint. On the basis of these experiments, a wavelet packet transform was tested to define a feature vector from the sciatic ENG signals according to the gait phases. We also propose a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier and investigate whether it could be used successfully to discriminate feature vectors into the stance and swing phases. In spite of no significant differences in the rectified bin-integrated values between the stance and swing phases, the sciatic ENG signals could be reliably classified using the proposed wavelet packet transform and GMM classification methods. (paper)

  7. Altered microRNA expression following sciatic nerve resection in dorsal root ganglia of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yu; Songlin Zhou; Tianmei Qian; Yongjun Wang; Fei Ding; Xiaosong Gu

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small,non-coding RNAs (~22 nucleotides) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally,either through translational inhibition or degradation of target mRNAs.We uncovered a previously unknown alteration in the expression of miRNAs in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at 1,4,7,and 14 days after resection of the sciatic nerve in rats using microarray analysis.Thirty-two significantly upregulated and 18 downregulated miRNAs were identified in the DRG at four time points following sciatic nerve injury.The expression of four consecutively deregulated miRNAs,analyzed by real-time Taqman polymerase chain reaction,was in agreement with the microarray data (upregulated: miR-21,miR-221; downregulated:miR-500,miR-551b),The potential targets for these miRNAs,altered after sciatic nerve resection,are involved mainly in nervous system development,multi-cellular organismal development,and the regulation of cellular processes.This study demonstrated a different involvement of miRNAs in the DRG after resection of the sciatic nerve in a rat model,and it may also contribute in illustrating the molecular mechanisms responsible for nerve regeneration.

  8. Dynamic observation of biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baoguo; Zhang, Peixun; Yan, Jiazhi; Zhang, Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    To observe the biomechanic properties of the sciatic nerve at the suture site following repairing in rats. The right sciatic nerves of 40 white Sprague-Dawley 300~350 gm rats were exposed, cut and then repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures with four stitches, laced in the epineurium 0, 1, 3, and 6 weeks after operation, the tensile strength of the sciatic nerves were measured, and the data analyzed statistically. The load elongation curves for both the normal unoperated and operated nerves had similar shape. There were significant differences between the tensile strength of the 0th and the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found among the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks. The tensile strength of the injured nerves recovered 48% of the normal nerve in the 1st week and 54% in 6 weeks after repairing. It may be concluded that the injured nerves can acquire mostly tensile strength stability in 1 week quickly and can maintain this relative tensile strength stability in 6 weeks. PMID:18293160

  9. Nanoparticles carrying neurotrophin-3-modified Schwann cells promote repair of sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin Zong; Hongxing Zhao; Yilei Zhao; Jingling Jia; Libin Yang; Chao Ma; Yang Zhang; Yuzhen Dong

    2013-01-01

    Schwann cells and neurotrophin-3 play an important role in neural regeneration, but the secretion of neurotrophin-3 from Schwann cells is limited, and exogenous neurotrophin-3 is inactived easily in vivo. In this study, we have transfected neurotrophin-3 into Schwann cells cultured in vitro using nanoparticle liposomes. Results showed that neurotrophin-3 was successfully transfected into Schwann cells, where it was expressed effectively and steadily. A composite of Schwann cells transfected with neurotrophin-3 and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable conduits was transplanted into rats to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects. Transplantation of the composite scaffold could restore the myoelectricity and wave amplitude of the sciatic nerve by electrophysiological examination, promote nerve axonal and myelin regeneration, and delay apoptosis of spinal motor neurons. Experimental findings indicate that neurotrophin-3 transfected Schwann cells combined with bridge grafting can promote neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injury.

  10. Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjie Lu; Zufa Huang; Chaoyue Zhang; Xianfang Zhang; Jiuhong Zhao; Haiying Zhang; Quanpeng Zhang; Song Wu; Xinan Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identiifed whose expression was signiifcantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3′-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization veriifed that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a com-bination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neu-rons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that mi-croRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection.

  11. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cavalcante Miranda de Assis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz, and High-TENS (100 Hz. The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity.

  12. Functional recovery of sciatic nerve through inside-out vein graft in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Saeed Azizi; Nowruz Delirezh; Rahim Hobbenaghi; Keyvan Amini

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Present study aimed at further comprehensive functional, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration using rat sciatic nerve transection model.Methods: The 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap was created in rats. In control group nerve stumps were sutured to adjacent muscle and in treatment group the gap was bridged using an inside-out vein graft. In sham-operated group the nerve was manipulated and left intact. All animals underwent walking track analysis test 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery.Subsequently, muscle mass measurement was performed to assess reenervation, histological examination to observe the sciatic nerve regeneration morphologically and immunohistochemistry to detect Schwann cells using anti S-100. Results were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA with two between-subjects factors. Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons was used to examine the effect of treatments.Results: Functional analysis ofmyelinated nerve fibers showed that nerve function improved significantly in the time course in treatment group. However, quantitative morphometrical analysis of myelinated nerve fibers showed that there was no significant difference between 8 and 12 weeks in treatment group. Muscle weight ratio was bigger and weight loss of the gastrocnemius muscle was ameliorated by inside-out vein grafting. The position of positive immunohistochemical reactions further implied that regenerated axons and Schwann cell-like cells existed after vein grafting was performed, and was accompanied by the process of myelination and structural recovery of regenerated nerves.Conclusion: Functional analysis of peripheral nerve repair is far more reliable than quantitative morphometrical analysis

  13. Lumbar Plexus and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Fixation of Proximal Femoral Fractures in patients with Multiple Co-Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S Gopal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia management for proximal femoral fractures of high risk patients with debilitating systemic co-morbidities is a challenging task. It is generally done under the effect of regional anaesthesia or general anaesthesia (GA, with systemic analgesics for alleviation of pain after surgery. A combination of lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve blocks can provide anaesthesia and analgesia to the entire lower extremity including the hip. Analgesic potency of lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve blocks is similar to epidural analgesia for hip surgery without the undesirable side effects. We describe here two cases of proximal femoral fractures which were done under combined lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block.

  14. Stereological analysis of sciatic nerve in chickens following neonatal pinealectomy: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Bünyamin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the injury to the peripheral nervous system is a common clinical problem, understanding of the role of melatonin in nerve degeneration and regeneration is incomplete. Methods The current study investigated the effects of neonatal pinealectomy on the sciatic nerve microarchitecture in the chicken. The chickens were divided into two equal groups: unpinealectomized controls and pinealectomized chickens. At the end of the study, biochemical examination of 10 sciatic nerve samples from both groups was performed and a quantitative stereological evaluation of 10 animals in each group was performed. The results were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Results In this study, the results of axon number and thickness of the myelin sheath of a nerve fiber in newly hatched pinealectomy group were higher than those in control group. Similarly, surgical pinealectomy group had significantly larger axonal cross-sectional area than the control group (p Conclusion In the light of these results from present animal study, changes in sciatic nerve morphometry may be indicative of neuroprotective feature of melatonin, but this suggestion need to be validated in the human setting.

  15. Electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy improve the recovery of injured sciatic nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhao; Wei He; Yingze Zhang; Dehu Tian; Hongfang Zhao; Kunlun Yu; Jiangbo Bai

    2013-01-01

    Drug treatment, electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy have been shown to promote the repair and regeneration of the peripheral nerves at the injured site. This study prepared a Mackin-non’s model of rat sciatic nerve compression. Electric stimulation was given immediately after neurolysis, and decimeter wave radiation was performed at 1 and 12 weeks post-operation. Histo-logical observation revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy could improve the local blood circulation of repaired sites, al eviate hypoxia of compressed nerves, and lessen adhesion of compressed nerves, thereby decreasing the formation of new entrapments and enhancing compressed nerve regeneration through an improved microenvironment for rege-neration. Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave could promote the expression of S-100 protein. Motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude, the number and diameter of myelinated nerve fibers, and sciatic functional index were significantly increased in the treated rats. These results verified that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy contributed to the regeneration and the recovery of the functions in the compressed nerves.

  16. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better

  17. Chemoattractive capacity of different lengths of nerve fragments bridging regeneration chambers for the repair of sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiren Zhang; Yubo Wang; Jincheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study by our research group showed that 6-mm-long regeneration chamber bridging is equivalent to autologous nerve transplantation for the repair of 12-mm nerve defects.In this study,we compared the efficacy of different lengths (6,8,10 mm) of nerve fragments bridging 6-mm regeneration chambers for the repair of 12-mm-long nerve defects.At 16 weeks after the regeneration chamber was implanted,the number,diameter and myelin sheath thickness of the regenerated nerve fibers,as well as the conduction velocity of the sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius muscle wet weight ratio,were similar to that observed with autologous nerve transplantation.Our results demonstrate that 6-,8-and 10-mm-long nerve fragments bridging 6-mm regeneration chambers effectively repair 12-mm-long nerve defects.Because the chemoattractive capacity is not affected by the length of the nerve fragment,we suggest adopting 6-mm-long nerve fragments for the repair of peripheral nerve defects.

  18. Histopathological changes in the periphery of the sciatic nerve of rats after knee joint immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Taro; Kamijo, Akio; Araki, Yoshitaka; Sakamoto, Makoto; Moriyama, Shigenori; Hoso, Masahiro

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the histological changes that occur in the periphery of the sciatic nerve in rats undergoing knee immobilization. [Subjects and Methods] 29 male 9-week-old Wistar rats were divided randomly into a control group (C group, n = 7) and an immobilized group (I group, n = 22). The animals in the I group had the left knee joint immobilized in maximal flexion with plaster casts for two weeks. After the experimental period, we obtained cross-sections of tissues from the center of the left thigh, and the periphery of the sciatic nerve was observed under an optical microscope after hematoxylin-eosin staining. [Results] In contrast to the rats of C group, the rats in I group showed adherence between the bundle of nerve fibers and perineurium, as well as thickening of the perineurium. These histological changes were statistically significant. [Conclusions] Immobilization of the knee joints of rats resulted in characteristic histological changes in the connective tissue around the sciatic nerve. PMID:24259816

  19. A combination of Schwann-cell grafts and aerobic exercise enhances sciatic nerve regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Oliveira Goulart

    Full Text Available Despite the regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system, severe nerve lesions lead to loss of target-organ innervation, making complete functional recovery a challenge. Few studies have given attention to combining different approaches in order to accelerate the regenerative process.Test the effectiveness of combining Schwann-cells transplantation into a biodegradable conduit, with treadmill training as a therapeutic strategy to improve the outcome of repair after mouse nerve injury.Sciatic nerve transection was performed in adult C57BL/6 mice; the proximal and distal stumps of the nerve were sutured into the conduit. Four groups were analyzed: acellular grafts (DMEM group, Schwann cell grafts (3×105/2 µL; SC group, treadmill training (TMT group, and treadmill training and Schwann cell grafts (TMT + SC group. Locomotor function was assessed weekly by Sciatic Function Index and Global Mobility Test. Animals were anesthetized after eight weeks and dissected for morphological analysis.Combined therapies improved nerve regeneration, and increased the number of myelinated fibers and myelin area compared to the DMEM group. Motor recovery was accelerated in the TMT + SC group, which showed significantly better values in sciatic function index and in global mobility test than in the other groups. The TMT + SC group showed increased levels of trophic-factor expression compared to DMEM, contributing to the better functional outcome observed in the former group. The number of neurons in L4 segments was significantly higher in the SC and TMT + SC groups when compared to DMEM group. Counts of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons revealed that TMT group had a significant increased number of neurons compared to DMEM group, while the SC and TMT + SC groups had a slight but not significant increase in the total number of motor neurons.These data provide evidence that this combination of therapeutic strategies can significantly improve functional

  20. US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Saim, E-mail: ysaim@akdeniz.edu.tr; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Sindel, Timur [Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1-10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

  1. Dexamethasone prevents vascular damage in early-stage non-freezing cold injury of the sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Li; Lei Zhang; Min Xu

    2016-01-01

    Non-freezing cold injury is a prevalent cause of peripheral nerve damage, but its pathogenic mechanism is poorly understood, and treat-ment remains inadequate. Glucocorticoids have anti-inlfammatory and lipid peroxidation-inhibiting properties. We therefore examined whether dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid compound, would alleviate early-stage non-freezing cold injury of the sciatic nerve. We established Wistar rat models of non-freezing cold injury by exposing the left sciatic nerve to cold (3–5°C) for 2 hours, then admin-istered dexamethasone (3 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to half of the models. One day after injury, the concentration of Evans blue tracer in the injured sciatic nerve of rats that received dexamethasone was notably lower than that in the injured sciatic nerve of rats that did not receive dexamethasone; neither Evans blue dye nor capillary stenosis was observed in the endoneurium, but myelinated nerve ifbers were markedly degenerated in the injured sciatic nerve of animals that received dexamethasone. After dexamethasone administration, however, endoneurial vasculopathy was markedly improved, although damage to the myelinated nerve ifber was not alleviated. These ifndings sug-gest that dexamethasone protects the blood-nerve barrier, but its beneift in non-freezing cold injury is limited to the vascular system.

  2. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinquan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure. Results In this study we fabricated a collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone (collagen/PCL fibrous scaffold by electrospinning and explored its application as nerve guide substrate or conduit in vitro and in vivo. Material characterizations showed this electrospun composite material which was made of submicron fibers possessed good hydrophilicity and flexibility. In vitro study indicated electrospun collagen/PCL fibrous meshes promoted Schwann cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. In vivo test showed electrospun collagen/PCL porous nerve conduits successfully supported nerve regeneration through an 8 mm sciatic nerve gap in adult rats, achieving similar electrophysiological and muscle reinnervation results as autografts. Although regenerated nerve fibers were still in a pre-mature stage 4 months postoperatively, the implanted collagen/PCL nerve conduits facilitated more axons regenerating through the conduit lumen and gradually degraded which well matched the nerve regeneration rate. Conclusions All the results demonstrated this collagen/PCL nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate fabricated by electrospinning could be an efficient alternative to autograft for peripheral nerve regeneration research. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it

  3. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Karvat, Jhenifer; Peretti, Ana Luiza; Vieira, Lizyana; Higuchi, Guilherme Hideaki; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury), exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise), lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise), and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise). LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after...

  4. Differential gene expression in proximal and distal nerve segments of rats with sciatic nerve injury during Wallerian degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Jiang; Huaiqin Li; Yi Sun; Dexin Yin; Qin Zhao; Shusen Cui; Dengbing Yao

    2014-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is a subject of major interest in neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated during the distinct stages of Wallerian degeneration: transcription factor activation, immune response, myelin cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. Although gene expression responses in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve after peripheral nerve injury are known, differences in gene expression between the proximal and distal segments remain unclear. In the present study in rats, we used microarrays to analyze changes in gene expression, biological processes and signaling pathways in the proximal and distal segments of sciatic nerves under-going Wallerian degeneration. More than 6,000 genes were differentially expressed and 20 types of expression tendencies were identiifed, mainly between proximal and distal segments at 7-14 days after injury. The differentially expressed genes were those involved in cell differentiation, cytokinesis, neuron differentiation, nerve development and axon regeneration. Furthermore, 11 biological processes were represented, related to responses to stimuli, cell apoptosis, inlfammato-ry response, immune response, signal transduction, protein kinase activity, and cell proliferation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, microarray data were veriifed for four genes: aquaporin-4, interleukin 1 receptor-like 1, matrix metallopro-teinase-12 and periaxin. Our study identiifes differential gene expression in the proximal and distal segments of a nerve during Wallerian degeneration, analyzes dynamic biological changes of these genes, and provides a useful platform for the detailed study of nerve injury and repair during Wallerian degeneration.

  5. An inside-out vein graft iflled with platelet-rich plasma for repair of a short sciatic nerve defect in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Yeong Kim; Woo Joo Jeon; Dong Hwee Kim; Im Joo Rhyu; Young Hwan Kim; Inchan Youn; Jong Woong Park

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma containing various growth factors can promote nerve regeneration. An in-side-out vein graft can substitute nerve autograft to repair short nerve defects. It is hypothesized that an inside-out vein graft iflled with platelet-rich plasma shows better effects in the repair of short sciatic nerve defects. In this study, an inside-out vein autograft iflled with platelet-rich plasma was used to bridge a 10 mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. The sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft iflled with platelet-rich plasma was better improved than that of rats with a simple inside-out vein autograft. At 6 and 8 weeks, the sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better than that of rats undergoing nerve autografting. Compared with the sciatic nerve repaired with a simple inside-out vein autograft, the number of myelinated axons was higher, axon diameter and myelin sheath were greater in the sciatic nerve repaired with an inside-out vein autograft iflled with platelet-rich plasma and they were similar to those in the sciatic nerve repaired with nerve autograft. These findings suggest that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma can substitute nerve autograft to repair short sciatic nerve defects.

  6. [Application of direct long-standing electrostimulation in consequences of the sciatic nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsymbaliuk, Iu V

    2013-04-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 57 patients, suffering consequences of the sciatic nerve injury, using the system for long-lasting electrostimulation "Naysi 3M", were presented. The domestically manufactured system is individual and gives possibility to conduct the direct electrostimulation procedures in the home conditions, several times a day, for a long time. Positive results, consisting of the various degree enhancement of the lower extremities movements volume and strength, the sensitivity restoration and the pain severity reduction or disappearance, were achieved in 46 (81%) patients. In inefficacy of conservative treatment and presence of indications for the operation in patients with sciatic nerve injury the long-lasting electrostimulation secures restoration of the lower extremities lost functions, the pain syndrome and the vegetative-trophic disorders regress.

  7. Biomechanical properties of acellular sciatic nerves treated with a modified chemical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinlong Ma; Zhao Yang; Xiaolei Sun; Jianxiong Ma; Xiulan Li; Zhenzhen Yuan; Yang Zhang; Honggang Guo

    2011-01-01

    Nerve grafts are able to adapt to surrounding biomechanical environments if the nerve graft itself exhibits appropriate biomechanical properties (load, elastic modulus, etc.). The present study was designed to determine the differences in biomechanical properties between fresh and chemically acellularized sciatic nerve grafts. Two different chemical methods were used to establish acellular nerve grafts. The nerve was chemically extracted in the Sondell method with a combination of Triton X-100 (nonionic detergent) and sodium deoxycholate (anionic detergent), and in the modified method with a combination of Triton X-200 (anionic detergent), sulfobetaine-10 (SB-10, amphoteric detergents), and sulfobetaine-16 (SB-16, amphoteric detergents). Following acellularization, hematoxylin-eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the effect of acellularization via the modified method was similar to the traditional Sondell method. However, effects of demyelination and nerve fiber tube integrity were superior to the traditional Sondell method. Biomechanical testing showed that peripheral nerve graft treated using the chemical method resulted in decreased biomechanical properties (ultimate load, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, and mechanical work to fracture) compared with fresh nerves, but the differences had no statistical significance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated no significant effect on biomechanical properties of nerves treated using the chemical method. In conclusion, nerve grafts treated via the modified method removed Schwann cells, preserved neural structures, and ensured biomechanical properties of the nerve graft, which could be more appropriate for implantation studies.

  8. Effect of local administration of cyclosporine A on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Hadi Heydarian; Keyvan Amini

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess the effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) loaded in chitosan conduit on bridging the sciatic nerve defects in a rat model.Methods:A 10 mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a chitosan conduit filled with 10 μl carrier-drug dilution (10 μg/L CsA).In control group,the conduit was filled with the same volume of carrier dilution alone.The regenerated fibers were studied 4,8 and 12 weeks after surgery.Results:The functional study confirmed faster recovery of the regenerated axons in treatment group than control group (P<0.05).There was statistically significant difference of the gastrocnemius muscle weight ratios between treatment and control groups (P<0.05).Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed that the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in CsA-treated animals were significantly higher than those in control group.In immunohistochemistry,the location of reactions to S-100 in CsA group was clearly more positive than control group.Conclusion:CsA loaded in a chitosan conduit results in improvement of functional recovery and quantitative morphometric indices of sciatic nerve.It is easily available without any complications compared with its systemic administration.

  9. Effect of local administration of cyclosporine A on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Rahim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To assess the effect of cyclosporine A (CsA loaded in chitosan conduit on bridging the sciatic nerve defects in a rat model. Methods: A 10 mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a chitosan conduit filled with 10 µl carrier-drug dilu- tion (10 µg/L CsA. In control group, the conduit was filled with the same volume of carrier dilution alone. The regenerated fibers were studied 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Results: The functional study confirmed faster recov- ery of the regenerated axons in treatment group than control group (P<0.05. There was statistically significant difference of the gastrocnemius muscle weight ratios between treatment and control groups (P<0.05. Morphometric indi- ces of regenerated fibers showed that the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in CsA-treated animals were significantly higher than those in control group. In immunohistochemistry, the location of reactions to S-100 in CsA group was clearly more positive than control group. Conclusion: CsA loaded in a chitosan conduit results in improvement of functional recovery and quantitative morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. It is easily available with- out any complications compared with its systemic administration.

  10. Extraskeletal Ewing’s Sarcoma Arising from the Sciatic Nerve: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadhar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing’s sarcoma is a common bone tumour of childhood but is a rare occurrence in individuals over 20 years of age. Few cases are reported as originating from peripheral nerves. We present an unusual case of extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma originating from the sciatic nerve in a 66-year-old patient which had the clinical hallmarks of a benign nerve sheath tumour. Following discussion at a multidisciplinary meeting, excision biopsy of the suspected benign nerve sheath tumour was planned. At operation, the mass had malignant features. Histology confirmed the presence of Ewing’s sarcoma. Due to the morbidity of nerve resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were commenced. Ewing’s sarcoma is known to mimic benign pathologies. In this case there were subtle signs of a malignant process in the form of unremitting pain. It is vital to keep in mind the less common tumours that can affect the peripheral nervous system in such cases.

  11. An experimental study on nerve regeneration and spinal neurons after CO2 laser anastomosis of rat sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-ping; ZHANG xiang; WANG Yan-gang; FEI Zhou; CHEN Yi-jun; FU Luo-an; LIANG Jing-wen; DUAN Xin-min; YANG Ji-qing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Many methods have been used in an attempt to seal the epineurium and to prevent axonal outgrowth.In this study, the rat sciatic nerves were repaired with CO2 laser, the nerve regeneration and the morphology of spinal anterior horn neurons were investigated. Methods: Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 12 rats. The animals were designed to observe the electrophysiology, the histopathology and the morphology of spinal anterior horn neurons. One of the rat sciatic nerve anastomosed with CO2 laser, the contralateral nerve was reconstructed by microsuture technique. At 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks postoperatively, neuromuscular functions, the regeneration of axons and neurons were evaluated by the electro-physiological and histopathological studies. The rats were killed at 4, 6 weeks postoperatively. Results: The recovery of toe spread and myodynamia in laser groups was better than that in suture groups (P<0.05). The latency of foot withdraw caused by radiate heat and neuromuscular conduction velocity in laser groups were faster than that in suture groups (P<0.05). The density of nerve fibers, percentage of axons passing through anastomotic area and numbers of neurons were better in laser groups than in suture groups. At 8 weeks postoperatively, the first grade dendrites of anterior horn neurons grew well. Their diameter, length, volume and total volume were much higher than that in control group. (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: CO2 laser repairing was effective in promoting the regeneration and the recovery of sciatic nerves in its earlypost-trauma stage. In addition, laser repairing was found to reduce regenerating axons misdirection and forming neuroma.

  12. Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera ameliorates sciatic nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Swetha Kanyadhara; Sujatha Dodoala; Sunitha Sampathi; Priyanka Punuru; Gopichand Chinta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is being used since ages by human kind for treating various ailments including various inflammatory conditions, but scientific validation has not been done for analgesic activity against neuropathic pain. Objective: The current study was designed to systematically evaluate the therapeutic potential of the ethanolic extract of A. vera (EEAV) against sciatic nerve ligation (SCNL) induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Nociceptive threshold of EEAV against...

  13. Detrimental effects of immobilization on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikcioglu, Levent; Ozkan, Olcay; Gurer, Elif Inanc

    2005-07-01

    Peripheral-nerve trauma has been a challenge to surgeons, with significant advances in the surgery of repair. Immobilization of the injured limb after repair has been the traditional method of treatment. Although peripheral-nerve regeneration has been studied extensively, the correlation between functional recovery and the immobilization period has not been well-documented. In the present study, the authors studied the effects of immobilization on axonal regeneration after sciatic crush injury. They found a detrimental effect of immobilization on the functional recovery. PMID:15971165

  14. Platelet-rich plasma gel in combination with Schwann cells for repair of sciatic nerve injury☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Fagang; Li, Haiyan; Qiao, Guangxi; Chen, Feng; Tao, Hao; Ji, Aiyu; Hu, Yanling

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits, culture-expanded and differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells. Autologous platelet-rich plasma and Schwann cell-like cells were mixed in suspension at a density of 1 × 106 cells/mL, prior to introduction into a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit. Fabricated tissue-engineered nerves were implanted into rabbits to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve defects (platelet-rich plasma group). Controls were established usin...

  15. Local Effect of Heparin Binding Neurotrophic Factor Combined With Chitosan Entubulization on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mehrshad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To assess the effect of on sciatic nerve regeneration in animal model of rat. Methods: Seventy-five male Wistar rats were divided into five experimental groups randomly (each group containing 15 animals: Sham operation group (SHAM, autograft group (AUTO, transected control (TC, chitosan conduit (CHIT and heparin binding neurotrophic factor treated group (CHIT/HBNF. In AUTO group a segment of sciatic nerve was transected and reimplanted reversely. In SHAM group sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In transected group left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in adjacent muscle (TC. In treatment group defect was bridged using a chitosan conduit (CHIT filled with 10 µL HBNF (CHIT/HBNF. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and nerve fibers were studied in a 12-week period. Results: Behavioral, functional, biomechanical, electrophysiological and gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in treatment group than in CHIT group (P=0.001. Immunohistochemical reactions to S-100 in treatment group were more positive than that in CHIT group. Conclusion: Local administration of improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. It could be considered as an effective treatment for peripheral nerve repair in practice.

  16. N-Propionylmannosamine stimulates axonal elongation in a murine model of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Witzel; Werner Reutter; G Bjrn Stark; Georgios Koulaxouzidis

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that sialic acid plays an important role during nerve regeneration. Sialic acids can be modiifed in vitro as well as in vivo using metabolic oligosaccharide engineering of the N-acyl side chain. N-Propionylmannosamine (ManNProp) increases neurite outgrowth and accelerates the reestablishment of functional synapses in vitro. We investigated the inlfuence of systemic ManNProp application using a speciifc in vivo mouse model. Using mice expressing axonal lfuorescent proteins, we quantiifed the extension of regenerating axons, the number of regenerating axons, the number of arborising axons and the number of branches per axon 5 days after injury. Sciatic nerves from non-expressing mice were grafted into those expressing yellow lfuorescent protein. We began a twice-daily intraperitoneal application of either peracetylated ManNProp (200 mg/kg) or saline solution 5 days before injury, and continued it until nerve harvest (5 days after transection). ManNProp signiifcantly increased the mean distance of axonal regeneration (2.49 mm vs. 1.53 mm;P<0.005) and the number of arborizing axons (21%vs. 16%;P=0.008) 5 days after sciatic nerve grafting. ManNProp did not affect the number of regenerating axons or the number of branches per arborizing axon. The biochemical glycoen-gineering of the N-acyl side chain of sialic acid might be a promising approach for improving peripheral nerve regeneration.

  17. N-Propionylmannosamine stimulates axonal elongation in a murine model of sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Witzel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that sialic acid plays an important role during nerve regeneration. Sialic acids can be modified in vitro as well as in vivo using metabolic oligosaccharide engineering of the N-acyl side chain. N-Propionylmannosamine (ManNProp increases neurite outgrowth and accelerates the reestablishment of functional synapses in vitro. We investigated the influence of systemic ManNProp application using a specific in vivo mouse model. Using mice expressing axonal fluorescent proteins, we quantified the extension of regenerating axons, the number of regenerating axons, the number of arborising axons and the number of branches per axon 5 days after injury. Sciatic nerves from non-expressing mice were grafted into those expressing yellow fluorescent protein. We began a twice-daily intraperitoneal application of either peracetylated ManNProp (200 mg/kg or saline solution 5 days before injury, and continued it until nerve harvest (5 days after transection. ManNProp significantly increased the mean distance of axonal regeneration (2.49 mm vs. 1.53 mm; P < 0.005 and the number of arborizing axons (21% vs. 16% P = 0.008 5 days after sciatic nerve grafting. ManNProp did not affect the number of regenerating axons or the number of branches per arborizing axon. The biochemical glycoengineering of the N-acyl side chain of sialic acid might be a promising approach for improving peripheral nerve regeneration.

  18. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  19. Bridging sciatic nerve gap using tissue-engineered nerves constructed with neural tissue-committed stem cells derived from bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiying Zhang; Congli Ren; Chuansen Zhang; Fang Liu; Liang Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schwann cells are the most commonly used cells for tissue-engineered nerves. However, autologous Schwann cells are of limited use in a clinical context, and allogeneic Schwann cells induce immunological rejections. Cells that do not induce immunological rejections and that are relatively easy to acquire are urgently needed for transplantation.OBJECTIVE: To bridge sciatic nerve defects using tissue engineered nerves constructed with neural tissue-committed stem cells (NTCSCs) derived from bone marrow; to observe morphology and function of rat nerves following bridging; to determine the effect of autologous nerve transplantation, which serves as the gold standard for evaluating efficacy of tissue-engineered nerves.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This randomized, controlled, animal experiment was performed in the Anatomical laboratory and Biomedical Institute of the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between September 2004 and April 2006.MATERIALS: Five Sprague Dawley rats, aged 1 month and weighing 100-150 g, were used for cell culture. Sixty Sprague Dawiey rats aged 3 months and weighing 220-250 g, were used to establish neurological defect models. Nestin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and S-100 antibodies were provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc., USA. Acellular nerve grafts were derived from dogs.METHODS: All rats, each with 1-cm gap created in the right sciatic nerve, were randomly assigned to three groups. Each group comprised 20 rats. Autograft nerve transplantation group: the severed 1-cm length nerve segment was reverted, but with the two ends exchanged; the proximal segment was sutured to the distal sciatic nerve stump and the distal segment to the proximal stump. Blank nerve scaffold transplantation group: a 1-cm length acellular nerve graft was used to bridge the sciatic nerve gap. NTCSC engineered nerve transplantation group: a 1-cm length acellular nerve graft, in which NTCSCs were

  20. Protective Effect of Interleukin-1β on Motor Neurons after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁雨雄; 巴拉特; 洪光祥; 王发斌; 陈振斌; 黄启顺

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Protective effect of interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) on motor neurons was studied after peripheral nerve injury. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups randomly. The right sciatic nerve of each rat was resected. After silicon tubulization of sciatic nerve in rat, 15 μl 1 ng/ml IL-1β and PBS solution were injected into the silicon capsule respectively. Enzyme histochemistry was performed to show acetyle cholesterase (AchE) and nitric oxide staining (NOS) activity of spinal a motor neurons in spinal segments 2 weeks later. Neurons were counted and the diameter and cross sectional (c/s) area of neurons were analyzed by using computer image analysis system. The results showed that as compared with the normal side, both enzyme activities significantly changed in motor neurons in PBS group. The diameter and c/s area of both neurons changed significantly too (P<0.01). These results suggest that exogenous IL-1β protects a-motor neurons from degeneration and necrosis after peripheral nerve injury.

  1. An inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma for repair of a short sciatic nerve defect in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Yeong; Jeon, Woo Joo; Kim, Dong Hwee; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kim, Young Hwan; Youn, Inchan; Park, Jong Woong

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma containing various growth factors can promote nerve regeneration. An inside-out vein graft can substitute nerve autograft to repair short nerve defects. It is hypothesized that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma shows better effects in the repair of short sciatic nerve defects. In this study, an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was used to bridge a 10 mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. The sciatic nerve function of rats ...

  2. Electrospun micro- and nanofiber tubes for functional nervous regeneration in sciatic nerve transections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadio Stefano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many nerve prostheses have been proposed in recent years, in the case of consistent loss of nervous tissue peripheral nerve injury is still a traumatic pathology that may impair patient's movements by interrupting his motor-sensory pathways. In the last few decades tissue engineering has opened the door to new approaches;: however most of them make use of rigid channel guides that may cause cell loss due to the lack of physiological local stresses exerted over the nervous tissue during patient's movement. Electrospinning technique makes it possible to spin microfiber and nanofiber flexible tubular scaffolds composed of a number of natural and synthetic components, showing high porosity and remarkable surface/volume ratio. Results In this study we used electrospun tubes made of biodegradable polymers (a blend of PLGA/PCL to regenerate a 10-mm nerve gap in a rat sciatic nerve in vivo. Experimental groups comprise lesioned animals (control group and lesioned animals subjected to guide conduits implantated at the severed nerve stumps, where the tubular scaffolds are filled with saline solution. Four months after surgery, sciatic nerves failed to reconnect the two stumps of transected nerves in the control animal group. In most of the treated animals the electrospun tubes induced nervous regeneration and functional reconnection of the two severed sciatic nerve tracts. Myelination and collagen IV deposition have been detected in concurrence with regenerated fibers. No significant inflammatory response has been found. Neural tracers revealed the re-establishment of functional neuronal connections and evoked potential results showed the reinnervation of the target muscles in the majority of the treated animals. Conclusion Corroborating previous works, this study indicates that electrospun tubes, with no additional biological coating or drug loading treatment, are promising scaffolds for functional nervous regeneration. They

  3. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells differentiated from adipose tissue-derived stem cells for treatment of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shasha Dong§; Na Liu§; Yang Hu ; Ping Zhang; Chao Pan; Youping Zhang; Yingxin Tang; Zhouping Tang 

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Currently, the clinical repair of sciatic nerve injury remains difficult. Previous studies have confirmed that transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells promotes nerve regeneration and restoration at peripheral nerve injury sites. Methods:In this study, adipose tissue-derived stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural progenitor cells, transfected with a green fluorescent protein-containing lentivirus, and then transplanted into the lesions of rats with sciatic nerve compression injury. Results: Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the transplanted cells survived, migrated, and differentiated in rats. At two weeks post-operation, a large number of transplanted cells had migrated to the injured lesions; at six weeks post-operation, transplanted cells were visible around the injured nerve and several cells were observed to express a Schwann cell marker. Sciatic function index and electrophysiological outcomes of the transplantation group were better than those of the control group. Cell transplantation promoted the recovery of motor nerve conduction velocity and com-pound muscle action potential amplitude, and reduced gastrocnemius muscle atrophy. Conclusions: Our experimental findings indicate that neural progenitor cells, differentiated from adipose tissue-derived stem cells, are potential seed stem cells that can be transplanted into lesions to treat sciatic nerve injury. This provides a theoretical basis for their use in clinical applications.

  4. Curcumin upregulates S100 expression and improves regeneration of the sciatic nerve following its complete amputation in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-min Liu; Kun Xu; Juan Li; Yun-gang Luo

    2016-01-01

    The repair of peripheral nerve injury after complete amputation is dififcult, and even with anastomosis, the rapid recovery of nerve function remains challenging. Curcumin, extracted from plants of the genus Curcuma, has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-inlfammatory properties and to improve sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Here, we determined whether curcumin had neuroprotective effects following com-plete peripheral nerve amputation injury. BALB/c mice underwent complete sciatic nerve amputation, followed by an immediate epineurium anastomosis. Mice were intragastrically administered curcumin at doses of 40 (high), 20 (moderate), and 10 mg/kg/d (low) for 1 week. We found that myelin in the mice of the high-and moderate-dose curcumin groups appeared with regular shape, uniform thickness, clear boundary, and little hyperplasia surrounding the myelin. High and moderate doses of curcumin markedly improved both action potential amplitude of the sciatic nerves and the conduction velocity of the corresponding motor neurons, and upregulated mRNA and protein ex-pression of S100, a marker for Schwann cell proliferation, in L4–6 spinal cord segments. These results suggest that curcumin is effective in promoting the repair of complete sciatic nerve amputation injury and that the underlying mechanism may be associated with upregulation of S100 expression.

  5. Curcumin upregulates S100 expression and improves regeneration of the sciatic nerve following its complete amputation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Min; Xu, Kun; Li, Juan; Luo, Yun-Gang

    2016-08-01

    The repair of peripheral nerve injury after complete amputation is difficult, and even with anastomosis, the rapid recovery of nerve function remains challenging. Curcumin, extracted from plants of the genus Curcuma, has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and to improve sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Here, we determined whether curcumin had neuroprotective effects following complete peripheral nerve amputation injury. BALB/c mice underwent complete sciatic nerve amputation, followed by an immediate epineurium anastomosis. Mice were intragastrically administered curcumin at doses of 40 (high), 20 (moderate), and 10 mg/kg/d (low) for 1 week. We found that myelin in the mice of the high- and moderate-dose curcumin groups appeared with regular shape, uniform thickness, clear boundary, and little hyperplasia surrounding the myelin. High and moderate doses of curcumin markedly improved both action potential amplitude of the sciatic nerves and the conduction velocity of the corresponding motor neurons, and upregulated mRNA and protein expression of S100, a marker for Schwann cell proliferation, in L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results suggest that curcumin is effective in promoting the repair of complete sciatic nerve amputation injury and that the underlying mechanism may be associated with upregulation of S100 expression. PMID:27651779

  6. Effect of nerve growth factor on changes of myelin basic protein and functional repair of peripheral nerve following sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵阳; 马海涵; 伍亚民; 陈恒胜; 曾琳; 李民; 龙在云; 李应玉; 杨恒文

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of nerve growth factor ( NGF ) on changes of myelin basic protein (MBP) and functional repair of sensory and motor nerve following sciatic nerve injury. Methods: The sciatic nerves of rats were injured by sectioning with shaver, and divided into 3 groups: NGF group ( Group A ), group of normal saline solution ( Group B), untreated group (Group C). The time point of observation was at the 4th week after operation. Sensory evoked potential (SEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP) were detected by Model WD-4000 nerve potential working diagnosis system. Immunohistochemical analysis was used for identification of MBP. Results: The latency of SEP in the Group A at the 4th week after operation was shorter than that in the Group B ( P < 0.05). The MEP was elicited in 76 % of the Group A and was higher than that in the Group B. Results of immunohistochemistry showed that there were less MBP-positive cells in the Group A than in the Group B in one and four weeks respectively. Conclusions: NGF can improve the conductive function of injured peripheral nerve and facilitate regeneration of nerve.

  7. Intraperitoneal Alpha-Lipoic Acid to prevent neural damage after crush injury to the rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbag Davut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Crush injury to the sciatic nerve causes oxidative stress. Alfa Lipoic acid (a-LA is a neuroprotective metabolic antioxidant. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effects of pretreatment with a-LA on the crush injury of rat sciatic nerve. Methods Forty rats were randomized into four groups. Group I and Group II received saline (2 ml, intraperitoneally and a-LA (100 mg/kg, 2 ml, intraperitoneally in the groups III and IV at the 24 and 1 hour prior to the crush injury. In groups II, III and IV, the left sciatic nerve was exposed and compressed for 60 seconds with a jeweler's forceps. In Group I (n = 10, the sciatic nerve was explored but not crushed. In all groups of rats, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in samples of sciatic nerve tissue. Results Compared to Group I, Group II had significantly decreased tissue SOD and CAT activities and elevated MDA levels indicating crush injury (p < 0.05. In the a-LA treatment groups (groups III and IV, tissue CAT and SOD activities were significantly increased and MDA levels significantly decreased at the first hour (p < 0.05 and on the 3rd day (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between a-LA treatment groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion A-LA administered before crush injury of the sciatic nerve showed significant protective effects against crush injury by decreasing the oxidative stress. A-LA should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  8. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Han-Yu; Jiang, Xin-Mei; Niu, Chun-Bo; Du, Lin; Feng, Jun-Yan; Jia, Fei-Yong

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the sciatic nerves of these mice after administration of Cerebrolysin. The results of several behavioral tests showed that Cerebrolysin dose-dependently increased the slope angle in the inclined plane test (indicating an improved ability to maintain body position), prolonged tail-flick latency and foot-licking time (indicating enhanced sensitivity to thermal and chemical pain, respectively, and reduced pain thresholds), and increased an index of sciatic nerve function in diabetic mice compared with those behavioral results in untreated diabetic mice. Taken together, the anatomical and functional results suggest that Cerebrolysin ameliorated peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26981106

  9. Liquid Metal as Connecting or Functional Recovery Channel for the Transected Sciatic Nerve

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the liquid metal GaInSn alloy (67% Ga, 20.5% In, and 12.5% Sn by volume) is proposed for the first time to repair the peripheral neurotmesis as connecting or functional recovery channel. Such material owns a group of unique merits in many aspects, such as favorable fluidity, super compliance, high electrical conductivity, which are rather beneficial for conducting the excited signal of nerve during the regeneration process in vivo. It was found that the measured electroneurographic signal from the transected bullfrog sciatic nerve reconnected by the liquid metal after the electrical stimulation was close to that from the intact sciatic nerve. The control experiments through replacement of GaInSn with the conventionally used Riger Solution revealed that Riger Solution could not be competitive with the liquid metal in the performance as functional recovery channel. In addition, through evaluation of the basic electrical property, the material GaInSn works more suitable for the conduction of the...

  10. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Han-Yu; Jiang, Xin-Mei; Niu, Chun-Bo; Du, Lin; Feng, Jun-Yan; Jia, Fei-Yong

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the sciatic nerves of these mice after administration of Cerebrolysin. The results of several behavioral tests showed that Cerebrolysin dose-dependently increased the slope angle in the inclined plane test (indicating an improved ability to maintain body position), prolonged tail-flick latency and foot-licking time (indicating enhanced sensitivity to thermal and chemical pain, respectively, and reduced pain thresholds), and increased an index of sciatic nerve function in diabetic mice compared with those behavioral results in untreated diabetic mice. Taken together, the anatomical and functional results suggest that Cerebrolysin ameliorated peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-yu Dong; Xin-mei Jiang; Chun-bo Niu; Lin Du; Jun-yan Feng; Fei-yong Jia

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the sciatic nerves of these mice after administration of Cerebrolysin. The results of several behavioral tests showed that Cerebrolysin dose-dependently increased the slope angle in the inclined plane test (indicating an improved ability to maintain body position), prolonged tail-flick latency and foot-licking time (indicating enhanced sensitivity to thermal and chemical pain, respectively, and reduced pain thresholds), and increased an index of sciatic nerve function in diabetic mice compared with those behavioral results in untreated diabetic mice. Taken together, the anatomical and functional results suggest that Cerebrolysin ameliorated peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-yu Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the sciatic nerves of these mice after administration of Cerebrolysin. The results of several behavioral tests showed that Cerebrolysin dose-dependently increased the slope angle in the inclined plane test (indicating an improved ability to maintain body position, prolonged tail-flick latency and foot-licking time (indicating enhanced sensitivity to thermal and chemical pain, respectively, and reduced pain thresholds, and increased an index of sciatic nerve function in diabetic mice compared with those behavioral results in untreated diabetic mice. Taken together, the anatomical and functional results suggest that Cerebrolysin ameliorated peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included ''piriformis syndrome,'' a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation. (orig.)

  14. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Perez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana [Diagnostico Medico Cantabria (DMC), Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Orthopedic Surgery Department Clinica Mompia (L.P.C.), Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2015-03-05

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included ''piriformis syndrome,'' a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation. (orig.)

  15. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Moisés Fernández; Cerezal, Luis; Pérez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana

    2015-07-01

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included "piriformis syndrome," a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation.

  16. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Zheng-wei Li; Min Luo; Ya-jun Li; Ke-qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some re-spects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the poly-lactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve ifbers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylac-tic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is ben-eifcial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was found with the

  17. Effects of terpineol on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Moreira; G.M.P. Cruz; Lopes, M S; A.A.C. Albuquerque; J.H. Leal-Cardoso

    2001-01-01

    Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP) of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 µM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect. At 300 µM terpineol, peak-to-peak amplitude and con...

  18. [Effect of stress on the development of deafferentation pain syndrome in rats after sciatic nerve transection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, A V; Kukushkin, M L

    1993-05-01

    Effect of immobilization and painful stress on the development of deafferentation pain syndrome, appeared after sciatic nerve section, has been studied in Wistar rats. It has been determined that both immobilization and painful stress favour the appearance of pain syndrome in rats without clinical signs of pain syndrome up to the moment of stress influence. There has been made a conclusion that both immobilization and painful stress favour the appearance of pathologic algic system, which is the basis of pain syndrome. The fact that stress can cause analgesia in normal animals in contrast to those with potential pain syndrome is explained to different mechanisms of physiological and pathological pain. PMID:8043822

  19. Effect of intrathymic injection of allogene antigen on immune response to sciatic nerve transplantation in allogenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The latest researches demonstrate that intrathymic injection of MHC antigen which reaches a certain dosage (2 mg, i.e., 4 × 108 cell extraction) can induce immunologic tolerance under non-antilymphocyte serum condition.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of intrathymic injection of allogene antigen on survival and function of sciatic nerve in allogenic mice.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: The 4th Affiliated Hosptial of Harbin Medical University.MATERIALS: A total of 32 male donor C57BL/6(H-2b) mice of 4 - 8 weeks old and weighing 18 - 22 g and 44 female receptor Balb/c(H-2d) mice of 4 - 8 weeks old and weighing 18 - 22 g were selected from Heilongjing Veterinary Institution. The animal experiment had got confirmed consent from local ethic committee.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory (Provincial Key Laboratory) of the Fourth Hospital, Harbin Medical University from June 2006 to May 2007. C57BL/6(H-2b) mice were anesthetized to extract MHC (H-2b) antigen from splenic cells and sciatic nerves. Allogenous nerve transplantation group:Mice were given intrathymic injection of 100 μ L saline; two weeks later, frozen sciatic nerves of donor mice were transplanted. Immunosuppressive agent group: Mice were given intrathymic injection of 100 μ L saline; two weeks later, fresh sciatic nerves of donor mice were transplanted. At three days before transplantation, 10 mg/kg per day cyclosporin A was intraperitoneally injected once a day till mice were sacrificed. MHC (H-2b) antigen injection group: Mice were given intrathymic injection of MHC (H-2b)antigen from C57BL/6(H-2b) donor mice; two weeks later, fresh sciatic nerves of donor mice were transplanted. Autogenous nerve transplantation group: Mice were given intrathymic injection of 100 μ L saline; two weeks later, fresh sciatic nerves were transplanted.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Three weeks later, transplanted part of exposured sciatic nerve was used to measure the

  20. Pre-differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in combination with a microstructured nerve guide supports peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Arne Hendrik; van Neerven, Sabien Geraldine Antonia; Scheffel, Juliane; Tank, Julian; Altinova, Haktan; Seidensticker, Katrin; Deumens, Ronald; Tolba, Rene; Weis, Joachim; Brook, Gary Anthony; Pallua, Norbert; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Many bioartificial nerve guides have been investigated pre-clinically for their nerve regeneration-supporting function, often in comparison to autologous nerve transplantation, which is still regarded as the current clinical gold standard. Enrichment of these scaffolds with cells intended to support axonal regeneration has been explored as a strategy to boost axonal regeneration across these nerve guides Ansselin et al. (1998). In the present study, 20 mm rat sciatic nerve defects were implanted with a cell-seeded microstructured collagen nerve guide (Perimaix) or an autologous nerve graft. Under the influence of seeded, pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells, axons regenerated well into the Perimaix nerve guide. Myelination-related parameters, like myelin sheath thickness, benefitted from an additional seeding with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells. Furthermore, both the number of retrogradely labelled sensory neurons and the axon density within the implant were elevated in the cell-seeded scaffold group with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells. However, a pre-differentiation had no influence on functional recovery. An additional cell seeding of the Perimaix nerve guide with mesenchymal stromal cells led to an extent of functional recovery, independent of the differentiation status, similar to autologous nerve transplantation. These findings encourage further investigations on pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells as a cellular support for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26296589

  1. Effects of estragole on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Leal-Cardoso

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estragole, a relatively nontoxic terpenoid ether, is an important constituent of many essential oils with widespread applications in folk medicine and aromatherapy and known to have potent local anesthetic activity. We investigated the effects of estragole on the compound action potential (CAP of the rat sciatic nerve. The experiments were carried out on sciatic nerves dissected from Wistar rats. Nerves, mounted in a moist chamber, were stimulated at a frequency of 0.2 Hz, with electric pulses of 50-100-µs duration at 10-20 V, and evoked CAP were monitored on an oscilloscope and recorded on a computer. CAP control parameters were: peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA, 9.9 ± 0.55 mV (N = 15, conduction velocity, 92.2 ± 4.36 m/s (N = 15, chronaxy, 45.6 ± 3.74 µs (N = 5, and rheobase, 3.9 ± 0.78 V (N = 5. Estragole induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 0.6 mM, estragole had no demonstrable effect. At 2.0 and 6.0 mM estragole, PPA was significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug to 85.6 ± 3.96 and 13.04 ± 1.80% of control, respectively. At 4.0 mM, estragole significantly altered PPA, conduction velocity, chronaxy, and rheobase (P <= 0.05, ANOVA; N = 5 to 49.3 ± 6.21 and 77.7 ± 3.84, 125.9 ± 10.43 and 116.7 ± 4.59%, of control, respectively. All of these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon a 300-min wash-out. The data show that estragole dose-dependently blocks nerve excitability.

