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Sample records for bilateral sciatic nerve

  1. Bilateral eventration of sciatic nerve

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    T Sharma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection of a 60 years male cadaver, it was observed that the two divisions of sciatic nerve were separate in the gluteal region on both the sides with the tibial nerve passing below the piriformis and the common peroneal nerve piercing the piriformis muscle. The abnormal passage of the sciatic nerve (SN, the common peroneal nerve (CPN, and the tibial nerve (TN, either through the piriformis or below the superior gemellus may facilitate compression of these nerves. Knowledge of such patterns is also important for surgeons dealing with piriformis syndrome which affects 5-6% of patients referred for the treatment of back and leg pain. A high division may also account for frequent failures reported with the popliteal block. Keywords: eventration, piriformis muscle, piriformis syndrome, sciatic nerve

  2. Bilateral high division of sciatic nerve

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    K. Shwetha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sciatic nerve is the thickest nerve in the body formed by the sacral plexus from L4 to S3 in the lesser pelvis. It emerges through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis and enter the gluteal region. Then the nerve passes on the back of the thigh and at the level of superior angle of popliteal fossa it terminates by dividing into tibial and common peroneal nerve. The knowledge of anatomical variations in the division of nerve is important for various surgical and anaesthetic procedures. During routine dissection in the department of anatomy, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore, a rare bilateral high division of sciatic nerve was observed in a female cadaver aged about 40 years. In the present case there was bilateral high division of sciatic nerve. The nerve was seen dividing into two branches before it emerges through the greater sciatic foramen. The tibial nerve was entering the gluteal region below the piriformis muscle and common peroneal nerve was entering by piercing the piriformis. The knowledge of this variation is important as the nerve may get compressed with surrounding anatomical structures resulting in non discogenic sciatica. The awareness of variations is important for surgeons during various procedures like fracture, posterior dislocation of hip joint and hip joint replacement. The anatomical variations are important during deep intramuscular injections in gluteal region and also for anaesthetists during sciatic nerve block. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1785-1787

  3. Traumatic bilateral hip dislocation with bilateral sciatic nerve palsy

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    Ajay Pal Singh; Amarjit Singh Sidhu; Arun Pal Singh

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral hip dislocation rarely occurs.In this paper, a case of bilateral hip dislocation associated with bilateral sciatic nerve palsy resulted from a road traffic acci-dent is reported.Both hips were emergently reduced under general anaesthesia.Acetabular reconstruction was done bilaterally due to the unstable hips.The patient subsequently developed heterotopic ossification and avascular necrosis on the left hip and underwent total hip arthroplasty.The sciatic nerve on the right side achieved complete recovery but that on the left side only partly recovered and was aug-mented by tendon transfer.Such injuries are serious and one should be aware of the complications because they can resurface and so patients should be followed up for a long time.To the best of our knowledge, this kind of injury has not been reported in the English .language literature.

  4. Bilateral variant of sciatic nerve exhibiting intra-pelvic division

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    Rejeena P Raj, Kunjumon PC, More Anju B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context (background: In case of high division of the sciatic nerve in the pelvis its, common peroneal component may pierce the Piriformis muscle. This anatomical variant can explain many clinical findings. Aims: Its objective is to report a case of high division of the sciatic nerve in order to contribute towards better anatomical understanding of the gluteal region. Methods and Material: Routine undergraduate dissection of a male cadaver revealed bilateral variation in sciatic nerve. Results: Sciatic nerve is dividing into tibial and common peroneal components in the pelvis. Common peroneal component is piercing through the piriformis muscle. Tibial component is emerging between piriformis and superior gemelli muscle. Conclusions: Sciatic nerve variation can lead to a Piriformis muscle syndrome, inadvertent injury during operations in the gluteal region, failure of sciatic nerve block and/or sciatic neuropathy. The differences in routes of these two nerve components can explain them.

  5. Ultrasound-guided bilateral continuous sciatic nerve blocks with stimulating catheters for postoperative pain relief after bilateral lower limb amputations*.

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    Geffen, G.J. van; Scheuer, M.; Müller, A.; Garderniers, J.; Gielen, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of continuous bilateral sciatic nerve blocks under ultrasonographic control using stimulating catheters is described in a 4-year-old child with VACTERL syndrome. Ultrasound showed an abnormal vascular and nerve supply to the lower limbs. The use of ultrasound guidance made successful

  6. High division of sciatic nerve

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    Tripti Shrivastava

    2014-04-01

    Results: In all except two cadavers, the nerve divided at the apex of the popliteal fossa. In two cadavers the sciatic nerve divided bilaterally in the upper part of thigh. Conclusion: The high division presented in this study can make popliteal nerve blocks partially ineffective. The high division of sciatic nerve must always be borne in mind as they have important clinical implications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 686-688

  7. Schwannomatosis of the sciatic nerve

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    Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Maruyama, Shigeki; Mizuno, Kosaku [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    A 52-year-old woman with schwannomatosis in the left sciatic nerve is presented. The patient had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 or 2. Cutaneous or spinal schwannomas were not detected. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the sciatic nerve revealed more than 15 tumors along the course of the nerve. Histological examination revealed schwannomas consisting of Antoni A and B areas. Immunohistochemical study showed most cells reacting intensely for S-100 protein. The patient underwent conservative follow-up treatment due to the minimal symptoms. The relationship of the disease with NF-2 and plexiform schwannoma is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Dumb-bell shaped tuberculous abscess across the greater sciatic notch compressing both sciatic nerves.

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    Baba, H; Okumura, Y; Furusawa, N; Omori, H; Kawahara, H; Fujita, T; Katayama, K; Noriki, S

    1998-08-01

    We report an instructive case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a dumb-bell shaped tuberculous abscess across the greater sciatic notch bilaterally compressing both sciatic nerves. Clinical symptoms progressed slowly and mimicked lumbar radiculopathy, thus delaying an accurate diagnosis. Anterolateral retroperitoneal and posterolateral gluteal approaches of the greater sciatic notch as well as the acetabulum on both sides were followed in order to provide safe viewing and resection of the abscess. The abscess wall was adherent to the sciatic nerve and surrounding blood vessels. The symptoms completely disappeared after resection of the abscess.

  9. Muscle potentials evoked by magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve in unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction

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    Van Soens, I.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Van Ham, L. M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve and subsequent recording of the muscle-evoked potential (MEP) was performed in eight dogs and three cats with unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction. Localisation of the lesion in the sciatic nerve was based on the history, clinical neurological examination an

  10. Successful treatment of Raynaud's syndrome in a lupus patient with continuous bilateral popliteal sciatic nerve blocks: a case report.

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    Dao, Thuan; Amaro-Driedger, David; Mehta, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    Raynaud's syndrome has been treated medically and invasively, sometimes with regional anesthesia leading up to sympathectomy. We demonstrate that regional anesthesia was in this case a useful technique that can allow some patients to find temporary but significant relief from symptoms of Raynaud's syndrome exacerbation. We present a 43-year-old woman with Raynaud's syndrome secondary to lupus who was treated with bilateral popliteal nerve block catheters for ischemic pain and necrosis of her feet; this led to almost immediate resolution of her pain and return of color and function of her feet. While medical management should continue to be a front-line treatment for Raynaud's syndrome, regional anesthesia can be useful in providing rapid dissipation of symptoms and may thus serve as a viable option for short-term management of this syndrome.

  11. Anatomical study of sciatic nerve and common peroneal nerve compression

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    Mingzhao Jia; Qing Xia; Jinmin Sun; Qiang Zhou; Weidong Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many diseases of the common peroneal nerve are a result of sciatic nerve injury. The present study addresses whether anatomical positioning of the sciatic nerve is responsible for these injuries. OBJECTIVE: To analyze anatomical causes of sciatic nerve and common peroneal nerve injury by studying the relationship between the sciatic nerve and piriformis. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Observe and measure repeatedly. The experiment was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Tianjin Medical College between January and June 2005. MATERIALS: Fifty-two adult cadavers 33 males and 19 females, with a total of 104 hemispheres, and fixed with formaldehyde, were provided by Tianjin Medical College and Tianjin Medical University. METHODS: A posterior cut was made from the lumbosacral region to the upper leg, fully exposing the piriformis and path of the sciatic nerve. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Anatomical characteristics of the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve. (2) According to different areas where the sciatic nerve crosses the piriformis, the study was divided into two types--normal and abnormal. Normal is considered to be when the sciatic nerve passes through the infrapiriform foramen. Remaining pathways are considered to be abnormal. (3) Observe the relationship between the suprapiriform foramen, infrapiriform foramen, as well as the superior and inferior space of piriformis. RESULTS: (1) The nerve tract inside the common peroneal nerve is smaller and thinner, with less connective tissue than the tibial nerve. When pathological changes or variations of the piriformis, or over-abduction of the hip joint, occur, injury to the common peroneal nerve often arises due to blockage and compression. (2) A total of 76 hemispheres (73.08%) were normal, 28 were abnormal (26.92%). The piriformis can be injured, and the sciatic nerve can become compressed, when the hip joint undergoes intorsion, extorsion, or abduction. (3) The structures between the infrapiriform and

  12. Sciatic nerve: beyond the sacral foramen

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    Sanal, Hatice Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Sciatica may result from pathologies affecting the nerve both in its intraspinal and extraspinal course. In daily routine, the vast majority of cases are caused by herniation of the lumbar discs compressing the neural roots. Extraspinal causes of sciatic pain are usually underestimated and the imaging study may be completed after reporting the lumbar MRIs. However, early diagnosis of the exact etiology of sciatica is paramount for both relieving the symptoms and preventing any additional neurologic injury. In this pictorial assay, some relatively rare causes of sciatic neuralgia along the route of the sciatic nerve after leaving the sacral foramen will be displayed. PMID:27670092

  13. SCIATIC NERVE AND ITS VARIATIONS: AN ANATOMICAL STUDY

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    Anbumani T.L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The Sciatic nerve is the widest nerve of the body, consists of two components namely tibial and common peroneal components, derived from the lumbosacral plexus from the ventral rami of L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The Sciatic nerve usually enters the gluteal region under the piriformis muscle. The purpose of this study is to identify the variations in the course and branching pattern of the sciatic nerve and its relation to the piriformis muscle which may lead to various clinical manifestations like non-discogenic sciatica. Materials and methods: 50 gluteal regions and posterior compartment of thigh from 25 formalin fixed adult cadavers are used for this study, of which one is a female cadaver. Gluteal regions and the posterior aspect of thigh on both sides are dissected to expose the sciatic nerve. Variations in the sciatic nerve and their relationship to piriformis muscle are observed. Results: 41 gluteal regions and posterior compartments of thigh (82% showed normal anatomy of sciatic nerve and also piriformis muscle. 9 regions (18% showed variations in the sciatic nerve, of which 5 regions (10% showed variation of sciatic nerve in relation to piriformis muscle. Other details are explained further in the article. Conclusion: A proper knowledge about the variations of sciatic nerve, its relation to piriformis muscle is must for medical professionals during posterior hip surgeries, sciatic nerve decompression, total hip replacement, sciatic nerve injury during deep intramuscular gluteal injections, failed sciatic nerve block during anaesthetic procedures etc.

  14. Dog sciatic nerve gap repaired by artificial tissue nerve graft

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    GU Xiaosong; ZHANG Peiyun; WANG Xiaodong; DING Fei; PENG Luping; CHENG Hongbing

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of repairing dog sciatic nerve damage by using a biodegradable artificial tissue nerve graft enriched with neuroregenerating factors is investigated. The artificial nerve graft was implanted to a 30 mm gap of the sciatic nerve damage in 7 dogs. The dogs with the same nerve damage that were repaired by interposition of the autologous nerve or were given no treatment served as control group 1 or 2, respectively. The observations include gross and morphological observations, immune reaction, electrophysiological examination, fluorescence tracing of the neuron formation and the number of the neurons at the experimental sites, etc. Results showed that 6 months after the implantation of the graft, the regenerated nerve repaired the damage of the sciatic nerve without occurrence of rejection and obvious inflammatory reaction in all 7 dogs, and the function of the sciatic nerve recovered with the nerve conduction velocity of (23.91±11.35)m/s. The regenerated neurons and the forming of axon could be observed under an electron microscope. This proves that artificial tissue nerve graft transplantation can bridge the damaged nerve ends and promote the nerve regeneration.

  15. Study on Variant Anatomy of Sciatic Nerve

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    V, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sciatic Nerve (SN) is the nerve of the posterior compartment of thigh formed in the pelvis from the ventral rami of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. It leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen below piriformis and divides into Common Peroneal Nerve (CPN) and Tibial Nerve (TN) at the level of the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. Higher division of the sciatic nerve is the most common variation where the TN and CPN may leave the pelvis through different routes. Such variation may lead to compression of the nerve and lead to Non-discogenic sciatica. Materials and Methods: Fifty lower limbs were used for the study from Department of Anatomy, J.J.M.M.C Davangere, Karnataka, India. Observation and Results: In our study on 25 cadavers (50 lower limbs), we have observed 4 (8 %) lower limbs high division of sciatic nerve was noted. High division of sciatic nerve in the back of thigh was noted in one specimen (2%), while high division within the pelvis was noted in 3 specimens (6%), while in 46 (92%) it occurred outside the pelvis. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding such variation and differences in the course of SN is important for the surgeons to plan for various surgical interventions pertaining to the gluteal region. The variant anatomy of SN may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of SN block. Hence present study is undertaken to know the level of division, exit, course, relationship to piriformis and variations in the branching pattern of SN. PMID:25302181

  16. Piriformis syndrome surgery causing severe sciatic nerve injury.

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    Justice, Phillip E; Katirji, Bashar; Preston, David C; Grossman, Gerald E

    2012-09-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a controversial entrapment neuropathy in which the sciatic nerve is thought to be compressed by the piriformis muscle. Two patients developed severe left sciatic neuropathy after piriformis muscle release. One had a total sciatic nerve lesion, whereas the second had a predominantly high common peroneal nerve lesion. Follow-up studies showed reinnervation of the hamstrings only. We conclude that piriformis muscle surgery may be hazardous and result in devastating sciatic nerve injury.

  17. Neurologic complication after anterior sciatic nerve block.

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    Shah, Shruti; Hadzic, Admir; Vloka, Jerry D; Cafferty, Maureen S; Moucha, Calin S; Santos, Alan C

    2005-05-01

    The lack of reported complications related to lower extremity peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) may be related to the relatively infrequent application of these techniques and to the fact that most such events go unpublished. Our current understanding of the factors that lead to neurologic complications after PNBs is limited. This is partly the result of our inability to conduct meaningful retrospective studies because of a lack of standard and objective monitoring and documentation procedures for PNBs. We report a case of permanent injury to the sciatic nerve after sciatic nerve block through the anterior approach and discuss mechanisms that may have led to the injury. Intraneural injection and nerve injury can occur in the absence of pain on injection and it may be heralded by high injection pressure (resistance).

  18. Repair of sciatic nerve defects using tissue engineered nerves*

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    Caishun Zhang; Gang Lv

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered nerves with acel ular nerve al ografts in Sprague-Dawley rats, which were prepared using chemical detergents-enzymatic digestion and mechanical methods, in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s of Wistar rats cultured in vitro, to repair 15 mm sciatic bone defects in Wistar rats. At postoperative 12 weeks, electrophysiological detection results showed that the conduction velocity of regenerated nerve after repair with tis-sue-engineered nerves was similar to that after autologous nerve grafting, and was higher than that after repair with acel ular nerve al ografts. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that motor endplates with acetylcholinesterase-positive nerve fibers were orderly arranged in the middle and superior parts of the gastrocnemius muscle;regenerated nerve tracts and sprouted branches were connected with motor endplates, as shown by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry combined with silver staining. The wet weight ratio of the tibialis anterior muscle at the affected contralateral hind limb was similar to the sciatic nerve after repair with autologous nerve grafts, and higher than that after repair with acel ular nerve al ografts. The hind limb motor function at the affected side was significantly improved, indicating that acel ular nerve al ografts combined with bone marrow me-senchymal stem cel bridging could promote functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve defects.

  19. Computed tomography of the sacral plexus and sciatic nerve in the greater sciatic foramen

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    Lanzieri, C.F.; Hilal, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    The sacral plexus forms the sciatic nerve, which leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen. The anatomic boundaries of the greater sciatic foramen and the relation of the sacral plexus and sciatic nerve to the structures within are identified and described on axial computed tomography (CT). The piriform muscle, which passes through the center of the greater sciatic foramen, is a recognizable landmark that is extremely helpful in locating the sacral plexus and sciatic nerve on CT. The pelvic CT images of 25 patients studied for unrelated reasons and two patients studied for complaints related to the greater sciatic foramen were reviewed. CT was very useful in demonstrating the anatomy of this region and for the investigation of sciatic pain due to lesions outside the neural canal.

  20. PUNICA GRANATUM ATTENUATES SCIATIC NERVE LIGATION INDUCED-NEUROPATHIC PAIN

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    Ramica Sharma et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study has been designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of rind of Punica granatum in sciatic nerve ligation induced-neuropathic pain in rats. Surgical procedure was performed with sciatic nerve ligation to develop neuropathic pain in rats. The development of neuropathic pain was assessed by employing behaviour parameters such as hyperalgesia and allodynia. Further, the functionality of sciatic nerve was assessed using the histopathological study of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in sciatic nerve. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, catalase, glutathione and tissue TBARS and Superoxide dismutase (SOD. Rats exposed to sciatic nerve ligation produced marked increase in oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of TBARS and SOD along with decrease in the level of catalase and glutathione. Moreover, it develops neuropathic pain by impairing the normal functions of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in sciatic nerve. Treatment with aqueous extract of Punica granatum extract (100mg/kg, p.o markedly prevented sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress by increasing the pain threshold, by improving the functionality of sciatic nerve, by decreasing serum and tissue TBARS and tissue SOD, by increasing levels of serum glutathione and catalase. It may be concluded that Punica granatum extract reduced the oxidative stress via inhibiting p38MAPK and alleviates neuropathic symptoms and consequently improved the functionality of sciatic nerve and prevents sciatic nerve ligation–induced neuropathic pain.

  1. Sciatic nerve: beyond the sacral foramen

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    Sanal, Hatice Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Sciatica may result from pathologies affecting the nerve both in its intraspinal and extraspinal course. In daily routine, the vast majority of cases are caused by herniation of the lumbar discs compressing the neural roots. Extraspinal causes of sciatic pain are usually underestimated and the imaging study may be completed after reporting the lumbar MRIs. However, early diagnosis of the exact etiology of sciatica is paramount for both relieving the symptoms and preventing any additional neur...

  2. The level of the sciatic nerve division and its relations to the piriform muscle

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    Ugrenović Slađana Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The sciatic nerve, as the terminal branch of the sacral plexus, leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen beneath the piriform muscle. Afterwards, it separates into the tibial and the common peroneal nerve, most frequently at the level of the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. Higher level of the sciatic nerve division is a relatively frequent phenomenom and it may be the cause of an incomplete block of the sciatic nerve during the popliteal block anesthesia. There is a possibility of different anatomic relations between the sciatic nerve or its terminal branches and the piriform muscle (piriformis syndrome. The aim of this research was to investigate the level of the sciatic nerve division and its relations to the piriform muscle. It was performed on 100 human fetuses (200 lower extremities which were in various gestational periods and of various sex, using microdissection method. Characteristic cases were photographed. Results. Sciatic nerve separated into the tibial and common peroneal nerve in popliteal fossa in 72.5% of the cases (bilaterally in the 66% of the cases. In the remainder of the cases the sciatic nerve division was high (27.5% of the cases in the posteror femoral or in the gluteal region. Sciatic nerve left the pelvis through the infrapiriform foramen in 192 lower extremities (96% of the cases, while in 8 lower extremities (4% of the cases the variable relations between sciatic nerve and piriform muscle were detected. The common peroneal nerve penetrated the piriform muscle and left the pelvis in 5 lower extremities (2.5% of the cases and the tibial nerve in those cases left the pelvis through the infrapiriform foramen. In 3 lower extremities (1.5% of the cases common peroneal nerve left the pelvis through suprapiriform, and the tibial nerve through the infrapiriform foramen. The high terminal division of sciatic nerve (detected in 1/3 of the cases, must be kept in mind during the performing of popliteal

  3. Hip and pelvic fractures and sciatic nerve injury

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    蒋电明; 余学东; 安洪; 梁勇; 梁安霖

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of hip and pelvic fracture, especially acetabular fracture complicated by sciatic nerve injury on clinical features and prognosis of sciatic nerve injury. Methods: From January 1987 to January 2000, 17 patients (14 male and 3 female) who had hip and pelvic fractures complicated by sciatic nerve injury were treated with operative reduction and internal fixation and followed up from 10 months to 5 years. The average age was 38 years (ranging 23-56 years). The left extremities were involved in 11 patients and the right in 6. Twelve patients underwent primary exploration and neurolysis and 5 patients underwent secondary operation. Results: Preoperatively, 8 patients were treated with large doses of oral narcotics to control their severe sciatic pain. Three of the 8 patients underwent patient-controlled analgesia and epidural analgesia. After operation, excellent and good rates of reduction and functional recovery of sciatic nerve were 94.1% and 88% respectively. Four patients still had sciatic pain and 2 patients failed to recover. Sciatic nerve function improved within 3-6 months after surgery in 11 patients. Conclusions: Hip and pelvic fractures can result in sciatic nerve injury, especially common peroneal nerve injury and prognosis is poor. Open reduction and internal fixation combined with nerve exploration and neurolysis should be used as early as possible for severe sciatic pain.

  4. Comparison of nerve graft integration after segmentar resection versus epineural burying in crushed rat sciatic nerves

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    Cunha Marco Túlio Rodrigues da

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to compare and correlate the take of nerve segments in a severely crushed nerve. Forty adult Wistar rats had their right sciatic nerve by a "Péan-Murphy" forceps for 40 minutes. In Group 1 (n=20, a segmentar serection in the crushed sciatic nerve was made. A sural nerve segment from the opposite hindpaw was placed in the gap. In Group 2 (n=20, a lontudinal insision in the epineurium of the lesioned sciatic nerve was made. A sural nerve segment was buried underneath the epineurium. The crushed sciatic nerves undergone Wallerian degeneration and endoneurial fibrosis. Sciatic nerves from Group 2 had significant better histological aspects than those from Group 1. Sural nerve grafts presented better degrees of regeneration than crushed sciatic nerves. Sural nerve grafts from Group 2 (burying method integrated as well as those from Group 1 (segmentar resection.

  5. Topographic anatomical study of the sciatic nerve relationship to the posterior portal in hip arthroscopy

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    Berliet Assad Gomes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anatomic topographic relation between the sciatic nerve in relation to the piriform muscle and the posterior portal for the establishment of hip arthroscopy. Methods: We dissected 40 hips of 20 corpses of adult Brazilians, 17 male and three female, six black, six brown and eight white. We studied the anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriform muscle with their variations and the distance between the lateral edge of the sciatic nerve and the posterior portal used in hip arthroscopy. We then classified the anatomical alterations found in the path of the sciatic nerve on the piriform muscle. Results: Seventeen corpses had bilateral relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriform muscle, i.e., type A. We found the following anatomical variations: 12.5% of variant type B; and an average distance between the sciatic nerve and the portal for arthroscopy of 2.98cm. One body had type B anatomical variation on the left hip and type A on the right. Conclusion: the making of the posterior arthroscopic portal to the hip joint must be done with careful marking of the trochanter massive; should there be difficult to find it, a small surgical access is recommended. The access point to the portal should not exceed two centimeters towards the posterior superior aspect of the greater trochanter, and must be made with the limb in internal rotation of 15 degrees.

  6. Neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells induced by sciatic nerve and optic nerve conditioned medium

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    DU Chan; YANG De-mei; ZHANG Pei-xun; DENG Lei; JIANG Bao-guo

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous work has shown that optic nerve and sciatic nerve conditional medium had neurotrophic activity on neurons. In order to find if the optic nerve conditioned media (CM) had a similar activity to make PC12 cells differentiate as sciatic nerve CM did, we explored the neurotrophic activity in optic nerve CM in the same in vitro system and compared the neurotrophin expression levels in optic and sciatic nerves under both conditions.Methods PC12 cells were used to examine the effects of neurotrophins secreted by the sciatic nerve and optic nerve. RT-PCR and real-time QPCR showed that the sciatic nerve and optic nerve produced a range of neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3).Results The effects of sciatic nerve and optic nerve CM on neurite outgrowth were tested against a range of neurotrophins, and they had different neuritogenic activities. Only NGF and sciatic nerve CM had obvious neuritogenic activities, although the concentration of NGF in the sciatic nerve CM was very low.Conclusions Our experiment showed that sciatic nerve CM had a higher neurotrophic activity on PC12 cells than optic nerve CM. These results suggested that peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) had different expression levels of neurotrophin, which may in part explain the lack of ability to regenerate the CNS.

  7. Autologous nerve anastomosis versus human amniotic membrane anastomosis A rheological comparison following simulated sciatic nerve injury

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    Guangyao Liu; Qiao Zhang; Yan Jin; Zhongli Gao

    2011-01-01

    The sciatic nerve is biological viscoelastic solid, with stress relaxation and creep characteristics. In this study, a comparative analysis of the stress relaxation and creep characteristics of the sciatic nerve was conducted after simulating sciatic nerve injury and anastomosing with autologous nerve or human amniotic membrane. The results demonstrate that, at the 7 200-second time point, both stress reduction and strain increase in the human amniotic membrane anastomosis group were significantly greater than in the autologous nerve anastomosis group. Our findings indicate that human amniotic membrane anastomosis for sciatic nerve injury has excellent rheological characteristics and is conducive to regeneration of the injured nerve.

  8. Biodegradable magnesium wire promotes regeneration of compressed sciatic nerves.

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    Li, Bo-Han; Yang, Ke; Wang, Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg) wire has been shown to be biodegradable and have anti-inflammatory properties. It can induce Schwann cells to secrete nerve growth factor and promote the regeneration of nerve axons after central nervous system injury. We hypothesized that biodegradable Mg wire may enhance compressed peripheral nerve regeneration. A rat acute sciatic nerve compression model was made, and AZ31 Mg wire (3 mm diameter; 8 mm length) bridged at both ends of the nerve. Our results demonstrate that sciatic functional index, nerve growth factor, p75 neurotrophin receptor, and tyrosine receptor kinase A mRNA expression are increased by Mg wire in Mg model. The numbers of cross section nerve fibers and regenerating axons were also increased. Sciatic nerve function was improved and the myelinated axon number was increased in injured sciatic nerve following Mg treatment. Immunofluorescence histopathology showed that there were increased vigorous axonal regeneration and myelin sheath coverage in injured sciatic nerve after Mg treatment. Our findings confirm that biodegradable Mg wire can promote the regeneration of acute compressed sciatic nerves.

  9. Bacterial melanin promotes recovery after sciatic nerve injury in rats

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    Olga V Gevorkyan; Irina B Meliksetyan; Tigran R Petrosyan; Anichka S Hovsepyan

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial melanin, obtained from the mutant strain ofBacillus Thuringiensis, has been shown to promote recovery after central nervous system injury. It is hypothesized, in this study, that bacterial melanin can promote structural and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve transection were intramuscularly administered bacterial melanin. The sciatic nerve transected rats that did not receive intramuscular administration of bacterial melanin served as controls. Behavior tests showed that compared to control rats, the time taken for instrumental conditioned relfex recovery was signiifcantly shorter and the ability to keep the balance on the rotating bar was signiifcantly better in bacterial melanin-treated rats. Histomor-phological tests showed that bacterial melanin promoted axon regeneration after sciatic nerve injury. These ifndings suggest that bacterial melanin exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve, contributes to limb motor function recovery, and therefore can be used for rehabil-itation treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  10. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying [Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); University College London, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Dyck, P. James B. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurology, Rochester, MN (United States); Scheithauer, Bernd W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  11. Tacrolimus reduces scar formation and promotes sciatic nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Que; Quan Cao; Tao Sui; Shihao Du; Ailiang Zhang; Dechao Kong; Xiaojian Cao

    2012-01-01

    A sciatic nerve transection and repair model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by transecting the tendon of obturator internus muscle in the greater sciatic foramen and suturing with nylon sutures. The models were treated with tacrolimus gavage (4 mg/kg per day) for 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Specimens were harvested at 6 weeks of intragastric administration. Masson staining revealed that the collagen fiber content and scar area in the nerve anastomosis of the sciatic nerve injury rats were significantly reduced after tacrolimus administration. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that tacrolimus significantly increased myelinated nerve fiber density, average axon diameter and myelin sheath thickness. Intragastric administration of tacrolimus also led to a significant increase in the recovery rate of gastrocnemius muscle wet weight and the sciatic functional index after sciatic nerve injury. The above indices were most significantly improved at 6 weeks after of tacrolimus gavage. The myelinated nerve fiber density in the nerve anastomosis and the sciatic nerve functions had a significant negative correlation with the scar area, as detected by Spearman’s rank correlation analysis. These findings indicate that tacrolimus can promote peripheral nerve regeneration and accelerate the recovery of neurological function through the reduction of scar formation.

  12. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pech, P.; Haughton, V.

    1985-05-01

    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images.

  13. Effects of Alcohol Injection in Rat Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoch, Mathew J.; Cheema, Gulraiz A.; Suva, Larry J.; Thomas, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the injection of dehydrated alcohol has been successful for the treatment of Morton's neuroma in the foot. In this study, we determined the cellular effect of injection of alcohol into and around the sciatic nerve of rats, and measured the extent of cell necrosis and/or any associated histologic or inflammatory changes. Methods Twenty-two male (~375g) Wistar rats were randomized into two groups each receiving alcohol injections into or around the sciatic nerve after nerve exposure under sterile technique. Group 1 rats were injected with a 0.5ml solution of 0.5% Marcaine in the left sciatic nerve as a control group. In the right sciatic nerve a 0.5ml solution of 4% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine was injected. Group 2 rats received 0.5ml of 20%ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the left sciatic nerve and 0.5 ml of 30% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the right sciatic nerve. In each group, the rats were placed in 3 subgroups: intraneural, perineural, perimuscular injections. All rats were sacrificed and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation at day 10 post injection. Results No evidence of alcohol-associated cell necrosis, apoptosis or apparent inflammation was observed in histologic specimens of any injected nerves, perineural tissue, or muscles in controls or experimental groups regardless of concentration of ethanol injected on day 10. Conclusion We concluded that alcohol injection (≤30% ethanol) into and/or around the sciatic nerve or the adjacent muscle of rats has no histologic evidence of necrosis or inflammation to the nerve or surrounding tissue. There was no observable histological change in apoptosis, or cell number, in response to the alcohol injection. PMID:25097192

  14. Sciatic nerve tumor and tumor-like lesions - uncommon pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Maragakis, Nicholas; Hoeke, Ahmet; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Belzberg, Allan J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Sciatic nerve mass-like enlargement caused by peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or schwannomatosis has been widely reported. Other causes of enlargement, such as from perineuroma, fibromatosis, neurolymphoma, amyloidosis, endometriosis, intraneural ganglion cyst, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are relatively rare. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss normal anatomy of the sciatic nerve and MRI findings of the above-mentioned lesions. (orig.)

  15. [A case of localized hypertrophic neuropathy in the sciatic nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, T; Kusaka, H; Imai, T

    1995-01-01

    A 26-year-old male patient gradually developed muscular atrophy of the right lower leg over a two-year period. Neurological examination revealed absent Achilles tendon reflex and muscular atrophy of the right lower leg and right hamstring muscles. Conduction velocity of the F waves was delayed in the right posterior tibial nerve. A computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion along the proximal segment of the right sciatic nerve. Exploration revealed a fusiformly swollen sciatic nerve. Histological examination showed that a swollen segment of the sciatic nerve was filled with onion-bulb formations of perineurial cells, consistent with the diagnosis of localized hypertrophic neuropathy. This condition should be added to several etiologies of monomelic amyotrophy. Electrophysiological studies and neuroimaging techniques were useful in obtaining differential diagnosis.

  16. Injection inside the paraneural sheath of the sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Lykke; Andersen, Sofie L; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    There exists little anatomic knowledge regarding the structure and sonographic features of the sheath enveloping the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa. We investigated the spread of an injection inside the sheath to (1) determine whether the sheath is a structure distinct from the nerve or part...

  17. Chondroitinase ABC improves recovery of long sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailong Yu; Liangbi Xiang; Wenjing Xu; Bin Zhao; Yu Wang; Jiang Peng; Shibi Lu

    2012-01-01

    Sciatic nerves from allogeneic Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with chondroitinase ABC and were used to bridge damaged sciatic nerves in Wistar rats. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans were removed from the chemically extracted acellular nerves. At 3 months after grafting, the footplate pinch test result was positive in the Wistar rats. Autotomy scores decreased, and increased muscular contraction tension appeared when triceps surae muscles were stimulated. In addition, the recovery rate of wet triceps surae muscle weight increased, and the distal segment of the chondroitinase ABC-treated graft exhibited Schwann cells next to the nerve fibers. These results suggested that chondroitinase ABC pretreatment enhanced repair of long nerve defects via acellular nerve grafting.

  18. The mechanism of astragaloside IV promoting sciatic nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Zhang; Jiajun Chen

    2013-01-01

    3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-cycloastragenol (astragaloside IV), the main active component of the traditional Chinese medicine astragalus membranaceus, has been shown to be neuroprotective. This study investigated whether astragaloside IV could promote the repair of injured sciatic nerve. Denervated sciatic nerve of mice was subjected to anastomosis. The mice were intraperitoneal y injected with 10, 5, 2.5 mg/kg astragaloside IV per day for 8 consecutive days. Western blot assay and real-time PCR results demonstrated that growth-associated protein-43 ex-pression was upregulated in mouse spinal cord segments L 4–6 after intervention with 10, 5, 2.5 mg/kg astragaloside IV per day in a dose-dependent manner. Luxol fast blue staining and elec-trophysiological detection suggested that astragaloside IV elevated the number and diameter of myelinated nerve fibers, and simultaneously increased motor nerve conduction velocity and action potential amplitude in the sciatic nerve of mice. These results indicated that astragaloside IV con-tributed to sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery in mice. The mechanism underlying this effect may be associated with the upregulation of growth-associated protein-43 expression.

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve mm9 All antigens Neural Sciatic Nerve SRX815106,SRX8...15105 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve mm9 All antigens Neural Sciatic Nerve SRX815106,SRX8...15105 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve mm9 All antigens Neural Sciatic Nerve SRX815105,SRX8...15106 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve mm9 All antigens Neural Sciatic Nerve SRX815105,SRX8...15106 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Sciatic_Nerve.bed ...

  3. Vascular compression syndrome of sciatic nerve caused by gluteal varicosities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Hsiao; Wu, Kuan-Wen; Jian, Yu-Ming; Wang, Chen-Ti; Wu, I-Hui; Yang, Shu-Hua

    2010-11-01

    Sciatica is defined as pain or discomfort along the regions innervated by the sciatic nerve. Compression or irritation of lumbar spinal roots, most commonly because of lumbar disc herniation or spinal stenosis, causes sciatica in the vast majority of cases. Although it is rather uncommon, many pathologies have reported to cause nondiscogenic sciatica. A 70-year-old woman presented with intractable sciatic pain which was not elicited by posture change or cough. Sitting on the affected side provoked more pain than standing or walking. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed both spondylolisthesis with lumbar stenosis and compression of the gluteal portion of the sciatic nerve by varicotic gluteal veins. Given the atypical presentation of spinal root compression, gluteal vascular compressive neuropathy was suspected. Ligation and resection of varicotic vein resulted in relief of the patient's pain. To our knowledge, cases with varicosity-caused sciatica were limited in the literature review.

  4. Presacral extramedullary haematopoiesis with involvement of the sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Carazo, E.; Ortega Herrera, R.; Rull, J.P. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Muros de Fuentes, T. [Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Marcos Munoz, C. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Granada (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with no known blood disease who developed an extramedullary haematopoiesis of presacral localization that affected the right sciatic nerve. The diagnosis was made with imaging studies and CT-guided fine-needle aspiration. (orig.) With 4 figs., 12 refs.

  5. Tissue engineering and peripheral nerve regeneration (III) -- Sciatic nerve regeneration with PDLLA nerve guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The biodegradation rate and biocompatibility of poly(d, l -lactide) (PDLLA) in vivo were evaluated. The aim of this study was to establish a nerve guide constructed by the PDLLA with 3-D microenvironment and to repair a 10 mm of sciatic nerve gap in rats. The process of the nerve regeneration was investigated by histological assessment, electrophysiological examination, and determination of wet weight recovery rate of the gastrocnemius muscle. After 3 weeks, the nerve guide had changed from a transparent to an opaque status. The conduit was degraded and absorbed partly and had lost their strength with breakage at the 9th week of postoperation. At the conclusion of 12 weeks, proximal and distal end of nerves were anastomosed by nerve regeneration and the conduit vanished completely. The results suggest that PDLLA conduits may serve for peripheral nerve regeneration and PDLLA is a sort of hopeful candidate for tissue engineering.

  6. Histological observation on acellular nerve grafts co-cultured with Schwann cells for repairing defects of the sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Sun; Jiangyi Tian; Xiaojie Tong; Xu Zhang; Zheng He

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal experiments and clinical studies about tissue engineering method applied to repair nerve injury mainly focus on seeking ideal artificial nerve grafts, nerve conduit and seed cells. Autologous nerve, allogeneic nerve and xenogeneic nerve are used to bridge nerve defects, it is one of the methods to promote the repair of nerve injury by culturing and growing Schwann cells, which can secrete various neurotrophic factor activities, in the grafts.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acellular nerve grafts co-cultured with Schwann cells in repairing defects of sciatic nerve.DESIGN: An observational comparative study.SETTING: Tissue Engineering Laboratory of China Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Tissue Engineering Laboratory of China Medical University between April 2004 and April 2005. Forty neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of 5-8 days (either males or females) and 24 male Wistar rats of 180-220 g were provided by the experimental animal center of China Medical University.METHODS: ① Culture of Schwann cells: The bilateral sciatic nerves and branchial plexus were isolated from the 40 neonatal SD rats. The sciatic nerves were enzymatically digested with collagenase and dispase, isolatd, purified and cultured with the method of speed-difference adhersion, and identified with the SABC immunohistochemical method. ② Model establishment: In vitro Schwann cells were microinjected into 10-mm long acellular nerve grafts repairing a surgically created gap in the rat sciatic nerve.According to the different grafted methods, the animals were randomly divided into three groups: autografts (n=8), acellular nerve grafts (n=8), or acellular nerve grafts with Schwann cells (n=8). ③ The regenerated nerve fiber number and average diameter of myeline sheath after culture were statistically anlayzed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The regenerated nerve ultrastructure, total number and density of myelinated nerve fibers, and the thickness of

  7. Nanofibrous nerve conduits for repair of 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Biazar; Saeed Heidari Keshel; Majid Pouya; Hadi Rad; Melody Omrani Nava; Mohammad Azarbakhsh; Shirin Hooshmand

    2013-01-01

    It has been confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. However, its efficiency in repair of over 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects needs to be assessed. In this study, we used a nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit to bridge a 30-mm-long gap in the rat sciatic nerve. At 4 months after nerve conduit implantation, regenerated nerves were macroscopi-cal y observed and histological y assessed. In the nanofibrous graft, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed by restoration of nerve continuity and formation of myelinated nerve fiber. There were Schwann cel s and glial cel s in the regenerated nerves. Masson’s trichrome staining showed that there were no pathological changes in the size and structure of gastrocnemius muscle cel s on the operated side of rats. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit is suitable for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  8. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve A mechanical analysis*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yu; Changfu Zhao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Min Luo

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study col ected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, fol owing which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) con-duit-repaired sciatic nerve fol owing tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Fol owing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogen-ous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  9. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-07-25

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit-repaired sciatic nerve following tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Following poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogenous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes peripheral nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Rahim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate the local effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF on transected sciatic nerve regeneration. Methods: Sixty male white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups randomly (n=15. In transected group the left sciatic nerve was transected and the stump was fixed to adjacent muscle. In treatment group the defect was bridged using a silicone graft filled with 10 µL VEGF. In silicone group the graft was filled with phosphate-buffered saline. In sham-operated group the sciatic nerve was ex- posed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups with five animals in each and nerve fibers were studied 4, 8 and 12 weeks after operation. Results: Behavioral test, functional study of sciatic nerve, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indi- ces confirmed a faster recovery of regenerated axons in VEGF group than in silicone group (P<0.05. In immunohistochemi- cal assessment, reactions to S-100 in VEGF group were more positive than that in silicone group. Conclusion: Local administration of VEGF will im- prove functional recovery and morphometric indices of sci- atic nerve. Key words: Peripheral nerves; Nerve regeneration; Sciatic nerve; Vascular endothelial growth factor

  11. Sciatic nerve repair using adhesive bonding and a modiifed conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangdang Liang; Hongfei Cai; Yongyu Hao; Geng Sun; Yaoyao Song; Wen Chen

    2014-01-01

    When repairing nerves with adhesives, most researchers place glue directly on the nerve stumps, but this method does not ifx the nerve ends well and allows glue to easily invade the nerve ends. In this study, we established a rat model of completely transected sciatic nerve injury and re-paired it using a modiifed 1 cm-length conduit with inner diameter of 1.5 mm. Each end of the cylindrical conduit contains a short linear channel, while the enclosed central tube protects the nerve ends well. Nerves were repaired with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and suture, which complement the function of the modiifed conduit. The results demonstrated that for the same conduit, the av-erage operation time using the adhesive method was much shorter than with the suture method. No signiifcant differences were found between the two groups in sciatic function index, motor evoked potential latency, motor evoked potential amplitude, muscular recovery rate, number of medullated nerve fibers, axon diameter, or medullary sheath thickness. Thus, the adhesive method for repairing nerves using a modiifed conduit is feasible and effective, and reduces the operation time while providing an equivalent repair effect.

  12. Sericin protects against diabetes-induced injuries in sciatic nerve and related nerve cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun Song; Zhenjun Yang; Meirong Zhong; Zhihong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Sericin from discarded silkworm cocoons of silk reeling has been used in different fields, such as cosmetology, skin care, nutrition, and oncology. The present study established a rat model of type 2 diabetes by consecutive intraperitoneal injections of low-dose (25 mg/kg) streptozotocin. After intragastrical perfusion of sericin for 35 days, blood glucose levels significantly declined, and the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in L4–6 spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells significantly increased. However, the expression of neuropeptide Y in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells significantly decreased in model rats. These findings indicate that sericin protected the sciatic nerve and related nerve cells against injury in a rat type 2 diabetic model by upregulating the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells, and downregulating the expression of neuropeptide Y in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells.

  13. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt C Danzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  14. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt C Danzi; Dario Motti; Donna L Avison; John L Bixby; Vance P Lemmon

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regen-eration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientiifc goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These ifndings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  15. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanru Zhang; Hui Zhang; Kaka Katiella; Wenhua Huang

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune re-jection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regenera-tion. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anasto-mosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone.

  16. Hydro-jet cutting: a method for selective surgical dissection of nerve tissue. An experimental study on the sciatic nerve of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduk, W M; Stengel, B; Pöhl, A; Nizze, H; Gundlach, K K

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to answer the question: is it possible to save motor nerves when dissecting tissue with the hydro-jet dissector? In order to study the influence of the hydro-jet on motor nerves the function of the sciatic nerves of 10 Wistar rats was evaluated. The sciatic nerves were dissected bilaterally and only the left one was exposed to the hydro-jet. The water-jet emerged from a nozzle with a diameter of 0.1 mm and was applied to the nerve for 2, 5 or 10 s and with jet pressures of 80, 85 and 90 bar, respectively. After the operation the animals were observed for 5 months in order to monitor the degree of limping using a scale with 10 clinical grades of function. Five months postoperatively the animals were sacrificed and the sciatic nerves were studied by light and electron microscopy. It was found that hydro-jet pressures of 80 bar and exposure times of 2 s had already lead to irreversible damage to the sciatic nerve. Therefore further studies with lower pressures or shorter exposure times are required before considering hydro-jet cutting for parotid gland surgery. It must be confirmed as harmless to motor nerves before applying this method in humans.

  17. Efficacy of nanofibrous conduits in repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Biazar; Saeed Heidari Keshel; Majid Pouya

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have histomorphological y confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit can be used to repair 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects. However, the repair effects on rat behaviors remain poorly understood. In this study, we used nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit and autologous sciatic nerve to bridge 30-mm-long rat sciatic nerve gaps. Within 4 months after surgery, rat sciatic nerve functional re-covery was evaluated per month by behavioral analyses, including toe out angle, toe spread anal-ysis, walking track analysis, extensor postural thrust, swimming test, open-field analysis and noci-ceptive function. Results showed that rat sciatic nerve functional recovery was similar after nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit and autologous nerve grafting. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit is suitable in use for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  18. Variation in rat sciatic nerve anatomy: implications for a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, F; Butler, M; Blomberg, H; Gordh, T

    2000-03-01

    We discovered a variation of rat sciatic nerve anatomy as an incidental finding during the anatomical exploration of the nerve lesion site in a rat neuropathic pain model. To confirm the composition and distribution of rat sciatic nerve, macroscopic anatomical investigation was performed in both left and right sides in 24 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. In all rats, the L4 and L5 spinal nerves were fused tightly to form the sciatic nerve. However, the L6 spinal nerve did not fuse with this nerve completely as a part of the sciatic nerve, but rather sent a thin branch to it in 13 rats (54%), whereas in the remaining 11 rats (46%), L6 ran separately along with the sciatic nerve. Also, the L3 spinal nerve sent a thin branch to the L4 spinal nerve or sciatic nerve in 6 rats (25%). We conclude that the components of sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats vary from L3 to L6; however, the major components are L4 and L5 macroscopically. This finding is in contrast to the standard textbooks of rat anatomy which describe the sciatic nerve as having major contributions from L4, L5, and L6.

  19. Piriformis Syndrome With Variant Sciatic Nerve Anatomy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Emily; Tenforde, Adam S; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Ratliff, John; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A 68-year-old male long distance runner presented with low back and left buttock pain, which eventually progressed to severe and debilitating pain, intermittently radiating to the posterior thigh and foot. A comprehensive workup ruled out possible spine or hip causes of his symptoms. A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging neurogram with complex oblique planes through the piriformis demonstrated variant anatomy of the left sciatic nerve consistent with the clinical diagnosis of piriformis syndrome. The patient ultimately underwent neurolysis with release of the sciatic nerve and partial resection of the piriformis muscle. After surgery the patient reported significant pain reduction and resumed running 3 months later. Piriformis syndrome is uncommon but should be considered in the differential diagnosis for buttock pain. Advanced imaging was essential to guide management.

  20. Sciatic nerve block performed with nerve stimulation technique in an amputee a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiring, C.; Kristensen, Billy

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of a sciatic nerve block performed with the nerve stimulation technique. This technique is normally not used in amputees because detection of a motor response to an electrical stimulation is impossible. In our patient the stimulation provoked a phantom sensation of movement...