  2. Post-evaluation of the neurophaties treatment post-trauma with therapeutic laser. Model in sciatic nerve of frog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compound nerve action potential amplitude and latency measured to determine the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated in a model of stimulated frog sciatic nerve laser at 810 nm as perioperative treatment after injury. It used 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to obtain 60 sciatic nerves forming four groups, groups 1 and 2 worked with nerves in vitro, were dissected in humid chambers for placing isolated organ, was recorded on compound nerve action potential, the second group laser was applied at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and at the same time were placed in 10% formalin. Groups 3 and 4 are worked in vivo localizing the nerve and causing damage through compression, occurred over the compound nerve action potential to assess the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated, the group 4 was applied to 810 nm laser (500 Hz, 10 J, 200 mW) after injury, after 48 hours, three frogs were sacrificed by introducing the nerves in 10% formalin. The latency recorded by stimulating the sciatic nerve of frog to 0.5 mA and 100 ms in groups 1 and 2 show significant differences (p000), as to the extent, if any statistically significant difference. (p<0.001 and p<0.000). The laser produces a favorable response in the treatment of paresthesia (post-traumatic neuropathy).

  3. Acellular allogeneic nerve grafting combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects:biomechanics and validation of mathematical models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-jun Li; Bao-lin Zhao; Hao-ze Lv; Zhi-gang Qin; Min Luo

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft used in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be an effective treatment for long-segment sciatic nerve defects. To test this, we established rabbit models of 30 mm sciatic nerve defects, and treated them using either an autograft or a chemically decellularized allogeneic nerve graft with or without simultaneous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We compared the tensile properties, electrophysiological function and morphology of the damaged nerve in each group. Sciatic nerves repaired by the allogeneic nerve graft combined with stem cell trans-plantation showed better recovery than those repaired by the acellular allogeneic nerve graft alone, and produced similar results to those observed with the autograft. These ifndings conifrm that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with transplanta-tion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is an effective method of repairing long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  4. Alteration of P2X3 expression in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve ligation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxing Zhou; Lesi Xie; Qiben Wang; Qingping Yu; Xiaofu Liu; Qiumei Liu; Wei Peng; Zhicheng Zeng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expressions of P2X3 receptor in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after different peripheral nerve injuries are diverse. It indicates the different roles of P2X3 in different models-caused neuropathologic pains.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expressions of P2X3 in corresponding DRG after sciatic nerve ligation in rats.DESIGN: Controlled observation experiment.SETTING: Department of Morphology, Hunan Traditional Chinese Medical College; Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University.MATERIALS: Thirty-five healthy adult SD rats of clean grade an d either gender, weighing (200±20) g,were involved. According to the random digits table, the involved rats were randomized into 3 groups:normal group (n =5), sham-operated group (n =5) and experimental group (n =25). The experimental group were subdivided into 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days groups according to different surviving time after operation, 5 rats at each time point. Polyclonal rabbit anti-P2X3 antibody (ABCAM company); biotinylated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Zhongshanjingqiao Biotechnical Co., Ltd., Beijing); Motic fluorescence microscope (Motic, Germany).METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology,Xiangya Medical College, Central South University from June to December 2006. ① Rats of experimental group were created into models by ligation of right sciatic nerve according to the method of Seltzer et al. Left sciatic nerve was used as self-control. As for rats in the sham-operated group, ligation of sciatic nerve was omitted, but other procedures were the same as those in the experimental group. Rats of normal group were untouched. ② Rats of the normal group and sham-operated group survived for 14 days separately, and those of experimental group survived for corresponding time. After being deeply anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of over-dose sodium pentobarbital, the rats of experimental group were transcardially

  5. Clinical, electrophysiological, and prognostic study of postinjection sciatic nerve injury: An avoidable cause of loss of limb in the peripheral medical service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Maqbool

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post injection sciatic nerve injury is a common cause of sciatic nerve mononeuropathy in the developing world largely due to inadequate health care facilites in the rural regions. Objective: The study was conducted to analyse the pattern of this nerve lesion in clinical and electrophysiological parameters and also to study the outcome in a conservatively treated cohort. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six patients who underwent evaluation at our laboratory from 2000 to 2006 for post injection sciatic neuropathy formed the study population. Twenty two of these were followed up (mean 6.6 months for the outcome. Results: In the cases with full data, common peroneal division of the sciatic nerve was affected alone or predominantly. On follow up, 72% cases showed little or partial recovery. Thirty two percent patients had residual trophic changes and causalgia at their last visit. Conclusion: The majority of cases of postinjection sciatic nerve injury have poor prognosis on conservative treatment.

  6. Effects of 60Co gamma radiations on the conduction properties of frog sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Co60 gamma radiations on the amplitude, detection period and duration of the action potential of sciatic nerves of Rana tigrina frogs have been studied. Dose levels of upto 120 kR were employed. Irradiation of the nerves with dose levels upto 30 kR does not seem to affect the action of potential profiles. The amplitude falls rapidly thereafter, registering less than 5% of the original value after irradiation by a dose of 120 kR. Qualitatively similar behaviour is seen in the case of detection period and duration of action potential. These results are examined in the light of data already collected through experiments on the effect of Co60 gamma rays on the enzyme acetyl-cholinesterase (AchE). (author)

  7. Crosstalk between p38, Hsp25 and Akt in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Ul Haq, I.; Hill, C.; Park, E.; Smith, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Goldberg, D. J.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The p38 stress-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in regulation of phosphorylation of Hsp25, which in turn regulates actin filament dynamic in non-neuronal cells. We report that p38, Hsp25 and Akt signaling pathways were specifically activated in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve axotomy. The activation of the p38 kinase was required for induction of Hsp25 expression. Furthermore, Hsp25 formed a complex with Akt, a member of PI-3 kinase pathway that prevents neuronal cell death. Together, our observations implicate Hsp25 as a central player in a complex system of signaling that may both promote regeneration of nerve fibers and prevent neuronal cell death in the injured spinal cord.

  8. Repeatability of measuring sciatic nerve excursion during a modified passive straight leg raise test with ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridehalgh, Colette; Moore, Ann; Hough, Alan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability of a frame-by-frame cross correlation method of assessing longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion motion using real time ultrasound imaging during a modified passive straight leg raise (SLR) test. Eighteen asymptomatic participants (age range 19-68 years) lay on their sides on a purpose made jig and the sciatic nerve in the posterior thigh was imaged during knee extension at 30° and then 60° of hip flexion (HF). Participants were re-tested ≥48 h later. The ultrasound images were analysed off-line using cross correlation software. Results demonstrated excellent repeatability of in vivo sciatic nerve excursion during a modified SLR (HF30° ICC 0.92, CI 0.79-0.97, SEM 0.69; HF60° ICC 0.96, CI 0.89-0.99, SEM 0.87). The authors also identify points of good practise to ensure an accurate as possible measurement of nerve excursion using this method. These include breaking down larger movements into sub-components, visually tracking the moving nerve during the tracking procedure, and ensuring the optimal image is captured prior to analysis. The use of ultrasound imaging in lower limb nerve dysfunction will enhance the understanding of how nerves move in vivo during neurodynamic testing, as well as being able to identify possible alteration to nerve movements in patients with neuropathic pain states. PMID:22795391

  9. An immunohistochemical study of the sciatic nerve in a rat knee immobilization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Taro; Hoso, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to immunohistochemically evaluate changes in the periphery of the sciatic nerve in a rat model of knee immobilization, and to assess the effects of range of motion exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one male rats were divided randomly into three groups: control (C), immobilized (I), and exercise (E group). Rats in the I and E groups had the right knee joint immobilized for 2 weeks. In the E group, range of motion exercise was also performed. After the experimental period, the periphery of the sciatic nerve was immunohistochemically observed. [Results] Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the myelin sheath and the perineurium in all groups were laminin positive. In the C and E groups, all rats showed normal staining. In contrast, 4 rats in the I group exhibited weak labeling. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that immobilization alters the perineurium at a molecular level and the range of motion exercise is essential for maintaining the environment of the perineurium. PMID:27190437

  10. Evoked bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve of white rats in experimental menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinsky A.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was analysis of the bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve in experimental menopause condition. Experiments were performed on 25 female white rats, divided into experimental and control groups. Menopause was modeled by total ovariohysterectomy. In 120 days after modeling we had recorded evoked action potentials of fibers of isolated ventral root L5 induced by stimulation of sciatic nerve with rectangular pulses. Threshold, chronaxia, latency, amplitude and duration of the action potential (AP were analysed. Refractory phenomenon was investigated by applying paired stimuli at intervals of 2 to 20 ms. In the context of long-term hypoestrogenemy threshold of AP appearance was 55,32±7,69%, chronaxy – 115,09±2,67%, latent period – 112,62±1,74% as compared with the control animals (p<0.01. In conditions of paired stimuli applying the amplitude of response to the testing stimulus in animals with ovariohysterectomy at intervals 3 and 4 ms was 61,25±36,45% and 53,48±18,64% (p<0.05 respectively.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes from spinal cord after firearm injury to rabbit sciatic nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建民; 李兵仓; 陈蕾; 王贵波; 张良朝

    2004-01-01

    Objective:Peripheral nerve regeneration depends on gene regulation by central neurons. To search for more effective treatment methods to improve the regeneration of wounded peripheral nerves, gene expression profile of spinal cord after firearm injury to rabbit sciatic nerves are studied with DNA micro-array technique.Methods: A total of 54 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: Groups d1, d3, d7 and normal control group. Lumbar spinal cords were sampled. RNA and mRNA were extracted, labeled by Cy3 and Cy5, and analyzed by mouse_8192S gene chips.Results: A total of 1367, 923, and 61 genes with differential expression were found on day 1, day 3, and day 7 after trauma respectively. Five expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences demonstrated differential expression during 7 days after trauma.Conclusions: There is complex gene profile with differential expression after firearm nerve injury, among which AW701496, U84291, W13926, X04017 andAW822394 EST sequences may be important regulation factors that involved in regeneration of peripheral nerve injury.

  12. Impulse magnetic stimulation facilitates synaptic regeneration in rats following sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey A. Zhivolupov; Miroslav M. Odinak; Nariman A. Rashidov; Ludmila S. Onischenko; Igor N. Samartsev; Anton A. Jurin

    2012-01-01

    The current studies describing magnetic stimulation for treatment of nervous system diseases mainly focus on transcranial magnetic stimulation and rarely focus on spinal cord magnetic stimula-tion. Spinal cord magnetic stimulation has been confirmed to promote neural plasticity after injuries of spinal cord, brain and peripheral nerve. To evaluate the effects of impulse magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord on peripheral nerve regneration, we compressed a 3 mm segment located in the middle third of the hip using a sterilized artery forceps to induce ischemia. Then, all animals un-derwent impulse magnetic stimulation of the lumbar portion of spinal crod and spinal nerve roots daily for 1 month. Electron microscopy results showed that in and below the injuryed segment, the inflammation and demyelination of neural tissue were alleviated, apoptotic cells were reduced, and injured Schwann cells and myelin fibers were repaired. These findings suggest that high-frequency impulse magnetic stimulation of spinal cord and corresponding spinal nerve roots promotes synaptic regeneration following sciatic nerve injury.

  13. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC50 = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other

  14. Gene expression profiling of the rat sciatic nerve in early Wallerian degeneration after injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengbing Yao; Meiyuan Li; Dingding Shen; Fei Ding; Shibi Lu; Qin Zhao; Xiaosong Gu

    2012-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is an important area of research in modern neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated in the various stages of Wallerian degeneration, especially during the early response. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in early Wallerian degeneration of the distal nerve stump at 0, 0.5, 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours after rat sciatic nerve injury using gene chip microarrays. We screened for differentially-expressed genes and gene expression patterns. We examined the data for Gene Ontology, and explored the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway. This allowed us to identify key regulatory factors and recurrent network motifs. We identified 1 546 differentially-expressed genes and 21 distinct patterns of gene expression in early Wallerian degeneration, and an enrichment of genes associated with the immune response, acute inflammation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, ion transport and the extracellular matrix. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed components involved in the Jak-STAT, ErbB, transforming growth factor-β, T cell receptor and calcium signaling pathways. Key factors included interleukin-6, interleukin-1, integrin, c-sarcoma, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand, matrix metalloproteinase, BH3 interacting domain death agonist, baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 3 and Rac. The data were validated with real-time quantitative PCR. This study provides a global view of gene expression profiles in early Wallerian degeneration of the rat sciatic nerve. Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying early Wallerian degeneration, and the regulation of nerve degeneration and regeneration.

  15. Participation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in experimental neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chacur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nerve injury leads to a neuropathic pain state that results from central sensitization. This phenomenom is mediated by NMDA receptors and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we investigated the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS in the spinal cord of 3-month-old male, Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection (SNT. Our attention was focused on the dorsal part of L3-L5 segments receiving sensory inputs from the sciatic nerve. SNT resulted in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms confirmed by evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall and Selitto test and allodynia (von Frey hair test. Control animals did not present any alteration (sham-animals. The selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (0.2 and 2 µg in 50 µL, blocked hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by SNT. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was increased (48% by day 30 in the lumbar spinal cord after SNT. This increase was observed near the central canal (Rexed’s lamina X and also in lamina I-IV of the dorsal horn. Real-time PCR results indicated an increase of nNOS mRNA detected from 1 to 30 days after SNT, with the highest increase observed 1 day after injury (1469%. Immunoblotting confirmed the increase of nNOS in the spinal cord between 1 and 15 days post-lesion (20%, reaching the greatest increase (60% 30 days after surgery. The present findings demonstrate an increase of nNOS after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to the increase of NO production observed after peripheral neuropathy.

  16. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi, E-mail: kumamote@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  17. Topography of synchronization of somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by stimulation of the sciatic nerve in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng eQu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Traditionally, the topography of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs is generated based on amplitude and latency. However, this operation focuses on the physical morphology and field potential-power, so it suffers from difficulties in performing identification in an objective manner. In this study, measurement of the synchronization of SEPs is proposed as a method to explore brain functional networks as well as the plasticity after peripheral nerve injury. Method: SEPs elicited by unilateral sciatic nerve stimulation in twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats in the normal group were compared with SEPs evoked after unilateral sciatic nerve hemisection in four peripheral nerve injured SD rats. The characterization of synchronized networks from SEPs was conducted using equal-time correlation, correlation matrix analysis, and comparison to randomized surrogate data. Eigenvalues of the correlation matrix were used to identify the clusters of functionally synchronized neuronal activity, and the participation index (PI was calculated to indicate the involvement of each channel in the cluster. The PI value at the knee point of the PI histogram was used as a threshold to demarcate the cortical boundary. Results: Ten out of the twelve normal rats showed only one synchronized brain network. The remaining two normal rats showed one strong and one weak network. In the peripheral nerve injured group, only one synchronized brain network was found in each rat. In the normal group, all network shapes appear regular and the network is largely contained in the posterior cortex. In the injured group, the network shapes appear irregular, the network extends anteriorly and posteriorly, and the network area is significantly larger. There are considerable individual variations in the shape and location of the network after peripheral nerve injury. Conclusion: The proposed method can detect functional brain networks. Compared to the results of the

  18. Platelet-rich plasma gel in combination with Schwann cells for repair of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fagang Ye; Haiyan Li; Guangxi Qiao; Feng Chen; Hao Tao; Aiyu Ji; Yanling Hu

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits,culture-expanded and differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells.Autologous platelet-rich plasma and Schwann cell-like cells were mixed in suspension at a density of 1 × 106 cells/mL,prior to introduction into a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit.Fabricated tissue-engineered nerves were implanted into rabbits to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve defects (platelet-rich plasma group).Controls were established using fibrin as the seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells at identical density to construct tissue-engineered nerves (fibrin group).Twelve weeks after implantation,toluidine blue staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to demonstrate an increase in the number of regenerating nerve fibers and thickness of the myelin sheath in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group.Fluoro-gold retrograde labeling revealed that the number of Fluoro-gold-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and the spinal cord anterior horn was greater in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the fibrin group.Electrophysiological examination confirmed that compound muscle action potential and nerve conduction velocity were superior in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group.These results indicate that autologous platelet-rich plasma gel can effectively serve as a seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells to construct tissue-engineered nerves to promote peripheral nerve regeneration.

  19. A rare case of bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old female presented with gradual, painless, progressive diminution of vision, and progressive proptosis of left eye since 7 years. Ophthalmological examination revealed mild proptosis and total optic atrophy in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT brain with orbit showed bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM involving the intracranial, intracanalicular, intraorbital part of the optic nerve extending up to optic chiasma and left cavernous sinus.

  20. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Tok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results: Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion: Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia.

  1. Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil Pothiawala

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant.

  2. Construction of a three-dimensional bionic nerve conduit containing two neurotrophic factors with separate delivery systems for the repair of sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyue Li; Qun Zhao; Ran Bi; Yong Zhuang; Siyin Feng

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of nerve conduits have investigated numerous properties, such as conduit luminal structure and neurotrophic factor incorporation, for the regeneration of nerve defects. The present study used a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) copolymer to construct a three-dimensional (3D) bionic nerve conduit, with two channels and multiple microtubule lumens, and incorporating two neurotrophic factors, each with their own delivery system, as a novel environment for peripheral nerve regeneration. The efficacy of this conduit in repairing a 1.5 cm sciatic nerve defect was compared with PLGA-alone and PLGA-microfilament conduits, and autologous nerve transplantation. Results showed that compared with the other groups, the 3D bionic nerve conduit had the fastest nerve conduction velocity, largest electromyogram amplitude, and shortest electromyogram latency. In addition, the nerve fiber density, myelin sheath thickness and axon diameter were significantly increased, and the recovery rate of the triceps surae muscle wet weight was lowest. These findings suggest that 3D bionic nerve conduits can provide a suitable microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration to efficiently repair sciatic nerve defects.

  3. Partial epineural burying of nerve grafts with different sizes next to or distant from neurorrhaphy?s site: histological and electrophysiological studies in rat sciatic nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Marco Túlio Rodrigues da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare and correlate histologically and electromyographically the effects of partial epineural burying of sural nerve segments in sectioned and sutured rat sciatic nerves. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were operated on 3 groups: Group 1, sural nerve graft, 9mm long, placed next to neurorrhaphy; Group 2, sural nerve graft, 9mm long, buryied 10mm distant from neurorrhaphy; Group 3, sural nerve graft, 18mm long, set next to neurorrhaphy. The morphological features were examined at light microscope after 3 months in 45 rats. The elements observed were: vascularization, vacuoles in nerve fibers, mastocytes and inflammatory infiltrate. The morphometry was made after 6 months in 15 rats from Group 1, 2 and 3, measuring external nerve fiber diameters and counting myelinated nerve fibers/mm². The electrophysiological study was perfomed after 6 months, registering maximum amplitude and frequency of EMG pontentials, at rest, in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Group 3 rats presented sciatic nerves better conserved morphologically and mean external nerve fiber diameters greater than those from Groups 1 and 2. There were no significant differences in density of nerve fibers/mm², and in the electrophysiological study in rats from Group 1, 2 and 3. The epineural burying of sural nerve grafts with greater length and placed next to the neurorrhaphy?s site had a significantly better regeneration of the histological features than the smaller ones distant from neurorrhaphy.

  4. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote regeneration of crush-injured rat sciatic nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi-Ae Sung; Jong-Ho Lee; Hun Jong Jung; Jung-Woo Lee; Jin-Yong Lee; Kang-Mi Pang; Sang Bae Yoo; Mohammad S. Alrashdan; Soung-Min Kim; Jeong Won Jahng

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells can promote neural regeneration following brain injury. However, the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in guiding peripheral nerve regeneration remain poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neural regeneration using a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 106) or a PBS control were injected into the crush-injured segment of the sciatic nerve. Four weeks after cell injection, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B mRNA expression at the lesion site was increased in comparison to control. Furthermore, sciatic function index, Fluoro Gold-labeled neuron counts and axon density were also significantly increased when compared with control. Our results indicate that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the functional recovery of crush-injured sciatic nerves.

  5. Acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain and Lower Limb Symptoms—The Relation between Acupuncture or Electroacupuncture Stimulation and Sciatic Nerve Blood Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Inoue

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment for lumbar spinal canal stenosis and herniated lumbar disc and to clarify the mechanisms in an animal experiment that evaluated acupuncture on sciatic nerve blood flow. In the clinical trial, patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis or herniated lumbar disc were divided into three treatment groups; (i Ex-B2 (at the disordered level, (ii electrical acupuncture (EA on the pudendal nerve and (iii EA at the nerve root. Primary outcome measurements were pain and dysesthesia [evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS] and continuous walking distance. In the animal study, sciatic nerve blood flow was measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry at, before and during three kinds of stimulation (manual acupuncture on lumber muscle, electrical stimulation on the pudendal nerve and electrical stimulation on the sciatic nerve in anesthetized rats. For the clinical trial, approximately half of the patients who received Ex-B2 revealed amelioration of the symptoms. EA on the pudendal nerve was effective for the symptoms which had not improved by Ex-B2. Considerable immediate and sustained relief was observed in patients who received EA at the nerve root. For the animal study, increase in sciatic nerve blood flow was observed in 56.9% of the trial with lumber muscle acupuncture, 100% with pudendal nerve stimulation and 100% with sciatic nerve stimulation. Sciatic nerve stimulation sustained the increase longer than pudendal nerve stimulation. One mechanism of action of acupuncture and electrical acupuncture stimulation could be that, in addition to its influence on the pain inhibitory system, it participates in causing a transient change in sciatic nerve blood blow, including circulation to the cauda equine and nerve root.

  6. The Use of Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cocultured with Schwann Cells and Vascular Endothelial Cells to Repair Rabbit Sciatic Nerve Defect with Vascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyang Gao; Yang You; Guoping Zhang; Feng Zhao; Ziyi Sha; Yong Shen

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cul...

  7. Functional and morphological assessment of a standardized rat sciatic nerve crush injury with a non-serrated clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varejão, Artur S P; Cabrita, António M; Meek, Marcel F; Bulas-Cruz, José; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Raimondo, Stefania; Geuna, Stefano; Giacobini-Robecchi, Maria G

    2004-11-01

    Peripheral nerve researchers frequently use the rat sciatic nerve crush as a model for axonotmesis. Unfortunately, studies from various research groups report results from different crush techniques and by using a variety of evaluation tools, making comparisons between studies difficult. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the sequence of functional and morphologic changes after an acute sciatic nerve crush injury with a non-serrated clamp, giving a final standardized pressure of p = 9 MPa. Functional recovery was evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI), the extensor postural thrust (EPT) and the withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), before injury, and then at weekly intervals until week 8 postoperatively. The rats were also evaluated preoperatively and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 by ankle kinematics, toe out angle (TOA), and gait-stance duration. In addition, the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and the gastrocnemius-soleus weight parameters were measured just before euthanasia. Finally, structural, ultrastructural and histomorphometric analyses were carried out on regenerated nerve fibers. At 8 weeks after the crush injury, a full functional recovery was predicted by SFI, EPT, TOA, and gait-stance duration, while all the other parameters were still recovering their original values. On the other hand, only two of the histomorphometric parameters of regenerated nerve fibers, namely myelin thickness/axon diameter ratio and fiber/axon diameter ratio, returned to normal values while all other parameters were significantly different from normal values. The employment of traditional methods of functional evaluation in conjunction with the modern techniques of computerized analysis of gait and histomorphometric analysis should thus be recommended for an overall assessment of recovery in the rat sciatic nerve crush model. PMID:15684656

  8. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  9. Effect of swimming training on neural microcirculation in rats with sciatic nerve compression A study based on laser Doppler flowmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueming Gao; Xinglin Wang; Senyang Lang; Lining Zhang; Wei Suo; Tianyu Jiang; Jingping Fan

    2010-01-01

    Microcirculation of the peripheral nerve is necessary for neural growth and regeneration.However,technical limitations have limited studies in this area.The few studies conducted have concerned active exercise effects on microcirculation of the peripheral nerve.Using an animal experiment,this study evaluated the effect of swimming training on microcirculation of injured peripheral nerve by laser Doppler flowmetry.The results showed that the blood vessel at the distal end of the peripheral nerve was the main blood supply for the nerve,and the internal blood supply for the nerve had strong compensatory ability.Swimming training promoted the functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve injury and the regeneration of myelin sheath and blood vessels,but had no impact on neural blood flow.

  10. Long-Standing Motor and Sensory Recovery following Acute Fibrin Sealant Based Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Perussi Biscola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant. Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ultrastructural changes at ventral spinal cord were also investigated. Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to neuronal survival. Reactive gliosis and microglial reaction decreased in the same groups (AX+FS, AX+CFS at 4 weeks. Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric parameters. Preservation of inhibitory synaptic terminals was accompanied by significant improvement in the motor as well as in the nociceptive recovery. Overall, the present data suggest that acute repair of neonatal peripheral nerves with fibrin sealant results in neuroprotection and regeneration of motor and sensory axons.

  11. Cholera Toxin B Subunit Shows Transneuronal Tracing after Injection in an Injured Sciatic Nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Qin Lai

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB has been extensively used in the past for monosynaptic mapping. For decades, it was thought to lack the ability of transneuronal tracing. In order to investigate whether biotin conjugates of CTB (b-CTB would pass through transneurons in the rat spinal cord, it was injected into the crushed left sciatic nerve. For experimental control, the first order afferent neuronal projections were defined by retrograde transport of fluorogold (FG, a non-transneuronal labeling marker as an experimental control injected into the crushed right sciatic nerve in the same rat. Neurons containing b-CTB or FG were observed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG at the L4-L6 levels ipsilateral to the tracer injection. In the spinal cord, b-CTB labeled neurons were distributed in all laminae ipsilaterally between C7 and S1 segments, but labeling of neurons at the cervical segment was abolished when the T10 segment was transected completely. The interneurons, distributed in the intermediate gray matter and identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic, were labeled by b-CTB. In contrast, FG labeling was confined to the ventral horn neurons at L4-L6 spinal segments ipsilateral to the injection. b-CTB immunoreactivity remained to be restricted to the soma of neurons and often appeared as irregular patches detected by light and electron microscopy. Detection of monosialoganglioside (GM1 in b-CTB labeled neurons suggests that GM1 ganglioside may specifically enhance the uptake and transneuronal passage of b-CTB, thus supporting the notion that it may be used as a novel transneuronal tracer.

  12. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

  13. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.M.; Ashmawi, H.A.; Costa, L.S.; Posso, I.P. [LIM-08 - Anestesiologia Experimental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Slullitel, A. [Departamento de Anestesiologia, Hospital Santa Paula, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-23

    Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group) were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg) was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg) increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s) and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN) at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg) blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

  14. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group) were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg) was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg) increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s) and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN) at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg) blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics

  15. Long-term effect of ropivacaine nanoparticles for sciatic nerve block on postoperative pain in rats

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    Wang Z

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zi Wang,1,* Haizhen Huang,2,* Shaozhong Yang,1 Shanshan Huang,1 Jingxuan Guo,1 Qi Tang,1 Feng Qi1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Stomatology Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The analgesic effect of ropivacaine (Rop for nerve block lasts only ~3–6 hours for single use. The aim of this study was to develop long-acting regional anesthetic Rop nanoparticles and investigate the effects of sciatic nerve block on postoperative pain in rats.Materials and methods: Rop nanoparticles were developed using polyethylene glycol-co-polylactic acid (PELA. One hundred and twenty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=30, each: Con (control group; 0.9% saline, 200 µL, PELA (PELA group; 10 mg, Rop (Rop group; 0.5%, 200 µL, and Rop-PELA (Rop-PELA group; 10%, 10 mg. Another 12 rats were used for the detection of Rop concentration in plasma. The mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were measured at 2 hours, 4 hours, 8 hours, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after incision. The expression of c-FOS was determined by immunohistochemistry at 2 hours, 8 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days. Nerve and organ toxicities were also evaluated at 7 days.Results: The duration of Rop absorption in the plasma of the Rop-PELA group was longer (>8 hours than that of the Rop group (4 hours. Mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency in the Rop-PELA group were higher than that in other groups (4 hours–3 days. c-FOS expression in the Rop-PELA group was lower than that in the control group at 2 hours, 8 hours, and 48 hours and lower than that in the Rop group at 8 hours and 48 hours after paw incision. Slight foreign body reactions were observed surrounding the sciatic nerve at 7 days. No obvious pathophysiological

  16. Synergistic effects of low-level laser and mesenchymal stem cells on functional recovery in rats with crushed sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Chia; Wang, John; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2016-02-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been proposed to exert beneficial effects on peripheral nerve regeneration after a peripheral nerve injury, but the functional recovery in the denervated limb is still limited. In this study, we used low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct therapy for MSC transplantation on the functional recovery of crushed sciatic nerve in rats. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in 48 Sprague-Dawley rats by crushing the unilateral sciatic nerve, using a vessel clamp. The animals with crushed injury were randomly divided into four groups: control group, with no treatment; MSC group, treated with MSC alone; LLLT group, treated with LLLT alone; and MSCLLLT group, treated with a combination of MSC and LLLT. The sciatic function index (SFI), vertical activity of locomotion (VA) and ankle angle (AA) of rats were examined for functional assessments after treatment. Electrophysiological, morphological and S100 immunohistochemical studies were also conducted. The MSCLLLT group showed a greater recovery in SFI, VA and AA, with significant difference from MSC, LLLT and control groups (p crush injury in the MSCLLLT group when compared with the groups receiving a single treatment (p crush injury. PMID:23468370

  17. Stress and strain analysis on the anastomosis site sutured with either epineurial or perineurial sutures after simulation of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyao Liu; Qiao Zhang; Yan Jin; Zhongli Gao

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of tensile stress and tensile strain at an anastomosis site under physiological stress is an important factor for the success of anastomosis following suturing in peripheral nerve injury treatment.Sciatic nerves from fresh adult cadavers were used to create models of sciatic nerve injury.The denervated specimens underwent epineurial and perineurial suturing.The elastic modulus (40.96 ± 2.59 MPa) and Poisson ratio (0.37 ± 0.02) of the normal sciatic nerve were measured by strain electrical measurement.A resistance strain gauge was pasted on the front,back,left,and right of the edge of the anastomosis site after suturing.Strain electrical measurement results showed that the stress and strain values of the sciatic nerve following perineurial suturing were lower than those following epineurial suturing.Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the sciatic nerve fibers were disordered following epineurial compared with perineurial suturing.These results indicate that the effect of perineurial suturing in sciatic nerve injury repair is better than that of epineurial suturing.

  18. A comparison between acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve and acupressure: methodology, analgesia, and mechanism involved

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    Luo D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Danping Luo,1,2 Xiaolin Wang,1 Jiman He1,31Pain Medicine Program, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong College of Pharmacy, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Acupressure is an alternative medicine methodology that originated in ancient China. Treatment effects are achieved by stimulating acupuncture points using acute pressure. Acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve is a newly reported analgesic method based on a current neuroscience concept: stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold. Both methods use pressure as an intervention method. Herein, we compare the methodology and mechanism of these two methods, which exhibit several similarities and differences. Acupressure entails variation in the duration of manipulation, and the analgesic effect achieved can be short- or long-term. The acute effect attained with acupressure presents a scope that is very different from that of the chronic effect attained after long-term treatment. This acute effect appears to have some similarities to that achieved with acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve, both in methodology and mechanism. More evidence is needed to determine whether there is a relationship between the two methods.Keywords: acupressure, acute pressure block, sciatic nerve, pain

  19. Goji fruit (Lycium barbarum) protects sciatic nerve function against crush injury in a model of diabetic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, K V; Avetisyan, L G; Chavushyan, V A

    2016-09-01

    Excess fructose consumption causes changes in functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems, which increase the vulnerability of peripheral nerves to traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological parameters of responses of motoneurons of the spinal cord at high-frequency stimulation of the distal part of the injured sciatic nerve in a model of diabetic stress under action of Lycium barbarum (LB). Male albino rats were given with drinking water with 50% concentration of dietary fructose for 6 weeks. Starting on the 7th week a crush injury of the left sciatic nerve was carried out. Some of the animals received fructose post-injury for 3 weeks and some of the animals received fructose+dry LB fruits for 3 weeks. In the fructose+crush+LВ group a relatively proportional division of tetanic and posttetanic potentiation and depression in responses of ipsilateral and contralateral motoneurons was observed, which would suggest the modulatory role of LB in short-term synaptic plasticity formation. Generally, LB fruit is able to modulate central nervous system reorganization, amplifying positive adaptive changes that improve functional recovery and promote selective target reinnervation in high fructose-diet rats with sciatic nerve crush-injury. PMID:27424529

  20. Effects of terpineol on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

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    M.R. Moreira

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 µM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect. At 300 µM terpineol, peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity of CAP were significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug, from 3.28 ± 0.22 mV and 33.5 ± 7.05 m/s, respectively, to 1.91 ± 0.51 mV and 26.2 ± 4.55 m/s. At 600 µM, terpineol significantly reduced peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity from 2.97 ± 0.55 mV and 32.8 ± 3.91 m/s to 0.24 ± 0.23 mV and 2.72 ± 2.72 m/s, respectively (N = 5. All these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon 180-min washout.

  1. Protective effect of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Ma Song-Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. are a traditional Chinese medicine for blood serum glucose reduction. This study evaluated the protective effects of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: A (control, B (diabetic treated with saline, C-D (diabetic treated with 0.3, 0.1 g/kg mulberry flavonoids once a day for 8 weeks and E (diabetic treated with 0.3 mg/kg methycobal. The diabetic condition was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. At the end of the experimental period, blood, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Treatment with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids significantly inhibited the elevated serum glucose (P< 0.01. The increased myelin sheath area (P< 0.01, myelinated fiber cross-sectional area and extramedullary fiber number (P< 0.05 were also reduced in alloxan-induced rats treated with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids. 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids also markedly decreased onion-bulb type myelin destruction and degenerative changes of mitochondria and Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that mulberry flavonoids may improve the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and is likely to be useful as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy (PN in diabetic rats.

  2. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    OpenAIRE

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing electi...

  3. Autologous nerve graft repair of different degrees of sciatic nerve defect: stress and displacement at the anastomosis in a three-dimensional fnite element simulation model

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    Cheng-dong Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the magnitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional finite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 finite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These findings indicate that three-dimensional finite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anastomosis after autologous nerve grafting.

  4. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duo-Yi Li; Lan Meng; Nan Ji; Fang Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP) in animal models,but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined.We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN) on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI).Methods:The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL).Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group.The contralateral SN served as a control.The MWT and TWL were determined again 2,4,6,8,10,12,and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment.On day 14,ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy.Results:Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P =0.000).In the PRF group,MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P =0.000),while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05).Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group.Conclusions:Hyperalgesia is relieved,and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP.

  5. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

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    Duo-Yi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP in animal models, but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined. We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI. Methods: The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL. Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group. The contralateral SN served as a control. The MWT and TWL were determined again 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment. On day 14, ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy. Results: Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P = 0.000. In the PRF group, MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P = 0.000, while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05. Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group. Conclusions: Hyperalgesia is relieved, and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP.

  6. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

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    Ronghua Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calpain 3 (CAPN3, also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

  7. Respective pharmacological features of neuropathic-like pain evoked by intrathecal BDNF versus sciatic nerve ligation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    M’Dahoma, Saïd; Barthélemy, Sandrine; Tromilin, Claire; Jeanson, Tiffany; Viguier, Florent; Michot, Benoit; Pezet, Sophie; Hamon, Michel; Bourgoin, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    International audience Numerous reported data support the idea that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is critically involved in both depression and comorbid pain. The possible direct effect of BDNF on pain mechanisms was assessed here and compared with behavioral/neurobiological features of neuropathic pain caused by chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI-SN). Sprague–Dawley male rats were either injected intrathecally with BDNF (3.0 ng i.t.) or subjected to unilatera...

  8. Ameliorative potential of Butea monosperma on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata R.K. Thiagarajan; Palanichamy Shanmugam; Uma M. Krishnan; Arunachalam Muthuraman; Nirmal Singh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative role of ethanolic extract from leaves of Butea monosperma in chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal hyperalgesia, cold chemical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia & allodynia in the left hind paw and tail thermal hyperalgesia. Further on, thiobarbituric acid reac...

  9. Effect of in situ delivery of acetyl-L-carnitine on peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery in transected sciatic nerve in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahpour, Mohammad Reza; Ghayour, Sina Jangkhahe

    2014-12-01

    The repair of peripheral nerve injuries is still one of the most challenging tasks and concerns in neurosurgery, plastic and orthopedic surgery. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) loaded chitosan conduit as an in situ delivery system of ALC in bridging the defects was studied using a rat sciatic nerve regeneration model. A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a chitosan conduit (CHIT/ALC) filled with 10 μL ALC (100 ng/mL). In control group (CHIT), the conduit was filled with the same volume of the phosphate buffered solution. The regenerated fibers were studied 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after surgery. The functional and electrophysiological studies confirmed faster recovery of the regenerated axons in ALC treated than control group (P fibers showed number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in CHIT/ALC were significantly higher than in control group. In immuohistochemistry, the location of reactions to S-100 in CHIT/ALC was clearly more positive than CHIT group. ALC when loaded in a chitosan conduit resulted in improvement of functional recovery and quantitative morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. PMID:25448663

  10. Evaluation of Morphological and Functional Nerve Recovery of Rat Sciatic Nerve with a Hyaff11-Based Nerve Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, K.; Y. Ludwig; M. J. A. van Luyn; Gramsbergen, A. A.; Meek, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Application of a Hyaff11-based nerve guide was studied in rats. Functional tests were performed to study motor nerve recovery. A withdrawal reflex test was performed to test sensory recovery. Morphology was studied by means of histology on explanted tissue samples. Motor nerve recovery was established within 7 weeks. Hereafter, some behavioral parameters like alternating steps showed an increase in occurence, while others remained stable. Sensory function was observed within the 7 weeks time ...

  11. Gamma knife irradiation of injured sciatic nerve induces histological and behavioral improvement in the rat neuropathic pain model.

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    Yuki Yagasaki

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of gamma knife (GK irradiation on injured nerves using a rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL model. GK irradiation was performed at one week after ligation and nerve preparations were made three weeks after ligation. GK irradiation is known to induce immune responses such as glial cell activation in the central nervous system. Thus, we determined the effects of GK irradiation on macrophages using immunoblot and histochemical analyses. Expression of Iba-1 protein, a macrophage marker, was further increased in GK-treated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. Immunohistochemical study of Iba-1 in GK-irradiated injured sciatic nerves demonstrated Iba-1 positive macrophage accumulation to be enhanced in areas distal to the ligation point. In the same area, myelin debris was also more efficiently removed by GK-irradiation. Myelin debris clearance by macrophages is thought to contribute to a permissive environment for axon growth. In the immunoblot study, GK irradiation significantly increased expressions of βIII-tubulin protein and myelin protein zero, which are markers of axon regeneration and re-myelination, respectively. Toluidine blue staining revealed the re-myelinated fiber diameter to be larger at proximal sites and that the re-myelinated fiber number was increased at distal sites in GK-irradiated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. These results suggest that GK irradiation of injured nerves facilitates regeneration and re-myelination. In a behavior study, early alleviation of allodynia was observed with GK irradiation in PSL rats. When GK-induced alleviation of allodynia was initially detected, the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a potent analgesic factor, was significantly increased by GK irradiation. These results suggested that GK irradiation alleviates allodynia via increased GDNF. This study provides novel evidence that GK

  12. FK506-loaded chitosan conduit promotes the regeneration of injured sciatic nerves in the rat through the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Zheng, Xifu; Fu, Chongyang; Qu, Wei; Wei, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-09-15

    FK506 has been shown to exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, but its long-term application for nerve regeneration is limited. This study evaluated the potential application of a novel FK506-loaded chitosan conduit for peripheral nerve repair, and explored the underlying mechanism. A sciatic nerve injury model was created in male Wistar rats, which were then randomly divided into three treatment groups (n=40, each): chitosan-only, chitosan+FK506 injection, and FK506-loaded chitosan. We found significant recovery of normal morphology of sciatic nerves and higher density of myelinated nerve fibers in rats treated with FK506-loaded chitosan. Similarly, the total number of myelinated nerve fibers, myelin sheath thickness, and axon diameters were significantly higher in this group compared with the others, and the compound muscle action potentials and motor nerve conduction velocity values of sciatic nerves were significantly higher. BDNF and TrkB levels in motor neurons were highest in rats treated with FK506-loaded chitosan. In conclusion, FK506-loaded chitosan promoted peripheral nerve repair and regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. These effects are correlated with increased BDNF and TrkB expression in motor neurons. PMID:24954089

  13. Guillain-Barre Syndrome Presenting With Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy

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    Soroor INALOO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Inaloo S, Katibeh P. Guillain-Barre Syndrome Presenting With Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter;8(1:69-71.ObjectiveThis case study is about an 11-year-old girl with bilateral facial weakness, abnormal taste sensation, and deep tendon reflexes of both knees and ankles were absent. However, the muscle power of the lower and upper extremities across all muscle groups was normal. After 2 days, she developed paresthesia and numbness in the lower extremities. Other neurologic examinations, such as fundoscopic evaluation of the retina were normal with the muscle power of both upper- and lower-extremities intact. A lumbar puncture revealed albumincytological dissociation. EMG and NCV were in favor of Guillain-Barre syndrome, for which IVIG was prescribed and the abnormal sensations in the lower limbs rapidly improved. Bilateral facial diplegia without weakness and paresthesia is a variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome that mostly presents withacute onset, rapid progression with or without limb weakness, paresthesia, and decreased or absent DTR and albumin-cytological dissociation.References:Barbi F, Ariatti A, Funakoshi K, Meacci M, Odaka M, Galassi G. Parvovirus B19 infection antedating Guillain-Barre’ syndrome variant with prominent facial diplegia. J Neurol 2011 Aug; 258(8:1551-2. doi: 10.1007/s00415-011-5949-5. Epub 2011 Feb 15.Yardimci N, Avci AY, Kayhan E, Benli S. Bilateral facial nerve enhancement demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurol Sci 2009 Oct; 30(5:431-3. doi:10.1007/s10072-009-0120-0.Lim TC, Yeo WS, Loke KY, Quek SC. Bilateral facial nerve palsy in Kawasaki disease. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2009; 38(8:737-8.Quintas E, Silva A, Sarmento A. Bilateral facial palsy in a young patient after meningococcal meningitis, associated to herpetic infection. Arq Neuro-Psiquiatr 2009; 67(3a: 712-14.Jain V, Deshmukh A, Gollomp S. Bilateral facial

  14. Possible involvement of nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of Melatonin against sciatic nerve ligation induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats

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    Meena, Seema

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neuropathic pain is a debilitating disease afflicting wider population now days. Peripheral nerve injury produces a persistent neuropathic pain. Recently, oxidative stress nitric oxide pathway has been proposed in the pathogenesis of such type of painful conditions. Melatonin, the secretory product of the pineal gland, has potent antioxidant properties. The objective of the present study was to explore possible nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of melatonin against sciatic nerve ligation induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats Materials and Methods: Sciatic nerve ligation was performed in Wistar male rats. Various behavioral parameters (thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia as well as biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalse, and nitrite were assessed in sciatic nerve. Drugs were administered for 21 consecutive days from the day of surgery. Results: Sciatic nerve ligation (CCI significantly caused thermal hyeralgesia, cold allodynia and oxidative damage as compared to naïve and sham control. Chronic administration of melatonin (2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, ip significantly reversed hyperalgesia, cold allodynia and attenuated oxidative damage (as indicated by reduced lipid peroxidation, nitric concentration, restoration of reduced glutathione and catalse activity in sciatic nerve as compared to control (CCI. Further, L-NAME (5 mg/kg (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor pretreatment with effective doses of melatonin (2.5mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg, ip potentiated the protective effect of melatonin which was significant as compared to their effect per se in sciatic nerve. However, L-arginine (100 mg/kg (nitric oxide precursor pretreatment with melatonin (2.5mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg, ip significantly reversed the protective effects of melatonin in sciatic nerve. Conclusion- Result of present study suggests that nitric oxide mechanism might be involved in the protective effect of melatonin against

  15. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

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    Juliana Sobral Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury, exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise, lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise, and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise. LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p=0.012 and larger than LG and LEG (p<0.001. Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons.

  16. Changes in behaviors of rats with sciatic nerve injury and expression of growth associated protein-43 in dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Yongfa Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is closely related to neuroplasticity, and growth associated protein-43 (GAP 43) is a molecular marker for neuronal development and neuroplasticity. The expression of GAP-43 during the development of neuropathic pain should have its own characters.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in behaviors of rats with sciatic nerve injury and GAP-43 expression in dorsal root ganglion(DRG) affected ascribing to developing nerve transection and nerve crush, two types of neuropathic pain models.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology in Second Hospital of Xiamen City and Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College.MATERIALS: Totally 250 adult Wistar rats of either gender, weighing 180 to 250 g, were involved in the study. The rats were randomized into 3 groups: nerve transection group (n =120), nerve crush group (n =120), and normal control group (n =10). The rats in the nerve transection group and nerve crush group were subdivided separately into 6 groups,and were allowed to survive for 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days after nerve injury (n =20). Mouse anti-GAP-43 monoclonal antibody (Sigma Co.,Ltd.), Supervision TM anti-mouse reagent (HRP, Changdao antibody diagnosis reagent Co.,Ltd., Shanghai), DAB/H2O2 (Boster Co.Ltd, Wuhan), and HMIAS-100 image analysis system (Qianping Image engineering Company, Tongji Medical University) were employed in this study.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Surgical Department and Pathological Laboratory, the Second Hospital Affiliated to Shantou Medical College during April 2004 to April 2005. ① Grouping intervention: Animals were anesthetized and the sciatic nerve of the right side was exposed at thigh around ischial tuberosity. Sciatic nerves of rats in nerve transection group were transected at 1 cm below infrapiriform foramen, and those in nerve crush group were exposed as well as the nerve transection group, and crushed at 0.5 cm below

  17. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (-)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(-)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (-)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (-)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (-)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (-)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (-)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (-)-LIN in the essential oil.

  18. Metabolic Dysfunction Is Restricted to the Sciatic Nerve in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Oliver J; Unwin, Richard D; Dowsey, Andrew W; Begley, Paul; Ali, Sumia; Hollywood, Katherine A; Rustogi, Nitin; Petersen, Rasmus S; Dunn, Warwick B; Cooper, Garth J S; Gardiner, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    High glucose levels in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy (DN). However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause the marked distal pathology is incomplete. We performed a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the PNS of a rodent model of DN. We integrated proteomics and metabolomics from the sciatic nerve (SN), the lumbar 4/5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of streptozotocin-diabetic and healthy control rats. Even though all tissues showed a dramatic increase in glucose and polyol pathway intermediates in diabetes, a striking upregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and perturbation of lipid metabolism was found in the distal SN that was not present in the corresponding cell bodies of the DRG or the cranial TG. This finding suggests that the most severe molecular consequences of diabetes in the nervous system present in the SN, the region most affected by neuropathy. Such spatial metabolic dysfunction suggests a failure of energy homeostasis and/or oxidative stress, specifically in the distal axon/Schwann cell-rich SN. These data provide a detailed molecular description of the distinct compartmental effects of diabetes on the PNS that could underlie the distal-proximal distribution of pathology. PMID:26470786

  19. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhao; Qing Li; Bao-lin Yang; Zeng-xu Liu; Qing Yu; Wen-jun Zhang; Keng Yuan; Hui-hong Zeng; Gao-chun Zhu; De-ming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of puriifed transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microen-capsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L4–5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencap-sulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results conifrm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L4–5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  20. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (-)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(-)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (-)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (-)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (-)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (-)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (-)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (-)-LIN in the essential oil. PMID:27446227

  1. Gene expression microarray analysis of the sciatic nerve of mice with diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Qu, Shen; Liang, Aibin; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Hao

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to explore novel target genes that regulate the development of diabetic neuropathy (DN) by analyzing gene expression profiles in the sciatic nerve of infected mice. The GSE11343 microarray dataset, which was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, included data on 4 control samples and 5 samples from mice with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ), 5 samples from normal mice treated with rosiglitazone (Rosi) and 5 samples from mice with diabetes induced by STZ and treated with Rosi. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the different groups were identified using the substitution augmentation modification redefinition (SAMR) model. The Gene Ontology (GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Regulatory and protein‑protein interaction networks were searched using BioCarta and STRING, respectively. The protein structures of potential regulatory genes were predicted using the SYBYL program. Compared with the controls, 1,384 DEGs were identified in the mice with STZ-induced diabetes and 7 DEGs were identified in the mice treated with Rosi. There were 518 DEGs identified between the mice in the STZ + Rosi and STZ groups. We identified 45 GO items, and the calmodulin nerve phosphatase and chemokine signaling pathways were identified as the main pathways. Three genes [myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (Marcks), GLI pathogenesis-related 2 (Glipr2) and centrosomal protein 170 kDa (Cep170)] were found to be co-regulated by both STZ and Rosi, the protein structure of which was predicted and certain binding activity to Rosi was docked. Our study demonstrates that the Marcks, Glipr2 and Cep170 genes may be underlying drug targets in the treatment of DN. PMID:25435094

  2. Morphometric analysis of the diameter and g-ratio of the myelinated nerve fibers of the human sciatic nerve during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugrenović, Sladjana; Jovanović, Ivan; Vasović, Ljiljana; Kundalić, Braca; Čukuranović, Rade; Stefanović, Vladisav

    2016-06-01

    Myelinated nerve fibers suffer from different degrees of atrophy with age. The success of subsequent regeneration varies. The aim of this research was to analyze myelinated fibers of the human sciatic nerve during the aging process. Morphometric analysis was performed on 17 cases with an age range from 9 to 93 years. The outer and inner diameter of 100 randomly selected nerve fibers was measured in each of the cases evaluated, and the g-ratio (axonal diameter/outer diameter of the whole nerve fiber) of each was calculated. Scatter plots of the diameters and g-ratios of the analyzed fibers were then analyzed. Nerve fibers of each case were classified into three groups according to the g-ratio values: group I (g-ratio lower than 0.6), group II (g-ratio from 0.6 to 0.7) and group III (g-ratio higher than 0.7). Afterwards, nerve fibers of group II were further classified into small and large subgroups. The percentages of each group of nerve fibers were computed for each case and these values were used for correlational and bivariate linear regression analysis. The percentage of myelinated nerve fibers with large diameter and optimal g-ratio of the sciatic nerve declines significantly with age. This is accompanied by a simultaneous significant increase in the percentage of small myelinated fibers with g-ratio values close to 1 that occupy the upper left quadrant of the scatter plot. It can be concluded that aging of the sciatic nerve is associated with significant atrophy of large myelinated fibers. Additionally, a significant increase in regenerated nerve fibers with thinner myelin sheath is observed with age, which, together with the large myelinated fiber atrophy, might be the cause of the age-related decline in conduction velocity. A better understanding of the changes in aging peripheral nerves might improve interpretation of their pathological changes, as well as comprehension of their regeneration in individuals of different age. PMID:25976073

  3. Effect of Platelet Rich Plasma and Platelet Rich Fibrin on sciatic nerve regeneration in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenfels, Martina; Colomé, Lucas; Sebben, Alessandra Deise; Braga-Silva, Jefferson

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) on peripheral nerve repair. Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into four equal treatments groups: autologous nerve grafts (ANG), silicon tube plus saline solution (SS), silicon tube plus PRP, and silicon tube plus PRF. In ANG group, 10 mm segment from sciatic nerve was excised and reimplanted between the nerve stumps. In the SS, PRP, and PRF groups, 5 mm segment from sciatic nerve was excised and bridged with a 12 mm silicone conduit to create a 10 mm nerve gap. The conduit was filled in accordance with the different treatments. Walking track analysis was performed periodically and on the 90th post-operative day histomorphometric analysis was performed. The ANG, PRF, and PRP groups presented a significant functional improvement in relation to the SS group (P = 0.001) on 90 days after surgery. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the ANG group achieved a larger nerve fiber diameter in proximal stump while comparing with the SS group (P =0.037) and showed larger fiber diameter in median stump in comparison to the PRP group (P = 0.002) and PRF group (P = 0.001). Axonal diameter and myelin sheath thickness showed no statistical significant difference between the groups in the three stumps (P ≥ 0.05). This study suggests that PRP and PRF have positive effects on the functional nerve recovery; however, these groups don't achieve a significant improvement on the histomorphometric analysis.

  4. Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Hajimoradi; Mohammad Fazilati; Mohammad Kazem Gharib-Naseri; Alireza Sarkaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA) for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Materials and Methods: Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1) Control (Cont), 2) Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh), 3-5) Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA) (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally), ...

  5. The Use of Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cocultured with Schwann Cells and Vascular Endothelial Cells to Repair Rabbit Sciatic Nerve Defect with Vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. The animals in both groups underwent electromyography to show the status of the neurological function recovery at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgery. Sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination were observed under the light microscope and electron microscope. Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. The recovery of foot ulcer, the velocity of nerve conduction, the number of regenerating nerve fiber, and the recovery of ultrastructure were increased in the experimental group than those in the control group. Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function.

  6. The use of fiber-reinforced scaffolds cocultured with Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells to repair rabbit sciatic nerve defect with vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyang; You, Yang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhao, Feng; Sha, Ziyi; Shen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. The animals in both groups underwent electromyography to show the status of the neurological function recovery at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgery. Sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination were observed under the light microscope and electron microscope. Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. The recovery of foot ulcer, the velocity of nerve conduction, the number of regenerating nerve fiber, and the recovery of ultrastructure were increased in the experimental group than those in the control group. Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function. PMID:24490158

  7. Bilateral superficial peroneal nerve entrapment secondary to anorexia nervosa: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Doğramacı Yunus; Kalacı Aydıner; Sevinç Teoman; Yanat Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of severe weight loss secondary to anorexia nervosa causing bilateral superficial peroneal nerve entrapment in a young female patient who was treated successfully by bilateral surgical decompression.

  8. Activation of Growth-associated Protein by Intragastric Brazilein in Motor Neuron of Spinal Cord Connected with Injured Sciatic Nerve in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jian; LI Li-sen; LIU Biao; LIU Hao-yu; ZHANG Hui; ZHAO Ming-ming; YIN Wei-tian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the expression of growth-associated protein(GAP-43) in spinal cord segments connected with injured sciatic nerve by the treatment with brazilein in mice. Unilateral sciatic nerve interruption and anastomosis were performed. Physiological saline(blank group), high dose, middle dose and low dose of brazilein were administrated intragastrically to healthy adult BALB/c mice in separate groups. L4-6 spinal segments connected with the sciatic nerve were harvested. Real-time PCR(Polymerase chain reaction) and Western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of GAP-43 in spinal segments. Histological staining on myelin and the electrophysiology were performed to examine the sciatic nerve recovery. GAP-43 was activated in spinal cord L4-6 connected with injured sciatic nerve. In the survival time of 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d and 14 d, GAP-43 expression in the motor neurons of spinal cord of the high dose group and that in the middle dose group were significantly higher than those on the low dose and blank groups. Myelin in the high dose group and that in the middle dose group were more mature and the potential amplitude and MNCV(motor nerve conduction velocity) in the high and middle dose groups were obviously higher than those in the low dose group and blank group. Brazilein facilitates the expression of GAP-43 in neurons in spinal cord L4-6 segments connected with injured sciatic nerve, which promotes nerve regeneration.

  9. Bilateral trigeminal nerve recurrence of non-hodgkin lymphoma revealed with FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral trigeminal nerve involvement is a rare presentation of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The trigeminal nerve, also called the fifth cranial nerve, leaves the brainstem and exits the base of the skull to supply sensation to the face. In this case, we present a case of a 63-year-old male patient with a history of NHL and a more recent history of headache and trigeminal neuralgia. The patient underwent PET/CT demonstrating bilateral increased FDG uptake in trigeminal nerves

  10. Bilateral trigeminal nerve recurrence of non-hodgkin lymphoma revealed with FDG PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Sabire; Sağer, Sait; Şen, Feyza; Halac, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral trigeminal nerve involvement is a rare presentation of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The trigeminal nerve, also called the fifth cranial nerve, leaves the brainstem and exits the base of the skull to supply sensation to the face. In this case, we present a case of a 63-year-old male patient with a history of NHL and a more recent history of headache and trigeminal neuralgia. The patient underwent PET/CT demonstrating bilateral increased FDG uptake in trigeminal nerves.

  11. Preferential and comprehensive reconstitution of severely damaged sciatic nerve using murine skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tamaki

    Full Text Available Loss of vital functions in the somatic motor and sensory nervous systems can be induced by severe peripheral nerve transection with a long gap following trauma. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts have been used as the gold standard, with the expectation of activation and proliferation of graft-concomitant Schwann cells associated with their paracrine effects. However, there are a limited number of suitable sites available for harvesting of nerve autografts due to the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions. To overcome this problem, the potential of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs was examined as a novel alternative cell source for peripheral nerve regeneration. Cultured/expanded Sk-MSCs were injected into severely crushed sciatic nerve corresponding to serious neurotmesis. After 4 weeks, engrafted Sk-MSCs preferentially differentiated into not only Schwann cells, but also perineurial/endoneurial cells, and formed myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium, encircling the regenerated axons. Increased vascular formation was also observed, leading to a favorable blood supply and waste product excretion. In addition, engrafted cells expressed key neurotrophic and nerve/vascular growth factor mRNAs; thus, endocrine/paracrine effects for the donor/recipient cells were also expected. Interestingly, skeletal myogenic capacity of expanded Sk-MSCs was clearly diminished in peripheral nerve niche. The same differentiation and tissue reconstitution capacity of Sk-MSCs was sufficiently exerted in the long nerve gap bridging the acellular conduit, which facilitated nerve regeneration/reconnection. These effects represent favorable functional recovery in Sk-MSC-treated mice, as demonstrated by good corduroy walking. We also demonstrated that these differentiation characteristics of the Sk-MSCs were comparable to native peripheral nerve-derived cells, whereas the therapeutic capacities were largely superior in Sk

  12. Cordycepin Decreases Compound Action Potential Conduction of Frog Sciatic Nerve In Vitro Involving Ca2+-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin has been widely used in oriental countries to maintain health and improve physical performance. Compound nerve action potential (CNAP, which is critical in signal conduction in the peripheral nervous system, is necessary to regulate physical performance, including motor system physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, regulatory effects of cordycepin on CNAP conduction should be elucidated. In this study, the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves was investigated. Results revealed that cordycepin significantly decreased CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. At 50 mg/L cordycepin, CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity decreased by 62.18 ± 8.06% and 57.34% ± 6.14% compared with the control amplitude and conductive velocity, respectively. However, the depressive action of cordycepin on amplitude and conductive velocity was not observed in Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of Ca2+ channel blockers (CdCl2/LaCl3. Pretreatment with L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist (nifedipine/deltiazem also blocked cordycepin-induced responses; by contrast, T-type and P-type Ca2+ channel antagonists (Ni2+ failed to block such responses. Therefore, cordycepin decreased the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves via L-type Ca2+ channel-dependent mechanism.

  13. A new, lateral, continuous, combined, femoral–sciatic nerve approach via a single skin puncture for postoperative analgesia in intramedullary tibial nail insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Imbelloni, Luiz; Rava,; Gouveia,

    2013-01-01

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni,1,2 Carlos Rava,1,3 Marildo A Gouveia21Faculdade de Medicina Nova Esperança, 2Institute for Regional Anesthesia, 3Complexo Hospitalar de Mangabeira Governador Tarcisio Burity, João Pessoa, BrazilBackground: The prevalence of anterior knee pain following intramedullary tibial nail insertion is high. Continuous peripheral nerve blockade is an alternative method of pain control to opiods. This case illustrates the use of femoral nerve and sciatic nerv...

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells engrafted in a fibrin scaffold stimulate Schwann cell reactivity and axonal regeneration following sciatic nerve tubulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartarozzi, Luciana P; Spejo, Aline B; Ferreira, Rui S; Barraviera, Benedito; Duek, Eliana; Carvalho, Juliana L; Góes, Alfredo M; Oliveira, Alexandre L R

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) associated with a fibrin scaffold (FS) for the peripheral regenerative process after nerve tubulization. Adult female Lewis rats received a unilateral sciatic nerve transection followed by repair with a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based tubular prosthesis. Sixty days after injury, the regenerated nerves were studied by immunohistochemistry. Anti-p75NTR immunostaining was used to investigate the reactivity of the MSCs. Basal labeling, which was upregulated during the regenerative process, was detected in uninjured nerves and was significantly greater in the MSC-treated group. The presence of GFP-positive MSCs was detected in the nerves, indicating the long term survival of such cells. Moreover, there was co-localization between MSCs and BNDF immunoreactivity, showing a possible mechanism by which MSCs improve the reactivity of SCs. Myelinated axon counting and morphometric analyses showed that MSC engrafting led to a higher degree of fiber compaction combined with a trend of increased myelin sheath thickness, when compared with other groups. The functional result of MSC engrafting was that the animals showed higher motor function recovery at the seventh and eighth week after lesion. The findings herein show that MSC+FS therapy improves the nerve regeneration process by positively modulating the reactivity of SCs. PMID:25602253

  15. Altered acetylcholinesterase levels in the spinal cord anterior horn and dorsal root ganglion following sciatic nerve ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang; Pei Wang; Songhe Yang; Jingfeng Xue

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve ischemia has been shown to result in ischemic fiber degeneration and axoplasmic transport disturbance. However, the effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in relevant cells following sciatic nerve ischemia remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To observe AChE concentration changes following peripheral nerve ischemia. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present comparative observation, neuroanatomical experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory Animal of Chengde Medical College between 2006 and 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 20 healthy, adult, Wistar rats were randomized into two groups (n = 10): 8-day ischemia and 14-day ischemia. METHODS: Ischemia injury was induced in the unilateral sciatic nerve (experimental side) through ligation of the common iliac artery. The contralateral side received no intervention, and served as the control side. Rats in the 8-day ischemia and 14-day ischemia groups were allowed to survive for 8 and 14 days, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The L5 lumbar spinal cord and the L5 dorsal root ganglion were removed from both sides and sectioned utilizing a Leica vibrating slicer. AChE cellular expression was detected using Karnovsky-Root, and the number of AChE-positive cells and average gray value were analyzed using a MiVnt image analysis system. RESULTS: In the 8-day ischemia group, AChE-positive cell numbers were significantly less in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord anterior horn of the experimental side, but the average gray value was significantly greater, compared with the control side (P < 0.05). These changes were more significant in the 14-day ischemia group than in the 8-day ischemia group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Peripheral nerve ischemia leads to decreased AChE expression in the associated cells in a time-dependent manner.

  16. Time dependent changes in platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF) and PDGF {alpha} -and {beta} -receptors following gamma-irradiation of rat plasma and sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Han Young [Ansan Junior College, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Sang Yul [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    The total-bodies of 10 week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with single doses 4.5 and 7.5 Gy, respectively. The effects on plasma and sciatic nerve platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF) concentrations and sciatic nerve PDGF {alpha} -and {beta} -receptors densities were examined up to 10 days post-treatment. There was no consistent significant variation in the plasma and sciatic nerve PDGF concentrations in time over the period of study between 4.5 and 7.5 Gy groups. Plasma PDGF concentrations were significantly reduced to 58% of control values between 5 and 10 days with 4.5 Gy and to 51% of control values as percentage of control values between 5 and 10 days with 7.5 Gy after irradiation, respectively(p<0.05). Sciatic nerve PDGF concentrations were increased to 118% of control values at 1 day with 4.5 Gy and to 130% of control values at 1 day with 7.5 Gy after irradiation, respectively(p>0.05). After irradiation, the levels of PDGF {alpha} -receptor protein density were reduced to 33% of control values at 2 days with 4.5 Gy and to 50% at 2 days with 7.5 Gy, while the levels of PDGF {beta} -receptor protein density were reduced to maximally 26% of control values at 2 days with 4.5 Gy and to 27% at 2 days with 7.5 Gy, respectively, but both initial decreased levels of those were increased subsequently after 2 days following irradiation. These results suggest that the radiation-induced alteration of plasma and sciatic nerve PDGF concentrations, and sciatic nerve PDGF {alpha} -and {beta} -receptors densities may be involved in the pathogenesis of bone marrow stem cell and peripheral neuron damages.

  17. Gelatin-methacrylamide gel loaded with microspheres to deliver GDNF in bilayer collagen conduit promoting sciatic nerve growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang H

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hai Zhuang,1–3 Shoushan Bu,1 Lei Hua,1 Mohammad A Darabi,2,3 Xiaojian Cao,4 Malcolm Xing2,3 1Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Biochemistry & Medical Genetics, 3Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 4Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, we fabricated glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-loaded microspheres, then seeded the microspheres in gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogel, which was finally integrated with the commercial bilayer collagen membrane (Bio-Gide®. The novel composite of nerve conduit was employed to bridge a 10 mm long sciatic nerve defect in a rat. GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres had a smooth surface with an average diameter of 3.9±1.8 µm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that microspheres were uniformly distributed in both the GelMA gel and the layered structure. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in vitro release studies (pH 7.4 of GDNF from microspheres exhibited an initial burst release during the first 3 days (18.0%±1.3%, and then, a prolonged-release profile extended to 32 days. However, in an acidic condition (pH 2.5, the initial release percentage of GDNF was up to 91.2%±0.9% within 4 hours and the cumulative release percentage of GDNF was 99.2%±0.2% at 48 hours. Then the composite conduct was implanted in a 10 mm critical defect gap of sciatic nerve in a rat. We found that the nerve was regenerated in both conduit and autograft (AG groups. A combination of electrophysiological assessment and histomorphometry analysis of regenerated nerves showed that axonal regeneration and functional recovery in collagen tube filled with GDNF-loaded microspheres

  18. Comparison of two screening bioassays, based on the frog sciatic nerve and yeast cells, for the assessment of herbicide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Cabral, Maria de Guadalupe; Mixailidou, Christina; Viegas, Cristina A; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Theophilidis, George

    2004-05-01

    Two different test systems, one based on the isolated sciatic nerve of an amphibian and the other on a microbial eukaryote, were used for the assessment of herbicide toxicity. More specifically, we determined the deleterious effects of increasing concentrations of herbicides of different chemical classes (phenoxyacetic acids, triazines, and acetamides), and of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a degradation product of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on electrophysiological parameters and the vitality of the axons of the isolated sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda) and on the growth curve of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on microtiter plate susceptibility assays. The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC), defined as the maximum concentration of the tested compound that has no effect on these biological parameters, was estimated. In spite of the different methodological approaches and biological systems compared, the NOEC values were identical and correlated with the lipophilicity of the tested compounds. The relative toxicity established here, 2,4-DCP > alachlor, metolachlor > metribuzin > 2,4-D, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), correlates with the toxicity indexes reported in the literature for freshwater organisms. Based on these results, we suggest that the relatively simple, rapid, and low-cost test systems examined here may be of interest as alternative or complementary tests for toxicological assessment of herbicides. PMID:15180372

  19. Investigating the Neuroprotective Effect of Alcholic Extracts of Achillea Biebersteinii Leave on α Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rats

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    M Alikhanzade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of injuries in peripheral nervous system returns to the cell body of neurons in central nervous system in a retrograde manner which leads to brain and spinal degeneration. It is probable that Achillea biebersteinii might prevent the injury progress. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of alcholic extract of Achillea biebersteinii leaves on spinal α motoneurons degenarion after sciatic nerve compression in rats. Methods: 30 male wistar rats were divided randomly into groups of control, compression, compression with treatment of 50, 75, 100 mg/kg doses. Sciatic nerve was exposed to compression for 60 s using locker pincers. Extract injection was done intraperitoneally in the first and second weeks after compression. Then 28 days after compression under perfusion method, the lumber spinal cord was sampled. After cutting and coloring, the density of motoneurons was measured using dissector methods. Results: The study results demonstrated a meaningful difference between compression and control groups in regard with neuronal density (P=0.000. Neuronal density showed also a significant meaningful increase (P<0.01 in alcoholic extract treatment groups of 50,75,100 mg/kg compared to the compression group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that Alcohlic extracts of Achillea biebersteinii leaves, containing growth and regeneration factors, has neuroprotective effect on spinal cord alpha motoneurons after injury. The extract with 75mg/kg dose was reported as the most effective one.

  20. Critical role of p38 MAPK for regeneration of the sciatic nerve following crush injury in vivo

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    Kato Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological function of p38α, which is an isoform of p38 MAPK, has been investigated previously in several studies using pharmacological inhibitors. However, the results regarding whether p38α promotes or inhibits nerve regeneration in vivo have been controversial. Methods We generated novel p38α mutant mice (sem mice with a point mutation in the region encoding the p38α substrate-docking-site, which serves as a limited loss-of-function model of p38α. In the present study, we utilized sem mice and wild-type littermates (wt mice to investigate the physiological role of p38α in nerve regeneration following crush injuries. Results At four weeks after crush injury, the average axon diameter and the average axon area in sem mice were significantly smaller than those in wt mice. The average myelin sheath thickness in sem mice was reduced compared to wt mice, but no significant difference was observed in the G-ratio between the two groups. The sciatic functional index value demonstrated that functional nerve recovery in sem mice following crush injury was delayed, which is consistent with the histological findings. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of these findings, we examined inflammatory responses of the sciatic nerve by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. At an early phase following crush injury, sem mice showed remarkably lower expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, than wt mice. The expression of Caspase-3 and Tenascin-C were also lower in sem mice. Conversely, at a late phase of the response, sem mice showed considerably higher expression of TNF-α and of IL-1β with lower expression of S-100 than wt mice. Conclusions This is the first study of the physiological role of p38 MAPK in nerve regeneration that does not rely on the use of pharmacological inhibitors. Our results indicate that p38α insufficiency may cause an inflammatory disorder, resulting in a delay of

  1. Injury-induced activation of ERK 1/2 in the sciatic nerve of healthy and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Lena; Kanje, Martin; Mårtensson, Lisa; Dahlin, Lars B

    2011-01-26

    Phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2) was investigated by immunohistochemistry at 30 min, 1 h, and 48 h after nerve transection in the sciatic nerve of healthy and diabetic [streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus and BioBreeding (BB; i.e. DR.lyp/lyp or BBDP)] rats. Transection injury increased the intensity of p-ERK 1/2 in nerve stumps at all time points. Staining was confined to Schwann cells with occasional faint staining in single axons. In diabetic rats, a lower intensity of p-ERK 1/2 was found at 1 and 48 h in the distal and proximal nerve stumps compared with healthy rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats were not different from BB rats. p-ERK 1/2 is activated differentially in Schwann cells after nerve injury in diabetic rats, whereas activation in STZ-induced diabetic rats did not differ from BB rats.

  2. Post-traumatic acute bilateral facial nerve palsy - a management dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rakesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute bilateral facial nerve paralysis is a rare clinical entity, and its management remains very controversial (operative or conservative. Here we are presenting a case of acute onset bilateral facial nerve palsy following head injury with bilateral temporal bone fracture with clinico-radiographic contrary. Patient was managed conservatively with complete recovery. By this article, authors want to stress on combining clinical examination and radiological findings for decision making of this rare entity and tried to evaluate the management.

  3. Lyme disease in a child presenting with bilateral facial nerve palsy: MRI findings and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanzieleghem, B.; Lemmerling, M.; Achten, E.; Vanlangenhove, P.; Kunnen, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Gent (Belgium); Carton, D.; Matthys, E. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital Gent (Belgium)

    1998-11-01

    We report a 7-year-old boy with neuroborreliosis presenting with headache and bilateral facial nerve palsy. MRI demonstrated tentorial and bilateral facial and trigeminal nerve enhancement. (orig.) With 1 fig., 22 refs.

  4. Effects of collagen membranes enriched with in vitro-differentiated N1E-115 cells on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after end-to-end repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornaro Michele

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves possess the capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of regeneration is often poor and may benefit from exogenous factors that enhance growth. The use of cellular systems is a rational approach for delivering neurotrophic factors at the nerve lesion site, and in the present study we investigated the effects of enwrapping the site of end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair with an equine type III collagen membrane enriched or not with N1E-115 pre-differentiated neural cells. After neurotmesis, the sciatic nerve was repaired by end-to-end suture (End-to-End group, end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane (End-to-EndMemb group; and end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane previously covered with neural cells pre-differentiated in vitro from N1E-115 cells (End-to-EndMembCell group. Along the postoperative, motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL and ankle kinematics. After 20 weeks animals were sacrificed and the repaired sciatic nerves were processed for histological and stereological analysis. Results showed that enwrapment of the rapair site with a collagen membrane, with or without neural cell enrichment, did not lead to any significant improvement in most of functional and stereological predictors of nerve regeneration that we have assessed, with the exception of EPT which recovered significantly better after neural cell enriched membrane employment. It can thus be concluded that this particular type of nerve tissue engineering approach has very limited effects on nerve regeneration after sciatic end-to-end nerve reconstruction in the rat.

  5. Chemoattractive capacity of different lengths of nerve fragments bridging regeneration chambers for the repair of sciatic nerve defects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiren; Wang, Yubo; Zhang, Jincheng

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study by our research group showed that 6-mm-long regeneration chamber bridging is equivalent to autologous nerve transplantation for the repair of 12-mm nerve defects. In this study, we compared the efficacy of different lengths (6, 8, 10 mm) of nerve fragments bridging 6-mm regeneration chambers for the repair of 12-mm-long nerve defects. At 16 weeks after the regeneration chamber was implanted, the number, diameter and myelin sheath thickness of the regenerated nerve fibers, ...

  6. Estudo das relações anatômicas e suas variações entre o nervo ciático e o músculo piriforme Study on anatomical relationships and variations between the sciatic nerve and piriform muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJD Vicente

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A síndrome do músculo piriforme pode ter como causa a passagem anormal do nervo ciático ou de uma de suas partes pelo ventre do músculo piriforme. OBJETIVO: Analisar as relações anatômicas e métricas entre o músculo piriforme e o nervo ciático, contribuindo com o conhecimento anátomo-clínico da região glútea. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 20 cadáveres adultos de ambos os sexos. O nervo ciático e o músculo piriforme foram dissecados, medidos e fotodocumentados. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 85% das 40 regiões glúteas apresentaram o nervo como tronco único, passando pela borda inferior do músculo piriforme, e 15% mostraram uma variação bilateral, caracterizada pela passagem do nervo fibular comum através do músculo piriforme. Os dados obtidos não revelaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes.CONTEXT: Piriform muscle syndrome can be caused by abnormal passage of the sciatic nerve or one of its parts through the belly of the piriform muscle. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the anatomical and measurement relationships between the piriform muscle and the sciatic nerve in order to contribute towards better anatomoclinical understanding of the gluteal region. METHOD: Twenty adult cadavers of both sexes were used. The sciatic nerve and piriform muscle were dissected, measured and photodocumented. RESULTS: The sciatic nerve was seen to be a single trunk passing through the lower margin of the piriform muscle in 85% of the 40 gluteal regions, and 15% showed bilateral variation characterized by the passage of the common fibular nerve through the piriform muscle. The data obtained did not show any statistically significant differences.

  7. A Self-Administered Method of Acute Pressure Block of Sciatic Nerves for Short-Term Relief of Dental Pain: A Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. Design This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting Hospital patients. Patients Patients aged 16–60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Interventions Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. Results One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. Conclusions The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. PMID:24400593

  8. Third-Degree Hindpaw Burn Injury Induced Apoptosis of Lumbar Spinal Cord Ventral Horn Motor Neurons and Sciatic Nerve and Muscle Atrophy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe burns result in hypercatabolic state and concomitant muscle atrophy that persists for several months, thereby limiting patient recovery. However, the effects of burns on the corresponding spinal dermatome remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether burns induce apoptosis of spinal cord ventral horn motor neurons (VHMNs and consequently cause skeletal muscle wasting. Methods. Third-degree hindpaw burn injury with 1% total body surface area (TBSA rats were euthanized 4 and 8 weeks after burn injury. The apoptosis profiles in the ventral horns of the lumbar spinal cords, sciatic nerves, and gastrocnemius muscles were examined. The Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve were marked with S100. The gastrocnemius muscles were harvested to measure the denervation atrophy. Result. The VHMNs apoptosis in the spinal cord was observed after inducing third-degree burns in the hindpaw. The S100 and TUNEL double-positive cells in the sciatic nerve increased significantly after the burn injury. Gastrocnemius muscle apoptosis and denervation atrophy area increased significantly after the burn injury. Conclusion. Local hindpaw burn induces apoptosis in VHMNs and Schwann cells in sciatic nerve, which causes corresponding gastrocnemius muscle denervation atrophy. Our results provided an animal model to evaluate burn-induced muscle wasting, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  9. H-REFLEX UP-CONDITIONING ENCOURAGES RECOVERY OF EMG ACTIVITY AND H-REFLEXES AFTER SCIATIC NERVE TRANSECTION AND REPAIR IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Yu; Chen, Lu; Sun, Chenyuo; English, Arthur W.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, produces spinal cord plasticity and can thereby affect motoneuron responses to primary afferent input. To explore whether this conditioning can affect the functional outcome after peripheral nerve injury, we assessed the effect of up-conditioning soleus (SOL) H-reflex on SOL and tibialis anterior (TA) function after sciatic nerve transection and repair. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with EMG electro...

  10. Protective effect of sodium valproate on motor neurons in the spinal cord following sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wu; Danmou Xing; Zhengren Peng; Wusheng Kan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sodium valproate (VPA) is used to be an effective anti-epileptic drug. VPA possesses the characteristics of penetrating rapidly through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and increasing levels of Bcl-2 and growth cone-associated protein (GAP) 43 in spinal cord.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of VPA on Bcl-2 expression and motor neuronal apoptosis in spinal cord of rats following sciatic nerve transection.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Hand Surgery and Microsurgery, Wuhan Puai Hospital.MATERIALS: A total of 30 male healthy SD rats of olean grade and with the body mass of 180-220 g were provided by Experimental Animal Center of Medical College of Wuhan University. Sodium Valproate Tablets were purchases from Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu.METHODS: The experiment was performed in the Central Laboratory of Wuhan Puai Hospital and Medical College of Wuhan University from February to May 2006. Totally 30 rats were randomly divided into two groups:treatment group (n =15) and model group (n =15). Longitudinal incision along backside of right hind limbs of rats was made to expose sciatic nerves, which were sharply transected 1 cm distal to the inferior margin of piriform muscle after nerve liberation under operation microscope to establish sciatic nerve injury rat models.Sodium Valproate Tablets were pulverized and diluted into 50 g/L suspension with saline. On the day of operation, the rats in the treatment group received 6 Ml/kg VPA suspension by gastric perfusion, once a day,whereas model group received 10 Ml/kg saline by gastric perfusion, once a day. L4-6 spinal cords were obtained at days 1, 4, 7, 14 and 28 after operation, respectively. Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique and immunohistochemical method (SP method) were used to detect absorbance (A) of neurons with positive Bcl-2 expression. Apoptotic rate of cells (number of apoptotic cells

  11. Optimal Effect of Phenol Block in the Sciatic Nerve of Rats: Standardization of Minimized Dosage and Duration of Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Chao; Chang, Chein-Wei; Tsai, Su-Ju

    2015-08-31

    The phenol nerve block has been widely used in clinical practice for spasticity reduction, but the correlation between the dosage of phenol and its effectiveness has seldom been discussed. The objective was to determine the optimal duration of phenol in contact with the nervous tissue and to investigate the dose-response relationship of 5% aqueous phenol solution by percutaneous nerve block in rats. Group I (n = 8) received sciatic nerve block by bathing the nerves in phenol solution, and group II (n = 40) by injecting phenol percutaneously. Group IIa to IId received different volumes (0.80, 0.16, 0.08 and 0.04 ml) and group IIe received normal saline. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was measured pre-injection and at 90 and 270 sec after injection and after surgical exposure of the nerves. The duration of CMAP reduced by 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% after phenol injection was also recorded. The mean latency for the evoked response to subside in direct phenol application (group I) and percutaneous nerve block (group IIa) were 73.5 ± 5.9 and 62.4 ± 7.6 sec, respectively. There was no statistical difference for the time periods in the blocking effect elicited by phenol solution between these two methods. Ninety sec was set as the optimal duration for phenol to produce complete conduction blockage. Higher volume of phenol produced more significant blocking effect at 90 and 270 sec after injection. Percutaneous injection with 0.16 ml of phenol solution had the same blocking effect as 0.8 ml. The continuous injection model for percutaneous phenol block indeed used significantly more phenol than actually needed. Clinically, the progressive injection model can be used to minimize injection volume. PMID:26211647

  12. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Qu, Wei; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Huajun

    2014-11-15

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and purification of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with fibroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly purified Schwann cells using serum-free melanocyte culture medium. The purity of Schwann cells (> 95%) using our method was higher than that using standard medium containing fetal bovine serum. The obtained Schwann cells were implanted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Results showed that axonal diameter and area were significantly increased and motor functions were obviously improved in the rat sciatic nerve tissue. Experimental findings suggest that serum-free melanocyte culture medium is conducive to purify Schwann cells and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan nerve conduits combined with Schwann cells contribute to restore sciatic nerve defects.

  13. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhao; Wei Qu; Yuxuan Wu; Hao Ma; Huajun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and puriifcation of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with ifbroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly puriifed Schwann cells using serum-free melanocyte culture medium. The purity of Schwann cells (> 95%) using our method was higher than that using standard medium containing fetal bovine serum. The obtained Schwann cells were implanted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chi-tosan conduits to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Results showed that axonal diameter and area were signiifcantly increased and motor functions were obviously improved in the rat sciatic nerve tissue. Experimental ifndings suggest that serum-free melanocyte culture medium is conducive to purify Schwann cells and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan nerve conduits combined with Schwann cells contribute to restore sciatic nerve defects.

  14. Gabapentin Treatment for Neuropathic Pain in a Child with Sciatic Nerve Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Halil Ekrem; Gümüş, Haluk; Göksu, Hamit; Odabaşı, Ömer Faruk; Yılmaz, Halim

    2015-01-01

    There are a restricted number of studies about usage of gabapentin for neuropathic pain treatment of pediatric patients. We shared a 12-year-old male case with severe neuropathic pain that hindered the rehabilitation programme for the loss of muscle power and movement limitation. Neuropathic pain developed after peripheral sciatic damage due to firearm traumatisation did not respond to other medical treatments but healed nearly completely after gabapentin usage. PMID:26346828

  15. Regeneration of sciatic nerve in chinchilla posterity whose mothers were irradiated before mating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the sciatic curve regeneration after smooth cutting thereof in 198 young chinchillas whose mothers were subjected to whole-body single irradiation with doses of 0.05, 0.15, 0.5 or 1.5 Gy one week before mating. The statistically important data obtained may be used to estimate the risk from ionizing radiation and ensure the radiation sequrity standards

  16. MicroRNA-338 and microRNA-21 co-transfection for the treatment of rat sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyong; Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Zhang, Ming; Gong, Kai; Huang, Chuyi; Ji, Yuchen; Wei, Yujun; Ao, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to find if co-transfecting microRNA-338 and microRNA-21 into the neurons in the spinal cord can promote functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury in rats. Animals were divided into three groups: 20 animals in the GFP control vector group (group A), 20 animals in the GFP experimental vector group (group B) and ten animals in the normal control group. Right sciatic nerves of animals in groups A and B were transected and were bridged with collagen nerve conduits with 10 mm distance between the stumps. 3 µl GFP control vector or 3 µl lentiviral vectors encoding the sequence of microRNA-338 and microRNA-21 were injected in the conduit. 8 weeks after the surgery, the treatment effect was evaluated by functional analysis, electrophysiological analysis, immunohistochemical analysis as well as transmitting electronic microscope observations in all the rats. Animals treated with microRNA-338 and microRNA-21 showed significantly better recovery than GFP control group animals by means of functional analysis (Sciatic nerve index -47.7 ± 2.5 vs -59.4 ± 3.7), electrophysiological analysis (Conduction velocity 20.5 ± 2.8 vs 10.5 ± 1.4 m/s), ratio of wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscles (0.83 ± 0.03 vs 0.55 ± 0.06), axon diameter (5.0 ± 1.8 µm vs 4.0 ± 2.2), myelin sheath thickness (1.4 ± 0.43 vs 0.80 ± 0.31 µm) and G-ratio (0.80 ± 0.06 vs 0.75 ± 0.04). Lentiviral vectors encoding microRNA 338 and 21 might be explored in the future as potential therapeutic intervention to promote nerve regeneration. PMID:26909749

  17. Bilateral traumatic paralysis of abducent nerves and clivus fracture: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon-Miranda Willen Guillermo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clivus fractures are a rare pathology, frecuently associated tohigh power trauma. Such injuries may be associated with vascular and cranial nerves lesions. The abducens nerve is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injuries due to its long intracranial course, since their real origin until the lateral rectus muscle. The unilateral abducens nerve palsy of 1- 2-7% occurs in patients with cranial trauma, bilateral paralysis is rare. We report a patient who presented bilateral abducens nerve palsy associated with a clivus fracture

  18. Gamma knife irradiation of injured sciatic nerve induces histological and behavioral improvement in the rat neuropathic pain model

    OpenAIRE

    木内(矢ヶ崎), 有希

    2013-01-01

    博士(医学) 乙第2786号, 著者名:Yuki Yagasaki・Motohiro Hayashi・Noriko Tamura・Yoriko Kawakami,タイトル:Gamma knife irradiation of injured sciatic nerve induces histological and behavioral improvement in the rat neuropathic pain model, 掲載誌:PLoS One(1932-6203), 巻・頁・年:8巻4号 p.e61010 (2013),著作権関連情報:© 2013 Yagasaki et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the o...

  19. Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Mathews, K. S.; Normann, R. A.; Fernandez, E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Before peripheral nerve electrodes can be used for the restoration of sensory and motor functions in patients with neurological disorders, the behavioral and histological consequences of these devices must be investigated. These indices of biocompatibility can be defined in terms of desired functional outcomes; for example, a device may be considered for use as a therapeutic intervention if the implanted subject retains functional neurons post-implantation even in the presence of a foreign body response. The consequences of an indwelling device may remain localized to cellular responses at the device-tissue interface, such as fibrotic encapsulation of the device, or they may affect the animal more globally, such as impacting behavioral or sensorimotor functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall consequences of implantation of high-electrode count intrafascicular peripheral nerve arrays, High Density Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (HD-USEAs; 25 electrodes mm-2). Approach. HD-USEAs were implanted in rat sciatic nerves for one and two month periods. We monitored wheel running, noxious sensory paw withdrawal reflexes, footprints, nerve morphology and macrophage presence at the tissue-device interface. In addition, we used a novel approach to contain the arrays in actively behaving animals that consisted of an organic nerve wrap. A total of 500 electrodes were implanted across all ten animals. Main results. The results demonstrated that chronic implantation (⩽8 weeks) of HD-USEAs into peripheral nerves can evoke behavioral deficits that recover over time. Morphology of the nerve distal to the implantation site showed variable signs of nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration. Cytology adjacent to the device-tissue interface also showed a variable response, with some electrodes having many macrophages surrounding the electrodes, while other electrodes had few or no macrophages present. This variability was also seen along the length

  20. MHC-I and PirB Upregulation in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System following Sciatic Nerve Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombeiro, André Luis; Thomé, Rodolfo; Oliveira Nunes, Sérgio Luiz; Monteiro Moreira, Bárbara; Verinaud, Liana; de Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class one (MHC-I) antigen-presenting molecules participate in central nervous system (CNS) synaptic plasticity, as does the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHC-I ligand that can inhibit immune-cells and bind to myelin axon growth inhibitors. Based on the dual roles of both molecules in the immune and nervous systems, we evaluated their expression in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) following sciatic nerve injury in mice. Increased PirB and MHC-I protein and gene expression is present in the spinal cord one week after nerve transection, PirB being mostly expressed in the neuropile region. In the crushed nerve, MHC-I protein levels increased 2 weeks after lesion (wal) and progressively decreased over the next eight weeks. The same kinetics were observed for infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) but not for PirB expression, which continuously increased. Both MHC-I and PirB were found in macrophages and Schwann cells but rarely in axons. Interestingly, at 8 wal, PirB was mainly restricted to the myelin sheath. Our findings reinforce the participation of MHC-I and PirB in CNS plasticity events. In contrast, opposing expression levels of these molecules were found in the PNS, so that MHC-I and PirB seem to be mostly implicated in antigen presentation to CTLs and axon myelination, respectively. PMID:27551751

  1. The Survival Effects of Electeromagnetic Fields on Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons of the Crushed Sciatic Nerve in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nikravesh

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have been shown that electromagnetic fields (EMF result in increasing the rate of nerve regeneration. Therefore it could be assumed following axotomy the signal induction of these fields may protect neural cells from death. For this study 24 male wistar rats (2 month age divided to 4 groups (experimental 1, 2, control and sham. For axotomy, the animals were anesthetized and their right Sciatic Nerve (SN were exposed and crushed in the mid portion of the thigh in experimental and control groups. In the sham group the SN just exposed (no compression. In the next phase experimental groups were exposed to the 50 HZ electeromagnetic field (EMF, 1.1mTl 2-4 hr/day (for 10 days. After 8 weeks, Dorsal Root Ganglions (DRGs in the lumbar segments (L4-L6 of spinal cord were sampled, processed sectioned serially and stained with toluidine blue (pH=4.5. By using stereological quantitative technique (physical disector, the neurons in the crushed side (DRGs were counted and compared in the all of groups. Statistical analyses of results have been shown a remarkable reduction in neuronal density in (DRGs of control. On the other hand we observed a cell death DRG significant among experimental groups (p<0/05. In addition we compared DRG volume in all groups but they didn’t show any significant difference. These findings indicate that the EMF may play a survival role against neuronal death during nerve injuries.

  2. MHC-I and PirB Upregulation in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System following Sciatic Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombeiro, André Luis; Thomé, Rodolfo; Oliveira Nunes, Sérgio Luiz; Monteiro Moreira, Bárbara; Verinaud, Liana; Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class one (MHC-I) antigen-presenting molecules participate in central nervous system (CNS) synaptic plasticity, as does the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHC-I ligand that can inhibit immune-cells and bind to myelin axon growth inhibitors. Based on the dual roles of both molecules in the immune and nervous systems, we evaluated their expression in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) following sciatic nerve injury in mice. Increased PirB and MHC-I protein and gene expression is present in the spinal cord one week after nerve transection, PirB being mostly expressed in the neuropile region. In the crushed nerve, MHC-I protein levels increased 2 weeks after lesion (wal) and progressively decreased over the next eight weeks. The same kinetics were observed for infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) but not for PirB expression, which continuously increased. Both MHC-I and PirB were found in macrophages and Schwann cells but rarely in axons. Interestingly, at 8 wal, PirB was mainly restricted to the myelin sheath. Our findings reinforce the participation of MHC-I and PirB in CNS plasticity events. In contrast, opposing expression levels of these molecules were found in the PNS, so that MHC-I and PirB seem to be mostly implicated in antigen presentation to CTLs and axon myelination, respectively. PMID:27551751

  3. Spatiotemporal characteristics of cerebral blood volume changes in different microvascular compartments evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Luo, Weihua; Chen, Shanbin; Cheng, Haiying; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2003-07-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of changes in cerebral blood volume associated with neuronal activity were investigated in the hindlimb somatosensory cortex of α-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats (n=10) with optical imaging at 570nm through a thinned skull. Activation of cortex was carried out by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve with 5Hz, 0.3V pulses (0.5ms) for duration of 2s. The stimulation evoked a monophasic optical reflectance decrease at cortical parenchyma and arteries sites rapidly after the onset of stimulation, whereas no similar response was observed at vein compartments. The optical signal changes reached 10% of the peak response 0.70+/-0.32s after stimulation onset and no significant time lag in this 10% start latency time was observed between the response at cortical parenchyma and arteries compartments. The evoked optical reflectance decrease reached the peak (0.25%+/-0.047%) 2.66+/-0.61s after the stimulus onset at parenchyma site, 0.40+/-0.20s earlier (P<0.05) than that at arteries site (0.50+/-0.068% 3.06+/-0.70s). Variable location within the cortical parenchyma and arteries compartment themselves didn"t affect the temporal characteristics of the evoked signal significantly. These results suggest that the sciatic nerve stimulation evokes a local blood volume increase at both capillaries (cortical parenchyma) and arterioles rapidly after the stimulus onset but the evoked blood volume increase in capillaries could not be entirely accounted for by the dilation of arterioles.

  4. Injury-Dependent and Disability-Specific Lumbar Spinal Gene Regulation following Sciatic Nerve Injury in the Rat.

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    Paul J Austin

    Full Text Available Allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain are cardinal sensory signs of neuropathic pain. Clinically, many neuropathic pain patients experience affective-motivational state changes, including reduced familial and social interactions, decreased motivation, anhedonia and depression which are severely debilitating. In earlier studies we have shown that sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI disrupts social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle and endocrine function in one third of rats, a subgroup reliably identified six days after injury. CCI consistently produces allodynia and hyperalgesia, the intensity of which was unrelated either to the altered social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle or endocrine changes. This decoupling of the sensory consequences of nerve injury from the affective-motivational changes is reported in both animal experiments and human clinical data. The sensory changes triggered by CCI are mediated primarily by functional changes in the lumbar dorsal horn, however, whether lumbar spinal changes may drive different affective-motivational states has never been considered. In these studies, we used microarrays to identify the unique transcriptomes of rats with altered social behaviours following sciatic CCI to determine whether specific patterns of lumbar spinal adaptations characterised this subgroup. Rats underwent CCI and on the basis of reductions in dominance behaviour in resident-intruder social interactions were categorised as having Pain & Disability, Pain & Transient Disability or Pain alone. We examined the lumbar spinal transcriptomes two and six days after CCI. Fifty-four 'disability-specific' genes were identified. Sixty-five percent were unique to Pain & Disability rats, two-thirds of which were associated with neurotransmission, inflammation and/or cellular stress. In contrast, 40% of genes differentially regulated in rats without disabilities were involved with more general homeostatic processes (cellular

  5. Injury-Dependent and Disability-Specific Lumbar Spinal Gene Regulation following Sciatic Nerve Injury in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Paul J; Bembrick, Alison L; Denyer, Gareth S; Keay, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    Allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain are cardinal sensory signs of neuropathic pain. Clinically, many neuropathic pain patients experience affective-motivational state changes, including reduced familial and social interactions, decreased motivation, anhedonia and depression which are severely debilitating. In earlier studies we have shown that sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) disrupts social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle and endocrine function in one third of rats, a subgroup reliably identified six days after injury. CCI consistently produces allodynia and hyperalgesia, the intensity of which was unrelated either to the altered social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle or endocrine changes. This decoupling of the sensory consequences of nerve injury from the affective-motivational changes is reported in both animal experiments and human clinical data. The sensory changes triggered by CCI are mediated primarily by functional changes in the lumbar dorsal horn, however, whether lumbar spinal changes may drive different affective-motivational states has never been considered. In these studies, we used microarrays to identify the unique transcriptomes of rats with altered social behaviours following sciatic CCI to determine whether specific patterns of lumbar spinal adaptations characterised this subgroup. Rats underwent CCI and on the basis of reductions in dominance behaviour in resident-intruder social interactions were categorised as having Pain & Disability, Pain & Transient Disability or Pain alone. We examined the lumbar spinal transcriptomes two and six days after CCI. Fifty-four 'disability-specific' genes were identified. Sixty-five percent were unique to Pain & Disability rats, two-thirds of which were associated with neurotransmission, inflammation and/or cellular stress. In contrast, 40% of genes differentially regulated in rats without disabilities were involved with more general homeostatic processes (cellular structure

  6. Long-term functional and morphological assessment of a standardized rat sciatic nerve crush injury with a non-serrated clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, A L; Amado, S; Geuna, S; Rodrigues, J M; Simões, M J; Santos, J D; Fregnan, F; Raimondo, S; Veloso, A Prieto; Ferreira, A J A; Armada-da-Silva, P A S; Varejão, A S P; Maurício, A C

    2007-06-15

    We have recently described the sequence of functional and morphologic changes occurring after a standardized sciatic nerve crush injury. An 8-week post-injury time was used because this end point is the far most used. Unexpectedly, both functional and morphological data revealed that animals had still not recovered to normal pre-injury levels. Therefore, the present study was designed in order to prolong the observation up to 12 weeks. Functional recovery was evaluated using sciatic functional index (SFI), static sciatic index (SSI), extensor postural thrust (EPT), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL) and ankle kinematics. In addition, quantitative morphology was carried out on regenerated nerve fibers. A full functional recovery was predicted by SFI/SSI, EPT and WRL but not all ankle kinematics parameters. Moreover, only two morphological parameters (myelin thickness/axon diameter ratio and fiber/axon diameter ratio) returned to normal values. Data presented in this paper provide a baseline for selecting the adequate end-point and methods of recovery assessment for a rat sciatic nerve crush study and suggest that the combined use of functional and morphological analysis should be recommended in this experimental model. PMID:17397932

  7. Up-regulated uridine kinase gene identified by RLCS in the ventral horn after crush injury to rat sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuh, I; Yaoi, T; Watanabe, S; Okajima, S; Hirasawa, Y; Fushiki, S

    1999-12-01

    Rat sciatic nerve crush injury is one of the models commonly employed for studying the mechanisms of nerve regeneration. In this study, we analyzed the temporal change of gene expression after injury in this model, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in nerve regeneration. First, a cDNA analysis method, Restriction Landmark cDNA Scanning (RLCS), was applied to cells in the ventral horn of the spinal cord during a 7-day period after the crush injury. A total of 1991 cDNA species were detected as spots on gels, and 37 of these were shown to change after the injury. Temporally changed patterns were classified into three categories: the continuously up-regulated type (10 species), the transiently up-regulated type (22 species), and the down-regulated type (5 species). These complex patterns of gene expression demonstrated after the injury suggest that precise regulation in molecular pathways is required for accomplishing nerve regeneration. Secondly, the rat homologue of uridine kinase gene was identified as one of the up-regulated genes. Northern blot analysis on rat ventral horn tissue and brain revealed that the UK gene had three transcripts with different sizes (4.3, 1. 4, and 1.35 kb, respectively). All of the transcripts, especially the 4.3 kb one, were up-regulated mainly in a bimodal fashion during the 28-day period after the injury. The RLCS method that we employed in the present study shows promise as a means to fully analyze molecular changes in nerve regeneration in detail. PMID:10581173

  8. Expression of ceramide galactosy transferase in sciatic nerve of rats with diabetic peripheral neuropathy after electroacupuncture at Zusanli and Shenshu points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongsheng Dong; Yunyun Zhang; Yin Shi; Min Zheng; Qiujuan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ceramide galactosyltransferase (GGT) protein and mRNA expression defect can cause the abnormal morphology and slowing conduction velocity of peripheral nerve. Morphologic change and functional disorder of myelin sheath and axon appear when diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) occurs. Whether electroacupuncture at Zusanli(ST 36) and Shenshu(BL 32) points can enhance the expression of CGT protein and mRNA in the DPN tissue?OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture at Zusanli and Shenshu points on motor, sensory conduction velocity and CGT mRNA and its protein expression of sciatic nerve in rats with DPN.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology and Central Laboratory, Yueyang Hospital of Traditional Chinese & Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS : Totally 60 healthy male Wistar rats of clean grade, aged 4 month, with body mass of 200 to 220 g, were enrolled in this study. Streptozotocin (STZ, Sigma Company of USA, Batch No. S-0130).METHODS: This study was carried out in the Animal Experimental Center and Central Laboratory, YueyangHospital of Traditional Chinese & Western Medicine during February 2005 to March 2006. ① Fifteen rats were randomly chosen,serving as normal group.All the other rets were intraperitoneally injected once with STZ to develop experimental diabetic rat models. If fasting blood glucose was ≥ 15 mmol/L,sensory nerve and motor nerve conduction velocity of sciatic nerve was obviously slowed, tail-swaying temperature threshold was increased and myelinated nerve fiber of sciatic nerve changed, DPN models were successful. The successful model rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups: model group, control group(electroacupuncture at non-meridian-non-acupoint)and electroacupuncture group [electroacupuncture at Zusanli and Shenshu points], with 15 rats each. The rats in the normal group and model group were untouched. In the

  9. A new, lateral, continuous, combined, femoral–sciatic nerve approach via a single skin puncture for postoperative analgesia in intramedullary tibial nail insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbelloni LE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni,1,2 Carlos Rava,1,3 Marildo A Gouveia21Faculdade de Medicina Nova Esperança, 2Institute for Regional Anesthesia, 3Complexo Hospitalar de Mangabeira Governador Tarcisio Burity, João Pessoa, BrazilBackground: The prevalence of anterior knee pain following intramedullary tibial nail insertion is high. Continuous peripheral nerve blockade is an alternative method of pain control to opiods. This case illustrates the use of femoral nerve and sciatic nerve peripheral catheters with an elastomeric infusion pump for major intramedullary nailing surgery.Case report: A 36-year-old male with fractures to the left leg bones presented for placement of an intramedullary nail under spinal anesthesia. At the end of the procedure, access to the lateral femoral and sciatic continuous nerve block was achieved by using a stimulator connected to a 110 mm 18G Tuohy needle. Postoperative analgesia was provided with a 40-hour infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine (400 mL at a rate of 10 mL hour-1 with an elastomeric pump. Anesthetic dispersion and contrast were investigated. The analog scale remained with scores below 3 during the 40 hours after surgery, and boluses were not necessary.Conclusion: The use of a femoral and sciatic nerve peripheral catheter offered an alternative to conventional pain control. Continuous femoral–sciatic peripheral blockade via a skin puncture with an infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine with elastomeric pumps is a safe and effective procedure in adults.Keywords: local anesthetic, bupivacaine, continuous peripheral nerve block, orthopedic surgery, tibia, elastomeric pump

  10. The morphological and functional effects of exercise in the aquatic environment, performed before and/or after sciatic nerve compression in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Lucinéia; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise in the aquatic environment, performed before and/or after sciatic nerve compression in Wistar rats on morphological and functional parameters. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), lesion (L), trained+lesion (TL), lesion+exercise (LE), and training+lesion+exercise (TLE), who underwent right sciatic nerve compression on day 21 of the experiment. The TL and TLE groups were submitted to a jumping exercise in a water environment for 20 days prior to injury and the LE and TLE groups after injury. The functional analysis was carried out using the sciatic functional index (SFI). On the last day of the experiment, the right sciatic nerves were collected, processed and analysed according to morphology and morphometry. The C group showed higher SFI in relation to the other groups. In the morphometric analysis, in comparison to C, all groups showed a decrease in the diameter of the injured nerve fibre, the myelin sheath and an increase in the percentage of connective tissue. There was a decrease in axon diameter in L, TL, and LE groups and a decrease in the density of nerve fibres in the TL and LE groups. The exercise did not affect functional recovery. However, the exercise prior to the injury improved morphology of the nervous tissue, and when performed pre- and postinjury, there was also an improvement in nerve regeneration, but this was not the case with exercise performed after the injury demonstrating worse results. PMID:27807516

  11. Bilateral Cranial IX and X Nerve Palsies After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Seung Ah; Joo, Hye In; Yeo, Jin Ah; Chung, Sung Joon

    2016-01-01

    We report a 57-year-old man with bilateral cranial nerve IX and X palsies who presented with severe dysphagia. After a mild head injury, the patient complained of difficult swallowing. Physical examination revealed normal tongue motion and no uvular deviation. Cervical X-ray findings were negative, but a brain computed tomography revealed a skull fracture involving bilateral jugular foramen. Laryngoscopy indicated bilateral vocal cord palsy. In a videofluoroscopic swallowing study, food resid...