  1. L-carnitine alleviates sciatic nerve crush injury in rats:functional and electron microscopy assessments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ümmü Zeynep Avsar; Umit Avsar; Ali Aydin; Muhammed Yayla; Berna Ozturkkaragoz; Harun Un; Murat Saritemur; Tolga Mercantepe

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats with diabetes mellitus. It is hypothesized that L-carnitine exhibits neuro-protective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats. Rat sciatic nerve was crush injured by a forceps and exhibited degenerative changes. After intragastric administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg L-carnitine for 30 days, axon area, myelin sheath area, axon diameter, myelin sheath diameter, and numerical density of the myelinated axons of injured sciatic nerve were similar to normal, and the function of injured sciatic nerve also improved signiifcantly. These ifndings suggest that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

  2. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  3. Epidermal Laser Stimulation of Action Potentials in the Frog Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Laser Stimulation of Action Potentials in the Frog Sciatic Nerve Nichole M. Jindra Robert J. Thomas Human Effectiveness Directorate Directed...in the Frog Sciatic Nerve 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) .Nichole M. Jindra, Robert J. Thomas, Douglas N...Alan Rice 14. ABSTRACT Measurements of laser stimulated action potentials in the sciatic nerve of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were made using

  4. Effects of subcutaneous implant of peripheral nerve allograft on the regeneration of defected sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingtang Gao; Dianming Jiang; Hong An

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some experimental studies demonstrate that subcutaneous implant of allograft can significantly decrease lymphocyte infiltration and reduce immunological reaction. However, compared with autologous nerve grafting, what is the effect of nerve regeneration after repair?OBJECTIVE: To observe the local nervous status of the detected part of sciatic nerve repaired through subcutaneously implanting peripheral nerve allograft, and compare the effect with fresh autologous nerve grafting.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Departments of Orthopaedics of Zhengzhou Fifth People's Hospital and First Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University.MATERIALS: Totally 30 healthy adult Wistar male rats, with body mass of (200±20)g, were enrolled. Optical microscope (Olympus biological microscope BHS, Japan), Electron microscope (H-600, Japan),CM-2000 biomedical image analysis system (CM-2000,Beihang) and myoelectricity scanner (KEYPOINT,Denmark) were used in this experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Orthopaedic Laboratory of Chongqing Medical University between October 2000 and April 2002. ① Six rats were chosen as the donors for allogenic nerve grafting,and 15 mm sciatic nerve segment was chosen as graft. The other rats were randomly divided into two groups: allogenic nerve grafting group and autologous nerve grafting group, with 12 rats in each group. In the allogenic nerve grafting group, a skin incision was made on the posterior side of right thigh, and subcutaneous blunt dissection was performed prorsally a little, then allograft was implanted. Two weeks later, sciatic nerve was exposed at the posterior side of left thigh and cut respectively at 5 mm and another 10 mm away from pelvis. The donor nerve (with connective tissue veil) implanted subcutaneously on the right thigh was taken out. Sectioned connective tissue at the proximal end was trimmed and that at the distal end as done but reserved 10 mm in length, and inosculated

  5. The sciatic nerve in human cadavers - high division or low formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Asari, M A; Pasha, M A

    2016-01-01

    Variations of the sciatic nerve have been extensively studied in the past including its relationship with the piriformis muscle and associated clinical conditions like piriformis syndrome and sciatica. In the present study we noticed some interesting variations of the sciatic nerve, which were slightly different from the cases described earlier. In the previous studies most of the authors described the higher division of sciatic nerve and none of them discussed its formation. In this study we tried to look its formation from the sacral plexus and its divisions in the thigh. We noticed that in one cadaver the two components of the sciatic nerve originated directly from the sacral plexus and coursed down without merging in the thigh. Should this be called a higher division or non formation of the sciatic nerve? On the other hand in two other cadavers, the two divisions after emerging separately from the sacral plexus, united in the gluteal region and in the thigh respectively. Should we call this as higher division or low formation of the sciatic nerve? In two other cadavers the sciatic nerve emerged from the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis and divided in the gluteal region itself. Ideally this should be called as higher division of sciatic nerve.

  6. Effects of tacrolimus (FK506) on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiguo Zhang; Decheng Lü; Shouyu Wang; Chongyang Fu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus (FK506) protects peripheral nerves located in damaged regions by inhibiting T lymphocyte proliferation and activation.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of FK506 on promoting regeneration of rat sciatic nerve. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Laboratory of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Dalian Medical University, China, from September 2007 to September 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 60 adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were equally and randomly divided into model, local administration and systemic administration groups. All rats received a neurotomy of bilateral sciatic nerves to establish models of nerve regeneration chambers. The powder and injection of FK506 were supplied by Fujisawa Pharmaceutical, Japan.METHODS: The regeneration chambers of the model group were infused with 0.2 mL saline. The systemic group were injected with 0.2 mL saline, followed by daily subcutaneous injections of FK506 (1 mg/kg), for 14 days. The local administration group was infused with 0.2 mL FK506 (1 μg/mL).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Local immune response was observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Myelinated nerve fiber number, myelin sheath and nerve fiber thickness were observed using toluidine blue staining. Wet weight of gastrocnemius was evaluated. Compound muscle action potential amplitude, latency, and conduction time were recorded, and motor nerve conduction velocity was calculated using electrophysiology.RESULTS: The total number of myeiinated nerve fibers in the local and systemic administration groups was significantly higher than in the model group. The density of myelinated nerve fibers, myelin sheath thickness and mean axon diameter were significantly increased in the systemic administration group compared with the model group (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte infiltration was decreased in the local and systemic administration groups compared with the model group. The wet weight of rat gastrocnemius in

  7. Unique formation of sciatic nerve below the piriformis muscle - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jyothsna; Swamy, Ravindra S; Rao, Mohandas K G; Kumar, Naveen; Somayaji, S N

    2014-01-01

    Dorsal and ventral divisions of ventral rami of lower lumbar and sacral spinal nerve were found to pass ventral and dorsal to the piriformis muscle respectively. These divisions joined each other below the piriformis muscle to form sciatic nerve. This low formation of sciatic nerve was observed in distal part of left gluteal region of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The sciatic nerve thus formed passed caudally into back of thigh and divided into tibial and common peroneal nerves in the upper part of popliteal fossa. In addition, a communicating nerve from the sciatic nerve was found to join the common peroneal nerve in the popliteal fossa. Such variations may lead to piriformis syndrome or non-discogenic sciatica.

  8. Entrapment of the sciatic nerve at the linea aspera: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monteleone

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The diagnosis of sciatic nerve entrapment at the linea aspera may present considerable difficulties. The clinical history and physical examination sometimes motivate the exploration and neurolysis of the nerve at this site.

  9. [Method of studying the microcirculation of the sciatic nerve during life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumova, I L; Chernukh, A M

    1977-02-01

    The authors describe a mehtod of bloodless exposure of the sciatic nerve in rats, of placing it on the light conductor, and of the preparation of microscope MBI-6 for the intravital study of microhemocirculation in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve. Different types of the microvessel network of rat are demonstrated.

  10. Concentration-dependent neurotoxicity of articaine: an electrophysiological and stereological study of the rat sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Bakke, Merete; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard;

    2011-01-01

    We performed this study to quantify the detrimental effect of intraneural injection of 50 μL of saline, articaine 2%, or articaine 4% in the rat sciatic nerve.......We performed this study to quantify the detrimental effect of intraneural injection of 50 μL of saline, articaine 2%, or articaine 4% in the rat sciatic nerve....

  11. Skin temperature measured by infrared thermography after ultrasound-guided blockade of the sciatic nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.G. van; Kadic, L.; Driessen, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study, we assessed the relationship between subgluteal sciatic nerve blocking and skin temperature by infrared thermography in the lower extremity. We hypothesized that blocking the sciatic nerve will lead to an increase in temperature, and that this will correlate with ex

  12. The Role of Nerve Growth Factor in Ginsenoside Rg1-Induced Regeneration of Injured Rat Sciatic Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Zhi-Ping; Dong, Chao-Xuan; Wang, He; Yang, Zhan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Sciatic nerve injury is commonly seen in clinical practice predominantly associated with trauma or sports injuries. Recent studies indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 (Gs Rg1), extracted from Chinese herbs, was found to promote regeneration of injured rat sciatic nerve and that nerve growth factor (NGF) may be involved in this process. The aim of this study was to examine the role that NGF may play in ginsenoside Rg1-induced regeneration of rat sciatic nerve following injury. Animals following surgical right sciatic nerve injury were subsequently administered intraperitoneally either saline (sham control) or different doses of 2, 4, 8, or 12 mg/kg daily GsRg1 for 2 to 8 wk. In addition, 100 μg/kg mecobalamin, a drug utilized to treat nerve injuries, was employed as a positive control. After 2, 4, or 8 wk, sciatic functional index (SFI) and mean nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), markers of sciatic nerve function, were assessed to determine whether recovery of injured sciatic nerve occurred. In addition, immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods were used to examine NGF protein expression changes. Results showed that all doses of GsRg1 significantly increased SFI and MNCV in injured sciatic-nerve-damaged rats in a manner similar to that noted with mecobalamin. It is of interest that the intermediate 4- and 8-mg/kg doses were more effective in restoring nerve functions. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot results also demonstrated a similar pattern with enhanced NGF protein expression at all doses, but greater effects were noted at 4 and 8 mg/kg GsRg1. Data suggest that GsRg1 promotes recovery of injured sciatic nerve functions within a specific dose range and that NGF may be involved in this physiological process.

  13. Effect of Frankincense Extract on Nerve Recovery in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Damage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of frankincense extract on peripheral nerve regeneration in a crush injury rat model. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and frankincense extract low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. At days 7, 14, 21, and 28 following the surgery, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI, expression of GAP-43, and the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs in vivo and in vitro. At day 7, the SFI in the frankincense extract high-dose group was significantly improved compared with the control group. After day 14, SFI was significantly improved in the medium- and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in GAP-43 expression among the groups at day 7. However, after day 14, expression of GAP-43 in the high-dose group was higher than that in the control group. Histological evaluation showed that the injured nerve of frankincense extract high-dose group recovered better than the other groups 28 days after surgery. Further, S100 immunohistochemical staining, MTT colorimetry, and flow cytometry assays all showed that frankincense extract could promote the proliferation of SCs. In conclusion, frankincense extract is able to promote sciatic nerve regeneration and improve the function of a crushed sciatic nerve. This study provides a new direction for the repair of peripheral nerve injury.

  14. Study of Variations in the Divisions, Course and Termination of the Sciatic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Umarji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sciatic nerve is the large stand thickest branch of lumbosacral plexus. It has a long course in the pelvic cavity and in the lower extremity. It separates into its two branches, the tibial and common peroneal nerves outside the pelvis. But the division can occur at any level from the sacral plexus to the inferior part of the popliteal fossa. These anatomical variations in division may cause nerve compression resulting in sciatica, piriformis syndrome, and coccygodynia. Aim: The aim of this study is to observe the variations in division of sciatic nerve as compared to known facts. Methods: The study was performed on cadavers. The inferior extremities of 45 cadavers were examined and variations of division of sciatic nerve were noted and classified. Results: The highest incidence of sciatic nerve variation was observed in its termination. In 11.11% of cases the sciatic nerve was found to be divided in the gluteal region. In 11.11%specimens, the common peroneal nerve pierced the piriformis muscle. Conclusion: The higher division of sciatic nerve can result in the involvement of only one out of the two divisions for the sciatic neuropathy. It is important to consider the higher divisions while performing opliteal block anaesthesia.

  15. Immune reactions and nerve repair in mice with sciatic nerve injury 14 days after intraperitoneal injection of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Cao; Zhongping Niu; Yongan Wang; Yiwen Jiang; Haoyu Liu; Binfeng Wang; Weitian Yin; Lisen Li

    2012-01-01

    BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10, 5 or 2.5 mg/kg Brazil for 14 days after sciatic nerve injury. Results demonstrate that the spleen T/B lymphocyte stimulation index and serum circulating immune complex concentration were significantly reduced, and the morphology of the soleus muscle was restored in mice with sciatic nerve injury. These effects of Brazil were dose-dependent. Our experimental findings indicate that Brazil can regulate immune responses after nerve injury and promote sciatic nerve repair.

  16. Variations of the sciatic nerve and its relation with the piriformis muscle in South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma R. Kotian

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Although the variations of the sciatic nerve are common and are already reported, the present study indicates some additional findings not reported previously and further stresses on its applied significance. These variations are important for surgeons, as this is an area of frequent surgical manipulation, nerve injury during deep intramuscular injections, sciatic nerve block etc. They may lead to in-advertent injury during operations, piriformis syndrome, non-discogenic sciatica, muscle atrophy, failure of sciatic nerve block and many other complications. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(3.000: 144-148

  17. Axonal autophagy during regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangrong Lu; Zhongxian Piao; Zhenxi Liu; Weiwang Gu; Wanshan Wang; Nngjie Piao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The removal of degenerated axonal debris during Wallerian degeneration is very important for nerve regeneration. However, the mechanism by which debris is removed is not been completely understood. Considerable controversy remains as to the clearance pathway and cells that are involved. OBJECTIVE: To investigate axonal autophagy during removal of degenerated axonal debris by transecting the sciatic nerve in a rat Wallerian degeneration model.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Experimental neuropathological analysis. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory Animal Service Center of the Southern Medical University between January and June 2005. MATERIALS: Fifty-four adult, Wistar rats of either sex, weighing 180-250 g, were obtained from the Laboratory Animal Service Center of the Southern Medical University. Animals were randomly divided into nine groups of six rats. METHODS: Wallerian degeneration was induced by transecting the rat sciatic nerve, and tissue samples from the distal stump were obtained 0.2, 0.4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, and 15 days post-transection. Ultrathin sections were prepared for electron microscopy to study ultrastructure and enzyme cytochemistry staining. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ultrastructure (axon body, autophagic body, and cystoskeleton) of axons and myelin sheaths observed with electron microscopy; acidic phosphatase activity detected by Gomori staining using electron microscopy. RESULTS: The major changes of degenerating axons after transection were axoplasm swelling and separation of axons from their myelin sheath between five hours and two days post-transection. At four days post-transection, the axoplasm condensed and axons were completely separated from the myelin sheath, forming dissociative axon bodies. Vacuoles of different sizes formed in axons during the early phase after lesion. Larger dissociative axon bodies were formed when the axons were completely separated from the myelin sheath during a late phase. The axolemma

  18. 7, 8-dihydroxycoumarin improves neurological function in a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianshi Du; Qing Zhao; Yingli Zhang; Yu Wang; Ming Ma

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury was treated with intraperitoneal injection of 7, 8-dihydroxycoumarin (10, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg per day). Western blot and real-time PCR results showed that growth associated protein 43 expression was significantly increased in the L4-6 segments of the spinal cord. The amplitude and velocity of motor nerve conduction in the sciatic nerve were significantly increased in model mice. In addition, the appearance of the myelin sheath in the injured sciatic nerve was regular, with an even thickness and clear outline, and the surrounding fibroplasia was not obvious. Our results indicate that 7, 8-dihydroxycoumarin can promote the repair of injured nerve by upregulating growth associated protein 43 expression in the corresponding spinal cord segments of mice with sciatic nerve injury.

  19. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  20. Differential gene expression profiling and biological process analysis in proximal nerve segments after sciatic nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiying; Liu, Qianqian; Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Yun; Liu, Dong; Wang, Chunming; Ding, Guohui; Chen, Jianping; Liu, Jie; Gu, Xiaosong

    2013-01-01

    After traumatic injury, peripheral nerves can spontaneously regenerate through highly sophisticated and dynamic processes that are regulated by multiple cellular elements and molecular factors. Despite evidence of morphological changes and of expression changes of a few regulatory genes, global knowledge of gene expression changes and related biological processes during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration is still lacking. Here we aimed to profile global mRNA expression changes in proximal nerve segments of adult rats after sciatic nerve transection. According to DNA microarray analysis, the huge number of genes was differentially expressed at different time points (0.5 h-14 d) post nerve transection, exhibiting multiple distinct temporal expression patterns. The expression changes of several genes were further validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The gene ontology enrichment analysis was performed to decipher the biological processes involving the differentially expressed genes. Collectively, our results highlighted the dynamic change of the important biological processes and the time-dependent expression of key regulatory genes after peripheral nerve injury. Interestingly, we, for the first time, reported the presence of olfactory receptors in sciatic nerves. Hopefully, this study may provide a useful platform for deeply studying peripheral nerve injury and regeneration from a molecular-level perspective.

  1. Targeted fascicular biopsy of the sciatic nerve and its major branches: rationale and operative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Stepan; Amrami, Kimberly K; Dyck, P James B; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    OBJECT Nerve biopsy is typically performed in distal, noncritical sensory nerves without using imaging to target the more involved regions. The yield of these procedures rarely achieves more than 50%. In selected cases where preoperative evaluation points toward a more localized (usually a more proximal) process, targeted biopsy would likely capture the disease. Synthesis of data obtained from clinical examination, electrophysiological testing, and MRI allows biopsy of a portion of the major mixed nerves safely and efficiently. Herein, experiences with the sciatic nerve are reported and a description of the operative technique is provided. METHODS All cases of sciatic nerve biopsy performed between 2000 and 2014 were reviewed. Only cases of fascicular nerve biopsy approached from the buttock or the posterior aspect of the thigh were included. Demographic data, clinical presentation, and the presence of percussion tenderness for each patient were recorded. Reviewed studies included electrodiagnostic tests and imaging. Previous nerve and muscle biopsies were noted. All details of the procedure, final pathology, and its treatment implications were recorded. The complication rate was carefully assessed for temporary as well as permanent complications. RESULTS One hundred twelve cases (63 men and 49 women) of sciatic nerve biopsy were performed. Mean patient age was 46.4 years. Seventy-seven (68.8%) patients presented with single lower-extremity symptoms, 16 (14.3%) with bilateral lower-extremity symptoms, and 19 (17%) with generalized symptoms. No patient had normal findings on physical examination. All patients underwent electrodiagnostic studies, the findings of which were abnormal in 110 (98.2%) patients. MRI was available for all patients and was read as pathological in 111 (99.1%). The overall diagnostic yield of biopsy was 84.8% (n = 95). The pathological diagnoses included inflammatory demyelination, perineurioma, nonspecific inflammatory changes

  2. UNILATERAL HIGH DIVISION OF SCIATIC NERVE AND ITS RELATION TO BIFID PIRIFORMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi C. Goshi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sciatic Nerve can rarely be separated into tibial and common fibular Nerve within the Pelvis. In such cases the tibial nerve and common fibular nerve leave the pelvis through different routes. Materials and Method: The variation found during routine dissection for MBBS students in a 30 yr old male cadaver in the department of Anatomy, JJM Medical college Davangere, Karnataka, India. Result: The variation is High division of sciatic Nerve unilaterally on right side in 30yrs old male cadaver. Common peroneal Nerve is found passing between the two divisions of bifid piriformis while tibial Nerve passed below the inferior piriformis Conclusion: Knowledge of this variation is important clinically in sciatic nerve entrapment resulting in non-discogenic sciatica and also requires reviewing of the piriformis syndrome

  3. Effects of Continuous Sciatic Nerve Block by Tetrodotoxin on Growth Associated Protein-43 Expression in Dorsal Root Ganglions of Normal and Sciatic Nerve Injury Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Yong-fa Zhang; Xiao-yu Huang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) is considered to be one of the most useful molecular markers for the neural development, nerve regeneration, and neuroplasticity. In most mature neurons, the expression of GAP-43 is at very low or negative level; its expression is triggered in response to the interruption of axonal transport. The purpose of this study was to examine whether continuous sciatic nerve block by tetrodotoxin (TTX) affects GAP-43 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of normal and sciatic nerve injury rats.

  4. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Macher Teodori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1, those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14, injured rats not submitted to swimming (C, and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S. After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P0.05. Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury.

  5. Bilateral persistent sciatic arteries with unilateral complicating aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M E; Yusof, N R N; Abdullah, M S; Yusof, A H; Yusof, M I

    2005-08-01

    Persistent sciatic artery is a very uncommon embryological vascular variant. This case report highlights this rare vascular anomaly, diagnostic difficulty, complication and subsequent treatment in a 43-year-old man who presented with sudden onset of right leg pain for a few hours. He was unable to walk because of pain and numbness. Emergency right lower limb angiogram showed a large aneurysm that was initially thought to arise from the right common femoral artery, associated with thrombus formation within the right popliteal artery. A below knee amputation was performed due to worsening ischaemia of the right leg. The persistent right sciatic artery was later obliterated using percutaneous stenting and endovascular grafting, with deployment of two wallstents.

  6. Endoscopic Sciatic Nerve Decompression in the Prone Position-An Ischial-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    Deep gluteal syndrome is described as sciatic nerve entrapment in the region deep to the gluteus maximus muscle. The entrapment can occur from the piriformis muscle, fibrous bands, blood vessels, and hamstrings. Good clinical outcomes have been shown in patients treated by open and endoscopic means. Sciatic nerve decompression with or without piriformis release provides a surgical solution to a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Previous techniques have used open methods that can now performed endoscopically. The technique of an endoscopic approach to sciatic nerve decompression in the prone position is described as well as its advantages and common findings. Through this ischial-based approach, a familiar anatomy is seen and areas of sciatic nerve entrapment can be readily identified and safely decompressed.

  7. Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in dorsal root ganglia in sciatic nerve injury rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changma Fu; Zongsheng Yin; Defu Yu; Zuhua Yang

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, have been shown to be involved in pain transmission and repair of sciatic nerve injury. A model of sciatic nerve defect was prepared by dissecting the sciatic nerve at the middle, left femur in female Sprague Dawley rats. The two ends of the nerve were encased in a silica gel tube. L5 dorsal root ganglia were harvested 7, 14 and 28 days post sciatic nerve injury for immunohistochemical staining. Results showed that substance P and cal-citonin gene-related peptide expression increased significantly in dorsal root ganglion of rats with sci-atic nerve injury. This increase peaked at 7 days, declined at 14 days, and reduced to normal levels by 28 days post injury. The findings indicate that the neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, mainly increased in the early stages after sciatic nerve injury.

  8. Three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy of left femur foci does not damage the sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanlong Xu; Xibin Zhao; Qing Wang; Jungang Sun; Jiangbo Xu; Wenzheng Zhou; Hao Wang; Shigui Yan; Hong Yuan

    2014-01-01

    During radiotherapy to kill femoral hydatid tapeworms, the sciatic nerve surrounding the focus can be easily damaged by the treatment. Thus, it is very important to evaluate the effects of ra-diotherapy on the surrounding nervous tissue. In the present study, we used three-dimensional, conformal, intensity-modulated radiation therapy to treat bilateral femoral hydatid disease in Meriones meridiani. The focus of the hydatid disease on the left femur was subjected to radio-therapy (40 Gy) for 14 days, and the right femur received sham irradiation. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, electron microscopy, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling assays on the left femurs showed that the left sciatic nerve cell structure was normal, with no ob-vious apoptosis after radiation. Trypan blue staining demonstrated that the overall protoscolex structure in bone parasitized withEchinococcus granulosus disappeared in the left femur of the animals after treatment. The mortality of the protoscolex was higher in the left side than in the right side. The succinate dehydrogenase activity in the protoscolex in bone parasitized withEchi-nococcus granulosus was lower in the left femur than in the right femur. These results suggest that three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy achieves good therapeutic effects on the secondary bone in hydatid disease inMeriones meridiani without damaging the morphology or function of the sciatic nerve.

  9. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated.

  10. Localized hypertrophic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in children: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, Adrien; Treguier, Catherine; Bruneau, Bertrand; Marin, Franck; Gandon, Yves; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hopital Sud, 16 Boulevard de Bulgarie, BP 90347, Rennes cedex 2 (France); Riffaud, Laurent [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Violas, Philippe [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Michel, Anne [University Hospital, Department of Neurological Functional Explorations, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France)

    2012-08-15

    Localized hypertrophic neuropathy (LHN) of the sciatic nerve in children is a rare condition characterized by a painless neurological deficit in the sciatic nerve territory. To demonstrate the role of MRI using a specific protocol and describe the primary findings in LHN. Imaging in four children (age 2 years to 12 years) is presented. All children presented with lower limb asymmetry. Three had a steppage gait. LHN was confirmed by electrophysiological studies and by MRI of the whole sciatic nerve with a dedicated protocol covering the lumbar spine and the lower limb. There were four direct MRI findings: (1) linear and focal hypertrophy with progressive enlargement of a peripheral nerve or plexus diameter, (2) abnormal hyperintensity of the nerve on T2-weighted images, (3) preserved fascicular configuration, and (4) variable enhancement after intravenous gadolinium administration. In addition there were atrophy and fatty infiltration of innervated muscles. MRI was helpful for determining the extent of lesions and in excluding peripheral nerve compression or tumour. MRI of the whole sciatic nerve is the method of choice for diagnosing LHN of the sciatic nerve. (orig.)

  11. Boric acid reduces axonal and myelin damage in experimental sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahir Kzlay; Haydar Ali Erken; Nesibe Kahraman etin; Serdar Akta; Burin rem Abas; Ali Ylmaz

    2016-01-01

    hTe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid in experimental acute sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7): control (C), boric acid (BA), sciatic nerve injury (I) , and sciatic nerve injury + boric acid treatment (BAI). Sciatic nerve injury was generated using a Yasargil aneurysm clip in the groups I and BAI. Boric acid was given four times at 100 mg/kg to rats in the groups BA and BAI atfer injury (by gavage at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) but no injury was made in the group BA.In vivo electrophysiological tests were performed at the end of the day 4 and sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. The amplitude of compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were signiifcantly lower and the myelin structure was found to be broken in group I compared with those in groups C and BA. However, the amplitude of the compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were signiifcantly greater in group BAI than in group I. Moreover, myelin injury was signiifcantly milder and the intensity of nuclear factor kappa B immunostaining was signiifcantly weaker in group BAI than in group I. hTe results of this study show that administration of boric acid at 100 mg/kg atfer sciatic nerve injury in rats markedly reduces myelin and axonal injury and improves the electrophysiological function of injured sciatic nerve possibly through alleviating oxidative stress reactions.

  12. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salga, Marjorie [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Jourdan, Claire [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Handi-Resp, (EA4047), Versailles (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Neurophysiology, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hangard, Chloe; Carlier, Robert-Yves [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Medical Imaging, Garches (France); Denormandie, Philippe [Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Garches (France); Genet, Francois [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Military Medical Service, Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clamart (France)

    2014-09-14

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  13. Boric acid reduces axonal and myelin damage in experimental sciatic nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızılay, Zahir; Erken, Haydar Ali; Çetin, Nesibe Kahraman; Aktaş, Serdar; Abas, Burçin İrem; Yılmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid in experimental acute sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7): control (C), boric acid (BA), sciatic nerve injury (I), and sciatic nerve injury + boric acid treatment (BAI). Sciatic nerve injury was generated using a Yasargil aneurysm clip in the groups I and BAI. Boric acid was given four times at 100 mg/kg to rats in the groups BA and BAI after injury (by gavage at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) but no injury was made in the group BA. In vivo electrophysiological tests were performed at the end of the day 4 and sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. The amplitude of compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly lower and the myelin structure was found to be broken in group I compared with those in groups C and BA. However, the amplitude of the compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly greater in group BAI than in group I. Moreover, myelin injury was significantly milder and the intensity of nuclear factor kappa B immunostaining was significantly weaker in group BAI than in group I. The results of this study show that administration of boric acid at 100 mg/kg after sciatic nerve injury in rats markedly reduces myelin and axonal injury and improves the electrophysiological function of injured sciatic nerve possibly through alleviating oxidative stress reactions. PMID:27904499

  14. Allograft pretreatment for the repair of sciatic nerve defects:green tea polyphenolsversus radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-hu Zhou; Ping Zhen; Shen-song Li; Xiao-yan Liang; Ming-xuan Gao; Qi Tian; Xu-sheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of nerve allografts by exposure to irradiation or green tea polyphenols can elimi-nate neuroimmunogenicity, inhibit early immunological rejection, encourage nerve regeneration and functional recovery, improve tissue preservation, and minimize postoperative infection. In the present study, we investigate which intervention achieves better results. We produced a 1.0 cm sciatic nerve defect in rats, and divided the rats into four treatment groups: autograft, fresh nerve allograft, green tea polyphenol-pretreated (1 mg/mL, 4°C) nerve allograft, and irradiation-pre-treated nerve allograft (26.39 Gy/min for 12 hours; total 19 kGy). The animals were observed, and sciatic nerve electrophysiology, histology, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out at 6 and 12 weeks after grafting. The circumference and structure of the transplanted nerve in rats that received autografts or green tea polyphenol-pretreated nerve allografts were similar to those of the host sciatic nerve. Compared with the groups that received fresh or irradiation-pre-treated nerve allografts, motor nerve conduction velocity in the autograft and fresh nerve allograft groups was greater, more neurites grew into the allografts, Schwann cell proliferation was evident, and a large number of new blood vessels was observed; in addition, massive myelinated nerve ifbers formed, and abundant microiflaments and microtubules were present in the axoplasm. Our ifndings indicate that nerve allografts pretreated by green tea polyphenols are equivalent to trans-planting autologous nerves in the repair of sciatic nerve defects, and promote nerve regeneration. Pretreatment using green tea polyphenols is better than pretreatment with irradiation.

  15. Improvement of sciatic nerve regeneration using laminin-binding human NGF-beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sciatic nerve injuries often cause partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions due to the axon discontinuity, degeneration, and eventual death which finally result in substantial functional loss and decreased quality of life. Nerve growth factor (NGF plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the lack of efficient NGF delivery approach limits its clinical applications. We reported here by fusing with the N-terminal domain of agrin (NtA, NGF-beta could target to nerve cells and improve nerve regeneration. METHODS: Laminin-binding assay and sustained release assay of NGF-beta fused with NtA (LBD-NGF from laminin in vitro were carried out. The bioactivity of LBD-NGF on laminin in vitro was also measured. Using the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, the nerve repair and functional restoration by utilizing LBD-NGF were tested. FINDINGS: LBD-NGF could specifically bind to laminin and maintain NGF activity both in vitro and in vivo. In the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, we found that LBD-NGF could be retained and concentrated at the nerve injury sites to promote nerve repair and enhance functional restoration following nerve damages. CONCLUSION: Fused with NtA, NGF-beta could bind to laminin specifically. Since laminin is the major component of nerve extracellular matrix, laminin binding NGF could target to nerve cells and improve the repair of peripheral nerve injuries.

  16. Sciatica due to malignant nerve sheath tumour of sciatic nerve in the thigh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the supportive non-neural component of the peripheral nerves. An unusual case of pain and weakness of the foot and calf muscles due to a giant MPNST of the sciatic nerve in the posterior compartment of the thigh is presented. The patient was already investigated as a case of sciatica due to a lumbar disc disease with a negative magnetic resonance imaging and then unsuccessfully operated elsewhere twice, with a misdiagnosis of tarsal tunnel syndrome. Neurosurgical referral prompted a diagnostic magnetic resonance study of the thigh, revealing the lesion, which was completely excised microsurgically with total relief in the pain and partial improvement in the weakness and sensations in the sole of the foot.

  17. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Zhao; Zhi-yue Li; Ze-peng Zhang; Zhou-yun Mo; Shi-jie Chen; Si-yu Xiang; Qing-shan Zhang; Min Xue

    2015-01-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neuro-trophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site;their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the micro-spheres at 300-µm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implanta-tion, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve ifbers were observed and dis-tributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury.

  18. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site; their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the microspheres at 300-μm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implantation, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve fibers were observed and distributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury.

  19. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Zhi-Yue; Zhang, Ze-Peng; Mo, Zhou-Yun; Chen, Shi-Jie; Xiang, Si-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Xue, Min

    2015-09-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site; their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the microspheres at 300-μm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implantation, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve fibers were observed and distributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury.

  20. A conduction block in sciatic nerves can be detected by magnetic motor root stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Konoma, Yuko; Fujii, Kengo; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-08-15

    Useful diagnostic techniques for the acute phase of sciatic nerve palsy, an entrapment neuropathy, are not well established. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the diagnostic utility of magnetic sacral motor root stimulation for sciatic nerve palsy. We analyzed the peripheral nerves innervating the abductor hallucis muscle using both electrical stimulations at the ankle and knee and magnetic stimulations at the neuro-foramina and conus medullaris levels in a patient with sciatic nerve palsy at the level of the piriformis muscle due to gluteal compression related to alcohol consumption. On the fourth day after onset, magnetic sacral motor root stimulation using a MATS coil (the MATS coil stimulation method) clearly revealed a conduction block between the knee and the sacral neuro-foramina. Two weeks after onset, needle electromyography supported the existence of the focal lesion. The MATS coil stimulation method clearly revealed a conduction block in the sciatic nerve and is therefore a useful diagnostic tool for the abnormal neurophysiological findings associated with sciatic nerve palsy even at the acute phase.

  1. Variations of Sciatic Nerve Its Exit in Relation to Piriformis Muscle in the Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Desalegn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction- Sciatic nerve is thickest nerve, arising from L4–S3. It leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen distal to the Piriformis and descends lateral to the ischial tuberosity, then travels deep to the gluteus maximus and long head of biceps femoris. Anatomical variations of sciatic nerve can contribute to Piriformis Syndrome and sciatica. In addition to the position of the piriformis muscle there other causes for sciatica such as a posterior dislocation of the hip joint, herniated disc or pressure from the uterus during pregnancy may damage the nerve roots. A cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the department of anatomy dissection laboratory, In Bahr dar, Gondar and Mekelle universities. Eighteen adult two female and sixteen male cadavers were dissected from the gluteal region. The total numbers of gluteal regions were 36 used for the study. The courses of sciatic nerve in relation to piriformis muscle were 3 types of course were observed as it comes out of the pelvic to the gluteal. 92% of the cases, sciatic nerve passes below Piriformis muscle.

  2. Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exercise training on recuperation of sensorimotor function in the early phase of regeneration, and to monitor the long-term effects of exercise on electrophysiological aspects of the regenerating nerve. Design: After sciatic nerve crush in 20 male Wistar rats, o

  3. Neuroprotective effects of ultrasound-guided nerve growth factor injections after sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-fei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF plays an important role in promoting neuroregeneration after peripheral nerve injury. However, its effects are limited by its short half-life; it is therefore important to identify an effective mode of administration. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU is increasingly used in the clinic for high-resolution visualization of tissues, and has been proposed as a method for identifying and evaluating peripheral nerve damage after injury. In addition, HFU is widely used for guiding needle placement when administering drugs to a specific site. We hypothesized that HFU guiding would optimize the neuroprotective effects of NGF on sciatic nerve injury in the rabbit. We performed behavioral, ultrasound, electrophysiological, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluation of HFU-guided NGF injections administered immediately after injury, or 14 days later, and compared this mode of administration with intramuscular NGF injections. Across all assessments, HFU-guided NGF injections gave consistently better outcomes than intramuscular NGF injections administered immediately or 14 days after injury, with immediate treatment also yielding better structural and functional results than when the treatment was delayed by 14 days. Our findings indicate that NGF should be administered as early as possible after peripheral nerve injury, and highlight the striking neuroprotective effects of HFU-guided NGF injections on peripheral nerve injury compared with intramuscular administration.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of ultrasound-guided nerve growth factor injections after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Fei; Wang, Yi-Ru; Huo, Hui-Ping; Wang, Yue-Xiang; Tang, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in promoting neuroregeneration after peripheral nerve injury. However, its effects are limited by its short half-life; it is therefore important to identify an effective mode of administration. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) is increasingly used in the clinic for high-resolution visualization of tissues, and has been proposed as a method for identifying and evaluating peripheral nerve damage after injury. In addition, HFU is widely used for guiding needle placement when administering drugs to a specific site. We hypothesized that HFU guiding would optimize the neuroprotective effects of NGF on sciatic nerve injury in the rabbit. We performed behavioral, ultrasound, electrophysiological, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluation of HFU-guided NGF injections administered immediately after injury, or 14 days later, and compared this mode of administration with intramuscular NGF injections. Across all assessments, HFU-guided NGF injections gave consistently better outcomes than intramuscular NGF injections administered immediately or 14 days after injury, with immediate treatment also yielding better structural and functional results than when the treatment was delayed by 14 days. Our findings indicate that NGF should be administered as early as possible after peripheral nerve injury, and highlight the striking neuroprotective effects of HFU-guided NGF injections on peripheral nerve injury compared with intramuscular administration.

  5. In vivo Photonic Stimulation of Sciatic Nerve with a 1470 nm Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Dautrebande

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photonic stimulation is a new modality of nerve stimulation, which could overcome some of the electrical stimulation limitations. In this paper, we present the results of photonic stimulation of rodent sciatic nerve with a 1470 nm laser. Muscle activation was observed with radiant exposure of 0.084 J/cm2.

  6. Visualization of the course of the sciatic nerve in adult volunteers by ultrasonography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruhn, J.; Geffen, G.J. van; Gielen, M.J.M.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The sciatic nerve block by the posterior approaches represents one of the more difficult ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Our clinical experiences with these blocks indicated a point slightly distal to the subgluteal fold as an advantageous position to allow good ultrasonic visibility. In

  7. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengdong Piao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  8. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chengdong; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Yang, Kun

    2013-11-25

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  9. Immediate and short-term pain relief by acute sciatic nerve press: a randomized controlled trial

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    Zhang Wenlong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite much research, an immediately available, instantly effective and harmless pain relief technique has not been discovered. This study describes a new manipulation: a "2-minute sciatic nerve press", for rapid short-term relief of pain brought on by various dental and renal diseases. Methods This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial ran in three hospitals in Anhui Province, China, with an enrollment of 66 out of 111 solicited patients aged 16 to 74 years. Patients were recruited sequentially, by specific participating physicians at their clinic visits to three independent hospitals. The diseases in enrolled dental patients included dental caries, periodontal diseases and dental trauma. Renal diseases in recruits included kidney infections, stones and some other conditions. Patients were randomly assigned to receive the "2-minute sciatic nerve press" or the "placebo press". For the "2-minute sciatic nerve press", pressure was applied simultaneously to the sciatic nerves at the back of the thighs, using the fists while patients lay prone. For the "placebo press", pressure was applied simultaneously to a parallel spot on the front of the thighs, using the fists while patients lay supine. Each fist applied a pressure of 11 to 20 kg for 2 minutes, after which, patients arose to rate pain. Results The "2-minute sciatic nerve press" produced greater pain relief than the "placebo press". Within the first 10 minutes after sciatic pressure, immediate pain relief ratings averaged 66.4% (p Conclusion Two minutes of pressure on both sciatic nerves can produce immediate significant conduction analgesia, providing a convenient, safe and powerful way to overcome clinical pain brought on by dental diseases and renal diseases for short term purposes. Trial registration ACTR 12606000439549

  10. Deep gluteal space problems: piriformis syndrome, ischiofemoral impingement and sciatic nerve release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Luis Perez; Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Navarro, Ivan Saenz; Fernandez, Ana Alfonso; Castillo, Alexander Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included “piriformis syndrome”, a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. Methods This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist and orthopaedic surgeons in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments. Conclusion DGS is an under-recognized and multifactorial pathology. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. The whole sciatic nerve trajectory in the deep gluteal space can be addressed by an endoscopic surgical technique. Endoscopic decompression of the sciatic nerve appears useful in improving function and diminishing hip pain in sciatic nerve entrapments, but requires significant experience and familiarity with the gross and endoscopic anatomy. Level of evidence IV. PMID:28066745

  11. Acellular allogeneic nerve grafting combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects: biomechanics and validation of mathematical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-jun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft used in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be an effective treatment for long-segment sciatic nerve defects. To test this, we established rabbit models of 30 mm sciatic nerve defects, and treated them using either an autograft or a chemically decellularized allogeneic nerve graft with or without simultaneous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We compared the tensile properties, electrophysiological function and morphology of the damaged nerve in each group. Sciatic nerves repaired by the allogeneic nerve graft combined with stem cell transplantation showed better recovery than those repaired by the acellular allogeneic nerve graft alone, and produced similar results to those observed with the autograft. These findings confirm that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is an effective method of repairing long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: xinchunli@163.com; Shen, J.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liu, Q.; Liang, B. [Dept. of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China)

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). The SIR of the distal portion of crushed nerves was higher than that of the proximal nerve portion; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Whereas, the SIR at proximal nerve portions of crushed nerve was similar to control nerves (P > 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B

  13. Effect of gabapentin for treatment of neuropathic pain induced by bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury in rats%加巴喷丁治疗双侧坐骨神经结扎诱发大鼠神经病理性痛的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思; 申乐; 李昊; 罗爱伦; 虞雪融; 黄宇光

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价加巴喷丁治疗双侧坐骨神经结扎(bCCI)诱发大鼠神经病理性痛的效应.方法 SPF级健康雌性SD大鼠48只,体重180 ~ 200 g,7~9周龄,采用随机数字表法,将其分为4组(n=12):正常对照组(C组)、假手术组(S组)、bCCI组和bCCI+加巴喷丁组(G组).加巴喷丁给药方案:给药方式为腹腔注射,术前15 min给药1次,术后7-13 d期间2次/d,每次100 mg/kg,连续7d.分别于术前(基础水平)、术后1、3、6、8、10、14 d时记录双足机械缩足反应阈(MWT)、热缩足潜伏期(TWL)和冷刺激诱发缩足次数(TNCW).结果 与C组比较,bCCI组和G组左足和右足MWT降低,TWL缩短(P<0.05),S组上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与bCCI组比较,G组左足和右足MWT升高,TWL延长(P<0.05),TNCW差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 加巴喷丁可缓解bCCI诱发神经病理性痛大鼠机械痛觉过敏和热痛觉过敏,而对冷痛觉过敏无影响.%Objective To evaluate the effect of gabapentin for treatment of neuropathic pain induced by bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (bCCI) of rats.Methods Forty-eight female SPF Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 180-200 g,aged 7-9 weeks,were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =12 each) using a random number table:control group (C group),sham operation group (S group),bCCI group,and bCCI + gabapentin group (G group).Gabapentin 100 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected once at 15 min before operation and twice a day during 7-13 days after operation for 7 consecutive days.The bilateral mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT),thermal paw withdrawal latency (TWL) and number of cold-stimulated paw withdrawal were measured before operation (baseline) and at 1,3,6,8,10,14 days after operation.Results Compared with C group,the bilateral MWT was significantly decreased,and the bilateral TWL was shortened in bCCI and G groups,and no significant change was found in MWT and TWL in S group.Compared with bCCI group,the bilateral

  14. Growth-promoting activity of Hominis Placenta extract on regenerating sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-beom SEO; Dong-hee KIM; Seung-kiel PARK; Deok-chun YANG; Uk NAMGUNG; In-sun HAN; Jin-hwan YOON; In-chan SEOL; Yun-sik KIM; Hyun-kyung JO; Joung-jo AN; Kwon-eui HONG; Young-bae SEO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Extract of Hominis Placenta (HP) has been used in oriental medicine as an agent for improving physiological function. The present study was conducted to investigate whether HP treatment in an experimental sciatic nerve injury animal model produces growth-promoting effects on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers after injury. Methods: After HP was injected into a sciatic nerve injury site, changes in protein levels were analyzed in the regenerating nerve area by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining analyses. For quantitative assessment of axonal regeneration, a retrograde tracing technique was used to identify the neuronal cell bodies corresponding to regenerating axons, and the extent of neurite outgrowth in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons prepared from animals that had experienced a sciatic nerve crush injury 7 d before neuron collection was analyzed. Results: Induction levels of axonal growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in the injured sciatic nerves were elevated by HP treatment. HP treatment also upregulated cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) protein levels in the distal stump of the injured sciatic nerve. Induced Cdc2 protein was detected in Schwann cells, suggesting that Cdc2 kinase activity may be involved in the growth-promoting activity of regenerating axons via Schwann cell proliferation. Cell body measurement by retrograde tracing indicated that HP treatment produced significant increases in regenerating motor axons. Finally, HP treatment of cultured DRG sensory neurons significantly increased neurite arborization and elongation.Conclusion: HP promotes the regeneration of injured sciatic axons by upregulating the synthesis of regeneration-related protein factors such as GAP-43 and Cdc2.

  15. The adductor part of the adductor magnus is innervated by both obturator and sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Megumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ito, Hajime; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uchiyama, Eiichi

    2014-07-01

    The hip adductor group, innervated predominantly by the obturator nerve, occupies a large volume of the lower limb. However, case reports of patients with obturator nerve palsy or denervation have described no more than minimal gait disturbance. Those facts are surprising, given the architectural characteristics of the hip adductors. Our aim was to investigate which regions of the adductor magnus are innervated by the obturator nerve and by which sciatic nerve and to consider the clinical implications. Twenty-one lower limbs were examined from 21 formalin-fixed cadavers, 18 males and 3 females. The adductor magnus was dissected and was divided into four parts (AM1-AM4) based on the locations of the perforating arteries and the adductor hiatus. AM1 was supplied solely by the obturator nerve. AM2, AM3, and AM4 received innervation from both the posterior branch of the obturator nerve and the tibial nerve portion of the sciatic nerve in 2 (9.5%), 20 (95.2%), and 6 (28.6%) of the cadavers, respectively. The double innervation in more than 90% of the AM3s is especially noteworthy. Generally, AM1-AM3 corresponds to the adductor part, traditionally characterized as innervated by the obturator nerve, and AM4 corresponds to the hamstrings part, innervated by the sciatic nerve. Here, we showed that the sciatic nerve supplies not only the hamstrings part but also the adductor part. These two nerves spread more widely than has generally been believed, which could have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of motor disability.

  16. Experimental chronic entrapment of the sciatic nerve in adult hamsters: an ultrastructural and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinz R.A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropathy is a group of clinical disorders involving compression of a peripheral nerve and interference with nerve function mostly through traction injury. We have investigated the chronic compression of peripheral nerves as an experimental procedure for detecting changes in ultrastructural nerve morphology. Adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, N = 30 were anesthetized with a 25% pentobarbital solution and received a cuff around the right sciatic nerve. Left sciatic nerves were not operated (control group. Animals survived for varying times (up to 15 weeks, after which they were sacrificed and both sciatic nerves were immediately fixed with a paraformaldehyde solution. Experimental nerves were divided into segments based upon their distance from the site of compression (proximal, entrapment and distal. Semithin and ultrathin sections were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were qualitatively described and data from semithin sections were morphometrically analyzed both in control and in compressed nerves. We observed endoneurial edema along with both perineurial and endoneurial thickening and also the existence of whorled cell-sparse structures (Renaut bodies in the subperineurial space of compressed sciatic nerves. Morphometric analyses of myelinated axons at the compression sites displayed a remarkable increase in the number of small axons (up to 60% in comparison with the control axonal number. The distal segment of compressed nerves presented a distinct decrease in axon number (up to 40% comparatively to the control group. The present experimental model of nerve entrapment in adult hamsters was shown to promote consistent histopathologic alterations analogous to those found in chronic compressive neuropathies.

  17. Sciatic nerve injury repair:a visualized analysis of research fronts and development trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyao Liu; Rui Jiang; Yan Jin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 3,446 publications regarding sciatic nerve injury repair and protection indexed by Web of Science during 2000-2004 were used for a detailed analysis of temporal-spatial distribu-tion characteristics. Reference co-citation networks of the 100 top-cited publications as per the number of total citations were created using the Web of Science database and the information visualization tool, CiteSpaceIII. The key words that showed high frequency in these publications were included for analyzing the research fronts and development trends for sciatic nerve injury repair and protection. Through word frequency trend analysis, studies on bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, and skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells combined with tissue-engineered scaffold material will become the forefronts in the ifeld of sci-atic nerve injury repair and protection in the near future.

  18. Sciatic nerve injury repair: a visualized analysis of research fronts and development trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangyao; Jiang, Rui; Jin, Yan

    2014-09-15

    A total of 3,446 publications regarding sciatic nerve injury repair and protection indexed by Web of Science during 2000-2004 were used for a detailed analysis of temporal-spatial distribution characteristics. Reference co-citation networks of the 100 top-cited publications as per the number of total citations were created using the Web of Science database and the information visualization tool, CiteSpaceIII. The key words that showed high frequency in these publications were included for analyzing the research fronts and development trends for sciatic nerve injury repair and protection. Through word frequency trend analysis, studies on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, and skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells combined with tissue-engineered scaffold material will become the forefronts in the field of sciatic nerve injury repair and protection in the near future.

  19. External iliac artery thrombus masquerading as sciatic nerve palsy in anterior column fracture of the acetabulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar Magu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of ischemic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in a patient with an anterior column fracture of the acetabulum operated by ilioinguinal approach. It resulted from occlusion of the blood supply to the sciatic nerve. There were no signs of a vascular insult until ischemic changes ensued on the 6 th postoperative day on the lateral part of great toe. The patient underwent crossover femoro-femoral bypass grafting and there was a complete reversal of the ischemic changes at 6 months. The sciatic nerve palsy continued to recover until the end of 1 year; by which time the only deficit was a Grade 4 power in the extensor hallucis longus (EHL and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL. There was no further recovery at 2 years followup.

  20. A disturbed macrocirculatory supply as a determinant for a reduced sciatic nerve blood flow in diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Buren, Th. van; Kappelle, A.C.; Kasbergen, C.M.; Wildt, D.J. de

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate macrocirculatory disturbances in relation to the reduced sciatic nerve blood flow seen in diabetic rats. Therefore, both femoral blood flow, the macrocirculatory arterial blood supply to the sciatic nerve, and the microcirculatory neuronal blood flow were measur

  1. Nerve allograft regeneration and immunological tolerance of rats with sciatic nerve transplantation after intragastric pretreatment with ultraviolet B-irradiated donor splenocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Mi; Qiang Liu; Dou Wu

    2008-01-01

    lymphocytes in peripheral blood was detected with the Epics XL flow cytometer at one week after operation. (3) The bilateral sciatic nerves were exposed from the sciatic notch up to 0.5mm beyond the distal graft site at eight weeks post-engraftment. Bipolar platinum stimulating electrodes were placed under the sciatic nerve proximally and the mean conduction velocity was recorded with recording electrodes on the posterior tibial nerve at 0.3cm distal to the nerve graft.RESULTS: Eight weeks after operation, total axon number and fiber density in Group 3 were higher than that in Group 1 (P0.05). At eight weeks post-engraftment the mean conduction velocity of Group 3 approximated that of Group 1. The untreated allografts in Group 2 demonstrated no measurable recovery of conduction velocity.CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with a single intragastric dose of UVB-modified donor antigen specifically induced tolerance to peripheral nerve allografts in rats.