  12. A novel artificial nerve graft for repairing long-distance sciatic nerve defects: a self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xianghai; Pan, Mengjie; Wen, Jinkun; Tang, Yinjuan; Hamilton, Audra D.; Li, Yuanyuan; Qian, Changhui; Liu, Zhongying; Wu, Wutian; Guo, Jiasong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel artificial nerve graft termed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS)-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduit (SPC) and used it to bridge a 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in the rat. Retrograde tracing, behavioral testing and histomorphometric analyses showed that compared with the empty PLGA conduit implantation group, the SPC implantation group had a larger number of growing and extending axons, a markedly increased diameter of...

  13. Estimation of the neuromotor system functional state after sciatic nerve neurorrhaphy in experimental conditions of intravenous laser irradiation of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechipurenko, N. I.; Tanin, Leonid V.; Antonov, Ignatii P.; Vasilevskaya, Lyudmila A.; Vlasyuk, P. A.

    1996-12-01

    The speckle-optical methods and the methods of electroneuromyography were used to study the myotonus, the contractional activity of leg muscles and the neuromotor system functional state in intact rabbits and 3 months after the sciatic nerve (SN) neurorrhaphy in conditions of intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB). The blood of animals was exposed to laser radiation with the help of a quartz-polymeric light guide, which has been inserted into the earvein the next day after SN stitching. The radiation power at the light guide output was 2-2.5 mW. Two courses of treatment with a two-week interval have been conducted. It has been established from the speckle-optical study data that ILIB increases the contractional activity of skeletal muscles in animals. The ILIB-therapy after the SN neurorrhaphy normalizes the latent period of M-response and neural cation potential. A tendancy has been revealed to an increase in impulse conduction velocity in motor nerve fibers and in maximal amplitude of the neural action potential. Thus, the ILIB-therapy after SN trauma improves the neuromotor system functional state in experimental animals in the early reinnervation period.

  14. Pharmacological switch in Aβ-fiber stimulation-induced spinal transmission in mice with partial sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Lin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that different spinal transmissions are involved in the nociceptive behavior caused by electrical stimulation of Aβ-, Aδ- or C-fibers using a Neurometer® in naïve mice. In this study, we attempted to pharmacologically characterize the alteration in spinal transmission induced by partial sciatic nerve injury in terms of nociceptive behavior and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK in the spinal dorsal horn. Results Aβ-fiber responses (2000-Hz, which were selectively blocked by the AMPA/kainate antagonist CNQX in naïve mice, were hypersensitized but blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 and AP-5 in injured mice in an electrical stimulation-induced paw withdrawal (EPW test. Although Aδ-fiber responses (250-Hz were also hypersensitized by nerve injury, there was no change in the pharmacological characteristics of Aδ-fiber responses through NMDA receptors. On the contrary, C-fiber responses (5-Hz were hyposensitized by nerve injury. Moreover, Aδ- and C-, but not Aβ-fiber stimulations significantly increased the number of pERK-positive neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horns of naïve mice, and corresponding antagonists used in the EPW test inhibited this increase. In mice with nerve injury, Aβ- as well as Aδ-fiber stimulations significantly increased the number of pERK-positive neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, whereas C-fiber stimulation decreased this number. The nerve injury-specific pERK increase induced by Aβ-stimulation was inhibited by MK-801 and AP-5, but not by CNQX. However, Aβ- and Aδ-stimulations did not affect the number or size of pERK-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion, whereas C-fiber-stimulation selectively decreased the number of pERK-positive neurons. Conclusion These results suggest that Aβ-fiber perception is newly transmitted to spinal neurons, which originally receive only Aδ- and C

  15. Persistent bilateral function after unilateral facial nerve transection

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    A Sehgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To indicate that occasionally the contralateral facial nerve provides redundant innervation to the hemi-face. Single case report. We report the case of a patient whose facial nerve was transected during removal of a 3 cm vestibular schwannoma. Postoperatively, this patient still demonstrated spontaneous mimetic motion on the side of the face ipsilateral to the transsection. Review of the literature finds rare instances of preserved function after nerve transection in the removal of large parotid masses. We speculate that the slow loss of ipsilateral function can at times contribute to innervation from the contralateral facial nerve.

  16. Internal-specific morphological analysis of sciatic nerve fibers in a radiofrequency-induced animal neuropathic pain model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samjin Choi

    Full Text Available This study investigated the reversible effects of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF treatment at 42 °C on the ultrastructural and biological changes in nerve and collagen fibers in the progression of neuropathic pain after rat sciatic nerve injury. Assessments of morphological changes in the extracellular matrices by atomic force microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome and picrosirius-red staining as well as the expressions of two fibril-forming collagens, types-I and -III, and two inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were evaluated on day 30 after RF exposure. There were four groups for different RF thermal treatments: no treatment, no current, PRF, and continuous RF (CRF. An RF procedure similar to that used in human clinical trials was used in this study. The CRF treatment at 82 °C led to neural and collagen damage by the permanent blockage of sensory nociceptors. The PRF treatment led to excellent performance and high expandability compared to CRF, with effects including slight damage and swelling of myelinated axons, a slightly decreased amount of collagen fibers, swelling of collagen fibril diameters, decreased immunoreactivity of collagen types-I and -III, presence of newly synthesized collagen, and recovery of inflammatory protein immunoreactivity. These evidence-based findings suggest that PRF-based pain relief is responsible for the temporary blockage of nerve signals as well as the preferential destruction of pain-related principal sensory fibers like the Aδ and C fibers. This suggestion can be supported by the interaction between the PRF-induced electromagnetic field and cell membranes; therefore, PRF treatment provides pain relief while allowing retention of some tactile sensation.

  17. Ameliorative potential of Butea monosperma on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    Venkata R.K. Thiagarajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative role of ethanolic extract from leaves of Butea monosperma in chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal hyperalgesia, cold chemical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia & allodynia in the left hind paw and tail thermal hyperalgesia. Further on, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the biochemical changes in the sciatic nerve tissue. Histopathological changes were also observed in the sciatic nerve tissue. Ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma leaves and pregabalin (serving as positive control were administered for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. CCI resulted in significant changes in behavioural and biochemical parameters. Pretreatment of Butea monosperma attenuated CCI induced development of behavioural, biochemical and histopathological alterations in a dose dependent manner, which is comparable to that of pregabalin pretreated group. These findings may be attributed to its potential anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and calcium channel modulatory actions of Butea monosperma.O presente trabalho visou investigar o papel do extrato etanólico de folhas de Butea monosperma no alívio da dor neuropática pela injúria de constrição crônica (CCI do nervo ciático induzida em ratos. Placa quente, gota de acetona, pressão na pata, testes de imersão de pelo e cauda de Von Frey foram utilizados para acessar o grau de hiperalgesia térmica, alodinia química fria, hiperalgesia mecânica e alodinia na pata trazeira esquerda e hiperalgesia térmica da cauda. Além disso, substâncias reativas com ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, glutatião reduzido (GSH e níveis de cálcio total foram estimados para acessar as altera

  18. Hypoxia-Induced Upregulation of miR-132 Promotes Schwann Cell Migration After Sciatic Nerve Injury by Targeting PRKAG3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chun; Shi, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Zhanhu; Zhou, Songlin; Qian, Tianmei; Wang, Yaxian; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong; Yu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury, hypoxia is formed as a result of defects in blood supply at the injury site. Despite accumulating evidence on the effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on phenotype modulation of Schwann cells (SCs) after peripheral nerve injury, the impact of hypoxia on SC behaviors through miRNAs during peripheral nerve regeneration has not been estimated. In this study, we confirmed our previous microarray data on the upregulation of miR-132 after sciatic nerve injury in rats and observed that overexpression of miR-132 significantly promoted cell migration of primary cultured SCs. Interestingly, hypoxia-increased expression of miR-132 also enhanced SC migration while inhibition of miR-132 suppressed hypoxia-induced increase in SC migration. miR-132 downregulated PRKAG3 through binding to its 3'-UTR, and PRKAG3 knockdown compromised the reducing effect of miR-132 inhibition on SC migration under normal or hypoxia condition. Moreover, in vivo injection of miR-132 agomir into rats with sciatic nerve transection accelerated SC migration from the proximal to distal stump. Overall, our results suggest that the hypoxia-induced upregulation of miR-132 could promote SC migration and facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration.

  19. The Effect of Co-administration of 4-Methylcatechol and Progesterone on Sciatic Nerve Function and Neurohistological Alterations in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathy in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Panahi; Hamidreza Sameni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus affecting the nervous system. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of combined administration of 4-methylcatechol (4-MC) and progesterone (P) as a potential therapeutic tool for sciatic nerve function improvement and its role in histomorphological alterations in diabetic neuropathy in rats. Materials and Methods: Male adult rats were divided into 3 groups: sham operated control (CO), untreated di...

  20. Histologic and Histomorphometric Study on the Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Aloe Vera Extract on Tissue Formation of Sciatic Nerve in Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Ghaffari; Soghra Gholami; Majid Naghdi; Malihe Alipoor Tabrizi

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, which leads to the dysfunction of the central and peripheral nervous system. Reports suggest that Aloe Vera has anti-diabetic effects. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Aloe Vera on Sciatic nerve of the diabetic rats.Materials & Methods: 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 gram were randomly divided int...

  1. Post Traumatic Delayed Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy (FNP): Diagnostic Dilemma of Expressionless Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2015-04-01

    Bilateral facial nerve palsy [FNP] is a rare condition. Mostly it is idiopathic. Post traumatic bilateral FNP is even more rare and having unique neurosurgical considerations. Post traumatic delayed presentation of bilateral FNP is socially debilitating and also having diagnostic challenge. Due to lack of facial asymmetry as present in unilateral facial paralysis, it is difficult to recognize. We are presenting a case of delayed onset bilateral FNP who developed FNP after 12 days of head injury with a brief discussion of its diagnostic dilemma and management along with literature review.

  2. Minimum effective local anesthetic volume for surgical anesthesia by subparaneural, ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block: A prospective dose-finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Seung Uk; Kim, Dong Ju; Bae, Jin Ho; Chung, Kyudon; Kim, Yeesuk

    2016-08-01

    Because of its rapid onset time, recent years have seen an increase in the use of ultrasound (US)-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block (PSNB) via subparaneural injection for induction of surgical anesthesia. Moreover, in below-knee surgery, combined blocks, as opposed to sciatic nerve block alone, have become more common. These combined blocks often require a large volume of local anesthetic (LA), thus increasing the risk of local-anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Thus, to decrease the risk of LAST, it is important to know the minimum effective volume (MEV) required for an adequate block. We, therefore, aimed to determine the MEV of ropivacaine 0.75% for induction of surgical anesthesia by the method of US-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block via subparaneural injection.Thirty patients underwent a US-guided PSNB with ropivacaine 0.75% at a 20-mL starting volume. Using a step-up/step-down method, we determined injection volumes for consecutive patients from the preceding patient's outcome. When an effective block was achieved within 40 minutes after injection, the next patient's volume was decreased by 2 mL. If the block failed, the next patient's volume was increased by 2 mL. The sensory and motor blockade was graded according to a 4-point scale. The block was considered a success if a combination of anesthesia and paresis (a score of 3 for both the sensory and motor nerves) was achieved within 40 minutes. The primary outcome measure was the MEV resulting in a successful subparaneural block of the sciatic nerve in 50% of patients (MEV50). Additionally, the data were processed with a probit regression analysis to determine the volume required to produce a complete sciatic nerve block in 90% of subjects (ED90).The MEV50 of 0.75% ropivacaine is 6.14 mL (95% confidence interval, 4.33-7.94 mL). The ED90 by probit analysis for a subparaneural injection was 8.9 mL (95% CI, 7.09-21.75 mL).The 6.14-mL MEV50 of ropivacaine 0.75% represents a 71% reduction

  3. Bilateral compared with unilateral sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund-Jakobsen, J; Buntzen, S; Lundby, L;

    2015-01-01

    % improvement were eligible. Twenty-seven patients who accepted to enter the trial were bilaterally implanted with two permanent leads and pacemakers. Patients were randomized into three periods of four weeks stimulation including unilateral right, unilateral left and bilateral. Symptoms scores and bowel habit...... incontinence is not superior to standard unilateral stimulation in the short term. Equal functional results can be obtained regardless the side of implantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Medeiros Venancio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP. EOOb and (−-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38±0.2 and 0.17±0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−-LIN, these values were 0.23±0.0 and 0.13±0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−-LIN in the essential oil.

  5. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (−)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−)-LIN in the essential oil. PMID:27446227

  6. Respective pharmacological features of neuropathic-like pain evoked by intrathecal BDNF versus sciatic nerve ligation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Dahoma, Saïd; Barthélemy, Sandrine; Tromilin, Claire; Jeanson, Tiffany; Viguier, Florent; Michot, Benoit; Pezet, Sophie; Hamon, Michel; Bourgoin, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    Numerous reported data support the idea that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is critically involved in both depression and comorbid pain. The possible direct effect of BDNF on pain mechanisms was assessed here and compared with behavioral/neurobiological features of neuropathic pain caused by chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI-SN). Sprague-Dawley male rats were either injected intrathecally with BDNF (3.0 ng i.t.) or subjected to unilateral CCI-SN. Their respective responses to anti-hyperalgesic drugs were assessed using the Randall-Selitto test and both immunohistochemical and RT-qPCR approaches were used to investigate molecular/cellular mechanisms underlying hyperalgesia in both models. Long lasting hyperalgesia and allodynia were induced by i.t. BDNF in intact healthy rats like those found after CCI-SN. Acute treatment with the BDNF-TrkB receptor antagonist cyclotraxin B completely prevented i.t. BDNF-induced hyperalgesia and partially reversed this symptom in both BDNF-pretreated and CCI-SN lesioned rats. Acute administration of the anticonvulsant pregabalin, the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine, the opioid analgesics morphine and tapentadol or the antidepressant agomelatine also transiently reversed hyperalgesia in both i.t. BDNF injected- and CCI-SN lesioned-rats. Marked induction of microglia activation markers (OX42, Iba1, P-p38), proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, NMDA receptor subunit NR2B and BDNF was found in spinal cord and/or dorsal root ganglia of CCI-SN rats. A long lasting spinal BDNF overexpression was also observed in BDNF i.t. rats, indicating an autocrine self-induction, with downstream long lasting TrkB-mediated neuropathic-like pain. Accordingly, TrkB blockade appeared as a relevant approach to alleviate not only i.t. BDNF- but also nerve lesion-evoked neuropathic pain. PMID:26343858

  7. Functional and Physical Outcomes following Use of a Flexible CO2 Laser Fiber and Bipolar Electrocautery in Close Proximity to the Rat Sciatic Nerve with Correlation to an In Vitro Thermal Profile Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, A. M.; Fishman, A. J.; Bendok, B. R.; C.-P. Richter

    2015-01-01

    This study compared functional and physical collateral damage to a nerve when operating a Codman MALIS Bipolar Electrosurgical System CMC-III or a CO2 laser coupled to a laser, with correlation to an in vitro model of heating profiles created by the devices in thermochromic ink agarose. Functional damage of the rat sciatic nerve after operating the MALIS or CO2 laser at various power settings and proximities to the nerve was measured by electrically evoked nerve action potentials, and histolo...

  8. RGD Gifted PDLLA-PRGD Conduits Promotes the Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiaoqing; QIU Tong; XIE Lijuan; YIN Yixia; LI Binbin; YAN Qiongjiao; DAI Honglian; WANG Xinyu; LI Shipu

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells play a key role in peripheral nerve growth and regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of RGD peptides on Schwann cell behavior, and to identify the effects of the modified PDLLA films with RGD in vivo. The results revealed that RGD coating with the concentration of 100-500 ug/mL promoted the cell proliferation and boosted the cell migration. Molecularly, RGD coating also enhanced the expression of the proliferation related genes (c-fos and c-jun) and the cell behavior related genes (actin, tublin, tau and MAP1) at first stages of the seeding, which is similar to the effects from laminin coating. In vivo, RGD addition improved the recovery efficiency of the transected nerve in regard of the more survived Schwann cells in vivo and the formation of more mature myelin sheath. Taken together, RGD peptides are good candidates to enhance the biocompatibility of the biomaterials and facilitate the peripheral nerve regeneration by prompting responses in Schwann cells.

  9. Rare Presentation of Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Zygomycosis: Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohebbi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis afflicts primarily diabetics and immunocompromised individual, but can also occur in normal hosts rarely. We here presented an interesting case of facial nerve palsy and multiple cold abscesses of neck due to rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis in an otherwise healthy man. Although some reports of facial nerve paralysis in conjunction with rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis exist, no case of bilateral complete facial paralysis has been reported in the literature to date.

  10. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI, decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb. The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis.

  11. Our anesthesia experiences with geriatric patients at high risk group undergoing hip surgery under combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım Tuzcu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effect of psoas compartment and sciatic nerve block combination on hemodynamic parameters in high risk geriatric patients with hip fracture surgeries was evaluated. Methods. In this study, high risk old patients who underwent psoas compartment block and sciatic nerve block for hip surgery anesthesia were evaluated retrospectively. In Group 1 there were 14 patients with levobupivacaine and lidocaine combination and in Group 2 there were 10 patients with levobupivacaine and prilocaine combination. In our study we evaluated the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure levels and sedation need between groups, between age over and below 85 years and in all patients. Results. There were no statistically significant difference in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure levels between groups and age groups (p˃0.05. There were a 6.18% and 16.52% decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in Group 1 and 2 respectively. When we evaluated the whole patients there was a 10.06% decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. Conclusion. We consider that the combination of psoas and sciatic block as an anesthetic method may be a proper option especially in the elderly and high-risk patients who were underwent the hip surgery.

  12. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Han-yu Dong; Xin-mei Jiang; Chun-bo Niu; Lin Du; Jun-yan Feng; Fei-yong Jia

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve...

  13. A novel artiifcial nerve graft for repairing long-distance sciatic nerve defects:a self-assembling peptide nanoifber scaffold-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghai Wang; Jiasong Guo; Mengjie Pan; Jinkun Wen; Yinjuan Tang; Audra D Hamilton; Yuanyuan Li; Changhui Qian; Zhongying Liu; Wutian Wu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel artiifcial nerve graft termed self-assembling peptide nanoifber scaffold (SAPNS)-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduit (SPC) and used it to bridge a 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in the rat. Retrograde tracing, behavioral testing and histomorphometric analyses showed that compared with the empty PLGA conduit implanta-tion group, the SPC implantation group had a larger number of growing and extending axons, a markedly increased diameter of regenerated axons and a greater thickness of the myelin sheath in the conduit. Furthermore, there was an increase in the size of the neuromuscular junction and myoifber diameter in the target muscle. These ifndings suggest that the novel artiifcial SPC nerve graft can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination in the transected peripheral nerve and can be used for repairing peripheral nerve injury.

  14. A novel artificial nerve graft for repairing long-distance sciatic nerve defects: a self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianghai; Pan, Mengjie; Wen, Jinkun; Tang, Yinjuan; Hamilton, Audra D; Li, Yuanyuan; Qian, Changhui; Liu, Zhongying; Wu, Wutian; Guo, Jiasong

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we developed a novel artificial nerve graft termed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS)-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduit (SPC) and used it to bridge a 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in the rat. Retrograde tracing, behavioral testing and histomorphometric analyses showed that compared with the empty PLGA conduit implantation group, the SPC implantation group had a larger number of growing and extending axons, a markedly increased diameter of regenerated axons and a greater thickness of the myelin sheath in the conduit. Furthermore, there was an increase in the size of the neuromuscular junction and myofiber diameter in the target muscle. These findings suggest that the novel artificial SPC nerve graft can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination in the transected peripheral nerve and can be used for repairing peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25657734

  15. Bilateral optic nerve edema presenting as initial manifestation of thyroid eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michelle E; Kim, Charles; Carrasco, Jacqueline

    2016-10-01

    A 48-year-old smoker with a history of hyperthyroidism treated 10 years prior to presentation with radioactive iodine ablation of the thyroid gland presented to his ophthalmologist with a 2-week history of transient loss of vision in the right eye occurring for 1 to 2 hours each morning. He denied ocular pain, diplopia or change in the prominence of one or both eyes. Examination revealed 2 mm of relative proptosis on the right, bilateral temporal flare and lower lid retraction. There was minimal upper lid retraction and no evidence of lid lag. Ocular motility was full. Dilated fundoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic nerve edema, right more than left. CT of the orbit demonstrated enlargement of the extraocular muscles bilaterally with marked enlargement of the right medial rectus and left inferior rectus muscles resulting in crowding at the orbital apex bilaterally. Laboratory testing revealed the patient to be hyperthyroid. The patient was treated with high dose oral steroids followed by orbital radiation. Hyperthyroidism was managed by the patient's primary care physician. Visual symptoms rapidly improved with oral steroids and orbital radiation. Optic nerve edema completely resolved. Repeat CT imaging demonstrated a reduction in the enlargement of the extraocular muscles with relief of bilateral optic nerve compression.

  16. Chitosan/silk fibroin-based, Schwann cell-derived extracellular matrix-modified scaffolds for bridging rat sciatic nerve gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yun; Zhu, Jianbin; Xue, Chengbin; Li, Zhenmeiyu; Ding, Fei; Yang, Yumin; Gu, Xiaosong

    2014-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a prominent role in establishing and maintaining an ideal microenvironment for tissue regeneration, and ECM scaffolds are used as a feasible alternative to cellular and molecular therapy in the fields of tissue engineering. Because of their advantages over tissue-derived ECM scaffolds, cultured cell-derived ECM scaffolds are beginning to attract attention, but they have been scarcely studied for peripheral nerve repair. Here we aimed to develop a tissue engineered nerve scaffold by reconstituting nerve cell-derived ECM with natural biomaterials. A protocol was adopted to prepare and characterize the cultured Schwann cell (SC)-derived ECM. A chitosan conduit and silk fibroin (SF) fibers were prepared, cultured with SCs for ECM deposition, and subjected to decellularization, followed by assembly into a chitosan/SF-based, SC-derived ECM-modified scaffold, which was used to bridge a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve gap. The results from morphological analysis as well as electrophysiological examination indicated that regenerative outcomes achieved by our developed scaffold were similar to those by an acellular nerve graft (namely a nerve tissue-derived ECM scaffold), but superior to those by a plain chitosan/SF scaffold. Moreover, blood and histopathological parameters confirmed the safety of scaffold modification by SC-derived ECM. Therefore, a hybrid scaffold based on joint use of acellular and classical biomaterials represents a promising approach to nerve tissue engineering. PMID:24360577

  17. Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after transplanting microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbits into injured spinal cord of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression reflect function of nerve cells; meanwhile, they play a significant role in researching interventions on plerosis of nerve injury.OBJECTIVE: To observe and compare the effects on changes of BDNF expression in rats with spinal cord injury between microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbits and only transplanting sciatic nerve cells of rabbits.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Medical School of Jiujiang College.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Medical Science Researching Center, Jiujiang College from May 2004 to May 2006. A total of 90 healthy adult SD rats, weighing 250 - 300 g, of either gender; and 10 rabbits, weighing 2.0 - 2.5 kg, of either gender, were provided by Jiangxi Experimental Animal Center.METHODS: Sciatic nerve tissue of rabbits was separated to make cell suspension. After centrifugation,suspension was mixed with 15 g/L alginate saline solution and ejaculated to 20 mmol/L barium chloride saline solution by double-cavity ejaculator. The obtained cell microcapsules were suspended in saline. Rats were randomly divided into microencapsulated group, only suspension group, and only injured group with 30 animals in each group. After anesthesia, T10 spinous process and vertebra lamina of rats in the former two groups were exposed. Spinal cord tissue in 2-mm length was removed from rats by spinal cord right hemi-section. The gelatin sponges with the size of 2 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm were grafted as filing cage,and absorbed 10 μμ L microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbit in the microencapsulated group and 10 μ L sciatic nerve cells of rabbits in the only suspension group; respectively. No graft was placed in the only injured group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: On the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days after operation,immunohistochemistry (SABC technique) was used to detect distribution and amount of positive-reactive neurons in BDNF of spinal cord

  18. Localization and expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in postmortem sciatic nerve from patients with motor neuron disease and diabetic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.A. [Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States); Gross, L.; Wittrock, D.A.; Windebank, A.J. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the mature motor system. The factor is found most abundantly in myelinating Schwann cells in the adult sciatic nerve. Lack of neuronal growth factors has been proposed as one possible etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Growth factor replacement therapies are currently being evaluated as a treatment for motor neuron disease. In this report we determined whether the expression of CNTF in sciatic nerve differed in patients with motor neuron disease compared to controls or patients with another form of axonopathy. We identified 8 patients (7 with ALS and 1 with SMA) with motor neuron disease and 6 patients with diabetic motor neuropathy who had autopsy material available. Immunoperoxidase staining showed reduced CNTF expression in nerves of patients with motor neuron disease but not in patients with diabetic motor neuropathy. Decreased CNTF appears be associated with primary motor neuron disease rather than a generalized process of axon loss. This result supports suggestions that CNTF deficiency may be an important factor in the development of motor neuron disease. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Ameliorating Role of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE Against Methotrexate-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Sciatic Nerve, Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Tissues of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Uzar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate (MTX-associated neurotoxicity is an important clinical problem in cancer patients, but the mechanisms of MTX-induced neurotoxicity are not yet known exactly. The aims of this study were (1 to investigate the possible role of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT in the pathogenesis of MTX-induced neurotoxicity and (2 to determine whether there is a putative protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE on MTX-induced neurotoxicity in the spinal cord, brainstem and sciatic nerve of rats. METHODS: A total of 19 adult Wistar male rats were divided into three experimental groups. Group I, control group; Group II, MTX-treated group; and Group III, MTX + CAPE-treated group. MTX was administered to the MTX and MTX + CAPE groups intraperitoneally (IP with a single dose of 20 mg/kg on the second day of the experiment. CAPE was administered to the MTX + CAPE group IP with a dose of 10 μmol/kg for 7 days. RESULTS: In the sciatic nerve and spinal cord tissue, CAT and GSH-Px activities were increased in the MTX group in comparison with the control group. CAPE treatment with MTX significantly decreased CAT and GSH-Px activities in the neuronal tissues of rats in comparison with the MTX group. In the spinal cord and brainstem tissues, SOD activity in the MTX group was decreased in comparison with the control group, but in the sciatic nerve, there was no significant difference. In the spinal cord and brainstem of rats, SOD activity was increased in the CAPE + MTX group when compared with the MTX group. The level of MDA was higher in the MTX group than in the control group. CAPE administration with MTX injection caused a significant decrease in MDA level when compared with the MTX group. CONCLUSION: These results reveal that MTX increases oxidative stress in the sciatic nerve, spinal cord and brainstem of rats and that CAPE has a preventive effect on the

  20. Functional recoveries of sciatic nerve regeneration by combining chitosan-coated conduit and neurosphere cells induced from adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Tzu-Chieh; Fan, Shih-Chen; Wang, Duo-Hsiang; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Wu, Chia-Ching; Lin, Sheng-Che

    2014-02-01

    Suboptimal repair occurs in a peripheral nerve gap, which can be partially restored by bridging the gap with various biosynthetic conduits or cell-based therapy. In this study, we developed a combination of chitosan coating approach to induce neurosphere cells from human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on chitosan-coated plate and then applied these cells to the interior of a chitosan-coated silicone tube to bridge a 10-mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve. Myelin sheath degeneration and glial scar formation were discovered in the nerve bridged by the silicone conduit. By using a single treatment of chitosan-coated conduit or neurosphere cell therapy, the nerve gap was partially recovered after 6 weeks of surgery. Substantial improvements in nerve regeneration were achieved by combining neurosphere cells and chitosan-coated conduit based on the increase of myelinated axons density and myelin thickness, gastrocnemius muscle weight and muscle fiber diameter, and step and stride lengths from gait analysis. High expressions of interleukin-1β and leukotriene B4 receptor 1 in the intra-neural scarring caused by using silicone conduits revealed that the inflammatory mechanism can be inhibited when the conduit is coated with chitosan. This study demonstrated that the chitosan-coated surface performs multiple functions that can be used to induce neurosphere cells from ASCs and to facilitate nerve regeneration in combination with a cells-assisted coated conduit. PMID:24360575

  1. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 antibody attenuates thermal hyperalgesia in the dorsal root ganglion: Neurochemical changes and behavioral studies after sciatic nerve-pinch injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Qiong; Yu, Chao; Zhu, Yao-Feng; Li, Chun-Yan; Tian, Rong-Bo; Li, Xian-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress is generated in several peripheral nerve injury models.Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is activated to have a role in antioxidant effect. After nerve injury, the severely painful behavior is also performed. However, little has been explored regarding the function of Nrf2 in this painful process. Therefore, in this study, we compared the effects of Nrf2 antibody administration following sciatic nerve-pinch injury on painful behavior induced in young mice and neurochemical changes in dorsal root ganglion neurons. After pinch nerve injury, we found that the magnitude of the thermal allodynia was significantly decreased after application of Nrf2 antibody (5ul, 1mg/ml) in such injured animals and phosphorylated ERK(p-ERK) as well as the apoptotic protein (i.e., Bcl-6) in DRG neurons were also down-regulated in the anti-Nrf2-treated injured groups compared to the saline-treated groups. Taken collectively, these data suggested that the Nrf2 antibody reduced thermal hyperalgesia via ERK pathway and the down regulation of Bcl-6 protein from the apoptosis pathway might be protecting against the protein deletions caused by anti-Nrf2 effect and suggested the new therapeutic strategy with Nrf2 inhibitor following nerve injury. PMID:27316447

  2. Bilateral Additional Slips of Triceps Brachii Forming Osseo-Musculo-Fibrous Tunnels for Ulnar Nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy, RS; Rao, MKG; Somayaji, SN; Raghu, J; Pamidi, N

    2013-01-01

    Rare additional slips of triceps brachii muscle was found bilaterally in a sixty two year old South Indian male cadaver during routine dissection of upper limb for undergraduate students at Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India. On left side, the variant additional muscle slip took origin from the lower part of the medial intermuscular septum about 4 cm proximal to the medial humeral epicondyle. From its origin, the muscle fibres were passing over the ulnar nerve ...

  3. An Unusual Case of Neuralgic Amyotrophy Presenting with Bilateral Phrenic Nerve and Vocal Cord Paresis

    OpenAIRE

    Holtbernd, F.; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, A. am; Duning, T.; Kemmling, A.; Ringelstein, E.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuralgic amyotrophy (brachial plexus neuropathy, brachial plexus neuritis, or Parsonage-Turner syndrome) is an uncommon inflammatory condition typically characterized by acute and severe shoulder pain followed by paresis with muscle weakness and atrophy of the upper limb or shoulder girdle. We report an unusual clinical manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy, namely bilateral phrenic nerve palsy with concomitant laryngeal paresis. Case Report A 55-year-old male presented with ortho...

  4. Sciatic neuropathy developed after injection during curettage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntaş, Ayşe; Gündüz, Ayşegül; Kantarcı, Fatih; Gözübatık Çelik, Gökçen; Koçer, Naci; Kızıltan, Meral E

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injections are likely the most common cause of sciatic nerve injury in developing countries. Less common causes include piriformis syndrome, primary tumors of the sciatic nerve, metastatic tumors invading or compressing the nerve, endometriosis, vascular malformations, and prolonged immobilization or positioning. While the most reliable diagnostic and prognostic methods include nerve conduction studies and electromyography, magnetic resonance imaging has been suggested as an alternative method of determining type of lesion, establishing location, and investigating level of nerve involvement. A case of sciatic neuropathy that developed after intramuscular injection, with patient in prolonged lithotomy position and under sedation, is described. PMID:27225613

  5. Ultrasound-guided bilateral greater occipital nerve block for the treatment of post-dural puncture headache

    OpenAIRE

    Akyol, Fethi; Binici, Orhan; Kuyrukluyildiz, Ufuk; Karabakan, Guldane

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the complications frequently observed after spinal or epidural anesthesia with dural penetration. For PDPH patients who do not respond to conservative medical treatment, alternative treatments such as bilateral occipital nerve block should be considered.In this study the efficacy of bilateral occipital nerve block was retrospectively evaluated in patients with post-dural puncture headache. Methods: Ultrasound-guided bilat...

  6. 减量训练和停训对大鼠坐骨神经超微结构的影响%Effects of Taper and Detraining on the Ultra-structure of Rats' Sciatic Nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓红

    2011-01-01

    研究大负荷运动损伤后减量训练和停训大鼠坐骨神经超微结构的变化.方法:建立动物运动损伤模型及减量训练和停训模型.利用透射电子显微镜观察各组大鼠坐骨神经超微结构的变化.结果:①大负荷运动组坐骨神经超微结构严重损伤.②减量训练组坐骨神经超微结构基本恢复正常,新生神经纤维产生.③停训组部分髓鞘结构基本完整,但仍有灶状髓鞘脱失和崩解.结论:减量训练更有利于损伤坐骨神经组织结构的修复.%Objective: To observe the changes in the ultra-structure of sciatic nerve in rat with taper and detraining.Methods:Build the model of animal's sports injury and the model of taper and detraining.The ultra-structural changes of the sciatic nerve in each group were observed under the transmission electron microscopy.Results: ①The ultra-structures of sciatic nerve in heavy load group were badly injured.②The ultra-structures of sciatic nerve in taper training group returned to normal, new nerve fibers produced.③Some structures of myelin sheaths in detraining group were nearly completed, but there is still spotty demyelination and disintegration.Conclusions: Taper training is more conducive to the repairs of sciatic nerve injury.

  7. The Neuroprotective Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Neuronal Density of Spinal Cord Alpha Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tehranipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injuries of the peripheral nerve system affect the neurons cell body leading to axon injury. Cannabis sativa plant has anti oxidant and anti apoptotic effects. Therefore the aim of present study was to study the neuroprotective effect of alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves on neuronal density of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Methods: In this experimental research, animals were divided into four groups; A: control, B: compression, C: compression+ treatment with 25 mg/kg alcoholic extract, D: compression + treatment with 50 mg/kg extract (n=8. At first, sciatic nerve compression in B, C and D groups was achieved for 60 seconds using locker pincers. Alcoholic extract was injected intra peritoneally in the first and second weeks after compression. Then 28 days after compression, under profusion method, the lumbar spinal cord was sampled and the numerical density in each group was compared with the compression group. The data was analyzed with the use of Minitab 14 software and ANOVA statistical test. Results: Neuronal density showed a meaningful difference in the compression and control groups(P<0.001. Neuronal density in treatment groups(25, 50 mg/kg also had a meaningful increase(P<0.001 as compared to the compression group. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves has a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord alpha motoneurons after injury. This could be due to growth and regeneration factors present in the alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves that induce regeneration process in injured neurons or prevent degeneration.

  8. Chitosan/PVA nerve conduits repair sciatic nerve defect in rats%几丁糖复合聚乙烯醇神经导管修复大鼠坐骨神经损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 侯春林; 林浩东; 徐镇; 魏长征

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of chitosan/PVA nerve conduits which used for repairing sciatics nerve defect in rats.Methods Twenty-seven rats were divided into 3 groups randomly,with 9 rats in each group. Firstly, the 15mm defects in the left sciatic nerves were made in the rats and were respectively repaired with chitosan/PVA conduits graft (group A), the silicon conduits graft (group B),and autografts (group C). At 12 weeks after the operations, the left sciatic nerves were taken out, and the comparative evaluation was made on the repairing effects by wet weight of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, histological examination, computerized imaging analysis and True Blue retrograde tracing. Results The wet weight of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles showed no significant difference between the chitosan/PVA graft and autograft groups (P > 0.05). The wet weight of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in significant difference between the chitosan/PVA graft and the silicon group at 12 weeks after the operation(P < 0.05). The nerve fiber density showed no statistically significant differences between the chitosan/PVA and autograft groups(P> 0.05). The regenerative nerve fiber in group B had normal morphological and structural characters under transmission electron microscope. True Blue-labeled neuron cell bodies were found within both anterior horn of gray matter in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) ipsilateral to the operated side of the tested rats on illumination with ultra-violet light 1 week after the injection of True Blue.Conclusion Chitosan/PVA nerve conduit can effectively promote the nerve regeneration and myelinization of rat sciatic nerve, which is expected to substitute for autograft to repair nerve defects succesfully.%目的 径较粗,达到正常神经的直径。肌肉湿重和肌细胞截面积:A组和C组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);A、C组明显优于B组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。组织学观

  9. Effects of transplantation of microencapsulated rabbit sciatic nerve on nuclear factor-kappa B expression after spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolian Wang; Jianmin Ma; Hui Chen; Deming Liu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- k B), activated after spinal cord injury in rats, plays a key role in inflammatory responses in the central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of transplantation of microencapsulated rabbit sciatic nerve on NF- k B expression and motor function after spinal cord injury in rats, and to compare the results with the transplantation of rabbit sciatic nerve alone.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This completely randomized, controlled study was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Medical College of Nanchang University between December 2007 and July 2008.MATERIALS: A rabbit anti-NF- k B P65 monoclonal antibody was made by the Santa Cruz Company, USA and a streptavidin peroxidase immunohistochemical kit was provided by the Sequoia Company, China.METHODS: Eight rabbits were used to prepare a sciatic nerve cell suspension that was divided into two parts: one stored for transplantation, and the other mixed with a 1.5% sodium alginate solution. One hundred and twenty adult Sprague Dawley rats weighing 220-250 g were randomly divided into four groups: the microencapsulated cell group (n = 36), the non-encapsulated cell group (n = 36), the saline group (n = 36) and the sham operation group (n = 12). The first three groups underwent a right hemisection injury of the spinal cord at the T level, into which was transplanted a gelatin sponge soaked with 10 μ L of a microencapsulated nerve tissue/cell suspension (microencapsulated cell group), a tissue/cell suspension (non-encapsulated cell group) or physiological saline (saline group). In the sham operation group the vertebrae were exposed, but the spinal cord was not injured, and no implantation was given.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pathological changes were detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining; NF- K B expression was quantified using immunohistochemical staining; motor function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale

  10. 甲壳素神经再生室注入聚乳酸-聚乙醇酸-重组人促红细胞生成素微球促进缺损周围神经的修复%Injection of polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid-recombinant human erythropoietin microspheres into chitin nerve regeneration chamber can promote sciatic nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚洲; 陈清汉; 任明明

    2012-01-01

    背景:促红细胞生成素除了具有造血的作用以外,对神经系统损伤的修复也起着重要作用.目的:观察聚乳酸-聚乙醇酸-重组人促红细胞生成素微球对大鼠坐骨神经再生的作用.方法:雌性SD大鼠60只,随机分为3组.制备大鼠双侧坐骨神经缺损模型(1 cm缺损)以及可吸收甲壳素神经再生室.实验组室内注入聚乳酸-聚乙醇酸-重组人促红细胞生成素微球;对照组室内注入聚乳酸-聚乙醇酸微球;空白对照组室内注入等渗生理盐水.结果与结论:实验组再生神经的传导速度优于对照组及空白对照组,且12周优于6周,差异有显著性意义(P < 0.05).S-100 免疫组织化学及Loyez氏神经染色法显示:实验组神经纤维数量多于对照组及空白对照组,12周多于6周,差异有显著性意义(P < 0.05).结果提示聚乳酸-聚乙醇酸-重组人促红细胞生成素微球能够促进实验性坐骨神经缺损的再生和功能的恢复.%BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in hematopoiesis as well as in the repair of nervous system injury. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid-recombinant human erythropoietin microspheres on sciatic nerve regeneration. METHODS: Sixty female SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, 20 rats in each group. The bilateral sciatic nerve defect model was prepared (1 cm defect) and the absorbable chitin nerve regeneration chamber was prepared. The chambers of the rats in the experimental group were injected with polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid-recombinant human erythropoietin microspheres, chambers of the rats in the control group were injected with polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid microspheres and chambers of the rats in the blank control group were injected with normal saline in the same dose. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The conduction velocity of the regeneration nerve in the experimental group was better than that in the control group and

  11. Ipsilateral common iliac artery plus femoral artery clamping for inducing sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: a reliable and simple method

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    Barzegar-Fallah Anita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a practical model of sciatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury producing serious neurologic deficits and being technically feasible compared with the current time consuming or ineffective models. Thirty rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 5. Animal were anesthetized by using ketamine (50 mg/kg and xylazine (4 mg/kg. Experimental groups included a sham-operated group and five I/R groups with different reperfusion time intervals (0 h, 3 h, 1 d, 4 d, 7 d. In I/R groups, the right common iliac artery and the right femoral artery were clamped for 3 hrs. Sham-operated animals underwent only laparotomy without induction of ischemia. Just before euthanasia, behavioral scores (based on gait, grasp, paw position, and pinch sensitivity were obtained and then sciatic nerves were removed for light-microscopy studies (for ischemic fiber degeneration (IFD and edema. Behavioral score deteriorated among the ischemic groups compared with the control group (p

  12. An Unusual Case of Neuralgic Amyotrophy Presenting with Bilateral Phrenic Nerve and Vocal Cord Paresis

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    F. Holtbernd

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuralgic amyotrophy (brachial plexus neuropathy, brachial plexus neuritis, or Parsonage-Turner syndrome is an uncommon inflammatory condition typically characterized by acute and severe shoulder pain followed by paresis with muscle weakness and atrophy of the upper limb or shoulder girdle. We report an unusual clinical manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy, namely bilateral phrenic nerve palsy with concomitant laryngeal paresis. Case Report: A 55-year-old male presented with orthopnea and aphonia after an episode of bilateral shoulder pain preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. Spirometry, chest X-ray and videolaryngoscopy revealed bilateral and simultaneous paresis of the diaphragm and the vocal cords. Clinical examination at admission and at the 2-month follow-up did not show upper limb weakness or atrophy, except for a mild atrophy of the right supraspinatus muscle. An electromyography of the upper limb muscles and nerve conduction studies did not reveal signs of denervation. Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid and an MRI of the neuraxis were unremarkable. After treatment with prednisolone, vocal cord function markedly improved within 8 weeks, whereas paresis of the diaphragm persisted. Conclusion: Shoulder pain followed by diaphragmatic paralysis with dyspnea and hoarseness may be a manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy even if upper limb or shoulder girdle palsies are absent.

  13. Midbrain hematoma presenting with isolated bilateral palsy of the third cranial nerve in a Moroccan man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ouali Ouarda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bilateral third nerve palsy secondary to a hemorrhagic stroke is exceptional. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported in the literature. Case presentation We describe the case of a 69-year-old Moroccan man who presented with isolated sudden bilateral third nerve palsy. Computed tomography (CT of the brain revealed a midbrain hematoma. The oculomotor function gradually and completely improved over eight months of follow-up. Conclusion Stroke should be included in the differential diagnosis of sudden isolated oculomotor paralysis even when it is bilateral because of the severity of the underlying disease and the importance of its therapeutic implications.