  2. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Garza Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5 received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5 received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5, where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  3. Stromal vascular fraction combined with silicone rubber chamber improves sciatic nerve regeneration in diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Negin Sanaei; Sima Ahsan; Masoume Masoumi-Verki; Fatemeh Khadir; Aram Mokarizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:To study the effects of transplantation of characterized uncultured stromal vascular fraction (SVF) on sciatic nerve regeneration.Methods:A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a silicone conduit filled with SVF.In control group,silicone conduit was filled with phosphate-buffered saline alone.In sham-operated group,the sciatic nerve was only exposed and manipulated.The regenerated nerve fibers were studied 8 and 12 weeks after surgery.Results:Behavioral and functional studies confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in SVF transplanted animals than in control group (p < 0.05).Gastrocnemius muscle mass in SVF transplanted animal was found to be significantly more than that in control group.Morphometric indices of the regenerated fibers showed the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers to be significantly higher in SVF transplanted animals than in control group.In immunohistochemistry,the location of reactions to S-100 in SVF transplanted animals was clearly more positive than that in control group.Conclusion:SVF transplantation combined with silicone conduit could be considered as a readily accessible source of stromal cells that improves functional recovery of sciatic nerve.It may have clinical implications for the surgical management of acute diabetic patients after facial nerve transection.

  4. Malnutrition and myelin structure: an X-ray scattering study of rat sciatic and optic nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, V.; Vargas, R.; Marquez, G.; Vonasek, E.; Mateu, L. [Dept. de Biologia Estructural, Caracas (Venezuela); Luzzati, V. [Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Borges, J. [Servicio de Neurologia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2000-07-01

    Taking advantage of the fast and accurate X-ray scattering techniques recently developed in our laboratory, we tackled the study of the structural alterations induced in myelin by malnutrition. Our work was performed on sciatic and optic nerves dissected from rats fed with either a normal or a low-protein caloric diet, as a function of age (from birth to 60 days). By way of electrophysiological controls we also measured (on the sciatic nerves) the height and velocity of the compound action potential. Malnutrition was found to decrease the amount of myelin and to impair the packing order of the membranes in the sheaths. (orig.)

  5. Rat Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury and Recovery Tracked by Plantar Test and Immunohistochemistry Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pavić, Roman; Pavić, Michele L.; Tvrdeić, Ante; Tot, Ozana K.; Heffer, Marija

    2011-01-01

    An experimental crush injury to the sciatic nerve, with a crush force of 49.2 N (pressure p=1.98x108 Pa), was inflicted in 30 male rats (Wistar). A control group (sham), with the same number of rats, was also operated upon exactly as the experimental group but without the crush injury. We tested the sensory and motor recovery of the sciatic nerve with Hargreaves method, using an apparatus from Ugo Basile, Italy. Testing was continued for both legs of each rat, injured and uninjured, starting ...

  6. Feasibility Study on MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Sciatic Nerve in a Swine Model: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, Elena A., E-mail: kayee@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics (United States); Gutta, Narendra Babu, E-mail: gnbabu.aiims@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Monette, Sebastien, E-mail: monettes@mskcc.org [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Gulati, Amitabh, E-mail: gulatia@mskcc.org; Loh, Jeffrey, E-mail: jeffreyloh@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Anesthesiology-Critical Care (United States); Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan, E-mail: srimaths@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Ezell, Paula C., E-mail: paula.ezell@intusurg.com [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Erinjeri, Joseph P., E-mail: erinjerj@mskcc.org; Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org; Maybody, Majid, E-mail: maybodym@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    IntroductionSpastic patients often seek neurolysis, the permanent destruction of the sciatic nerve, for better pain management. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) may serve as a noninvasive alternative to the prevailing, more intrusive techniques. This in vivo acute study is aimed at performing sciatic nerve neurolysis using a clinical MRgHIFU system.MethodsThe HIFU ablation of sciatic nerves was performed in swine (n = 5) using a HIFU system integrated with a 3 T MRI scanner. Acute lesions were confirmed using T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI and histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The animals were euthanized immediately following post-ablation imaging.ResultsReddening and mild thickening of the nerve and pallor of the adjacent muscle were seen in all animals. The HIFU-treated sections of the nerves displayed nuclear pyknosis of Schwann cells, vascular hyperemia, perineural edema, hyalinization of the collagenous stroma of the nerve, myelin sheet swelling, and loss of axons. Ablations were visible on CE MRI. Non-perfused volume of the lesions (5.8–64.6 cc) linearly correlated with estimated lethal thermal dose volume (4.7–34.2 cc). Skin burn adjacent to the largest ablated zone was observed in the first animal. Bilateral treatment time ranged from 55 to 138 min, and preparation time required 2 h on average.ConclusionThe acute pilot study in swine demonstrated the feasibility of a noninvasive neurolysis of the sciatic nerve using a clinical MRgHIFU system. Results revealed that acute HIFU nerve lesions were detectable on CE MRI, gross pathology, and histology.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma-induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells versus autologous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsuo Xia; Yajuan Li; Wen Cao; Zhaohua Yu

    2010-01-01

    Autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard of peripheral nerve repair.We previously showed that autologous platelet-rich plasma(PRP)contains high concentrations of growth factors and can induce in vitro cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs)to differentiate into Schwann cells.Here we used PRP-induced BMSCs combined with chemically extracted acellular nerves to repair sciatic nerve defects and compared the effect with autologous nerve grafting.The BMSCs and chemically extracted acellular nerve promoted target muscle wet weight restoration,motor nerve conduction velocity,and axonal and myelin sheath regeneration,with similar effectiveness to autologous nerve grafting.This finding suggests that PRP induced BMSCs can be used to repair peripheral nerve defects.

  8. Restorative effect and mechanism of mecobalamin on sciatic nerve crush injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Gan; Minquan Qian; Keqin Shi; Gang Chen; Yanglin Gu; Wei Du; Guoxing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Mecobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 containing a central metal element (cobalt), is one of the most important mediators of nervous system function. In the clinic, it is often used to accelerate recovery of peripheral nerves, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we performed sciatic nerve crush injury in mice, followed by daily intraperitoneal administra-tion of mecobalamin (65 μg/kg or 130 μg/kg) or saline (negative control). Walking track analysis, histomorphological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR showed that mecobalamin signiifcantly improved functional recovery of the sciatic nerve, thickened the myelin sheath in myelinated nerve ifbers, and increased the cross-sectional area of target muscle cells. Further-more, mecobalamin upregulated mRNA expression of growth associated protein 43 in nerve tissue ipsilateral to the injury, and of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor, brain-derived nerve growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor) in the L4–6 dorsal root ganglia. Our ifndings indicate that the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of mecobalamin after sciatic nerve injury involves the upregulation of multiple neurotrophic factor genes.

  9. Restorative effect and mechanism of mecobalamin on sciatic nerve crush injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lin; Qian, Minquan; Shi, Keqin; Chen, Gang; Gu, Yanglin; Du, Wei; Zhu, Guoxing

    2014-11-15

    Mecobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 containing a central metal element (cobalt), is one of the most important mediators of nervous system function. In the clinic, it is often used to accelerate recovery of peripheral nerves, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we performed sciatic nerve crush injury in mice, followed by daily intraperitoneal administration of mecobalamin (65 μg/kg or 130 μg/kg) or saline (negative control). Walking track analysis, histomorphological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR showed that mecobalamin significantly improved functional recovery of the sciatic nerve, thickened the myelin sheath in myelinated nerve fibers, and increased the cross-sectional area of target muscle cells. Furthermore, mecobalamin upregulated mRNA expression of growth associated protein 43 in nerve tissue ipsilateral to the injury, and of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor, brain-derived nerve growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor) in the L4-6 dorsal root ganglia. Our findings indicate that the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of mecobalamin after sciatic nerve injury involves the upregulation of multiple neurotrophic factor genes.

  10. Gait phase detection from sciatic nerve recordings in functional electrical stimulation systems for foot drop correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jun-Uk; Song, Kang-Il; Han, Sungmin; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kang, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Dosik; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Choi, Kuiwon; Youn, Inchan

    2013-05-01

    Cutaneous afferent activities recorded by a nerve cuff electrode have been used to detect the stance phase in a functional electrical stimulation system for foot drop correction. However, the implantation procedure was difficult, as the cuff electrode had to be located on the distal branches of a multi-fascicular nerve to exclude muscle afferent and efferent activities. This paper proposes a new gait phase detection scheme that can be applied to a proximal nerve root that includes cutaneous afferent fibers as well as muscle afferent and efferent fibers. To test the feasibility of this scheme, electroneurogram (ENG) signals were measured from the rat sciatic nerve during treadmill walking at several speeds, and the signal properties of the sciatic nerve were analyzed for a comparison with kinematic data from the ankle joint. On the basis of these experiments, a wavelet packet transform was tested to define a feature vector from the sciatic ENG signals according to the gait phases. We also propose a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier and investigate whether it could be used successfully to discriminate feature vectors into the stance and swing phases. In spite of no significant differences in the rectified bin-integrated values between the stance and swing phases, the sciatic ENG signals could be reliably classified using the proposed wavelet packet transform and GMM classification methods.

  11. Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for a patient with chronic sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang F

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feng Zhang,1,2 Xiangzhi Meng,2 Fang Lu,2 Aixian Liu,2 Hongyun Huang1,2 1Cell Therapy Center, Beijing Hongtianji Neuroscience Academy, 2Neurorehabilitation Center, Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To observe the result of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC transplantation in a patient with chronic sciatic nerve injury. Case report: A 53-year-old male patient with chronic (1 year sciatic nerve injury on left side received OEC transplantation at the lesion site. He received follow-up assessment according to the American Spinal Injury Association standard at 10 days, 6 months, and 1 year after OEC therapy. The muscle strength of his left lower limb increased and numbness decreased during the early stage of cell therapy. His motor function improved with each evaluation. His limp walking gait recovered, and numbness sensation got nearly normal after 1 year of follow-up. There were no side effects. Conclusion: OEC transplantation may be an option for chronic peripheral (sciatic nerve injury. Keywords: olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation, sciatic nerve injury, peripheral nerve injury, function improvement, neurorestoration

  12. Nanoparticles carrying neurotrophin-3-modified Schwann cells promote repair of sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin Zong; Hongxing Zhao; Yilei Zhao; Jingling Jia; Libin Yang; Chao Ma; Yang Zhang; Yuzhen Dong

    2013-01-01

    Schwann cells and neurotrophin-3 play an important role in neural regeneration, but the secretion of neurotrophin-3 from Schwann cells is limited, and exogenous neurotrophin-3 is inactived easily in vivo. In this study, we have transfected neurotrophin-3 into Schwann cells cultured in vitro using nanoparticle liposomes. Results showed that neurotrophin-3 was successfully transfected into Schwann cells, where it was expressed effectively and steadily. A composite of Schwann cells transfected with neurotrophin-3 and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable conduits was transplanted into rats to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects. Transplantation of the composite scaffold could restore the myoelectricity and wave amplitude of the sciatic nerve by electrophysiological examination, promote nerve axonal and myelin regeneration, and delay apoptosis of spinal motor neurons. Experimental findings indicate that neurotrophin-3 transfected Schwann cells combined with bridge grafting can promote neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injury.

  13. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Lima, Êmyle; Teixeira Goes, Bruno; Zugaib Cavalcanti, João; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz), and High-TENS (100 Hz). The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity. PMID:25147807

  14. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cavalcante Miranda de Assis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz, and High-TENS (100 Hz. The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity.

  15. Correlation Among Ultrasound, Cross-Sectional Anatomy, and Histology of the Sciatic Nerve A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayeri, Nizar; van Geffen, Geert J.; Bruhn, Jorgen; Chan, Vincent W.; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy matche

  16. Correlation among ultrasound, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the sciatic nerve: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayeri, N.; Geffen, G.J. van; Bruhn, J.; Chan, V.W.; Groen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy matche

  17. Reinnervation of muscles after transection of the sciatic nerve in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijkema-Paassen, J; Meek, MF; Gramsbergen, A

    2002-01-01

    Functional recovery after transection of the sciatic nerve in adult rats is poor, probably because of abnormalities in reinnervation. Denervation and reinnervation patterns were studied morphologically in the lateral gastrocnemius (LGC), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (SOL) muscles for 21 weeks

  18. Ultrasound-guided proximal and distal sciatic nerve blocks in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, G.J. van; Pirotte, T.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Scheffer, G.; Bruhn, J.

    2010-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To present the use of ultrasonography for the performance of proximal subgluteal and distal sciatic nerve blocks in children. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: 45 ASA physical status I, II, and III patients, aged between 8 months and 16 y

  19. Regulation of Schwann cell proliferation in cultured segments of the adult rat sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Kanje, M

    1998-01-01

    Schwann cell proliferation was studied in cultured segments of the rat sciatic nerve by measurement of [3H] thymidine incorporation or through bromodeoxyuridine-(BrdU)-labelling and immunocytochemistry. The aim was to delineate mechanisms involved in the injury-induced proliferative response...

  20. Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjie Lu; Zufa Huang; Chaoyue Zhang; Xianfang Zhang; Jiuhong Zhao; Haiying Zhang; Quanpeng Zhang; Song Wu; Xinan Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identiifed whose expression was signiifcantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3′-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization veriifed that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a com-bination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neu-rons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that mi-croRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection.

  1. Beneficial Effect of Metformin on Nerve Regeneration and Functional Recovery After Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiong; Liu, Jun; Yu, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-05-01

    Neuroprotective effects of metformin have been increasingly recognized in both diabetic and non-diabetic conditions. Thus far, no information has been available on the potential beneficial effects of metformin on peripheral nerve regeneration in diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes was established by a single injection of streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg in rats. After sciatic nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with metformin (30, 200 and 500 mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. It was found that metformin significantly enhanced axonal regeneration and functional recovery compared to saline after sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats. In addition, metformin at 200 and 500 mg/kg showed better performance than that at 30 mg/kg. Taken together, metformin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injuries in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus.

  2. Restorative effect and mechanism of mecobalamin on sciatic nerve crush injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Lin; Qian, Minquan; Shi, Keqin; Chen, Gang; GU, YANGLIN; Du, Wei; Zhu, Guoxing

    2014-01-01

    Mecobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 containing a central metal element (cobalt), is one of the most important mediators of nervous system function. In the clinic, it is often used to accelerate recovery of peripheral nerves, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we performed sciatic nerve crush injury in mice, followed by daily intraperitoneal administration of mecobalamin (65 μg/kg or 130 μg/kg) or saline (negative control). Walking track analysis, histomorphologi...

  3. Functional recovery of sciatic nerve through inside-out vein graft in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Saeed Azizi; Nowruz Delirezh; Rahim Hobbenaghi; Keyvan Amini

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Present study aimed at further comprehensive functional, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration using rat sciatic nerve transection model.Methods: The 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap was created in rats. In control group nerve stumps were sutured to adjacent muscle and in treatment group the gap was bridged using an inside-out vein graft. In sham-operated group the nerve was manipulated and left intact. All animals underwent walking track analysis test 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery.Subsequently, muscle mass measurement was performed to assess reenervation, histological examination to observe the sciatic nerve regeneration morphologically and immunohistochemistry to detect Schwann cells using anti S-100. Results were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA with two between-subjects factors. Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons was used to examine the effect of treatments.Results: Functional analysis ofmyelinated nerve fibers showed that nerve function improved significantly in the time course in treatment group. However, quantitative morphometrical analysis of myelinated nerve fibers showed that there was no significant difference between 8 and 12 weeks in treatment group. Muscle weight ratio was bigger and weight loss of the gastrocnemius muscle was ameliorated by inside-out vein grafting. The position of positive immunohistochemical reactions further implied that regenerated axons and Schwann cell-like cells existed after vein grafting was performed, and was accompanied by the process of myelination and structural recovery of regenerated nerves.Conclusion: Functional analysis of peripheral nerve repair is far more reliable than quantitative morphometrical analysis

  4. Chitosan-cross-linked nanofibrous PHBV nerve guide for rat sciatic nerve regeneration across a defect bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a chitosan-cross-linked nanofibrous biodegradable poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit. The artificial nerve scaffold designed by electrospinning method and cross-linked with chitosan by chemical method. Afterwards, the scaffolds were evaluated by microscopic, physical, and mechanical analyses and cell culture assays with Schwann cells. The conduits were implanted into a 10 mm gap in the sciatic nerves of the rats. Four months after surgery, the regenerated nerves were evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology. This polymeric conduit had sufficiently good mechanical properties to serve as a nerve guide. Cellular experiments showed a better cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation inside the cross-linked nanofibrous scaffolds compared with un-cross-linked ones, also Schwann cells well attached on chitosan-cross-linked nanofibrous surface. The in vivo results demonstrated that in the nanofibrous graft, the sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with restoration of nerve continuity and formatted nerve fibers with myelination. This neural conduit appears to have the right organization for testing in vivo nerve tissue engineering studies.

  5. Rat sciatic nerve crush injury and recovery tracked by plantar test and immunohistochemistry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavić, Roman; Pavić, Michele L; Tvrdeić, Ante; Tot, Ozana K; Heffer, Marija

    2011-01-01

    An experimental crush injury to the sciatic nerve, with a crush force of 49.2 N (pressure p=1.98x10(8) Pa), was inflicted in 30 male rats (Wistar). A control group (sham), with the same number of rats, was also operated upon exactly as the experimental group but without the crush injury. We tested the sensory and motor recovery of the sciatic nerve with Hargreaves method, using an apparatus from Ugo Basile, Italy. Testing was continued for both legs of each rat, injured and uninjured, starting preoperatively (0 day), and then 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days postoperatively. The same experiment was run simultaneously with the sham group. The Plantar test showed recovery of the sensory and motor function of the sciatic nerve, though not complete recovery, by 28 days. An immunohistochemical experiment was run in parallel with the plantar test on L3-L6 segments of the spinal cord from where the sciatic nerve extends. We used antibodies for Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the aforesaid part of the spinal cord. The immunohistochemical methods showed changes in sensory and motor axons in the spinal cord segment L3-L6 which suggest correspondence with the results of the Plantar test, in terms of recovery of the sensory and motor function after injury of the sciatic nerve. The immunohistochemical results also show ipsilateral and contralateral changes following injury. Results of the plantar test are suggestive that the rat shows compensation for an injury in its contralateral leg.

  6. Bilateral ganglion cyst of the common peroneal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrazzini, Massimo; Cusmano, Ferdinando; Armaroli, Sara; Pavone, Paolo [Institute of Radiology, University of Parma, Viale Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Pogliacomi, Francesco; Rinaldi, Elio [Institute of Clinical Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of Parma, Viale Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2002-11-01

    Ganglion cysts of the common peroneal nerve are rarely described in the literature and a bilateral lesion has not been previously reported. We present a case of a 41-year-old man with a bilateral cyst of the common peroneal nerve diagnosed with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of effects of sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in sheep undergoing stifle surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ann E; Mama, Khursheed R; Ruehlman, Dana L; Pelkey, Sheila; Turner, A Simon

    2011-04-01

    The authors evaluated the effects of locally anesthetizing the sciatic and femoral nerves in sheep undergoing stifle (femorotibial) surgery (16 sheep received nerve blocks; 16 sheep underwent a nerve localization procedure but received no nerve blocks). Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and end-tidal isoflurane were recorded every 5 min while sheep were anesthetized. At some of the observed time points, the mean heart rate in the sheep that had received no nerve blocks was significantly higher than in the sheep that had received the nerve blocks. Postoperatively, each sheep was assigned scores for comfort and attitude, movement, flock behavior, feeding behavior and appetite and respiratory rate (based on predefined descriptions). Though the authors found no undesirable effects of this local anesthesia, beneficial effects of the nerve blocks were minimal or not readily apparent under the conditions of this study.

  8. Lumbar Plexus and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Fixation of Proximal Femoral Fractures in patients with Multiple Co-Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S Gopal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia management for proximal femoral fractures of high risk patients with debilitating systemic co-morbidities is a challenging task. It is generally done under the effect of regional anaesthesia or general anaesthesia (GA, with systemic analgesics for alleviation of pain after surgery. A combination of lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve blocks can provide anaesthesia and analgesia to the entire lower extremity including the hip. Analgesic potency of lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve blocks is similar to epidural analgesia for hip surgery without the undesirable side effects. We describe here two cases of proximal femoral fractures which were done under combined lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells in a polycaprolactone conduit promote sciatic nerve regeneration and sensory neuron survival after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattini, Flávia; Lopes, Fatima Rosalina Pereira; Almeida, Fernanda Martins; Rodrigues, Rafaela Fintelman; Boldrini, Leonardo Cunha; Tomaz, Marcelo A; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Melo, Paulo A; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2012-10-01

    Despite the fact that the peripheral nervous system is able to regenerate after traumatic injury, the functional outcomes following damage are limited and poor. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that have been used in studies of peripheral nerve regeneration and have yielded promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate sciatic nerve regeneration and neuronal survival in mice after nerve transection followed by MSC treatment into a polycaprolactone (PCL) nerve guide. The left sciatic nerve of C57BL/6 mice was transected and the nerve stumps were placed into a biodegradable PCL tube leaving a 3-mm gap between them; the tube was filled with MSCs obtained from GFP+ animals (MSC-treated group) or with a culture medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium group). Motor function was analyzed according to the sciatic functional index (SFI). After 6 weeks, animals were euthanized, and the regenerated sciatic nerve, the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), the spinal cord, and the gastrocnemius muscle were collected and processed for light and electron microscopy. A quantitative analysis of regenerated nerves showed a significant increase in the number of myelinated fibers in the group that received, within the nerve guide, stem cells. The number of neurons in the DRG was significantly higher in the MSC-treated group, while there was no difference in the number of motor neurons in the spinal cord. We also found higher values of trophic factors expression in MSC-treated groups, especially a nerve growth factor. The SFI revealed a significant improvement in the MSC-treated group. The gastrocnemius muscle showed an increase in weight and in the levels of creatine phosphokinase enzyme, suggesting an improvement of reinnervation and activity in animals that received MSCs. Immunohistochemistry documented that some GFP+ -transplanted cells assumed a Schwann-cell-like phenotype, as evidenced by their expression of the S-100 protein, a Schwann cell

  10. Electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy improve the recovery of injured sciatic nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhao; Wei He; Yingze Zhang; Dehu Tian; Hongfang Zhao; Kunlun Yu; Jiangbo Bai

    2013-01-01

    Drug treatment, electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy have been shown to promote the repair and regeneration of the peripheral nerves at the injured site. This study prepared a Mackin-non’s model of rat sciatic nerve compression. Electric stimulation was given immediately after neurolysis, and decimeter wave radiation was performed at 1 and 12 weeks post-operation. Histo-logical observation revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy could improve the local blood circulation of repaired sites, al eviate hypoxia of compressed nerves, and lessen adhesion of compressed nerves, thereby decreasing the formation of new entrapments and enhancing compressed nerve regeneration through an improved microenvironment for rege-neration. Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave could promote the expression of S-100 protein. Motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude, the number and diameter of myelinated nerve fibers, and sciatic functional index were significantly increased in the treated rats. These results verified that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy contributed to the regeneration and the recovery of the functions in the compressed nerves.

  11. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better

  12. Chemoattractive capacity of different lengths of nerve fragments bridging regeneration chambers for the repair of sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiren Zhang; Yubo Wang; Jincheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study by our research group showed that 6-mm-long regeneration chamber bridging is equivalent to autologous nerve transplantation for the repair of 12-mm nerve defects.In this study,we compared the efficacy of different lengths (6,8,10 mm) of nerve fragments bridging 6-mm regeneration chambers for the repair of 12-mm-long nerve defects.At 16 weeks after the regeneration chamber was implanted,the number,diameter and myelin sheath thickness of the regenerated nerve fibers,as well as the conduction velocity of the sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius muscle wet weight ratio,were similar to that observed with autologous nerve transplantation.Our results demonstrate that 6-,8-and 10-mm-long nerve fragments bridging 6-mm regeneration chambers effectively repair 12-mm-long nerve defects.Because the chemoattractive capacity is not affected by the length of the nerve fragment,we suggest adopting 6-mm-long nerve fragments for the repair of peripheral nerve defects.

  13. Protective Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Rat Sciatic Nerve Ischemia Reperfusion Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turamanlar, Ozan; Özen, Oğuz Aslan; Songur, Ahmet; Yağmurca, Murat; Akçer, Sezer; Mollaoğlu, Hakan; Aktaş, Cevat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alpha lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant that plays numerous roles in human health. This study examined the effect of ALA on rat sciatic nerve ischemia reperfusion damage. Aims: Protective effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on sciatic nerve following ischemia-reperfusion in rats was investigated by using light microscopy and biochemical methods. Provided that the protective effect of ALA on sciatic nerve is proven, we think the damage to the sciatic nerve that has already occurred or might occur in patients for various reasons maybe prevented or stopped by giving ALA in convenient doses. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–300 grams) were used in this study. Rats were randomly divided into six groups including one control (Group 1), one sham (Group 2), two ischemia-reperfusion (Groups 3 and 4) and two treatment groups (Groups5 and 6). Doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg ALA were given (Group 5 and 6) intra peritoneally twice, 1 and 24 hours before the ischemia to each treatment group. Ischemia was carried out the abdominal aorta starting from the distal part of the renal vein for two hours followed by reperfusion for three hours. In immunohistochemical methods, fibronectin immunoreactivity was analyzed. For biochemical analyses, the tissues were taken in eppendorf microtubes and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) enzyme activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitricoxide (NO) levels were measured. Results: Fibronectin was observed to have increased significantly in the ischemia group; on the other hand, it was observed to have decreased in parallel to the doses in the ALA groups. Biochemical studies showed that SOD and GSHPx declined with ischemia-reperfusion, but the activities of these enzymes were increased in the treatment groups in parallel with the dose. It was found that increased MDA levels with ischemia-reperfusion were decreased in parallel with ALA dose. There were

  14. Study on the use of quantitative ultrasound evaluation of diabetic neuropathy in the rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Hu, Bing; Zhu, Jiaan

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound is an effective tool for peripheral disease with direct imaging of morphological and echogenic changes, but it has limitations when applied to evaluation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to assess the role of ultrasound to quantitatively evaluate diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rat sciatic nerve. In our experiments, ultrasound imaging and electrophysiological examination testing of sciatic nerves were monitored in diabetic and control rats at the period of 1st and 4th month of hyperglycemia. Cross sectional area, intraneural echo intensity, inner diameter, motor nerve conduction velocity, and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control groups. Intraneural hyperechoic were observed in the diabetic rats, and the echo intensity of the sciatic nerve was increased in diabetic rats rather than control lean rats at 4th month of hyperglycemia (p diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We conclude that the echo intensity is potentially useful in detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which can pave the way for more accurate and efficient diagnosis in clinical study.

  15. Altered neuronatin expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion after sciatic nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chih-Hsien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several molecular changes occur following axotomy, such as gene up-regulation and down-regulation. In our previous study using Affymetrix arrays, it was found that after the axotomy of sciatic nerve, there were many novel genes with significant expression changes. Among them, neuronatin (Nnat was the one which expression was significantly up-regulated. Nnat was identified as a gene selectively expressed in neonatal brains and markedly reduced in adult brains. The present study investigated whether the expression of Nnat correlates with symptoms of neuropathic pain in adult rats with transected sciatic nerve. Methods Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and the Randall and Selitto test were used to study the protein content, and subcellular localization of Nnat in correlation with pain-related animal behavior. Results It was found that after nerve injury, the expression of Nnat was increased in total protein extracts. Unmyelinated C-fiber and thinly myelinated A-δ fiber in adult dorsal root ganglions (DRGs were the principal sub-population of primary afferent neurons with distributed Nnat. The increased expression of Nnat and its subcellular localization were related to mechanical hyperalgesia. Conclusions The results indicated that there was significant correlation between mechanical hyperalgesia in axotomy of sciatic nerve and the increased expression of Nnat in C-fiber and A-δ fiber of adult DRG neurons.

  16. Effect of mutated defensin NP-1 on sciatic nerve regeneration after transection--A pivot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chungui; Bai, Lili; Chen, Yuhong; Fan, Chengming; Hu, Zanmin; Xu, Hailin; Jiang, Baoguo

    2016-03-23

    Defensins are small cationic peptides that constitute the first line of defense against pathogens and are involved in immune regulation. In this study, their role in peripheral nerve regeneration was investigated. Rat sciatic nerves were transected and the two nerve stumps were bridged by a chitin conduit with a gap of 5mm between the stumps. The animals were injected intramuscularly with mutated rabbit neutrophil peptide 1 (defensin mNP-1), the positive control nerve growth factor (NGF) or the negative control saline, for 7 consecutive days after repair. After 6 weeks, the sciatic functional index (SFI), MNCV (motor nerve conductive velocity) and morphological parameters including myelinated fiber amounts, fiber diameter, axon diameter, myelin thickness and G-ratio were measured. Compared to the SFI of saline group, the NGF and mNP-1 groups had an increase of 18.3% and 18.8%, respectively. The numbers of myelinated fibers in the distal nerve of NGF and mNP-1 groups were 1.45- and 1.32-fold higher than in the saline group. The MNCVs of NGF and mNP-1 groups were 7.3 and 4.4 times of that of saline group. Fiber diameter, axon diameter, myelin thickness and G-ratio in the NGF and mNP-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of saline group. Our results demonstrate that, like NGF, the defensin mNP-1 can promote regeneration after a peripheral nerve cut.

  17. VARIATIONS OF SCIATIC NERVE BIFURCATION IN DISSECTED CADAVERES FROM ETHIOPIA AND THEIR CLINICAL IMPLICATION: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Etim Ekanem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tibial and common peroneal nerves are dorsal and ventral divisions of the ventral rami of L4 to S3 of the lumbosacral plexus that join to form the sciatic nerve. The two nerves are structurally separate and supply the posterior compartment of the thigh, the leg and the foot. The point of bifurcation or separation of the sciatic nerve into tibial and common peroneal nerve varies. The common site is at the junction of the middle and lower third of the back of the thigh, near the apex of the popliteal fossa, but division may occur at any point above this. It may also rarely occur below it. The variations in the bifurcation of the sciatic nerve have clinical implications. They may result in nerve injury during deep intramuscular injections in the gluteal region, sciatica, piriformis syndrome etc. This study is to report the variations of the bifurcation in the sciatic nerve found in the cadaveres from Ethiopia, and discuss the clinical implications of such variations. Conclusion: We conclude from this study that the bifurcation of the sciatic nerve could occur high up in the gluteal region in relation to the piriformis muscle and may present clinical challenges in patient management

  18. US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Saim, E-mail: ysaim@akdeniz.edu.tr; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Sindel, Timur [Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1-10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

  19. Toe out angle : a functional index for the evaluation of sciatic nerve recovery in the rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varejao, ASP; Cabrita, AM; Geuna, S; Melo-Pinto, P; Filipe, VM; Gramsbergen, A; Meek, MF

    2003-01-01

    In experimental peripheral nerve studies, the rat sciatic nerve model is widely used to examine functional outcome following nerve injury and repair. A variety of evaluation methods exist in the literature, but an adequate selection continues to be a critical point for the researcher. Rats with scia

  20. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinquan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure. Results In this study we fabricated a collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone (collagen/PCL fibrous scaffold by electrospinning and explored its application as nerve guide substrate or conduit in vitro and in vivo. Material characterizations showed this electrospun composite material which was made of submicron fibers possessed good hydrophilicity and flexibility. In vitro study indicated electrospun collagen/PCL fibrous meshes promoted Schwann cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. In vivo test showed electrospun collagen/PCL porous nerve conduits successfully supported nerve regeneration through an 8 mm sciatic nerve gap in adult rats, achieving similar electrophysiological and muscle reinnervation results as autografts. Although regenerated nerve fibers were still in a pre-mature stage 4 months postoperatively, the implanted collagen/PCL nerve conduits facilitated more axons regenerating through the conduit lumen and gradually degraded which well matched the nerve regeneration rate. Conclusions All the results demonstrated this collagen/PCL nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate fabricated by electrospinning could be an efficient alternative to autograft for peripheral nerve regeneration research. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it

  1. Differential gene expression in proximal and distal nerve segments of rats with sciatic nerve injury during Wallerian degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Jiang; Huaiqin Li; Yi Sun; Dexin Yin; Qin Zhao; Shusen Cui; Dengbing Yao

    2014-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is a subject of major interest in neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated during the distinct stages of Wallerian degeneration: transcription factor activation, immune response, myelin cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. Although gene expression responses in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve after peripheral nerve injury are known, differences in gene expression between the proximal and distal segments remain unclear. In the present study in rats, we used microarrays to analyze changes in gene expression, biological processes and signaling pathways in the proximal and distal segments of sciatic nerves under-going Wallerian degeneration. More than 6,000 genes were differentially expressed and 20 types of expression tendencies were identiifed, mainly between proximal and distal segments at 7-14 days after injury. The differentially expressed genes were those involved in cell differentiation, cytokinesis, neuron differentiation, nerve development and axon regeneration. Furthermore, 11 biological processes were represented, related to responses to stimuli, cell apoptosis, inlfammato-ry response, immune response, signal transduction, protein kinase activity, and cell proliferation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, microarray data were veriifed for four genes: aquaporin-4, interleukin 1 receptor-like 1, matrix metallopro-teinase-12 and periaxin. Our study identiifes differential gene expression in the proximal and distal segments of a nerve during Wallerian degeneration, analyzes dynamic biological changes of these genes, and provides a useful platform for the detailed study of nerve injury and repair during Wallerian degeneration.

  2. An inside-out vein graft iflled with platelet-rich plasma for repair of a short sciatic nerve defect in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Yeong Kim; Woo Joo Jeon; Dong Hwee Kim; Im Joo Rhyu; Young Hwan Kim; Inchan Youn; Jong Woong Park

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma containing various growth factors can promote nerve regeneration. An in-side-out vein graft can substitute nerve autograft to repair short nerve defects. It is hypothesized that an inside-out vein graft iflled with platelet-rich plasma shows better effects in the repair of short sciatic nerve defects. In this study, an inside-out vein autograft iflled with platelet-rich plasma was used to bridge a 10 mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. The sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft iflled with platelet-rich plasma was better improved than that of rats with a simple inside-out vein autograft. At 6 and 8 weeks, the sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better than that of rats undergoing nerve autografting. Compared with the sciatic nerve repaired with a simple inside-out vein autograft, the number of myelinated axons was higher, axon diameter and myelin sheath were greater in the sciatic nerve repaired with an inside-out vein autograft iflled with platelet-rich plasma and they were similar to those in the sciatic nerve repaired with nerve autograft. These findings suggest that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma can substitute nerve autograft to repair short sciatic nerve defects.

  3. [Application of direct long-standing electrostimulation in consequences of the sciatic nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsymbaliuk, Iu V

    2013-04-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 57 patients, suffering consequences of the sciatic nerve injury, using the system for long-lasting electrostimulation "Naysi 3M", were presented. The domestically manufactured system is individual and gives possibility to conduct the direct electrostimulation procedures in the home conditions, several times a day, for a long time. Positive results, consisting of the various degree enhancement of the lower extremities movements volume and strength, the sensitivity restoration and the pain severity reduction or disappearance, were achieved in 46 (81%) patients. In inefficacy of conservative treatment and presence of indications for the operation in patients with sciatic nerve injury the long-lasting electrostimulation secures restoration of the lower extremities lost functions, the pain syndrome and the vegetative-trophic disorders regress.

  4. Berberine Ameliorates Allodynia Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jee

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether berberine could ameliorate allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. After inducement of CCI, significant increases in the number of paw lifts from a cold plate test (cold allodynia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in the von Frey hair stimulation test (mechanical allodynia) were observed. However, these cold and mechanical allodynia were markedly alleviated by berberine administration in a dose-dependent manner. Sciatic nerve myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde activities were also attenuated by berberine administration. Continuous injection for 7 days induced no development of tolerance. The antiallodynic effect of 20 mg/kg berberine was comparable to that of amitriptyline 10 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that berberine could mitigate allodynia induced by CCI, a neuropathic pain model, and it suggested that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of berberine contributed to the antiallodynic effect in the CCI model.

  5. Biomechanical properties of acellular sciatic nerves treated with a modified chemical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinlong Ma; Zhao Yang; Xiaolei Sun; Jianxiong Ma; Xiulan Li; Zhenzhen Yuan; Yang Zhang; Honggang Guo

    2011-01-01

    Nerve grafts are able to adapt to surrounding biomechanical environments if the nerve graft itself exhibits appropriate biomechanical properties (load, elastic modulus, etc.). The present study was designed to determine the differences in biomechanical properties between fresh and chemically acellularized sciatic nerve grafts. Two different chemical methods were used to establish acellular nerve grafts. The nerve was chemically extracted in the Sondell method with a combination of Triton X-100 (nonionic detergent) and sodium deoxycholate (anionic detergent), and in the modified method with a combination of Triton X-200 (anionic detergent), sulfobetaine-10 (SB-10, amphoteric detergents), and sulfobetaine-16 (SB-16, amphoteric detergents). Following acellularization, hematoxylin-eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the effect of acellularization via the modified method was similar to the traditional Sondell method. However, effects of demyelination and nerve fiber tube integrity were superior to the traditional Sondell method. Biomechanical testing showed that peripheral nerve graft treated using the chemical method resulted in decreased biomechanical properties (ultimate load, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, and mechanical work to fracture) compared with fresh nerves, but the differences had no statistical significance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated no significant effect on biomechanical properties of nerves treated using the chemical method. In conclusion, nerve grafts treated via the modified method removed Schwann cells, preserved neural structures, and ensured biomechanical properties of the nerve graft, which could be more appropriate for implantation studies.

  6. Extraskeletal Ewing’s Sarcoma Arising from the Sciatic Nerve: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadhar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing’s sarcoma is a common bone tumour of childhood but is a rare occurrence in individuals over 20 years of age. Few cases are reported as originating from peripheral nerves. We present an unusual case of extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma originating from the sciatic nerve in a 66-year-old patient which had the clinical hallmarks of a benign nerve sheath tumour. Following discussion at a multidisciplinary meeting, excision biopsy of the suspected benign nerve sheath tumour was planned. At operation, the mass had malignant features. Histology confirmed the presence of Ewing’s sarcoma. Due to the morbidity of nerve resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were commenced. Ewing’s sarcoma is known to mimic benign pathologies. In this case there were subtle signs of a malignant process in the form of unremitting pain. It is vital to keep in mind the less common tumours that can affect the peripheral nervous system in such cases.

  7. Purinergic signaling mediated by P2X7 receptors controls myelination in sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroni, A; Smith, R J P; Procacci, P; Castelnovo, L F; Puccianti, E; Reid, A J; Magnaghi, V; Verkhratsky, A

    2014-10-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate, the physiological ligand of P2X receptors, is an important factor in peripheral nerve development. P2X7 receptor is expressed in Schwann cells (SCs), but the specific effects of P2X7 purinergic signaling on peripheral nerve development, myelination, and function are largely unknown. In this study, sciatic nerves from P2X7 knockout mice were analyzed for altered expression of myelin-associated proteins and for alterations in nerve morphology. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that, in the wild-type peripheral nerves, the P2X7 receptor was localized mainly in myelinating SCs, with only a few immunopositive nonmyelinating SCs. Complete absence of P2X7 receptor protein was confirmed in the sciatic nerves of the knockout mice by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis revealed that expression levels of the myelin proteins protein zero and myelin-associated glycoprotein are reduced in P2X7 knockout nerves. In accordance with the molecular results, transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that P2X7 knockout nerves possess significantly more unmyelinated axons, contained in a higher number of Remak bundles. The myelinating/nonmyelinating SC ratio was also decreased in knockout mice, and we found a significantly increased number of irregular fibers compared with control nerves. Nevertheless, the myelin thickness in the knockout was unaltered, suggesting a stronger role for P2X7 in determining SC maturation than in myelin formation. In conclusion, we present morphological and molecular evidence of the importance of P2X7 signaling in peripheral nerve maturation and in determining SC commitment to a myelinating phenotype.

  8. Sciatic nerve cuffing in mice: a model of sustained neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbouzid, Malika; Pallage, Viviane; Rajalu, Mathieu; Waltisperger, Elisabeth; Doridot, Stéphane; Poisbeau, Pierrick; Freund-Mercier, Marie José; Barrot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    Because of its severity, chronicity, resistance to usual therapy and its consequences on quality of life, neuropathic pain represents a real clinical challenge. Fundamental research on this pathology uses metabolic, pharmacological or traumatic models in rodents that reproduce the characteristic human pain symptoms. In 1996, Mosconi and Kruger morphologically described a model of peripheral neuropathy in which a cuff of polyethylene tubing was placed around the sciatic nerve in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the behavioral consequences of this neuropathic pain model in C57Bl/6J mice which is the main genetic background used for studies in transgenic mice. A short cuff of polyethylene tubing was unilaterally placed around the main branch of the sciatic nerve. It induced an ipsilateral heat thermal hyperalgesia lasting around 3 weeks, and a sustained ipsilateral mechanical allodynia lasting at least 2 months. We showed that this neuropathic pain model is insensitive to ketoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Morphine treatment acutely suppressed the mechanical allodynia, but tolerance to this effect rapidly developed. The analysis of video recordings revealed that most aspects of spontaneous behavior remained unaffected on the long term, excepted for a decrease in the time spent at social interaction for the neuropathic mice. Using the elevated plus-maze and the marble-burying test, we also showed that neuropathic mice develop an anxiety phenotype. Our data indicate that sciatic nerve cuffing in mice is a pertinent model for the study of nociceptive and emotional consequences of sustained neuropathic pain.

  9. Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve, in relation to the piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Lewis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations can be seen in any part of the body and unless they are identified through imaging, during surgery, or on autopsy most of them will never be detected. Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve in relation to the piriformis have been described for many years and so has possible implications these variations might play in certain pathologies, such as sciatica. Identifying the frequency of anatomical variations in the population is relevant to identify patients that might not be treated effectively with standard medical care. These patients might require specialized care due to their unique anatomy. In this study 51 cadavers where examined for anatomical variations in the relation of the sciatic nerve to the piriformis muscle. We found that out of 102 lower limbs examined, 90 contained normal anatomy (89%. We identified two distinct variations of anatomy in the cadavers examined: one variation showing the common fibular branch of the sciatic nerve passing through the piriformis (occurring in 9 out of 102 or 8.8% of lower limbs examined; the second variation was the common fibular branch passing over the piriformis (found in 3 out of the 102 limbs or 2.9%.

  10. Bilateral high radial nerve compressions: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuangsuwanich, A; Muangsombut, S; Sangruchi, T

    2000-06-01

    A 40-year-old woman with bilateral high radial nerve compressions by non-traumatic cause was reported. It occurred first at the right radial nerve which was explored after a period of investigation and conservative treatment. Two constricted sites 2.0 cm apart of the right radial nerve crossed by branches of the radial collateral artery beneath the lateral head of the triceps were found. The constricted sites including tissue in between was resected and replaced with a sural nerve graft. One year later the patient had the same episode on the left side. The operative finding was the same as the previous one. Sural nerve graft was performed after neurolysis had failed. The patient's normal radial nerve function returned in one year. This is the first reported case in the literature of bilateral high radial nerve compressions by branches of the radial collateral artery.

  11. An Investigation of Correlation between Electrophysiological and Functional Recovery after the Sciatic Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Guven

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Video or photo assisted footprint analysis method is used to determine the motor and sensorial development instead of classic walking track footprint analysis in experimental peripheral nerve injury. Besides, the sucrose-gap method is used for measuring the electrophysiological activity in the sciatic nerves in-vitro. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between functional and electrophysiological recovery during the nerve regeneration in Wistar rats. Methods: In the experiments, after the unilateral sciatic nerve crushing, the rats were evaluated at the preoperative and 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks postoperative using the sucrose gap method, and photo assisted footprint method. The compound action potentials (CAP, the Peak- time (PT and the ½ Falling- time (1/2FT were measured, and compared to functional results. Results: Two weeks after being crushed sciatic nerves, complete function loss was seen operated legs in all rats. The amplitude of CAP was determined too small. The PT and the 1/2FT values were three fold longer than intact. However, following 4th – 8th weeks, the amplitude of CAP and other parameters of CAP were closed to intact values. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the results of the functional recovery were correlated to electrophysiological results. However, functional results showed almost full functional recovery in the 4th week, the electrophysiological results did not reach to intact values in the 8th week. We conclude that photo assisted footprint analysis method and sucrose-gap technique, which are useful functional and electrophysiological methods to produce complementary knowledge with each other in the investigation of experimental peripheral nerve regeneration. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(4.000: 177-185

  12. Electrical stimulation does not enhance nerve regeneration if delayed after sciatic nerve injury: the role of fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate and enhance nerve regeneration in sensory and motor neurons after injury, but there is little evidence that focuses on the varying degrees of fibrosis in the delayed repair of peripheral nerve tissue. In this study, a rat model of sciatic nerve transection injury was repaired with a biodegradable conduit at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 2 months after injury, when the rats were divided into two subgroups. In the experimental group, rats were treated with electrical stimuli of frequency of 20 Hz, pulse width 100 ms and direct current voltage of 3 V; while rats in the control group received no electrical stimulation after the conduit operation. Histological results showed that stained collagen fibers comprised less than 20% of the total operated area in the two groups after delayed repair at both 1 day and 1 week but after longer delays, the collagen fiber area increased with the time after injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the expression level of transforming growth factor β (an indicator of tissue fibrosis decreased at both 1 day and 1 week after delayed repair but increased at both 1 and 2 months after delayed repair. These findings indicate that if the biodegradable conduit repair combined with electrical stimulation is delayed, it results in a poor outcome following sciatic nerve injury. One month after injury, tissue degeneration and distal fibrosis are apparent and are probably the main reason why electrical stimulation fails to promote nerve regeneration after delayed repair.

  13. Bilateral Facial Nerve Paralysis as First Presentation of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Hamouri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is rare, and its precise incidence is unknown. It is associated with a wide spectrum of solid and hematological malignancies. To complicate its diagnosis, the clinical presentation of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis can be variable. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with bilateral facial nerve paralysis as first presentation of lung adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the only case describing bilateral facial nerve palsy as the first and only manifestation of lung adenocarcinoma.

  14. Blockade of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 promotes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Ren; Hong Zhang; Chao Qi; Mei-ling Gao; Hong Wang; Xia-qing Li

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) provides the sensation of pain (nociception). However, it remains unknown whether TRPV1 is activated after peripheral nerve injury, or whether activation of TRPV1 affects neural regeneration. In the present study, we established rat models of unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury, with or without pretreatment with AMG517 (300 mg/kg), a TRPV1 antagonist, injected subcutaneously into the ipsilateral paw 60 minutes before injury. At 1 and 2 weeks after injury, we performed immuno-lfuorescence staining of the sciatic nerve at the center of injury, at 0.3 cm proximal and distal to the injury site, and in the dorsal root ganglia. Our results showed that Wallerian degeneration occurred distal to the injury site, and neurite outgrowth and Schwann cell regeneration occurred proximal to the injury. The number of regenerating myelinated and unmyelinated nerve clus-ters was greater in the AMG517-pretreated rats than in the vehicle-treated group, most notably 2 weeks after injury. TRPV1 expression in the injured sciatic nerve and ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia was markedly greater than on the contralateral side. Pretreatment with AMG517 blocked this effect. These data indicate that TRPV1 is activated or overexpressed after sciatic nerve crush injury, and that blockade of TRPV1 may accelerate regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve.

  15. The effect of loco-regional anaesthesia on motor activity induced by direct stimulation of the sciatic nerve in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, A P; Michou, J N

    2016-03-01

    A prospective, randomised, blinded, case-controlled clinical study was designed using client-owned dogs undergoing unilateral pelvic limb orthopaedic surgery, to determine the effect on induced motor activity by electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve distal to the site of local anaesthetic administration. Dogs were administered 0.5% bupivacaine either extradurally or via a femoral and transgluteal sciatic electrolocation-guided nerve block prior to pelvic limb surgery. Motor response to electrical stimulation of branches of the sciatic nerve was tested and the minimum current required to induce muscle twitch was recorded prior to bupivacaine administration. Provided sensory blockade had been deemed successful intraoperatively, testing was repeated postoperatively, with each dog acting as its own control. Paired t-tests were performed to compare pre- and postoperative minimum currents. Eleven dogs administered extradural and 11 dogs administered femoral and sciatic perineural bupivacaine were eligible for post-operative testing. All dogs displayed normal motor response to electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve at both sites tested before and after bupivacaine administration. There was no significant difference in the minimum current required to induce muscle twitch between pre- and post-operative testing (P = 0.31 sciatic site, P = 0.36 peroneal site), nor between the two groups using different loco-regional anaesthetic techniques (minimum P = 0.13). This study shows that stimulation of the sciatic nerve distal to the site of bupivacaine administration induces motor activity, despite adequate sensory blockade. This is relevant in surgical cases where mechanical stimulation of the sciatic nerve might be expected and needs to be recognised to avoid postoperative neurapraxia.

  16. Soft tissue landmark for ultrasound identification of the sciatic nerve in the infragluteal region: the tendon of the long head of the biceps femoris muscle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruhn, J.; Moayeri, N.; Groen, G.J.; Veenendaal, A. van; Gielen, M.J.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Geffen, G.J. van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The sciatic nerve block represents one of the more difficult ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Easy and reliable internal ultrasound landmarks would be helpful for localization of the sciatic nerve. Earlier, during ultrasound-guided posterior approaches to the infragluteal s

  17. The spatiotemporal localization of JAM-C following sciatic nerve crush in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avari, Parizad; Huang, Wenlong; Averill, Sharon; Colom, Bartomeu; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan; Priestley, John V

    2012-07-01

    JAM-C is a junctional adhesion molecule, enriched at tight junctions on endothelial and epithelial cells, and also localized to Schwann cells at junctions between adjoining myelin end loops. The role of JAM-C following peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is currently unknown. We examined the localization of JAM-C after sciatic nerve crush injury in adult rats. JAM-C immunoreactivity was present in paranodes and incisures in sham surgery control nerve, but distal to the crush injury significantly decreased at three and 14 days. JAM-C was re-expressed at 28 days and, by 56 days, was significantly increased in the distal nerve compared to controls. In a 7-mm length of sciatic nerve sampled distal to the crush site, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive paranodes increased in the distal direction. Conversely, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive incisures were highest immediately distal to the crush site and decreased in the more distal direction. Further analysis revealed a strong correlation between JAM-C localization and remyelination. Fifty-six days after crush injury, greater densities of JAM-C paranodes were seen compared to the nodal marker jacalin, suggesting that paranodal JAM-C precedes node formation. Our data are the first to demonstrate a potential role of JAM-C in remyelination after PNI.

  18. Tissue plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis protects against axonal degeneration and demyelination after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akassoglou, K; Kombrinck, K W; Degen, J L; Strickland, S

    2000-05-29

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin and can trigger the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. In the nervous system, under noninflammatory conditions, tPA contributes to excitotoxic neuronal death, probably through degradation of laminin. To evaluate the contribution of extracellular proteolysis in inflammatory neuronal degeneration, we performed sciatic nerve injury in mice. Proteolytic activity was increased in the nerve after injury, and this activity was primarily because of Schwann cell-produced tPA. To identify whether tPA release after nerve damage played a beneficial or deleterious role, we crushed the sciatic nerve of mice deficient for tPA. Axonal demyelination was exacerbated in the absence of tPA or plasminogen, indicating that tPA has a protective role in nerve injury, and that this protective effect is due to its proteolytic action on plasminogen. Axonal damage was correlated with increased fibrin(ogen) deposition, suggesting that this protein might play a role in neuronal injury. Consistent with this idea, the increased axonal degeneration phenotype in tPA- or plasminogen-deficient mice was ameliorated by genetic or pharmacological depletion of fibrinogen, identifying fibrin as the plasmin substrate in the nervous system under inflammatory axonal damage. This study shows that fibrin deposition exacerbates axonal injury, and that induction of an extracellular proteolytic cascade is a beneficial response of the tissue to remove fibrin. tPA/plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis may be a widespread protective mechanism in neuroinflammatory pathologies.

  19. N-Propionylmannosamine stimulates axonal elongation in a murine model of sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Witzel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that sialic acid plays an important role during nerve regeneration. Sialic acids can be modified in vitro as well as in vivo using metabolic oligosaccharide engineering of the N-acyl side chain. N-Propionylmannosamine (ManNProp increases neurite outgrowth and accelerates the reestablishment of functional synapses in vitro. We investigated the influence of systemic ManNProp application using a specific in vivo mouse model. Using mice expressing axonal fluorescent proteins, we quantified the extension of regenerating axons, the number of regenerating axons, the number of arborising axons and the number of branches per axon 5 days after injury. Sciatic nerves from non-expressing mice were grafted into those expressing yellow fluorescent protein. We began a twice-daily intraperitoneal application of either peracetylated ManNProp (200 mg/kg or saline solution 5 days before injury, and continued it until nerve harvest (5 days after transection. ManNProp significantly increased the mean distance of axonal regeneration (2.49 mm vs. 1.53 mm; P < 0.005 and the number of arborizing axons (21% vs. 16% P = 0.008 5 days after sciatic nerve grafting. ManNProp did not affect the number of regenerating axons or the number of branches per arborizing axon. The biochemical glycoengineering of the N-acyl side chain of sialic acid might be a promising approach for improving peripheral nerve regeneration.

  20. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  1. Bridging sciatic nerve gap using tissue-engineered nerves constructed with neural tissue-committed stem cells derived from bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiying Zhang; Congli Ren; Chuansen Zhang; Fang Liu; Liang Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schwann cells are the most commonly used cells for tissue-engineered nerves. However, autologous Schwann cells are of limited use in a clinical context, and allogeneic Schwann cells induce immunological rejections. Cells that do not induce immunological rejections and that are relatively easy to acquire are urgently needed for transplantation.OBJECTIVE: To bridge sciatic nerve defects using tissue engineered nerves constructed with neural tissue-committed stem cells (NTCSCs) derived from bone marrow; to observe morphology and function of rat nerves following bridging; to determine the effect of autologous nerve transplantation, which serves as the gold standard for evaluating efficacy of tissue-engineered nerves.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This randomized, controlled, animal experiment was performed in the Anatomical laboratory and Biomedical Institute of the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between September 2004 and April 2006.MATERIALS: Five Sprague Dawley rats, aged 1 month and weighing 100-150 g, were used for cell culture. Sixty Sprague Dawiey rats aged 3 months and weighing 220-250 g, were used to establish neurological defect models. Nestin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and S-100 antibodies were provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc., USA. Acellular nerve grafts were derived from dogs.METHODS: All rats, each with 1-cm gap created in the right sciatic nerve, were randomly assigned to three groups. Each group comprised 20 rats. Autograft nerve transplantation group: the severed 1-cm length nerve segment was reverted, but with the two ends exchanged; the proximal segment was sutured to the distal sciatic nerve stump and the distal segment to the proximal stump. Blank nerve scaffold transplantation group: a 1-cm length acellular nerve graft was used to bridge the sciatic nerve gap. NTCSC engineered nerve transplantation group: a 1-cm length acellular nerve graft, in which NTCSCs were

  2. Post-Traumatic Isolated Bilateral Sixth Nerve Palsy

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    Jain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Here we discussed an unusual case of head injury with bilateral sixth nerve palsy without any other neurological deficit. A 40-year-old male was admitted with double vision after an episode of head injury. Case Presentation On examination bilateral lateral rectus palsy was present. No other positive finding recorded in general physical, neurological and ophthalmological examinations. Conclusions Bilaterality of the abducent nerve paralysis is uncommon. It is usually associated with major head injury with brain stem injury and associated neurological findings.

  3. Protective Effect of Interleukin-1β on Motor Neurons after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁雨雄; 巴拉特; 洪光祥; 王发斌; 陈振斌; 黄启顺

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Protective effect of interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) on motor neurons was studied after peripheral nerve injury. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups randomly. The right sciatic nerve of each rat was resected. After silicon tubulization of sciatic nerve in rat, 15 μl 1 ng/ml IL-1β and PBS solution were injected into the silicon capsule respectively. Enzyme histochemistry was performed to show acetyle cholesterase (AchE) and nitric oxide staining (NOS) activity of spinal a motor neurons in spinal segments 2 weeks later. Neurons were counted and the diameter and cross sectional (c/s) area of neurons were analyzed by using computer image analysis system. The results showed that as compared with the normal side, both enzyme activities significantly changed in motor neurons in PBS group. The diameter and c/s area of both neurons changed significantly too (P<0.01). These results suggest that exogenous IL-1β protects a-motor neurons from degeneration and necrosis after peripheral nerve injury.

  4. Electrospun micro- and nanofiber tubes for functional nervous regeneration in sciatic nerve transections

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    Amadio Stefano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many nerve prostheses have been proposed in recent years, in the case of consistent loss of nervous tissue peripheral nerve injury is still a traumatic pathology that may impair patient's movements by interrupting his motor-sensory pathways. In the last few decades tissue engineering has opened the door to new approaches;: however most of them make use of rigid channel guides that may cause cell loss due to the lack of physiological local stresses exerted over the nervous tissue during patient's movement. Electrospinning technique makes it possible to spin microfiber and nanofiber flexible tubular scaffolds composed of a number of natural and synthetic components, showing high porosity and remarkable surface/volume ratio. Results In this study we used electrospun tubes made of biodegradable polymers (a blend of PLGA/PCL to regenerate a 10-mm nerve gap in a rat sciatic nerve in vivo. Experimental groups comprise lesioned animals (control group and lesioned animals subjected to guide conduits implantated at the severed nerve stumps, where the tubular scaffolds are filled with saline solution. Four months after surgery, sciatic nerves failed to reconnect the two stumps of transected nerves in the control animal group. In most of the treated animals the electrospun tubes induced nervous regeneration and functional reconnection of the two severed sciatic nerve tracts. Myelination and collagen IV deposition have been detected in concurrence with regenerated fibers. No significant inflammatory response has been found. Neural tracers revealed the re-establishment of functional neuronal connections and evoked potential results showed the reinnervation of the target muscles in the majority of the treated animals. Conclusion Corroborating previous works, this study indicates that electrospun tubes, with no additional biological coating or drug loading treatment, are promising scaffolds for functional nervous regeneration. They

  5. Ameliorative potential of Vernonia cinerea on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    VENKATA R.K. THIAGARAJAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the ameliorative potential of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Vernonia cinerea in the chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Behavioral parameters such as a hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal, chemical and mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. Biochemical changes in sciatic nerve tissue were ruled out by estimating thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH and total calcium levels. Ethanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea and pregabalin were administered for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. CCI of sciatic nerve has been shown to induce significant changes in behavioral, biochemical and histopathological assessments when compared to the sham control group. Vernonia cinerea attenuated in a dose dependent manner the above pathological changes induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve, which is similar to attenuation of the pregabalin pretreated group. The ameliorating effect of ethanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea against CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain may be due to the presence of flavonoids and this effect is attributed to anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and calcium channel modulator actions of these compounds.

  6. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells differentiated from adipose tissue-derived stem cells for treatment of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shasha Dong§; Na Liu§; Yang Hu ; Ping Zhang; Chao Pan; Youping Zhang; Yingxin Tang; Zhouping Tang 

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Currently, the clinical repair of sciatic nerve injury remains difficult. Previous studies have confirmed that transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells promotes nerve regeneration and restoration at peripheral nerve injury sites. Methods:In this study, adipose tissue-derived stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural progenitor cells, transfected with a green fluorescent protein-containing lentivirus, and then transplanted into the lesions of rats with sciatic nerve compression injury. Results: Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the transplanted cells survived, migrated, and differentiated in rats. At two weeks post-operation, a large number of transplanted cells had migrated to the injured lesions; at six weeks post-operation, transplanted cells were visible around the injured nerve and several cells were observed to express a Schwann cell marker. Sciatic function index and electrophysiological outcomes of the transplantation group were better than those of the control group. Cell transplantation promoted the recovery of motor nerve conduction velocity and com-pound muscle action potential amplitude, and reduced gastrocnemius muscle atrophy. Conclusions: Our experimental findings indicate that neural progenitor cells, differentiated from adipose tissue-derived stem cells, are potential seed stem cells that can be transplanted into lesions to treat sciatic nerve injury. This provides a theoretical basis for their use in clinical applications.

  7. Curcumin upregulates S100 expression and improves regeneration of the sciatic nerve following its complete amputation in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-min Liu; Kun Xu; Juan Li; Yun-gang Luo

    2016-01-01

    The repair of peripheral nerve injury after complete amputation is dififcult, and even with anastomosis, the rapid recovery of nerve function remains challenging. Curcumin, extracted from plants of the genus Curcuma, has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-inlfammatory properties and to improve sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Here, we determined whether curcumin had neuroprotective effects following com-plete peripheral nerve amputation injury. BALB/c mice underwent complete sciatic nerve amputation, followed by an immediate epineurium anastomosis. Mice were intragastrically administered curcumin at doses of 40 (high), 20 (moderate), and 10 mg/kg/d (low) for 1 week. We found that myelin in the mice of the high-and moderate-dose curcumin groups appeared with regular shape, uniform thickness, clear boundary, and little hyperplasia surrounding the myelin. High and moderate doses of curcumin markedly improved both action potential amplitude of the sciatic nerves and the conduction velocity of the corresponding motor neurons, and upregulated mRNA and protein ex-pression of S100, a marker for Schwann cell proliferation, in L4–6 spinal cord segments. These results suggest that curcumin is effective in promoting the repair of complete sciatic nerve amputation injury and that the underlying mechanism may be associated with upregulation of S100 expression.

  8. Effect of nerve growth factor on changes of myelin basic protein and functional repair of peripheral nerve following sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵阳; 马海涵; 伍亚民; 陈恒胜; 曾琳; 李民; 龙在云; 李应玉; 杨恒文

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of nerve growth factor ( NGF ) on changes of myelin basic protein (MBP) and functional repair of sensory and motor nerve following sciatic nerve injury. Methods: The sciatic nerves of rats were injured by sectioning with shaver, and divided into 3 groups: NGF group ( Group A ), group of normal saline solution ( Group B), untreated group (Group C). The time point of observation was at the 4th week after operation. Sensory evoked potential (SEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP) were detected by Model WD-4000 nerve potential working diagnosis system. Immunohistochemical analysis was used for identification of MBP. Results: The latency of SEP in the Group A at the 4th week after operation was shorter than that in the Group B ( P < 0.05). The MEP was elicited in 76 % of the Group A and was higher than that in the Group B. Results of immunohistochemistry showed that there were less MBP-positive cells in the Group A than in the Group B in one and four weeks respectively. Conclusions: NGF can improve the conductive function of injured peripheral nerve and facilitate regeneration of nerve.

  9. Intraperitoneal Alpha-Lipoic Acid to prevent neural damage after crush injury to the rat sciatic nerve

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    Ozbag Davut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Crush injury to the sciatic nerve causes oxidative stress. Alfa Lipoic acid (a-LA is a neuroprotective metabolic antioxidant. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effects of pretreatment with a-LA on the crush injury of rat sciatic nerve. Methods Forty rats were randomized into four groups. Group I and Group II received saline (2 ml, intraperitoneally and a-LA (100 mg/kg, 2 ml, intraperitoneally in the groups III and IV at the 24 and 1 hour prior to the crush injury. In groups II, III and IV, the left sciatic nerve was exposed and compressed for 60 seconds with a jeweler's forceps. In Group I (n = 10, the sciatic nerve was explored but not crushed. In all groups of rats, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in samples of sciatic nerve tissue. Results Compared to Group I, Group II had significantly decreased tissue SOD and CAT activities and elevated MDA levels indicating crush injury (p < 0.05. In the a-LA treatment groups (groups III and IV, tissue CAT and SOD activities were significantly increased and MDA levels significantly decreased at the first hour (p < 0.05 and on the 3rd day (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between a-LA treatment groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion A-LA administered before crush injury of the sciatic nerve showed significant protective effects against crush injury by decreasing the oxidative stress. A-LA should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  10. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-yu Dong; Xin-mei Jiang; Chun-bo Niu; Lin Du; Jun-yan Feng; Fei-yong Jia

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the sciatic nerves of these mice after administration of Cerebrolysin. The results of several behavioral tests showed that Cerebrolysin dose-dependently increased the slope angle in the inclined plane test (indicating an improved ability to maintain body position), prolonged tail-flick latency and foot-licking time (indicating enhanced sensitivity to thermal and chemical pain, respectively, and reduced pain thresholds), and increased an index of sciatic nerve function in diabetic mice compared with those behavioral results in untreated diabetic mice. Taken together, the anatomical and functional results suggest that Cerebrolysin ameliorated peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

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    Han-yu Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the sciatic nerves of these mice after administration of Cerebrolysin. The results of several behavioral tests showed that Cerebrolysin dose-dependently increased the slope angle in the inclined plane test (indicating an improved ability to maintain body position, prolonged tail-flick latency and foot-licking time (indicating enhanced sensitivity to thermal and chemical pain, respectively, and reduced pain thresholds, and increased an index of sciatic nerve function in diabetic mice compared with those behavioral results in untreated diabetic mice. Taken together, the anatomical and functional results suggest that Cerebrolysin ameliorated peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Han-Yu; Jiang, Xin-Mei; Niu, Chun-Bo; Du, Lin; Feng, Jun-Yan; Jia, Fei-Yong

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the sciatic nerves of these mice after administration of Cerebrolysin. The results of several behavioral tests showed that Cerebrolysin dose-dependently increased the slope angle in the inclined plane test (indicating an improved ability to maintain body position), prolonged tail-flick latency and foot-licking time (indicating enhanced sensitivity to thermal and chemical pain, respectively, and reduced pain thresholds), and increased an index of sciatic nerve function in diabetic mice compared with those behavioral results in untreated diabetic mice. Taken together, the anatomical and functional results suggest that Cerebrolysin ameliorated peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Excitability changes in the sciatic nerve and triceps surae muscle after spinal cord injury in mice

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    Freedland Robert

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the onset to the chronic phase of spinal cord injury (SCI, peripheral axons and muscles are subjected to abnormal states of activity. This starts with very intense spasms during the first instant of SCI, through a no activity flaccidity phase, to a chronic hyperactivity phase. It remains unclear how the nature of this sequence may affect the peripheral axons and muscles. Methods We set out to investigate the changes in excitability of the sciatic nerve and to characterize the properties of muscle contractility after contusive injury of the mouse thoracic spinal cord. Results The following changes were observed in animals after SCI: 1 The sciatic nerve compound action potential was of higher amplitudes and lower threshold, with the longer strength-duration time constant and faster conduction velocity; 2 The latency of the onset of muscle contraction of the triceps surae muscle was significantly shorter in animals with SCI; 3 The muscle twitches expressed slower rising and falling slopes, which were accompanied by prolonged contraction duration in SCI animals compared to controls. Conclusion These findings suggest that in peripheral nerves SCI promotes hyperexcitability, which might contribute to mechanisms of spastic syndrome.

  14. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Moisés Fernández; Cerezal, Luis; Pérez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana

    2015-07-01

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included "piriformis syndrome," a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation.

  15. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Perez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana [Diagnostico Medico Cantabria (DMC), Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Orthopedic Surgery Department Clinica Mompia (L.P.C.), Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2015-03-05

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included ''piriformis syndrome,'' a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation. (orig.)

  16. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Zheng-wei Li; Min Luo; Ya-jun Li; Ke-qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some re-spects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the poly-lactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve ifbers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylac-tic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is ben-eifcial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was found with the

  17. Effect of intrathymic injection of allogene antigen on immune response to sciatic nerve transplantation in allogenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The latest researches demonstrate that intrathymic injection of MHC antigen which reaches a certain dosage (2 mg, i.e., 4 × 108 cell extraction) can induce immunologic tolerance under non-antilymphocyte serum condition.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of intrathymic injection of allogene antigen on survival and function of sciatic nerve in allogenic mice.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: The 4th Affiliated Hosptial of Harbin Medical University.MATERIALS: A total of 32 male donor C57BL/6(H-2b) mice of 4 - 8 weeks old and weighing 18 - 22 g and 44 female receptor Balb/c(H-2d) mice of 4 - 8 weeks old and weighing 18 - 22 g were selected from Heilongjing Veterinary Institution. The animal experiment had got confirmed consent from local ethic committee.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory (Provincial Key Laboratory) of the Fourth Hospital, Harbin Medical University from June 2006 to May 2007. C57BL/6(H-2b) mice were anesthetized to extract MHC (H-2b) antigen from splenic cells and sciatic nerves. Allogenous nerve transplantation group:Mice were given intrathymic injection of 100 μ L saline; two weeks later, frozen sciatic nerves of donor mice were transplanted. Immunosuppressive agent group: Mice were given intrathymic injection of 100 μ L saline; two weeks later, fresh sciatic nerves of donor mice were transplanted. At three days before transplantation, 10 mg/kg per day cyclosporin A was intraperitoneally injected once a day till mice were sacrificed. MHC (H-2b) antigen injection group: Mice were given intrathymic injection of MHC (H-2b)antigen from C57BL/6(H-2b) donor mice; two weeks later, fresh sciatic nerves of donor mice were transplanted. Autogenous nerve transplantation group: Mice were given intrathymic injection of 100 μ L saline; two weeks later, fresh sciatic nerves were transplanted.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Three weeks later, transplanted part of exposured sciatic nerve was used to measure the

  18. Post-evaluation of the neurophaties treatment post-trauma with therapeutic laser. Model in sciatic nerve of frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Antonio S.; Ocampo, Arcelia F. M.; Hernández, María G. H.; Jasso, José L. C.; Lira, Maricela O. F.; Flores, Mariana A.; Balderrama, Vicente L.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compound nerve action potential amplitude and latency measured to determine the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated in a model of stimulated frog sciatic nerve laser at 810 nm as perioperative treatment after injury. It used 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to obtain 60 sciatic nerves forming four groups, groups 1 and 2 worked with nerves in vitro, were dissected in humid chambers for placing isolated organ, was recorded on compound nerve action potential, the second group laser was applied at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and at the same time were placed in 10% formalin. Groups 3 and 4 are worked in vivo localizing the nerve and causing damage through compression, occurred over the compound nerve action potential to assess the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated, the group 4 was applied to 810 nm laser (500 Hz, 10 J, 200 mW) after injury, after 48 hours, three frogs were sacrificed by introducing the nerves in 10% formalin. The latency recorded by stimulating the sciatic nerve of frog to 0.5 mA and 100 ms in groups 1 and 2 show significant differences (p000), as to the extent, if any statistically significant difference. (p<0.001 and p<0.000). The laser produces a favorable response in the treatment of paresthesia (post-traumatic neuropathy).

  19. Effects of estragole on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

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    J.H. Leal-Cardoso

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estragole, a relatively nontoxic terpenoid ether, is an important constituent of many essential oils with widespread applications in folk medicine and aromatherapy and known to have potent local anesthetic activity. We investigated the effects of estragole on the compound action potential (CAP of the rat sciatic nerve. The experiments were carried out on sciatic nerves dissected from Wistar rats. Nerves, mounted in a moist chamber, were stimulated at a frequency of 0.2 Hz, with electric pulses of 50-100-µs duration at 10-20 V, and evoked CAP were monitored on an oscilloscope and recorded on a computer. CAP control parameters were: peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA, 9.9 ± 0.55 mV (N = 15, conduction velocity, 92.2 ± 4.36 m/s (N = 15, chronaxy, 45.6 ± 3.74 µs (N = 5, and rheobase, 3.9 ± 0.78 V (N = 5. Estragole induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 0.6 mM, estragole had no demonstrable effect. At 2.0 and 6.0 mM estragole, PPA was significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug to 85.6 ± 3.96 and 13.04 ± 1.80% of control, respectively. At 4.0 mM, estragole significantly altered PPA, conduction velocity, chronaxy, and rheobase (P <= 0.05, ANOVA; N = 5 to 49.3 ± 6.21 and 77.7 ± 3.84, 125.9 ± 10.43 and 116.7 ± 4.59%, of control, respectively. All of these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon a 300-min wash-out. The data show that estragole dose-dependently blocks nerve excitability.

  20. Acellular allogeneic nerve grafting combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects:biomechanics and validation of mathematical models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-jun Li; Bao-lin Zhao; Hao-ze Lv; Zhi-gang Qin; Min Luo

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft used in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be an effective treatment for long-segment sciatic nerve defects. To test this, we established rabbit models of 30 mm sciatic nerve defects, and treated them using either an autograft or a chemically decellularized allogeneic nerve graft with or without simultaneous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We compared the tensile properties, electrophysiological function and morphology of the damaged nerve in each group. Sciatic nerves repaired by the allogeneic nerve graft combined with stem cell trans-plantation showed better recovery than those repaired by the acellular allogeneic nerve graft alone, and produced similar results to those observed with the autograft. These ifndings conifrm that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with transplanta-tion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is an effective method of repairing long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  1. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

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    Levent Tok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results: Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion: Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia.

  2. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered. Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain. PMID:23211003

  3. A rare case of bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma

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    Somen Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old female presented with gradual, painless, progressive diminution of vision, and progressive proptosis of left eye since 7 years. Ophthalmological examination revealed mild proptosis and total optic atrophy in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT brain with orbit showed bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM involving the intracranial, intracanalicular, intraorbital part of the optic nerve extending up to optic chiasma and left cavernous sinus.

  4. Clinical, electrophysiological, and prognostic study of postinjection sciatic nerve injury: An avoidable cause of loss of limb in the peripheral medical service

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    Wani Maqbool

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post injection sciatic nerve injury is a common cause of sciatic nerve mononeuropathy in the developing world largely due to inadequate health care facilites in the rural regions. Objective: The study was conducted to analyse the pattern of this nerve lesion in clinical and electrophysiological parameters and also to study the outcome in a conservatively treated cohort. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six patients who underwent evaluation at our laboratory from 2000 to 2006 for post injection sciatic neuropathy formed the study population. Twenty two of these were followed up (mean 6.6 months for the outcome. Results: In the cases with full data, common peroneal division of the sciatic nerve was affected alone or predominantly. On follow up, 72% cases showed little or partial recovery. Thirty two percent patients had residual trophic changes and causalgia at their last visit. Conclusion: The majority of cases of postinjection sciatic nerve injury have poor prognosis on conservative treatment.

  5. Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma

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    Sohil Pothiawala

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant.

  6. Alteration of P2X3 expression in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve ligation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxing Zhou; Lesi Xie; Qiben Wang; Qingping Yu; Xiaofu Liu; Qiumei Liu; Wei Peng; Zhicheng Zeng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expressions of P2X3 receptor in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after different peripheral nerve injuries are diverse. It indicates the different roles of P2X3 in different models-caused neuropathologic pains.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expressions of P2X3 in corresponding DRG after sciatic nerve ligation in rats.DESIGN: Controlled observation experiment.SETTING: Department of Morphology, Hunan Traditional Chinese Medical College; Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University.MATERIALS: Thirty-five healthy adult SD rats of clean grade an d either gender, weighing (200±20) g,were involved. According to the random digits table, the involved rats were randomized into 3 groups:normal group (n =5), sham-operated group (n =5) and experimental group (n =25). The experimental group were subdivided into 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days groups according to different surviving time after operation, 5 rats at each time point. Polyclonal rabbit anti-P2X3 antibody (ABCAM company); biotinylated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Zhongshanjingqiao Biotechnical Co., Ltd., Beijing); Motic fluorescence microscope (Motic, Germany).METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology,Xiangya Medical College, Central South University from June to December 2006. ① Rats of experimental group were created into models by ligation of right sciatic nerve according to the method of Seltzer et al. Left sciatic nerve was used as self-control. As for rats in the sham-operated group, ligation of sciatic nerve was omitted, but other procedures were the same as those in the experimental group. Rats of normal group were untouched. ② Rats of the normal group and sham-operated group survived for 14 days separately, and those of experimental group survived for corresponding time. After being deeply anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of over-dose sodium pentobarbital, the rats of experimental group were transcardially

  7. Operative Management of Sciatic Nerve Palsy due to Impingement on the Metal Cage after Total Hip Revision: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bistolfi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a sciatic nerve palsy developed after a right total hip revision with a Burch-Schneider metal cage. A sciatalgic nerve pain appeared after surgery, while the palsy developed in about fifteen days. An electromyography showed the delay of the nerve impulse gluteal level. During the surgical exploration of the hip, a compression of the nerve on the metal cage was observed. The nerve was isolated, released from the fibrotic tissue and from the impingement, and was protected with a muscular flap. The recover from the pain was immediate, while the palsy recovered one month later.

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine in combined lumbar and sciatic nerve block

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    Hanene Eljebari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to establish the population pharmacokinetic (PPK model of bupivacaine after combined lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve blocks and secondary aim is to assess the effect of patient′s characteristics including age, body weight and sex on pharmacokinetic parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 patients scheduled for elective lower extremity surgery with combined lumbar and sciatic nerve block using plain bupivacaine 0.5% were included. The total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were measured before injection and after two blocks placement and at selected time points. Monitoring of bupivacaine was made by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Non-linear mixed effects modeling was used to analyze the PPK of bupivacaine. Results: One compartment model with first order absorption, two input compartments and a central elimination was selected. The Shapiro-Wilks test of normality for normalized prediction distribution errors for this model (P = 0.156 showed this as a valid model. The selected model predicts a population clearance of 930 ml/min (residual standard error [RSE] = 15.48%, IC 95% = 930 ± 282.24 with inter individual variability of 75.29%. The central volume of distribution was 134 l (RSE = 12.76%, IC = 134 ± 33.51 L with inter individual variability of 63.40%. The absorption of bupivacaine in two sites Ka1 and Ka2 were 0.00462/min for the lumbar site and 0.292/min for the sciatic site. Age, body weight and sex have no effect on the bupivacaine pharmacokinetics in this studied population. Conclusion: The developed model helps us to assess the systemic absorption of bupivacaine at two injections sites.

  9. Crosstalk between p38, Hsp25 and Akt in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Ul Haq, I.; Hill, C.; Park, E.; Smith, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Goldberg, D. J.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The p38 stress-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in regulation of phosphorylation of Hsp25, which in turn regulates actin filament dynamic in non-neuronal cells. We report that p38, Hsp25 and Akt signaling pathways were specifically activated in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve axotomy. The activation of the p38 kinase was required for induction of Hsp25 expression. Furthermore, Hsp25 formed a complex with Akt, a member of PI-3 kinase pathway that prevents neuronal cell death. Together, our observations implicate Hsp25 as a central player in a complex system of signaling that may both promote regeneration of nerve fibers and prevent neuronal cell death in the injured spinal cord.

  10. Evoked bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve of white rats in experimental menopause

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    Rodinsky A.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was analysis of the bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve in experimental menopause condition. Experiments were performed on 25 female white rats, divided into experimental and control groups. Menopause was modeled by total ovariohysterectomy. In 120 days after modeling we had recorded evoked action potentials of fibers of isolated ventral root L5 induced by stimulation of sciatic nerve with rectangular pulses. Threshold, chronaxia, latency, amplitude and duration of the action potential (AP were analysed. Refractory phenomenon was investigated by applying paired stimuli at intervals of 2 to 20 ms. In the context of long-term hypoestrogenemy threshold of AP appearance was 55,32±7,69%, chronaxy – 115,09±2,67%, latent period – 112,62±1,74% as compared with the control animals (p<0.01. In conditions of paired stimuli applying the amplitude of response to the testing stimulus in animals with ovariohysterectomy at intervals 3 and 4 ms was 61,25±36,45% and 53,48±18,64% (p<0.05 respectively.

  11. Impulse magnetic stimulation facilitates synaptic regeneration in rats following sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey A. Zhivolupov; Miroslav M. Odinak; Nariman A. Rashidov; Ludmila S. Onischenko; Igor N. Samartsev; Anton A. Jurin

    2012-01-01

    The current studies describing magnetic stimulation for treatment of nervous system diseases mainly focus on transcranial magnetic stimulation and rarely focus on spinal cord magnetic stimula-tion. Spinal cord magnetic stimulation has been confirmed to promote neural plasticity after injuries of spinal cord, brain and peripheral nerve. To evaluate the effects of impulse magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord on peripheral nerve regneration, we compressed a 3 mm segment located in the middle third of the hip using a sterilized artery forceps to induce ischemia. Then, all animals un-derwent impulse magnetic stimulation of the lumbar portion of spinal crod and spinal nerve roots daily for 1 month. Electron microscopy results showed that in and below the injuryed segment, the inflammation and demyelination of neural tissue were alleviated, apoptotic cells were reduced, and injured Schwann cells and myelin fibers were repaired. These findings suggest that high-frequency impulse magnetic stimulation of spinal cord and corresponding spinal nerve roots promotes synaptic regeneration following sciatic nerve injury.

  12. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi, E-mail: kumamote@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  13. Participation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in experimental neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve transection

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    M. Chacur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nerve injury leads to a neuropathic pain state that results from central sensitization. This phenomenom is mediated by NMDA receptors and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we investigated the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS in the spinal cord of 3-month-old male, Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection (SNT. Our attention was focused on the dorsal part of L3-L5 segments receiving sensory inputs from the sciatic nerve. SNT resulted in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms confirmed by evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall and Selitto test and allodynia (von Frey hair test. Control animals did not present any alteration (sham-animals. The selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (0.2 and 2 µg in 50 µL, blocked hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by SNT. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was increased (48% by day 30 in the lumbar spinal cord after SNT. This increase was observed near the central canal (Rexed’s lamina X and also in lamina I-IV of the dorsal horn. Real-time PCR results indicated an increase of nNOS mRNA detected from 1 to 30 days after SNT, with the highest increase observed 1 day after injury (1469%. Immunoblotting confirmed the increase of nNOS in the spinal cord between 1 and 15 days post-lesion (20%, reaching the greatest increase (60% 30 days after surgery. The present findings demonstrate an increase of nNOS after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to the increase of NO production observed after peripheral neuropathy.

  14. Gene expression profiling of the rat sciatic nerve in early Wallerian degeneration after injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengbing Yao; Meiyuan Li; Dingding Shen; Fei Ding; Shibi Lu; Qin Zhao; Xiaosong Gu

    2012-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is an important area of research in modern neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated in the various stages of Wallerian degeneration, especially during the early response. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in early Wallerian degeneration of the distal nerve stump at 0, 0.5, 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours after rat sciatic nerve injury using gene chip microarrays. We screened for differentially-expressed genes and gene expression patterns. We examined the data for Gene Ontology, and explored the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway. This allowed us to identify key regulatory factors and recurrent network motifs. We identified 1 546 differentially-expressed genes and 21 distinct patterns of gene expression in early Wallerian degeneration, and an enrichment of genes associated with the immune response, acute inflammation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, ion transport and the extracellular matrix. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed components involved in the Jak-STAT, ErbB, transforming growth factor-β, T cell receptor and calcium signaling pathways. Key factors included interleukin-6, interleukin-1, integrin, c-sarcoma, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand, matrix metalloproteinase, BH3 interacting domain death agonist, baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 3 and Rac. The data were validated with real-time quantitative PCR. This study provides a global view of gene expression profiles in early Wallerian degeneration of the rat sciatic nerve. Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying early Wallerian degeneration, and the regulation of nerve degeneration and regeneration.

  15. Up-regulation of P2X7 receptors mediating proliferation of Schwann cells after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xian-min; Xu, Xiao-hui; Zhu, Jiao; Guo, Zhili; Li, Jian; He, Cheng; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Yuan, Hongbin; Xiang, Zhenghua

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease, which results in a partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions, leading to a decrease in quality of life. Schwann cells play a vital role in maintaining the peripheral nervous system and in injury and repair. Using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, calcium assay and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assay, the present study clearly demonstrated that P2X7 receptors (R) were expressed in myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells in longitudinal sections of sciatic nerves. After sciatic nerve injury (SNI), P2X7R expression in Schwann cells of injured sciatic nerves was significantly up-regulated during the early days of SNI. Double immunofluorescence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and P2X7R implied that P2X7R may be involved in proliferation of Schwann cells. Further experiments on primary cultures of Schwann cells showed that P2X7R are functionally expressed in Schwann cells of rat sciatic nerves; ATP via P2X7R can promote Schwann cell proliferation, possibly via the MAPK/ERK intracellular signalling pathway. Other possible roles of P2X7R on Schwann cells are discussed.

  16. Topography of synchronization of somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by stimulation of the sciatic nerve in rat

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    Xuefeng eQu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Traditionally, the topography of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs is generated based on amplitude and latency. However, this operation focuses on the physical morphology and field potential-power, so it suffers from difficulties in performing identification in an objective manner. In this study, measurement of the synchronization of SEPs is proposed as a method to explore brain functional networks as well as the plasticity after peripheral nerve injury. Method: SEPs elicited by unilateral sciatic nerve stimulation in twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats in the normal group were compared with SEPs evoked after unilateral sciatic nerve hemisection in four peripheral nerve injured SD rats. The characterization of synchronized networks from SEPs was conducted using equal-time correlation, correlation matrix analysis, and comparison to randomized surrogate data. Eigenvalues of the correlation matrix were used to identify the clusters of functionally synchronized neuronal activity, and the participation index (PI was calculated to indicate the involvement of each channel in the cluster. The PI value at the knee point of the PI histogram was used as a threshold to demarcate the cortical boundary. Results: Ten out of the twelve normal rats showed only one synchronized brain network. The remaining two normal rats showed one strong and one weak network. In the peripheral nerve injured group, only one synchronized brain network was found in each rat. In the normal group, all network shapes appear regular and the network is largely contained in the posterior cortex. In the injured group, the network shapes appear irregular, the network extends anteriorly and posteriorly, and the network area is significantly larger. There are considerable individual variations in the shape and location of the network after peripheral nerve injury. Conclusion: The proposed method can detect functional brain networks. Compared to the results of the

  17. Experimental Study on Effect of Electro-acupuncture plus Musk Injection on Recovery of Sciatic Nerve Function in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rong-hua; JIANG Feng; CHEN Dan; PAN Hai-yan; ZHU Zhong-chun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of electro-acupuncture and musk injection on recovery of injured sciatic nerve function in rats, so as to provide the experimental evidences for the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration by electro-acupuncture and musk injection.Methods: Following establishing rat model of sciatic nerve injury by operation, the rats were randomly divided into electro-acupuncture group, musk injection group, electro-acupuncture plus musk injection group and model group, then sciatic functional index (SFI) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) were measured after 4 weeks of treatment, 8 weeks of treatment and 12 weeks of treatment respectively to evaluate recovery of nerve function. Results: SFI and MNCV in electro-acupuncture group, musk injection group and electro-acupuncture plus musk injection group were improved more obviously than that in model group, with significant differences(P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusions: Both electro-acupuncture and musk injection could promote recovery of injured nerve function, and they had a certain synergetic effect and might be the effective methods in promoting recovery of injured peripheral nerve function.

  18. Platelet-rich plasma gel in combination with Schwann cells for repair of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fagang Ye; Haiyan Li; Guangxi Qiao; Feng Chen; Hao Tao; Aiyu Ji; Yanling Hu

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits,culture-expanded and differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells.Autologous platelet-rich plasma and Schwann cell-like cells were mixed in suspension at a density of 1 × 106 cells/mL,prior to introduction into a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit.Fabricated tissue-engineered nerves were implanted into rabbits to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve defects (platelet-rich plasma group).Controls were established using fibrin as the seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells at identical density to construct tissue-engineered nerves (fibrin group).Twelve weeks after implantation,toluidine blue staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to demonstrate an increase in the number of regenerating nerve fibers and thickness of the myelin sheath in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group.Fluoro-gold retrograde labeling revealed that the number of Fluoro-gold-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and the spinal cord anterior horn was greater in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the fibrin group.Electrophysiological examination confirmed that compound muscle action potential and nerve conduction velocity were superior in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group.These results indicate that autologous platelet-rich plasma gel can effectively serve as a seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells to construct tissue-engineered nerves to promote peripheral nerve regeneration.

  19. Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emril, Dessy R; Wibowo, Samekto; Meliala, Lucas; Susilowati, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Methods Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold) were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT) tests were used to assess motoric function. Results The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17) compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, Pciticoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (Pciticoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18) and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume. Conclusion In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery, evaluated by EPT test, 4 weeks after sciatic nerve injury. PMID:27284264

  20. Partial epineural burying of nerve grafts with different sizes next to or distant from neurorrhaphy?s site: histological and electrophysiological studies in rat sciatic nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Marco Túlio Rodrigues da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare and correlate histologically and electromyographically the effects of partial epineural burying of sural nerve segments in sectioned and sutured rat sciatic nerves. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were operated on 3 groups: Group 1, sural nerve graft, 9mm long, placed next to neurorrhaphy; Group 2, sural nerve graft, 9mm long, buryied 10mm distant from neurorrhaphy; Group 3, sural nerve graft, 18mm long, set next to neurorrhaphy. The morphological features were examined at light microscope after 3 months in 45 rats. The elements observed were: vascularization, vacuoles in nerve fibers, mastocytes and inflammatory infiltrate. The morphometry was made after 6 months in 15 rats from Group 1, 2 and 3, measuring external nerve fiber diameters and counting myelinated nerve fibers/mm². The electrophysiological study was perfomed after 6 months, registering maximum amplitude and frequency of EMG pontentials, at rest, in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Group 3 rats presented sciatic nerves better conserved morphologically and mean external nerve fiber diameters greater than those from Groups 1 and 2. There were no significant differences in density of nerve fibers/mm², and in the electrophysiological study in rats from Group 1, 2 and 3. The epineural burying of sural nerve grafts with greater length and placed next to the neurorrhaphy?s site had a significantly better regeneration of the histological features than the smaller ones distant from neurorrhaphy.

  1. Construction of a three-dimensional bionic nerve conduit containing two neurotrophic factors with separate delivery systems for the repair of sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyue Li; Qun Zhao; Ran Bi; Yong Zhuang; Siyin Feng

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of nerve conduits have investigated numerous properties, such as conduit luminal structure and neurotrophic factor incorporation, for the regeneration of nerve defects. The present study used a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) copolymer to construct a three-dimensional (3D) bionic nerve conduit, with two channels and multiple microtubule lumens, and incorporating two neurotrophic factors, each with their own delivery system, as a novel environment for peripheral nerve regeneration. The efficacy of this conduit in repairing a 1.5 cm sciatic nerve defect was compared with PLGA-alone and PLGA-microfilament conduits, and autologous nerve transplantation. Results showed that compared with the other groups, the 3D bionic nerve conduit had the fastest nerve conduction velocity, largest electromyogram amplitude, and shortest electromyogram latency. In addition, the nerve fiber density, myelin sheath thickness and axon diameter were significantly increased, and the recovery rate of the triceps surae muscle wet weight was lowest. These findings suggest that 3D bionic nerve conduits can provide a suitable microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration to efficiently repair sciatic nerve defects.

  2. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote regeneration of crush-injured rat sciatic nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi-Ae Sung; Jong-Ho Lee; Hun Jong Jung; Jung-Woo Lee; Jin-Yong Lee; Kang-Mi Pang; Sang Bae Yoo; Mohammad S. Alrashdan; Soung-Min Kim; Jeong Won Jahng

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells can promote neural regeneration following brain injury. However, the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in guiding peripheral nerve regeneration remain poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neural regeneration using a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 106) or a PBS control were injected into the crush-injured segment of the sciatic nerve. Four weeks after cell injection, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B mRNA expression at the lesion site was increased in comparison to control. Furthermore, sciatic function index, Fluoro Gold-labeled neuron counts and axon density were also significantly increased when compared with control. Our results indicate that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the functional recovery of crush-injured sciatic nerves.

  3. Neurotrophic factor changes in the rat thick skin following chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve

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    Peleshok Jennifer C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous peripheral neuropathies have been associated with changes of the sensory fiber innervation in the dermis and epidermis. These changes are mediated in part by the increase in local expression of trophic factors. Increase in target tissue nerve growth factor has been implicated in the promotion of peptidergic afferent and sympathetic efferent sprouting following nerve injury. The primary source of nerve growth factor is cells found in the target tissue, namely the skin. Recent evidence regarding the release and extracellular maturation of nerve growth factor indicate that it is produced in its precursor form and matured in the extracellular space. It is our hypothesis that the precursor form of nerve growth factor should be detectable in those cell types producing it. To date, limitations in available immunohistochemical tools have restricted efforts in obtaining an accurate distribution of nerve growth factor in the skin of naïve animals and those with neuropathic pain lesions. It is the objective of this study to delineate the distribution of the precursor form of nerve growth factor to those cell types expressing it, as well as to describe its distribution with respect to those nerve fibers responsive to it. Results We observed a decrease in peptidergic fiber innervation at 1 week after the application of a chronic constriction injury (CCI to the sciatic nerve, followed by a recovery, correlating with TrkA protein levels. ProNGF expression in CCI animals was significantly higher than in sham-operated controls from 1-4 weeks post-CCI. ProNGF immunoreactivity was increased in mast cells at 1 week post-CCI and, at later time points, in keratinocytes. P75 expression within the dermis and epidermis was significantly higher in CCI-operated animals than in controls and these changes were localized to neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations using specific markers for each. Conclusions We describe proNGF expression by

  4. Acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain and Lower Limb Symptoms—The Relation between Acupuncture or Electroacupuncture Stimulation and Sciatic Nerve Blood Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Inoue

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment for lumbar spinal canal stenosis and herniated lumbar disc and to clarify the mechanisms in an animal experiment that evaluated acupuncture on sciatic nerve blood flow. In the clinical trial, patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis or herniated lumbar disc were divided into three treatment groups; (i Ex-B2 (at the disordered level, (ii electrical acupuncture (EA on the pudendal nerve and (iii EA at the nerve root. Primary outcome measurements were pain and dysesthesia [evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS] and continuous walking distance. In the animal study, sciatic nerve blood flow was measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry at, before and during three kinds of stimulation (manual acupuncture on lumber muscle, electrical stimulation on the pudendal nerve and electrical stimulation on the sciatic nerve in anesthetized rats. For the clinical trial, approximately half of the patients who received Ex-B2 revealed amelioration of the symptoms. EA on the pudendal nerve was effective for the symptoms which had not improved by Ex-B2. Considerable immediate and sustained relief was observed in patients who received EA at the nerve root. For the animal study, increase in sciatic nerve blood flow was observed in 56.9% of the trial with lumber muscle acupuncture, 100% with pudendal nerve stimulation and 100% with sciatic nerve stimulation. Sciatic nerve stimulation sustained the increase longer than pudendal nerve stimulation. One mechanism of action of acupuncture and electrical acupuncture stimulation could be that, in addition to its influence on the pain inhibitory system, it participates in causing a transient change in sciatic nerve blood blow, including circulation to the cauda equine and nerve root.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of ultrasound-guided nerve growth factor injections after sciatic nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-fei Li; Yi-ru Wang; Hui-ping Huo; Yue-xiang Wang; Jie Tang

    2015-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in promoting neuroregeneration after peripheral nerve injury. However, its effects are limited by its short half-life; it is therefore important to identify an effective mode of administration. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) is increasingly used in the clinic for high-resolution visualization of tissues, and has been proposed as a method for identifying and evaluating peripheral nerve damage after injury. In addition, HFU is widely used for g...

  6. Median Nerve Repair with Autologous Sciatic Nerve Graft: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ragel, Brian T.; Park, Gregory C.; Sid Brevard

    2011-01-01

    Background. Peripheral nerve injury treatment options are limited to primary nerve repair, nerve grafting, and tendon transfers. In this case, a large suitable donor site was easily accessible and delayed grafting was indicative of poor prognosis. Case Description. A 25-year-old soldier presented to a military hospital in Afghanistan following a roadside bomb attack. The patient had a medial shrapnel wound in the bicipital groove with a cool pulseless hand and catastrophic lower extremity inj...

  7. The effects of lidocaine used in sciatic nerve on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine in sciatic nerve combined with lumbar plexus blockade: a double-blind, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Limei; Wang, Quanguang; Shi, Kejian; Liu, Fuli; Liu, Le; Ni, Jianwu; Fang, Xiangyu; Xu, Xuzhong

    2013-03-01

    In this controlled, randomized, double-blind study, we compared the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine and staged injection of lidocaine and ropivacaine in a combined lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve block. The experiment was performed in two parts: pharmacodynamics study (Group r, n = 20; Group lr, n = 20) and pharmacokinetics study (Group R, n = 10; Group LR, n = 10). The sciatic nerve blockade was performed using either (1) 10 mL of 2% lidocaine and then 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine (Group lr and Group LR) or (2) 10 mL of normal saline (N.S.) and then 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine (Group r and Group R). Two kinds of solutions were 'staged' injection. The sensory onset time and sensory recovery time were assessed in the pharmacodynamics study. Arterial blood samples were collected for the pharmacokinetics study. Sciatic sensory block onset times were reduced, and the sensory recovery times were decreased in Group lr. C(max) of ropivacaine in Group LR was significantly higher than that in Group R. A significant increase in AUC((0-t)) and AUC((0-∞)) was observed in Group LR compared with Group R. When 2% lidocaine and 0.75% ropivacaine are used for a combined sciatic nerve-lumbar plexus block by 'staged' injection, lidocaine induced faster onset times, decreased the block duration and increased the AUC and C(max) of ropivacaine.