  14. Repair of sciatic nerve defects with tissue engineered nerves constructed with marrow stromal cells%骨髓间充质细胞构建组织工程神经修复坐骨神经缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红云; 邓仪昊; 佟晓杰; 成家茂; 杜赵康

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schwann calls are seed cells for constructing tissue engineered peripheral nerves. But their in vitro isolation, culture and purification are difficult. Acellular nerve allografts (ANA) have a great effect on repairing peripheral nerve defects, and it can induce marrow stromal cells (MSCs) into Schwann-like calls. Accordingly, MSCs can be used as seed calls theoretically in constructing tissue engineered peripheral nerves, instead of Schwann cells OBJECTIVE: To observe the repairing effect of tissue engineered peripheral nerves constructed with MSCs on sciatic nerve defects and to assess the feasibility of repairing peripheral nerve defects with MSCs as seed calls. DESIGN, TIME AND SE'I-rlNG: A randomized control animal experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Basic Medicine Collage of Dali Collage from July to December in 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 30 SD rats were divided randomly into 3 groups, with 10 in each group. In MSCs+ ANA group, end-to-end anastomosis were performed with 10/0 non traumatic suture to broken ends of rat sciatic nerves and tissue engineered nerves cultured using MSCs combined with ANA; In ANA group, ANA were bridged to broken ends of sciatic nerves; In METHODS: The 10ram sciatic nerve defects in rats were repaired using MSCs-constructed tissue engineered peripheral nerves, whose repairing effects were evaluated at week 12 post transplant through sciatic function index (SFI), gastrocnemius wet weight recovery rate, S-100 immunohistochemical staining and electron microscope observation, etc. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morphological changes of calls were observed during the culture of compounds; SFI and gastrocnemius wet weight recovery rates were detected after transplantation; New myelinization, axon growth and nerve fiber distdbuUon were observed with toluidine blue staining; Schwann calls growth and nerve fiber regeneration were observed with transmission electron microscope combined with S-100 protein immunohistochemical

  15. Possible mechanisms of cholecystokinin promoting sciatic nerve regeneration%胆囊收缩素促坐骨神经再生的可能机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宣煌; 李荣议; 张国栋; 林海滨; 吴献伟; 林宇进; 郑锋

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have found that cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) can promote the regeneration after sciatic nerve injury in rats, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:To screen effective indicators and analyze the mechanism of CCK-8 promoting sciatic nerve regeneration from the perspective of nerve growth factor and nerve regeneration microenvironment. METHODS:Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats, for the preparation of unilateral sciatic nerve transection injury model, were randomly divided into two groups. In the CCK-8 group, the animal model received intraperitoneal injection of CCK-8 (8 nmol/kg) for consecutive 7 days, while the control group was injected with equal volume of normal saline. The nerve growth factor expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase in the spinal cord, serum superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde concentration, as wel as apoptotic cel s in spinal cord were al detected. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:In the CCK-8 group, nerve growth factor expression was higher than that in the control group (P  目的:筛选有效指标,尝试从神经生长因子及神经再生微环境的角度分析八肽胆囊收缩素促进大鼠坐骨神经再生的机制。  方法:选择健康SD大鼠,制备坐骨神经单侧离断伤模型后随机分为2组,八肽胆囊收缩素治疗组造模后连续7 d腹腔注射八肽胆囊收缩素8 nmol/kg,对照组腹腔注射等量生理盐水。检测两组大鼠局部神经生长因子蛋白表达、脊髓诱导型一氧化氮合酶水平、血清超氧化物歧化酶活性和丙二醛浓度,同时检测脊髓凋亡细胞数。  结果与结论:八肽胆囊收缩素治疗组大鼠局部神经生长因子蛋白表达高于对照组(P <0.01),脊髓诱导型一氧化氮合酶和凋亡细胞数低于对照组(P <0.01),血清超氧化物歧化酶活性高于对照组且丙二醛浓度低于对照组(P<0.01,0.05)。说明胆囊收缩素促进坐骨神经再生的

  16. Electric stimulation at sciatic nerve evokes long-term potentiation of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis field potential in rats at various developmental phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term potentiation of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis field potential in adult rats has already been reported; however, there is lack of correlated researches on naenonate, infant and adult rats which have different responses to pain conduction information.OBJECTIVE: To observe the various effects of electric stimulation at sciatic nerve on long-term potentiation of evoked field potential at superficial layer of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis of rats at various developmental phases and analyze manifestations of pain conduction information at superficial layers ( Ⅰ - Ⅱ)of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis in immature rats.DESIGN: Grouping controlled study.SETTING: Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wuhan University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Physiology (provincial laboratory),Medical College of Wuhan University from March 2006 to May 2007. A total of 27 healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 17- 90 days old, SPF grade, weighing 41 -200 g, were provided by Experimental Animal Center, Medical College of Wuhan University.METHODS: Based on their birthdays, rats were divided into naenonate group (17 - 20 days old, weighing 41-52 g, n =10), infant group (35 - 50 days old, weighing 87 - 125 g, n =10) and adult group (60 - 90 days old, weighing 180 -200 g, n =7). Left sciatic nerve was separated and stimulated with single square wave (15 V, 0.5 ms). Meanwhile, evoked field potential was recorded at superficial layers of lateral T13 - L1 cornu dorsale medullae spinalis and then stimulated with high-frequent and high-intensive tetanizing current (30 -40 V, 0.5 ms, 100 Hz, 1 s per bundle, 10 s in bundle interval) four times. After the operation, onset of long-term potentiation was observed; meanwhile, amplitude changes and latency of field potential were analyzed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Amplitude and latency changes of field potential at superficial layers of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis of rats in the three

  17. Effects of 660- and 980-nm low-level laser therapy on neuropathic pain relief following chronic constriction injury in rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumipoor, M; Jameie, S B; Janzadeh, A; Nasirinezhad, F; Soleimani, M; Kerdary, M

    2014-09-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is one of the most suffered conditions in medical disciplines. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in the induction of NP was studied by many researchers. Neuropathies lead to medical, social, and economic isolation of the patient, so various therapies were used to treat or reduce it. During the recent years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in certain areas of medicine and rehabilitation. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) is a well-known model for neuropathic pain studies. In order to find the effects of different wavelengths of LLLT on the injured sciatic nerve, the present research was done. Thirty Wistar adult male rats (230-320 g) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10). To induce neuropathic pain for the sciatic nerve, the CCI technique was used. Low-level laser of 660 and 980 nm was used for two consecutive weeks. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia was done before and after surgery on days 7 and 14, respectively. Paw withdrawal thresholds were also evaluated. CCI decreased the pain threshold, whereas both wavelengths of LLLT for 2 weeks increased mechanical and thermal threshold significantly. A comparison of the mechanical and thermal threshold showed a significant difference between the therapeutic effects of the two groups that received LLLT. Based on our findings, the laser with a 660-nm wavelength had better therapeutic effects than the laser with a 980-nm wavelength, so the former one may be used for clinical application in neuropathic cases; however, it needs more future studies.

  18. Spatio-temporal characteristics of cerebral blood volume changes in different microvascular compartments evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Luo, Weihua; Chen, Shangbin; Chen, Haiying; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2003-10-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of changes in cerebral blood volume associated with neuronal activity were investigated in the hindlimb somatosensory cortex of α-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats (n=10) with optical imaging at 570nm through a thinned skull. Activation of cortex was carried out by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve with 5Hz, 0.3V pulses (0.5ms) for duration of 2s. The stimulation evoked a monophasic optical reflectance decrease at cortical parenchyma and arteries sites rapidly after the onset of stimulation, whereas no similar response was observed at vein compartments. The optical signal changes reached 10% of the peak response 0.70+/-0.32s after stimulation onset and no significant time lag in this 10% start latency time was observed between the response at cortical parenchyma and arteries compartments. The evoked optical reflectance decrease reached the peak (0.25%+/-0.047%)2.66+/-0.61s after the stimulus onset at parenchyma site, 0.40+/-0.20s earlier (P<0.05) than that at arteries site (0.50%+/-0.068% 3.06+/-0.70s). Variable location within the cortical parenchyma and arteries compartment themselves didn"t affect the temporal characteristics of the evoked signal significantly. These results suggest that the sciatic nerve stimulation evokes a local blood volume increase at both capillaries (cortical parenchyma) and arterioles rapidly after the stimulus onset but the evoked blood volume increase in capillaries could not be entirely accounted for by the dilation of arterioles.

  19. Cold bupivacaine versus magnesium sulfate added to room temperature bupivacaine in sonar-guided femoral and sciatic nerve block in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeftawy, Ashraf Elsayed; El-Daba, Ahmad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cooling of local anesthetic potentiates its action and increases its duration. Magnesium sulfate (MgSo4) added to local anesthetic prolongs the duration of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects. Aim: The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the effect of cold to 4°C bupivacaine 0.5% and Mg added to normal temperature (20–25°C) bupivacaine 0.5% during sonar-guided combined femoral and sciatic nerve blocks on the onset of sensory and motor block, intraoperative anesthesia, duration of sensory and motor block, and postoperative analgesia in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I and II patients who were scheduled to undergo elective ACL reconstruction were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to 3 equal groups to receive sonar-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks. In Group I, 17 ml of room temperature (20–25°C) 0.5% bupivacaine and 3 ml of room temperature saline were injected for each nerve block whereas in Group II, 17 ml of cold (4°C) 0.5% bupivacaine and 3 ml of cold saline were injected for each nerve block. In Group III, 17 ml of room temperature 0.5% bupivacaine and 3 ml of MgSo4 5% were injected for each nerve block. The onset of sensory and motor block was evaluated every 3 min for 30 min. Surgery was started after complete sensory and motor block were achieved. Intraoperatively, the patients were evaluated for heart rate and mean arterial pressure, rescue analgesic and sedative requirements plus patient and surgeon satisfaction. Postoperatively, hemodynamics, duration of analgesia, resolution of motor block, time to first analgesic, total analgesic consumption, and the incidence of side effects were recorded. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in demographic data, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and duration of

  20. A comparative study of red and blue light-emitting diodes and low-level laser in regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after an end to end neurorrhaphy in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Sharifi, Davood

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effects of red and blue light-emitting diodes (LED) and low-level laser (LLL) on the regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after an end-to-end neurorrhaphy in rabbits. Forty healthy mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into four experimental groups: control, LLL (680 nm), red LED (650 nm), and blue LED (450 nm). All animals underwent the right sciatic nerve neurotmesis injury under general anesthesia and end-to-end anastomosis. The phototherapy was initiated on the first postoperative day and lasted for 14 consecutive days at the same time of the day. On the 30th day post-surgery, the animals whose sciatic nerves were harvested for histopathological analysis were euthanized. The nerves were analyzed and quantified the following findings: Schwann cells, large myelinic axons, and neurons. In the LLL group, as compared to other groups, an increase in the number of all analyzed aspects was observed with significance level (P < 0.05). This finding suggests that postoperative LLL irradiation was able to accelerate and potentialize the peripheral nerve regeneration process in rabbits within 14 days of irradiation. PMID:26415928

  1. Neurturin enhances the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat

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    Klein Robert D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival and preservation of function for adult parasympathetic ganglion neurons following injury remain incompletely understood. However, advances in the neurobiology of growth factors, neural development, and prevention of cell death have led to a surge of clinical interest for protective and regenerative neuromodulatory strategies, as surgical therapies for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers often result in neuronal axotomy and debilitating loss of sexual function or continence. In vitro studies have identified neurturin, a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, as a neuromodulator for pelvic cholinergic neurons. We present the first in vivo report of the effects of neurturin upon the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat. Methods In these experiments, groups (n = 8 each consisted of uninjured controls and animals treated with injection of albumin (blinded crush control group, extended release neurotrophin-4 or neurturin to the site of cavernous nerve crush injury (100 μg per animal. After 5 weeks, recovery of erectile function (treatment effect was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation and peak aortic pressures were measured. Investigators were unblinded to specific treatments after statistical analyses were completed. Results Erectile dysfunction was not observed in the sham group (mean maximal intracavernous pressure [ICP] increase of 117.5 ± 7.3 cmH2O, whereas nerve injury and albumin treatment (control produced a significant reduction in ICP elevation of 40.0 ± 6.3 cmH2O. Neurturin facilitated the preservation of erectile function, with an ICP increase of 55% at 62.0 ± 9.2 cmH2O (p Conclusion Treatment with neurturin at the site of cavernous nerve crush injury facilitates recovery of erectile function. Results support further investigation of neurturin as a neuroprotective and/or neuroregenerative

  2. 同种异体神经修复鼠坐骨神经缺损的实验研究%An experimental study on allogenic nerve grafts repairing the gap of rat sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世清; 张思胜; 彭昊; 陶海鹰; 范里

    2004-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of nerve regeneration through bridging the gap of rat sciatic nerve with acellular basal laminea tubes. METHODS:Acellular basal lamina tubes were acquired from normal rat sciatic nerves which were treated with nondenaturing biological detergents.Thirty adult SD rats were divided randomly into three groups, with 10 in each group. Acellular basal lamina tubes graft group A);autogenous nerve bridging(group B); allogenic nerve bridging(group C). A gap of 20 mm of rat left sciatic nerve was extracted, which was bridged by different nerve materials.Histomorphometry, electromyographic and image analysis were determined at 2 and 3 months after surgical operation. RESULTS:A number of axons in regenerating nerve were found to cross the graft, the latency and wave amplitude of regenerating nerve in group A were lower than that in group B(ta=2.101,P< 0.05;tb=5.00, P< 0.05)at 2 months, there was no statistical difference betwen the two groups at 3 months.The thickness of myelin sheath of experimental group was inferior to group B(ta=5.68,P< 0.05)at 3 months, while the number and diameter of axons in both groups were similar. CONCLUSION: The graft is found to support outgrowth of axons and migration of Schwann cell,and is a good tool to use in peripheral nerve regeneration.%目的:研究无细胞基膜管桥接鼠坐骨神经缺损后的神经再生效果.方法 :正常鼠坐骨神经用非变性生物剂处理后得到无细胞的基膜管,桥接鼠坐骨神经 20 mm缺损.实验分 3组:无细胞基膜管移植组(A组);自体神经移植组(B组);异体神经移植组(C组).术后进行肌电图、组织形态学及图像分析仪检查.结果 : A组再生神经有大量轴突通过移植体,术后 2个月电生理检测再生神经的潜伏期及波幅低于 B组(ta=2.101, P< 0.05; tb=5.00, P< 0.05), 3个月时无显著性差异.髓鞘厚度在术后 3个月时亦低于 B组,有显著性差异(ta=5.68, P< 0.05).轴突直径及

  3. Beneficial effects of treadmill training in experimental diabetic nerve regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Tais Malysz; Jocemar Ilha; Patrícia Severo do Nascimento; Katia De Angelis; Beatriz D'Agord Schaan; Matilde Achaval

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of treadmill training (10 weeks) on hindlimb motor function and nerve morphometric parameters in diabetic rats submitted to sciatic nerve crush. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Wistar rats (n = 64) were divided into the following groups: non-diabetic; trained non-diabetic; non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; diabetic; trained diabetic; diabetic with sciatic nerve crush or trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush....

  4. Elevated protein carbonylation, and misfolding in sciatic nerve from db/db and Sod1(-/- mice: plausible link between oxidative stress and demyelination.

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    Ryan T Hamilton

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy is associated with decrements in motor/sensory neuron myelination, nerve conduction and muscle function; however, the mechanisms of reduced myelination in diabetes are poorly understood. Chronic elevation of oxidative stress may be one of the potential determinants for demyelination as lipids and proteins are important structural constituents of myelin and highly susceptible to oxidation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether there is a link between protein oxidation/misfolding and demyelination. We chose two distinct models to test our hypothesis: 1 the leptin receptor deficient mouse (dbdb model of diabetic polyneuropathy and 2 superoxide dismutase 1 knockout (Sod1(-/- mouse model of in vivo oxidative stress. Both experimental models displayed a significant decrement in nerve conduction, increase in tail distal motor latency as well as reduced myelin thickness and fiber/axon diameter. Further biochemical studies demonstrated that oxidative stress is likely to be a potential key player in the demyelination process as both models exhibited significant elevation in protein carbonylation and alterations in protein conformation. Since peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 is a key component of myelin sheath and has been found mutated and aggregated in several peripheral neuropathies, we predicted that an increase in carbonylation and aggregation of PMP22 may be associated with demyelination in dbdb mice. Indeed, PMP22 was found to be carbonylated and aggregated in sciatic nerves of dbdb mice. Sequence-driven hydropathy plot analysis and in vitro oxidation-induced aggregation of purified PMP22 protein supported the premise for oxidation-dependent aggregation of PMP22 in dbdb mice. Collectively, these data strongly suggest for the first time that oxidation-mediated protein misfolding and aggregation of key myelin proteins may be linked to demyelination and reduced nerve conduction in peripheral

  5. Functional recovery after transection of the sciatic nerve at an early age : a pilot study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Marcel F.; IJkema-Paassen, Jos; Gramsbergen, Albert

    2007-01-01

    It is often clinically noted that peripheral nerve transections in infants and very young children seem to show better functional recovery after nerve repair compared with adult patients. There can be several reasons for this (e.g. outgrowing axons might have maintained their potential to locate the

  6. Sciatica due to Schwannoma at the Sciatic Notch

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    Yavuz Haspolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are rarely seen on the sciatic nerve and can cause sciatica. In this case report we aimed to present an unusual location of schwannoma along sciatic nerve that causes sciatica. A 60-years-old-man was admitted to us with complaints of pain on his thigh and paresthesia on his foot. Radiography of the patient revealed a solitary lesion on the sciatic nerve. The lesion was excised and the symptoms resolved after surgery.

  7. Promotion of nerve regeneration in rat sciatic nerve by exogenous epidermal growth factor: an experimental study%外源性表皮生长因子促进鼠坐骨神经再生的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张烽; 顾玉东; 徐建光; 李继峰

    2001-01-01

    目的评价外源性表皮生长因子(exogenous epidermal growth factor,EGF)对神经再生的影响。方法雄性SD大鼠48只,建立成鼠坐骨神经挤压伤模型。按术后注射药物的不同分成2组,每组24只鼠。损伤对照组:在神经损伤处注射生理盐水5 μl;EGF组:注射EGF/生理盐水液(10 μg /5 μl)。于术后2、4、6周3个时间点测定坐骨神经功能指数、CMAP的潜伏期、最大诱发电位的恢复率、组织学检测、电镜超微结构观察。结果坐骨神经功能指数恢复率在各时间点,EGF组明显优于对照组(P < 0.01);CMAP潜伏期的延迟率,EGF组明显小于对照组 (P < 0.01);诱发电位恢复率EGF组明显好于对照组(P < 0.01)。组织学检查:有髓神经纤维数在术后2、4周时EGF组明显多于对照组(P < 0.01);各时间点有髓神经纤维直径及截面积,EGF组明显优于对照组(P < 0.01)。超微结构观察:EGF组再生神经的有髓纤维数,髓鞘厚度,髓鞘的成熟度明显好于对照组。结论外源性EGF对神经的再生和功能恢复有一定的作用。%Objective To evaluate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on promoting nerve regeneration. Methods Sciatic nerve crush injury model was set up in 48 female Sprague - Dawley rats. They were randomly divided into two groups according to different medication, with 24 each. Injection of normal saline (5ul) and EGF/normal saline (10 μg/5 μl) was done at the site of nerve injury in the control group and EGF group respectively. Measurement of sciatic functional index (SFI), latency of CMAP, and recovery rate of the maximal evoked potential, and histomorphometric and ultra - structural observation were carried out 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the operation respectively. Results Compared with the control group, there was significant improvement in sciatic functional index, latency of CMAP, and recovery rate of evoked potential at different assessment intervals. The number of

  8. 携带NGF基因腺病毒治疗大鼠坐骨神经损伤的实验研究%EFFECT OF ADENOVIRUS EXPRESSING NGF ON SCIATIC NERVE INJURY IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈渝; 王大勇; 王祖贵; 翁政; 邓忠良

    2009-01-01

    Objective To construct adenovirus expressing NGF (Ad-NGF) and to investigate its promotive effect on the reparation and regeneration of sciatic nerve injury in rats. Methods NGF gene sequence was cloned into shuttle plasmid pCA13 of adenovirus type 5. After packed in HEK-293 cells, the recombinant adenoviruses-Ad-NGF underwent sequence identification. Thirty-two male SD rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=8 rats per group). Sciatic nerve injury model was established by disconnecting and direct suturing the right sciatic nerve in the rat. The right gastrocnemius muscle of group A and C received Ad-NGF injection and adenovirus vector without NGF gene sequence injection, respectively, and 1 × 108 PFU/per time was given every other day for three times. Group B and D received NGF injection (200 U/d) and normal saline (100 μL/d), respectively, for 3 weeks. The effect of various treatments on injured sciatic nerve was evaluated by performing sciatic nerve function index and nerve electrophysiology detections 31 days after operation. Meanwhile, the sciatic nerve in the anastomosis and at the site 1 cm distal to the anastomosis were obtained, and underwent RT-PCR and Western blot analysis for detecting NGF mRNA and protein expression level in the injured sciatic nerve in the rats. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscope observations were conducted. Results Ad-NGF carrying NGF gene sequence was constructed successfully and confirmed by sequence analysis. The sciatic nerve function index, nerve conduction velocity, evoked potential amplitude, and latent period of group A was better than those of other groups (P 0.05). RT-PCR and Western blot detection: the expression levels of NGF mRNA and protein in group A were greater than those of group B, C, and D (P 0.05). Histology and immunohistochemistry observation showed that the regeneration of the sciatic nerve in group A was obvious superior to that of other groups

  9. The study of Wallerian degeneration after rat sciatic nerve injury%大鼠坐骨神经Wallerian溃变的分子机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚登兵; 王勇军; 顾晓松

    2013-01-01

    目的:运用基因芯片和蛋白芯片技术及生物信息学分析,系统分析大鼠坐骨神经损伤后远端神经组织Wallerian溃变的差异表达基因和蛋白,从基因和蛋白水平探讨Wallerian溃变的分子机制。方法:建立大鼠损伤坐骨神经远端Wallerian溃变模型,利用表达谱基因芯片和抗体蛋白芯片,进行表达趋势分析、功能分析、京都基因与基因组百科全书信号通路分析。通过生物信息学方法全面系统分析,大鼠坐骨神经损伤后远端Wallerian溃变的基因和蛋白表达变化。结果:在Wallerian溃变和再生过程中,共有6076个基因差异表达和23种表达趋势,有93个蛋白差异表达,108种信号通路参与形成Wallerian溃变的信号调控网络。结论:大鼠坐骨神经损伤后Wallerian溃变过程中,有大量基因的表达变化和多种关键因子的调控,本研究为进一步阐明Wallerian溃变的分子机制提供了基本数据,为经典的Wallerian溃变学说增添了新的内容。%Objective:To study the gene expression pattern and signal pathways of the distal nerve stump expressed in Wallerian degeneration (WD) after rat sciatic nerve injury. Methods: WD models of rat sciatic nerve injury were con-structed. A large number of genes involved in WD with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) were classified. Signal flow and recurrent neural networks were analyzed by using gene chip microarrays, antibody arrays and bioinformatic analysis. Results: There were 6076 differential genes, 93 differential proteins expressed and 23 types of expression tendencies had significant matches in the database and were assigned to 108 KEGG pathways during Wallerian degeneration. Conclusion:A large number of genes and proteins are differentially regulated during the process of WD. The study will help to much better understand the information for the WD and investigations on the molecular mechanisms of WD

  10. Two Cases of Elderly-Onset Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy Manifesting Bilateral Peroneal Nerve Palsies

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    Norihiko Kawaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP is characterized by recurrent focal neuropathies, which usually become symptomatic in the second or third decade of life. However, clinical phenotypic heterogeneity among patients with HNPP has recently been reported. Certain patients show polyneuropathy-type diffuse nerve injuries, whereas others remain asymptomatic at older ages. We present two cases of elderly-onset bilateral peroneal nerve palsies with diffuse muscle weakness in the lower limbs and glove-and-stocking type sensory disturbance. Both patients were diagnosed with HNPP by genetic analyses that detected deletions of chromosome 17p11.2 in peripheral myelin protein 22 genes. Their clinical courses suggested that the Japanese sitting style termed ‘seiza’, a way of sitting on the floor with the lower legs crossed under the thighs, was a precipitating factor for the bilateral peroneal nerve palsies.

  11. Promoting effect of nerve growth factor on sciatic nerve regeneration after the crush injury%神经生长因子对挤压伤坐骨神经再生的促进作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁伯俊; 陆国才; 刘俊平; 赵冠人; 吴浩

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besides being a basic growth factor crucial to maintain and promote the development, differentiation and survival of the central nervous system, nerve growth factor(NGF) also plays an important role in the repair of injured peripheral nerves.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the muscular injection of NGF on the regeneration and functional recovery of rat sciatic nerve after crush injury.DESIGN: A randomized controlled pilot study in rats with repeated observation and measurement.SETTING: Center for new drug evaluation in a military medical university.MATERIALS: This study was performed in the Center for New Drug Evaluation, Department of Basic Medicine, Second Military Medical University during the period from July 1999 to March 2000, using 40 SD rats weighing 200 to 250 g(of either sex of half number) provided by the Sino-British SIPPR/BK Lab Aninal Ltd (Shanghai).METHODS: Forty rats were randomized into high-, mid- and low-dose NGF treatment groups, normal control group and model control group. The sciatic nerves were clamped at 6 nm distal to the sciatic notch to induce a 4-mm-wide area of crush injury. In the high-, mid-; and low-dose NGF groups, the rats were given NGF at 8, 4 and 2 μg/kg per day(corresponding to 1.6 × 10 3, 8 × 10 2 and 4 × 10 2 IU/kg per day) respectively via the muscular injection for 56 consecutive days.(NCVs) and sciatic function index(SFI) at different time points after the RESULTS: Compared with that of the model control group, the NCVs significantly increased in the high-dose NGF group 35 and 56 days after the injury,and in the mid-dose NGFgroup at 35 days(t=2.32-5.14, P <0.05-0.01 ). The SFIs significantly increased in all NGF-treated groups at 14 days ( t = 2. 29-6.28, P < 0.05-0.01 ), with the recovery most conspicuous in high-dose NGF group; No significant difference in the SFIs was found between the NGF-treated groups on the 56th day. Morphological examination of the tissues identified no significant

  12. Neuropathic pain in rats with a partial sciatic nerve ligation is alleviated by intravenous injection of monoclonal antibody to high mobility group box-1.

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    Yoki Nakamura

    Full Text Available High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. A previous study reported that intravenous injection of anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated brain edema in a rat model of stroke, possibly by attenuating glial activation. Peripheral nerve injury leads to increased activity of glia in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, it is possible that the anti-HMGB1 antibody could also be efficacious in attenuating peripheral nerve injury-induced pain. Following partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL, rats were treated with either anti-HMGB1 or control IgG. Intravenous treatment with anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (2 mg/kg significantly ameliorated PSNL-induced hind paw tactile hypersensitivity at 7, 14 and 21 days, but not 3 days, after ligation, whereas control IgG had no effect on tactile hypersensitivity. The expression of HMGB1 protein in the spinal dorsal horn was significantly increased 7, 14 and 21 days after PSNL; the efficacy of the anti-HMGB1 antibody is likely related to the presence of HMGB1 protein. Also, the injury-induced translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytosol occurred mainly in dorsal horn neurons and not in astrocytes and microglia, indicating a neuronal source of HMGB1. Markers of astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, microglia (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1 and spinal neuron (cFos activity were greatly increased in the ipsilateral dorsal horn side compared to the sham-operated side 21 days after PSNL. Anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody treatment significantly decreased the injury-induced expression of cFos and Iba1, but not GFAP. The results demonstrate that nerve injury evokes the synthesis and release of HMGB1 from spinal neurons, facilitating the activity of both microglia and neurons, which in turn leads to symptoms of neuropathic pain. Thus, the targeting of HMGB1 could be a useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of chronic

  13. Experimental study of erythropoietin on promoting sciatic nerve regeneration in rats%促红细胞生成素促进大鼠坐骨神经再生作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万波; 张辉; 尹宗生; 胡勇; 王伟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury and repair in rats and provide experimental basis for clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injury.Methods Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, which were named EPO group and NGF group respectively . The sciatic nerve with 10 mm defect was bridged with silicone conduit. Rats of EPO group and NGF group received injection of erythropoietin and nerve growth factor respectively. At 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, 10 rats from each group were subject to sciatic functional index (SFI), motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and histomorphometric evaluation and immunohistochemical staining of protein gene product 9. 5 (PGP 9. 5) to assess the effect of erythropoietin on rat sciatic nerve regeneration. Results Four weeks after the operation , SFI was - 78.85 + 3.87 in EPO group and - 79.98 ± 4.58 in NGF group. There was no significant difference between the two groups( P > 0.05). Eight weeks postoperatively , SFI was - 60.26±2.91 in EPO group and -64.65 ± 4.11 in NGF group, with significant difference between the two groups( P 0.05);术后8周SFI,EPO组为(-60.26±2.91),NGF组为(-64.65±4.11),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).术后4周和8周时,EPO组MNCV、有髓神经纤维数目以及PGP9.5免疫阳性神经纤维的平均光密度和积分光密度均优于NGF组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 EPO 能促进大鼠坐骨神经损伤后的修复与再生.

  14. Functional and Physical Outcomes following Use of a Flexible CO2 Laser Fiber and Bipolar Electrocautery in Close Proximity to the Rat Sciatic Nerve with Correlation to an In Vitro Thermal Profile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared functional and physical collateral damage to a nerve when operating a Codman MALIS Bipolar Electrosurgical System CMC-III or a CO2 laser coupled to a laser, with correlation to an in vitro model of heating profiles created by the devices in thermochromic ink agarose. Functional damage of the rat sciatic nerve after operating the MALIS or CO2 laser at various power settings and proximities to the nerve was measured by electrically evoked nerve action potentials, and histology of the nerve was used to assess physical damage. Thermochromic ink dissolved in agarose was used to model the spatial and temporal profile of the collateral heating zone of the electrosurgical system and the laser ablation cone. We found that this laser can be operated at 2 W directly above the nerve with minimal damage, while power settings of 5 W and 10 W resulted in acute functional and physical nerve damage, correlating with the maximal heating cone in the thermochromic ink model. MALIS settings up to 40 (11 W did not result in major functional or physical nerve damage until the nerve was between the forceps tips, correlating with the hottest zone, localized discretely between the tips.

  15. Reference values and clinical application of magnetic peripheral nerve stimulation in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Soens, Iris; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Bhatti, Sofie F. M.; Van Ham, Luc M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic stimulation of radial (RN) and sciatic (SN) nerves was performed bilaterally in 40 healthy cats. Reference values for onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) were obtained and compared with values of electric motor evoked potentials (EMEPs) in 10

  16. Acute closed traumatic sciatic nerve injury: a complication of heterotopic ossification and prominence of the femoral nail: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niempoog, Sunyarn; Chumchuen, Sukanis

    2014-08-01

    The report of a 27-years-old man with presence of heterotopic ossification (HO) after femoral nailing 7years ago who developed foot drop afterfalling to the ground on his buttocks. Radiographs revealed a prominence ofthefemoral nail with HO in his right hip. EMG confirmedperoneal nerve injury ofthe hip region. Femoral nail and the HO were removed and external neurolysis was performed. At 9 months after surgery, he had not regain motor power thus posterior tibialis tendon transfer was performed to restore ankle dorsiflexion. Finally, at 2 years follow-up, he could ambulate well but did not regained sensation, extensor digitorum communis and peroneal muscle function. PMID:25518317

  17. Application of a Low-Level Laser Therapy and the Purified Protein from Natural Latex (Hevea brasiliensis in the Controlled Crush Injury of the Sciatic Nerve of Rats: A Morphological, Quantitative, and Ultrastructural Study

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    Fernando José Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effects of a low-level laser therapy (LLLT, 15 J/cm2, 780 nm wavelength and the natural latex protein (P1, 0.1% in sciatic nerve after crush injury (15 Kgf, axonotmesis in rats. Sixty rats (male, 250 g were allocated into the 6 groups (n=10: CG—control group; EG—nerve exposed; IG—injured nerve without treatment; LG—crushed nerve treated with LLLT; PG—injured nerve treated with P1; and LPG—injured nerve treated with LLLT and P1. After 4 or 8 weeks, the nerve samples were processed for morphological, histological quantification and ultrastructural analysis. After 4 weeks, the myelin density and morphological characteristics improved in groups LG, PG, and LPG compared to IG. After 8 weeks, PG, and LPG were similar to CG and the capillary density was higher in the LG, PG, and LPG. In the ultrastructural analysis the PG and LPG had characteristics that were similar to the CG. The application of LLLT and/or P1 improved the recovery from the nerve crush injury, and in the long term, the P1 protein was the better treatment used, since only the application of LLLT has not reached the same results, and these treatments applied together did not potentiate the recovery.

  18. Isolated sciatic neuropathy as an initial manifestation of a high grade B-cell lymphoma: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenzhuan; Wang, Weizhen; Gustas, Cristy; Malysz, Jozef; Kaur, Divpreet

    2016-10-01

    Sciatic nerve neuropathy due to infiltrating of a high grade B-cell lymphoma is a very rare situation and has not often been reported. We report a case with a previous history of indolent lymphoma who presented with isolated sciatic nerve neuropathy and was found to have diffuse large B cell lymphoma involving the sciatic nerve. Although the current case is not a primary sciatic nerve lymphoma given the systematic involvement shown on MRI and PET/CT scan, the case represents a neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve given the direct invasion of the lymphoma cells into the sciatic nerve. Due to the rarity of this condition, we subsequently reviewed related literatures.

  19. Methylcobalamin promotes the differentiation of Schwann cells and remyelination in lysophosphatidylcholine-induced demyelination of the rat sciatic nerve

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    Shunsuke eNishimoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs are constituents of the peripheral nervous system. The differentiation of SCs in injured peripheral nerves is critical for regeneration after injury. Methylcobalamin (MeCbl is a vitamin B12 analog that is necessary for the maintenance of the peripheral nervous system. In this study, we estimated the effect of MeCbl on SCs. We showed that MeCbl downregulated the activity of Erk1/2 and promoted the expression of the myelin basic protein in SCs. In a dorsal root ganglion neuron–SC coculture system, myelination was promoted by MeCbl. In a focal demyelination rat model, MeCbl promoted remyelination and motor and sensory functional regeneration. MeCbl promoted the in vitro differentiation of SCs and in vivo myelination in a rat demyelination model and may be a novel therapy for several types of nervous disorders.

  20. Influence of Sancai and conventional acupuncture manipulations on injured sciatic nerve histomorphology and serum interleukin-6 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zedong Cheng; Songzi Wang; Wei Zhang; Chenglin Song; Yuanyuan Song; Cairong Ming; Yiguo Chen

    2010-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion therapy non-specifically raises the pain threshold, relieves regional muscular tension, improves local blood circulation, accelerates elimination of algogenic substances such as acid metabolites, and promotes neural regeneration and functional rehabilitation. However, the effects of acupuncture are synthetically influenced by multiple factors, which vary with acu-puncture point, intensity, and manipulation. The present study explored the analgesic effects and mechanisms of specific Sancai acupuncture manipulation for sciatica. Results revealed that Sancai acupuncture manipulation significantly reduced inflammatory factor interleukin-6 expression in the blood serum of rats with sciatica, exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and promoted rehabilitation of injured nerves. In addition, Sancai acupuncture manipulation exhibited superior curative effects over conventional acupuncture manipulation.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL SCIATIC NERVE REPAIRED BY ACELLULAR NERVE XENOGRAFTS LMPLANTED WITH BMSCS IN RATS%脱细胞异种神经移植体复合BMSCs修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾桦; 王莹; 张莲香; 马全瑞; 佟雷; 佟晓杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:对脱细胞异种神经的生物相容性进行评价,证明应用其复合BMSCs促进神经再生和功能恢复的效果。方法:采用化学萃取法制备兔的脱细胞神经,应用扫描电镜观察其超微结构;将BMSCs种植到神经支架构建神经移植体,体外培养后观察细胞形态;用构建的异种神经移植体桥接大鼠坐骨神经缺损,术后8周,检测胫前肌湿重比率,对再生神经进行组织形态学分析;并应用免疫荧光染色检测神经内NGF的表达。结果:脱细胞异种神经较完整地保留了天然立体的施万细胞基底膜管结构,完全地移除了神经内的施万细胞、轴突和髓鞘成分;在体外培养中支持种植的BMSCs黏附和生长。神经移植术后,与单纯异种脱细胞神经移植组相比,复合BMSCs的异种神经移植体移植能使胫前肌湿重比率增加、有髓神经纤维数目、髓鞘厚度和轴突直径增加;增加再生神经内NGF的表达。结论:异种脱细胞神经移植体具备天然的立体结构,移除了施万细胞、髓鞘等抗原成分;神经支架无细胞毒性,具有良好的细胞相容性;复合BMSCs的异种神经移植体可显著地促进神经再生及功能恢复。%Objective:To evaluate the biocompatibility of acellular nerve xenografts , after bridging nerve gaps by utilizing the BM-SCs-combined xenogenic nerve grafts , the effectiveness of axonal regeneration and functional restoration was demonstrated .Methods:The acellular nerves derived from rabbits through chemically extracted processing were prepared and the ultrastructural organization was subsequently observed using the SEM .The nerve scaffolds were also seeded with BMSCs to construct tissue engineered transplants , af-ter culture in vitro , the ultrastructure of the integrated nerve grafts was observed .And then the xenogenic nerve grafts were employed to bridge sciatic nerve gaps in rats .After 8 weeks post

  2. Applied anatomy of the sciatic nerve injury in the artificial total hip arthroplasty%人工全髋关节置换术中坐骨神经损伤的应用解剖学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨景武; 史晓林

    2005-01-01

    背景:人工全髋关节置换术(THR)是近年来治疗老年人髋关节疾患的首选方法,按Harri's评分优良率为84%.该手术对坐骨神经损伤发生率国内报道为0.46%,国外报道为0.08%~9.70%.目的:通过解剖位置的分析探讨THR术中坐骨神经损伤的因素.设计:以人体解剖标本为研究对象,单一样本研究.单位:湖州师范学院医学院解剖实验室.对象:实验于2003-03/05在湖州师范学院医学院解剖实验室完成.正常人体成年骨盆标本56具,男27具,女29具.方法:对坐骨神经的来源及走行、坐骨神经与髋臼的关系进行测量分析,并对在THR术中拉钩及螺丝钉固定所致坐骨神经损伤,进行详尽测量分析. 主要观察指标:坐骨神经与髋臼的位置关系.结果:测出坐骨神经至髋臼底的距离左侧为(6.00±0.85)mm,右侧为(6.00±0.71)mm;坐骨神经至髋臼缘的距离左侧为(13.00±0.75)mm,右侧为(14.00±0.06)mm.坐骨神经在髋臼缘处周径左侧为(32.00±0.28)mm,右侧为(31.00±0.68)mm.髋臼底至坐骨大孔的距离为左侧为(29.00±0.36)mm,右侧为(29.00±0.24)mm.结论:确定拉钩及螺丝钉固定在1~3点及5~6点为安全区.在THR术中陈旧髋臼骨折脱位、拉钩的位置不当、螺钉固定髋臼位置不当均可导致医源因素损伤坐骨神经.%BACKGROUND: At present, the artificial total hip replacement(THR) is the first choice of the hip joint disease for the old, and the choiceness rate is 84% according to the Harri' s grade, and the therapeutic effect is content. The occurrence rate of the sciatic nerve injury in the THR is reported to be 0.46% in and 0. 08%-9.7% abroad.OBJECTIVE: To study the influencing factors of the sciatic nerve injury in the THR through the anatomical location analysis.DESIGN: Single sample study based on the human anatomical samples.SETTING: Human Anatomy Laboratory in the Medical Department of the Huzhou Normal University.PARTICIPANTS: The study was completed in the

  3. Dixdc1 targets CyclinD1 and p21 via PI3K pathway activation to promote Schwann cell proliferation after sciatic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weijie; Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yuxi; Yu, Zhaohui; Wang, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Dixdc1 (DIX domain containing-1), the mammalian homolog of Ccd1 (Coiled-coil-Dishevelled-Axin1), is a protein containing a coiled-coil domain and a Dishevelled-Axin (DIX) domain. As a novel component of the Wnt pathway, Dixdc1 has been reported to be able to promote neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. But there still remains something unknown about Dixdc1 distribution and functions in the lesion and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), so we tried to investigate dynamic changes of Dixdc1 expression in a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model in this study. First of all, we detected SNC-induced increased levels of Dixdc1 in Schwann cells and interestingly identified parallel expression of PCNA (proliferation cell nuclear antigen) with Dixdc1. Besides, we observed up-regulated Dixdc1 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation. Also, we discovered that Dixdc1 could promote G1-S phase transition accompanied with the up-regulation of CyclinD1 and down-regulation of p21. More importantly, enhanced effects of Dixdc1 on cell proliferation were confirmed to be associated with PI3K activation. Not only blocking of the PI3K but Dixdc1 knockdown led to significantly decreased ability for proliferation, as well as down-regulation of CyclinD1 and up-regulation of p21. In summary, these data demonstrated that Dixdc1 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation by targeting CyclinD1 and p21 at least partially through the PI3K/AKT activation. PMID:27521891

  4. Toward a Broader View of Ube3a in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome: Expression in Brain, Spinal Cord, Sciatic Nerve and Glial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Grier

    Full Text Available Angelman Syndrome (AS is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, speech impairment, movement disorder, sleep disorders and refractory epilepsy. AS is caused by loss of the Ube3a protein encoded for by the imprinted Ube3a gene. Ube3a is expressed nearly exclusively from the maternal chromosome in mature neurons. While imprinting in neurons of the brain has been well described, the imprinting and expression of Ube3a in other neural tissues remains relatively unexplored. Moreover, given the overwhelming deficits in brain function in AS patients, the possibility of disrupted Ube3a expression in the infratentorial nervous system and its consequent disability have been largely ignored. We evaluated the imprinting status of Ube3a in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve and show that it is also imprinted in these neural tissues. Furthermore, a growing body of clinical and radiological evidence has suggested that myelin dysfunction may contribute to morbidity in many neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, findings regarding Ube3a expression in non-neuronal cells of the brain have varied. Utilizing enriched primary cultures of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, we show that Ube3a is expressed, but not imprinted in these cell types. Unlike many other neurodevelopmental disorders, AS symptoms do not become apparent until roughly 6 to 12 months of age. To determine the temporal expression pattern and silencing, we analyzed Ube3a expression in AS mice at several time points. We confirm relaxed imprinting of Ube3a in neurons of the postnatal developing cortex, but not in structures in which neurogenesis and migration are more complete. This furthers the hypothesis that the apparently normal window of development in AS patients is supported by an incompletely silenced paternal allele in developing neurons, resulting in a relative preservation of Ube3a expression during this crucial epoch of early development.

  5. Toward a Broader View of Ube3a in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome: Expression in Brain, Spinal Cord, Sciatic Nerve and Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Mark D; Carson, Robert P; Lagrange, Andre Hollis

    2015-01-01

    Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, speech impairment, movement disorder, sleep disorders and refractory epilepsy. AS is caused by loss of the Ube3a protein encoded for by the imprinted Ube3a gene. Ube3a is expressed nearly exclusively from the maternal chromosome in mature neurons. While imprinting in neurons of the brain has been well described, the imprinting and expression of Ube3a in other neural tissues remains relatively unexplored. Moreover, given the overwhelming deficits in brain function in AS patients, the possibility of disrupted Ube3a expression in the infratentorial nervous system and its consequent disability have been largely ignored. We evaluated the imprinting status of Ube3a in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve and show that it is also imprinted in these neural tissues. Furthermore, a growing body of clinical and radiological evidence has suggested that myelin dysfunction may contribute to morbidity in many neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, findings regarding Ube3a expression in non-neuronal cells of the brain have varied. Utilizing enriched primary cultures of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, we show that Ube3a is expressed, but not imprinted in these cell types. Unlike many other neurodevelopmental disorders, AS symptoms do not become apparent until roughly 6 to 12 months of age. To determine the temporal expression pattern and silencing, we analyzed Ube3a expression in AS mice at several time points. We confirm relaxed imprinting of Ube3a in neurons of the postnatal developing cortex, but not in structures in which neurogenesis and migration are more complete. This furthers the hypothesis that the apparently normal window of development in AS patients is supported by an incompletely silenced paternal allele in developing neurons, resulting in a relative preservation of Ube3a expression during this crucial epoch of early development. PMID:25894543

  6. Neuroprotective effect of docosahexaenoic acid nanoemulsion on erectile function in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Wu, Yi-No; Chen, Bin-Huei; Lin, Ying-Hung; Ho, Hsiu-O; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for treatment of erectile dysfunction resulting from radical prostatectomy and cavernous nerve (CN) injury. Given the neuroprotective properties of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), we investigated its effect on penile functional and structural recovery in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve injury. Rats were subject to CN injury and received intraperitoneal administration of either vehicle or a DHA nanoemulsion (nano-DHA) at 10, 50, or 250 μg/kg. Functional testing and histological analyses were performed at 28 days post-injury. The maximum intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and other measures of erectile function were significantly higher in the nano-DHA groups than in the vehicle group (p erectile function after bilateral CN injury in rats by neuroprotection and other anti-fibrotic and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:27625175

  7. 局部应用丝裂霉素C对大鼠坐骨神经影响的实验研究%Influence of topical application of mitomycin C on rat sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦洪; 曹晓建

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察局部应用丝裂霉素C(Mitomycin C,MMC)对SD大鼠坐骨神经痛觉、组织形态学、超微结构及运动功能的影响。方法分3次实验,实验1:分别在术后1、2、3、5d 测量热缩足反射潜伏期来评估大鼠坐骨神经的痛觉变化;实验2:分别在手术即刻及术后1、2、3 d,用光镜及电镜结果来评估坐骨神经形态学及超微结构的改变;实验3:术后三天通过斜板实验结果来评估坐骨神经运动功能的变化。结果术后1、2、3、5 d各时间点对照组及MMC组热缩足潜伏期无显著性差异(P>0.05)。与对照组相比,MMC组之间髓鞘厚度、轴突直径差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。术后三天,MMC组与对照组相比,斜板实验结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论局部应用浓度不超过0.7 mg/ml的MMC不会对大鼠坐骨神经的痛觉、组织形态、超微结构和运动功能产生明显影响,0.7 mg/ml为实验大鼠坐骨神经局部应用MMC的相对安全浓度。%Objective To investigate the effects of topical application of mitomycin C (MMC) on pain sensation,morphological changes,ultrastructure and motor function of sciatic nerve in SD rats. Methods The study included three experiments. The first experiment:Pain sensation of sciatic nerves were evaluated by paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTL) on the 1st,2nd,3rd,5th day after operation. The second experiment:Morphological changes of sciatic nerves was evaluated by light microscopy,electron microscopy immediately and on the 1st,2nd,3rd day after operation. The third experiment:Motor function of sciatic nerves in the rats were evaluated by inclined plane test on the 3rd day after operation. Results The control group and MMC group had no significant difference in PWTL on the 1st,2nd,3rd,5th day after operation (P>0.05). At the operation time and the 1st, 2nd,3rd day after operation,compared with the control group,there were no significant

  8. 660 nm红光对大鼠坐骨神经钳压损伤的修复作用%Effects of 660nm red light on crush-induced sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松; 赵阳; 李献超; 陈龙; 陈玉霞; 刘玲; 肖农

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究不同治疗参数的660 nm红光照射对大鼠坐骨神经损伤修复作用.方法 选取成年SD雄性大鼠45只,按随机数字表法分为对照组与治疗1、2、3、4组,每组9只.采用钳压法建立大鼠坐骨神经损伤模型,治疗1、2、3、4组分别采用不同参数(不同的功率密度和照射时间)的660 nm红光照射损伤部位,每日1次,连续治疗21d.5组大鼠均于术前和术后第7、14、21天进行神经电生理测定,测定其坐骨神经复合肌动作电位(CMAP)潜伏期、波幅、坐骨神经传导速度,并于术前和术后第4、7、14、21天采用坐骨神经功能指数(SFI)进行行走功能评价.结果 术后第21天,治疗1、2、3、4组大鼠的CMAP潜伏期和波幅与对照组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗3组和对照组坐骨神经传导速度分别为(36.06±1.84) m/s和(30.60±5.04) m/s,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗2组、治疗3组和对照组SFI负值分别为(-10.88±11.16)、(-11.91 ±7.11)和(-21.26 ±4.79),组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 红光照射可促进大鼠坐骨神经损伤修复,改善其行走功能.%Objective To explore the therapeutic effects of 660 nm red light on sciatic nerve injury in adult rats.Methods Forty-five adult,male rats were divided into a control group and treatment groups 1,2,3 and 4.Sciatic nerve injury was modeled by crushing the nerve.The treatment groups received irradiation with red light once daily for 21 consecutive days.The power density of red light and irradiation time varied among the groups.The latency and amplitude of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and nerve conductive velocity were examined at different time points.The Sciatic Function Index (SFI) was used to evaluate walking function.Results After 21 days of red light therapy no statistically significant differences were observed between the control group and treatment groups 1 to 4 with regard to the latency or the amplitude

  9. High-voltage electrical stimulation improves nerve regeneration after sciatic crush injury Estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem favorece a regeneração nervosa após compressão do nervo isquiático

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana M. Teodori; Andréia M. Silva; Meiricris T. Silva; Larissa S. Oliveira; Polacow, Maria L. O.; Elaine C. O. Guirro

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury causes prolonged functional limitation being a clinical challenge to identify resources that accelerates its recovery. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of high-voltage electrical stimulation (HVES) on the morphometric and functional characteristics of the regenerated nerve after crush injury in rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Control (CON) - without injury and without HVES; Denervated (D) - sciatic nerve crush o...