  8. Effect of FGF-2 and sciatic nerve grafting on ChAT expression in dorsal root ganglia neurons of spinal cord transected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná; de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; de Morais, Hécio Henrique Araújo; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva; Costa, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Jeferson Sousa

    2016-03-11

    Neurotrophic factors and peripheral nerves are known to be good substrates for bridging CNS trauma. The involvement of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) activation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was examined following spinal cord injury in the rat. We evaluated whether FGF-2 increases the ability of a sciatic nerve graft to enhance neuronal plasticity, in a gap promoted by complete transection of the spinal cord. The rats were subjected to a 4mm-long gap at low thoracic level and were repaired with saline (Saline or control group, n=10), or fragment of the sciatic nerve (Nerve group, n=10), or fragment of the sciatic nerve to which FGF-2 (Nerve+FGF-2 group, n=10) had been added immediately after lesion. The effects of the FGF-2 and fragment of the sciatic nerve grafts on neuronal plasticity were investigated using choline acetyl transferase (ChAT)-immunoreactivity of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion after 8 weeks. Preservation of the area and diameter of neuronal cell bodies in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was seen in animals treated with the sciatic nerve, an effect enhanced by the addition of FGF-2. Thus, the addition of exogenous FGF-2 to a sciatic nerve fragment grafted in a gap of the rat spinal cord submitted to complete transection was able to improve neuroprotection in the DRG. The results emphasized that the manipulation of the microenvironment in the wound might amplify the regenerative capacity of peripheral neurons.

  9. Bilateral implantation in children with cochleovestibular nerve hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, N; Loundon, N; Marlin, S; Rouillon, I; Leboulanger, N; Garabédian, E N

    2009-10-01

    To report on the outcomes of sequential bilateral cochlear implantation (CI) in children with inner ear malformation. The study design is a retrospective case study. The setting is a tertiary reference center. Two children presenting a profound bilateral congenital hearing loss with bilateral hypoplasia of the cochleovestibular nerves and hypoplasic external semicircular canal had a cochlear implant at respectively 16 months and 33 months. A second implant was proposed at respectively 17 and 20 months after the first implant. The main outcome measures are audiometry, perceptive results in closed and open set words (CSW and OSW) and oral production at follow-up. The first cochlear implant gave respectively mean thresholds at 60 dB and 70 dB. Bilateral CI showed mean threshold at respectively 40 dB and 55 dB. In case 1, perceptive assessment was 83% and 70% in respectively CSW and OSW with oral production and comprehension of sentences after 1 year follow-up. In case 2, the perceptive assessment showed no perceptive or linguistic evolution at 6 months follow-up. In cochleovestibular nerve hypoplasia, bilateral implantation could be discussed in cases of limited result after unilateral implant.

  10. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

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    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  11. Comparison of histopathological effects of perineural administration of bupivacaine and bupivacaine-dexmedetomidine in rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Elham; Hosseinian, Mohammad-Ali; Mirkheshti, Ali; Arhami-Dolatabadi, Ali; Mirabotalebi, Mojtaba; Khandaghy, Mohsen; Daneshbod, Yahya; Alizadeh, Leila; Shirian, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

    Injection of a variety of drugs such as local anesthetics (LAs) for peripheral nerve block has been shown to cause damage to peripheral nerves. Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxicity of LAs including Bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine (DEX)-Bupivacaine on sciatic nerve tissue at histopathological level. In addition, we investigated whether perineural administration of DEX can attenuate Bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty adult Sprague Dawley rats received unilateral sciatic nerve blocks with either 0.2ml of 0.5% bupivacaine (n=8) or 0.5% bupivacaine plus 0.005% DEX (n=8) or normal saline (0.9%, as control group) (n=4) in the left hind extremity. Sciatic nerves were harvested at 14days post-injection and analyzed for nerve damage using ultrastructure and histopathologic analysis. Histopathology of sciatic nerve at day 14 post-injection showed a variable degree of neuronal injury associated with perineural inflammation in each treatment group and was classified as none or mild, intermediate or severe. Administration of both LAs resulted in a significant decrease in the total number of myelinated fibers per nerve (95% CI for group difference: Bupivacaine, P=0.001, DEX-Bupivacaine, P=0.036) compared to the saline control group. Animals that received these perineural local anesthetics (LAs) injections showed increased severity of injury compared to the control group. Animals in the DEX-Bupivacaine group had higher perineural inflammation and nerve damage than those of the saline control group and less than those of the Bupivacaine group at day 14 post-injection. Quantitatively, average total nerve fiber per nerve and average myelinated nerve fiber density in the injured region of the Bupivacaine-treated group was less than that of the DEX-Bupivacaine-treated group. LAs injection into the nerve causes peripheral nerve damage and remains an important clinical danger. Bupivacaine is

  12. Expression of VEGF and neural repair after alprostadil treatment in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury

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    Tang Jinrong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vasoactive drug alprostadil improves microcirculation and can be effective in treating disorders of peripheral nerves. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been shown to have protective action in cerebral ischemia, disorders of spinal cord, and also peripheral nerves. However, the mechanism of action of VEGF in peripheral nerve injuries is uncertain. Objectives: To study the effect of application of alprostadil on the pathological and functional repair of crush nerve injuries and also the expression of VEGF. Materials and Methods: Rat sciatic nerves were crushed by pincers to establish the model of crush injury. All of the 400 sprague dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into: Control; saline; saline + VEGF-antibody; alprostadil; and alprostadil + VEGF antibody groups. The SPSS 11.5 software was used for statistical analysis. The expression of VEGF in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, following crush injury to sciatic nerves, was studied by reverse transcribed-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electromicroscope, and electrophysiology. The effects of alprostadil on expression of VEGF, repair of neural pathology, and recovery of neural function were also evaluated. Results: We found that VEGF messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA was significantly increased in alprostadil and alprostadil + VEGF-antibody groups, compared to the saline and saline + VEGF antibody groups. The number of VEGF-positive neurons was significantly increased in the alprostadil group, compared to the saline, saline + VEGF antibody, and alprostadil + VEGF antibody groups. Besides, addition of this drug also caused less pathological changes in DRGs, better improvement of nerve conduction velocities of sciatic nerves, and more increase of toe spaces of right hind limbs of rats. Conclusions: The vasoactive agent alprostadil may reduce the pathological lesion of peripheral nerves and improve the rehabilitation of the neural function, which may

  13. Effect of swimming training on neural microcirculation in rats with sciatic nerve compression A study based on laser Doppler flowmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueming Gao; Xinglin Wang; Senyang Lang; Lining Zhang; Wei Suo; Tianyu Jiang; Jingping Fan

    2010-01-01

    Microcirculation of the peripheral nerve is necessary for neural growth and regeneration.However,technical limitations have limited studies in this area.The few studies conducted have concerned active exercise effects on microcirculation of the peripheral nerve.Using an animal experiment,this study evaluated the effect of swimming training on microcirculation of injured peripheral nerve by laser Doppler flowmetry.The results showed that the blood vessel at the distal end of the peripheral nerve was the main blood supply for the nerve,and the internal blood supply for the nerve had strong compensatory ability.Swimming training promoted the functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve injury and the regeneration of myelin sheath and blood vessels,but had no impact on neural blood flow.

  14. Blood flow activation in rat somatosensory cortex under sciatic nerve stimulation revealed by laser speckle imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In many functional neuroimaging research the change of local cerebral blood flow (CBF) induced by sensory stimulation is regarded as an indicator of the change in cortical neuronal activity although a precise and full spatio-temporal description of local CBF response coupled to neural activity has still not been laid out. Using the laser speckle imaging technique a relatively large exposed area in somatosensory cortex of rat was imaged for the observation of the variations of CBF during sciatic nerve stimulation. The results showed that cerebral blood flow activation was spatially localized and discretely distributed in the targeted microvasculature. Individual arteries, veins and capillaries in different diameters were activated with the time going. The response pattern of CBF related to the function of brain activity and energy metabolism is delineated exactly.

  15. Thermal hyperalgesia after sciatic nerve block in rat is transient and clinically insignificant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Allison; Lydic, Ralph; Welch, Kathleen B; Brummett, Chad M

    2013-01-01

    Ropivacaine has been associated with transient heat hyperalgesia in sciatic nerve blocks in rat. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the hypothesized presence of transient heat hyperalgesia after perineural injection of ropivacaine with a secondary subanalysis of 2 published studies. Paw withdrawal latency was used to assess the duration of sensory blockade and presence of heat hyperalgesia at 210, 240, 270, and 300 minutes and 24 hours after injection. The analysis revealed hyperalgesia at a single time point (240 minutes after injection; mean difference, -0.60 seconds; P = 0.012) that resolved within 30 minutes, and there was no other significant hyperalgesia at other time points. Although statistically significant, the single time point measurement represented only an 11% change from baseline and was no longer present 30 minutes later. These data support the need for a reevaluation of the interpretation that pain can be worsened by perineural ropivacaine injection.

  16. Long-Standing Motor and Sensory Recovery following Acute Fibrin Sealant Based Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Repair

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    Natalia Perussi Biscola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant. Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ultrastructural changes at ventral spinal cord were also investigated. Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to neuronal survival. Reactive gliosis and microglial reaction decreased in the same groups (AX+FS, AX+CFS at 4 weeks. Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric parameters. Preservation of inhibitory synaptic terminals was accompanied by significant improvement in the motor as well as in the nociceptive recovery. Overall, the present data suggest that acute repair of neonatal peripheral nerves with fibrin sealant results in neuroprotection and regeneration of motor and sensory axons.

  17. Induction of regenerative responses of injured sciatic nerve by pharmacopuncture therapy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, In Ae; Namgung, Uk

    2013-04-01

    Although recent studies report that combined treatment of herbal drugs with acupuncture can improve clinical efficacy in traditional oriental medicine, experimental evidence that supports this pharmacopuncture therapy is rare thus far. Here, we investigated the effects of the herbal drug recipe Sciatica 5 (SCTA5) and acupuncture stimulation on gall bladder 30 (GB30) on regenerative responses of injured sciatic nerve in rats. Treatment of cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with SCTA5 improved neurite outgrowth. In vivo regenerative responses, in terms of distal extension of regenerating axons and retrogradely-labeled DRG neurons, were improved by either injury site application of SCTA5 or GB30 acupuncture stimulation and further increased by SCTA5 pharmacopuncture on GB30 acupoint. Moreover, combined treatment of SCTA5 and GB30 was more effective than singular treatments in inducing Cdc2 kinase and accompanying vimentin phosphorylation in Schwann cells of the injured nerve. These results suggest that SCTA5 and GB30 therapies may be cooperative in facilitating axonal regeneration in the injured peripheral nerves.

  18. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.M.; Ashmawi, H.A.; Costa, L.S.; Posso, I.P. [LIM-08 - Anestesiologia Experimental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Slullitel, A. [Departamento de Anestesiologia, Hospital Santa Paula, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-23

    Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group) were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg) was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg) increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s) and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN) at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg) blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

  19. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

  20. Cholera Toxin B Subunit Shows Transneuronal Tracing after Injection in an Injured Sciatic Nerve.

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    Bi-Qin Lai

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB has been extensively used in the past for monosynaptic mapping. For decades, it was thought to lack the ability of transneuronal tracing. In order to investigate whether biotin conjugates of CTB (b-CTB would pass through transneurons in the rat spinal cord, it was injected into the crushed left sciatic nerve. For experimental control, the first order afferent neuronal projections were defined by retrograde transport of fluorogold (FG, a non-transneuronal labeling marker as an experimental control injected into the crushed right sciatic nerve in the same rat. Neurons containing b-CTB or FG were observed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG at the L4-L6 levels ipsilateral to the tracer injection. In the spinal cord, b-CTB labeled neurons were distributed in all laminae ipsilaterally between C7 and S1 segments, but labeling of neurons at the cervical segment was abolished when the T10 segment was transected completely. The interneurons, distributed in the intermediate gray matter and identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic, were labeled by b-CTB. In contrast, FG labeling was confined to the ventral horn neurons at L4-L6 spinal segments ipsilateral to the injection. b-CTB immunoreactivity remained to be restricted to the soma of neurons and often appeared as irregular patches detected by light and electron microscopy. Detection of monosialoganglioside (GM1 in b-CTB labeled neurons suggests that GM1 ganglioside may specifically enhance the uptake and transneuronal passage of b-CTB, thus supporting the notion that it may be used as a novel transneuronal tracer.

  1. Cholera Toxin B Subunit Shows Transneuronal Tracing after Injection in an Injured Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Bi-Qin; Qiu, Xue-Chen; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Rong-Yi; Jin, Hui; Li, Ge; Shen, Hui-Yong; Wu, Jin-Lang; Ling, Eng-Ang; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been extensively used in the past for monosynaptic mapping. For decades, it was thought to lack the ability of transneuronal tracing. In order to investigate whether biotin conjugates of CTB (b-CTB) would pass through transneurons in the rat spinal cord, it was injected into the crushed left sciatic nerve. For experimental control, the first order afferent neuronal projections were defined by retrograde transport of fluorogold (FG, a non-transneuronal labeling marker as an experimental control) injected into the crushed right sciatic nerve in the same rat. Neurons containing b-CTB or FG were observed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at the L4-L6 levels ipsilateral to the tracer injection. In the spinal cord, b-CTB labeled neurons were distributed in all laminae ipsilaterally between C7 and S1 segments, but labeling of neurons at the cervical segment was abolished when the T10 segment was transected completely. The interneurons, distributed in the intermediate gray matter and identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic), were labeled by b-CTB. In contrast, FG labeling was confined to the ventral horn neurons at L4-L6 spinal segments ipsilateral to the injection. b-CTB immunoreactivity remained to be restricted to the soma of neurons and often appeared as irregular patches detected by light and electron microscopy. Detection of monosialoganglioside (GM1) in b-CTB labeled neurons suggests that GM1 ganglioside may specifically enhance the uptake and transneuronal passage of b-CTB, thus supporting the notion that it may be used as a novel transneuronal tracer. PMID:26640949

  2. Long-term effect of ropivacaine nanoparticles for sciatic nerve block on postoperative pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zi Wang,1,* Haizhen Huang,2,* Shaozhong Yang,1 Shanshan Huang,1 Jingxuan Guo,1 Qi Tang,1 Feng Qi1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Stomatology Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The analgesic effect of ropivacaine (Rop for nerve block lasts only ~3–6 hours for single use. The aim of this study was to develop long-acting regional anesthetic Rop nanoparticles and investigate the effects of sciatic nerve block on postoperative pain in rats.Materials and methods: Rop nanoparticles were developed using polyethylene glycol-co-polylactic acid (PELA. One hundred and twenty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=30, each: Con (control group; 0.9% saline, 200 µL, PELA (PELA group; 10 mg, Rop (Rop group; 0.5%, 200 µL, and Rop-PELA (Rop-PELA group; 10%, 10 mg. Another 12 rats were used for the detection of Rop concentration in plasma. The mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were measured at 2 hours, 4 hours, 8 hours, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after incision. The expression of c-FOS was determined by immunohistochemistry at 2 hours, 8 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days. Nerve and organ toxicities were also evaluated at 7 days.Results: The duration of Rop absorption in the plasma of the Rop-PELA group was longer (>8 hours than that of the Rop group (4 hours. Mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency in the Rop-PELA group were higher than that in other groups (4 hours–3 days. c-FOS expression in the Rop-PELA group was lower than that in the control group at 2 hours, 8 hours, and 48 hours and lower than that in the Rop group at 8 hours and 48 hours after paw incision. Slight foreign body reactions were observed surrounding the sciatic nerve at 7 days. No obvious pathophysiological

  3. F-actin distribution at nodes of Ranvier and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures in mammalian sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Alejandra; Canclini, Lucía; Rosso, Gonzalo; Bresque, Mariana; Romeo, Carlos; Hanusz, Alicia; Cal, Karina; Calliari, Aldo; Sotelo Silveira, José; Sotelo, José R

    2012-07-01

    Very little is known about the function of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the regeneration and pathology of peripheral nerve fibers. The actin cytoskeleton has been associated with maintenance of tissue structure, transmission of traction and contraction forces, and an involvement in cell motility. Therefore, the state of the actin cytoskeleton strongly influences the mechanical properties of cells and intracellular transport therein. In this work, we analyze the distribution of F-actin at Schmidt-Lanterman Incisures (SLI) and nodes of Ranvier (NR) domains in normal, regenerating and pathologic Trembler J (TrJ/+) sciatic nerve fibers, of rats and mice. F-actin was quantified and it was found increased in TrJ/+, both in SLI and NR. However, SLI and NR of regenerating rat sciatic nerve did not show significant differences in F-actin, as compared with normal nerves. Cytochalasin-D and Latrunculin-A were used to disrupt the F-actin network in normal and regenerating rat sciatic nerve fibers. Both drugs disrupt F-actin, but in different ways. Cytochalasin-D did not disrupt Schwann cell (SC) F-actin at the NR. Latrunculin-A did not disrupt F-actin at the boundary region between SC and axon at the NR domain. We surmise that the rearrangement of F-actin in neurological disorders, as presented here, is an important feature of TrJ/+ pathology as a Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) model.

  4. Functional assessment of sciatic nerve reconstruction : Biodegradable poly (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides versus autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Dijkstra, [No Value; Den Dunnen, WFA; Ijkema-Paassen, J; Schakenraad, JM; Gramsbergen, A; Robinson, PH

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT), or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve recovery using walking track analysis (measurement of the scia

  5. Evaluation of biodegradable polymer conduits--poly(L-lactic acid)--for guiding sciatic nerve regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Camila Oliveira; Lopes, Fátima Rosalina Pereira; Monte, Zulmira Oliveira; Dantas, Severino Valentim; Souto, Allana; Oliveira, Júlia Teixeira; Almeida, Fernanda Martins; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Pereira, Cristina Cardoso; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2016-04-15

    Polymeric biomaterials are often used for stimulating nerve regeneration. Among different conduits, poly(lactide acid) - PLA polymer is considered to be a good substrate due to its biocompatibility and resorbable characteristics. This polymer is an aliphatic polyester which has been mostly used in biomedical application. It is an organic compound with low allergenic potential, low toxicity, high biocompatibility and predictable kinetics of degradation. In this study we fabricated and evaluated a PLA microporous hollow fiber as a conduit for its ability to bridge a nerve gap in a mouse sciatic nerve injury model. The PLA conduit was prepared from a polymer solution, throughout extrusion technique. The left sciatic nerve of C57BL/6 mouse was transected and the nerve stumps were placed into a resorbable PLA (PLA group) or a PCL conduit (PCL group), n=5 each group. We have also used another group in which the nerves were repaired by autograft (autograft group, n=5). Motor function was analyzed according to sciatic functional index (SFI). After 56days, the regenerated nerves were processed for light and electron microscopy and morphometric analyses were performed. A quantitative analysis of regenerated nerves showed significant increase in the number of myelinated fibers and blood vessels in animals that received PLA conduit. The PLA group exhibited better overall tissue organization compared to other groups. Presenting well-organized bundles, many regenerating clusters composed of preserved nerve fibers surrounded by layers of compacted perineurium-like cells. Also the SFI revealed a significant improvement in functional recovery. This work suggests that PLA conduits are suitable substrate for cell survival and it provides an effective strategy to be used to support axonal growth becoming a potential alternative to autograft.

  6. Expression of NF-кB in Schwann cells and its effect on motor neuron apoptosis in spinal cord following sciatic nerves injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-tang; LU Xiu-min; YU Ying; YANG Yan-hong; GAO Jie

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB) in Schwann cells (SCs) and its effect on motor neuron apoptosis in spinal cord following sciatic nerves injury in adult rats. Methods:Thirty-six adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into normal control group (n=6),and sciatic nerves crushing group (n=30),and the later was further equally randomized into 5 nerves were examined by immunohistochemistry staining,and the apoptosis of motor neurons in spinalcord of lumbar 4 to lumbar 6(L4-L6)was investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay.Both were quantitated by image analysis.Results:In the normal control group (P<0.05,P<0.01).At 1 d after sciatic nerves crushing,the expression of served in the time-course on motor neuron apoptosis after sciatic nerves injury.Correlation analyses refollowing sciatic nerves injury(r=0.976 0,P<0.01).Conclusion:After injury of sciatic nerves,the presence and up-regulation of NF-κB in SCs may be involved in motor neuron apoptosis in L4-L6 spinal cord.

  7. Stress and strain analysis on the anastomosis site sutured with either epineurial or perineurial sutures after simulation of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyao Liu; Qiao Zhang; Yan Jin; Zhongli Gao

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of tensile stress and tensile strain at an anastomosis site under physiological stress is an important factor for the success of anastomosis following suturing in peripheral nerve injury treatment.Sciatic nerves from fresh adult cadavers were used to create models of sciatic nerve injury.The denervated specimens underwent epineurial and perineurial suturing.The elastic modulus (40.96 ± 2.59 MPa) and Poisson ratio (0.37 ± 0.02) of the normal sciatic nerve were measured by strain electrical measurement.A resistance strain gauge was pasted on the front,back,left,and right of the edge of the anastomosis site after suturing.Strain electrical measurement results showed that the stress and strain values of the sciatic nerve following perineurial suturing were lower than those following epineurial suturing.Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the sciatic nerve fibers were disordered following epineurial compared with perineurial suturing.These results indicate that the effect of perineurial suturing in sciatic nerve injury repair is better than that of epineurial suturing.

  8. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

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    Riet-Correa G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  9. A Silk Fibroin/Collagen Nerve Scaffold Seeded with a Co-Culture of Schwann Cells and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Sciatic Nerve Regeneration.

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    Yunqiang Xu

    Full Text Available As a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafts, tissue-engineered nerve grafts have been extensively studied as a way to bridge peripheral nerve defects and guide nerve regeneration. The main difference between autogenous nerve grafts and tissue-engineered nerve grafts is the regenerative microenvironment formed by the grafts. If an appropriate regenerative microenvironment is provided, the repair of a peripheral nerve is feasible. In this study, to mimic the body's natural regenerative microenvironment closely, we co-cultured Schwann cells (SCs and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs as seed cells and introduced them into a silk fibroin (SF/collagen scaffold to construct a tissue-engineered nerve conduit (TENC. Twelve weeks after the three different grafts (plain SF/collagen scaffold, TENC, and autograft were transplanted to bridge 1-cm long sciatic nerve defects in rats, a series of electrophysiological examinations and morphological analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of the tissue-engineered nerve grafts on peripheral nerve regeneration. The regenerative outcomes showed that the effect of treatment with TENCs was similar to that with autologous nerve grafts but superior to that with plain SF/collagen scaffolds. Meanwhile, no experimental animals had inflammation around the grafts. Based on this evidence, our findings suggest that the TENC we developed could improve the regenerative microenvironment and accelerate nerve regeneration compared to plain SF/collagen and may serve as a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.

  10. A Silk Fibroin/Collagen Nerve Scaffold Seeded with a Co-Culture of Schwann Cells and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Sciatic Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunqiang; Zhang, Zhenhui; Chen, Xuyi; Li, Ruixin; Li, Dong; Feng, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    As a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafts, tissue-engineered nerve grafts have been extensively studied as a way to bridge peripheral nerve defects and guide nerve regeneration. The main difference between autogenous nerve grafts and tissue-engineered nerve grafts is the regenerative microenvironment formed by the grafts. If an appropriate regenerative microenvironment is provided, the repair of a peripheral nerve is feasible. In this study, to mimic the body's natural regenerative microenvironment closely, we co-cultured Schwann cells (SCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as seed cells and introduced them into a silk fibroin (SF)/collagen scaffold to construct a tissue-engineered nerve conduit (TENC). Twelve weeks after the three different grafts (plain SF/collagen scaffold, TENC, and autograft) were transplanted to bridge 1-cm long sciatic nerve defects in rats, a series of electrophysiological examinations and morphological analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of the tissue-engineered nerve grafts on peripheral nerve regeneration. The regenerative outcomes showed that the effect of treatment with TENCs was similar to that with autologous nerve grafts but superior to that with plain SF/collagen scaffolds. Meanwhile, no experimental animals had inflammation around the grafts. Based on this evidence, our findings suggest that the TENC we developed could improve the regenerative microenvironment and accelerate nerve regeneration compared to plain SF/collagen and may serve as a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.

  11. Protective effect of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Ma Song-Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. are a traditional Chinese medicine for blood serum glucose reduction. This study evaluated the protective effects of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: A (control, B (diabetic treated with saline, C-D (diabetic treated with 0.3, 0.1 g/kg mulberry flavonoids once a day for 8 weeks and E (diabetic treated with 0.3 mg/kg methycobal. The diabetic condition was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. At the end of the experimental period, blood, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Treatment with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids significantly inhibited the elevated serum glucose (P< 0.01. The increased myelin sheath area (P< 0.01, myelinated fiber cross-sectional area and extramedullary fiber number (P< 0.05 were also reduced in alloxan-induced rats treated with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids. 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids also markedly decreased onion-bulb type myelin destruction and degenerative changes of mitochondria and Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that mulberry flavonoids may improve the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and is likely to be useful as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy (PN in diabetic rats.

  12. Effects of terpineol on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

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    M.R. Moreira

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 µM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect. At 300 µM terpineol, peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity of CAP were significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug, from 3.28 ± 0.22 mV and 33.5 ± 7.05 m/s, respectively, to 1.91 ± 0.51 mV and 26.2 ± 4.55 m/s. At 600 µM, terpineol significantly reduced peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity from 2.97 ± 0.55 mV and 32.8 ± 3.91 m/s to 0.24 ± 0.23 mV and 2.72 ± 2.72 m/s, respectively (N = 5. All these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon 180-min washout.

  13. In vivo DTI longitudinal measurements of acute sciatic nerve traction injury and the association with pathological and functional changes

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    Li, Xinchun [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Chen, Jingcong [Department of Radiology, The Center People Hospital of Huizhou, Huizhou 516001 (China); Hong, Goubin [Department of Radiology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519000 (China); Sun, Congpeng; Wu, Xiaomen [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Peng, Matthew Jianqiao, E-mail: PengJQshl@163.com [Department of Joint Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Orthopedic Implantation Key Lab of Guangdong Province, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Zeng, Guangqiao, E-mail: zgqiao@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of longitudinally measuring acute traction injury to the sciatic nerve using 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to analyze the associations of the measurements [regarding fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), eigenvalue (λ{sub ||} and λ{sub ⊥})] with limb function and pathology. Materials and methods: Acute traction injuries to the sciatic nerve were created in the right hind limbs of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, the left hind limbs were chosen as sham operation nerves. MRI scans were performed at intervals from pre-operation through 8 weeks post-operation follow up. Scanning sequences included T2WI, STIR, and single shot spin echo DTI with single shot EPI acquisition (SE-DTI-SSEPI). Parameters of FA, ADC, axial diffusivity (λ{sub ||}) and radial diffusivity (λ{sub ⊥}) were then calculated from the DTI. The limb functions and pathologic changes were evaluated and compared. Results: Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT) only revealed the proximal portion of the injured nerves 1–3 days after traction injury but did not reveal the nerve of the distal and traction portions at all. Nerve fibers of the distal and traction portions were not revealed by DTT until after the 1st week. They were elongated gradually and recovered almost to the normal at 8th week. The value of FA and λ{sub ⊥}of the injured nerves, which varied in different portions, were significantly different between the traction injury nerves and the sham operation nerves, whereas the value of ADC and λ{sub ||} were not significantly different. The curve lines of FA value-time for the proximal, traction and distal portions of the injured nerve correlated well to the functional and pathological changes of the limb affected, while the DTI parameters did not change that much in the sham-operated nerves. Conclusions: DTI obtained on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner can demonstrate early abnormal changes

  14. Sciatic nerve repair with tissue engineered nerve: Olfactory ensheathing cells seeded poly(lactic-co-glygolic acid conduit in an animal model

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    C W Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Synthetic nerve conduits have been sought for repair of nerve defects as the autologous nerve grafts causes donor site morbidity and possess other drawbacks. Many strategies have been investigated to improve nerve regeneration through synthetic nerve guided conduits. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs that share both Schwann cell and astrocytic characteristics have been shown to promote axonal regeneration after transplantation. The present study was driven by the hypothesis that tissue-engineered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA seeded with OECs would improve peripheral nerve regeneration in a long sciatic nerve defect. Materials and Methods: Sciatic nerve gap of 15 mm was created in six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and implanted with PLGA seeded with OECs. The nerve regeneration was assessed electrophysiologically at 2, 4 and 6 weeks following implantation. Histopathological examination, scanning electron microscopic (SEM examination and immunohistochemical analysis were performed at the end of the study. Results: Nerve conduction studies revealed a significant improvement of nerve conduction velocities whereby the mean nerve conduction velocity increases from 4.2 ΁ 0.4 m/s at week 2 to 27.3 ΁ 5.7 m/s at week 6 post-implantation ( P < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed presence of spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated the expression of S100 protein in both cell nucleus and the cytoplasm in these cells, hence confirming their Schwann-cell-like property. Under SEM, these cells were found to be actively secreting extracellular matrix. Conclusion: Tissue-engineered PLGA conduit seeded with OECs provided a permissive environment to facilitate nerve regeneration in a small animal model.

  15. Guillain-Barre Syndrome Presenting With Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy

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    Soroor INALOO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Inaloo S, Katibeh P. Guillain-Barre Syndrome Presenting With Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter;8(1:69-71.ObjectiveThis case study is about an 11-year-old girl with bilateral facial weakness, abnormal taste sensation, and deep tendon reflexes of both knees and ankles were absent. However, the muscle power of the lower and upper extremities across all muscle groups was normal. After 2 days, she developed paresthesia and numbness in the lower extremities. Other neurologic examinations, such as fundoscopic evaluation of the retina were normal with the muscle power of both upper- and lower-extremities intact. A lumbar puncture revealed albumincytological dissociation. EMG and NCV were in favor of Guillain-Barre syndrome, for which IVIG was prescribed and the abnormal sensations in the lower limbs rapidly improved. Bilateral facial diplegia without weakness and paresthesia is a variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome that mostly presents withacute onset, rapid progression with or without limb weakness, paresthesia, and decreased or absent DTR and albumin-cytological dissociation.References:Barbi F, Ariatti A, Funakoshi K, Meacci M, Odaka M, Galassi G. Parvovirus B19 infection antedating Guillain-Barre’ syndrome variant with prominent facial diplegia. J Neurol 2011 Aug; 258(8:1551-2. doi: 10.1007/s00415-011-5949-5. Epub 2011 Feb 15.Yardimci N, Avci AY, Kayhan E, Benli S. Bilateral facial nerve enhancement demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurol Sci 2009 Oct; 30(5:431-3. doi:10.1007/s10072-009-0120-0.Lim TC, Yeo WS, Loke KY, Quek SC. Bilateral facial nerve palsy in Kawasaki disease. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2009; 38(8:737-8.Quintas E, Silva A, Sarmento A. Bilateral facial palsy in a young patient after meningococcal meningitis, associated to herpetic infection. Arq Neuro-Psiquiatr 2009; 67(3a: 712-14.Jain V, Deshmukh A, Gollomp S. Bilateral facial

  16. Autologous nerve graft repair of different degrees of sciatic nerve defect:stress and displacement at the anastomosis in a three-dimensional finite element simulation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-dong Piao; Kun Yang; Peng Li; Min Luo

    2015-01-01

    In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the mag-nitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain; however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. There-fore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional ifnite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 ifnite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These ifndings indicate that three-dimensional ifnite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anas-tomosis after autologous nerve grafting.

  17. Autologous nerve graft repair of different degrees of sciatic nerve defect: stress and displacement at the anastomosis in a three-dimensional fnite element simulation model

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    Cheng-dong Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the magnitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional finite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 finite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These findings indicate that three-dimensional finite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anastomosis after autologous nerve grafting.

  18. Increased response to glutamate in small diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve injury.

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    Kerui Gong

    Full Text Available Glutamate in the peripheral nervous system is involved in neuropathic pain, yet we know little how nerve injury alters responses to this neurotransmitter in primary sensory neurons. We recorded neuronal responses from the ex-vivo preparations of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG one week following a chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve in adult rats. We found that small diameter DRG neurons (30 µm were unaffected. Puff application of either glutamate, or the selective ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA and kainic acid (KA, or the group I metabotropic receptor (mGluR agonist (S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG, induced larger inward currents in CCI DRGs compared to those from uninjured rats. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-induced currents were unchanged. In addition to larger inward currents following CCI, a greater number of neurons responded to glutamate, AMPA, NMDA, and DHPG, but not to KA. Western blot analysis of the DRGs revealed that CCI resulted in a 35% increase in GluA1 and a 60% decrease in GluA2, the AMPA receptor subunits, compared to uninjured controls. mGluR1 receptor expression increased by 60% in the membrane fraction, whereas mGluR5 receptor subunit expression remained unchanged after CCI. These results show that following nerve injury, small diameter DRG neurons, many of which are nociceptive, have increased excitability and an increased response to glutamate that is associated with changes in receptor expression at the neuronal membrane. Our findings provide further evidence that glutamatergic transmission in the periphery plays a role in nociception.

  19. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

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    Ronghua Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calpain 3 (CAPN3, also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duo-Yi Li; Lan Meng; Nan Ji; Fang Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP) in animal models,but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined.We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN) on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI).Methods:The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL).Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group.The contralateral SN served as a control.The MWT and TWL were determined again 2,4,6,8,10,12,and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment.On day 14,ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy.Results:Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P =0.000).In the PRF group,MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P =0.000),while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05).Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group.Conclusions:Hyperalgesia is relieved,and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP.

  1. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

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    Duo-Yi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP in animal models, but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined. We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI. Methods: The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL. Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group. The contralateral SN served as a control. The MWT and TWL were determined again 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment. On day 14, ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy. Results: Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P = 0.000. In the PRF group, MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P = 0.000, while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05. Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group. Conclusions: Hyperalgesia is relieved, and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP.

  2. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Medeiros Venancio; Francisco Walber Ferreira-da-Silva; Kerly Shamyra da Silva-Alves; Hugo de Carvalho Pimentel; Matheus Macêdo Lima; Michele Fraga de Santana; Péricles Barreto Alves; Givanildo Batista da Silva; José Henrique Leal-Cardoso; Murilo Marchioro

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−)-LIN effects on neuron exci...

  3. Bilateral abducens nerve and right facial nerve palsy occuring after head trauma

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    ismail Boyraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of the nervus abducens, the 6th cranial nerve tend to be rare, usually occur suddenly following head injuries. A 43-year-old male patient presented with a history of fall from a height due to an occupational accident on the date of 11.01.2014. Cranial tomography demonstrated bilateral epidural hematoma. The epidural hematoma was drained during the operation. After the surgery, eye examination showed no vision loss, except limited bilateral lateral gaze. When the patient was unable to walk due to diplopia, he was advised to close one eye. On the right side, there were findings suggesting central facial paralysis. There may be multiple cranial nerve damage following head injury. Therefore, all cranial nerves should be thoroughly examined. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(2.000: 110-113

  4. Gamma knife irradiation of injured sciatic nerve induces histological and behavioral improvement in the rat neuropathic pain model.

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    Yuki Yagasaki

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of gamma knife (GK irradiation on injured nerves using a rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL model. GK irradiation was performed at one week after ligation and nerve preparations were made three weeks after ligation. GK irradiation is known to induce immune responses such as glial cell activation in the central nervous system. Thus, we determined the effects of GK irradiation on macrophages using immunoblot and histochemical analyses. Expression of Iba-1 protein, a macrophage marker, was further increased in GK-treated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. Immunohistochemical study of Iba-1 in GK-irradiated injured sciatic nerves demonstrated Iba-1 positive macrophage accumulation to be enhanced in areas distal to the ligation point. In the same area, myelin debris was also more efficiently removed by GK-irradiation. Myelin debris clearance by macrophages is thought to contribute to a permissive environment for axon growth. In the immunoblot study, GK irradiation significantly increased expressions of βIII-tubulin protein and myelin protein zero, which are markers of axon regeneration and re-myelination, respectively. Toluidine blue staining revealed the re-myelinated fiber diameter to be larger at proximal sites and that the re-myelinated fiber number was increased at distal sites in GK-irradiated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. These results suggest that GK irradiation of injured nerves facilitates regeneration and re-myelination. In a behavior study, early alleviation of allodynia was observed with GK irradiation in PSL rats. When GK-induced alleviation of allodynia was initially detected, the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a potent analgesic factor, was significantly increased by GK irradiation. These results suggested that GK irradiation alleviates allodynia via increased GDNF. This study provides novel evidence that GK

  5. Effects of histidine and n-acetylcysteine on experimental lesions induced by doxorubicin in sciatic nerve of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Najafi, Sima

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the effect of separate and combined intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of histidine and n-acetylcysteine were investigated on experimental damage induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in sciatic nerve of rats. DOX was i.p. injected at a dose of 4 mg/kg once weekly for four weeks. Histidine and n-acetylcysteine were i.p. injected at a same dose of 20 mg/kg. Cold and mechanical allodynia were recorded using acetone spray and von Frey filaments tests, respectively. The sciatic nerve damage was evaluated by light microscopy. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Histidine and especially n-acetylcysteine at a same dose of 20 mg/kg suppressed cold and mechanical allodynia, improved sciatic nerve lesions and reversed MDA and TAC levels in DOX-treated groups. Combination treatment with histidine and n-acetylcysteine showed better responses when compared with them used alone. The results of the present study showed peripheral neuroprotective effects for histidine and n-acetylcysteine. Reduction of free radical-induced toxic effects may have a role in neuroprotective properties of histidine and n-acetylcysteine.

  6. Role of JNK isoforms in the development of neuropathic pain following sciatic nerve transection in the mouse

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    Manassero Giusi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current tools for analgesia are often only partially successful, thus investigations of new targets for pain therapy stimulate great interest. Consequent to peripheral nerve injury, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activity in cells of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs and spinal cord is involved in triggering neuropathic pain. However, the relative contribution of distinct JNK isoforms is unclear. Using knockout mice for single isoforms, and blockade of JNK activity by a peptide inhibitor, we have used behavioral tests to analyze the contribution of JNK in the development of neuropathic pain after unilateral sciatic nerve transection. In addition, immunohistochemical labelling for the growth associated protein (GAP-43 and Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP in DRGs was used to relate injury related compensatory growth to altered sensory function. Results Peripheral nerve injury produced pain–related behavior on the ipsilateral hindpaw, accompanied by an increase in the percentage of GAP43-immunoreactive (IR neurons and a decrease in the percentage of CGRP-IR neurons in the lumbar DRGs. The JNK inhibitor, D-JNKI-1, successfully modulated the effects of the sciatic nerve transection. The onset of neuropathic pain was not prevented by the deletion of a single JNK isoform, leading us to conclude that all JNK isoforms collectively contribute to maintain neuropathy. Autotomy behavior, typically induced by sciatic nerve axotomy, was absent in both the JNK1 and JNK3 knockout mice. Conclusions JNK signaling plays an important role in regulating pain threshold: the inhibition of all of the JNK isoforms prevents the onset of neuropathic pain, while the deletion of a single splice JNK isoform mitigates established sensory abnormalities. JNK inactivation also has an effect on axonal sprouting following peripheral nerve injury.

  7. FK506-loaded chitosan conduit promotes the regeneration of injured sciatic nerves in the rat through the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Zheng, Xifu; Fu, Chongyang; Qu, Wei; Wei, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-09-15

    FK506 has been shown to exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, but its long-term application for nerve regeneration is limited. This study evaluated the potential application of a novel FK506-loaded chitosan conduit for peripheral nerve repair, and explored the underlying mechanism. A sciatic nerve injury model was created in male Wistar rats, which were then randomly divided into three treatment groups (n=40, each): chitosan-only, chitosan+FK506 injection, and FK506-loaded chitosan. We found significant recovery of normal morphology of sciatic nerves and higher density of myelinated nerve fibers in rats treated with FK506-loaded chitosan. Similarly, the total number of myelinated nerve fibers, myelin sheath thickness, and axon diameters were significantly higher in this group compared with the others, and the compound muscle action potentials and motor nerve conduction velocity values of sciatic nerves were significantly higher. BDNF and TrkB levels in motor neurons were highest in rats treated with FK506-loaded chitosan. In conclusion, FK506-loaded chitosan promoted peripheral nerve repair and regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. These effects are correlated with increased BDNF and TrkB expression in motor neurons.

  8. Changes in behaviors of rats with sciatic nerve injury and expression of growth associated protein-43 in dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Yongfa Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is closely related to neuroplasticity, and growth associated protein-43 (GAP 43) is a molecular marker for neuronal development and neuroplasticity. The expression of GAP-43 during the development of neuropathic pain should have its own characters.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in behaviors of rats with sciatic nerve injury and GAP-43 expression in dorsal root ganglion(DRG) affected ascribing to developing nerve transection and nerve crush, two types of neuropathic pain models.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology in Second Hospital of Xiamen City and Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College.MATERIALS: Totally 250 adult Wistar rats of either gender, weighing 180 to 250 g, were involved in the study. The rats were randomized into 3 groups: nerve transection group (n =120), nerve crush group (n =120), and normal control group (n =10). The rats in the nerve transection group and nerve crush group were subdivided separately into 6 groups,and were allowed to survive for 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days after nerve injury (n =20). Mouse anti-GAP-43 monoclonal antibody (Sigma Co.,Ltd.), Supervision TM anti-mouse reagent (HRP, Changdao antibody diagnosis reagent Co.,Ltd., Shanghai), DAB/H2O2 (Boster Co.Ltd, Wuhan), and HMIAS-100 image analysis system (Qianping Image engineering Company, Tongji Medical University) were employed in this study.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Surgical Department and Pathological Laboratory, the Second Hospital Affiliated to Shantou Medical College during April 2004 to April 2005. ① Grouping intervention: Animals were anesthetized and the sciatic nerve of the right side was exposed at thigh around ischial tuberosity. Sciatic nerves of rats in nerve transection group were transected at 1 cm below infrapiriform foramen, and those in nerve crush group were exposed as well as the nerve transection group, and crushed at 0.5 cm below

  9. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

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    Juliana Sobral Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury, exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise, lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise, and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise. LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p=0.012 and larger than LG and LEG (p<0.001. Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons.

  10. Homozygous hemoglobin S (HbSS) presenting with bilateral facial nerve palsy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundunmade, Babatunde Gbolahan; Jasper, Unyime Sunday

    2014-01-01

    Background Bilateral facial nerve palsy is a relatively rare presentation and often points to a serious underlying medical condition. Several studies have reported presentation of bilateral facial nerve palsy in association with Lyme disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, human immunodeficiency virus, sarcoidosis, diabetes and Hanson disease. While unilateral facial nerve palsy is sometimes associated with hemiplegia in sickle cell patients, no case of bilateral facia...

  11. Perineural Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Inflammation in Rat Sciatic Nerve via the NF-κB Pathway

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    Yan Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that dexmedetomidine exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing serum levels of inflammatory factors, however, the up-stream mechanism is still unknown. The transcription factor NF-κB enters the nucleus and promotes the transcription of its target genes, including those encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. In this study, we established a rat model that simulates a clinical surgical procedure to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of perineural administration of dexmedetomidine and the underlying mechanism. Dexmedetomidine reduced the sciatic nerve levels of IL-6 and TNF-α at both the mRNA and protein level. Dexmedetomidine also inhibited the translocation of activated NF-κB to the nucleus and the binding activity of NF-κB. The anti-inflammatory effect is confirmed to be dose-dependent. Finally, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate also reduced the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine inhibited the nuclear translocation and binding activity of activated NF-κB, thus reducing inflammatory cytokines.

  12. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

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    Hao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of purified transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microencapsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencapsulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results confirm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  13. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhao; Qing Li; Bao-lin Yang; Zeng-xu Liu; Qing Yu; Wen-jun Zhang; Keng Yuan; Hui-hong Zeng; Gao-chun Zhu; De-ming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of puriifed transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microen-capsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L4–5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencap-sulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results conifrm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L4–5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  14. Chitooligosaccharide Inhibits Scar Formation and Enhances Functional Recovery in a Mouse Model of Sciatic Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongping; Zhang, Lihai; Ye, Zuguang; Li, Jianrong; Lian, Zijian; Chen, Chao; He, Rong; Peng, Bo; Xu, Qihua; Zhang, Guangping; Gan, Wenbiao; Tang, Peifu

    2016-05-01

    Chitooligosaccharide (COS) has been shown to induce fibroblast apoptosis, indicating that it could be used as a material to inhibit scar formation. In the present study, we used a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury (SNI) to determine the role of COS in scar inhibition and functional recovery. The animals were divided into three groups: SNI, SNI + vehicle, and SNI + COS group. We performed a series of functional and histological examinations at ctrl, 0 min, 14 days, and 42 days, including behavioral recovery, percentage of regenerating axons, degree of scar formation, vascular changes, type I and type III collagen ratio, and percentage of demyelinated axons. The SNI + COS group exhibited better recovery of sensory and motor function and less scar formation. Two-photon microscopy showed that the percentage of regenerating axons was highest in the SNI + COS group at 14 and 42 days. Our results suggested that COS can inhibit scar formation and enhance functional recovery by inducing fibroblast death, altering the proportion of different vascular diameters, changing the ratio of type I/type III collagen, and reducing the percentage of demyelinated axons. COS might be a useful drug in the treatment of SNI to reduce scar formation, but additional research is required to clarify the relevant molecular pathways.

  15. Action potential characteristics of demyelinated rat sciatic nerve following application of 4-aminopyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targ, E F; Kocsis, J D

    1986-01-15

    The sciatic nerves of rats were demyelinated by microinjection of lysophosphatidylcholine. A variety of abnormalities such as conduction slowing and block were present. Application of the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to the lesion site, led to an increase in area of the compound action potential recorded across the site of demyelination. Single axon recordings revealed three types of changes that may account for the 4-AP-induced increase in the compound response. One group showed broadening of the action potential. Other axons showed hyperexcitability following 4-AP, as manifest by spontaneous firing and multiple spike discharge following a single stimulus. In some of the axons studied, 4-AP led to overcoming of conduction block. Although many axons showed increased excitability properties in the presence of 4-AP, the frequency-following ability of the axons was reduced, and the absolute refractory period of the axons was increased. These results indicate that pharmacological blockade of potassium channels with 4-AP not only leads to action potential broadening in demyelinated axons, but to a variety of excitability changes. These heterogeneous effects of 4-AP should be considered in the rationale for its clinical use.

  16. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (-)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(-)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (-)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (-)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (-)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (-)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (-)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (-)-LIN in the essential oil.

  17. The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurie, Hirofumi; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kaizawa, Yukitoshi; Tajino, Junichi; Ito, Akira; Ohta, Souichi; Oda, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Hisataka; Akieda, Shizuka; Tsuji, Manami; Nakayama, Koichi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, several alternative methods have been developed, including nerve conduits that use supportive cells. However, the seeding efficacy and viability of supportive cells injected in nerve grafts remain unclear. Here, we focused on a novel completely biological, tissue-engineered, scaffold-free conduit. Methods We developed six scaffold-free conduits from human normal dermal fibroblasts using a Bio 3D Printer. Twelve adult male rats with immune deficiency underwent mid-thigh-level transection of the right sciatic nerve. The resulting 5-mm nerve gap was bridged using 8-mm Bio 3D conduits (Bio 3D group, n = 6) and silicone tube (silicone group, n = 6). Several assessments were conducted to examine nerve regeneration eight weeks post-surgery. Results Kinematic analysis revealed that the toe angle to the metatarsal bone at the final segment of the swing phase was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (-35.78 ± 10.68 versus -62.48 ± 6.15, respectively; p < 0.01). Electrophysiological studies revealed significantly higher compound muscle action potential in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (53.60 ± 26.36% versus 2.93 ± 1.84%; p < 0.01). Histological and morphological studies revealed neural cell expression in all regions of the regenerated nerves and the presence of many well-myelinated axons in the Bio 3D group. The wet muscle weight of the tibialis anterior muscle was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (0.544 ± 0.063 versus 0.396 ± 0.031, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions We confirmed that scaffold-free Bio 3D conduits composed entirely of fibroblast cells promote nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model. PMID:28192527

  18. Effect of Platelet Rich Plasma and Platelet Rich Fibrin on sciatic nerve regeneration in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenfels, Martina; Colomé, Lucas; Sebben, Alessandra Deise; Braga-Silva, Jefferson

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) on peripheral nerve repair. Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into four equal treatments groups: autologous nerve grafts (ANG), silicon tube plus saline solution (SS), silicon tube plus PRP, and silicon tube plus PRF. In ANG group, 10 mm segment from sciatic nerve was excised and reimplanted between the nerve stumps. In the SS, PRP, and PRF groups, 5 mm segment from sciatic nerve was excised and bridged with a 12 mm silicone conduit to create a 10 mm nerve gap. The conduit was filled in accordance with the different treatments. Walking track analysis was performed periodically and on the 90th post-operative day histomorphometric analysis was performed. The ANG, PRF, and PRP groups presented a significant functional improvement in relation to the SS group (P = 0.001) on 90 days after surgery. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the ANG group achieved a larger nerve fiber diameter in proximal stump while comparing with the SS group (P =0.037) and showed larger fiber diameter in median stump in comparison to the PRP group (P = 0.002) and PRF group (P = 0.001). Axonal diameter and myelin sheath thickness showed no statistical significant difference between the groups in the three stumps (P ≥ 0.05). This study suggests that PRP and PRF have positive effects on the functional nerve recovery; however, these groups don't achieve a significant improvement on the histomorphometric analysis.

  19. The use of fiber-reinforced scaffolds cocultured with Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells to repair rabbit sciatic nerve defect with vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyang; You, Yang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhao, Feng; Sha, Ziyi; Shen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. The animals in both groups underwent electromyography to show the status of the neurological function recovery at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgery. Sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination were observed under the light microscope and electron microscope. Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. The recovery of foot ulcer, the velocity of nerve conduction, the number of regenerating nerve fiber, and the recovery of ultrastructure were increased in the experimental group than those in the control group. Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function.

  20. The Use of Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cocultured with Schwann Cells and Vascular Endothelial Cells to Repair Rabbit Sciatic Nerve Defect with Vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. The animals in both groups underwent electromyography to show the status of the neurological function recovery at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgery. Sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination were observed under the light microscope and electron microscope. Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. The recovery of foot ulcer, the velocity of nerve conduction, the number of regenerating nerve fiber, and the recovery of ultrastructure were increased in the experimental group than those in the control group. Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function.

  1. Activation of Growth-associated Protein by Intragastric Brazilein in Motor Neuron of Spinal Cord Connected with Injured Sciatic Nerve in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jian; LI Li-sen; LIU Biao; LIU Hao-yu; ZHANG Hui; ZHAO Ming-ming; YIN Wei-tian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the expression of growth-associated protein(GAP-43) in spinal cord segments connected with injured sciatic nerve by the treatment with brazilein in mice. Unilateral sciatic nerve interruption and anastomosis were performed. Physiological saline(blank group), high dose, middle dose and low dose of brazilein were administrated intragastrically to healthy adult BALB/c mice in separate groups. L4-6 spinal segments connected with the sciatic nerve were harvested. Real-time PCR(Polymerase chain reaction) and Western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of GAP-43 in spinal segments. Histological staining on myelin and the electrophysiology were performed to examine the sciatic nerve recovery. GAP-43 was activated in spinal cord L4-6 connected with injured sciatic nerve. In the survival time of 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d and 14 d, GAP-43 expression in the motor neurons of spinal cord of the high dose group and that in the middle dose group were significantly higher than those on the low dose and blank groups. Myelin in the high dose group and that in the middle dose group were more mature and the potential amplitude and MNCV(motor nerve conduction velocity) in the high and middle dose groups were obviously higher than those in the low dose group and blank group. Brazilein facilitates the expression of GAP-43 in neurons in spinal cord L4-6 segments connected with injured sciatic nerve, which promotes nerve regeneration.

  2. Evaluation of PVA biodegradable electric conductive membranes for nerve regeneration in axonotmesis injuries: the rat sciatic nerve animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jorge; Caseiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Tiago; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo Alexandre; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Amorim, Irina; Leal Reis, Inês; Amado, Sandra; Santos, José Domingos; Bompasso, Simone; Raimondo, Stefania; Varejão, Artur Severo Proença; Geuna, Stefano; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2017-01-12

    The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5 ± 0.5 × 10(-6) S/m, 579 ± 0.6 × 10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5 ± 0.7 × 10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed. Morphometrical analysis demonstrated that PVA-CNTs group presented higher myelin thickness and lower g-ratio. The tibialis anterior muscle, in the PVA-PPy and PVA-CNTs groups showed a 9% and 19% increase of average fiber size area and a 5% and 10% increase of the "minimal Feret's diameter," respectively. No inflammation, degeneration, fibrosis or necrosis were detected in lung, liver, kidneys, spleen, and regional lymph nodes and absence of carbon deposits was confirmed with Von Kossa and Masson-Fontana stains. In conclusion, the membranes of PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy are biocompatible and have electrical conductivity. The higher electrical conductivity measured in PVA-CNTs membrane might be responsible for the positive results on maturation of myelinated fibers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2017.

  3. 1-溴丙烷吸入对大鼠坐骨神经影响%Effect of 1-bromopropane inhalation on sciatic nerve of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋柳权; 宋向荣; 黄丽蓉; 李宏玲; 赵娜; 阮小林; 张爱华; 戎伟丰; 张伟

    2013-01-01

    decrease in the bilateral motor nerve conduction velocity of sciatic nerves (P < 0.01) while increase in distal motor latency (P < 0.05 or P <0.01).However,only the bilateral sensory nerve conduction velocity declined significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) and the sensory latency were elongated (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in animals treated with 1-BP at the dose of 5 000 mg/m3.Pathological examination demonstrated that vacuolar degeneration of myelin in sciatic nerves and offset axon were observed under light microscope at high dose group.Conclusion Nerve conduction velocity may serve as a predictor of the early damage to the peripheric nervous system induced by 1-BP.

  4. Dexmedetomidine and propofol infusion on sedation characteristics in patients undergoing sciatic nerve block in combination with femoral nerve block via anterior approach

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    Abdulkadir Yektaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Dexmedetomidine is an a-2 adrenergic agonist having wide range of effects including sedation in mammalian brain, and has analgesic as well as sympatholytic properties. This study aimed to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol infusion on sedation characteristics in patients undergoing combined sciatic nerve and femoral nerve block via anterior approach for lower limb orthopedic procedure.METHODS: Forty patients, who were between 18 and 65 years old, this study was made at anesthesiology clinic of Bagcilar training and research hospital in 08 September 2011 to 07 June 2012, and underwent surgical procedure due to fractures lateral and medial malleol, were included. Sciatic nerve and femoral nerve block were conducted with an anterior approach on all patients included in the study, with an ultrasonography. The patients were randomly divided into dexmedetomidine [Group D (n = 20; 0.5 µg kg-1 h-1] and propofol [Group P (n = 20; 3 mg kg-1 h-1] infusion groups.RESULTS: The vital findings and intra-operative Ramsay sedation scale values were similar in both groups. Time taken for sedation to start and time required for sedation to become over of Group D were significantly higher than those of Group P (p < 0.001 for each.CONCLUSIONS: Substitution of dexmedetomidine instead of propofol prolongs the times to start of sedation, the times to end of sedation and duration of sedation.

  5. Cordycepin Decreases Compound Action Potential Conduction of Frog Sciatic Nerve In Vitro Involving Ca2+-Dependent Mechanisms

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    Li-Hua Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin has been widely used in oriental countries to maintain health and improve physical performance. Compound nerve action potential (CNAP, which is critical in signal conduction in the peripheral nervous system, is necessary to regulate physical performance, including motor system physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, regulatory effects of cordycepin on CNAP conduction should be elucidated. In this study, the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves was investigated. Results revealed that cordycepin significantly decreased CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. At 50 mg/L cordycepin, CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity decreased by 62.18 ± 8.06% and 57.34% ± 6.14% compared with the control amplitude and conductive velocity, respectively. However, the depressive action of cordycepin on amplitude and conductive velocity was not observed in Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of Ca2+ channel blockers (CdCl2/LaCl3. Pretreatment with L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist (nifedipine/deltiazem also blocked cordycepin-induced responses; by contrast, T-type and P-type Ca2+ channel antagonists (Ni2+ failed to block such responses. Therefore, cordycepin decreased the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves via L-type Ca2+ channel-dependent mechanism.

  6. Cdc42 Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Migration Through Wnt/β-Catenin and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway After Sciatic Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Zhao, Jun-Ying; Wang, Wu-Tao; Li, Zheng-Wei; He, Ai-Ping; Song, Xiao-Yang

    2017-01-17

    Schwann cells (SCs) are unique glial cells in the peripheral nerve and may secrete multiple neurotrophic factors, adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix molecules to form the microenvironment of peripheral nerve regeneration, guiding and supporting nerve proliferation and migration. Cdc42 plays an important regulatory role in dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton. However, there is a little study referred to regulation and mechanism of Cdc42 on glial cells after peripheral nerve injury. The present study investigated the role of Cdc42 in the proliferation and migration of SCs after sciatic nerve injury. Cdc42 expression was tested, showing that the mRNA and protein expression levels of Cdc42 were significantly up-regulated after sciatic nerve injury. Then, we isolated and purified SCs from injuried sciatic nerve at day 7. The purified SCs were transfected with Cdc42 siRNA and pcDNA3.1-Cdc42, and the cell proliferation, cell cycle and migration were assessed. The results implied that Cdc42 siRNA remarkably inhibited Schwann cell proliferation and migration, and resulted in S phase arrest. While pcDNA3.1-Cdc42 showed a contrary effect. Besides, we also observed that Cdc42 siRNA down-regulated the protein expression of β-catenin, Cyclin D1, c-myc and p-p38, which were up-regulated by pcDNA3.1-Cdc42. Meanwhile, the inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin and p38 MAPK signaling pathway IWP-2 and SB203580 significantly inhibited the effect of pcDNA3.1-Cdc42 on cell proliferation and migration. Overall, our data indicate that Cdc42 regulates Schwann cell proliferation and migration through Wnt/β-catenin and p38 MAPK signaling pathway after sciatic nerve injury, which provides further insights into the therapy of the sciatic nerve injury.

  7. Post-traumatic acute bilateral facial nerve palsy - a management dilemma

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    Kumar Rakesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute bilateral facial nerve paralysis is a rare clinical entity, and its management remains very controversial (operative or conservative. Here we are presenting a case of acute onset bilateral facial nerve palsy following head injury with bilateral temporal bone fracture with clinico-radiographic contrary. Patient was managed conservatively with complete recovery. By this article, authors want to stress on combining clinical examination and radiological findings for decision making of this rare entity and tried to evaluate the management.

  8. Sciatic nerve entrapment in the upper thigh caused by an injury sustained during World War II at the battle of Anzio. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, John B; Salem, Ayman; Storrs, Bruce B; Milner, Brenton; Omer, George E

    2004-03-01

    The authors present an unusual case of sciatic nerve entrapment due to a World War II shrapnel injury to the left thigh suffered during the battle of Anzio in 1943. The patient presented for evaluation of left lower-extremity pain in the sciatic nerve distribution. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine revealed a disc bulge at L5-S1 that would not explain severe sciatica. A positive Tinel sign was present in the posterior aspect of the upper thigh at the site of a scar resulting from a World War II shrapnel injury. The patient underwent exploratory external neurolysis of the area, and the sciatic nerve was released from fibrous adhesive entrapment. The patient improved dramatically following surgery. During a 3-year follow-up period, no recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  9. Sensitivity to 4-aminopyridine observed in mammalian sciatic nerves during acute pyridoxine-induced sensory neuropathy and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, C M; Veale, K

    1988-06-01

    In vitro physiologic properties of rat sciatic nerve were examined during pyridoxine-induced sensory neuropathy and following recovery. Compound action potential waveform characteristics, recovery cycle properties during paired stimulation, and ability to follow stimuli presented at high frequencies were examined. All parameters were assessed before and after potassium channel blockade with 4-aminopyridine in nerves from acutely toxic, recovered, and age-matched control rats. Compound action potential waveforms recorded from acutely toxic nerves were less affected by application of 4-aminopyridine than were those recorded from control nerves. Recovery cycles were less prolonged and frequency-following abilities less compromised a 3-month recovery period, experimental nerves demonstrated a more pronounced sensitivity to 4-aminopyridine than did age-matched control nerves. It is proposed that these differences in the physiological effects of 4-aminopyridine reflect the selective loss of large-caliber sensory fibers during the acute toxic phase and the increased sensitivity to the drug of regenerated sensory fibers following recovery.

  10. Altered acetylcholinesterase levels in the spinal cord anterior horn and dorsal root ganglion following sciatic nerve ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang; Pei Wang; Songhe Yang; Jingfeng Xue

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve ischemia has been shown to result in ischemic fiber degeneration and axoplasmic transport disturbance. However, the effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in relevant cells following sciatic nerve ischemia remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To observe AChE concentration changes following peripheral nerve ischemia. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present comparative observation, neuroanatomical experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory Animal of Chengde Medical College between 2006 and 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 20 healthy, adult, Wistar rats were randomized into two groups (n = 10): 8-day ischemia and 14-day ischemia. METHODS: Ischemia injury was induced in the unilateral sciatic nerve (experimental side) through ligation of the common iliac artery. The contralateral side received no intervention, and served as the control side. Rats in the 8-day ischemia and 14-day ischemia groups were allowed to survive for 8 and 14 days, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The L5 lumbar spinal cord and the L5 dorsal root ganglion were removed from both sides and sectioned utilizing a Leica vibrating slicer. AChE cellular expression was detected using Karnovsky-Root, and the number of AChE-positive cells and average gray value were analyzed using a MiVnt image analysis system. RESULTS: In the 8-day ischemia group, AChE-positive cell numbers were significantly less in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord anterior horn of the experimental side, but the average gray value was significantly greater, compared with the control side (P < 0.05). These changes were more significant in the 14-day ischemia group than in the 8-day ischemia group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Peripheral nerve ischemia leads to decreased AChE expression in the associated cells in a time-dependent manner.

  11. Effects of decompression on behavioral, electrophysiologic, and histomorphologic recovery in a chronic sciatic nerve compression model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Hui; Yang, Cheng-Chang; Su, Wei-Ren; Wu, Po-Ting; Cheng, Shun-Chien; Jou, I-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine susceptibility to decompression surgery in diabetic and nondiabetic peripheral neuropathy using a chronic compression neuropathy model. Materials and methods Twenty-four streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into three groups: group I, chronic compression of the left sciatic nerve for 4 weeks with decompression; group II, similar without decompression; and group III, sham exposing the sciatic nerve only. The other 24 nondiabetic rats were assigned to groups IV–VI, which received compression–decompression, compression, and the sham operation, respectively. Mixed-nerve-elicited somatosensory evoked potentials (M-SSEPs) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were measured to verify the compression neuropathy in the posttreatment follow-up. Behavioral observations in thermal hyperalgesia tests were quantified before electrophysiologic examinations. Treated and contralateral nerves were harvested for histomorphologic analysis. Results Chronic compression of sciatic nerve induced significant reduction of amplitude and increment of latency of M-SSEP and CMAP in both diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Diabetic group changes were more susceptible. Decompression surgery significantly improved both sensory and motor conduction, thermal hyperalgesia, and the mean myelin diameter of the rat sciatic nerve in both diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Near full recovery of motor and sensory function occurred in the nondiabetic rats, but not in the diabetic rats 8 weeks postdecompression. Conclusion Behavioral, electrophysiologic, and histomorphologic findings indicate that decompression surgery is effective in both diabetic and nondiabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  12. Gelatin-methacrylamide gel loaded with microspheres to deliver GDNF in bilayer collagen conduit promoting sciatic nerve growth

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    Zhuang H

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hai Zhuang,1–3 Shoushan Bu,1 Lei Hua,1 Mohammad A Darabi,2,3 Xiaojian Cao,4 Malcolm Xing2,3 1Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Biochemistry & Medical Genetics, 3Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 4Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, we fabricated glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-loaded microspheres, then seeded the microspheres in gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogel, which was finally integrated with the commercial bilayer collagen membrane (Bio-Gide®. The novel composite of nerve conduit was employed to bridge a 10 mm long sciatic nerve defect in a rat. GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres had a smooth surface with an average diameter of 3.9±1.8 µm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that microspheres were uniformly distributed in both the GelMA gel and the layered structure. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in vitro release studies (pH 7.4 of GDNF from microspheres exhibited an initial burst release during the first 3 days (18.0%±1.3%, and then, a prolonged-release profile extended to 32 days. However, in an acidic condition (pH 2.5, the initial release percentage of GDNF was up to 91.2%±0.9% within 4 hours and the cumulative release percentage of GDNF was 99.2%±0.2% at 48 hours. Then the composite conduct was implanted in a 10 mm critical defect gap of sciatic nerve in a rat. We found that the nerve was regenerated in both conduit and autograft (AG groups. A combination of electrophysiological assessment and histomorphometry analysis of regenerated nerves showed that axonal regeneration and functional recovery in collagen tube filled with GDNF-loaded microspheres

  13. CAP1 was associated with actin and involved in Schwann cell differentiation and motility after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinhui; Yao, Li; Guo, Aisong; Li, Aihong; Sun, Huiqing; Wang, Ning; Liu, Hanzhang; Duan, Zhiqin; Cao, Jianhua

    2014-06-01

    Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), a member of cyclase-associated proteins that regulating actin dynamics, was shown to regulate actin filaments, localize to dynamic actin structures and mediate such processes as establishment of cell polarity, motility, morphogenesis, receptor-mediated endocytosis and mRNA location. But little is known about the role of CAP1 during peripheral nervous system injury. Here, we found the spatiotemporal protein expression of CAP1 after sciatic nerve crush. After crush, CAP1 had an increased protein expression level, reached a peak at about day 5 and then returned to the normal level at 4 weeks, similar to Oct-6. Besides, in 5-day injured tissue, using double immunofluorescent staining we found CAP1 had a colocalization with S100 and Oct-6. In vitro, during the process of cAMP-induced Schwann cells differentiation, we observed enhanced expression of CAP1 and P0. Specially, CAP1-specific siRNA-tranfected SCs did not show significant actin structure which form cellure surface tension and protrusion shape after cAMP treatment. And we observed the interaction of CAP1 with actin and that CAP1-specific siRNA-transfected SCs had a decreased motility and migration. Together, all these data indicated that the change of CAP1 protein expression was associated with Schwann cells motility and differentiation after the crush of sciatic nerve.

  14. Injury-induced activation of ERK 1/2 in the sciatic nerve of healthy and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Lena; Kanje, Martin; Mårtensson, Lisa; Dahlin, Lars B

    2011-01-26

    Phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2) was investigated by immunohistochemistry at 30 min, 1 h, and 48 h after nerve transection in the sciatic nerve of healthy and diabetic [streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus and BioBreeding (BB; i.e. DR.lyp/lyp or BBDP)] rats. Transection injury increased the intensity of p-ERK 1/2 in nerve stumps at all time points. Staining was confined to Schwann cells with occasional faint staining in single axons. In diabetic rats, a lower intensity of p-ERK 1/2 was found at 1 and 48 h in the distal and proximal nerve stumps compared with healthy rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats were not different from BB rats. p-ERK 1/2 is activated differentially in Schwann cells after nerve injury in diabetic rats, whereas activation in STZ-induced diabetic rats did not differ from BB rats.

  15. Estudo das relações anatômicas e suas variações entre o nervo ciático e o músculo piriforme Study on anatomical relationships and variations between the sciatic nerve and piriform muscle

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    EJD Vicente

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A síndrome do músculo piriforme pode ter como causa a passagem anormal do nervo ciático ou de uma de suas partes pelo ventre do músculo piriforme. OBJETIVO: Analisar as relações anatômicas e métricas entre o músculo piriforme e o nervo ciático, contribuindo com o conhecimento anátomo-clínico da região glútea. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 20 cadáveres adultos de ambos os sexos. O nervo ciático e o músculo piriforme foram dissecados, medidos e fotodocumentados. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 85% das 40 regiões glúteas apresentaram o nervo como tronco único, passando pela borda inferior do músculo piriforme, e 15% mostraram uma variação bilateral, caracterizada pela passagem do nervo fibular comum através do músculo piriforme. Os dados obtidos não revelaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes.CONTEXT: Piriform muscle syndrome can be caused by abnormal passage of the sciatic nerve or one of its parts through the belly of the piriform muscle. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the anatomical and measurement relationships between the piriform muscle and the sciatic nerve in order to contribute towards better anatomoclinical understanding of the gluteal region. METHOD: Twenty adult cadavers of both sexes were used. The sciatic nerve and piriform muscle were dissected, measured and photodocumented. RESULTS: The sciatic nerve was seen to be a single trunk passing through the lower margin of the piriform muscle in 85% of the 40 gluteal regions, and 15% showed bilateral variation characterized by the passage of the common fibular nerve through the piriform muscle. The data obtained did not show any statistically significant differences.

  16. Effects of collagen membranes enriched with in vitro-differentiated N1E-115 cells on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after end-to-end repair

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    Fornaro Michele

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves possess the capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of regeneration is often poor and may benefit from exogenous factors that enhance growth. The use of cellular systems is a rational approach for delivering neurotrophic factors at the nerve lesion site, and in the present study we investigated the effects of enwrapping the site of end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair with an equine type III collagen membrane enriched or not with N1E-115 pre-differentiated neural cells. After neurotmesis, the sciatic nerve was repaired by end-to-end suture (End-to-End group, end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane (End-to-EndMemb group; and end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane previously covered with neural cells pre-differentiated in vitro from N1E-115 cells (End-to-EndMembCell group. Along the postoperative, motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL and ankle kinematics. After 20 weeks animals were sacrificed and the repaired sciatic nerves were processed for histological and stereological analysis. Results showed that enwrapment of the rapair site with a collagen membrane, with or without neural cell enrichment, did not lead to any significant improvement in most of functional and stereological predictors of nerve regeneration that we have assessed, with the exception of EPT which recovered significantly better after neural cell enriched membrane employment. It can thus be concluded that this particular type of nerve tissue engineering approach has very limited effects on nerve regeneration after sciatic end-to-end nerve reconstruction in the rat.

  17. Bilateral traumatic paralysis of abducent nerves and clivus fracture: Case Report

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    Calderon-Miranda Willen Guillermo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clivus fractures are a rare pathology, frecuently associated tohigh power trauma. Such injuries may be associated with vascular and cranial nerves lesions. The abducens nerve is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injuries due to its long intracranial course, since their real origin until the lateral rectus muscle. The unilateral abducens nerve palsy of 1- 2-7% occurs in patients with cranial trauma, bilateral paralysis is rare. We report a patient who presented bilateral abducens nerve palsy associated with a clivus fracture

  18. Third-Degree Hindpaw Burn Injury Induced Apoptosis of Lumbar Spinal Cord Ventral Horn Motor Neurons and Sciatic Nerve and Muscle Atrophy in Rats

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    Sheng-Hua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe burns result in hypercatabolic state and concomitant muscle atrophy that persists for several months, thereby limiting patient recovery. However, the effects of burns on the corresponding spinal dermatome remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether burns induce apoptosis of spinal cord ventral horn motor neurons (VHMNs and consequently cause skeletal muscle wasting. Methods. Third-degree hindpaw burn injury with 1% total body surface area (TBSA rats were euthanized 4 and 8 weeks after burn injury. The apoptosis profiles in the ventral horns of the lumbar spinal cords, sciatic nerves, and gastrocnemius muscles were examined. The Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve were marked with S100. The gastrocnemius muscles were harvested to measure the denervation atrophy. Result. The VHMNs apoptosis in the spinal cord was observed after inducing third-degree burns in the hindpaw. The S100 and TUNEL double-positive cells in the sciatic nerve increased significantly after the burn injury. Gastrocnemius muscle apoptosis and denervation atrophy area increased significantly after the burn injury. Conclusion. Local hindpaw burn induces apoptosis in VHMNs and Schwann cells in sciatic nerve, which causes corresponding gastrocnemius muscle denervation atrophy. Our results provided an animal model to evaluate burn-induced muscle wasting, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Protective effect of sodium valproate on motor neurons in the spinal cord following sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wu; Danmou Xing; Zhengren Peng; Wusheng Kan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sodium valproate (VPA) is used to be an effective anti-epileptic drug. VPA possesses the characteristics of penetrating rapidly through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and increasing levels of Bcl-2 and growth cone-associated protein (GAP) 43 in spinal cord.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of VPA on Bcl-2 expression and motor neuronal apoptosis in spinal cord of rats following sciatic nerve transection.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Hand Surgery and Microsurgery, Wuhan Puai Hospital.MATERIALS: A total of 30 male healthy SD rats of olean grade and with the body mass of 180-220 g were provided by Experimental Animal Center of Medical College of Wuhan University. Sodium Valproate Tablets were purchases from Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu.METHODS: The experiment was performed in the Central Laboratory of Wuhan Puai Hospital and Medical College of Wuhan University from February to May 2006. Totally 30 rats were randomly divided into two groups:treatment group (n =15) and model group (n =15). Longitudinal incision along backside of right hind limbs of rats was made to expose sciatic nerves, which were sharply transected 1 cm distal to the inferior margin of piriform muscle after nerve liberation under operation microscope to establish sciatic nerve injury rat models.Sodium Valproate Tablets were pulverized and diluted into 50 g/L suspension with saline. On the day of operation, the rats in the treatment group received 6 Ml/kg VPA suspension by gastric perfusion, once a day,whereas model group received 10 Ml/kg saline by gastric perfusion, once a day. L4-6 spinal cords were obtained at days 1, 4, 7, 14 and 28 after operation, respectively. Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique and immunohistochemical method (SP method) were used to detect absorbance (A) of neurons with positive Bcl-2 expression. Apoptotic rate of cells (number of apoptotic cells

  20. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Qu, Wei; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Huajun

    2014-11-15

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and purification of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with fibroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly purified Schwann cells using serum-free melanocyte culture medium. The purity of Schwann cells (> 95%) using our method was higher than that using standard medium containing fetal bovine serum. The obtained Schwann cells were implanted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Results showed that axonal diameter and area were significantly increased and motor functions were obviously improved in the rat sciatic nerve tissue. Experimental findings suggest that serum-free melanocyte culture medium is conducive to purify Schwann cells and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan nerve conduits combined with Schwann cells contribute to restore sciatic nerve defects.

  1. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhao; Wei Qu; Yuxuan Wu; Hao Ma; Huajun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and puriifcation of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with ifbroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly puriifed Schwann cells using serum-free melanocyte culture medium. The purity of Schwann cells (> 95%) using our method was higher than that using standard medium containing fetal bovine serum. The obtained Schwann cells were implanted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chi-tosan conduits to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Results showed that axonal diameter and area were signiifcantly increased and motor functions were obviously improved in the rat sciatic nerve tissue. Experimental ifndings suggest that serum-free melanocyte culture medium is conducive to purify Schwann cells and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan nerve conduits combined with Schwann cells contribute to restore sciatic nerve defects.

  2. Electrical properties of rat muscle after sciatic nerve injury: Impact on surface impedance measurements assessed via finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, M. A.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2010-04-01

    Tetrapolar surface electrical impedance methods are sensitive to changes in muscle status and can therefore provide a means for studying neuromuscular disease noninvasively. In order to better understand the relationship between surface impedance measurements and the actual muscle electrical properties, we performed measurements on 20 adult Wistar rats, 8 of which underwent sciatic nerve crush. Surface impedance measurements were performed on the left hind limb both before injury and out to 2 weeks after injury. In addition, both normal and sciatic crush animals were sacrificed and the dielectric properties of the extracted gastrocnemius muscle measured. We found that 50 kHz conductivities were greater in the animals that underwent crush than in the animals that did not. The permittivities in both directions, however, showed non-significant differences. In order to analyze the effect of these changes as well as the accompanying reduction in muscle volume, a finite element model of the hind limb was developed based on computerized tomographic imaging. The model successfully predicted the surface impedance values in the animals after crush injury and, by its inverse application, may be used to help determine the underlying electrical properties of muscle in various neuromuscular diseases based on surface impedance data.

  3. Bilateral facial nerve palsy in a newly diagnosed diabetic patient with associated herpes labialis

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    Manish Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral facial nerve palsy is a very rare condition, usually following neurologic, neoplastic, traumatic, infective or metabolic causes. We present here a case of 29-year-old male, diagnosed on admission as diabetic with herpes labialis and bilateral facial paralysis. As the differentials are extensive, diagnostic workup and subsequent treatment should be done keeping various etiological factors in mind.

  4. Engineered neural tissue with aligned, differentiated adipose-derived stem cells promotes peripheral nerve regeneration across a critical sized defect in rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Melanie; Golding, Jon P; Loughlin, Alison J; Kingham, Paul J; Phillips, James B

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from rats and differentiated to a Schwann cell-like phenotype in vitro. The differentiated cells (dADSCs) underwent self-alignment in a tethered type-1 collagen gel, followed by stabilisation to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT-dADSC). The pro-regenerative phenotype of dADSCs was enhanced by this process, and the columns of aligned dADSCs in the aligned collagen matrix supported and guided neurite extension in vitro. EngNT-dADSC sheets were rolled to form peripheral nerve repair constructs that were implanted within NeuraWrap conduits to bridge a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve. After 8 weeks regeneration was assessed using immunofluorescence imaging and transmission electron microscopy and compared to empty conduit and nerve graft controls. The proportion of axons detected in the distal stump was 3.5 fold greater in constructs containing EngNT-dADSC than empty tube controls. Our novel combination of technologies that can organise autologous therapeutic cells within an artificial tissue construct provides a promising new cellular biomaterial for peripheral nerve repair.

  5. The Survival Effects of Electeromagnetic Fields on Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons of the Crushed Sciatic Nerve in the Rat

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    M.R. Nikravesh

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have been shown that electromagnetic fields (EMF result in increasing the rate of nerve regeneration. Therefore it could be assumed following axotomy the signal induction of these fields may protect neural cells from death. For this study 24 male wistar rats (2 month age divided to 4 groups (experimental 1, 2, control and sham. For axotomy, the animals were anesthetized and their right Sciatic Nerve (SN were exposed and crushed in the mid portion of the thigh in experimental and control groups. In the sham group the SN just exposed (no compression. In the next phase experimental groups were exposed to the 50 HZ electeromagnetic field (EMF, 1.1mTl 2-4 hr/day (for 10 days. After 8 weeks, Dorsal Root Ganglions (DRGs in the lumbar segments (L4-L6 of spinal cord were sampled, processed sectioned serially and stained with toluidine blue (pH=4.5. By using stereological quantitative technique (physical disector, the neurons in the crushed side (DRGs were counted and compared in the all of groups. Statistical analyses of results have been shown a remarkable reduction in neuronal density in (DRGs of control. On the other hand we observed a cell death DRG significant among experimental groups (p<0/05. In addition we compared DRG volume in all groups but they didn’t show any significant difference. These findings indicate that the EMF may play a survival role against neuronal death during nerve injuries.

  6. Survey of the results of acute sciatic nerve repair comparing epineural and perineurial techniques in the lower extremities of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Karimi; Kamal Seyed Forootan; Gholamreza Moein; Seyed Jaber Mosavi; Batol Ghorbani Iekta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the result of nerve repair in the two mentioned techniques in rats to find the proper answer to the existing disagreement. Methods: Twenty adult male rats were included in treatment group. Acutely disconnected sciatic nerve was repaired by Epineural technique in half of the rats;in the other half perineurial technique was applied. After 80 d, the number of grown axons of distal on the repair site was calculated through the use of an optical microscope. Additionally by studying the foot print of the rats the return of neural motor activity was evaluated. Results: In epineural group, SFI index was: (56.33±32.30) and in perineurial group: (55.71±30.31);P value=0.930 with their being no difference between these two techniques of surgery. However, in comparing epineural and perineurial groups in the groups themselves, statistical tests showed a significant difference showing functional improvement in comparison with the day before surgery P value=0.0001. Statistical tests showed that the average of axons' number distal to anastomosis site in the epineural group was (349±80) and in the perineurial group was (405±174). These groups have no significant difference regarding the number of axons (P value=0.36). Conclusion:The results of epineural and perineurial surgery techniques show no difference in nerve repair, SFI index, or axon counting in distal part.

  7. Hybrid electro-optical stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve induces force generation in the plantarflexor muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Austin R.; Peterson, Erik; Mackanos, Mark A.; Atkinson, James; Tyler, Dustin; Jansen, E. Duco

    2012-12-01

    Objective. Optical methods of neural activation are becoming important tools for the study and treatment of neurological disorders. Infrared nerve stimulation (INS) is an optical technique exhibiting spatially precise activation in the native neural system. While this technique shows great promise, the risk of thermal damage may limit some applications. Combining INS with traditional electrical stimulation, a method known as hybrid electro-optical stimulation, reduces the laser power requirements and mitigates the risk of thermal damage while maintaining spatial selectivity. Here we investigate the capability of inducing force generation in the rat hind limb through hybrid stimulation of the sciatic nerve. Approach. Hybrid stimulation was achieved by combining an optically transparent nerve cuff for electrical stimulation and a diode laser coupled to an optical fiber for infrared stimulation. Force generation in the rat plantarflexor muscles was measured in response to hybrid stimulation with 1 s bursts of pulses at 15 and 20 Hz and with a burst frequency of 0.5 Hz. Main results. Forces were found to increase with successive stimulus trains, ultimately reaching a plateau by the 20th train. Hybrid evoked forces decayed at a rate similar to the rate of thermal diffusion in tissue. Preconditioning the nerve with an optical stimulus resulted in an increase in the force response to both electrical and hybrid stimulation. Histological evaluation showed no signs of thermally induced morphological changes following hybrid stimulation. Our results indicate that an increase in baseline temperature is a likely contributor to hybrid force generation. Significance. Extraneural INS of peripheral nerves at physiologically relevant repetition rates is possible using hybrid electro-optical stimulation.

  8. Expression of ceramide galactosy transferase in sciatic nerve of rats with diabetic peripheral neuropathy after electroacupuncture at Zusanli and Shenshu points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongsheng Dong; Yunyun Zhang; Yin Shi; Min Zheng; Qiujuan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ceramide galactosyltransferase (GGT) protein and mRNA expression defect can cause the abnormal morphology and slowing conduction velocity of peripheral nerve. Morphologic change and functional disorder of myelin sheath and axon appear when diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) occurs. Whether electroacupuncture at Zusanli(ST 36) and Shenshu(BL 32) points can enhance the expression of CGT protein and mRNA in the DPN tissue?OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture at Zusanli and Shenshu points on motor, sensory conduction velocity and CGT mRNA and its protein expression of sciatic nerve in rats with DPN.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology and Central Laboratory, Yueyang Hospital of Traditional Chinese & Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS : Totally 60 healthy male Wistar rats of clean grade, aged 4 month, with body mass of 200 to 220 g, were enrolled in this study. Streptozotocin (STZ, Sigma Company of USA, Batch No. S-0130).METHODS: This study was carried out in the Animal Experimental Center and Central Laboratory, YueyangHospital of Traditional Chinese & Western Medicine during February 2005 to March 2006. ① Fifteen rats were randomly chosen,serving as normal group.All the other rets were intraperitoneally injected once with STZ to develop experimental diabetic rat models. If fasting blood glucose was ≥ 15 mmol/L,sensory nerve and motor nerve conduction velocity of sciatic nerve was obviously slowed, tail-swaying temperature threshold was increased and myelinated nerve fiber of sciatic nerve changed, DPN models were successful. The successful model rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups: model group, control group(electroacupuncture at non-meridian-non-acupoint)and electroacupuncture group [electroacupuncture at Zusanli and Shenshu points], with 15 rats each. The rats in the normal group and model group were untouched. In the

  9. A new, lateral, continuous, combined, femoral–sciatic nerve approach via a single skin puncture for postoperative analgesia in intramedullary tibial nail insertion

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    Imbelloni LE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni,1,2 Carlos Rava,1,3 Marildo A Gouveia21Faculdade de Medicina Nova Esperança, 2Institute for Regional Anesthesia, 3Complexo Hospitalar de Mangabeira Governador Tarcisio Burity, João Pessoa, BrazilBackground: The prevalence of anterior knee pain following intramedullary tibial nail insertion is high. Continuous peripheral nerve blockade is an alternative method of pain control to opiods. This case illustrates the use of femoral nerve and sciatic nerve peripheral catheters with an elastomeric infusion pump for major intramedullary nailing surgery.Case report: A 36-year-old male with fractures to the left leg bones presented for placement of an intramedullary nail under spinal anesthesia. At the end of the procedure, access to the lateral femoral and sciatic continuous nerve block was achieved by using a stimulator connected to a 110 mm 18G Tuohy needle. Postoperative analgesia was provided with a 40-hour infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine (400 mL at a rate of 10 mL hour-1 with an elastomeric pump. Anesthetic dispersion and contrast were investigated. The analog scale remained with scores below 3 during the 40 hours after surgery, and boluses were not necessary.Conclusion: The use of a femoral and sciatic nerve peripheral catheter offered an alternative to conventional pain control. Continuous femoral–sciatic peripheral blockade via a skin puncture with an infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine with elastomeric pumps is a safe and effective procedure in adults.Keywords: local anesthetic, bupivacaine, continuous peripheral nerve block, orthopedic surgery, tibia, elastomeric pump

  10. The morphological and functional effects of exercise in the aquatic environment, performed before and/or after sciatic nerve compression in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Lucinéia; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise in the aquatic environment, performed before and/or after sciatic nerve compression in Wistar rats on morphological and functional parameters. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), lesion (L), trained+lesion (TL), lesion+exercise (LE), and training+lesion+exercise (TLE), who underwent right sciatic nerve compression on day 21 of the experiment. The TL and TLE groups were submitted to a jumping exercise in a water environment for 20 days prior to injury and the LE and TLE groups after injury. The functional analysis was carried out using the sciatic functional index (SFI). On the last day of the experiment, the right sciatic nerves were collected, processed and analysed according to morphology and morphometry. The C group showed higher SFI in relation to the other groups. In the morphometric analysis, in comparison to C, all groups showed a decrease in the diameter of the injured nerve fibre, the myelin sheath and an increase in the percentage of connective tissue. There was a decrease in axon diameter in L, TL, and LE groups and a decrease in the density of nerve fibres in the TL and LE groups. The exercise did not affect functional recovery. However, the exercise prior to the injury improved morphology of the nervous tissue, and when performed pre- and postinjury, there was also an improvement in nerve regeneration, but this was not the case with exercise performed after the injury demonstrating worse results. PMID:27807516

  11. The morphological and functional effects of exercise in the aquatic environment, performed before and/or after sciatic nerve compression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Lucinéia; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise in the aquatic environment, performed before and/or after sciatic nerve compression in Wistar rats on morphological and functional parameters. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), lesion (L), trained+lesion (TL), lesion+exercise (LE), and training+lesion+exercise (TLE), who underwent right sciatic nerve compression on day 21 of the experiment. The TL and TLE groups were submitted to a jumping exercise in a water environment for 20 days prior to injury and the LE and TLE groups after injury. The functional analysis was carried out using the sciatic functional index (SFI). On the last day of the experiment, the right sciatic nerves were collected, processed and analysed according to morphology and morphometry. The C group showed higher SFI in relation to the other groups. In the morphometric analysis, in comparison to C, all groups showed a decrease in the diameter of the injured nerve fibre, the myelin sheath and an increase in the percentage of connective tissue. There was a decrease in axon diameter in L, TL, and LE groups and a decrease in the density of nerve fibres in the TL and LE groups. The exercise did not affect functional recovery. However, the exercise prior to the injury improved morphology of the nervous tissue, and when performed pre- and postinjury, there was also an improvement in nerve regeneration, but this was not the case with exercise performed after the injury demonstrating worse results.

  12. Post Traumatic Delayed Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy (FNP): Diagnostic Dilemma of Expressionless Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2015-04-01

    Bilateral facial nerve palsy [FNP] is a rare condition. Mostly it is idiopathic. Post traumatic bilateral FNP is even more rare and having unique neurosurgical considerations. Post traumatic delayed presentation of bilateral FNP is socially debilitating and also having diagnostic challenge. Due to lack of facial asymmetry as present in unilateral facial paralysis, it is difficult to recognize. We are presenting a case of delayed onset bilateral FNP who developed FNP after 12 days of head injury with a brief discussion of its diagnostic dilemma and management along with literature review.

  13. Inhibition of the compound action potentials of frog sciatic nerves by aroma oil compounds having various chemical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Matsushita, Akitomo; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2015-03-01

    Plant-derived chemicals including aroma oil compounds have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction and modulate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although applying aroma oils to the skin produces a local anesthetic effect, this has not been yet examined throughly. The aim of the present study was to know how nerve conduction inhibitions by aroma oil compounds are related to their chemical structures and whether these activities are mediated by TRP activation. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Citral (aldehyde), which activates various types of TRP channels, attenuated the peak amplitude of CAP with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.46 mmol/L. Another aldehyde (citronellal), alcohol (citronellol, geraniol, (±)-linalool, (-)-linalool, (+)-borneol, (-)-borneol, α-terpineol), ester (geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate), and oxide (rose oxide) compounds also reduced CAP peak amplitudes (IC50: 0.50, 0.35, 0.53, 1.7, 2.0, 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, 0.51, 0.71, 0.44, and 2.6 mmol/L, respectively). On the other hand, the amplitudes were reduced by a small extent by hydrocarbons (myrcene and p-cymene) and ketone (camphor) at high concentrations (2-5 mmol/L). The activities of citral and other TRP agonists ((+)-borneol and camphor) were resistant to TRP antagonist ruthenium red. An efficacy sequence for the CAP inhibitions was generally aldehydes ≥ esters ≥ alcohols > oxides > hydrocarbons. The CAP inhibition by the aroma oil compound was not related to its octanol-water partition coefficient. It is suggested that aroma oil compounds inhibit nerve conduction in a manner specific to their chemical structures without TRP activation.

  14. Origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve in pig fetuses (Sus scrofa domesticus – Linnaeus, 1758 from the lineage Pen Ar Lan

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    Lázaro Antônio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve was studied in 31 pig fetuses from the lineage Pen Ar Lan, being 22 males and 9 females, after being fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. In these animals, the lumbar vertebrae ranged from 5 to 7, with a predominance of 6, something which contributed to variations in the origin of this nerve. The sciatic nerve originated in 80.64% of the antimeres from the ventral branch of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve (L5; in 96.77 % of L6; in 6.45% of L7; in 100% of S1; and in 64.51% of S2. The composition of this nerve took place in 45.16% of the animals due to the union of L5, L6, S1 and S2; in 32.25% of L5, L6 and S1; in 12.90% of L6, S1 and S2; in 6.45% of L6, L7 and S1; and in 3.22% L5, S1 and S2. There was symmetry in the origin of the sciatic nerve in all specimens under study. This nerve sent branches to the superficial gluteal, semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris muscles in all specimens, and, in a lesser frequency, to the twins, quadratus femoris, adductors, as well as the middle, accessory, and deep gluteal muscles. In 74.19% of the sample, a branch communicating to the pudendal nerve was observed.

  15. Adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block for amputation of lower limb in high-risk patient-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Guang; Ding, Yan-Ling; Han, Ai-Ping; Hu, Chang-Qing; Hao, Shi; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Yong-Wang; Liu, Hu; Han, Zhe; Guo, De-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The ischemia necrosis of limb frequently requires surgery of amputation. Lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block is an ideal intra-operative anesthetic and post-operative antalgic technique for patients of amputation, especially for high-risk patients who have severe cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, the duration of analgesia of peripheral nerve block is hardly sufficient to avoid the postoperative pain and the usage of opioids. In this case, a 79-year-old man, with multiple cerebral infarcts, congestive heart failure, atrial flutter and syncope, was treated with an above knee amputation because of ischemia necrosis of his left lower limb. Dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg was added to 0.33% ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block in this case for intra-operative anesthesia and post-operative analgesia. The sensory function was blocked fully for surgery and the duration of analgesia maintained 26 hours with haemodynamic stability and moderate sedation. The patient did not complain pain and require any supplementary analgesics after surgery. This case showed that adding 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block may be a feasible and safe technique for high-risk patients for lower limb surgery of amputation.

  16. A novel artificial nerve graft for repairing long-distance sciatic nerve defects: a self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xianghai; Pan, Mengjie; Wen, Jinkun; Tang, Yinjuan; Hamilton, Audra D.; Li, Yuanyuan; Qian, Changhui; Liu, Zhongying; Wu, Wutian; Guo, Jiasong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel artificial nerve graft termed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS)-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduit (SPC) and used it to bridge a 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in the rat. Retrograde tracing, behavioral testing and histomorphometric analyses showed that compared with the empty PLGA conduit implantation group, the SPC implantation group had a larger number of growing and extending axons, a markedly increased diameter of...

  17. Effects of Liposomes Charge on Extending Sciatic Nerve Blockade of N-ethyl Bromide of Lidocaine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qinqin; Ke, Bowen; Chen, Xiaobing; Guan, Yikai; Feng, Ping; Chen, Guo; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Wensheng; Nie, Yu

    2016-12-01

    N-methyl bromide of lidocaine (QX-314) is a potential local anaesthetic with compromised penetration through cell membranes due to its obligated positive charge. Liposomes have been widely used for drug delivery with promising efficacy and safety. Therefore we investigated the local anaesthetic effects and tissue reactions of QX-314 in combination with anionic, cationic or neutral liposomes in rat sciatic nerve block model, and explored the effects of these liposomes on cellular entry of QX-314 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The results demonstrated that anionic liposomes substantially prolonged the duration of sensory (25.7 ± 8.3 h) and motor (41.4 ± 6.1 h) blocks of QX-314, while cationic and neutral ones had little effects. Tissue reactions from QX-314 with anionic liposomes were similar to those with commonly used local anaesthetic bupivacaine. Consistent with in vivo results, the anionic liposomes produced the greatest promotion of cellular entry of QX-314 in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, ultra-long lasting nerve blocks were achieved by a mixture of QX-314 and anionic liposomes with a satisfactory safety profile, indicating a potential approach to improve postoperative pain management. The liposome-induced enhancement in cellular uptake of QX-314 may underlie the in vivo effects.

  18. Estimation of the neuromotor system functional state after sciatic nerve neurorrhaphy in experimental conditions of intravenous laser irradiation of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechipurenko, N. I.; Tanin, Leonid V.; Antonov, Ignatii P.; Vasilevskaya, Lyudmila A.; Vlasyuk, P. A.

    1996-12-01

    The speckle-optical methods and the methods of electroneuromyography were used to study the myotonus, the contractional activity of leg muscles and the neuromotor system functional state in intact rabbits and 3 months after the sciatic nerve (SN) neurorrhaphy in conditions of intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB). The blood of animals was exposed to laser radiation with the help of a quartz-polymeric light guide, which has been inserted into the earvein the next day after SN stitching. The radiation power at the light guide output was 2-2.5 mW. Two courses of treatment with a two-week interval have been conducted. It has been established from the speckle-optical study data that ILIB increases the contractional activity of skeletal muscles in animals. The ILIB-therapy after the SN neurorrhaphy normalizes the latent period of M-response and neural cation potential. A tendancy has been revealed to an increase in impulse conduction velocity in motor nerve fibers and in maximal amplitude of the neural action potential. Thus, the ILIB-therapy after SN trauma improves the neuromotor system functional state in experimental animals in the early reinnervation period.

  19. Circadian Rhythm Influences the Promoting Role of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Sciatic Nerve Regeneration in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Ge, Jun; Liu, Zhongyang; Liu, Liang; Jing, Da; Ran, Mingzi; Wang, Meng; Huang, Liangliang; Yang, Yafeng; Huang, Jinghui; Luo, Zhuojing

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythm (CR) plays a critical role in the treatment of several diseases. However, the role of CR in the treatment of peripheral nerve defects has not been studied. It is also known that the pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) can provide a beneficial microenvironment to quicken the process of nerve regeneration and to enhance the quality of reconstruction. In this study, we evaluate the impact of CR on the promoting effect of PEMF on peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. We used the self-made “collagen-chitosan” nerve conduits to bridge the 15-mm nerve gaps in Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results show that PEMF stimulation at daytime (DPEMF) has most effective outcome on nerve regeneration and rats with DPEMF treatment achieve quickly functional recovery after 12 weeks. These findings indicate that CR is an important factor that determines the promoting effect of PEMF on peripheral nerve regeneration. PEMF exposure in the daytime enhances the functional recovery of rats. Our study provides a helpful guideline for the effective use of PEMF mediations experimentally and clinically. PMID:28360885

  20. Pharmacological switch in Aβ-fiber stimulation-induced spinal transmission in mice with partial sciatic nerve injury

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    Ma Lin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that different spinal transmissions are involved in the nociceptive behavior caused by electrical stimulation of Aβ-, Aδ- or C-fibers using a Neurometer® in naïve mice. In this study, we attempted to pharmacologically characterize the alteration in spinal transmission induced by partial sciatic nerve injury in terms of nociceptive behavior and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK in the spinal dorsal horn. Results Aβ-fiber responses (2000-Hz, which were selectively blocked by the AMPA/kainate antagonist CNQX in naïve mice, were hypersensitized but blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 and AP-5 in injured mice in an electrical stimulation-induced paw withdrawal (EPW test. Although Aδ-fiber responses (250-Hz were also hypersensitized by nerve injury, there was no change in the pharmacological characteristics of Aδ-fiber responses through NMDA receptors. On the contrary, C-fiber responses (5-Hz were hyposensitized by nerve injury. Moreover, Aδ- and C-, but not Aβ-fiber stimulations significantly increased the number of pERK-positive neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horns of naïve mice, and corresponding antagonists used in the EPW test inhibited this increase. In mice with nerve injury, Aβ- as well as Aδ-fiber stimulations significantly increased the number of pERK-positive neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, whereas C-fiber stimulation decreased this number. The nerve injury-specific pERK increase induced by Aβ-stimulation was inhibited by MK-801 and AP-5, but not by CNQX. However, Aβ- and Aδ-stimulations did not affect the number or size of pERK-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion, whereas C-fiber-stimulation selectively decreased the number of pERK-positive neurons. Conclusion These results suggest that Aβ-fiber perception is newly transmitted to spinal neurons, which originally receive only Aδ- and C

  1. Internal-specific morphological analysis of sciatic nerve fibers in a radiofrequency-induced animal neuropathic pain model.