  10. 不同频率的脉冲电磁场对大鼠坐骨神经损伤的疗效%Effects of Different Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Functions of the Damaged Sciatic Nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦雅鑫; 王国祥; 施俊锋; 许冬华; 任占云

    2011-01-01

    目的:采用不同频率脉冲电磁场(PEMF)干预坐骨神经损伤大鼠,探索PEMF治疗坐骨神经损伤的最适治疗频率.方法:SD大鼠50只,随机分为假手术组、对照组、2 Hz组、10 Hz组和40 Hz组,每组10只,除假手术组外,所有大鼠按文献方法钳夹坐骨神经造模.2 Hz组、10 Hz组和40 Hz组在强度为0.3 mT,频率分别为2、10、40 Hz的PEMF环境中接受治疗,2 h/次,Bid,共30 d,治疗结束后检测坐骨神经功能指数(SFI)及神经传导速度(NCV).结果:2 Hz组SFI及NCV高于对照组、10 Hz组和40 Hz组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),与假手术组之间也有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:0.3 mT、2 Hz可能是治疗坐骨神经损伤的适合频率.%Objective: Using different frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) to intervene sciatic nerve injury in rats, the changes of the nerve's function have been explored to detemine the optimal frequency of PEMF in treating sciatic nerve injury. Methods: Fifty adult SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal group, model group, 2 Hz group, 10 Hz group, and 40 Hz group. Besides the normal group, all the tested rats were clamped to generate sciatic nerve injury according to the literatures. Groups 2 Hz, 10 Hz, and 40 Hz were treated with PEMF, which the field strength was 0.3 mT, with different the frequencies of 2 Hz, 10 Hz and 40 Hz respectively. The treatment was applied 2 h per time, 2 times per day for 30 days. No intervention was applied to the normal and model groups. The sciatic nerve function index (SFI)and nerve conduction velocity(NCV) have been measured. Results: With the same magnetic field strength and the frequency of 2 Hz, the SFI and MCV were significantly higher than those in modle, 10 Hz, and 40 Hz groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: 0.3 mT 2 Hz PEMF may be suitable for the treatment of the sciatic nerve injury.

  11. Tadalafil rehabilitation therapy preserves penile size after bilateral nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgu Aydogdu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the change in penile size r bilateral nerve sparing retropubic radical prostatectomy (BNSRRP and possible effect of Tadalafil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 65 patients underwent BNSRRP and they were evaluated prospectively for a whole year of follow-up . The patients were randomized to control without rehabilitation (Group 1 or Tadalafil rehabilitation group (Group 2. The patients were evaluated at months 3, 6 and 12 postoperatively for erectile function, penile measurements (flaccid penile length, penile length at maximum erection, penile circumference at flaccid status, and penile circumference at maximum erection, penile abnormalities and general health status. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-Square test and significance was defined as p value < 0.05. RESULTS: In Group 1 there was significant decrease in penile measurements at month 3 compared to preoperative measurements. There was decrease in all parameters at month 6 compared to month 3 but only the decrease in penile length at maximum erection was significant. There were no significant differences between postoperative months 6 and 12 for all measurements. In Group 2 there was a tendency to decrease in all measurements at month 3 compared to baseline. There was no significant difference for penile measurements between postoperative 3rd and 6th months and between 6th month and the first year. CONCLUSION: Although further large sampled trials are needed to describe the possible positive effect of tadalafil or other PDE5-I's on penile size after BNSRRP, tadalafil rehabilitation is effective in preserving penile size especially in the early postoperative period after BNSRRP.

  12. Effects of xenotransplantation of microencapsulated sciatic nerve tissue cells on the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide after spinal cord injury in rats%异种细胞移植对大鼠损伤脊髓降钙素基因相关肽表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段平国; 孙贵才; 刘德明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of xenotransplantation of the microencapsulated sciatic nerve tissue/cella on the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats.Methods: Bilateral sciatic nerves of rabbits were preconditioned for 1 week were dissected under sterile conditions and made into nerve tissue/cells suspension which was mixed with 1.5% sodium alginate solution.The mixture was then extruded using a droplet generation device into 20 mmol/L barium chloride solution to form barium-alginate capsules.Microencapsulated nerve tissue/cells suspension was implanted into the injured sites of the spinal cord in rats.By immunohistochernstry, the expressions of CGRP were observed.Results: The number of CGRP-positive cells in the right ventral horn of spinal cord of rats reduced remarkably in each group after SCI, and it gradually recovered in varying degrees 1 week later.The difference of the number of CGRP-positive cells between the microcapsule group and the cell group was not remarkable, but both of them existed in the distinction when compared with the injury group (P <0.05).At 2, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after SCI, compared to the cell group and injury group,the number of CGRP-positive cells in the microcapsule group increased obviotrsly.Conclusion: The xenotransplantation of the microencapsulated sciatic nerve tissue/cells promotes the expression of CGRP after SCI in rats, benefiting the regeneration of neuron.%目的:观察微囊化异种坐骨神经组织细胞移植对脊髓损伤大鼠降钙素基因相关肽(CGRP)表达的影响.方法:取家兔预变性处理1周的坐骨神经制成组织细胞悬液,与1.5%海藻酸钠溶液混合并喷入20mmol/L氯化钡溶液中制成微囊化的组织细胞悬液.将其植入SD大鼠脊髓损伤处,通过免疫组织化学显色观察CGRP的表达情况.结果:SCI后各组大鼠右侧脊髓前角CGRP阳性细胞数减少,1周后均不同程度地逐渐恢复.SCI后1周,细

  13. Compound injection of Radix Hedysari to promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海林; 姜保国; 张殿英; 付忠国; 张宏波

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of compound injectionof Radix Hedysari on peripheral nerve regeneration in rats.Methods: Seventy-five healthy adult SD male rats,weighing 150 g, were randomized into 5 groups (15 rats ineach group). The bilateral sciatic nerves of the rats wereexposed and clamped with a smooth clamp to make aninjury area of 2 mm. After clamp operation Group 1 wasinjected with compound injection of radix Hedysari (CIRH)1.5 ml/day, Group 2 with CIRH 1.0 md/day, Group 3 withCIRH 0.5 ml/day, Group 4 with nerve growth factor(NGF) 50 U/day, and Group 5 was taken as the controlgroup without any management. The bilateral sciatic nervewas taken out at 3 days, 1, 2 and 4 weeks after clamping,stained with osmic acid and observed microscopically. Themyelinated nerve fibers were counted. The nerveconduction velocity was determined 2 and and 4 weeksbefore sample taking the sciatic nerve function index wasmeasured 4 weeks before sample taking.Results: The results of nerve conduction velocity, themyelinated nerve fiber count and the sciatic functuion indexin the CIRH treated groups were better than those in thecontrol group. The results of the nerve conduction velocityand the myelinated nerve fiber count at 2 weeks and thenerve conduction velocity at 4 weeks in Group 1 were betterthan those of Group 4. Biological observation showed thatdegenerated and necrotic myelin sheath in CIRH treatedGroups at 2 and 4 weeks decreased remarkably compared to the NGF treated group.ConcIusions: CIRH can promote regeneration ofperipheral nerves and absorption of degenerated andnecrotic injured nerves. It has the same effect as NGF.

  14. Bilateral tectal innervation by regenerating optic nerve fibers in goldfish: a radioautographic, electrophysiological and behavioral study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A D; Heacock, A M; Schmidt, J T; Agranoff, B W

    1977-06-17

    Following unilateral enucleation and optic nerve crush in goldfish, the remaining nerve regenerates and innervates both optic tecta. Approximately 5% of the nerve fibers reach the ipsilateral optic tectum (IOT) via the ipsilateral tract at the chiasma. Comparable debris in both tracts was not sufficient to result in an IOT projection since when both nerves were crushed simultaneously the usual pattern was seen, i.e., each nerve innervated a contralateral optic tectum (COT). When the arrival of one nerve at the chiasma was delayed by staggering the nerve crushes, the nerve that first arrived at the chiasma partially innervated the Iot. In most instances the entire IOT was innervated, however, the stratigraphic distribution of fibers in the various tectal lamina was atypical. Electrophysiological analysis indicated that fibers from each area of the retina innervated the IOT visuotopically. The COT was ablated in order to determine whether the IOT projection could mediate behavior. All fish failed to respond to changes in illumination as measured by respiration and failed to swim with or against the stripes in an optomotor drum. Thus, the IOT input, possibly because of its sparseness, could not be shown to be behaviorally functional. PMID:69466

  15. Malignant otitis externa with bilateral cranial nerve involvement: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant otitis externa is an inflammatory condition caused by pseudomonas infection usually in the elderly diabetics, or an immunosuppressive condition that presents with diffuse otitis externa along with excruciating pain and granulations tissue in the external auditory meatus. Facial paralysis is common along with occasional involvement of other cranial nerves. Case report describing a patient of malignant otitis externa who presented to a tertiary referral hospital of eastern India. This patient had ipsilateral facial and tenth cranial nerve paralysis along with delayed-onset contralateral sixth and twelfth cranial nerve palsy. The patient was treated initially with intravenous anti-pseudomonal antibody followed by tympanic platectomy, facial nerve decompression and medialisation thyroplasty. The contralateral cranial nerve palsy was managed conservatively with partial recovery of function. Malignant otitis externa, though a common disease, may occasionally present with uncommon or unexplained presentations. The management of these cases should be prompt and aggressive and specifically address each of the debilitating complications.

  16. 物理治疗促进坐骨神经损伤再生的实验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON REGENERATION OF SCIATIC NERVE INJURY WITH PHYSICAL THERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟; 俞红; 徐义明; 白跃宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective Peri pheral nerve injury is a common clinical disease, to study the effects of the physical therapy on the regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve, and provide a reference for clinical treatment.Methods Sixty-four female adult Wistar rats (weighing 252-365 g) were chosen and randomly divided into 4 groups (n=16): group A, group B, group C, and group D.The experimental model of sciatic nerve defect was established by crushing the right sciatic nerve in groups B, C, and D; group A served as the control group without crushing.At 2 days after injury, no treatment was given in group B,electrical stimulation in group C, and combined physical therapies (decimeter and infrared ray) in group D.At 0, 7, 14, and 30 days after treatment, the sciatic nerve function index (SFI) and the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) were measured,and morphological and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations were done; at 30 days after treatment, the morphological evaluation analysis of axons was performed.Results At 0 and 7 days after treatment, the SFI values of groups B, C, and D were significantly higher than that of group A (P < 0.05); at 14 and 30 days after treatment, the SFI value of group D decreased significantly, no significant difference was observed between group D and group A (P > 0.05) at 30 days; whereas the SFI values of groups B and C decreased, showing significant difference when compared with the value of group A (P < 0.05).At 0, 7, and 14 days after treatment, the MNCV values of groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than that of group A (P <0.05), and there were significantly differences between group B and groups C, D (P < 0.05); at 14 days, the MNCV value of group D was significantly higher than that of group C (P < 0.05); and at 30 days, the MNCV values of groups B and C were significantly lower than that of group A (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between group D and group A (P > 0.05).At 0 and 7

  17. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factors I and II are mitogenic to cultured rat sciatic nerve segments and stimulate [3H]thymidine incorporation through their respective receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Kanje, M

    1996-01-01

    The factors that control proliferation of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve regeneration are not yet known. In this study we investigated the effects of insulin, insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), IGF-I analogues, and factors that interfere with their respective receptors...... potent. JB1, an IGF-I antagonist, counteracted the effects of tIGF-I and insulin. The results suggest that non-neuronal cells in the nerve segment, probably Schwann cells, possess distinct receptors for insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II and that these receptors may be involved in the control of Schwann cell......, on [3H]thymidine incorporation into cultured nerve segments from the rat sciatic nerve. Segments cultured in nM (0.1-1.7 nM) concentrations of insulin, truncated IGF-I (tIGF-I), long R3IGF-I, or IGF-II exhibited an increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation compared with control segments. IGF-II was most...

  18. Adenovirus-mediates gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for repairing sciatic nerve injury%重组腺病毒载体AxCA-BDNF基因转染修复坐骨神经损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培建; 李兵仓

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: How to accelerate injury repair and regeneration following peripheral nerve injury is the research focus. Gene therapy may be the possible treatment for this problem.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDN F) gene after microinjected adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of BDNF (AxCA-BDNF) to the sciatic nerve for peripheral nerve regeneration.METHODS: Based on silicone tube graft as a support to bridge adult rat sciatic nerve gaps, Wistar rat were microinjected recombinant adenovirus vector of BDNF (AxCA-BDNF), BDNF and simple injection of virus buffer to the sciatic nerve respectively.With the methods of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, the BDNF gene expression was certified, the number of the new nerve fibers and motoneurons in anterior horn of the spinal cord were calculated, and the myelin sheath thickness of the new nerve fibers was measu red at 3, 7, 14 days and 1 , 2, 4 months after operation.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the BDNF and control group, the expression of the BDNF gene in the proximal end, distal end and spinal cord (L3-6) of injured sciatic nerve were obviously higher than that of the BDNF and control groups (P < 0.01). The result of retrograde axonal transport of HRP tracer indicated the survival neurons, regenerated nerve fibers,thickness of myelin sheath, as well as the re-formation of nerve connection of the AxCA-BDNF group were superior to the control group(P < 0.01). The results demonstrated that exogenous BDNF gene and its express proteins were uptaken to the spinal cord motoneurons through retrograde axonal transport. Gene therapy for sciatic nerve injury of adult rats by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in vivo not only promotes nerve regeneration but also protects the neurons in the spinal cord.%背景:如何促进周围神经损伤修复与再生一直是基础与临床研究的热点.基因治疗有可能成为今后

  19. Neuroprotective effect of docosahexaenoic acid nanoemulsion on erectile function in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Wu, Yi-No; Chen, Bin-Huei; Lin, Ying-Hung; Ho, Hsiu-O; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for treatment of erectile dysfunction resulting from radical prostatectomy and cavernous nerve (CN) injury. Given the neuroprotective properties of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), we investigated its effect on penile functional and structural recovery in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve injury. Rats were subject to CN injury and received intraperitoneal administration of either vehicle or a DHA nanoemulsion (nano-DHA) at 10, 50, or 250 μg/kg. Functional testing and histological analyses were performed at 28 days post-injury. The maximum intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and other measures of erectile function were significantly higher in the nano-DHA groups than in the vehicle group (p nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)/β-III tubulin, numbers of axon and smooth muscle cell content were significantly higher in the 50 μg/kg nano-DHA group than in the vehicle group (p < 0.05). A qualitative increase in the smooth muscle cells/collagen ratio and decrease in apoptosis was observed in the nano-DHA groups relative to the vehicle group: however, these differences were not statistically significant. Our data demonstrate that nano-DHA, particularly the 50 μg/kg regimen, improves erectile function after bilateral CN injury in rats by neuroprotection and other anti-fibrotic and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:27625175

  20. 人参皂甙Rb1对玻璃化保存坐骨神经异体移植后神经再生的影响%Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on sciatic nerve preserved by vitrification and nerve regeneration after allograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄英如; 蒋电明; 冼华; 黄剑; 陈增刚; 王雷

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective] To investigate the effects of Ginsenoside Rbl (G - Rbl ) on sciatic nerve preserved by vitrification and nerve regeneration after allograft in rats. [Method]At -20℃ ,Wistar rat sciatic nerve segments were preserved in 0,50, 100,200 μg · L-1 G-Rbl vitrification solution (groups A,B,C and D)for4 weeks. The sciatic nerves were observed by transmission electron microscope, and the apoptosis of the sciatic nerves were detected by TUNEL. The Wistar rat sciatic nerves preserved for 4 weeks were transplanted to 10 mm sciatic nerve defect of the corresponding SD rats (groups A' , B' , C' and D'). The sciatic functional index were observed at 4,8,14 weeks post - transplantation, the histological and the electrophysiological changes of regenerating nerve,and the motor end - plate were detected at 16 weeks post - transplantation. [ Result] Demyelina-tion, and breakdown of the basal lamina and the cytoplasmic membrane in group A was seen, but gentle denaturation of myelin sheath in groups B,C and D were present,and the basal lamina,as well as the cytoplasmic membrane remained intact. The apoptosis index in groups B,C and D were significantly lighter than that in group A,and lighter in groups C and D than in group B(P <0.05) ,but there was no significant differences between group C and group D (P >0.05). On the sciatic functional index at different time post -transplantation,the nerve conduction velocity,the latent,the amplitude, as well as the number and the area and the staining of motor end - plate at 16 weeks post - transplantation, there were significant differences between groups B' , C ,D and group A' ,groups C ,D and group B' (P<0.05) ,and there were no significant differences between group C and group D' ( P > 0.05). The observation of transmission electron microscope showed that medullated nerve fibers and thickness of myelin sheath in groups A' and B' were more thin than that in groups C' and D' , and that the connective tissue hyperplasia in

  1. Autophagy of neuron axon during regeneration of rat sciatic nerves%大鼠坐骨神经再生过程中的神经元轴突自噬作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴仲贤; 王万山; 徐锡金; 王启伟; 霍霞; 韩明虎; 朴英杰

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the autophagic clearance of degenerated neuron axon during regeneration of rat sciatic nerves. Methods Wallefian degeneration model was established in rats by sciatic nerve transection. Samples fiom the distal stump were collected at different time points after the transaction and ultrathin sections prepared for electron microscopic examination and acid phosphatase (AcPase) activity detection. Results Neuron axon degeneration occurred after transection of rat sciatic nerve, presenting predominantly swelling of the axoplasm and separation of the axon fiom the myelin sheath seen 5 h to 2 d after the transection. On day 4, axoplasm condensation took place and the axons were completely separated from the myelin sheath to form dissociative axon body. Vacuoles of various sizes were identified in the axon in the early stage after operation and later when the axons were completely dissociated fiom the nerve sheath, larger dissociative axon bodies occurred. The axolemma surrounding the axon body was derived from the neuronal cytomembrane, and the condensed axoplasm contained numerous autophagic vacuoles at all levels along with large number of neurofilaments, microtubules and microfilaments arranged in a crisscross pattern. The autophagic vacuoles exhibited acid phosphatase (AcPase) activities. Since the day 7, the axon bodies were absorbed after degradation and macrophages could be spotted occasionally. Conclusion The degenerated axons were cleared mainly through autophagy during regeneration of rat sciatic nerve and maerophages only assist in this process.%目的探讨大鼠坐骨神经变性轴突清除中的自噬作用.方法横切大鼠坐骨神经制作Wallerian变性模型,造模后不同时间点取远断端组织行电镜结构观察和酸性磷酸酶(AcPase)活性检测.结果坐骨神经横切后轴突发生变性,主要变化为术后第5小时~2天轴质肿胀,轴突与髓鞘分离,术后第4天轴质浓缩,轴突与髓鞘完全分

  2. Autopsy Proven Peripheral Nervous System Neurolymphomatosis Despite Negative Bilateral Sural Nerve Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo eRamirez-Zamora; Sarkis Gibran eMorales Vidal; Jasvinder eChawla; Jose eBiller

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Neurolymphomatosis (NL) refers to a lymphomatous infiltration of peripheral nerves associated with central nervous system (CNS) or systemic lymphoma, or alternatively, neurodiagnostic evidence of nerve enhancement and/or enlargement beyond the dural sleeve in the setting of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) or systemic lymphoma. NL is a rare complication of systemic cancer with heterogeneous clinical presentations and an elusive diagnosis. Diagnosis usually requires ...

  3. 同种异体神经复合体修复兔坐骨神经缺损的研究%Planting fetus rabbit schwann cells into the extracted acellular nerve graft of homogeneity in repairing rabbit sciatic nerve defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小华; 韩金豹; 张沉冰; 田德虎; 韩久卉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To plant fetus rabbit Schwann cells that were cultured and purified in vitro into the chemically extracted acellular nerve graft of homogeneity and made it into bridging complex. Then transplant the bridging complex into the rabbit defective sciatic nerve. The experiment was designed to investigate the effect of the nerve allografts on the functional recovery and the condition of nerve regeneration. Methods 48 adult healthy New-Zealand albino rabbits,weighing 1.5-2.0 kg,were randomly divided into 2 groups with 24 rabbits each group,based on different grafts. The bridging complex were composed of Schwann cell, then transplanted it to repair defective sciatic nerve of the experiment group rabbit. The control group did not transplant Schwann cells. The sciatic nerve of lower left limb was cut in order to emerge 2cm nerves defect for each rabbit,then was transplated with different grafts. Observed the ulcers on the feet of the rabbit 4,8 and 16 weeks after operation. To observe sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination by light microscope. To observe the information of nerve regeneration and myelination and the ultrastructural change of the mitochondrion, the microtubule, the microfilament and Schwann cells by electron microscope. Make use of the analytical system on picture to treat the number of regenerated nerve fiber and the axon diameter and the thickness of myelin sheath of medullated nerve fibers,then measured the wet weight of the triceps surae. Then analyzed them in statistics. Results After operation, the immunological rejection was not found in the operating field. The experimental group was better than the control group in healing of ulcers, after 4,8,16 weeks,the number of regenerated nerve fiber and the axon diameter and the thickness of myelin sheath of medullated nervefibers (906.25 ± 30.68,1726.25 ±51. 89,2825.13 ± 22.79) , (5.35 ± 0.62,5.46 ±0.38,5.59 ±0.80), (1.65 ±0.37,1.75 ±0.41,1.83 ±0.49) (P 0.05). But after 8 and 16 weeks

  4. Bilateral Infraorbital Nerve Block Versus Intravenous Pentazocine: A Comparative Study on Post-operative Pain Relief Following Cleft Lip Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Gurpreeti; Grewal, Anju

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Infra orbital nerve block is utilized for postoperative pain control in children undergoing cleft lip repair. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of infra orbital nerve block and opioids for postoperative pain relief following cheiloplasty. Materials and Methods Sixty paediatric patients aged 3 months – 13 years undergoing cheiloplasty were selected by simple random sampling and were divided into two groups. All the children received standardized premedication with midazolam, were operated upon under general anaesthesia and the block was performed at the end of surgery before reversal. Group B patients were administered bilateral infra orbital nerve block with 0.25% Bupivacaine (upto 2 mg/kg). Group O patients received Pentazocine 0.5 mg / kg IV. Postoperatively, the heart rate and respiratory rates were recorded every 15 minutes for the first 60 minutes, half hourly till 4 hours and then at 12 and 24 hours. Behavioural assessment for pain / discomfort was done at intervals of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 12 and 24 hours. Need for supplementary analgesics and duration between the administration of block/opioid and the first dose of supplementary analgesics were noted. Side effects such as nausea and vomiting, pruritus, respiratory depression and bradycardia during each of these periods were noted. Results Both the groups were comparable for age, sex, weight and operative time with no statistical difference. The mean duration of analgesia for infra orbital nerve block was 357.5 minutes i.e. 5 hours 58 minutes and that for opioid was 231 minutes i.e. 3 hours 51 minutes which was significantly lower than the hours of analgesia provided by the block. Further, at the 4th hour, 76.6% of the patients in Group O required supplementary analgesics, in contrast to only 16.6% in Group B. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and pruritus was also higher in Group O. Conclusion The results indicate that bilateral

  5. Efeito do laser de baixa intensidade (660 nm na regeneração do nervo isquiático lesado em ratos Effect of low- power laser (660 nm on regeneration of injured rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Inácio Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os nervos periféricos são estruturas que, ao sofrerem lesões, podem originar incapacidades motoras e sensitivas importantes. O laser de baixa intensidade é um dos diversos recursos terapêuticos para promover a regeneração nervosa precoce, mas ainda não há consenso sobre sua utilização. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar, por meio de avaliação funcional, o efeito da terapia a laser de baixa intensidade (660 nm na regeneração do nervo isquiático após esmagamento. Foram utilizados 18 ratos (Wistar submetidos à lesão do nervo isquiático divididos em dois grupos, controle e grupo laser, submetido ao tratamento a laser (AsGaAl, 660 nm, 10J/cm2, 30 mW e 0,06 cm² por 21 dias no local da lesão. Para a avaliação funcional, foi aplicado o índice funcional do ciático (IFC no pré-operatório e nos 7º, 14º e 21º dias de pós-operatório. Quando comparados o IFC dos grupos no 14o dia de pós-operatório, foi encontrada melhora significante no grupo laser em relação ao controle. Na amostra analisada e nos parâmetros utilizados, pôde-se constatar que a aplicação do laser foi eficaz na recuperação funcional precoce do nervo ciático esmagado.Peripheral nerves, when injured, may originate important motor and sensitive disability. Studies have used several therapeutic resources in order to achieve early nervous regeneration, such as low-power laser; but there is no consensus on its use, which leads to controversial conclusions. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of GaAlAs laser (660 nm on functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats. Sciatic nerves of 18 Wistar rats were crushed and divided into sham group and treated group, the latter submitted to laser therapy (660 nm, 10 J/cm², 30 mW and 0.06 cm2 for 21 days. The sciatic functional index (SFI was measured before surgery and on the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. A significant difference, showing better regeneration of the treated group, was

  6. Acute sciatic neuropathy: "Saturday night palsy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manigoda Miodrag

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of 25-year old, unemployed male, admitted to hospital due to acute onset of the left foot drop, subsequent walking difficulty and numbness of the left calf and foot. Symptoms began after prolonged sleep with previous heroin abuse by sniffing. During neurological examination, mild weakness of knee flexors, moderate weakness of plantar flexors and paralysis of foot dorsiflexors, together with hypesthesia of the left calf, foot and fingers, predominantly in the innervation area of common peroneal nerve on the same side, were observed. The electrophysiologic examination revealed predominant involvement of peroneal division within the sciatic nerve, together with recorded conduction block indicating the compression as possible mechanism of nerve injury. The patient was administered corticosteroid therapy during two months, what resulted in almost complete recovery. The peculiarity of this case report is in the presence of the sciatic nerve "Saturday night palsy" with possible effect of former heroin abuse.

  7. 小儿坐骨神经注射性麻痹的肌电图观察%Electromyography observation of sciatic nerve paralysis caused by injection in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓丽

    2004-01-01

    背景:肌电图检测是确诊注射性坐骨神经损伤重要方法之一,但其早期异常表现,异常程度与病程的相关性及各项指标的差异比较尚缺乏深入研究.目的:探讨注射性坐骨神经损伤的电生理特点.设计:以诊断为依据临床观察分析.地点和对象:104例南京医科大学附属脑科医院门诊确诊患儿,年龄4个月~14岁,病前均有明确臀部肌肉注射史,既往无其他神经肌肉疾病.干预:应用丹迪Neuromatic 2000 M型肌电仪检测患儿的患肢肌电图.主要观察指标:检测患儿的患肢腓总神经和胫神经/胫后神经的感觉传导速度(sensory conduction velocity,SCV)、运动传导速度(motor conduction velocity,MCV)、末端运动潜伏期(distal motor latency,dML)和末端复合肌肉动作电位波幅(distal compound muscle action potential amplitude,dCMAPA)、感觉神经动作电位波幅(sensory nerve action potential ampli-tude,SNAPA);同时检测坐骨神经支配肌的针极肌电图.结果:肌注后2~7 d已可检出多项电生理异常.腓总神经支的神经传导速度(nerve conduction velocity,NCV)异常率(68.0%)明显高于胫神经支(43.5%)(x2=12.199,P<0.005).腓总神经SCV,SNAPA和dML,dCMAPA异常程度与病程正相关(r=0.306 8,P<0.005;r=0.296 3,P<0.005;r=0.337 6,P<0.001;r=0.215 7,P<0.05).8个月以上病程患儿的SCV, SNAPA和dML异常程度明显增加(F=3.105,P<0.05;F=4.095,P<0.01;F=5.904,P<0.01),较8个月内有显著差异.腓总神经NCV各项配对t检验发现运动纤维dML和dCMAPA异常程度重于感觉纤维SCV和SNAPA(t=2.070,P<0.05;t=3.520,P<0.001).结论:化学药物对神经髓鞘传导功能有直接损伤.坐骨神经运动纤维的电生理异常早于且重于感觉纤维.腓总神经运动传导功能检测是本病早期诊断的重要依据.8个月以上病程的损伤神经恢复难度增加.%BACKGROUND: Electromyography(EMG)is one of the important methods in the diagnosis of sciatic nerve

  8. O ultrassom terapêutico na medula espinhal acelera a regeneração do nervo ciático de ratos Therapeutic ultrasound on the spinal cord accelerates regeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Guadallini Jatte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da irradiação ultrassônica de baixa intensidade aplicada sobre a medula espinhal na regeneração do nervo ciático de ratos após lesão por esmagamento controlado, avaliando os resultados pelo índice funcional do ciático (SFI, medido nas imagens vídeo-filmadas das plantas das patas. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos foram submetidos a esmagamento controlado (do nervo ciático direito e divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o tratamento: Grupo 1 (n=9, irradiação simulada; Grupo 2 (n=9, irradiação efetiva. Irradiação ultrassônica de baixa intensidade foi iniciada no 7º dia pós-operatório e aplicada diariamente por 6 semanas. Imagens das plantas das patas dos animais foram vídeo-filmadas em uma esteira transparente sob velocidade controlada a intervalos semanais até a 6ª semana de irradiação e o correspondente SFI medido com um programa de computador específico. RESULTADOS: O SFI durante a 1ª e a 6ª semana de tratamento foi de -59,12 e -12,55 no Grupo 1, e -53,31 e -1,32 no Grupo 2, indicando uma melhora de 79% e 97%, respectivamente, mas as diferenças entre os grupos somente foram significantes (pOBJECTIVE: To study the effects of low intensity ultrasound irradiation applied on the spinal cord on the regeneration of the rat's sciatic nerve after a controlled crush injury, evaluating the functional results of the sciatic functional index as measured on the video recorded images of the foot sole. METHODS: Eighteen rats were submitted to a controlled crush injury of the right sciatic nerve and divided into two groups according to the treatment: Group 1 (n=9, simulated irradiation; Group 2 (n=9, effective irradiation. Low-intensity ultrasound irradiation was started on the 7th postoperative day and applied daily for 6 weeks. Images of the animals´ foot sole were video recorded on a see-through treadmill type walking belt machine at weekly intervals until the 6th week of irradiation and the corresponding

  9. A rare case of human immunodeficiency virus associated bilateral facial nerve palsy in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cases are on the increase in India and worldwide, so are its various complications. Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported

  10. Sildenafil Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pelvic Ganglia Neurons after Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah A. Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG. Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1, and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40 that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration.

  11. The effects of different tensile parameters for the neurodynamic mobilization technique on tricipital muscle wet weight and MuRf-1 expression in rabbits with sciatic nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Ming; TANG, QIANG; Zhu, Luwen; Koleini, Melanie; Zou, Dequan

    2015-01-01

    Background After peripheral nerve injury, muscles without innervation begin to undergo atrophy. Research has suggested that MuRf-1 may play a role in muscle atrophy. The neurodynamic mobilization technique (NMT) is a manual therapy method used to elongate a nerve along its long axis, resulting in improved blood flow to the nerve. However, the nerve can be damaged if elongated too much. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of NMT on muscle wet weight and MuRf-1 expression in rabb...

  12. 神经生长因子不同给药方式对坐骨神经吻合后修复与再生的影响%Effects of nerve growth factor injection via different ways on repair and regeneration of the sciatic nerve after its anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梨明; 唐际存; 辛林伟; 李强; 周英琼; 陈灏; 古振林

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) can promote the repair of nerve after nerve injury. However the advantages anddisadvantages of different treatment methods are still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of intrathecal injection and local injection of NGF on repair and regeneration of rabbitsciatic nerve after its anastomosis.METHODS: Sciatic nerves from 24 New Zealand white rabbits were cut-off and then sutured. NGF at 30 μg or saline at the samedose were injected intrathecally or locally into the rabbits.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 12 weeks of sciatic nerve injury, the sheath of sciatic nerve was thickened in the intrathecalinjection group, nerve fibers arranged in neat rows and was similar with normal nerve fibers; the nerve conduction velocity,number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness in the intrathecal injection group were obviously increasedcompared with the other groups (P < 0.05), the local injection group took the second place. NGF can promote the repair andregeneration of peripheral nerve after its anastomosis, and the intrathecal injection NGF is superior to local injection.%背景:神经生长因子对神经损伤后的修复有促进作用,但目前对不同用药方式的优劣性尚有争议.目的:观察鞘膜内与局部应用神经生长因子对兔坐骨神经吻合后修复与再生的影响.方法:将24 只新西兰大白兔坐骨神经切断后再缝合,分别向兔鞘膜内或损伤局部注射30 μg 神经生长因子或等量生理盐水.结果与结论:坐骨神经损伤后12 周,鞘膜内注射神经生长因子组损伤坐骨神经鞘膜增厚,神经纤维排列较整齐,与正常神经纤维差异不大;且其神经干传导速度、有髓神经纤维数目、髓鞘厚度也明显高于其他组(P < 0.05),损伤局部注射神经生长因子组次之.说明神经生长因子具有促进外周神经吻合后修复与再生的功能,鞘膜内应用优于局部注射.

  13. Repetitive Diving in Trained Rats Still Increases Fos Production in Brainstem Neurons after Bilateral Sectioning of the Anterior Ethmoidal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Mcculloch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to investigate the role of the anterior ethmoidal nerve (AEN during repetitive trained diving in rats, with specific attention to activation of afferent and efferent brainstem nuclei that are part of this reflexive response. The AEN innervates the nose and nasal passages and is thought to be an important component of the afferent limb of the diving response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N=24 were trained to swim and dive through a 5 m underwater maze. Some rats (N=12 had bilateral sectioning of the AEN, others a Sham surgery (N=12. Twelve rats (6 AEN cut and 6 Sham had 24 post-surgical dive trials over 2 hrs to activate brainstem neurons to produce Fos, a neuronal activation marker. Remaining rats were non-diving controls. Diving animals had significantly more Fos-positive neurons than non-diving animals in the caudal pressor area, ventral medullary dorsal horn, ventral paratrigeminal nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, rostral ventrolateral medulla, Raphe nuclei, A5, Locus Coeruleus, and Kölliker-Fuse area. There were no significant differences in brainstem Fos labeling in rats diving with and without intact AENs. Thus the AENs are not required for initiation of the diving response. Other nerve(s that innervate the nose and nasal passages, and/or suprabulbar activation of brainstem neurons, may be responsible for the pattern of neuronal activation observed during repetitive trained diving in rats. These results help define the central neuronal circuitry of the mammalian diving response.

  14. 催产素对蟾蜍离体坐骨神经-腓肠肌收缩的影响%Effect of Oxytocin on the Isolated Toad Sciatic Nerve Gastrocnemius Contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓霞; 付立波

    2015-01-01

    采用常规方法剥离制备神经-腓肠肌标本,分别用浸有0.5%、1%和1.5%催产素的纱布浸润标本,浸润5min后,测量蟾蜍坐骨神经-腓肠肌的阈强度(mv)、收缩幅度(g)以及收缩潜伏期(ms),与放入正常任氏液作比较。经0.5%的催产素浸润后,腓肠肌的阈强度无明显变化,收缩幅度增大,且潜伏期时间缩短;经1%的催产素浸润后,腓肠肌的阈强度减小,收缩幅度增大,潜伏期时间相应缩短;而经1.5%浓度的催产素浸润后,腓肠肌的阈强度、收缩幅度以及潜伏期均无明显变化。较低浓度催产素可以提高骨骼肌收缩的兴奋性,但受药物剂量的限制。超过一定范围,骨骼肌收缩不随催产素浓度变化或随浓度增加骨骼肌的收缩能力相应减弱。%Objective:To investigate the effect of oxytocin effect on isolated toad sciatic nerve gastrocnemius on -their contractile activi-ty.Methods:Method for preparing specimen gastrocnemius nerve -using conventional stripping process for the preparation of specimens, the gastrocnemius muscle of toad sciatic nerve -, respectively 0.5%, 1%and 1.5%leaching oxytocin gauze infiltration specimens, af-ter infiltration 5 minutes, measure the toad sciatic nerve of gastrocnemius threshold intensity ( mv) , contraction amplitude ( g) , and con-traction latency (MS).Results:After 0.5%of oxytocin after the invasion (P>0.05), the threshold intensity of gastrocnemius muscle had no obvious change, contraction amplitude increases, and shorten the latency time.After 1%of oxytocin after infiltration, reduce the threshold intensity of gastrocnemius muscle contraction amplitude increases, the contraction latencythe time gets shorter.The 1.5%con-centrations of oxytocin after the invasion (P>0.05), gastrocnemius muscle contraction amplitude and latency, threshold intensity had no obvious change.Conclusion:Contraction of the skeletal muscle affected by oxytocin

  15. Efeitos da aplicação do laser de baixa potência na regeneração do nervo isquiático de ratos Effects of low-power laser on injured rat sciatic nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Batagini Gonçalves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os nervos periféricos sofrem constantes lesões de origem traumática, o que resulta em perdas funcionais. A terapia com laser de baixa potência vem sendo utilizada para minimizar os efeitos maléficos da inflamação e acelerar o processo de cicatrização dos tecidos lesados. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da irradiação do laser 830 nm no comportamento do nervo isquiático de ratos submetido a esmagamento. Foram utilizados 20 ratos, todos tendo tido o nervo isquiático esmagado, divididos em 4 grupos (n=5: P7 e P14, tratamento placebo por 7 e 14 dias; L7 e L14, tratamento por laser (dosagem de 4 J/cm² por 7 e 14 dias. Os animais dos grupos P7 e P14 foram submetidos aos mesmos procedimentos, mas com o laser desligado. Os parâmetros analisados foram presença de infiltrado inflamatório e fibroblastos, destruição da bainha de mielina e degeneração axonal. Na análise estatística foi observada diferença estatística com relação a três parâmetros: os animais do grupo L14 apresentaram maior quantidade de fibroblastos (p=0,0001, menor degeneração da bainha de mielina (p=0,007 e menor quantidade de infiltrado inflamatório (p=0,001. A aplicação do laser de baixa potência contribuiu para a redução do processo inflamatório decorrente da lesão do nervo isquiático de ratos.Peripheral nerves are commonly subject to traumatic injuries, leading to functional loss. Low-power laser therapy has been used in order to minimize harmful effects of inflammation and to accelerate healing of injured tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 830 nm-laser irradiation on rat sciatic nerves submitted to crush. Twenty male Wistar rats had their sciatic nerve crushed and were divided into 4 groups (n=5: Sham7 and Sham14, placebo-treated for 7 and 14 days; L7 and L14, laser-treated (at 4 J/cm² for 7 and 14 days. Sham group animals were submitted to the same procedures, but with the laser turned off. Assessed

  16. 大鼠坐骨神经髓鞘相关蛋白随年龄的变化%Change of myelin-associated protein expressions in rat sciatic nerves with age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦; 王彩萍; 蒋蔚; 蒋茂荣; 丁妹; 丁斐

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究大鼠坐骨神经髓鞘相关蛋白随年龄的变化及与髓鞘板层数之间的相互关系.方法:SD大鼠分别于饲养1周、1月、3月、9月、15月和21月后取坐骨神经,利用透射电镜观察计数髓鞘板层;采用免疫印迹检测髓鞘相关蛋白—髓鞘碱性蛋白(MBP)、髓鞘相关糖蛋白(MAG)和P0蛋白(P0)的表达变化,并分析与板层数之间的相关性;采用荧光免疫组织化学显色观察MBP的表达变化.结果:透射电镜观察显示,大鼠坐骨神经髓鞘板层数从1周到15月逐渐增加,直到21月无显著变化.免疫印迹显示,MBP的表达随年龄增长而增加,21月时达到高峰,与髓鞘板层数呈正性直线相关;MAG在出生后1周表达最高,而P0在1月时达峰值,后皆随年龄增加而下降,MAG与髓鞘板层数呈负性直线相关,而P0与髓鞘板层数之间呈非直线相关.荧光免疫组织化学显色显示,随着年龄增长,MBP在大鼠坐骨神经的髓鞘表达的荧光强度逐渐增强.结论:大鼠坐骨神经髓鞘相关蛋白随年龄改变呈现不同的表达模式,并与髓鞘板层数之间存在一定相关性.%Objective:To investigate the changes of myelin-associated proteins in myelin of rat sciatic nerves with age,as well as the relationships between the protein expressions and morphology changes.Methods:Sparague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 distinct age groups:1-week,1-,3-,9-,15-and 21-month age groups.The number of myelin sheath lamellae of the sciatic nerve was counted with electron micrographs.Western blotting was performed to examine the changes of protein expression levels of myelin-associated proteins in rat sciatic nerves,such as myelin basic protein (MBP),myelinassociated glycoprotein (MAG) and myelin protein zero (P0).And fluorescent immunohistochemistry was performed to observe the change of MBP in the sciatic nerve.The relationships between myelin sheath lamellae and the expression of myelin

  17. Study of RBF Nerve Network Tuning PD Control Algoritm of Bilateral Servo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In construction tele-robot system. When p-f architecture force feedback was used, the impact of large feedback force result in the strike-like feeling on the operators hand. If the amplitude is high, it will cause the control unstable. So a improved force feedback control method with the feature of a T-S fuzzy feedback coefficient, which could be modified online nonlinearly and continuously, is developed. A RBF-PID force controller is also designed, and formed a bilateral hydraulic servo control system. The experimental results indicate that the new improved control method reduced the impact of the feedback force, enhanced the compliance and transparency of the tele-operation of construction tele-robot system.

  18. An experimental study on repairing sciatic nerve defects of rats by human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells and acellular nerve basal lamina tube%人脐带间充质干细胞复合去细胞神经基膜管修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学建; 何江涛; 孙士强

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of using human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells as seed cells to repair sciatic nerve defects of rats by tissue engineering methods. Methods Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord were cultured and induced into neuron-liked cells,which were co-cultured with acellular basal lamina tube to construct tissue engineering nerve;models of sciatic nerve defects 10 mm in length were set up with thirty healthy adult SD rats and were divided randomly into 3 groups:tissue engineering nerve group (group A, compound of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells and acellular basal lamina tube), pure acellular basal lamina tube group (group B), and autogenous nerve bridging group (group C). Evaluation of electrophysiological and histological results was carried out 10 weeks after operation. Results The engineering nerve group had good result in nerve regeneration which was close to the effect of autogenous nerve transfer group (group A), and much better than the effect of pure acellular basal lamina tube group. Conclusion Engineering nerves from human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells can effectively repair 10 mm defects of sciatic nerve.%目的 探讨诱导后的脐带间充质干细胞作为组织工程种子细胞修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损的可行性.方法 从正常足月新生儿脐带中分离培养间充质干细胞并诱导分化为神经样细胞,与去细胞神经基膜管共培养以构建组织工程神经;用30只健康成年雄性SD大鼠建立坐骨神经缺损(10 mm)的动物模型并随机分成3组:A组为脐带间充质干细胞复合去细胞神经基膜管组,B组为单纯去细胞神经基膜管组,C组为自体神经桥接组.术后10周通过神经电生理检测、组织学观察等评测效果.结果 在局部观察和肌肉测量、神经电生理检测、组织学观察等方面,脐带间充质干细胞复合去细胞神经基膜管组(A组)神经再生及肢体功

  19. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a nerve conduit engineering with a membrane derived from natural latex Regeneração do nervo ciático em ratos através de um conduto confeccionado com uma membrana de látex natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Muniz Ganga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the capacity of natural latex membrane to accelerate and improve the regeneration quality of the of rat sciatic nerves. METHODS: Forty male adult Wistar rats were used, anesthetized and operated to cut the sciatic nerve and receive an autograft or a conduit made with a membrane derived from natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis. Four or eight weeks after surgery, to investigate motor nerve recovery, we analyzed the neurological function by walking pattern (footprints analysis and computerized treadmill, electrophysiological evaluation and histological analysis of regenerated nerve (autologous nerve graft or tissue cables between the nerve stumps, and anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles. RESULTS: All functional and morphological analysis showed that the rats transplanted with latex conduit had a better neurological recovery than those operated with autologous nerve: quality of footprints, performance on treadmill (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade de uma membrana de látex natural em acelerar e melhorar a qualidade da regeneração do nervo ciático seccionado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 40 ratos machos adultos da linhagem Wistar, anestesiados e operados com autoenxerto ou com interposição de um tubo confeccionado com uma membrana derivada do latex natural (Havea brasiliensis. Quatro ou oito semanas após a cirurgia, para investigar a recuperação motora do nervo, foram analisadas a função neurológica através do padrão da marcha (análise das pegadas e esteira computadorizada, avaliação eletrofisiológica e análise histológica do nervo regenerado (enxerto de nervo autólogo ou formação de nervo novo entre os cotos nervosos e músculos gastrocnêmio e tibial anterior. RESULTADOS: Todas as análises morfológicas e funcionais demonstraram que os ratos transplantados com o conduto de látex tiveram recuperação melhor do que aqueles operados com nervo autólogo: qualidade das pegadas impressas, desempenho

  20. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Li; Qu, Wei; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and purification of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with fibroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly purified Schwann c...

  1. 化学法去细胞神经的制备及异体移植修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损的疗效%Fabrication of acellular nerve allograft through chemical extraction and efficacy with the use of the graft in repair of rat sciatic nerve defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐先立; 韩壮; 薛海鹏; 郭栋; 杨震

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate regenerative nerve and functional recovery of target muscle in rats with sciatic nerve defect bridged by acellular nerve allograft made through chemical extraction.Methods Sciatic nerve of SD rats was processed in a volume fraction of 3% Triton X-lO0 solution and 40 g/L sodium deoxycholate solution.Morphology of myelin sheath,axons and basal lamina tubes of sciatic nerve segments was observed under the light microscopy before and after the chemical processing.Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into acellular nerve allograft group (n =10),autograft group (n =10) and normal control group(n =5) according to the random number table.A 1 cm sciatic nerve defect was created in acellular nerve allograft group and autograft group,and was respectively bridged by acellular nerve allograft and autograft.Sciatic nerve function index (SFI) was measured every two weeks.Twelve weeks after surgery,nerve conduction velocity (NCV),recovery rate of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and recovery rate of muscle force were measured in each group.Results Cellular components including myelin sheath and axons were removed thoroughly,but the basal lamina tubes were preserved completely.At postoperative 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 weeks,SFI in normal control group (-1.7±5.9,-0.3 ±2.5,0.8 ±4.1,-1.4±3.6,-2.5 ±5.7 and-2.1±3.2) was superior over autograft group (-94.3±3.7,-90.1±4.1,-63.7±7.8,-51.9±8.2,-48.8±8.6 and -44.3 ± 10.5) and acellular nerve allograft group (-97.1 ± 5.3,-91.2 ± 6.1,-70.6 ± 5.5,-60.4±6.2,-58.2 ±10.2 and-56.4 ±8.0) (P <0.01).At postoperative 6,8,10 and 12 weeks,SFI in autograft group were better than those in acellular nerve allograft group (P <0.05).NCV [(61.6 ± 8.1) m/s],recovery rate of CMAP[(98.7 ± 5.9) %] and recovery rate of muscle force [(101.8 ± 6.6) %] in normal control group were higher than those in acellular nerve allograft group [(22.3 ± 4.7) m/s,(40.3 ± 9.2) % and (43.8 ± 9.3) %] and those in autograft

  2. Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Martins Dallo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC, a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fiber outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or dorsal horn of the rat. METHODS: Injections of a cultured SC suspension or a lesioned spinal cord homogenized extract were made in a reservoir promoted by a contiguous double crush of the rat sciatic nerve. Local injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS served as control. One week later, rats were euthanized and spinal cord astrocytes were labeled by immunohistochemistry and quantified by means of quantitative image analysis. RESULTS: In the ipsilateral ventral horn, slight astroglial activations were seen after PBS or SC injections, however, a substantial activation was achieved after cord extract injection in the sciatic nerve reservoir. Moreover, SC suspension and cord extract injections were able to promote astroglial reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn bilaterally. Conclusion: Spinal cord astrocytes react according to repair processes of axotomized nerve, which may influence the functional outcome. The event should be considered during the neurosurgery strategies.OBJETIVO: Astrócitos reativos participam de vários mecanismos após lesões do sistema nervoso central e periférico, os quais incluem neuroproteção, brotamento neuronal, neurotransmissão e dor neuropática. As células de Schwann (CS, um tipo de glia periférica, também reagem com a lesão do nervo, podendo interferir com o reparo e cicatrização, crescimento de fibras e regeneração neuronais. Investigamos aqui a possibilidade da terapia celular para o reparo do nervo ci

  3. Beneficial effects of treadmill training in experimental diabetic nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais Malysz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of treadmill training (10 weeks on hindlimb motor function and nerve morphometric parameters in diabetic rats submitted to sciatic nerve crush. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Wistar rats (n = 64 were divided into the following groups: non-diabetic; trained non-diabetic; non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; diabetic; trained diabetic; diabetic with sciatic nerve crush or trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg, iv. Hindlimb motor function was evaluated weekly by assessing sciatic functional indices, and the proximal and distal portions of the sciatic nerve were used for morphometric analysis. RESULTS: At 13 weeks post-injury, the distal nerve portion of all injured groups and the proximal nerve portion of the diabetic with sciatic nerve crush group presented altered morphometric parameters such as decreased myelinated fiber diameter (~7.4 + 0.3μm vs ~4.8 + 0.2μm, axonal diameter (~5 + 0.2μm vs ~3.5 + 0.1μm and myelin sheath thickness (~1.2 + 0.07μm vs ~0.65 + 0.07μm and an increase in the percentage of area occupied by endoneurium (~28 + 3% vs ~60 + 3%. In addition, in the non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush group the proximal nerve portion showed a decreased myelinated fiber diameter (7.4+0.3μm vs 5.8 + 0.3μm and myelin sheath thickness (1.29 + 0.08μm vs 0.92 + 0.08μm. The non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush, trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush, diabetic with sciatic nerve crush and trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush groups showed normal sciatic functional index from the 4th,4th,9th and 7th week post-injury, respectively. Morphometric alterations in the proximal nerve portion of the diabetic with sciatic nerve crush and non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush groups were either prevented or reverted to values similar to the non-diabetic group by treadmill training. CONCLUSION

  4. The Effects of Trimetazidine and Sildenafil on Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Injury Induced Oxidative Damage and Cavernosal Fibrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Atilgan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sildenafil and trimetazidine on bilateral cavernosal nerve injury-induced oxidative damage and fibrotic changes in cavernosal tissue in rat model. Material and Methods. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; each group consist 8 rats (control, BCI, BCI + TMZ, and BCI + sildenafil groups. Tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PC levels were determined biochemically and distribution of cavernosal fibrosis density among groups was performed histopathologically. Results. Tissue SOD levels in BCI group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05. Tissue MDA and PC levels in BCI group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. TMZ and sildenafil administration significantly increased tissue SOD levels (P<0.05 and reduced tissue MDA and PC levels (P<0.05. Histologically, the degree of cavernosal fibrosis and collagen density was higher in BCI group in comparison to control, TMZ-treated, and sildenafil-treated groups. Conclusion. BCI caused oxidative damage and increased cavernosal fibrosis in rat penis. TMZ and sildenafil treatment decreased oxidative damage and reduced the degree of fibrosis in penile tissue due to BCI.