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    Samjin Choi

    Full Text Available This study investigated the reversible effects of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF treatment at 42 °C on the ultrastructural and biological changes in nerve and collagen fibers in the progression of neuropathic pain after rat sciatic nerve injury. Assessments of morphological changes in the extracellular matrices by atomic force microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome and picrosirius-red staining as well as the expressions of two fibril-forming collagens, types-I and -III, and two inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were evaluated on day 30 after RF exposure. There were four groups for different RF thermal treatments: no treatment, no current, PRF, and continuous RF (CRF. An RF procedure similar to that used in human clinical trials was used in this study. The CRF treatment at 82 °C led to neural and collagen damage by the permanent blockage of sensory nociceptors. The PRF treatment led to excellent performance and high expandability compared to CRF, with effects including slight damage and swelling of myelinated axons, a slightly decreased amount of collagen fibers, swelling of collagen fibril diameters, decreased immunoreactivity of collagen types-I and -III, presence of newly synthesized collagen, and recovery of inflammatory protein immunoreactivity. These evidence-based findings suggest that PRF-based pain relief is responsible for the temporary blockage of nerve signals as well as the preferential destruction of pain-related principal sensory fibers like the Aδ and C fibers. This suggestion can be supported by the interaction between the PRF-induced electromagnetic field and cell membranes; therefore, PRF treatment provides pain relief while allowing retention of some tactile sensation.

  2. Ameliorative potential of Butea monosperma on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    Venkata R.K. Thiagarajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative role of ethanolic extract from leaves of Butea monosperma in chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal hyperalgesia, cold chemical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia & allodynia in the left hind paw and tail thermal hyperalgesia. Further on, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the biochemical changes in the sciatic nerve tissue. Histopathological changes were also observed in the sciatic nerve tissue. Ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma leaves and pregabalin (serving as positive control were administered for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. CCI resulted in significant changes in behavioural and biochemical parameters. Pretreatment of Butea monosperma attenuated CCI induced development of behavioural, biochemical and histopathological alterations in a dose dependent manner, which is comparable to that of pregabalin pretreated group. These findings may be attributed to its potential anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and calcium channel modulatory actions of Butea monosperma.O presente trabalho visou investigar o papel do extrato etanólico de folhas de Butea monosperma no alívio da dor neuropática pela injúria de constrição crônica (CCI do nervo ciático induzida em ratos. Placa quente, gota de acetona, pressão na pata, testes de imersão de pelo e cauda de Von Frey foram utilizados para acessar o grau de hiperalgesia térmica, alodinia química fria, hiperalgesia mecânica e alodinia na pata trazeira esquerda e hiperalgesia térmica da cauda. Além disso, substâncias reativas com ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, glutatião reduzido (GSH e níveis de cálcio total foram estimados para acessar as altera

  3. Hypoxia-Induced Upregulation of miR-132 Promotes Schwann Cell Migration After Sciatic Nerve Injury by Targeting PRKAG3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chun; Shi, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Zhanhu; Zhou, Songlin; Qian, Tianmei; Wang, Yaxian; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong; Yu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury, hypoxia is formed as a result of defects in blood supply at the injury site. Despite accumulating evidence on the effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on phenotype modulation of Schwann cells (SCs) after peripheral nerve injury, the impact of hypoxia on SC behaviors through miRNAs during peripheral nerve regeneration has not been estimated. In this study, we confirmed our previous microarray data on the upregulation of miR-132 after sciatic nerve injury in rats and observed that overexpression of miR-132 significantly promoted cell migration of primary cultured SCs. Interestingly, hypoxia-increased expression of miR-132 also enhanced SC migration while inhibition of miR-132 suppressed hypoxia-induced increase in SC migration. miR-132 downregulated PRKAG3 through binding to its 3'-UTR, and PRKAG3 knockdown compromised the reducing effect of miR-132 inhibition on SC migration under normal or hypoxia condition. Moreover, in vivo injection of miR-132 agomir into rats with sciatic nerve transection accelerated SC migration from the proximal to distal stump. Overall, our results suggest that the hypoxia-induced upregulation of miR-132 could promote SC migration and facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration.

  4. Potential Contribution of Antioxidant Mechanism in the Defensive Effect of Lycopene Against Partial Sciatic Nerve Ligation Induced Behavioral, Biochemical and Histopathological Modification in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R; Tyagi, N

    2016-12-01

    Neuropathic pain is a severe and unbearable condition which arises due to activation of peripheral nociceptors after tissue damage, neuropathic pain is caused from anomalous physiology of central or peripheral nervous system and it may not be related to the ongoing tissue damage or inflammation. Involvement of oxidative damage has been reported in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lycopene to quench the free radicals produced as a result of the increased oxidative stress in neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was induced in wistar rats by partial sciatic nerve ligation. The effect was evaluated by assessing various behavioral parameters (thermal hyperalgesia, cold hyperalgesia), biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase) as well as histopathological parameters in sciatic nerve. During the experiment group of 8 rats each was administered drugs once daily intraperitonealy (I.P.) and naïve groups, sham group and sciatic nerve ligated group were treated with vehicle for the duration of 14 days. Partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) significantly caused thermal hyperalgesia, cold hyperalgesia and oxidative damage compared to normal and sham groups. Daily administration of lycopene (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg) and gabapentin (100 mg/kg) considerably reversed hyperalgesia, cold hyperalgesia and attenuated oxidative stress when compared to control group. There was significant histological improvement in the in the architecture of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. The results indicated that free radical generation mechanism might be involved in PSNL induced behavior, biochemical and histopathological changes in wistar rats.

  5. Dysregulated expression of death, stress and mitochondrion related genes in the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic SOD1G93A mouse model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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    Chrystian Junqueira Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells are the main source of paracrine support to motor neurons. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been correlated to motor neuron death in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. Despite the involvement of Schwann cells in early neuromuscular disruption in ALS, detailed molecular events of a dying-back triggering are unknown. Sciatic nerves of presymptomatic (60-day-old SOD1G93A mice were submitted to a high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis. DAVID demonstrated the deregulated genes related to death, stress and mitochondrion, which allowed the identification of Cell cycle, ErbB signaling, Tryptophan metabolism and Rig-I-like receptor signaling as the most representative KEGG pathways. The protein-protein interaction networks based upon deregulated genes have identified the top hubs (TRAF2, H2AFX, E2F1, FOXO3, MSH2, NGFR, TGFBR1 and bottlenecks (TRAF2, E2F1, CDKN1B, TWIST1, FOXO3. Schwann cells were enriched from the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic mice using flow cytometry cell sorting. qPCR showed the up regulated (Ngfr, Cdnkn1b, E2f1, Traf2 and Erbb3, H2afx, Cdkn1a, Hspa1, Prdx, Mapk10 and down-regulated (Foxo3, Mtor genes in the enriched Schwann cells. In conclusion, molecular analyses in the presymptomatic sciatic nerve demonstrated the involvement of death, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial pathways in the Schwann cell non-autonomous mechanisms in the early stages of ALS.

  6. Altered sciatic nerve fiber morphology and endoneural microvessels in mouse models relevant for obesity, peripheral diabetic polyneuropathy, and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Marcin; Kosacka, Joanna; Serke, Heike; Blüher, Matthias; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of sciatic nerves from leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, both models for obesity, peripheral diabetic neuropathy, and the metabolic syndrome, has yet to be examined for changes in nerve fibers and in endoneural microvessels. Sciatic nerves from three groups of 4-month-old mice (WT C57BL6, ob/ob, and db/db) were investigated. In ultrathin sections, the thickness of myelin sheaths was significantly reduced in small, medium-sized, and large axons of db/db mice compared with WT mice. In ob/ob mice, only large fibers showed a decrease in myelin sheath thickness. The number of nonmyelinated nerve fibers was lower in ob/ob mice than in the db/db group. A thickened basal lamina of Schwann cells occurred in the ob/ob group only. In contrast, the basement membrane of endoneural microvessels was thickened in both obese groups. For this reason, laminin expression in Western blot analysis was lower in the db/db group than in the ob/ob one. Endoneural microvessels, which had been injected with fluorescein isothiocyanate, depicted signs of vasodilatation in the ob/ob and vasoconstriction in db/db mice. Endoneural vessels displayed two receptors of oxLDL. LOX-1 was strongly expressed in db/db mice, whereas TLR4 was at its maximum in the ob/ob group. We conclude that changes in nerve fibers and in endoneural microvessels are present in sciatic nerve of both mouse models of type 2 diabetes. Upregulation of oxLDL-dependent receptors in endoneural microvessels might be connected to different degrees of oxidative stress in severe diabetic db/db mice and in the mild diabetic ob/ob group.

  7. Rare Presentation of Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Zygomycosis: Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy

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    Alireza Mohebbi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis afflicts primarily diabetics and immunocompromised individual, but can also occur in normal hosts rarely. We here presented an interesting case of facial nerve palsy and multiple cold abscesses of neck due to rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis in an otherwise healthy man. Although some reports of facial nerve paralysis in conjunction with rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis exist, no case of bilateral complete facial paralysis has been reported in the literature to date.

  8. Lyme disease presenting with bilateral facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, G D

    1990-09-01

    Facial palsy bilateral, or recurrent, suggests a myriad of diagnostic possibilities. An 11-year-old boy is described whose diagnosis remained elusive for several months. Clinical evolution and subsequent laboratory studies confirmed that he had Lyme disease. Literature review suggests that this disorder is ubiquitous in its manifestations. The diagnosis should be remembered in unexplained neurologic disorders, particularly in cranial and peripheral neuropathies.

  9. Chronic morphine treatment enhances sciatic nerve stimulation-induced immediate early gene expression in the rat dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovic, Ognjen; Bramham, Clive R; Tjølsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a property of neurons that can be induced by conditioning electrical stimulation (CS) of afferent fibers in the spinal cord. This is a widely studied property of spinal cord and hippocampal neurons. CS has been shown to trigger enhanced expression of immediate early gene proteins (IEGPs), with peak increases observed 2 hour post stimulation. Chronic morphine treatment has been shown to promoteinduce opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and also to increase CS-induced central sensitization in the dorsal horn. As IEGP expression may contribute to development of chronic pain states, we aimed to determine whether chronic morphine treatment affects the expression of IEGPs following sciatic nerve CS. Changes in expression of the IEGPs Arc, c-Fos or Zif268 were determined in cells of the lumbar dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Chronic Morphine pretreatment over 7 days led to a significant increase in the number of IEGP positive cells observed at both 2 h and 6 h after CS. The same pattern of immunoreactivity was obtained for all IEGPs, with peak increases occurring at 2 h post CS. In contrast, morphine treatment alone in sham operated animals had no effect on IEGP expression. We conclude that chronic morphine treatment enhances stimulus-induced expression of IEGPs in the lumbar dorsal horn. These data support the notion that morphine alters gene expression responses linked to nociceptive stimulation and plasticity.

  10. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

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    Antonio Medeiros Venancio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP. EOOb and (−-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38±0.2 and 0.17±0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−-LIN, these values were 0.23±0.0 and 0.13±0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−-LIN in the essential oil.

  11. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (−)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−)-LIN in the essential oil. PMID:27446227

  12. Analgesic effect of piracetam on peripheral neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ashish K; Bhati, Yogendra; Tripathi, Chakra D; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-08-01

    Despite immense advances in the treatment strategies, management of neuropathic pain remains unsatisfactory. Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs, used to improve cognitive impairment. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of piracetam on peripheral neuropathic pain in rats. Neuropathic pain was induced by the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Following this, piracetam was intraperitoneally administered for 2 weeks in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, and pain was assessed by employing the behavioural tests for thermal hyperalgesia (hot plate and tail flick tests) and cold allodynia (acetone test). After the induction of neuropathic pain, significant development of thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia was observed. The administration of piracetam (50 mg/kg) did not have any significant effect on all the behavioural tests. Further, piracetam (100 mg/kg) also had no effect on the hot plate and tail flick tests; however it significantly decreased the paw withdrawal duration in the acetone test. Piracetam in a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly modulated neuropathic pain as observed from the increased hot plate and tail flick latencies, and decreased paw withdrawal duration (in acetone test). Therefore, the present study suggests the potential use of piracetam in the treatment of neuropathic pain, which merits further clinical investigation.

  13. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity.

  14. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, D G; Sousa, S D G; Silva, R E R; Silva-Alves, K S; Ferreira-da-Silva, F W; Kerntopf, M R; Menezes, I R A; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Barbosa, R

    2015-08-01

    Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs) in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM) for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade) significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity.

  15. G-CSF prevents caspase 3 activation in Schwann cells after sciatic nerve transection, but does not improve nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Hanna K; Kodama, Akira; Ekström, Per; Dahlin, Lars B

    2016-10-15

    Exogenous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has emerged as a drug candidate for improving the outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. We raised the question if exogenous G-CSF can improve nerve regeneration following a clinically relevant model - nerve transection and repair - in healthy and diabetic rats. In short-term experiments, distance of axonal regeneration and extent of injury-induced Schwann cell death was quantified by staining for neurofilaments and cleaved caspase 3, respectively, seven days after repair. There was no difference in axonal outgrowth between G-CSF-treated and non-treated rats, regardless if healthy Wistar or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were examined. However, G-CSF treatment caused a significant 13% decrease of cleaved caspase 3-positive Schwann cells at the lesion site in healthy rats, but only a trend in diabetic rats. In the distal nerve segments of healthy rats a similar trend was observed. In long-term experiments of healthy rats, regeneration outcome was evaluated at 90days after repair by presence of neurofilaments, wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, and perception of touch (von Frey monofilament testing weekly). The presence of neurofilaments distal to the suture line was similar in G-CSF-treated and non-treated rats. The weight ratio of ipsi-over contralateral gastrocnemius muscles, and perception of touch at any time point, were likewise not affected by G-CSF treatment. In addition, the inflammatory response in short- and long-term experiments was studied by analyzing ED1 stainable macrophages in healthy rats, but in neither case was any attenuation seen at the injury site or distal to it. G-CSF can prevent caspase 3 activation in Schwann cells in the short-term, but does not detectably affect the inflammatory response, nor improve early or late axonal outgrowth or functional recovery.

  16. Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy in Acute B Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Shiraj; Gupta, Arjun; Friedman, Paul; Naina, Harris V

    2016-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a haematological malignancy that can involve the central nervous system (CNS). Less than 10 % of patients with ALL have CNS involvement at presentation. The cranial nerve most commonly affected is cranial nerve VII although bilateral involvement is rare. Management and outcomes of these patients are not well understood. Moreover bilateral Bells palsy as a presenting symptom of ALL is extremely uncommon. We report a very unusual presentation of ALL with bilateral facial nerve palsy, and discuss the management strategies and outcomes for patients with ALL that present with cranial nerve palsies.

  17. Bilateral optic nerve edema presenting as initial manifestation of thyroid eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michelle E; Kim, Charles; Carrasco, Jacqueline

    2016-10-01

    A 48-year-old smoker with a history of hyperthyroidism treated 10 years prior to presentation with radioactive iodine ablation of the thyroid gland presented to his ophthalmologist with a 2-week history of transient loss of vision in the right eye occurring for 1 to 2 hours each morning. He denied ocular pain, diplopia or change in the prominence of one or both eyes. Examination revealed 2 mm of relative proptosis on the right, bilateral temporal flare and lower lid retraction. There was minimal upper lid retraction and no evidence of lid lag. Ocular motility was full. Dilated fundoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic nerve edema, right more than left. CT of the orbit demonstrated enlargement of the extraocular muscles bilaterally with marked enlargement of the right medial rectus and left inferior rectus muscles resulting in crowding at the orbital apex bilaterally. Laboratory testing revealed the patient to be hyperthyroid. The patient was treated with high dose oral steroids followed by orbital radiation. Hyperthyroidism was managed by the patient's primary care physician. Visual symptoms rapidly improved with oral steroids and orbital radiation. Optic nerve edema completely resolved. Repeat CT imaging demonstrated a reduction in the enlargement of the extraocular muscles with relief of bilateral optic nerve compression.

  18. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI, decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb. The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis.

  19. Our anesthesia experiences with geriatric patients at high risk group undergoing hip surgery under combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım Tuzcu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effect of psoas compartment and sciatic nerve block combination on hemodynamic parameters in high risk geriatric patients with hip fracture surgeries was evaluated. Methods. In this study, high risk old patients who underwent psoas compartment block and sciatic nerve block for hip surgery anesthesia were evaluated retrospectively. In Group 1 there were 14 patients with levobupivacaine and lidocaine combination and in Group 2 there were 10 patients with levobupivacaine and prilocaine combination. In our study we evaluated the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure levels and sedation need between groups, between age over and below 85 years and in all patients. Results. There were no statistically significant difference in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure levels between groups and age groups (p˃0.05. There were a 6.18% and 16.52% decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in Group 1 and 2 respectively. When we evaluated the whole patients there was a 10.06% decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. Conclusion. We consider that the combination of psoas and sciatic block as an anesthetic method may be a proper option especially in the elderly and high-risk patients who were underwent the hip surgery.

  20. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Yang, Sheng Bo

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA) treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI), decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb). The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis.

  1. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX® on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries

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    Gärtner A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX®, was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal®, was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL, ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX ® alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX® induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC. At opposite toe off (OT and heel rise (HR, differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either UCX® alone or UCX® administered with Floseal®. Overall, the UCX® application presented

  2. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Han-yu Dong; Xin-mei Jiang; Chun-bo Niu; Lin Du; Jun-yan Feng; Fei-yong Jia

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve...

  3. A novel artiifcial nerve graft for repairing long-distance sciatic nerve defects:a self-assembling peptide nanoifber scaffold-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghai Wang; Jiasong Guo; Mengjie Pan; Jinkun Wen; Yinjuan Tang; Audra D Hamilton; Yuanyuan Li; Changhui Qian; Zhongying Liu; Wutian Wu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel artiifcial nerve graft termed self-assembling peptide nanoifber scaffold (SAPNS)-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduit (SPC) and used it to bridge a 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in the rat. Retrograde tracing, behavioral testing and histomorphometric analyses showed that compared with the empty PLGA conduit implanta-tion group, the SPC implantation group had a larger number of growing and extending axons, a markedly increased diameter of regenerated axons and a greater thickness of the myelin sheath in the conduit. Furthermore, there was an increase in the size of the neuromuscular junction and myoifber diameter in the target muscle. These ifndings suggest that the novel artiifcial SPC nerve graft can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination in the transected peripheral nerve and can be used for repairing peripheral nerve injury.

  4. A novel artificial nerve graft for repairing long-distance sciatic nerve defects: a self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianghai; Pan, Mengjie; Wen, Jinkun; Tang, Yinjuan; Hamilton, Audra D.; Li, Yuanyuan; Qian, Changhui; Liu, Zhongying; Wu, Wutian; Guo, Jiasong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel artificial nerve graft termed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS)-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduit (SPC) and used it to bridge a 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in the rat. Retrograde tracing, behavioral testing and histomorphometric analyses showed that compared with the empty PLGA conduit implantation group, the SPC implantation group had a larger number of growing and extending axons, a markedly increased diameter of regenerated axons and a greater thickness of the myelin sheath in the conduit. Furthermore, there was an increase in the size of the neuromuscular junction and myofiber diameter in the target muscle. These findings suggest that the novel artificial SPC nerve graft can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination in the transected peripheral nerve and can be used for repairing peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25657734

  5. Transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of optic nerves associated with bilateral occipital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdev Mahipal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A case is reported of a 9-year old male who presented with abnormal behaviour and progressive diminution of vision. Pupils were middilated in both eyes but the pupillary reflexes were preserved. Fundus examination revealed a bilateral optic atrophy and radiological investigations showed a bilateral occipital calcification. We hereby document a case of retrograde transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of the visual system secondary to bilateral occipital lesions. Transsynapptic neuronal degeneration of optic nerves consequent to occipital lobe lesions is a rare phenomenon. Experimentally occipital lobe ablation in non-human primates has been shown to result in optic atrophy. Herein, we document a case of retrograde transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of the visual system secondary to bilateral occipital lesions.

  6. Obturator nerve impingement as a severe late complication of bilateral triple pelvic osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, K; Hayashi, K

    2012-01-01

    A four-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever, which had undergone bilateral triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) at the age of eight months, was presented with severe progressive shifting pelvic limb lameness for a duration of three months prior to presentation. The dog had multiple episodes of showing signs of excruciating pain, as well as an inability to rise or ambulate, inappetance, and lethargy. Orthopaedic examination revealed severe bilateral pelvic limb muscular atrophy, and signs of severe pain on abduction of the pelvic limbs, on rectal palpation ventrally, and on palpation of the region of the iliopsoas and pectineus muscles bilaterally. Surgery was indicated to explore the region and to release the pectineus and iliopsoas muscles. During surgery, callus tissue and the free section of pubic bone were found to be impinging on the obturator nerve at the previous TPO pubic osteotomy site bilaterally. On both sides, a 1 to 2 cm segment of pubis and fibrous callus tissue were excised and the obturator nerves were freed from the impingement. Immediately after the surgery, the patient's stance and gait were dramatically improved. The dog could maintain a much broader based stance and make longer strides with the pelvic limbs. At the two month follow-up examination, there were not any signs of lameness noted. Obturator nerve impingement can be a serious potential complication of TPO and may manifest clinically as marked pelvic limb lameness years after surgery.

  7. Effect of delayed intrathecal administration of capsaicin on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats

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    Zhang K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kun Zhang,1 Somayaji Ramamurthy,1 Thomas J Prihoda,2 Maxim S Eckmann1 1Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA Purpose: The current study was designed to examine the antinociceptive effect of intrathecally administered capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor agonist, in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Methods: Male adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to six groups, and all rats underwent unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Two weeks after injury, five groups received intrathecal administration of either capsaicin in three different dosing regimens or equal volumes of vehicle. The other group received intrathecal capsaicin on the third day after nerve injury. The antinociceptive effect of capsaicin was assessed by measuring the capsaicin-induced change in thermal and mechanical response thresholds. Results: Capsaicin (150–300 µg/100–200 µL, when administered by fast infusion or chronic infusions at 8 µL/hour or 1 µL/hour, attenuated thermal hyperalgesia as indicated by significantly prolonging paw withdrawal latency to noxious thermal stimulation. The antinociceptive effect of capsaicin was more profound in the injured limb compared to that in the uninjured limb. When capsaicin was administered on the third day after nerve injury, it failed to attenuate thermal hyperalgesia. No significant effect on the mechanical response threshold was observed with intrathecally administered capsaicin. Conclusion: Our data suggest that intrathecal capsaicin could significantly attenuate thermal hyperalgesia, depending on the time when the drug is given after nerve injury, and that the antinociceptive efficacy of intrathecal capsaicin positively correlates with the previously reported dynamic profile of spinal transient receptor potential

  8. Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after transplanting microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbits into injured spinal cord of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression reflect function of nerve cells; meanwhile, they play a significant role in researching interventions on plerosis of nerve injury.OBJECTIVE: To observe and compare the effects on changes of BDNF expression in rats with spinal cord injury between microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbits and only transplanting sciatic nerve cells of rabbits.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Medical School of Jiujiang College.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Medical Science Researching Center, Jiujiang College from May 2004 to May 2006. A total of 90 healthy adult SD rats, weighing 250 - 300 g, of either gender; and 10 rabbits, weighing 2.0 - 2.5 kg, of either gender, were provided by Jiangxi Experimental Animal Center.METHODS: Sciatic nerve tissue of rabbits was separated to make cell suspension. After centrifugation,suspension was mixed with 15 g/L alginate saline solution and ejaculated to 20 mmol/L barium chloride saline solution by double-cavity ejaculator. The obtained cell microcapsules were suspended in saline. Rats were randomly divided into microencapsulated group, only suspension group, and only injured group with 30 animals in each group. After anesthesia, T10 spinous process and vertebra lamina of rats in the former two groups were exposed. Spinal cord tissue in 2-mm length was removed from rats by spinal cord right hemi-section. The gelatin sponges with the size of 2 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm were grafted as filing cage,and absorbed 10 μμ L microencapsulated sciatic nerve cells of rabbit in the microencapsulated group and 10 μ L sciatic nerve cells of rabbits in the only suspension group; respectively. No graft was placed in the only injured group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: On the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days after operation,immunohistochemistry (SABC technique) was used to detect distribution and amount of positive-reactive neurons in BDNF of spinal cord

  9. Localization and expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in postmortem sciatic nerve from patients with motor neuron disease and diabetic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.A. [Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States); Gross, L.; Wittrock, D.A.; Windebank, A.J. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the mature motor system. The factor is found most abundantly in myelinating Schwann cells in the adult sciatic nerve. Lack of neuronal growth factors has been proposed as one possible etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Growth factor replacement therapies are currently being evaluated as a treatment for motor neuron disease. In this report we determined whether the expression of CNTF in sciatic nerve differed in patients with motor neuron disease compared to controls or patients with another form of axonopathy. We identified 8 patients (7 with ALS and 1 with SMA) with motor neuron disease and 6 patients with diabetic motor neuropathy who had autopsy material available. Immunoperoxidase staining showed reduced CNTF expression in nerves of patients with motor neuron disease but not in patients with diabetic motor neuropathy. Decreased CNTF appears be associated with primary motor neuron disease rather than a generalized process of axon loss. This result supports suggestions that CNTF deficiency may be an important factor in the development of motor neuron disease. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Ameliorating Role of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE Against Methotrexate-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Sciatic Nerve, Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Tissues of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Uzar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate (MTX-associated neurotoxicity is an important clinical problem in cancer patients, but the mechanisms of MTX-induced neurotoxicity are not yet known exactly. The aims of this study were (1 to investigate the possible role of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT in the pathogenesis of MTX-induced neurotoxicity and (2 to determine whether there is a putative protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE on MTX-induced neurotoxicity in the spinal cord, brainstem and sciatic nerve of rats. METHODS: A total of 19 adult Wistar male rats were divided into three experimental groups. Group I, control group; Group II, MTX-treated group; and Group III, MTX + CAPE-treated group. MTX was administered to the MTX and MTX + CAPE groups intraperitoneally (IP with a single dose of 20 mg/kg on the second day of the experiment. CAPE was administered to the MTX + CAPE group IP with a dose of 10 μmol/kg for 7 days. RESULTS: In the sciatic nerve and spinal cord tissue, CAT and GSH-Px activities were increased in the MTX group in comparison with the control group. CAPE treatment with MTX significantly decreased CAT and GSH-Px activities in the neuronal tissues of rats in comparison with the MTX group. In the spinal cord and brainstem tissues, SOD activity in the MTX group was decreased in comparison with the control group, but in the sciatic nerve, there was no significant difference. In the spinal cord and brainstem of rats, SOD activity was increased in the CAPE + MTX group when compared with the MTX group. The level of MDA was higher in the MTX group than in the control group. CAPE administration with MTX injection caused a significant decrease in MDA level when compared with the MTX group. CONCLUSION: These results reveal that MTX increases oxidative stress in the sciatic nerve, spinal cord and brainstem of rats and that CAPE has a preventive effect on the

  11. Unilateral occipital nerve stimulation for bilateral occipital neuralgia: a case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aijun; Jiao, Yongcheng; Ji, Huijun; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to present a case of successful relief of bilateral occipital neuralgia (ON) using unilateral occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) and to discuss the possible underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods We present the case of a 59-year-old female patient with severe bilateral ON treated with unilateral ONS. We systematically reviewed previous studies of ONS for ON, discussing the possible mechanisms of ONS in the relief of ON. Results The patient reported complete pain relief after consistent unilateral ONS during the follow-up period. The underlying mechanisms may be linked to the relationship between pain and several brain regions, including the pons, midbrain, and periaqueductal gray. Conclusion ONS is an effective and safe option for treating ON. Future studies will be required to clarify the mechanisms by which unilateral occipital stimulation provided relief for bilateral neuralgia in this case. PMID:28176938

  12. Long-term regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve through a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide: tissue reactions with focus on collagen III/IV reformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Koen; Meek, Marcel F; van der Werff, John F A; van Wachem, Pauline B; van Luyn, Marja J A

    2004-05-01

    Long-term studies on nerve-guide regeneration are scarce. Therefore, in rats, long-term (16 months) sciatic nerve regeneration through poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) [poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL)] nerve guides was studied and compared with the nonoperated control side. Poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) degradation and possible long-term foreign body reaction against poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides, as well as the distribution of both collagen type III and IV were studied. In vivo poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) studies have been performed before but not for such long time points; also, a detailed analysis of collagen III/IV has not been presented before. The results demonstrate that biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides yield good nerve regeneration and collagen III/IV deposition relative to the anatomy of the control side. Regenerated nerve showed almost similar collagen type III/IV distribution patterns as compared with the nonoperated control side, although the delineation of matrix was clearer in the control side. The relative amount of collagen III and IV immunostaining in nerve cross-sections did not, however, differ between the control nerve tissue and the operated side after 16 months. After 16 months of implantation, however, some very small fragments of biomaterial could still be found on the edge of the epineurium of the regenerated nerve, indicating remnants of a secondary foreign body reaction. The biomaterial fragments and foreign body reaction did not influence the nerve regeneration process after 16 months. Biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides are useful for long-term bridging of short peripheral nerve gaps.

  13. ProNGF derived from rat sciatic nerves downregulates neurite elongation and axon specification in PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sofia Trigos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several reports have shown that a sciatic nerve conditioned media (CM causes neuronal-like differentiation in PC12 cells. This differentiation is featured by neurite outgrowth, which are exclusively dendrites, without axon or sodium current induction. In previous studies, our group reported that the CM supplemented with a generic inhibitor for tyrosine kinase receptors (k252a enhanced the CM-induced morphological differentiation upregulating neurite outgrowth, axonal formation and sodium current elicitation. Sodium currents were also induced by depletion of endogenous proNGF from the CM (pNGFd-CM. Given that sodium currents, neurite outgrowth and axon specification are important features of neuronal differentiation, in the current manuscript, first we investigated if proNGF was hindering the full PC12 cell neuronal-like differentiation. Second, we studied the effects of exogenous wild type (pNGFwt and mutated (pNGFmut proNGF isoforms over sodium currents and, whether or not their addition to the pNGFd-CM would prevent sodium current elicitation. Third, we investigated if proNGF was exerting its negative regulation through the sortilin receptor, and for this, the proNGF action was blocked with neurotensin (NT, a factor known to compete with proNGF for sortilin. Thereby, here we show that pNGFd-CM enhanced cell differentiation, cell proportion with long neurites, total neurite length, induced axonal formation and sodium current elicitation. Interestingly, treatment of PC12 cells with wild type or mutated proNGF isoforms elicited sodium currents. Supplementing pNGFd-CM with pNGFmut reduced 35% the sodium currents. On the other hand, pNGFd-CM+pNGFwt induced larger sodium currents than pNGFd-CM. Finally, treatments with CM supplemented with NT showed that sortilin was mediating proNGF negative regulation, since its blocking induced similar effects than the pNGFd-CM treatment. Altogether, our results suggest that proNGF within the CM, is one of the

  14. Evaluation of ketamine, nimodipine, gabapentin and imipramine in partial sciatic nerve transection model of neuropathic pain in rat: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hota, D; Bansal, V; Pattanaik, S

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this research is to study the effects of nimodipine, gabapentin, ketamine and imipramine in the partial sciatic nerve transection (PST) model of neuropathic pain in rats. PST was produced in young Wistar rats of either sex by partial destruction of the sciatic nerve. A decrease in the latency to paw withdrawal reaction on the hot plate was considered as development of neuropathy. The drugs were given daily from the third day of the procedure, and evaluation was done on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. There was a significant decrease (p withdrawal response in the nimodipine group from day 14 onward when compared with the control group. In the ketamine and imipramine group, this response was seen from day 21 onward. The effect persisted till the end of the study. There was no improvement in the gabapentin group. The results of our study show that nimodipine (dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker), ketamine (NMDA antagonist) and imipramine (tricyclic antidepressant) modulated hyperalgesia and allodynia in the PST model of neuropathy. Gabapentin (an alpha-2 delta calcium subunit blocker) did not show any effect in this model of neuropathy. The widespread use of gabapentin in various types of neuropathic pain thus needs to be reevaluated.

  15. Effects of Various Antiepileptics Used to Alleviate Neuropathic Pain on Compound Action Potential in Frog Sciatic Nerves: Comparison with Those of Local Anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Uemura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptics used for treating neuropathic pain have various actions including voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels, glutamate-receptor inhibition, and GABAA-receptor activation, while local anesthetics are also used to alleviate the pain. It has not been fully examined yet how nerve conduction inhibitions by local anesthetics differ in extent from those by antiepileptics. Fast-conducting compound action potentials (CAPs were recorded from frog sciatic nerve fibers by using the air-gap method. Antiepileptics (lamotrigine and carbamazepine concentration dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP (IC50=0.44 and 0.50 mM, resp.. Carbamazepine analog oxcarbazepine exhibited an inhibition smaller than that of carbamazepine. Antiepileptic phenytoin (0.1 mM reduced CAP amplitude by 15%. On the other hand, other antiepileptics (gabapentin, sodium valproate, and topiramate at 10 mM had no effect on CAPs. The CAPs were inhibited by local anesthetic levobupivacaine (IC50=0.23 mM. These results indicate that there is a difference in the extent of nerve conduction inhibition among antiepileptics and that some antiepileptics inhibit nerve conduction with an efficacy similar to that of levobupivacaine or to those of other local anesthetics (lidocaine, ropivacaine, and cocaine as reported previously. This may serve to know a contribution of nerve conduction inhibition in the antinociception by antiepileptics.

  16. Bilateral additional slips of triceps brachii forming osseo-musculo-fibrous tunnels for ulnar nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Rs; Rao, Mkg; Somayaji, Sn; Raghu, J; Pamidi, N

    2013-07-01

    Rare additional slips of triceps brachii muscle was found bilaterally in a sixty two year old South Indian male cadaver during routine dissection of upper limb for undergraduate students at Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India. On left side, the variant additional muscle slip took origin from the lower part of the medial intermuscular septum about 4 cm proximal to the medial humeral epicondyle. From its origin, the muscle fibres were passing over the ulnar nerve and were joining the triceps muscle to get inserted to the upper surface of olecranon process of ulna. On right side, the additional muscle slip was larger and bulkier and was arising from the lower part of the medial border of the humerus about 4 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle in addition to its attachment to the medial intermuscular septum. On both sides, the additional slips were supplied by twigs from the radial nerve. On both sides, the ulnar nerve was passing between variant additional slip and the lower part of the shaft of the humerus in an osseo-musculo-fibrous tunnel. Such variant additional muscle slips may affect the function of triceps muscle and can lead to snapping of medial head of triceps and ulnar nerve over medial epicondyle and also can dynamically compress the ulnar nerve during the contraction of triceps leading to ulnar neuropathy around the elbow.

  17. Midbrain hematoma presenting with isolated bilateral palsy of the third cranial nerve in a Moroccan man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ouali Ouarda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bilateral third nerve palsy secondary to a hemorrhagic stroke is exceptional. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported in the literature. Case presentation We describe the case of a 69-year-old Moroccan man who presented with isolated sudden bilateral third nerve palsy. Computed tomography (CT of the brain revealed a midbrain hematoma. The oculomotor function gradually and completely improved over eight months of follow-up. Conclusion Stroke should be included in the differential diagnosis of sudden isolated oculomotor paralysis even when it is bilateral because of the severity of the underlying disease and the importance of its therapeutic implications.

  18. Unilateral occipital nerve stimulation for bilateral occipital neuralgia: a case report and literature review

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    Liu A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aijun Liu, Yongcheng Jiao, Huijun Ji, Zhiwen Zhang Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objectives: The aim of this study is to present a case of successful relief of bilateral occipital neuralgia (ON using unilateral occipital nerve stimulation (ONS and to discuss the possible underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 59-year-old female patient with severe bilateral ON treated with unilateral ONS. We systematically reviewed previous studies of ONS for ON, discussing the possible mechanisms of ONS in the relief of ON. Results: The patient reported complete pain relief after consistent unilateral ONS during the follow-up period. The underlying mechanisms may be linked to the relationship between pain and several brain regions, including the pons, midbrain, and periaqueductal gray. Conclusion: ONS is an effective and safe option for treating ON. Future studies will be required to clarify the mechanisms by which unilateral occipital stimulation provided relief for bilateral neuralgia in this case. Keywords: occipital neuralgia, neuromodulation, peripheral nerve stimulation

  19. An Unusual Case of Neuralgic Amyotrophy Presenting with Bilateral Phrenic Nerve and Vocal Cord Paresis

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    F. Holtbernd

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuralgic amyotrophy (brachial plexus neuropathy, brachial plexus neuritis, or Parsonage-Turner syndrome is an uncommon inflammatory condition typically characterized by acute and severe shoulder pain followed by paresis with muscle weakness and atrophy of the upper limb or shoulder girdle. We report an unusual clinical manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy, namely bilateral phrenic nerve palsy with concomitant laryngeal paresis. Case Report: A 55-year-old male presented with orthopnea and aphonia after an episode of bilateral shoulder pain preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. Spirometry, chest X-ray and videolaryngoscopy revealed bilateral and simultaneous paresis of the diaphragm and the vocal cords. Clinical examination at admission and at the 2-month follow-up did not show upper limb weakness or atrophy, except for a mild atrophy of the right supraspinatus muscle. An electromyography of the upper limb muscles and nerve conduction studies did not reveal signs of denervation. Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid and an MRI of the neuraxis were unremarkable. After treatment with prednisolone, vocal cord function markedly improved within 8 weeks, whereas paresis of the diaphragm persisted. Conclusion: Shoulder pain followed by diaphragmatic paralysis with dyspnea and hoarseness may be a manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy even if upper limb or shoulder girdle palsies are absent.

  20. Leg Weakness Caused by Bilateral Piriformis Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hee Bong; Nam, Ki Yeun; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin Woo; Ryu, Gi Hyeong; Lee, Ho Jun; Kim, Chang Jae

    2015-12-01

    Piriformis syndrome (PS) is an uncommon neuromuscular disorder caused by the piriformis muscle (PM) compressing the sciatic nerve (SN). The main symptom of PS is sciatica, which worsens with certain triggering conditions. Because the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there are no definite diagnostic and therapeutic choices for PS. This case report presents a young woman who mainly complained of bilateral leg weakness. Electromyography revealed bilateral sciatic neuropathy and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed structural lesions causing entrapment of the bilateral SNs. After a laborious diagnosis of bilateral PS, she underwent PM releasing surgery. Few PS cases present with bilateral symptoms and leg weakness. Therefore, in such cases, a high level of suspicion is necessary for accurate and prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  1. The Neuroprotective Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Neuronal Density of Spinal Cord Alpha Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

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    M Tehranipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injuries of the peripheral nerve system affect the neurons cell body leading to axon injury. Cannabis sativa plant has anti oxidant and anti apoptotic effects. Therefore the aim of present study was to study the neuroprotective effect of alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves on neuronal density of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Methods: In this experimental research, animals were divided into four groups; A: control, B: compression, C: compression+ treatment with 25 mg/kg alcoholic extract, D: compression + treatment with 50 mg/kg extract (n=8. At first, sciatic nerve compression in B, C and D groups was achieved for 60 seconds using locker pincers. Alcoholic extract was injected intra peritoneally in the first and second weeks after compression. Then 28 days after compression, under profusion method, the lumbar spinal cord was sampled and the numerical density in each group was compared with the compression group. The data was analyzed with the use of Minitab 14 software and ANOVA statistical test. Results: Neuronal density showed a meaningful difference in the compression and control groups(P<0.001. Neuronal density in treatment groups(25, 50 mg/kg also had a meaningful increase(P<0.001 as compared to the compression group. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves has a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord alpha motoneurons after injury. This could be due to growth and regeneration factors present in the alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves that induce regeneration process in injured neurons or prevent degeneration.

  2. Neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve and F.D.G. PET: case report and review; Neurolymphomatose du nerf sciatique en TEP au FDG: a propos d'un cas et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruna-Muraille, C.; Papathanassiou, D.; Cuif-Job, A.; Liehn, J.C. [Institut Jean-Godinot, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 51 - Reims (France); Job, L. [CHU Robert-Debre, Service de Radiologie, 51 - Reims (France); Kolb, B.; Himberlin, C.; Delmer, A. [CHU Robert-Debre, Service d' Hematologie Clinique, 51 - Reims (France)

    2009-12-15

    We are reporting the case of a woman who has been suffering from sciatica for several months. A neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve was found. In this report, we present the characteristics of this lesion in conventional imaging and in F.D.G. PET. (authors)

  3. Utilization of scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in laser-induced bilateral human retinal nerve fiber layer damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Harry; Gagliano, Donald A.; Ruiz, S.; Stuck, Bruce E.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a military laser accident case where bilateral Q-switched laser exposure resulted in bilateral macular damage with immediate visual acuity loss in one eye (OS) and delayed visual acuity loss in the other exposed eye (OD), where retinal damage appeared more parafoveal. At 6 weeks post exposure, OS had recovered to 20/17 and OD had dropped to 20/100 Snellen activity. Retinal nerve fiber damage was observed in both eyes at this time. Contrast sensitivity measurements made in OS were suppressed across all spatial frequencies, even though Snellen acuity measured in the normal range. More severe high spatial frequency loss in contrast was measured in the right eye as well as low spatial frequency loss. Both OS and OD revealed a parafoveal preferred retinal locus with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy contrast sensitivity measurements, suggesting parafoveal retinal compensatory processes.

  4. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factors I and II are mitogenic to cultured rat sciatic nerve segments and stimulate [3H]thymidine incorporation through their respective receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Kanje, M

    1996-01-01

    , on [3H]thymidine incorporation into cultured nerve segments from the rat sciatic nerve. Segments cultured in nM (0.1-1.7 nM) concentrations of insulin, truncated IGF-I (tIGF-I), long R3IGF-I, or IGF-II exhibited an increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation compared with control segments. IGF-II was most...

  5. Case Report of Lewis and Sumner Syndrome with Bilateral Vagus Nerves Paralysis for 16 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasaghi, Attiyeh; Ashraf, Alireza; Shirzadi, Alireza; Petramfar, Peyman

    2016-12-01

    This report describes a patient with dysphonia for 16 years in combination with asymmetric and progressive decrease in sense and power of both upper and lower extremities for the past 3 years. Electrophysiological study revealed asymmetric conduction block and abnormal sensory action potential in 4 limbs. The vagus nerves palsy and abnormal electrodiagnosis of the limbs led us to diagnose the disease as Lewis and Sumner syndrome, also called multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy diagnosis, which improved by corticosteroid consumption to some extent. This case is uncommon by its long time presentation and progression. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous bilateral vagus nerve palsy in combination with upper and lower limbs' demyelinating neuropathy. In conclusion, persistent dysphonia can be a part of the presentation of demyelinating neuropathy.

  6. Effects of transplantation of microencapsulated rabbit sciatic nerve on nuclear factor-kappa B expression after spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolian Wang; Jianmin Ma; Hui Chen; Deming Liu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- k B), activated after spinal cord injury in rats, plays a key role in inflammatory responses in the central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of transplantation of microencapsulated rabbit sciatic nerve on NF- k B expression and motor function after spinal cord injury in rats, and to compare the results with the transplantation of rabbit sciatic nerve alone.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This completely randomized, controlled study was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Medical College of Nanchang University between December 2007 and July 2008.MATERIALS: A rabbit anti-NF- k B P65 monoclonal antibody was made by the Santa Cruz Company, USA and a streptavidin peroxidase immunohistochemical kit was provided by the Sequoia Company, China.METHODS: Eight rabbits were used to prepare a sciatic nerve cell suspension that was divided into two parts: one stored for transplantation, and the other mixed with a 1.5% sodium alginate solution. One hundred and twenty adult Sprague Dawley rats weighing 220-250 g were randomly divided into four groups: the microencapsulated cell group (n = 36), the non-encapsulated cell group (n = 36), the saline group (n = 36) and the sham operation group (n = 12). The first three groups underwent a right hemisection injury of the spinal cord at the T level, into which was transplanted a gelatin sponge soaked with 10 μ L of a microencapsulated nerve tissue/cell suspension (microencapsulated cell group), a tissue/cell suspension (non-encapsulated cell group) or physiological saline (saline group). In the sham operation group the vertebrae were exposed, but the spinal cord was not injured, and no implantation was given.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pathological changes were detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining; NF- K B expression was quantified using immunohistochemical staining; motor function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale

  7. Neurturin enhances the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat

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    Klein Robert D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival and preservation of function for adult parasympathetic ganglion neurons following injury remain incompletely understood. However, advances in the neurobiology of growth factors, neural development, and prevention of cell death have led to a surge of clinical interest for protective and regenerative neuromodulatory strategies, as surgical therapies for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers often result in neuronal axotomy and debilitating loss of sexual function or continence. In vitro studies have identified neurturin, a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, as a neuromodulator for pelvic cholinergic neurons. We present the first in vivo report of the effects of neurturin upon the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat. Methods In these experiments, groups (n = 8 each consisted of uninjured controls and animals treated with injection of albumin (blinded crush control group, extended release neurotrophin-4 or neurturin to the site of cavernous nerve crush injury (100 μg per animal. After 5 weeks, recovery of erectile function (treatment effect was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation and peak aortic pressures were measured. Investigators were unblinded to specific treatments after statistical analyses were completed. Results Erectile dysfunction was not observed in the sham group (mean maximal intracavernous pressure [ICP] increase of 117.5 ± 7.3 cmH2O, whereas nerve injury and albumin treatment (control produced a significant reduction in ICP elevation of 40.0 ± 6.3 cmH2O. Neurturin facilitated the preservation of erectile function, with an ICP increase of 55% at 62.0 ± 9.2 cmH2O (p Conclusion Treatment with neurturin at the site of cavernous nerve crush injury facilitates recovery of erectile function. Results support further investigation of neurturin as a neuroprotective and/or neuroregenerative

  8. 甲壳素神经再生室注入聚乳酸-聚乙醇酸-重组人促红细胞生成素微球促进缺损周围神经的修复%Injection of polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid-recombinant human erythropoietin microspheres into chitin nerve regeneration chamber can promote sciatic nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚洲; 陈清汉; 任明明

    2012-01-01

    背景:促红细胞生成素除了具有造血的作用以外,对神经系统损伤的修复也起着重要作用.目的:观察聚乳酸-聚乙醇酸-重组人促红细胞生成素微球对大鼠坐骨神经再生的作用.方法:雌性SD大鼠60只,随机分为3组.制备大鼠双侧坐骨神经缺损模型(1 cm缺损)以及可吸收甲壳素神经再生室.实验组室内注入聚乳酸-聚乙醇酸-重组人促红细胞生成素微球;对照组室内注入聚乳酸-聚乙醇酸微球;空白对照组室内注入等渗生理盐水.结果与结论:实验组再生神经的传导速度优于对照组及空白对照组,且12周优于6周,差异有显著性意义(P < 0.05).S-100 免疫组织化学及Loyez氏神经染色法显示:实验组神经纤维数量多于对照组及空白对照组,12周多于6周,差异有显著性意义(P < 0.05).结果提示聚乳酸-聚乙醇酸-重组人促红细胞生成素微球能够促进实验性坐骨神经缺损的再生和功能的恢复.%BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in hematopoiesis as well as in the repair of nervous system injury. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid-recombinant human erythropoietin microspheres on sciatic nerve regeneration. METHODS: Sixty female SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, 20 rats in each group. The bilateral sciatic nerve defect model was prepared (1 cm defect) and the absorbable chitin nerve regeneration chamber was prepared. The chambers of the rats in the experimental group were injected with polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid-recombinant human erythropoietin microspheres, chambers of the rats in the control group were injected with polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid microspheres and chambers of the rats in the blank control group were injected with normal saline in the same dose. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The conduction velocity of the regeneration nerve in the experimental group was better than that in the control group and

  9. Does crossover innervation really affect the clinical outcome? A comparison of outcome between unilateral and bilateral digital nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Melike; Ozer, Kadri; Çolak, Özlem; Kankaya, Yüksel; Koçer, Uğur

    2016-09-01

    Digital nerve injuries are the mostly detected nerve injury in the upper extremity. However, since the clinical phenomenon of crossover innervation at some degree from uninjured digital nerve to the injured side occurs after digital nerve injuries is sustained, one could argue that this concept might even result in the overestimation of the outcome of the digital nerve repair. With this knowledge in mind, this study aimed to present novel, pure, focused and valuable clinical data by comparing the outcomes of bilateral and unilateral digital nerve repair. A retrospective review of 28 fingers with unilateral or bilateral digital nerve repair using end-to-end technique in 19 patients within 2 years was performed. Weber's two-point discrimination, sharp/dull discrimination, warm/cold sensation and Visual Analog Scale scoring were measured at final 12-month follow ups in all patients. There was no significant difference in recovery of sensibility after unilateral and bilateral digital nerve repairs. Though there is crossover innervation microscopically, it is not important in the clinical evaluation period. According to clinical findings from this study, crossover innervations appear to be negligible in the estimation of outcomes of digital neurorrhaphy.