  5. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging of a sciatic nerve traction injury model and its pathologic correlation%坐骨神经牵拉伤模型MR扩散张量成像与病理的对照

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈镜聪; 李新春; 万齐; 孙翀鹏; 何建勋; 蒙秋华; 洪国斌

    2013-01-01

    and sham-operation group at 1 day-8 weeks after operation. Fal of fractional anisotropy value in the early stage of nerve traction injury was the result of myelin sheath broke down and axonal disintegrated;recovery of fractional anisotropy value resulted from myelin sheath proliferated and myelin sheath grew slowly to mature. Diffusion tensor tracing can show the abnormal change of the sciatic nerve with traction injury in rabbit clearly and early, and the measurement of fractional anisotropy value can be used as the sensitive method to monitor the degeneration and regeneration after nerve traction injury.

  6. 高效液相色谱法测定大鼠坐骨神经组织中山梨醇的浓度%Determination of sorbitol content in rat sciatic nerve tissue by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫伟; 年宏蕾; 姚伟洁; 李情琴; 刘铜华; 李静; 张楠; 许利平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for the determination of sorbitol content in rat sciatic nerve tissue by high‐performance‐liquid‐chromatograph(HPLC) .Methods The HPLC was performed on the Angilent ZORBAX SB C18 column(4 .6 mm × 250 mm ,5 μm) with acetonitrile(A)‐water(B) as the mobile phase for conducting the gradient elution and with L‐rhamnose as the internal standard ,at the column temperature of 25 ℃ ,the flow rate of 1 .0 mL・min-1 ,the wavelength at 228 nm and the injection volume of 20 μL .The methodological investigation of this method for determining the sorbitol content in rat sciatic nerve tissue was performed ,including the specificity test ,linear relation test ,precision test ,sample injection recovery test and the stability test .Results The linear range of sorbitol content in rat sciatic nerve was 7 .5-600 nmol・mL -1 (r2 =0 .999 9) and the lowest detection limit was 7 .5 nmol・mL -1 .The intraday and interday precision were less than 10% ,the recovery rate of sorbitol sample size was higher and met the requirement of sample recovery rate of 80% -120% ;the method had good stability ,including the repeated freezing‐thawing for 3 times ,placing in the room temperature for 4 h ,freezing preservation for 28 d at the temperature of -20 ℃ and placing of the processed sample in injector for 24 h ,RSD of each test was less than 10% .Conclusion This method is simple ,convenient ,reliable in detection results and can be used in determining the sorbitol content in sciatic nerve tissue .%目的:建立高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定大鼠坐骨神经组织中山梨醇浓度的方法。方法采用An‐gilent ZORBAX SB C18(4.6 mm ×250 mm ,5μm)色谱柱,以L‐鼠李糖为内标,乙腈(A)‐水(B)为流动相,梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL・min-1;检测波长228 nm ;进样量20μL ;柱温25℃为检测方法,对该方法测定大鼠坐骨神经山梨醇浓度进行包括专属性试验、线性关系

  7. Adenoviral-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer has a protective effect on sciatic nerve following constriction-induced spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, An-Kuo; Yang, Ming-Chang; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tai, Ming-Hong; Kwan, Aij-Li; Hong, Yi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and programmed cell death in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) nerve injury animal model. In this study, neuropathic pain was produced by CCI on the ipsilateral SCDH. Mechanical allodynia was examined with von Frey filaments and thermal sensitivity was tested using a plantar test apparatus post-operatively. Target proteins GDNF-1, GDNFRa-1, MMP2, MMP9, p38, phospho-p38, ED1, IL6, IL1β, AIF, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, SPECTRIN, cleaved SPECTRIN, Beclin-1, PKCσ, PKCγ, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS were detected. Microglial activity was measured by observing changes in immunoreactivity with OX-42. NeuN and TUNEL staining were used to reveal whether apoptosis was attenuated by GDNF. Results showed that administrating GDNF began to attenuate both allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7. CCI-rats were found to have lower GDNF and GDNFRa-1 expression compared to controls, and GDNF re-activated their expression. Also, GDNF significantly down-regulated CCI-induced protein expression except for MMP2, eNOS and nNOS, indicating that the protective action of GDNF might be associated with anti-inflammation and prohibition of microglia activation. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that GDNF reduced CCI-induced neuronal apoptosis. In sum, GDNF enhanced the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting microglia activation and cytokine production via p38 and PKC signaling. GDNF could be a good

  8. Isolated sciatic neuropathy as an initial manifestation of a high grade B-cell lymphoma: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenzhuan; Wang, Weizhen; Gustas, Cristy; Malysz, Jozef; Kaur, Divpreet

    2016-10-01

    Sciatic nerve neuropathy due to infiltrating of a high grade B-cell lymphoma is a very rare situation and has not often been reported. We report a case with a previous history of indolent lymphoma who presented with isolated sciatic nerve neuropathy and was found to have diffuse large B cell lymphoma involving the sciatic nerve. Although the current case is not a primary sciatic nerve lymphoma given the systematic involvement shown on MRI and PET/CT scan, the case represents a neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve given the direct invasion of the lymphoma cells into the sciatic nerve. Due to the rarity of this condition, we subsequently reviewed related literatures. PMID:27540756

  9. Comparison of bupivacaine alone and in combination with fentanyl or pethidine for bilateral infraorbital nerve block for postoperative analgesia in paediatric patients for cleft lip repair: A prospective randomized double blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S Mane

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus we conclude that addition of fentanyl or pethidine to bupivacaine for Bilateral Intraoral Infraorbital Nerve Block prolong the duration of analgesia with no complications and can be used safely in paediatric patients.

  10. 化学去细胞异体神经周围复合BMSCs生物蛋白胶复合物促周围神经缺损修复%EFFECT OF CHEMICAL EXTRACTED ACELLULAR NERVE ALLOGRAFT SUPPLEMENTING WITH BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS EMBEDDED IN FIBRIN GLUE ON FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY OF TRANSECTED SCIATIC NERVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵喆; 许文静; 卢世璧; 王玉; 彭江; 赵斌; 赵庆; 刘炎; 任志午; 詹胜峰; 张莉

    2011-01-01

    目的 将BMSCs复合在化学去细胞异体神经(chemical extracted acellular nerve allograft,CEANA)周围,观察对CEANA修复周围神经缺损效果的影响.方法 成年雄性C57小鼠21只,体重25~30 g;成年雄性Balb/c小鼠15只,体重25~30 g.取Balb/c小鼠双侧坐骨神经,制备CEANA.取C57小鼠3只,分离培养BMSCs,取5 x 106个第3代BMSCs添加到500μL生物蛋白胶制备BMSCs生物蛋白胶复合物,共培养3、7、14、21 d后,分别取其上清与PC12细胞共培养,观察对PC12细胞的影响.取成年雄性C57小鼠18只,制备小鼠左侧坐骨神经10mm缺损模型,随机分成3组(n=6),分别采用自体神经移植复合生物蛋白胶(A组)、CEANA移植复合BMSCs生物蛋白胶复合物(B组)、CEANA移植复合生物蛋白胶(C组)修复坐骨神经缺损;实验动物右侧切开暴露坐骨神经,作为正常对照.术后行大体观察;术前及术后2、4、6、8周测量小鼠坐骨神经指数(static sciatic index,SSI);术后8周取材计算术侧小腿三头肌湿重恢复率并行小腿三头肌Masson染色观察,吻合口远端神经行甲苯胺蓝染色和透射电镜观察.结果 BMSCs在生物蛋白胶内均匀分布,外观呈球形,培养3d后可见BMSCs呈多个长突起.加入BMSCs生物蛋白胶复合物共培养3、7、14、21 d的上清,PC12细胞均分化为类神经元样细胞.术后各组动物切口愈合良好.各组SSI随时间延长逐渐增加,术后4、6、8周A组SSI均高于B、C组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).术后8周,B组小腿三头肌湿重恢复率、有髓神经纤维总数均优于C组,但较A组差,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 在CEANA周围添加BMSCs生物蛋白胶复合物可提高周围神经损伤修复效果.%Objective To investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) embedded in fibrin glue around chemical extracted acellular nerve allograft (CEANA) on the peripheral nerve regeneration. Methods Twenty-one adult male C57 mice (weighing 25-30 g

  11. Histological observation of rat sciatic nerve injury repaired by VEGF mixed with fibrin glue as a carrier%纤维蛋白凝胶携载血管内皮生长因子修复大鼠坐骨神经损伤的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒; 曹瑞治

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mixed with fibrin glue (FG) as a carrier on nerve regeneration in repairing rat sciatic nerve injury .Methods The rat sciatic nerve injury model was made by cutting off the left sciatic nerve of rat and suturing in normal position . Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into experimental group (VEGF mixed with fibrin glue group ) and control group( gene transfection group) ,with 18 in each .Gross appearance ,light microscopic observation ,nerve sectional image analysis were performed at 8 and 12 weeks after medication to measure the mean diameter of neuraxis ,thickness of myelin sheath and total number of myelinated fiber .Results There was significant devia-tion in the mean diameter of neuraxis ,thickness of myelin sheath and total number of myelinated fiber at 8 week after medication compared with the control group (P0.05) . Conclusion Fibrin glue can be used as a carrier for VEGF to repair injured sciatic nerves .These results indicate locally VEGF mixed with fibrin glue can exert nerve regeneration in the injured sciatic nerve area and enhance neu-rological function recovery of the sciatic nerve injured rats .%目的:探讨局部应用纤维蛋白凝胶携载血管内皮生长因子,对损伤坐骨神经再生的影响,为临床药物治疗坐骨神经损伤提供实验依据。方法将36只Wistar大鼠左侧坐骨神经切断,神经两断端原位缝合,制作大鼠坐骨神经损伤动物模型。然后将大鼠随机分成实验组(纤维蛋白凝胶携载血管内皮生长因子给药组)与对照组(血管内皮生长因子基因转染给药组),每组18只,于用药后8、12周行肉眼观察、光镜观察,图像分析仪行神经断面分析,测轴突直径、髓鞘厚度和有髓神经纤维数目。结果实验组8周的轴突直径、髓鞘厚度和有髓神经纤维数目和对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05

  12. Elevated Protein Carbonylation, and Misfolding in Sciatic Nerve from db/db and Sod1−/− Mice: Plausible Link between Oxidative Stress and Demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Ryan T.; Arunabh Bhattacharya; Walsh, Michael E.; Yun Shi; Rochelle Wei; Yiqiang Zhang; Rodriguez, Karl A.; Rochelle Buffenstein; Chaudhuri, Asish R.; Holly Van Remmen

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy is associated with decrements in motor/sensory neuron myelination, nerve conduction and muscle function; however, the mechanisms of reduced myelination in diabetes are poorly understood. Chronic elevation of oxidative stress may be one of the potential determinants for demyelination as lipids and proteins are important structural constituents of myelin and highly susceptible to oxidation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether there is a link...

  13. 大鼠坐骨神经再生过程中许旺氏细胞的自噬作用%The autophagic role of Schwann cell on regeneration of rat sciatic nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万山; 朴仲贤; 王启伟; Han Ming-Hu; 朴英杰

    2004-01-01

    背景 :Wallerian变性时髓鞘溃变碎片的清除对于神经的再生至关重要 ,但溃变碎片的清除机制一直没有彻底阐明 ,关于参与清除的细胞成分类型仍有很大争议. 目的 :探讨大鼠坐骨神经再生过程中许旺氏细胞的自噬作用. 设计 :完全随机自身对照研究. 地点和对象 :本实验由第一军医大学解剖教研室、汕头大学医学院中心实验室和西南大学达拉斯医学中心精神病学部共同完成 ,研究对象为成年 Wistar大鼠 30只 ,雌雄各半 ,体质量 180- 250 g. 干预 :横切大鼠坐骨神经制作 Wallerian变性模型 ,分别于造模后 0,0.5,1,1.5,2,3,4,5,7,10,15 d取远断端组织行电镜观察. 主要观察指标 :电镜观察轴突和髓鞘的超微结构 ,Gomori染色后检查酸性磷酸酶活性. 结果 :轴突在第 0.5天时从髓鞘脱离,溃变呈空泡状.第 2天开始髓鞘皱褶、断裂形成碎片,许旺氏细胞内见大的膜结合髓鞘碎片和许多散在小碎片,并与溶酶体融合形成自噬泡,呈酸性磷酸酶 (AcPase)阳性.第 4天时内膜区偶见幼稚细胞 ,1周后见大量幼稚细胞.第 7天后许旺氏细胞内自噬泡数量开始减少.实验全程偶见巨噬细胞 ,内有吞噬泡. 结论 :大鼠坐骨神经再生过程中溃变髓鞘主要经许旺氏细胞自噬清除,许旺氏细胞脱分化为许旺氏细胞祖细胞后大量增殖分化参与神经再生过程.%BACKGROUND:The removal of degenerated debris of myelin sheath during wallerian degeneration is very important for nerve regeneration,but the mechanism by which the debris is removed has not been completely clarified and there is still considerable controversies on the types of cells involved in the clearance process.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the autophagic role of Schwann cell on regeneration of rat sciatic nerves.DESIGN: Completely randomized animal experiment conducted in March 2003. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Rats were bought from the Laboratory Animal

  14. Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo

    OpenAIRE

    João Gabriel Martins Dallo; Bernardo Vergara Reichert; José Benedito Ramos Valladão Júnior; Camila Silva; Bianca Aparecida de Luca; Beatriz de Freitas Azevedo Levy; Gerson Chadi

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC), a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fiber outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or...

  15. BILATERAL PRESENTATION OF TENSOR FASCIA SURALIS MUSCLE IN A MALE CADAVER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Rajendra Gandhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tensor fascia suralis muscle is an anomalous muscle located in popliteal fossa. The muscle may arise from any of the hamstring muscles and is inserted into the crural fascia or tendoclacaneus. We found tensor fascia suralis muscle in a male cadaver taking origin from medial side of tendon of biceps femoris muscle. The tendinous origin was then transformed into a well defined fusiform belly in the roof of popliteal fossa. After traversing downwards and medially the muscle again became tendinous to get inserted into deep fascia of leg. Bilateral presentation of the anomalous muscle is not yet documented in literature. The anatomical relation of the muscle explains its great clinical importance. The tendinous origin was anteriorly related to sciatic nerve and the muscle belly to the tibial nerve. Sural nerve and short saphenous vein were in lateral relation to the muscle. Contraction of muscle in the roof of popliteal fossa may lead to sciatic, tibial or sural nerve neuropathy. The muscle can confuse the physician of a soft tissue mass or an aberrant vessel. Hence, the bilateral presence of tensor fascia suralis muscle is documented for further references. Clinical Significance: The precise knowledge of anatomy of popliteal region is mandatory for the surgeons to perform safe and uncomplicated surgery in and around popliteal fossa and also for radiologist for correct radiographic interpretations.

  16. Critical role of p38 MAPK for regeneration of the sciatic nerve following crush injury in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Kato Naoki; Matsumoto Masahito; Kogawa Masakazu; Atkins Gerald J; Findlay David M; Fujikawa Takahiko; Oda Hiromi; Ogata Masato

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The physiological function of p38α, which is an isoform of p38 MAPK, has been investigated previously in several studies using pharmacological inhibitors. However, the results regarding whether p38α promotes or inhibits nerve regeneration in vivo have been controversial. Methods We generated novel p38α mutant mice (sem mice) with a point mutation in the region encoding the p38α substrate-docking-site, which serves as a limited loss-of-function model of p38α. In the present...

  17. Electrophysiological changes for toxic effect of colistin sulphate on sciatic-tibial nerves in mice%硫酸黏菌素对小鼠坐骨-胫神经毒性作用的电生理表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代重山; 李继昌; 林巍; 王凤霞; 孙美成; 李健

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨硫酸黏菌素对小鼠坐骨-胫神经的毒性作用.方法 昆明系雌性小鼠尾静脉注射硫酸黏菌素7.5 mg·kg-1,每12h1次,按取材时间分为给药1,3,7d组及给药7d停药7d组.分别于第2和第4天给药前、第8和笫15天(以第1次给药当天为第1天计)观测小鼠的体质量、步态、后肢支撑力、坐骨-胫神经的复合动作电位阈强度(TI)、最大刺激强度(MI)、潜伏期(CAPL)、波幅(CAPA)、时程(CAPD)、传导速率(NCV)以及血清肌酐(Cre)、尿素氮(BUN)的变化情况.结果 与正常对照组相比,硫酸黏菌素给药1d组,血清Cre显著升高,给药3d组,体质量及BUN出现显著性差异,给药7d组,步态、后肢支撑力出现显著性差异.给药1,3和7d组,坐骨-胫神经动作电位各参数随时间发生改变,TI显著增加,分别为60%,60%,193% (P <0.01);MI显著增加,分别为4%,13%和100% (P <0.05);CAPL显著增加,分别为9.O%,9.0%和14.6% (P <0.05),CAPA降低,分别为0.92%,16.2%和47.6%(P<0.01);CAPD显著增加,分别为15.1%,11.5%和52.8%(P<0.05);NCV显著减低,分别为7.6%,7.5%和12.7%(P<0.05);停药7d组,步态及后肢支撑力较正常对照组无明显差异,电生理各参数均有所恢复,且只有CAPA较正常对照组差异显著(P<0.05).结论 硫酸黏菌素肾毒性较神经毒性先发生,小鼠坐骨-胫神经动作电位随给药时间延长发生进行性变化,且CAPA持续时间最长.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the toxic actions of colistin sulphate on sciatic-tibial nerves of mice. METHODS Colistin sulphate 7. 5 mg·kg-1 was iv administered to Kunming female mice, twice a day. The mice were divided into colistin sulphate 1, 3, 7 d and 7 d post colistin sulphate groups according the adminstration for 1, 3 and 7 d, respectively. The body mass and gait observations were obtained first, followed by determinations of foot splay and the threshold intensity (TI) , maximal intensity ( MI

  18. An experimental study of nerve bypass graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jie; LI Xue-shi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the use of a nerve "bypass" graft as a possible alternative to neurolysis or segmental resection with interposition grafting in the treatment of neuroma-in-continuity. Methods: A sciatic nerve crush injury model was established in the Sprague-Dawley rat by compression with a straight hemostatic forceps. Epineurial windows were created proximal and distal to the injury site. An 8-mm segment of radial nerve was harvested and coaptated to the sciatic nerve at the epineurial window sites proximal and distal to the compressed segment (bypass group). A sciatic nerve crush injury without bypass served as a control. Nerve conduction studies were performed over an 8-week period. Sciatic nerves were then harvested and studied under transmission electron microscopy. Myelinated axon counts were obtained. Results: Nerve conduction velocity was significantly faster in the bypass group than in the control group at 8 weeks (63.57 m/s±5.83 m/s vs. 54.88 m/s±4.79m/s, P<0.01). Myelinated axon counts in distal segments were found more in the experimental sciatic nerve than in the control sciatic nerve. Significant axonal growth was noted in the bypass nerve segment itself. Conclusion: Nerve bypass may serve to augment peripheral axonal growth while avoiding further loss of the native nerve.

  19. Effects of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Nrg1 and ErbB2 in the Sciatic Nerve in Rats with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy%电针对糖尿病周围神经病大鼠坐骨神经 Nrg1和 ErbB2表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓莉; 覃建阳; 尹昌浩; 张忠敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of electroacupuncture on the expression of Nrg1 and ErbB2 in the sciatic nerve of rats with diabetic peripheral neuropathy ( DPN) .Methods:The rats were randomly divided into a normal group,a model group,a common acupuncture group and an electroacupuncture group.The rat mod-els with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were established by streptozotocin peritoneal injection method.14 days after modeling, the blood sugar and conduction velocity of sciatic nerve were measured,and the mRNA expres-sions of Nrg1 and ErbB2 in the sciatic nerve were detected by RT-PCR.Results:14 days after modeling,com-pared with the normal group, the blood sugar of model group, acupuncture group and electroacupuncture group was increased (P<0.01).Compared with the model group, the conduction velocity of sciatic nerve was in-creased in common acupuncture group and electroacupuncture group ( P<0.01 ) , and mRNA expressions of Nrg1 and ErbB2 in sciatic nerve were increased ( P<0.01) .While it was improved more obviously in the elec-troacupuncture group than that in the common acupuncture group ( P<0.05) .Conclusion:Electroacupuncture could promote the nerve functional recovery of diabetic peripheral neuropathy by elevating Nrg1 and ErbB2 in sciatic nerve, and promote Schwann cells survival.%目的:探讨电针对链脲佐菌素诱导的大鼠糖尿病周围神经病( DPN)模型坐骨神经中神经调节蛋白1(Nrg1)和表皮生长因子受体2(ErbB2)表达的影响。方法:大鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、普通针刺组、电针组。链脲佐菌素腹腔注射制备实验DPN大鼠模型,造模后14天检测各组血糖及坐骨神经传导速度,实时荧光定量PCR检测坐骨神经Nrg1和ErbB2 mRNA表达。结果:与正常组比较,模型组、电针组和普通针刺组血糖显著增高(P<0.01)。与模型组比较,电针组和普通针刺组神经传导速度显著增高(P<0.01),坐骨神经Nrg1

  20. Acute Sciatic Neuritis following Lumbar Laminectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Elahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that the common cause of acute/chronic pain in the distribution of the lumbosacral nerve roots is the herniation of a lumbar intervertebral disc, unless proven otherwise. The surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation is successful in radicular pain and prevents or limits neurological damage in the majority of patients. Recurrence of sciatica after a successful disc surgery can be due to many possible etiologies. In the clinical setting we believe that the term sciatica might be associated with inflammation. We report a case of acute sciatic neuritis presented with significant persistent pain shortly after a successful disc surgery. The patient is a 59-year-old female with complaint of newly onset sciatica after complete pain resolution following a successful lumbar laminectomy for acute disc extrusion. In order to manage the patient’s newly onset pain, the patient had multiple pain management visits which provided minimum relief. Persistent sciatica and consistent physical examination findings urged us to perform a pelvic MRI to visualize suspected pathology, which revealed right side sciatic neuritis. She responded to the electrical neuromodulation. Review of the literature on sciatic neuritis shows this is the first case report of sciatic neuritis subsequent to lumbar laminectomy.

  1. In vivo USPIO magnetic resonance imaging shows that minocycline mitigates macrophage recruitment to a peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanouni Pejman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minocycline has proven anti-nociceptive effects, but the mechanism by which minocycline delays the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia after peripheral nerve injury remains unclear. Inflammatory cells, in particular macrophages, are critical components of the response to nerve injury. Using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide-magnetic resonance imaging (USPIO-MRI to monitor macrophage trafficking, the purpose of this project is to determine whether minocycline modulates macrophage trafficking to the site of nerve injury in vivo and, in turn, results in altered pain thresholds. Results Animal experiments were approved by Stanford IACUC. A model of neuropathic pain was created using the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI model that involves ligation of the left sciatic nerve in the left thigh of adult Sprague–Dawley rats. Animals with SNI and uninjured animals were then injected with/without USPIOs (300 μmol/kg IV and with/without minocycline (50 mg/kg IP. Bilateral sciatic nerves were scanned with a volume coil in a 7 T magnet 7 days after USPIO administration. Fluid-sensitive MR images were obtained, and ROIs were placed on bilateral sciatic nerves to quantify signal intensity. Pain behavior modulation by minocycline was measured using the Von Frey filament test. Sciatic nerves were ultimately harvested at day 7, fixed in 10% buffered formalin and stained for the presence of iron oxide-laden macrophages. Behavioral measurements confirmed the presence of allodynia in the neuropathic pain model while the uninjured and minocycline-treated injured group had significantly higher paw withdrawal thresholds (p  Conclusion Animals with neuropathic pain in the left hindpaw show increased trafficking of USPIO-laden macrophages to the site of sciatic nerve injury. Minocycline to retards the migration of macrophages to the nerve injury site, which may partly explain its anti-nociceptive effects. USPIO-MRI is an effective in

  2. Synergistic effects of ultrashortwave electrical stimulation and nerve growth factor in treating sciatic nerve injury%超短波及电刺激联合神经生长因子治疗大鼠坐骨神经损伤的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞红; 白跃宏; 赵娟; 徐义明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ultrashortwave (USW) diathermy and electrical stimulation (ES) used in combination with nerve growth factor (NGF) in the treatment of experimental sciatic nerve injury.Methods Sixty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal control group, a model group, an NGF group,a physiotherapy group and a combined treatment group. A model of sciatic nerve injury was established in the latter four groups. Beginning on the 2nd day after the operation, no treatment was given in the model group, NGF was injected in the NGF group, diathermy and ES were administrated to rats in the physiotherapy group, and the combined treatment group was treated with USW diathermy, EW and NGF. Function, electrophysiology and morphology were evaluated at the 2nd, 7th, 14th and 30th days after the operation Results The average sciatic nerve function index (SFI), nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and nerve regeneration in the NGF, physiotherapy and combined treatment groups were significantly better than in the model group, with those in the combined treatment group improved to the greatest extent. At the 30th day there was no significant difference between the combined treatment group and the normal control group in terms of SFI, NCV, axon regeneration or myelin sheath thickness. The number of myelinated nerve fibers and the average axon diameter in the combined treatment group and normal control group were significantly higher than those in the model, NGF or physiotherapy group. Conclusions With NGF injection, additional application of USW diathermy and ES may significantly enhance the regeneration of the sciatic nerve and aid functional recovery after injury.%目的 观察超短波及电刺激联合神经生长因子(NGF)治疗大鼠坐骨神经损伤的疗效.方法 共选取成年雌性Wistar大鼠60只,将其随机分为正常对照组、模型组、NGF组、物理因子组及联合治疗组.将模型组、NGF组、物理因子组及联合治疗

  3. Bilateral conjugacy of movement initiation is retained at the eye but not at the mouth following long-term unilateral facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Susan E; O'Dwyer, Nicholas J; Adams, Roger D; Croxson, Glen R

    2006-08-01

    Voluntary eyelid closure and smiling were studied in 11 normal subjects and 11 patients with long-term unilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP). The conjugacy of eyelid movements shown previously for blinks was maintained for voluntary eye closures in normal subjects, with movement onset being synchronous in both eyes. Bilateral onset synchrony of the sides of the mouth was also observed in smiling movements in normal subjects. In FNP patients, initiation of movement of the paretic and non-paretic eyelids was also synchronous, but markedly delayed relative to normal (by 136 ms = 32%). The initiation of bilateral movements at the mouth was similarly delayed, but in contrast to the eyes, it was not synchronous. Central neural processing in the FNP subjects was normal, however, since unilateral movements at the mouth were not delayed. The delays therefore point to considerable additional information processing needed for initiating bilateral facial movements after FNP. The maintenance of bilateral onset synchrony in eyelid closure and its loss in smiling following FNP is an important difference in the neural control of these facial regions. Bilateral conjugacy of eyelid movements is probably crucial for coordinating visual input and was achieved apparently without conscious effort on the part of the patients. Bilateral conjugacy of movements at the sides of the mouth may be less critical for normal function, although patients would very much like to achieve it in order to improve the appearance of their smile. Since the everyday frequency of eyelid movements is considerably greater than that of smiling, it is possible that the preserved eyelid conjugacy in these patients with long-term FNP is merely a product of greater experience. However, if synchrony of movement onset is found to be preserved in patients with acute FNP, then it would suggest that eyelid conjugacy has a privileged status in the neural organisation of the face.

  4. 慢性坐骨神经缩窄损伤导致大鼠背根神经节内质网应激反应%SCIATIC NERVE CHRONIC CONSTRICTION INJURY INCREASES ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS IN DORSAL ROOT GANGLION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵序利; 罗剑刚; 张丽; 李慧; 丛木林; 林小雯; 宋文阁; 郑宏; 傅志俭

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究坐骨神经慢性缩窄(chronic constriction injury,CCI)引起大鼠背根神经节内质网应激反应.方法:56只SD雄性大鼠随机分为两组:假手术组(sham组)和手术组(CCI组)(n=28).手术前、术后1天、4天、7天、14天、21天和28天测定动物机械痛敏和热痛敏,背根神经节GRP78葡萄糖调节蛋白78 (glucose-regulated protein 78,GRP78,内质网应激反应的标志蛋白)的含量.结果:与假手术组相比,CCI组的机械痛阈和热痛阈在术后明显下降,背根神经节GRP78蛋白表达在第1天开始升高,第7天达到高峰.结论:坐骨神经慢性缩窄模型可以激活大鼠背根神经节GRP78蛋白表达和内质网应激反应,可能与神经病理性疼痛的形成有关.%Objective: To observe the change of endoplastic reticulum stress (ERS) in dorsal root ganglion of neuropathic pain rats caused by sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI). Methods: 56 adult SD rats were randomly and evenly divided into two groups, sham group (n = 28) and CCI group (n = 28). Thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds were assessed with paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to radiant heat and paw withdrawl thresholds (PWTs) to von Frey filament. The glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, a marker protein of ERS) was measured with Western Blot. Results: Compare with sham group, the PWT and PWL decreased significantly from day 1 to day 28 in CCI group (P < 0.001), and reached the maximum level in day 7. Sciatic nerve CCI also significantly increased GRP78 protein expression beginning at day 1 and reaching a maximum at day 7 after sciatic nerve injury. Conclusion: The ERS in the dorsal root ganglion was increased after sciatic nerve CCI, which may contribute to the formation of neuropathic pain.

  5. The relationship between nerve conduction velocity and fiber morphology during peripheral nerve regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Masayoshi; Oka, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) and morphological changes in regenerating nerve fibers at different times after sciatic nerve transection to identify reliable indices of functional recovery. Thirty rats were divided into five equal groups, one control group and four groups subjected to sciatic nerve transection and immediate suturing, followed by regeneration for 50, 100, 150, and 200 days, respectively. MCV was measured in each group, followed by mo...

  6. Characterization of a neuropathic pain model: sciatic cryoneurolysis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeo, J A; Coombs, D W; Willenbring, S; Colburn, R W; Fromm, C; Wagner, R; Twitchell, B B

    1994-01-01

    Cryoanalgesia, the technique of freezing peripheral nerves, is used clinically for the treatment of postoperative and chronic pain. Paradoxically, this same technique produces characteristics in a rat model suggestive of neuropathic pain. We have developed a peripheral neuropathy model by freezing the proximal sciatic nerve (sciatic cryoneurolysis, SCN) using a cryoprobe cooled to -60 degrees C in a 30/5/30 sec freeze-thaw-freeze sequence. Each freeze cycle produced a transient ice ball on the surface of the nerve. These studies provide behavioral evidence that SCN is a valid mononeuropathy animal model. All animals demonstrate some degree of autotomy following SCN. The average onset of autotomy occurs 4 days postoperatively and peaks in severity and incidence at 14 days. By examining the latency of responses to a noxious heat stimulus, we have shown there is no direct relationship between an hypoesthetic paw and autotomy, i.e., autotomy did not occur immediately after the freeze lesion when the limb was dysfunctional. Rather, autotomy peaked when sensation was returning to the affected limb. The transient time course of certain behaviors including hypoesthesia and possible return of limb sensation, autotomy, touch-evoked allodynia, foot edema and the presence of spontaneous nociceptive behaviors demonstrate a multiple phase nociceptive process. The temporary nature of these nociceptive behaviors is in sharp contrast to the prolonged bilateral mechanical allodynia evident when these behaviors subside. The surgical anesthetics used during the SCN procedure are shown to variably alter or suppress autotomy following SCN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8159445

  7. 胫神经近端肌支移位治疗高位坐骨神经损伤的应用解剖%The anatomical study of transfer of motor branches from proximal segment of the tibial nerve for treatment of high-level sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明恒; 钟红发; 陈荣春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of transfer of motor branches from the proximal tibial nerve to treat high-level sciatic nerve injuries in an anatomical study. Methods 30 sides of lower limbs from 15 embalmed adult cadavers were used to dissect and the motor branches from proximal tibial nerve were measured for following parameters, such as length, diameter, the location of original point relative to the level of the fibular head and the distance from original point to the fibular neck. Intraneural dissection the common peroneous nerve from the bifurcation to the proximal was performed to isolate the division of the deep and superficial peroneous division;the maximum length of intraneural dissection that could be dissected and the diameter of deep peroneous nerves were also measured. Results There were three main motor branches at the proximal leg:the branches destined to the lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius and to the soleus muscle. The length of these branches was (36.3 ± 9.6) mm, (44.7 ± 8.6) and (53.2 ± 9.9)mm respectively. The maximum length of intraneural dissection of the common peroneous nerve was (59.3 ± 7.2) mm. After dissection, branches to the soleus muscle and the lateral head of the gastrocnemius were adequate for direct nerve suture with the deep peroneous division in all cadavers without tension. And in 28 sides of lower limbs (93.3 percent), branches to the medial head of the gastrocnemius were adequate for nerve suture. Conclusion After intraneural dissection of the common fibular nerve, the motor branches from the proximal part of the tibial nerve can be harvested and transfered to restore the deep peroneous nerve in the treatment of high sciatic nerve injuries. Considering the length and diameter, branches to the soleus muscle were the best choice for the proposed transfer.%目的:探讨胫神经的近端肌支移位治疗某些高位坐骨神经损伤的解剖学可行性。方法选取15具(30侧)福尔马林固定

  8. 消炎镇痛液混合牛痘疫苗致炎兔皮提取物对大鼠坐骨神经损伤的效应%Effect of anti-inflammation-analgesic injection combined with extract from rabbit skin inflamed by vaccinia virus on sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏淑明; 赵志辉; 陈晶; 王秀丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价消炎镇痛液混合牛痘疫苗致炎兔皮提取物(ERSVV)对大鼠坐骨神经损伤的效应.方法 成年SD大鼠50只,雌雄各半,体重260~300 g,采用随机数字表法,将大鼠随机分为5组(n=10):假手术组(S组)、坐骨神经慢性压迫性损伤组(CCI组)、消炎镇痛液组(A组)、EBSVV组(E组)和混合用药组(A+E组).CCI组、A组、E组和A+E组制备大鼠坐骨神经慢性压迫性损伤模型;S组仅暴露坐骨神经.在坐骨神经旁置管,于术后14 d开始给药,A组注射消炎镇痛液0.2Ml[地塞米松棕榈酸酯0.05ml(4 mg/ml)、2%利多卡因0.05 ml、维生素B120.05 ml(0.5 mg/ml)和注射用水0.05ml)];E组注射ERSVV 0.2ml(40 U/ml);A+E组注射消炎镇痛液(去掉注射用水0.05 ml)+ERSVV0.05 ml共0.2 ml.第1天给药后,地塞米松棕榈酸酯改为注射用水,持续给药14 d.分别于术前1 d(基础状态)、术后1、5、7、14、21、28 d时测定机械缩足阈值(MWT).5组分别于术后14、28 d时取5只大鼠,暴露坐骨神经,测定运动神经传导速度(NCV)及复合肌肉运动电位波幅(AP),然后取结扎处坐骨神经,光镜下观察病理学结果,计数轴突数,并测定髓鞘厚度.结果 与S组比较,CCI组MW、AP、轴突计数和髓鞘厚度降低,NCV减慢(P<0.01);与CCI组比较,A组和E组MWT、AP、轴突计数和髓鞘厚度升高,NCV增快(P<0.05);与A组或E组比较,A+E组MWT、AP、轴突计数和髓鞘厚度升高,NCV增快(P<0.05或0.01).结论 与消炎镇痛液或ERSVV比较,两种药物混合应用可进一步减轻大鼠慢性压迫性坐骨神经损伤.%Objective To investigate the effect of anti-inflammation-analgesic injection (AIAI) combined with extract from rabbit skin inflamed by vaccinia virus (ERSVV) on repair of the damaged sciatic nerve in rats.Methods Fifty adult SD rats of both sexes weighing 260-300 g were randomly divided into 5 gronps ( n = 10each): sham operation group (group S); sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury group

  9. 骨髓间充质干细胞移植修复大鼠坐骨神经挤压伤%Repairing sciatic nerve crush injury by transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光; 尹维田; 薛金伟; 李春雨; 范东艳

    2008-01-01

    背景:骨髓间充质干细胞体外分离培养方便,细胞免疫原性低,更适合于细胞移植,已有证实其在神经缺损修复方面具有较大的应用潜力.目的:明确体外培养的骨髓间充质干细胞体内移植后,促进大鼠周围神经损伤修复的可行性,并初步探讨其可能的作用机制.设计、时间及地点:随机对照动物实验,于2006-03/2007-03在吉林大学公共卫生学院毒理教研室完成.材料:选取健康雌性Wistar大鼠50只,鼠龄2个月;另选取出生1周的雌性Wistar大鼠6只用于制备骨髓间充质干细胞;实验用兔抗NGF单克隆抗体为Santa Cruz公司产品.方法:①采用贴壁法分离培养骨髓间充质干细胞,传至第3代,于移植前48 h加入BrdU进行标记.②取50只健康Wistar大鼠,利用钳夹法建立坐骨神经挤压伤模型后随机分为细胞移植组和对照组,每组25只,移植组将BrdU标记的骨髓间充质干细胞移植到神经损伤处,而对照组注入等量的DMEM.主要观察指标:①术后1,2,4,6周取移植组损伤段神经进行抗BrdU染色.②术后1,2,4,6周对两组损伤远端神经进行神经生长因子免疫组化染色,图像分析软件分析阳性表达的积分吸光度.③术后每周进行步态分析测量坐骨神经功能指数,术后6周测量再生神经传导速度、坚牢蓝染色后计数有髓神经纤维数目和内径、测量大鼠实验侧腓肠肌湿重和肌纤维横截面积.结果:全部50只实验大鼠均进入结果分析.①术后1,2,4周在细胞移植组神经损伤处可以检测到BrdU阳性细胞.②术后1和2周细胞移植组神经生长因子蛋白表达积分吸光度值均高于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P0.05).⑨术后3~6周细胞移植组坐各神经功能指数的恢复要优于对照组:术后6周细胞移植组大鼠的神经传导速度、有髓神经纤维计数和直径、腓肠肌湿重和横截面积均高于/大于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P 0.05). Sciatic

  10. UW液对大鼠坐骨神经低温保存时组织结构、细胞活性及免疫原性的影响%Effect of University of Wisconsin solution on morphology, cell viability and immunogenicity of rat sciatic nerve during cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳明明; 蒋电明; 钟健

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究UW液低温保存方法对大鼠坐骨神经组织结构、细胞活性及免疫原性的影响.方法 SD大鼠坐骨神经4℃条件下用UW液保存(UW组),分别保存1、4、6周,以新鲜坐骨神经作对照(对照组).HE染色和透射电镜扫描观察组织结构改变;LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity试剂盒和TUNEL法分别评估细胞活性和凋亡程度;Western blot 法检测细胞间黏附分子-1( ICAM-1)和主要组织相容性复合体Ⅱ(MHCⅡ)的表达以了解免疫原性改变.结果 各保存时相点UW组神经外膜和雪旺细胞基底膜结构均较完整,与对照组无明显差别.各UW组细胞活性程度降低,TUNEL阳性细胞数增多,ICAM-1和MHCⅡ表达降低,与对照组相比均有明显统计学差异(P<0.05);且4、6周组TUNEL阳性细胞数均高于1周组(P<0.05),ICAM-1和MHCⅡ表达均低于1周组(P<0.05),但4、6周组间均未见明显差异.结论 UW液低温保存方法能有效维持周围神经组织神经外膜和雪旺细胞基底膜结构完整性,并降低保存神经的免疫原性,但有效维持神经组织细胞活性的时限不超过1周.%Objective To investigate the effect of University of Wisconsin ( UW) solution on morphology, cell viability and immunogenicity of rat sciatic nerve during cold storage. Methods Rat sciatic nerve segments were preserved in UW solution at 4℃ for 1, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively, and fresh rat sciatic nerve segments were set as controls. Morphological changes of sciatic nerve segments were stained by HE and were observed under transmission electron microscope. Cell viability was detected by using LIVE/DEAD Viabil-ity/Cytotoxicity kits and confocal microscopy, cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining, and Levels of ICAM-1 and MHC II were detected by Western blotting. Results Epineurium and Schwann cell basal lamina in the UW group at each time point remained intact and were similar to those in the control group. Cell viability was decreased

  11. PNGF导管复合骨髓间充质干细胞修复大鼠12 mm坐骨神经缺损%PNGF conduit seeded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells to repair 12-mm sciatic nerve defect of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟才; 黄继锋; 严琼娇; 李世普

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察RGD多肽接枝聚(乳酸-羟基乙酸-L-赖氨酸)/聚乳酸/β-磷酸三钙/神经生长因子(PRGD/PDLLA/β-TCP/NGF,PNGF)缓释导管复合骨髓间充质干细胞(Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, BMSCs)构建组织工程化人工神经,修复大鼠12 mm坐骨神经缺损的效果。方法雄性Wistar大鼠30只,随机分为3组,每组10只,左后肢制作12 mm坐骨神经缺损模型,分别行单纯PNGF导管桥接(A)、PNGF导管复合BMSCs桥接(B)、自体神经移植(C),所有大鼠左侧为实验侧,右侧为正常自身对照侧。术后3个月行大体观察、坐骨神经功能指数、电生理检测、小腿三头肌湿重恢复率测量、新生神经及靶肌肉组织学观察等检测坐骨神经功能恢复情况。结果术后3个月取材时见导管管壁变薄,表面血管化良好,管内有再生神经通过,直径较正常神经细。坐骨神经功能指数的检测结果显示PNGF导管复合BMSCs高于单纯PNGF导管组(P<0.05),PNGF导管复合BMSCs组神经传导速度恢复率、小腿三头肌湿重恢复率、有髓神经纤维数量和直径均优于单纯PNGF导管组(P<0.01),取得与自体神经移植组相似的效果。结论 PNGF缓释导管复合BMSCs桥接修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损,能够有效促进神经再生,效果接近自体神经移植。%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of tissue-engineered artificial nerve consists of novel arginine-glycine-aspatic acid (RGD) peptide modification of poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]}/poly(d,l-lactic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate/nerve growth factor(PRGD/PDLLA/β-TCP/NGF, PNGF) sustaining release conduit seeded with Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs) in bridging 12-mm sciatic nerve defect in rats. Methods 30 isogenic adult male Wister rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 in each), the left sciatic nerve was exposed to create a 12-mm gap in all

  12. Expression of apolipoprotein E during nerve degeneration and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatius, M J; Gebicke-Härter, P J; Skene, J H; Schilling, J W; Weisgraber, K H; Mahley, R. W.; Shooter, E M

    1986-01-01

    A 37-kDa glycoprotein has been described recently, whose synthesis is dramatically increased after injury of the rat sciatic and optic nerves. Cells in the nerve sheath, distal to the site of injury, produce and secrete large amounts of this protein, so that by 3 weeks after injury, it represents 2-5% of the total soluble extracellular protein in the regenerating sciatic nerve sheath, although it fails to accumulate in damaged optic nerve. Results presented here reveal extensive homology betw...

  13. ALDH1A3 loss of function causes bilateral anophthalmia/microphthalmia and hypoplasia of the optic nerve and optic chiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyavi, Mani; Abouzeid, Hana; Gawdat, Ghada; de Preux, Anne-Sophie; Xiao, Tong; Bardakjian, Tanya; Schneider, Adele; Choi, Alex; Jorgenson, Eric; Baier, Herwig; El Sada, Mohamad; Schorderet, Daniel F; Slavotinek, Anne M

    2013-08-15

    The major active retinoid, all-trans retinoic acid, has long been recognized as critical for the development of several organs, including the eye. Mutations in STRA6, the gene encoding the cellular receptor for vitamin A, in patients with Matthew-Wood syndrome and anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M), have previously demonstrated the importance of retinol metabolism in human eye disease. We used homozygosity mapping combined with next-generation sequencing to interrogate patients with anophthalmia and microphthalmia for new causative genes. We used whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing to study a family with two affected brothers with bilateral A/M and a simplex case with bilateral anophthalmia and hypoplasia of the optic nerve and optic chiasm. Analysis of novel sequence variants revealed homozygosity for two nonsense mutations in ALDH1A3, c.568A>G, predicting p.Lys190*, in the familial cases, and c.1165A>T, predicting p.Lys389*, in the simplex case. Both mutations predict nonsense-mediated decay and complete loss of function. We performed antisense morpholino (MO) studies in Danio rerio to characterize the developmental effects of loss of Aldh1a3 function. MO-injected larvae showed a significant reduction in eye size, and aberrant axonal projections to the tectum were noted. We conclude that ALDH1A3 loss of function causes anophthalmia and aberrant eye development in humans and in animal model systems.

  14. Bloqueo ciático continuo con catéter estimulador guiado mediante ecografía para tratamiento del miembro fantasma doloroso Ultrasound-guided continuous sciatic nerve block with stimulating catheter for the treatment of phantom limb pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez Navas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Los bloqueos nerviosos periféricos pueden ser una alternativa a la analgesia intravenosa y epidural en el tratamiento del miembro fantasma doloroso. La dificultad en la localización del nervio ciático mediante neuroestimulación en pacientes con arteriopatía periférica y neuropatía puede verse aumentada por el hecho de presentar una amputación del miembro inferior, que imposibilita la observación de una respuesta motora en el pie coincidiendo con la localización del nervio. En estos casos, la ecografía puede convertirse en una técnica de localización nerviosa determinante del éxito de la analgesia ya que permite la identificación del nervio, así como la visualización en tiempo real de la posición relativa de la aguja y catéter respecto al nervio y la difusión del anestésico local administrado. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con miembro fantasma doloroso resistente al tratamiento convencional que se controló con un bloqueo ciático continuo con catéter estimulador guiado con ecografía.Peripheral nerve blocks can be an alternative to intravenous and epidural analgesia in the treatment of phantom limb pain. The difficulty of localizing the sciatic nerve through neurostimulation in patients with peripheral arteriopathy and neuropathy can be increased by lower limb amputation, making it impossible to observe a motor response in the foot coinciding with localization of the nerve. In these cases, ultrasonography can become a technique for nerve localization and determine the success of analgesic strategy, since it allows nerve identification, as well as visualization in real time of the relative position of the needle and catheter with respect to the nerve and the diffusion of the local anesthetic administered. We report the case of a patient with phantom limb pain refractory to conventional treatment, in whom pain control was achieved by ultrasound-guided continuous sciatic block with stimulating catheter.

  15. The apolipoprotein A-I gene is actively expressed in the rapidly myelinating avian peripheral nerve

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) gene was investigated in the myelinating sciatic nerve. Hybridization analysis with an apo A-I cDNA probe obtained from a cDNA library of mRNA isolated from rapidly myelinating chick sciatic nerve indicated that apo A-I coding transcripts increase during development in the chick sciatic nerve in parallel with the increase of myelin lamellae. Substantial apo A-I-like immunoreactivity in chick sciatic nerve homogenates was detected by Western b...

  16. Paralisia facial periférica bilateral na leucemia linfóide aguda: relato de caso Bilateral peripheric facial nerve palsy in acute linfoid leukemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos L. Antunes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A mímica facial é fundamental para a expressão e comunicação humana, que são possíveis apenas através da integridade do nervo facial. Sendo assim, a paralisia facial periférica (PFP pode deixar seqüelas estéticas, funcionais e psicológicas. A causa mais comum é a paralisia de Bell (50 a 80%, onde a maioria dos pacientes apresenta manifestação unilateral. O acometimento bilateral simultâneo é raro, sendo a leucemia a neoplasia que com maior freqüência pode resultar nesse tipo de manifestação. A seguir, relatamos o caso de um paciente de dezoito anos de idade apresentando leucemia linfóide aguda (LLA e PFP simultânea, ambas refratárias ao tratamento quimioterápico, culminando com o óbito cinco meses após o início da PFP. Realizou-se considerações importantes sobre a fisiopatologia da PFP na LLA, além de uma revisão da literatura.The facial mimic is very important to the human expression and communication, which depend on the integrity of the facial nerve. So, the peripheric facial palsy (PFP can leave esthetics, functional and psychological sequelae. The more common etiology is Bell's palsy (50 to 80% and most of the patients show a unilateral manifestation. The simultaneous bilateral PFP is rare, and the leukemia is the neoplasia that can often that kind of manifestation. We present a clinical case of an 18-year-old patient with acute lymphoid leukemia and simultaneous bilateral facial palsy, who did not recover after the chemotherapy treatment, and died five months after the initial manifestation of the facial palsy. Important considerations were accomplished about the physiopathology of PFP in acute lymphoid leukemia, besides literature review.

  17. Exercício imediato versus tardio na regeneração do nervo isquiático de ratos após axoniotmese: análise histomorfométrica e funcional Immediate versus later exercises for rat sciatic nerve regeneration after axonotmesis: histomorphometric and functional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LL Sobral

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Devido à controvérsia sobre o melhor momento para iniciar o exercício físico, bem como sua influência sobre a regeneração nervosa periférica, este estudo realizou uma análise histomorfométrica e funcional para avaliar a influência do exercício físico em esteira, aplicado nas fases imediata e tardia da regeneração do nervo isquiático de ratos, após axoniotmese. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar machos (229,05±18,02g foram divididos nos grupos: controle (CON; desnervado (D; desnervado+exercício+gaiola (DEG e desnervado+ gaiola+exercício (DGE. Após 24 horas da axoniotmese, o grupo DEG iniciou o exercício, enquanto o grupo DGE iniciou no 14º dia, com o seguinte protocolo: velocidade=8m/min, inclinação=0%, 30min/dia, durante 14 dias. Em seguida, a porção distal do nervo isquiático foi retirada para análise histomorfométrica. Realizou-se o registro da marcha (pré-operatório e 7º, 14º, 21º, 28º dias pós-operatório (PO, através do índice funcional do ciático (IFC. RESULTADOS: O número de axônios regenerados nos grupos D foi maior que no CON (pOBJECTIVE: Considering the controversies regarding the best period to begin physical exercise in relation to peripheral nerve regeneration, along with its influence on regeneration, this study accomplished a histomorphometric and functional analysis to evaluate the influence of physical exercise on a treadmill, applied to the immediate and late stages of sciatic nerve regeneration in rats following crushing injury. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats (229.05±18.02g were divided into the following groups: control (CON; denervated (D; denervated+exercise+cage (DEC and denervated+cage+exercise (DCE. The DEC group started the exercise 24 hours after the nerve injury, while the DCE group started on the 14th day after the injury, with the following protocol: speed=8m/min, inclination=0%, 30min/day, for 14 days. The distal segment of the sciatic nerve was then removed for

  18. An experimental study of early electrophysiological changes following high-voltage electrical injury of the sciatic nerve%兔坐骨神经高压电损伤后早期电生理改变的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱维平; 陈正永; 朱艺; 赵琳; 陈国平; 吴亚莉; 忻向荣; 李桦

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the early stage eletrophysiological changes after high - voltage electrical injury of rabbit sciatic nerve. Methods 48 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into experimental group (40 rabbits) and control group (8 rabbits). The right lower limb of the rabbits in the experimental group was hit by high - voltage (10 kV) electricity. Electromyography (EMG), compound motor action potential(CMAP), motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) were recorded right after, 3, 7, 14, and 21days after the injury. No intervention was made in the control group.Results MNCV,CMAP,SEP of the sciatic nerve of the right hind limb could not be detected 3 days after injury in 20 rabbits, indicating complete nerve injury. In another 20 rabbits, there was gradual reduction of MNCV, prolongation of CMAP and SEP latent period, and decrease of CMAP and SEP amplitude, suggesting incomplete nerve injury. Both of them were comparable to each other in denervation potential. Conclusions The early electrophysiological changes in rabbit sciatic nerve after high - voltage electrical injury were progressively exacerbated.%目的研究家兔坐骨神经高压电损伤后早期电生理的变化规律。方法新西兰家兔48只,分成2组。实验组40只,以1万V高压电电击右下肢,于伤后即刻、3、7、14、21 d共5个时间组检测实验兔右下肢的肌电图(EMG)、运动神经传导速度(MNCV) 、复合肌肉电位(CMAP)和皮层体感诱发电位(SEP)。正常对照组8只家兔不作任何处理。结果 20只兔右侧坐骨神经的MNCV、CMAP、SEP在伤后3 d全部测不出,提示为完全损伤。20只兔随伤后时间的推移,坐骨神经的MNCV逐渐减慢;CMAP和SEP的潜伏期逐渐延长,波幅逐渐降低。提示为不全损伤。两者肌电图失神经电位的变化则相似。结论家兔坐骨神经被高压电击伤后早期的肌电图神经电图改变呈进行性加重。

  19. Topographical anatomy features of branching of nerves of lower extremities of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsarev A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 12 white rats of the reproductive period were the material for research. The topography of sciatic and femoral nerves of lower extremities of rats were studied by the method of level-by-level preparation. Femoral and sciatic nerves, their branches are ventral branches lumbar and sacral plexuses. Sciatic nerve was characterized by dispersed type of ramifying (78 % of cases, for the femoral nerve – the main type of branching (86%. The femoral nerve is projected on a medial surface of a hip and in the region of knee joint lies superficially that has a practical value. The rest portion of femoral nerve is located in hard-to-reach areas in the view of preparation and experimental approach. The sciatic nerve is projected on the skin of dorsal surfaces of pelvic areas where it leaves sciatic notch. For more reliable results of experimental research we propose to took into account age, sex, and topographical features.

  20. Effects of sciatic-conditioned medium on neonatal rat retinal cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres P.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells produce and release trophic factors that induce the regeneration and survival of neurons following lesions in the peripheral nerves. In the present study we examined the in vitro ability of developing rat retinal cells to respond to factors released from fragments of sciatic nerve. Treatment of neonatal rat retinal cells with sciatic-conditioned medium (SCM for 48 h induced an increase of 92.5 ± 8.8% (N = 7 for each group in the amount of total protein. SCM increased cell adhesion, neuronal survival and glial cell proliferation as evaluated by morphological criteria. This effect was completely blocked by 2.5 µM chelerythrine chloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC. These data indicate that PKC activation is involved in the effect of SCM on retinal cells and demonstrate that fragments of sciatic nerve release trophic factors having a remarkable effect on neonatal rat retinal cells in culture.

  1. EFFECTS OF BOTH GDNF AND HSV-GDNF ON Bcl-2 EXPRESSION IN SPINAL CORD MOTOR NEURONS AFTER SCIATIC NERVE INJURY IN RATS%GDNF及HSV-GDNF对坐骨神经损伤大鼠脊髓运动神经元 Bcl-2表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常利; 苏剑斌; 鄂玲玲; 周长满

    2001-01-01

    目的 观察胶质细胞源性神经营养因子(GDNF)及单纯疱疹病毒(HSV)载体介导的GDNF(HSV-GDNF)对坐骨神经损伤大鼠脊髓运动神经元Bcl-2表达的影响。 方法 分别取坐骨神经损伤后4d、7d和14d大鼠(分成对照组、GDNF组和HSV-GDNF组)的腰段脊髓(L4~6),行石蜡包埋、切片;用抗Bcl-2抗血清进行免疫组织化学染色,观察Bcl-2免疫反应(Bcl-2-IR)神经元数目,并在图像分析仪上对Bcl-2-IR阳性神经元作光密度的色谱分析。 结果1.坐骨神经损伤后4d、7d时,GDNF组和HSV-GDNF组损伤侧脊髓运动神经元Bcl-2-IR阳性神经元的数量和平均光密度均明显高于对照组损伤侧。2.坐骨神经损伤后14d时,对照组、GDNF组和HSV-GDNF组损伤侧脊髓运动神经元对Bcl-2的表达已无明显差别。 结论 GDNF与HSV-GDNF能够增强坐骨神经损伤大鼠脊髓运动神经元Bcl-2的表达,减少神经元的退化死亡。%Objective To observe the effects of GDNF and HSV-GDNF on B cl-2expression in spinal cord motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury in rats . Methods Lumbar of spinal cord was immunohistochemically stained b y using the antiserum of Bcl-2.The number and mean optical densities of Bcl-2 i mmunoreactive(Bcl-2-IR)positive neurons were counted and observed. Results The number and mean optical densities of Bcl-2-IR positi ve neurons were significantly increased in GDNF and HSV-GDNF 4 days and 7 days after sciatic nerve injury.But differences of the number and the mean optical de nsities of Bcl-2-IR positive neurons were not obvious in three groups 14 days after sciatic nerve injury. Conclusion Local application of GDNF and HSV-GDNF to transected s ciatic nerve can prevent the massive neuron apoptosis or programmed cell death i nduced by nerve injury.

  2. 人脐血间充质干细胞修复大鼠坐骨神经损伤的实验研究%Experiment research of the function of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells in the regeneration of rat's sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠仁; 杨波; 王利民; 李恩

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efectiveness of using mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)derived from HUCB(human umbilical cord blood)to a tissue engineered bioartificial nerve on bridging a 1 0 mm sciatic nerve gap.Methods The cord blood mononuclear cells were isolated by lymphocyte separation medium,purified and expanded with MesencultTM medium and acidic environment to produce adherent layer(MSCs).Thirty SD female rats were randomly divided into three groups.Group A:Human amnion tubes were seeded by HUCBMSCs together with fibrin sealant.Group B:Human amnion tubes were seeded only with fibrin sealant.group C:autografts.9 weeks later,a series of examinations were performed which included morphological,sciatic nerve function index,weight of gastrocnemius,histological staining and immunostaining of S100.Results The HUCB-derived mononuclear cells,when seeded in specific medium,gave rise to adherent cells (MSCs).At 9 weeks after the operations,all the examinations of group A was better than group B(P<0.05).Conclusion HUCBMSCs can be isolated,purified, cultivated and expanded Mesencult~(TM) medium.HUCBMSCs can promote the nerve to regenerate in reparing the sciatic nerve gap.%目的 评价用人脐血间充质干细胞(HUCBMSCs)构建组织工程化人工神经修复大鼠坐骨神经10 mm缺损的治疗效果. 方法 用淋巴细胞分离液分离脐血的单个核细胞,以偏酸性的MesencultTM进行培养获得MSCs.30只SD大鼠随机分为3组,每组10只.A组:将HUCBMSCs与生物蛋白胶混合,种植于羊膜管中修复坐骨神经缺损;B组:仅将生物蛋白胶种植于羊膜管中:C组:坐骨神经切下后再将其缝合.9周后,行大体观察、坐骨神经功能指数、腓肠肌湿重测定、组织学染色,S100免疫组化染色等检查. 结果 32份脐血18份可培养出MSCs,但传代培养大量扩增只有4份.HUCBMSCs植人手术后9周检查结果显示,坐骨神经功能指数、腓肠肌湿重测定A组(-64.2234±2.9461、41.29524±3.88421)

  3. 胶原/丝素导管介导雪旺细胞联合神经干细胞修复坐骨神经缺损%Collagen/silk fibroin conduit combined with the co-culture of Schwann cells and neural stem cells for bridging sciatic nerve defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云强; 张振辉; 余欣; 陈旭义; 李东; 李瑞欣; 冯世庆

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察胶原/丝素导管介导雪旺细胞联合神经干细胞所构建的组织工程化神经修复大鼠10 mm坐骨神经缺损的效果.方法 体外分离培养乳鼠坐骨神经雪旺细胞(SCs),并做S-100蛋白免疫荧光鉴定;从孕14 ~ 15 d的SD大鼠体内取出子鼠,分离纯化获得原代神经干细胞(NSCs)进行体外培养.实验分为4组,每组10只:自体神经移植组(A组)、胶原/丝素导管介导雪旺细胞联合神经干细胞移植组(B组)、胶原/丝素导管移植组(C组)、单纯损伤组(D组).SCs-NSCs与胶原/丝素导管联合培养14 d后,行扫描电镜观察.分别将3种不同移植物桥接于大鼠坐骨神经10 cm缺损处,并在12周后进行大体观察、电生理学检测、形态学观察及计量学分析.结果 术后12周,桥接组都不同程度地实现了坐骨神经缺损再通,且实验动物未出现明显排斥及炎性反应.神经电生理学检测坐骨神经复合肌动作电位(CMAPs)波幅分别为:未手术正常侧(21.00±1.83) mV,A组(15.00±1.12) mV,B组(13.00±1.06) mV,C组(6.00±0.58) mV,透射电子显微镜再生神经纤维髓鞘厚度分别为:A组(0.80±0.15) μm,B组(0.70±0.11) μm,C组(0.30±0.07) μm,D组(0.25±0.06) μm.统计结果表明:A组与B组之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但两者相对C组及D组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 SCs和NSCs能够在胶原/丝素导管上共同生长分化,生物相容性良好.胶原/丝素导管介导雪旺细胞联合神经干细胞所构建的组织工程化神经对坐骨神经缺损的修复具有良好的桥接和促神经生长作用.%Objective To observe the repair effect of collagen/silk fibroin conduit transplanted with co-cultured Schwann cells (SCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) for bridging 10 mm sciatic nerve defect by tissue engineering technique in rats.Methods SCs were isolated and purified from the sciatic nerve of neonatal SD rats,and were identified by immunocytochemical labelling for S100

  4. 电针夹脊穴结合跑台训练对兔坐骨神经损伤后胫骨骨质量的影响%Effects of electro-acupuncture on Jiaji acupoints combined with treadmill training on tibia bone mass of rabbit with sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 黄如意; 唐强; 陈国平

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察电针夹脊穴及跑台训练对兔坐骨神经损伤后胫骨骨质量的影响,为周围神经损伤后维持正常骨代谢选择更合理的治疗方案,提供理论依据.方法 采用随机数字表法将24只新西兰家兔随机分成模型组、假手术组、跑台组和电针跑台组,每组6只.采用钳夹方法对模型组、跑台组、电针跑台组的家兔进行坐骨神经卡压造模,假手术组只将组织切开,不卡压神经.跑台组于造模成功3d后即开始电动跑台康复训练,电针跑台组在跑台组训练方案的基础上增加电针夹脊穴治疗.假手术组和模型组不做任何干预,仅正常饲养.于治疗前(造模后即刻)对4组家兔进行行为学观测,并于治疗4周后(跑台组和电针跑台组治疗4周后)再次对4组大鼠进行行为学观测,同时测定其骨密度和骨强度.结果 治疗4周后,模型组、跑台组和电针跑台组的骨密度和骨强度均低于假手术组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);电针跑台组的骨密度和骨强度分别为(0.17 ±0.01) g/cm2和(161.92±43.27)N,均显著高于模型组和跑台组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 电针夹脊穴结合跑台训练可显著改善坐骨神经损伤后胫骨的骨密度和强度,促进骨的正常代谢以及维持骨组织的正常功能.%Objective To observe the effects of electro-acupuncture on Jiaji acupoints combine with treadmill training on tibia bone mass of rabbits with sciatic nerve injury,so as to provide the theoretical support for better project to maintain normal metabolism of bone after peripheral nerve injury.Methods A total of 24 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (n =6),namely a model group,a sham group,a treadmill group and an electro-acupuncture + treadmill group according to a random number table.The sciatic nerve of rabbits in the model,treadmill and electro-acupuncture + treadmill group was clamped using hemostatic forceps to establish

  5. Evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a new biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; denDunnen, WFA; Robinson, PH; Pennings, AJ; Schakenraad, JM

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate functional nerve recovery following reconstruction of a 1 cm gap in the sciatic nerve of a rat, using a new biodegradable p (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide. To evaluate both motor and sensory nerve recovery, walking track analysis and electrostimulation tests were

  6. Effect of Cluster Needling of Scalp Acupuncture Combined with Treadmill Training on Axonal Regeneration and Expression of S-100 Protein in Rats with Sciatic Nerve Injury%头穴丛刺结合跑台训练对坐骨神经损伤大鼠轴突再生及S-100蛋白表达影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 赵玖玫; 朱路文

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of cluster needling of scalp acupuncture combined with treadmill training on axonal regener-ation and expression of S-100 protein in rats with sciatic nerve injury. Methods Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided in-to blank group, sham group, model group, treadmill group and cluster needling of scalp point combined with treadmill group (combination group), each group was further divided into 7, 14 and 21 days subgroups, with 6 rats in each subgroup. The sciatic nerve of rats was clamped in the model group, the treadmill group and the combination group. The sham group was subjected to the same surgical procedure with sciat-ic nerve exposure but without crush injury. Three days after modeling, the treadmill group was treated with treadmill training, and the combi-nation group was treated with cluster needling of scalp acupuncture and treadmill training, while the other groups were grabbed regularly, with no other intervention. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was tested, the condition of axon growth was observed with HE staining, and the expression of S-100 protein was examined with immunohistochemistry at each time point. Results At each time point, SFI was higher, the axon grew better, and the S-100 protein was higher expressed in the treadmill group and the combination group than in the model group (P<0.05), especially in the combination group (P<0.05). Conclusion Cluster needling of scalp acupuncture combined with treadmill training can accelerate the regeneration of axons and increase the expression of S-100 protein and improve sciatic function after sciatic nerve injury.%目的:探讨头穴丛刺结合跑台训练对坐骨神经损伤大鼠轴突再生及S-100蛋白表达的影响。方法清洁级健康雄性Sprague-Dawley大鼠90只,随机分为空白组、假手术组、模型组、跑台组和头穴丛刺结合跑台组,每组18只,每组分为7 d、14 d、21 d三个亚组。钳夹法造模,假手

  7. High-voltage electrical stimulation improves nerve regeneration after sciatic crush injury Estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem favorece a regeneração nervosa após compressão do nervo isquiático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. Teodori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury causes prolonged functional limitation being a clinical challenge to identify resources that accelerates its recovery. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of high-voltage electrical stimulation (HVES on the morphometric and functional characteristics of the regenerated nerve after crush injury in rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Control (CON - without injury and without HVES; Denervated (D - sciatic nerve crush only; Denervated + HVES - sciatic nerve crush and HVES; SHAM - without injury but HVES. The HVES and SHAM groups were stimulated (100 Hz; minimum voltage of 100 V, 20 μs, 100 μs interpulse interval for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. The sciatic functional index (SFI was evaluated before the injury and at the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperatory (PO days. Neural components and the area density of connective tissue, blood vessels and macrophages were analyzed. RESULTS: Axonal diameter was higher on the HVES than on D group, reaching almost 80% above the control values after 21 days (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Lesões nervosas periféricas provocam limitação funcional prolongada, sendo um desafio para a clínica identificar recursos que acelerem sua recuperação. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a influência da estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem (EEAV sobre a morfologia e a função do nervo regenerado após esmagamento em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar foram divididos nos grupos: controle (CON - sem lesão e sem EEAV; desnervado (D - esmagamento do nervo isquiático; desnervado + EEAV (EEAV - esmagamento do nervo e EEAV; SHAM - sem lesão, porém submetido à EEAV. Os grupos EEAV e SHAM foram estimulados (100 Hz, tensão mínima de 100 V; 20 μs e 100 μs interpulso 30 min/dia, 5 dias/semana. O índice funcional do ciático (IFC foi avaliado antes da lesão, nos 7º, 14º e 21º dias pós-operatório (PO. Componentes neurais, densidade de área de tecido conjuntivo, de

  8. 注射性坐骨神经损伤后针刺腧穴对家兔胫骨前肌胶原纤维和NADH-TR的影响%After sciatic nerve injection injury ,effect of collagen fiber and NADH-TR of tibialis anterior of rabbit by acupuncture treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢远兴; 张学真; 杨胜波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore effecting of collagen fiber and NADH-TR of tibialis anterior of rabbit by sciatic nerve injection injury and acupuncture treatment. Methods 35 adult healthy rabbit were used , they were randomized into four group: ie the normal, penicillin injection, normal saline injection, penicillin injection and acupuncture treatment respectively.Sciatic nerve-trunk were exposed through surgery and penicillin or normal saline 0.5ml were injected under the perilemma. After penicillin injection injury 4 weeks, the trouble Foot Three Li and Circular Jump were acupunctured 4-8 weeks, then VG and NADH-TR staining method was adopted to observe the changes of collagen fibers and NADH-TR in the rabbit' s tibialis. Results After penicillin injecting into sciatic nerve-trunk perilemma 2 weeks, the collagen fibers hyperplasied obviously in tibialis anterior muscle, NADH-TR activation strengthened, the constituent ratio of three muscle fiber types have changed; crosscut area and optical density of muscle fiber and weight of muscle was dropped; they made more serious at fourth week, muscular atrophy have been observed obviously, while saline injection caused only transient impairment during 2 weeks in the muscle. If two acupoint were acupunctured 4 weeks after penicillin injection injury 4 weeks, above-mentioned index wloud take a favorable turn markedly,and to treat 8 weeks, moved forward a single step recovery to near normal. Conclusions Acupuncture treatment could reduce collagen fibers hypeiplasia, degrade NADH-TR activation , improve amyotrophy in tibialis anterior of rabbit.%目的 探索注射性坐骨神经损伤后针刺腧穴对家兔胫骨前肌内胶原纤维和NADH-TR的影响.方法 成年家兔35只,分正常、青霉素注射、生理盐水注射、青霉素注射加针刺腧穴治疗4组;手术暴露坐骨神经干,神经外膜下注射青霉素或生理盐水0.5 mL;青霉素注射损伤4周后针刺患侧环跳和后三里4~8周;VG染色法和NADH

  9. The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration research may compromise designs of nerve guidance conduits for humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton M. Kaplan; Mishra, Prakhar; Kohn, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Rats are not the best model for the evolving complexities we face in designing nerve repair strategies today. The development of effective nerve guidance conduits for nerve regeneration is severely limited by the rat sciatic nerve model as the almost exclusive research model in academia. An immense effort is underway to develop an alternative to autologous nerve grafts for the repair of nerve defects, aiming particularly at larger gap repairs of 5–30 cm or more. This must involve combinations...

  10. Controle da dor pós-operatória da artroplastia total do joelho: é necessário associar o bloqueio do nervo isquiático ao bloqueio do nervo femoral? Control del dolor postoperatorio de la artroplastia total de la rodilla: ¿es necesario asociar el bloqueo del nervio isquiático al bloqueo del nervio femoral? Control of postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty: is it necessary to associate sciatic nerve block to femoral nerve block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso H. Zugliani

    2007-10-01

    ón del bloqueo de los nervios isquiático y femoral. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 17 pacientes sometidos a ATR bajo raquianestesia, divididos en dos grupos: A y B. En el Grupo A (n = 9 fue realizado bloqueo del nervio femoral y en el Grupo B (n = 8 bloqueo de los nervios femoral e isquiático. Los bloqueos fueron realizados en el postoperatorio inmediato utilizando 20 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5% en cada uno. El dolor se comprobó en las primeras 24 horas a través de la Escala Analógica Visual y escala verbal. Fue observado el tiempo transcurrido entre los bloqueos y el primer quejido de dolor (M1. RESULTADOS: La mediana del tiempo de analgesia (M1 en el Grupo A fue de 110 min y en el Grupo B de 1.285 min (p = 0,0001. No fueron observadas complicaciones atribuibles a las técnicas utilizadas. CONCLUSIONES: El bloqueo del nervio isquiático, cuando se asocia al bloqueo del nervio femoral, e las condiciones de este estudio, mejoró de manera significativa la calidad de la analgesia en postoperatorio de la ATR.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA causes severe tissue trauma, leading to severe postoperative pain. Good postoperative analgesia is fundamental and one should consider that early mobilization of the joint is an important aspect to obtain good results. There is a controversy in the literature on the efficacy of isolated femoral nerve block. The objective of this study was to evaluate postoperative analgesia with the association of sciatic and femoral nerve block. METHODS: Seventeen patients undergoing TKA under spinal anesthesia were divided in two groups: A and B. In Group A (n = 9, femoral nerve block was performed, while in Group B (n = 8, femoral and sciatic nerve block were done. The blockades were done in the immediate postoperative period with 20 mL of 0.5% of ropivacaine. Pain was evaluated in the first 24 hours using the Visual Analog Scale and the verbal scale. The length of time between the nerve block and the first complaint of pain (M1

  11. Bloqueio bilateral do nervo pudendo para hemorroidectomia em paciente acondroplásico: relato de caso Bloqueo bilateral del nervio pudendo para hemorroidectomía en paciente acondroplásico: relato de caso Bilateral blockade of the pudend nerve to hemorrhoidectomy in achondroplasic patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Salomé de Morais

    2006-04-01

    patients presents several particularities. The objective of the present report was to describe an achondroplasic patient case, with a previous history of surgical procedure of the vertebral column for medullar decompression, submitted to haemorrhoidectomy through the bilateral blockade of the pudend nerves. CASE REPORT: Male patient, 47 years old, achondroplasic, hospitalized to perform hemorrhoidectomy. Upon physical examination, he presented a shortened neck with limited extension of the head, Mallampati class IV, thyromental distance of 6 cm and opening of the mouth of 3.5 cm. The vertebral column presented thoracic kyphosis and severe lumbar lordosis, in addition to a surgical scar in the lumbar region. A bilateral blockade of the pudend nerves was performed with ropivacaine at 1%, via transperineal, with isolated needle measuring 0.8 mm x 100 mm 21G (Stimuplex A100 BBraun, Melsungen, Germany connected to the peripheral nerve stimulator (Stimuplex-DIG, BBraun.The patient was positioned in ventral decubitus and the surgery started after 15 minutes of anesthetic administration. During the entire procedure, the patient remained conscious and did not report pain or discomfort. Up to the moment his hospital discharge (22 hours after the performance of the blockade, the patient did not mention pain, discomfort, nausea, vomit, motor blockade, urinary retention or incontinence. After his discharge from the hospital, he evolved well presenting evacuation after 31 hours from surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The case illustrated the use of the bilateral blockade of the pudend nerves, with the help of the neurostimulator, as an isolated anesthetic techniques for hemorrhoidectomy.

  12. 连续腰丛神经阻滞联合单次坐骨神经阻滞用于膝关节置换术后镇痛%Continuous Lumbar Plexus Block Combined with Single Sciatic Nerve Block for the Postoperative Analgesia after Knee Arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海华; 王春华

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨连续腰丛神经阻滞联合单次坐骨神经阻滞用于膝关节置换术后镇痛的价值。[方法]选择2010年1月至2012年12月本院住院治疗的膝关节置换术后患者83例,随机分为两组:观察组42例使用连续腰丛神经阻滞联合单次坐骨神经阻滞,对照组41例则使用硬膜外阻滞。比较两组患者术后8 h、24 h、36 h和48 h疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS)及下肢肌力改良Bromage评分,并统计治疗期间发生的不良反应。[结果]两组术后8 h、24 h、36 h和48 h患者下肢VAS评分各个时间点之间差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05),观察组从术后24 h开始其下肢肌力改良Bromage评分即低于对照组( P <0.05),观察组治疗期间发生尿潴留和下肢麻木的比率显著低于对照组( P <0.05)。[结论]连续腰丛神经阻滞联合单次坐骨神经术后镇痛,在确保有效镇痛的前提下,有效减少术后并发症,更有利于患者术后功能锻炼。%[Objective] To explore the value of continuous lumbar plexus block combined with single sciatic block for postoperative analgesia after knee arthroplasty .[Methods]A total of 83 inpatients after knee arthroplas-ty in our hospital from Jan .2010 to Dec .2012 were chosen and divided into two groups .The observation group( n =42) received continuous lumbar plexus block combined with single sciatic nerve block ,while the control group ( n =41) received epidural anesthesia .Pain visual analog scale(VAS) at 8h ,24h ,36h and 48h after the operation and the modified Bromage score of lower limb muscle strength were compared between two groups .Adverse reac-tions during the treatment were recorded .[Results] There was no significant difference in VAS of lower limbs at 8h ,24h ,36h and 48h after the operation between two groups( P>0 .05) .From 24h after the operation ,the mod-ified Bromage score of muscle strength of lower limbs in the observation group was lower than

  13. Effect of morphine on synaptic long-term potentiation in spinal dorsal horn evoked by electric stimulation of sciatic nerve in rats%吗啡对电刺激坐骨神经诱发大鼠脊髓背角突触长时程增强的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江; 黄德樱; 程洁; 上官守琴; 胡祁生

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of morphine on synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) in the spinal dorsal horn evoked by electric stimulation of sciatic nerve in rats. Methods Twenty-seven healthy male SD rats aged 60-90 d weighing 180-200 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: group Ⅰ control (group C, n=7), group Ⅱ morphine (group M, n=7), group Ⅲ naloxone (group N, n=6), and group Ⅳ morphine + naloxone (group MN, n=7). The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10% urethane 1 g/kg, intubated and then mechanically ventilated. The bipolar insulated stainless steel recording electrode (impedance 0.5-1 MΩ, diameter 0.1 mm) was inserted into the left side of the spinal dorsal horn at T13-L1 to stimulate the left side of the sciatic nerve. Single square pulses (15 V, 0.5 ms, 1/60 Hz for 30 min) was applied to evoke spinal field potentials. Normal saline 10 μl, morphine 10 μl (15 μg/μl), naloxone 10 μl (2.5 μg/μl), and the mixture 10 μl of naloxone 5 μl (2.5 μg/μl) and morphine 5 μl (15 μg/μl) was gradually instilled over 2 rain in the 4 groups respectively. Five minutes later, high-frequency and intensity tetanic stimulation (30-40 V, 0.5 ms, 100 Hz, given in 4 trains of 1-s duration at 10-s intervals) was used to induce LTP. Then single square stimuli (15 V, 5 ms, 1/60 Hz) were applied to the sciatic nerve for 210 min. The amplitude and latency period of the field potential were recorded 30 min before tetanic stimulation, and 0-30, 35-60, 65-120 and 125-210 min after titanic stimulation. Results Compared with group C, the amplitude of the field potential was significantly decreased and the latency period prolonged in group M and MN, but there was no significant difference in the above indices between group N and C. Compared with group M, the amplitude of the field potential was significantly increased and the latency period shortened in group MN. Compared with those 30 min before the tetanic stimulation, the amplitude of the field

  14. Electrophysiologic assessment of regeneration in rat sciatic nerve repair using suture, fibrin glue or a combination of both techniques Avaliação eletrofisiológica da eficácia de três tipos de reparo após a secção do nervo ciático do rato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sergio Martins

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the repair of seccioned rat sciatic nerve by the comparison of electrophysiologic parameters. The repair was effected with suture (group A, fibrin glue (group B or a combination of both techniques (group C. The amplitude, latency and conduction velocity of the motor and nerve action potentials were assessed before the nerve section and at reoperation after 24 weeks. There was no difference between the groups when the nerve action potential was evaluated. Rats of group B presented better results than those of group A (pForam comparados os parâmetros obtidos na avaliação eletrofisiológica do potencial de ação do nervo e do potencial de ação motor antes e após 24 semanas do reparo no nervo ciático do rato previamente seccionado no lado direito com a utilização de sutura (grupo A, adesivo de fibrina (grupo B ou uma combinação das duas técnicas (grupo C. Não houve diferença entre os grupos na avaliação do potencial de ação do nervo. Quando consideradas a latência e a velocidade de condução mensurados na reoperação e a razão entre a velocidade de condução medida na reoperação e o mesmo parâmetro antes da secção do nervo, durante a mensuração do potencial de ação motor, os animais do grupo B apresentaram melhores resultados em relação aos do grupo A (p<0,05. Os animais do grupo C apresentaram melhores resultados em comparação com os do grupo A quando considerada a razão entre a velocidade de condução medida 24 semanas do reparo e antes da secção do nervo durante a avaliação do potencial de ação motor. Conclui-se que os animais em que o reparo dos nervos foi realizado com o adesivo de fibrina apresentaram melhores resultados em comparação com a sutura quando considerados os parâmetros obtidos na mensuração do potencial de ação motor.

  15. Using Eggshell Membrane as Nerve Guide Channels in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Farjah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:  The aim of this study was to evaluate the final outcome of nerve regeneration across the eggsell membrane (ESM tube conduit in comparison with autograft. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male rats (250-300 g were randomized into (1 ESM conduit, (2 autograft, and (3 sham surgery groups. The eggs submerged in 5% acetic acid. The decalcifying membranes were cut into four pieces, rotated over the teflon mandrel and dried at   37°C. The left sciatic nerve was surgically cut. A 10-mm nerve segment was cut and removed. In the ESM group, the proximal and distal cut ends of the sciatic nerve were telescoped into the nerve guides. In the autograft group, the 10 mm nerve segment was reversed and used as an autologous nerve graft. All animals were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI and electrophysiology testing.  Results:The improvement in SFI from the first to the last evalution in ESM and autograft groups were evaluated. On days 49 and 60 post-operation, the mean SFI of ESM group was significantly greater than the autograft group (P 0.05. Conclusion:These findings demonstrate that ESM effectively enhances nerve regeneration and promotes functional recovery in injured sciatic nerve of rat.

  16. Effect of Surface Pore Structure of Nerve Guide Conduit on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Jin Rae; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Lee, Jin Ho

    2012-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with different surface pore structures (nano-porous inner surface vs. micro-porous inner surface) but similar physical and chemical properties were fabricated by rolling the opposite side of asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 membranes. The effect of the pore structure on peripheral nerve regeneration through the NGCs was investigated using a sciatic nerve defect model of rats. The nerve fibers and tissues were shown to have regener...

  17. The Effects of Pentoxifylline in Experimental Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    BAYKAL, Süleyman

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that pentoxifylline, a theophylline-related drug that decreases erytrhocyte stiffness, may be useful in treatment of ischaemia reperfusion injuries of brain, liver and small intestine in animal experiments. Fourteen Wistar-Albino rats weighing between 180-250 g were used for the experiment and divided equally to two groups. Before the injury, electroneuromyographic (ENMG) data were recorded from right and left sciatic nerves. Right sciatic nerves of the seven ra...

  18. 纳米银-胶原蛋白-明胶支架材料对兔坐骨神经缺损修复的实验研究%Repair and regeneration of damaged rabbit sciatic nerves with a tissue-engineered scaffold made from nano-silver and collagen type I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁坦; 郑岩; 叶正旭; 胡学昱; 罗卓荆

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨含纳米银的胶原蛋白-明胶支架材料通过静电吸附层黏连蛋白对周围神经缺损修复的效果.方法 制备纳米银-胶原蛋白支架材料,作为实验组,以不含纳米银的胶原蛋白支架为对照组.将雄性新西兰兔40只随机分为两组,每组20只.将实验组材料和对照组材料分别与层黏连蛋白复合后分组修复兔坐骨神经10 mm缺损.术后30 d通过电生理学、形态学观察和荧光金逆行示踪实验对修复效果进行评估.结果 层黏连蛋白通过静电吸附作用均匀地贴附在实验组支架内表面.兔坐骨神经桥接术后30 d,甲苯胺蓝及透射电镜显示实验组在再生神经纤维数量、神经髓鞘厚度以及被荧光金逆行标记的神经元数量方面均优于对照组.电生理结果:实验组和对照组坐骨神经电位波幅分别为(0.70±0.44)、(0.58±0.37)mV,差异有统计学意义(t=2.803,P=0.012);神经传导速度分别为(40.7±2.1)、(36.6±4.8)m/s,差异有统计学意义(t=2.427,P=0.031).结论 纳米银-胶原蛋白-明胶通过静电引力对层黏连蛋白具有较好的吸附作用,而吸附层黏连蛋白的纳米银-胶原蛋白-明胶支架对成年兔坐骨神经10 mm缺损具有较快的修复作用.%Objective To investigate the usefulness of a tissue engineering scaffold made from nano-silver and type-Ⅰ collagen in repair and regeneration of damaged peripheral nerves in adult rabbits.Methods Forty rabbits were randomly divided into an experimental group (nano-sliver-collagen-scaffold with laminin coatings) and a control group (collagen scaffold with laminin). The 10 mm defects of the rabbit sciatic nerves were repaired respectively in both groups. The functional recovery (regenerated nerve fibers and their myelination status) 30 days after surgery was examined by electrophysiology, Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracing,toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy. Results Compared with the collagen

  19. 全身麻醉下顺式阿曲库铵对大鼠坐骨神经复合肌肉动作电位的影响%Effects of cisatracurium on compound muscle action potential of sciatic nerve in rats under general anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧光辉; 孟祥虎; 樊龙昌; 李新华; 刘继红; 张传汉; 罗爱林; 田玉科

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究水合氯醛全麻状态下顺式阿曲库铵对大鼠坐骨神经复合肌肉动作电位(CMAP)的影响.方法:60只SD大鼠随机分为2组,7%水合氯醛腹腔注射麻醉后,实验组腹腔注射顺式阿曲库铵(0.93 mg/kg),对照组腹腔注射等体积生理盐水,立即刺激坐骨神经,记录大鼠腓肠肌CMAP变化,刺激间隔5 min.结果:麻醉生效后18 ~ 48 min 2组间峰峰值及潜伏期差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).实验组CMAP变化分3个阶段:诱导期,表现为峰峰值逐步下降,潜伏期延长,持续约10 min;抑制期,表现为峰峰值进一步降低,潜伏期进一步延长,之后有恢复趋势,持续约30 min;恢复期,表现为峰峰值、潜伏期恢复至用药前水平.对照组CMAP峰峰值与潜伏期均无显著变化(均P>0.05).结论:顺式阿曲库铵对大鼠腓肠肌CMAP有显著影响,而且呈阶段性变化,准确了解这种变化趋势,有助于术中及时为术者反馈信息,减少神经损伤.%Objective: To study the effects of cisatracurium on compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of sciatic nerve in rats under general anesthesia by chloral hydrate. Methods: A total of 60 SD rats were divided into two groups randomly. Cisatracurium (0. 93mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of the experimental group, and isotonic saline of the same volume in the control group after anesthetized by 7% chloral hydrate, respectively. Sciatic nerve was stimulated after injection at 5 minutes'intervals, and recorded the changes of CMAPs of gastrocnemius muscle. Results: Significant differences existed in peak-to-peak values and latencies between two groups 18-48 minutes after general anesthesia (P0. 05). Conclusions: The CMAPs of gastrocnemius muscles can be significantly impacted by cisatracurium, and present phase changes. Accurate understanding the trend of variation of CMAPs conduces to gather feedback information for operater during surgery, and thus may reduce nerve injury.

  20. Bilateral failure of adduction following orbital decompression.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsella, F; Kyle, P.; Stansfield, A

    1990-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral complete failure of adduction following bilateral translid antralethmoidal orbital decompression. We believe the probable mechanism is neuropraxia (temporary dysfunction) of the third cranial nerves' supply to the medial recti, owing to these nerves' occupying an anatomically abnormal position. Partial recovery of adduction occurred over the ensuing six months.

  1. 大鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管的组织形态学研究%The morphological study of two kinds of acellular basal Lamina tubes of sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海; 胡汝麒; 周建生

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察采用化学萃取法和反复冻融法制备大鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管的组织形态学变化.方法:雌性Sprague-Dawley鼠坐骨神经16条随机分为化学萃取法(chemical extracted nerve,CEN)和冻融法(freeze-thawed nerve,FTN)两组,每组18条.分别予Trinton-100化学萃取、-196℃~20℃反复冻融处理后,光镜、电镜观察其组织、形态学变化.结果:(1)CEN组基膜管管壁完整、贯通,无细胞结构,可见管状神经轮廓.(2)FTN组基膜管管壁破损、管腔堵塞,轴突、髓鞘、雪旺细胞及小血管变性、坏死,可见大量细胞碎片.结论:两种方法均能保持周围神经正常的三维空间结构,CEN制备的周围神经去细胞基膜管更具有组织形态学优势.

  2. Involvement of microglia and interleukin-18 in the induction of long-term potentiation of spinal nociceptive responses induced by tetanic sciatic stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xia Chu; Yu-Qiu Zhang; Zhi-Qi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to investigate the potential roles of spinal microglia and downstream molecules in the induction of spinal long-term potentiation (LTP) and mechanical allodynia by tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (TSS).Methods Spinal LTP was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (0.5 ms,100 Hz,40 V,10 trains of 2-s duration at 10-s intervals).Mechanical allodynia was determined using von Frey hairs.Immunohistochemical staining and Westem blot were used to detect changes in glial expression of interleukin- 18 (IL- 18) and IL- 18 receptor (IL- 18R).Results TSS induced LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the spinal cord.Intrathecal administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline (200 μg/20 μL) 1 h before TSS completely blocked the induction of spinal LTP.Furthermore,after intrathecal injection of minocycline (200 μg/20 μL) by lumbar puncture 1 h before TSS,administration of minocycline for 7 consecutive days (once per day) partly inhibited bilateral allodynia.Immunohistochemistry showed that minocycline inhibited the sequential activation of microglia and astrocytes,and IL-1 8 was predominantly colocalized with the microglial marker Iba-1 in the spinal superficial dorsal horn.Western blot revealed that repeated intrathecal injection of minocycline significantly inhibited the increased expression of IL-18 and IL-18Rs in microglia induced by TSS.Conclusion The IL-18 signaling pathway in microglia is involved in TSS-induced spinal LTP and mechanical allodynia.

  3. The effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE on nerves.

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    Wei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: If a critical nerve is circumferentially involved with tumor, radical surgery intended to cure the cancer must sacrifice the nerve. Loss of critical nerves may lead to serious consequences. In spite of the impressive technical advancements in nerve reconstruction, complete recovery and normalization of nerve function is difficult to achieve. Though irreversible electroporation (IRE might be a promising choice to treat tumors near or involved critical nerve, the pathophysiology of the nerve after IRE treatment has not be clearly defined. METHODS: We applied IRE directly to a rat sciatic nerve to study the long term effects of IRE on the nerve. A sequence of 10 square pulses of 3800 V/cm, each 100 µs long was applied directly to rat sciatic nerves. In each animal of group I (IRE the procedure was applied to produce a treated length of about 10 mm. In each animal of group II (Control the electrodes were only applied directly on the sciatic nerve for the same time. Electrophysiological, histological, and functional studies were performed on immediately after and 3 days, 1 week, 3, 5, 7 and 10 weeks following surgery. FINDINGS: Electrophysiological, histological, and functional results show the nerve treated with IRE can attain full recovery after 7 weeks. CONCLUSION: This finding is indicative of the preservation of nerve involving malignant tumors with respect to the application of IRE pulses to ablate tumors completely. In summary, IRE may be a promising treatment tool for any tumor involving nerves.

  4. A refined technique for sciatic denervation in a golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) model of disuse atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarukhanov, Valeri; Van Andel, Roger; Treat, Michael D; Utz, Jenifer C; van Breukelen, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Disuse atrophy of both muscle and bone can occur rapidly during periods of inactivity. In several rodent models developed for the study of disuse atrophy, immobilization is induced by prolonged cage restraint, hind limb unloading, tenotomy, sciatic nerve block or sciatic denervation. In less tractable species such as wild-caught hibernating rodents, the sciatic denervation model is superior in terms of both animal welfare and applicability to the characteristics of natural cases of disuse atrophy. The authors describe a refined surgical approach to sciatic denervation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), a hibernating species, that improves animal welfare and reduces the incidence of post-operative complications such as autotomy. PMID:24845006

  5. Preventive Effects of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Prescription Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities on Sciatic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Pengsong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia and hypoxia are important physiological changes in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. Chinese herbal medicine prescription Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities (TDFE is useful for increasing blood flow. To help determine whether TDFE could protect the peripheral nerves of diabetic patients from the degeneration caused by high blood glucose, TDFE was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 6 or 12 weeks. Plantar thermal stimulation reaction time thresholds, sciatic nerve conduction velocities, and the levels of HIF-1α mRNA, HIF-1α protein, VEGF protein, and the endothelial marker vWF in sciatic nerves were measured at the end of the sixth and twelfth weeks. The thermal thresholds and sciatic nerve conduction velocities of the rats differed after 12 weeks, and the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats that were given TDFE displayed higher levels of HIF-1α protein, VEGF protein, and HIF-1α mRNA than those of the diabetic model rats. The results at 6 weeks differed from those at 12 weeks. These results suggest that the early preventive application of TDFE effectively delayed the development of DPN and that TDFE increased HIF-1α mRNA levels in the sciatic nerves of diabetic rats through 12 weeks of treatment.

  6. 夹脊电针和神经松动术对兔坐骨神经损伤后轴突再生和血清神经营养因子的影响%Effects of Jiaji Electroacupuncture and Neurodynamic Mobilization Technique on Axon Regeneration and Con-tent of Neurotrophic Factors in Rabbits with Sciatic Nerve Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 王茜; 陈国平; 范红石

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察夹脊电针和神经松动术对兔坐骨神经损伤后轴突再生和血清脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)、睫状神经营养因子(CNTF)含量的影响。方法30只成年雄性兔分为模型组(n=6)、假手术组(n=6)、神经松动术组(n=6)、夹脊电针组(n=6)、夹脊电针结合神经松动术组(n=6)。钳夹法复制坐骨神经损伤模型。模型组、假手术组不做任何干预,神经松动术组行神经松动术治疗,夹脊电针组进行夹脊电针治疗,夹电针结合神经松动术组进行夹脊电针和神经松动术治疗。治疗4周后,HE染色观察轴突生长情况,ELISA法检测血清BDNF、CNTF含量。结果神经松动术组、夹脊电针组、夹脊电针结合神经松动术组轴突生长情况均优于模型组,夹脊电针结合神经松动术组优于神经松动术组和夹脊电针组;神经松动术组、夹脊电针组、夹脊电针结合神经松动术组血清BDNF、CNTF含量均高于模型组(P<0.05),夹脊电针结合神经松动术组优于神经松动术组和夹脊电针组(P<0.05)。结论神经松动术、夹脊电针均可促进兔损伤坐骨神经的轴突再生,可能与提高血清中CNTF、BDNF水平有关;两者结合效果更佳。%Objective To observe the effects of Jiaji electroacupuncture and neurodynamic mobilization technique on axon regeneration and content of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in rabbits with sciatic nerve injury. Meth-ods 30 male adult rabbits were assigned to sham (A, n=6), model (B, n=6), neurodynamic mobilization (C, n=6), Jiaji electroacupuncture (D, n=6), and Jiaji electroacupuncture combine with neurodynamic mobilization (E, n=6) groups. The group C was treated with neurodynam-ic mobilization, the group D with Jiaji electroacupuncture, and the group D with both 3 days after modeling of clamping at sciatic nerve, while the groups A and B with no treatment. The axon regeneration

  7. Effects of Chloral Hydrate and Atracurium Besilate on Compound Muscle Action Potential of Sciatic Nerves in Rats%水合氯醛和苯磺酸阿曲库铵对大鼠坐骨神经复合肌肉动作电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥虎; 臧光辉; 樊龙昌; 肖海涛; 权伟合; 刘继红; 张传汉; 罗爱林; 田玉科

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究水合氯醛和苯磺酸阿曲库铵对大鼠坐骨神经复合肌肉动作电位(compound muscle action potential,CMAP)的影响.方法:成年SD大鼠20只,随机分为2组(n=10):水合氯醛组(C组)和水合氯醛复合苯磺酸阿曲库铵组(CA组).2组腹腔注射7%水合氯醛350 mg·kg-1麻醉,给予水合氯醛后8 min时CA组腹腔注射苯磺酸阿曲库铵2.5 μg·kg-1.于给予水合氯醛8 min时刺激坐骨神经,记录其所支配的腓肠肌的CMAP.刺激强度为0.50 v、0.55 v、0.60 v,波宽0.05 ms,频率10 Hz,每隔5 min重复上述刺激.结果:与8 min时比较,0.50 v,0.55 v,0.60 v强度下C组CMAP的峰峰值及潜伏期均无明显变化(P均>0.05);CA组与8 min时比较,0.50,0.55 及0.60 v强度下23~43 min时的CMAP峰峰值降低(P<0.05或0.01),0.50 v强度下38 min的CMAP潜伏期延长(P<0.05),0.55 v,0.60 v强度下,23~43 min的CMAP潜伏期延长(P<0.05或0.01).结论:水合氯醛对大鼠坐骨神经CMAP无明显影响;而复合肌松药苯磺酸阿曲库铵后对CMAP有一过性的抑制作用.%Objective: To study the effects of chloral hydrate with or without atracurium besilate on compound muscle action potential ( CMAP ) of sciatic nerves in rats. Method: Twenty adult SD rats were randomly divided into chloral hydrate group ( group C ) and chloral hydrate with atracurium besilate group ( group CA ). Group C was treated by chloral hydrate, and group CA was treated with chloral hydrate and atracurium besilate. Both the groups were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of 7% chloral hydrate with the dosage of 350 mg·kg-1. After 8min of successful anesthesia, group CA was intraperitoneally infused with atracurium besilate (2.5 μg ·kg-1). Meanwhile, the two groups were stimulated sciatic nerves with stimulus intensity of 0.50 v, 0.55 v and 0.60 v, width of 0. 05 ms and frequency of 10 Hz, respectively. Each stimulus repeated three times every 5 min. Result: In group C, the peak to peak values and incubation

  8. Effects of Pentobarbital Sodium Combined with Atracurium Besilate on CMAP of Sciatic