  10. Does crossover innervation really affect the clinical outcome? A comparison of outcome between unilateral and bilateral digital nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melike Oru; Kadri Ozer; zlem olak; Yksel Kankaya; Uur Koer

    2016-01-01

    Digital nerve injuries are the mostly detected nerve injury in the upper extremity. However, since the clinical phenomenon of crossover innervation at some degree from uninjured digital nerve to the in-jured side occurs after digital nerve injuries is sustained, one could argue that this concept might even result in the overestimation of the outcome of the digital nerve repair. With this knowledge in mind, this study aimed to present novel, pure, focused and valuable clinical data by comparing the outcomes of bilateral and unilateral digital nerve repair. A retrospective review of 28 ifngers with unilateral or bilateral digital nerve repair using end-to-end technique in 19 patients within 2 years was performed. Weber’s two-point discrimination, sharp/dull discrimination, warm/cold sensation and Visual Analog Scale scoring were measured at final 12-month follow ups in all patients. There was no significant difference in recovery of sensibility after unilateral and bilateral digital nerve repairs. Though there is crossover innervation microscopically, it is not important in the clinical evaluation period. According to clinical ifndings from this study, crossover innervations appear to be negligible in the estimation of outcomes of digital neurorrhaphy.

  11. 正常成人坐骨神经及其周围关系的高频超声研究%High-frequency ultrasound research on the normal adult sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈素红; 吕海霞; 鄂占森; 柳展梅; 张颖

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨高频超声在正常成人坐骨神经检查中的应用价值.方法:应用高频超声检查60例共120条正常成人坐骨神经,男28例,女32例;年龄19~38岁,平均23.8岁.男女之间年龄、身高及体重差异均无统计学意义.采用横断扫查及纵断扫查,必要时结合宽景成像.在臀线处、股后部中段、胭窝上缘分别测量坐骨神经横截面积,并在每个横断面上观察坐骨神经与周围肌群关系;在臀部显示坐骨神经横断面后探头旋转90°,显示坐骨神经长轴,沿长轴从上到下纵切,结合宽景成像可以显示坐骨神经纵轴及与周围肌群关系.以男女分组和左右分组,分别求得臀线处中部、股后部中段、胭窝上缘处各组坐骨神经横截面积的均数和标准差,进行统计学分析.结果:高频超声对本组60例受检者120条股部坐骨神经均可清晰显示,但对臀部坐骨神经显示率较低,约为31.4%(21/66).坐骨神经纵切面表现为条带状等回声或偏强回声,内可见数条平行偏强回声线,横断面呈边缘清楚的筛网状等回声或略强回声,可呈卵圆形、梯形、三角形及不规则形等,肌肉收缩时可见坐骨神经被动运动且形态可发生改变.28例男性56支坐骨神经与32例女性64支坐骨神经臀线处、股后部中段及胭窝上缘测得的横截面积,经统计学分析,男女之间对比差异有统计学意义;而左右侧对比差异无统计学意义.结论:高频超声可作为坐骨神经首选的影像检查方法.%Objective:To explore the application value of the high-frequency ultrasound examination of the normal adult sciatic nerve. Methods:The high frequency ultrasound was used to examine 60 cases,a total of 120 normal adult sciatic nerve (28 males and 32 females,ranging in age from 19 to 38 years old,averaged 23.8 years old). The age between men and women, height and weight showed no significant difference. The cross - sectional scanning and

  12. Ipsilateral common iliac artery plus femoral artery clamping for inducing sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: a reliable and simple method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzegar-Fallah Anita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a practical model of sciatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury producing serious neurologic deficits and being technically feasible compared with the current time consuming or ineffective models. Thirty rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 5. Animal were anesthetized by using ketamine (50 mg/kg and xylazine (4 mg/kg. Experimental groups included a sham-operated group and five I/R groups with different reperfusion time intervals (0 h, 3 h, 1 d, 4 d, 7 d. In I/R groups, the right common iliac artery and the right femoral artery were clamped for 3 hrs. Sham-operated animals underwent only laparotomy without induction of ischemia. Just before euthanasia, behavioral scores (based on gait, grasp, paw position, and pinch sensitivity were obtained and then sciatic nerves were removed for light-microscopy studies (for ischemic fiber degeneration (IFD and edema. Behavioral score deteriorated among the ischemic groups compared with the control group (p

  13. Difference in intraosseous blood vessel volume and number in osteoporotic model mice induced by spinal cord injury and sciatic nerve resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Ge; Yan, Wei-hong; Wei, Zhao-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Bo

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, we examined intraosseous blood vessel parameters of the tibial metaphysis in mice using microcomputed tomography (µCT) to investigate the relationship between post-nerve-injury osteoporosis and local intraosseous blood vessel volume and number. Mice were randomly divided into groups receiving spinal cord injury (SCI), sciatic nerve resection group (NX), or intact controls (30 mice/group). Four weeks after surgery, mice were perfused with silicone and the distribution of intraosseous blood vessels analyzed by μCT. The bone density, μCT microstructure, biomechanical properties, and the immunohistochemical and biochemical indicators of angiogenesis were also measured. The SCI group showed significantly reduced tibial metaphysis bone density, μCT bone microstructure, tibial biomechanical properties, indicators of angiogenesis, and intraosseous blood vessel parameters compared to the NX group. Furthermore, the spinal cord-injured mice exhibited significantly decreased intraosseous blood vessel volume and number during the development of osteoporosis. In conclusion, these data suggest that decreased intraosseous blood vessel volume and number may play an important role in the development of post-nerve-injury osteoporosis.

  14. Electric stimulation at sciatic nerve evokes long-term potentiation of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis field potential in rats at various developmental phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term potentiation of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis field potential in adult rats has already been reported; however, there is lack of correlated researches on naenonate, infant and adult rats which have different responses to pain conduction information.OBJECTIVE: To observe the various effects of electric stimulation at sciatic nerve on long-term potentiation of evoked field potential at superficial layer of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis of rats at various developmental phases and analyze manifestations of pain conduction information at superficial layers ( Ⅰ - Ⅱ)of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis in immature rats.DESIGN: Grouping controlled study.SETTING: Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wuhan University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Physiology (provincial laboratory),Medical College of Wuhan University from March 2006 to May 2007. A total of 27 healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 17- 90 days old, SPF grade, weighing 41 -200 g, were provided by Experimental Animal Center, Medical College of Wuhan University.METHODS: Based on their birthdays, rats were divided into naenonate group (17 - 20 days old, weighing 41-52 g, n =10), infant group (35 - 50 days old, weighing 87 - 125 g, n =10) and adult group (60 - 90 days old, weighing 180 -200 g, n =7). Left sciatic nerve was separated and stimulated with single square wave (15 V, 0.5 ms). Meanwhile, evoked field potential was recorded at superficial layers of lateral T13 - L1 cornu dorsale medullae spinalis and then stimulated with high-frequent and high-intensive tetanizing current (30 -40 V, 0.5 ms, 100 Hz, 1 s per bundle, 10 s in bundle interval) four times. After the operation, onset of long-term potentiation was observed; meanwhile, amplitude changes and latency of field potential were analyzed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Amplitude and latency changes of field potential at superficial layers of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis of rats in the three

  15. 化学脱细胞异体神经对大鼠坐骨神经缺损的修复%Effects of chemical extracted acellular nerve on sciatic nerve defects of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁儒; 尚燕; 刘宏建; 周明武; 王义生

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of chemical extracted acellular nerve on sciatic nerve defects of SD rats.Methods Twenty-three adult male SD rats were selected.The sciatic nerves were harvested from five of them to prepare acellular nerves.The remaining 18 rats were divided into two groups:autologous nerve graft (group A),and chemical extracted acellular nerve graft (group B).All of the experimental animals were used to establish the left sciatic nerve 1-cm long defect models,and the right sciatic nerves were exposed as the controls.At 4th,8th,and 12th week after operation,the sciatic functional index (SFI) was calculated.At 12th week after operation,hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining,electrophysiology,immanohistochemistry and tissue immunofluorescence were done.Results All the incisions healed well after surgery.The anastomotic stomata in transplanting nerves were smooth and not swollen.SFI at different time points in group A (-83.7,-63.25,-48.6) was higher than that in group B (-86.58,-70.69,-57.43),but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).At 12th week after operation,the wet weight recovery rate of triceps surae muscles [group A:(66.16 ± 19.58)%,group B:(45.20 ± 17.17)%] and amplitude [(group A:(8.10 ±2.74) mV,group B:(5.34 ±2.67) mV] were higher in group A than in group B,with the difference being significant (P < 0.05).The compound muscle action potential [group A:(1.80 ± 0.35) ms,group B:(1.95 ± 0.44) ms] and conduction velocities [group A:(27.76 ± 9.84) m/s,group B:(22.12 ± 5.98) m/s] had no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05).HE staining and immunohistochemistry revealed that regenerated nerve fibers showed no significant difference between two groups.Conclusion Chemical extracted acellular nerve and autologous nerve exhibited the similar effects on sciatic nerve defects of SD rats.%目的 观察化学脱细胞异体神经对大鼠坐骨神经缺损的修复效果.方法 成年雄性SD大鼠23

  16. Time course of immediate early gene protein expression in the spinal cord following conditioning stimulation of the sciatic nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovic, Ognjen; Panja, Debabrata; Bittins, Margarethe; Bramham, Clive R; Tjølsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation induced by conditioning electrical stimulation of afferent fibers is a widely studied form of synaptic plasticity in the brain and the spinal cord. In the spinal cord dorsal horn, long-term potentiation is induced by a series of high-frequency trains applied to primary afferent fibers. Conditioning stimulation (CS) of sciatic nerve primary afferent fibers also induces expression of immediate early gene proteins in the lumbar spinal cord. However, the time course of immediate early gene expression and the rostral-caudal distribution of expression in the spinal cord have not been systematically studied. Here, we examined the effects of sciatic nerve conditioning stimulation (10 stimulus trains, 0.5 ms stimuli, 7.2 mA, 100 Hz, train duration 2 s, 8 s intervals between trains) on cellular expression of immediate early genes, Arc, c-Fos and Zif268, in anesthetized rats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on sagittal sections obtained from Th13- L5 segments of the spinal cord at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 h post-CS. Strikingly, all immediate early genes exhibited a monophasic increase in expression with peak increases detected in dorsal horn neurons at 2 hours post-CS. Regional analysis showed peak increases at the location between the L3 and L4 spinal segments. Both Arc, c-Fos and Zif268 remained significantly elevated at 2 hours, followed by a sharp decrease in immediate early gene expression between 2 and 3 hours post-CS. Colocalization analysis performed at 2 hours post-CS showed that all c-Fos and Zif268 neurons were positive for Arc, while 30% and 43% of Arc positive neurons were positive for c-Fos and Zif268, respectively. The present study identifies the spinal cord level and time course of immediate early gene (IEGP) expression of relevance for analysis of IEGPs function in neuronal plasticity and nociception.

  17. Effects of 660- and 980-nm low-level laser therapy on neuropathic pain relief following chronic constriction injury in rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumipoor, M; Jameie, S B; Janzadeh, A; Nasirinezhad, F; Soleimani, M; Kerdary, M

    2014-09-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is one of the most suffered conditions in medical disciplines. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in the induction of NP was studied by many researchers. Neuropathies lead to medical, social, and economic isolation of the patient, so various therapies were used to treat or reduce it. During the recent years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in certain areas of medicine and rehabilitation. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) is a well-known model for neuropathic pain studies. In order to find the effects of different wavelengths of LLLT on the injured sciatic nerve, the present research was done. Thirty Wistar adult male rats (230-320 g) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10). To induce neuropathic pain for the sciatic nerve, the CCI technique was used. Low-level laser of 660 and 980 nm was used for two consecutive weeks. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia was done before and after surgery on days 7 and 14, respectively. Paw withdrawal thresholds were also evaluated. CCI decreased the pain threshold, whereas both wavelengths of LLLT for 2 weeks increased mechanical and thermal threshold significantly. A comparison of the mechanical and thermal threshold showed a significant difference between the therapeutic effects of the two groups that received LLLT. Based on our findings, the laser with a 660-nm wavelength had better therapeutic effects than the laser with a 980-nm wavelength, so the former one may be used for clinical application in neuropathic cases; however, it needs more future studies.

  18. Combination of Local Transplantation of In Vitro Bone-marrow Stromal Cells and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Accelerate Functional Recovery of Transected Sciatic Nerve Regeneration: A Novel Approach in Transected Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Mahmoodzadeh, Sirvan

    2015-01-01

    Effect of combination of undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on transected sciatic nerve regeneration was assessed in rats. A 10 mm nerve segment was excised and a vein graft was used to bridge the gap. Twenty microliter undifferentiated BMSCs (2× 107 cells /mL) were administered into the graft inBMSC group with no exposure to PEMF. In BMSC/PEMF group the whole body was exposed to PEMF (0.3 mT, 2Hz) for 4h/day within 1-5 days. In PEMF group the transected nerve was bridged and phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft. In authograft group (AUTO), the transected nervesegments were reimplanted reversely and the whole body was exposed to PEMF. The regenerated nerve fibers were studied within 12 weeks after surgery. Behavioral, functional, electrophysiological, biomechanical, gastrocnemius muscle mass findings, morphometric indices and immuonohistochemical reactions confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in BMSC/PEMF group compared to those in the other groups (Pelectromagnetic fields could be considered as an effective, safe and tolerable treatment for peripheral nerve repair in clinical practice.

  19. Cold bupivacaine versus magnesium sulfate added to room temperature bupivacaine in sonar-guided femoral and sciatic nerve block in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeftawy, Ashraf Elsayed; El-Daba, Ahmad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cooling of local anesthetic potentiates its action and increases its duration. Magnesium sulfate (MgSo4) added to local anesthetic prolongs the duration of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects. Aim: The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the effect of cold to 4°C bupivacaine 0.5% and Mg added to normal temperature (20–25°C) bupivacaine 0.5% during sonar-guided combined femoral and sciatic nerve blocks on the onset of sensory and motor block, intraoperative anesthesia, duration of sensory and motor block, and postoperative analgesia in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I and II patients who were scheduled to undergo elective ACL reconstruction were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to 3 equal groups to receive sonar-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks. In Group I, 17 ml of room temperature (20–25°C) 0.5% bupivacaine and 3 ml of room temperature saline were injected for each nerve block whereas in Group II, 17 ml of cold (4°C) 0.5% bupivacaine and 3 ml of cold saline were injected for each nerve block. In Group III, 17 ml of room temperature 0.5% bupivacaine and 3 ml of MgSo4 5% were injected for each nerve block. The onset of sensory and motor block was evaluated every 3 min for 30 min. Surgery was started after complete sensory and motor block were achieved. Intraoperatively, the patients were evaluated for heart rate and mean arterial pressure, rescue analgesic and sedative requirements plus patient and surgeon satisfaction. Postoperatively, hemodynamics, duration of analgesia, resolution of motor block, time to first analgesic, total analgesic consumption, and the incidence of side effects were recorded. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in demographic data, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and duration of

  20. Ionic permeability of the frog sciatic nerve perineurium: parallel studies of potassium and lanthanum penetration using electrophysiological and electron microscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B A; Inman, C; Sedgwick, E M; Abbott, N J

    2000-08-01

    The isolated sciatic nerve of the frog Rana temporaria was used for a parallel electrophysiological and electron microscopic examination of the ionic permeability of the perineurium, one component of the blood-nerve barrier. Nerves mounted in a grease-gap chamber for electrophysiological recording showed negligible changes in DC potential (Delta DC) or compound action potential on challenge with 100 mM K(+) Ringer, evidence that the perineurium was tight to K(+). In preparations then fixed and exposed to 5 mM lanthanum in the fixative, and examined in the electron microscope, electron-dense lanthanum deposits were seen between perineurial lamellae, but lanthanum was not detectable within the endoneurium, confirming that the perineurium was also tight to lanthanum. Absence of lanthanum penetration was confirmed by X-ray analysis of electron microscopic sections. In nerves exposed to 2 mM sodium deoxycholate (DOC) in the recording chamber, then challenged with high [K(+)], a moderate increase in perineurial K(+) permeability (P(K)) was observed, but lanthanum was still excluded. Exposure of nerves to 4 mM DOC caused a greater increase in perineurial potassium permeability, and the two nerves with the greatest permeability (P(K) > 1 x 10(-5) cm x sec(-1)) also showed detectable lanthanum within the endoneurium. The results indicate that DOC causes a dose-dependent increase in tight junctional permeability in the perineurium, and that the electrophysiological monitoring of K(+) penetration is a more sensitive measure of small ion permeability than electron microscopical analysis using lanthanum as tracer. Vesicular profiles observed in perineurial lamellae did not form open channels for ion flux across the perineurium in control nerves, or in those exposed to DOC. In preparations where lanthanum reached the endoneurium, lanthanum was observed in dense deposits in the extracellular spaces around nodes of Ranvier, and in the outer mesaxon cleft, but did not penetrate the

  1. Polyethylene glycol rapidly restores axonal integrity and improves the rate of motor behavior recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Joshua M; Kane, Jacqueline R; Spaeth, Christopher S; Zuzek, Aleksej; Robinson, Garrett L; Gbanaglo, Melengor Y; Estler, Cody J; Boydston, Elaine A; Schallert, Timothy; Bittner, George D

    2010-08-01

    The inability to rapidly (within minutes to hours) improve behavioral function after severance of peripheral nervous system axons is an ongoing clinical problem. We have previously reported that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can rapidly restore axonal integrity (PEG-fusion) between proximal and distal segments of cut- and crush-severed rat axons in vitro and in vivo. We now report that PEG-fusion not only reestablishes the integrity of crush-severed rat sciatic axons as measured by the restored conduction of compound action potentials (CAPs) and the intraaxonal diffusion of fluorescent dye across the lesion site, but also produces more rapid recovery of appropriate hindlimb motor behaviors. Improvement in recovery occurred during the first few postoperative weeks for the foot fault (FF) asymmetry test and between week 2 and week 3 for the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) based on analysis of footprints. That is, the FF test was the more sensitive indicator of early behavioral recovery, showing significant postoperative improvement of motor behavior in PEG-treated animals at 24-48 h. In contrast, the SFI more sensitively measured longer-term postoperative behavioral recovery and deficits at 4-8 wk, perhaps reflecting the development of fine (distal) motor control. These and other data show that PEG-fusion not only rapidly restores physiological and morphological axonal continuity, but also more quickly improves behavioral recovery.

  2. Sciatica due to Schwannoma at the Sciatic Notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Haspolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are rarely seen on the sciatic nerve and can cause sciatica. In this case report we aimed to present an unusual location of schwannoma along sciatic nerve that causes sciatica. A 60-years-old-man was admitted to us with complaints of pain on his thigh and paresthesia on his foot. Radiography of the patient revealed a solitary lesion on the sciatic nerve. The lesion was excised and the symptoms resolved after surgery.

  3. Acellular nerve scaffold loading bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to prepare artificial nerve for sciatic nerve defects%无细胞神经支架复合骨髓间充质干细胞构建组织工程人工神经修复坐骨神经缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩顺; 吕刚

    2011-01-01

    背景:作者已经成功制备了无细胞神经移植物,并且复合骨髓间充质干细胞构建组织工程人工神经桥接大鼠坐骨神经缺损.目的:无细胞神经移植物复合骨髓间充质干细胞构建组织工程人工神经修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损后运动功能的恢复.方法:成年雄性SD大鼠构建大鼠坐骨神经15 mm缺损模型,分别应用组织工程人工神经、组织工程神经支架或自行神经桥接坐骨神经缺损.桥接后20周再生神经电生理学测定,手术侧胫骨前肌湿质量、腓肠肌组织学及透视电镜分析.结果与结论:桥接20周后,组织工程人工神经与自体神经移植组胫骨前肌湿质量比较,差异无显著性意义(P > 0.05),神经干传导速度为(30.56±2.15)m/s.结果提示,无细胞神经移植物复合骨髓间充质干细胞构建的组织工程人工神经桥接大鼠坐骨神经缺损后,可以促进再生神经运动功能的恢复.%BACKGROUND: The authors have successfully prepared an acellular nerve graft to be combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in artificial nerve bridge of rat sciatic nerve defects.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the motor function of rats with sciatic nerve defects following repairing using acellular nerve graft combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.METHODS: Adult SD rats were used to prepare rat models of 15-mm sciatic nerve defects. Tissue-engineered nerve, tissue-engineered nerve scaffold, and autogenous nerve were separately applied to bridge sciatic nerve defects. After 20 weeks, electrophysiological determination of regenerated nerves was conducted, wet weight of the anterior tibial muscle was determined,and histological and transmission electron microscopy analyses of the gastrocnemius was done.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Twenty weeks after nerve grafting, no difference in the wet weight of the anterior tibial muscle was shown to be significant between tissue-engineered nerve and autogenous nerve grafts (P > 0

  4. Functional recovery after transection of the sciatic nerve at an early age : a pilot study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Marcel F.; IJkema-Paassen, Jos; Gramsbergen, Albert

    2007-01-01

    It is often clinically noted that peripheral nerve transections in infants and very young children seem to show better functional recovery after nerve repair compared with adult patients. There can be several reasons for this (e.g. outgrowing axons might have maintained their potential to locate the

  5. Long-term follow-up of peptidergic and nonpeptidergic reinnervation of the epidermis following sciatic nerve reconstruction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambiz, S.; Duraku, L.S.; Baas, M.; Nijhuis, T.H.; Cosgun, S.G.; Hovius, S.E.; Ruigrok, T.J.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT: Peripheral nerve injuries are a commonly encountered clinical problem and often result in long-term functional deficits. The current gold standard for transected nerves is an end-to-end reconstruction, which results in the intermittent appearance of neuropathic pain. METHODS: To improve our

  6. Two Cases of Elderly-Onset Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy Manifesting Bilateral Peroneal Nerve Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiko Kawaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP is characterized by recurrent focal neuropathies, which usually become symptomatic in the second or third decade of life. However, clinical phenotypic heterogeneity among patients with HNPP has recently been reported. Certain patients show polyneuropathy-type diffuse nerve injuries, whereas others remain asymptomatic at older ages. We present two cases of elderly-onset bilateral peroneal nerve palsies with diffuse muscle weakness in the lower limbs and glove-and-stocking type sensory disturbance. Both patients were diagnosed with HNPP by genetic analyses that detected deletions of chromosome 17p11.2 in peripheral myelin protein 22 genes. Their clinical courses suggested that the Japanese sitting style termed ‘seiza’, a way of sitting on the floor with the lower legs crossed under the thighs, was a precipitating factor for the bilateral peroneal nerve palsies.

  7. The study of Wallerian degeneration after rat sciatic nerve injury%大鼠坐骨神经Wallerian溃变的分子机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚登兵; 王勇军; 顾晓松

    2013-01-01

    目的:运用基因芯片和蛋白芯片技术及生物信息学分析,系统分析大鼠坐骨神经损伤后远端神经组织Wallerian溃变的差异表达基因和蛋白,从基因和蛋白水平探讨Wallerian溃变的分子机制。方法:建立大鼠损伤坐骨神经远端Wallerian溃变模型,利用表达谱基因芯片和抗体蛋白芯片,进行表达趋势分析、功能分析、京都基因与基因组百科全书信号通路分析。通过生物信息学方法全面系统分析,大鼠坐骨神经损伤后远端Wallerian溃变的基因和蛋白表达变化。结果:在Wallerian溃变和再生过程中,共有6076个基因差异表达和23种表达趋势,有93个蛋白差异表达,108种信号通路参与形成Wallerian溃变的信号调控网络。结论:大鼠坐骨神经损伤后Wallerian溃变过程中,有大量基因的表达变化和多种关键因子的调控,本研究为进一步阐明Wallerian溃变的分子机制提供了基本数据,为经典的Wallerian溃变学说增添了新的内容。%Objective:To study the gene expression pattern and signal pathways of the distal nerve stump expressed in Wallerian degeneration (WD) after rat sciatic nerve injury. Methods: WD models of rat sciatic nerve injury were con-structed. A large number of genes involved in WD with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) were classified. Signal flow and recurrent neural networks were analyzed by using gene chip microarrays, antibody arrays and bioinformatic analysis. Results: There were 6076 differential genes, 93 differential proteins expressed and 23 types of expression tendencies had significant matches in the database and were assigned to 108 KEGG pathways during Wallerian degeneration. Conclusion:A large number of genes and proteins are differentially regulated during the process of WD. The study will help to much better understand the information for the WD and investigations on the molecular mechanisms of WD

  8. Bortezomib Treatment Produces Nocifensive Behavior and Changes in the Expression of TRPV1, CGRP, and Substance P in the Rat DRG, Spinal Cord, and Sciatic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quartu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate neurochemical changes associated with bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (PN, we examined the effects of a single-dose intravenous administration of bortezomib and a well-established “chronic” schedule in a rat model of bortezomib-induced PN. The TRPV1 channel and sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P (SP were studied in L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, spinal cord, and sciatic nerve. Behavioral measures, performed at the end of the chronic bortezomib treatment, confirmed a reduction of mechanical nociceptive threshold, whereas no difference occurred in thermal withdrawal latency. Western blot analysis showed a relative increase of TRPV1 in DRG and spinal cord after both acute and chronic bortezomib administration. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a decrease of TRPV1 and CGRP mRNA relative levels after chronic treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the DRGs, TRPV1-, CGRP-, and SP-immunoreactive neurons were mostly small- and medium-sized and the proportion of TRPV1- and CGRP-labeled neurons increased after treatment. A bortezomib-induced increase in density of TRPV1- and CGRP-immunoreactive innervation in the dorsal horn was also observed. Our findings show that bortezomib-treatment selectively affects subsets of DRG neurons likely involved in the processing of nociceptive stimuli and that neurochemical changes may contribute to development and persistence of pain in bortezomib-induced PN.

  9. Effects of sciatic nerve transection on glucose uptake in the presence and absence of lactate in the frog dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Rigon

    Full Text Available Frogs have been used as an alternative model to study pain mechanisms because the simplicity of their nervous tissue and the phylogenetic aspect of this question. One of these models is the sciatic nerve transection (SNT, which mimics the clinical symptoms of “phantom limb”, a condition that arises in humans after amputation or transverse spinal lesions. In mammals, the SNT increases glucose metabolism in the central nervous system, and the lactate generated appears to serve as an energy source for nerve cells. An answerable question is whether there is elevated glucose uptake in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG after peripheral axotomy. As glucose is the major energy substrate for frog nervous tissue, and these animals accumulate lactic acid under some conditions, bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus were used to demonstrate the effect of SNT on DRG and spinal cord 1-[14C] 2-deoxy-D-glucose (14C-2-DG uptake in the presence and absence of lactate. We also investigated the effect of this condition on the formation of 14CO2 from 14C-glucose and 14C-L-lactate, and plasmatic glucose and lactate levels. The 3-O-[14C] methyl-D-glucose (14C-3-OMG uptake was used to demonstrate the steady-state tissue/medium glucose distribution ratio under these conditions. Three days after SNT, 14C-2-DG uptake increased, but 14C-3-OMG uptake remained steady. The increase in 14C-2-DG uptake was lower when lactate was added to the incubation medium. No change was found in glucose and lactate oxidation after SNT, but lactate and glucose levels in the blood were reduced. Thus, our results showed that SNT increased the glucose metabolism in the frog DRG and spinal cord. The effect of lactate on this uptake suggests that glucose is used in glycolytic pathways after SNT.

  10. Experimental study of erythropoietin on promoting sciatic nerve regeneration in rats%促红细胞生成素促进大鼠坐骨神经再生作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万波; 张辉; 尹宗生; 胡勇; 王伟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury and repair in rats and provide experimental basis for clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injury.Methods Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, which were named EPO group and NGF group respectively . The sciatic nerve with 10 mm defect was bridged with silicone conduit. Rats of EPO group and NGF group received injection of erythropoietin and nerve growth factor respectively. At 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, 10 rats from each group were subject to sciatic functional index (SFI), motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and histomorphometric evaluation and immunohistochemical staining of protein gene product 9. 5 (PGP 9. 5) to assess the effect of erythropoietin on rat sciatic nerve regeneration. Results Four weeks after the operation , SFI was - 78.85 + 3.87 in EPO group and - 79.98 ± 4.58 in NGF group. There was no significant difference between the two groups( P > 0.05). Eight weeks postoperatively , SFI was - 60.26±2.91 in EPO group and -64.65 ± 4.11 in NGF group, with significant difference between the two groups( P 0.05);术后8周SFI,EPO组为(-60.26±2.91),NGF组为(-64.65±4.11),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).术后4周和8周时,EPO组MNCV、有髓神经纤维数目以及PGP9.5免疫阳性神经纤维的平均光密度和积分光密度均优于NGF组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 EPO 能促进大鼠坐骨神经损伤后的修复与再生.

  11. Functional and physical outcomes following use of a flexible CO2 laser fiber and bipolar electrocautery in close proximity to the rat sciatic nerve with correlation to an in vitro thermal profile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A M; Fishman, A J; Bendok, B R; Richter, C-P

    2015-01-01

    This study compared functional and physical collateral damage to a nerve when operating a Codman MALIS Bipolar Electrosurgical System CMC-III or a CO2 laser coupled to a laser, with correlation to an in vitro model of heating profiles created by the devices in thermochromic ink agarose. Functional damage of the rat sciatic nerve after operating the MALIS or CO2 laser at various power settings and proximities to the nerve was measured by electrically evoked nerve action potentials, and histology of the nerve was used to assess physical damage. Thermochromic ink dissolved in agarose was used to model the spatial and temporal profile of the collateral heating zone of the electrosurgical system and the laser ablation cone. We found that this laser can be operated at 2 W directly above the nerve with minimal damage, while power settings of 5 W and 10 W resulted in acute functional and physical nerve damage, correlating with the maximal heating cone in the thermochromic ink model. MALIS settings up to 40 (11 W) did not result in major functional or physical nerve damage until the nerve was between the forceps tips, correlating with the hottest zone, localized discretely between the tips.

  12. Functional and Physical Outcomes following Use of a Flexible CO2 Laser Fiber and Bipolar Electrocautery in Close Proximity to the Rat Sciatic Nerve with Correlation to an In Vitro Thermal Profile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared functional and physical collateral damage to a nerve when operating a Codman MALIS Bipolar Electrosurgical System CMC-III or a CO2 laser coupled to a laser, with correlation to an in vitro model of heating profiles created by the devices in thermochromic ink agarose. Functional damage of the rat sciatic nerve after operating the MALIS or CO2 laser at various power settings and proximities to the nerve was measured by electrically evoked nerve action potentials, and histology of the nerve was used to assess physical damage. Thermochromic ink dissolved in agarose was used to model the spatial and temporal profile of the collateral heating zone of the electrosurgical system and the laser ablation cone. We found that this laser can be operated at 2 W directly above the nerve with minimal damage, while power settings of 5 W and 10 W resulted in acute functional and physical nerve damage, correlating with the maximal heating cone in the thermochromic ink model. MALIS settings up to 40 (11 W did not result in major functional or physical nerve damage until the nerve was between the forceps tips, correlating with the hottest zone, localized discretely between the tips.

  13. [REACTIVE CHANGES IN SPINAL CORD MOTONEURONS AFTER SCIATIC NERVE INJURY AFTER HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROSURGICAL INSTRUMENT APPLICATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, A; Chaikovsky, Yu; Sokurenko, L; Likhodiievskyi, V; Neverovskyi, A

    2016-02-01

    A new experimental model for tissues connection at peripheral nerve injury site in form of tissues welding was designed. In current study we investigated motoneuron state 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks after peripheral nerve injury and surgical repair with high-frequency electrosurgical technology. Spinal cord sections was stained by Nissl method and observed with light microscopy. We found that postoperative period in animals from experimental groups characterized by qualitative changes in neurons from spinal motor centers that can be interpreted as compensatory processes as response to alteration. In animals from group with high-frequency electrosurgical technology usage stabilization processes passes more quickly comparatively to animals with epineural sutures. High-frequency electrosurgical technology usage provides less harmful effects on motoneurons than epineural suturing.

  14. Piriformis Syndrome and Endoscopic Sciatic Neurolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Joshua S; Mei-Dan, Omer; Brick, Mathew J

    2016-03-01

    Piriformis syndrome is the compression or the irritation of the sciatic nerve by the adjacent piriformis muscle in the buttock leading to symptoms that include buttock pain, leg pain, and altered neurology in the sciatic nerve distribution. Epidemiological figures of the prevalence are unknown, but are estimated to be about 12.2% to 27%. There is no consensus on the diagnostic criteria. Advancement in magnetic resonance imaging allows us to observe unilateral hyperintensity and bowing of the sciatic nerve. The pathophysiology of the disease includes single blunt trauma, overuse causing piriformis hypertrophy, and long-term microtrauma causing scarring. Treatments include physiotherapy, steroid injections, and surgery. Minimally invasive techniques are emerging with the hope that with less postoperative scar tissue formation, there will be less recurrence of the disease. In this chapter, senior author describes his technique for endoscopic sciatic neurolysis.

  15. A matched-pair comparison between bilateral intrafascial and interfascial nerve-sparing techniques in extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zheng; Xu Zhang; Xin Ma; Hong-Zhao Li; Jiang-Pin Gao; Wei Cai; Jun Dong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the advantages of the intrafascial nerve-sparing technique compared with the interfascial nerve-sparing technique in extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.From March 2010 to August 2011,65 patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) underwent bilateral intrafascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.These patients were matched in a 1:2 ratio to 130 patients with localized PCa who had undergone bilateral interfascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between January 2008 and August 2011.Operative data and oncological and functional results of both groups were compared.There was no difference in operative data,pathological stages and overall rates of positive surgical margins between the groups.There were 9 and 13 patients lost to follow-up in the intrafascial group and interfascial group,respectively.The intrafascial technique provided earlier recovery of continence at both 3 and 6 months than the interfascial technique.Equal results in terms of continence were found in both groups at 12 months.Better rates of potency at 6 months and 12 months were found in younger patients (age ≤65 years) and overall patients who had undergone the intrafascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.Biochemical progression-free survival rates 1 year postoperatively were similar in both groups.Using strict indications,compared with the interfascial nerve-sparing technique,the intrafascial technique provided similar operative outcomes and short-term oncological results,quicker recovery of continence and better potency.The intrafascial nerve-sparing technique is recommended as a preferred approach for young PCa patients who are clinical stages cT1 to cT2a and have normal preoperative Potency.

  16. The change of neurotrophin 3 in spinal motor neurons following sciatic nerve lesion in rats%周围神经损伤对脊髓运动神经元NT-3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石向群; 范明; 陆兵勋; 杨金升; 赵友岐; 汪泳

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study the change of neurotroph in 3(NT-3) in the spinal motor neuron and the association between it and the degree of degeneration and death in spinal motor neuron following sciatic nervele sion in the rats.Methods:The sciatic nerve lesion wa s induced with cutting and removing part of the sciatic nerve in the adult and 3 days of age rats.The rats were allowed to survive for 3,7,14,21,28 days.The ext ent of spinal motor neuron death and degeneration was examined,the level of NT- 3 in spinal motor neuron were measured with image analysis.Results :The level of NT-3 in spinal motor neuron in suckling and adultr at groap was significant reduced following sciatic nerve lesion,and it was lowest in the second week after sciatic nerve lesion.The level of NT-3 in spinal mot or neuron in the 28th day following sciatic nerve lesion did not increase to it of the control.The change of spin al motor neuron death and degeneration was similar to the change of the level of NT-3.The level of NT-3 in spinal motor neuron in suckling rat was highter than it in adult rat. Conclusion:The level of NT-3 in spinal motor neurons would take change following sciatic nerve lesion,and the de ath and degeneration of spinal motor neuron may be induced by the peripheral ner ve lesion,The level of NT-3 in spinal motor neuron was negative with the extent of spinal motor neuron death and degeneration.%目的:探讨周围神经损伤后脊髓运动神经元神经营养因子-3(NT-3)水平变化规律及与神经元病理变化的相关性。方法:切断大鼠坐骨神经复制周围神经损伤模型,免疫组织化学染色NT-3阳性脊髓运 动神经元、图像分析计算其吸光度以反映NT-3的水平。结果:成鼠或乳鼠坐骨神经损伤后运动神经元NT-3水平均很快下降,至伤后第2周降至最低 水平,随后逐渐恢复,至4周仍未恢复到对照组水平;神经元病理改变过程与此相似。但乳 鼠NT-3基

  17. Origem e distribuição do nervo isquiático no veado-catingueiro (Mazama gouazoubira Origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve in catingueiro-deer (Mazama gouazoubira

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    Tracy Martina M. Martins

    2013-02-01

    úteo superficial, gluteobíceps, bíceps da coxa, semitendinoso, semimembranoso, adutor e gastrocnêmio. Distalmente o nervo isquiático bifurca-se Em nervo tibial e fibular comum, os quais inervam a porção distal do membro pélvico.This study aimed to describe the origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve in catingueiro-deer (Mazama gouazoubira. Two animals of the species, obtained post mortem by trampling on the highway, were used for the study meeting the requirements of the Governing Law (1.153/95. By dissection the skin was completely removed and the animals were fixed in aqueous 10% formaldehyde solution. Through dorsolateral access, superficial gluteal muscle, biceps femoris muscle and gluteus medius muscle were cut at their insertion and folded, to view the origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve on both sides of the animals. Images were recorded with a digital camera (Sony a200 Camera, 10.2mpx and results were described based on Veterinary Anatomical Nomina. The source data of the sciatic nerve in both specimens showed that the nerve originates from the ventral branches of S1 and L6, and could have contribution from S2. After its emergence through the greater sciatic foramen on both the sides, the sciatic nerve supplies branches to gluteus medius muscle, gluteus deep muscle, superficial gluteal muscle, gluteobiceps muscle, biceps femoris muscle, semimembranosus muscle, semitendinosus muscle and gastrocnemius muscle. Near the mid-thigh the sciatic nerve divides into the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve which innervate the muscles of the distal hind limb. Moreover, the cutaneous nerve flow can cause the common peroneal nerve or tibial nerve. In conclusion, in Mazama gouazoubira specimens studied, the sciatic nerve originated from the ventral branch of spinal L6 and S1, which may or may not have the contribution from S2. In its distribution stem originate the gluteal nerve, the caudal femoral cutaneous nerve and muscular branches, which together innervate the

  18. Isolated sciatic neuropathy as an initial manifestation of a high grade B-cell lymphoma: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenzhuan; Wang, Weizhen; Gustas, Cristy; Malysz, Jozef; Kaur, Divpreet

    2016-10-01

    Sciatic nerve neuropathy due to infiltrating of a high grade B-cell lymphoma is a very rare situation and has not often been reported. We report a case with a previous history of indolent lymphoma who presented with isolated sciatic nerve neuropathy and was found to have diffuse large B cell lymphoma involving the sciatic nerve. Although the current case is not a primary sciatic nerve lymphoma given the systematic involvement shown on MRI and PET/CT scan, the case represents a neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve given the direct invasion of the lymphoma cells into the sciatic nerve. Due to the rarity of this condition, we subsequently reviewed related literatures.

  19. Methylcobalamin promotes the differentiation of Schwann cells and remyelination in lysophosphatidylcholine-induced demyelination of the rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke eNishimoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs are constituents of the peripheral nervous system. The differentiation of SCs in injured peripheral nerves is critical for regeneration after injury. Methylcobalamin (MeCbl is a vitamin B12 analog that is necessary for the maintenance of the peripheral nervous system. In this study, we estimated the effect of MeCbl on SCs. We showed that MeCbl downregulated the activity of Erk1/2 and promoted the expression of the myelin basic protein in SCs. In a dorsal root ganglion neuron–SC coculture system, myelination was promoted by MeCbl. In a focal demyelination rat model, MeCbl promoted remyelination and motor and sensory functional regeneration. MeCbl promoted the in vitro differentiation of SCs and in vivo myelination in a rat demyelination model and may be a novel therapy for several types of nervous disorders.

  20. Influence of Sancai and conventional acupuncture manipulations on injured sciatic nerve histomorphology and serum interleukin-6 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zedong Cheng; Songzi Wang; Wei Zhang; Chenglin Song; Yuanyuan Song; Cairong Ming; Yiguo Chen

    2010-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion therapy non-specifically raises the pain threshold, relieves regional muscular tension, improves local blood circulation, accelerates elimination of algogenic substances such as acid metabolites, and promotes neural regeneration and functional rehabilitation. However, the effects of acupuncture are synthetically influenced by multiple factors, which vary with acu-puncture point, intensity, and manipulation. The present study explored the analgesic effects and mechanisms of specific Sancai acupuncture manipulation for sciatica. Results revealed that Sancai acupuncture manipulation significantly reduced inflammatory factor interleukin-6 expression in the blood serum of rats with sciatica, exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and promoted rehabilitation of injured nerves. In addition, Sancai acupuncture manipulation exhibited superior curative effects over conventional acupuncture manipulation.

  1. Applied anatomy of the sciatic nerve injury in the artificial total hip arthroplasty%人工全髋关节置换术中坐骨神经损伤的应用解剖学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨景武; 史晓林

    2005-01-01

    背景:人工全髋关节置换术(THR)是近年来治疗老年人髋关节疾患的首选方法,按Harri's评分优良率为84%.该手术对坐骨神经损伤发生率国内报道为0.46%,国外报道为0.08%~9.70%.目的:通过解剖位置的分析探讨THR术中坐骨神经损伤的因素.设计:以人体解剖标本为研究对象,单一样本研究.单位:湖州师范学院医学院解剖实验室.对象:实验于2003-03/05在湖州师范学院医学院解剖实验室完成.正常人体成年骨盆标本56具,男27具,女29具.方法:对坐骨神经的来源及走行、坐骨神经与髋臼的关系进行测量分析,并对在THR术中拉钩及螺丝钉固定所致坐骨神经损伤,进行详尽测量分析. 主要观察指标:坐骨神经与髋臼的位置关系.结果:测出坐骨神经至髋臼底的距离左侧为(6.00±0.85)mm,右侧为(6.00±0.71)mm;坐骨神经至髋臼缘的距离左侧为(13.00±0.75)mm,右侧为(14.00±0.06)mm.坐骨神经在髋臼缘处周径左侧为(32.00±0.28)mm,右侧为(31.00±0.68)mm.髋臼底至坐骨大孔的距离为左侧为(29.00±0.36)mm,右侧为(29.00±0.24)mm.结论:确定拉钩及螺丝钉固定在1~3点及5~6点为安全区.在THR术中陈旧髋臼骨折脱位、拉钩的位置不当、螺钉固定髋臼位置不当均可导致医源因素损伤坐骨神经.%BACKGROUND: At present, the artificial total hip replacement(THR) is the first choice of the hip joint disease for the old, and the choiceness rate is 84% according to the Harri' s grade, and the therapeutic effect is content. The occurrence rate of the sciatic nerve injury in the THR is reported to be 0.46% in and 0. 08%-9.7% abroad.OBJECTIVE: To study the influencing factors of the sciatic nerve injury in the THR through the anatomical location analysis.DESIGN: Single sample study based on the human anatomical samples.SETTING: Human Anatomy Laboratory in the Medical Department of the Huzhou Normal University.PARTICIPANTS: The study was completed in the

  2. The effect of botulinum neurotoxin A on sciatic nerve injury-induced neuroimmunological changes in rat dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, J; Rojewska, E; Makuch, W; Korostynski, M; Luvisetto, S; Marinelli, S; Pavone, F; Przewlocka, B

    2011-02-23

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) acts by cleaving synaptosome-associated-protein-25 (SNAP-25) in nerve terminals to inhibit neuronal release and shows long-lasting antinociceptive action in neuropathic pain. However, its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Our study aimed to characterize BoNT/A-induced neuroimmunological changes after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. In the ipsilateral lumbar spinal cords of CCI-exposed rats, the mRNA of microglial marker (complement component 1q, C1q), astroglial marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP), and prodynorphin were upregulated, as measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). No changes appeared in mRNA for proenkephalin, pronociceptin, or neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS1 and NOS2, respectively). In the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), an ipsilateral upregulation of prodynorphin, pronociceptin, C1q, GFAP, NOS1 and NOS2 mRNA and a downregulation of proenkephalin mRNA were observed. A single intraplantar BoNT/A (75 pg/paw) injection induced long-lasting antinociception in this model. BoNT/A diminished the injury-induced ipsilateral spinal upregulation of C1q mRNA. In the ipsilateral DRG a significant decrease of C1q-positive cell activation and of the upregulation of prodynorphin, pronociceptin and NOS1 mRNA was also observed following BoNT/A admistration. BoNT/A also diminished the injury-induced upregulation of SNAP-25 expression in both structures. We provide evidence that BoNT/A impedes injury-activated neuronal function in structures distant from the injection site, which is demonstrated by its influence on NOS1, prodynorphin and pronociceptin mRNA levels in the DRG. Moreover, the silence of microglia/macrophages after BoNT/A administration could be secondary to the inhibition of neuronal activity, but this decrease in neuroimmune interactions could be the key to the long-lasting BoNT/A effect on neuropathic pain.

  3. Macrophage presence is essential for the regeneration of ascending afferent fibres following a conditioning sciatic nerve lesion in adult rats

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    Smith Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury to the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons prior to injury to the central nervous system (CNS DRG branch results in the regeneration of the central branch. The exact mechanism mediating this regenerative trigger is not fully understood. It has been proposed that following peripheral injury, the intraganglionic inflammatory response by macrophage cells plays an important role in the pre-conditioning of injured CNS neurons to regenerate. In this study, we investigated whether the presence of macrophage cells is crucial for this type of regeneration to occur. We used a clodronate liposome technique to selectively and temporarily deplete these cells during the conditioning phase of DRG neurons. Results Retrograde and anterograde tracing results indicated that in macrophage-depleted animals, the regenerative trigger characteristic of pre-conditioned DRG neurons was abolished as compared to injury matched-control animals. In addition, depletion of macrophage cells led to: (i a reduction in macrophage infiltration into the CNS compartment even after cellular repopulation, (ii astrocyte up-regulation at rostral regions and down-regulation in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration in the serum. Conclusion Activation of macrophage cells in response to the peripheral nerve injury is essential for the enhanced regeneration of ascending sensory neurons.

  4. Endoscopic Sciatic Neurolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Joshua S; McConkey, Mark O; Brick, Matthew J

    2015-08-01

    Despite remaining a controversial diagnosis, piriformis syndrome continues to affect patients' quality of life with pain, sitting discomfort, and exercise intolerance. Open sciatic neurolysis has been noted by the senior author to often only bring temporary relief of the symptoms, with the recurrence presumably due to postoperative scar tissue. Minimally invasive techniques used to decompress the nerve have met with mixed results. This article describes a step-by-step surgical technique designed to maximize patient safety, as well as surgeon orientation, and achieve a thorough neurolysis. Preoperative findings suggestive of piriformis syndrome are described and include retro-trochanteric pain, sciatica-like leg pain, and paresthesias, as well as a positive response to computed tomography-guided injection of dilute ropivacaine hydrochloride and 40 mg of triamcinolone. The operation is performed with the patient in the lateral decubitus position through 2 portals 6 to 8 cm apart, allowing for good triangulation. Dissection is undertaken with a combination of radiofrequency and a laparoscopic peanut, with the assistance of a vascular sling to control the sciatic nerve. Encouraging results have been achieved, and with increasing interest in this procedure, a step-by-step technical description with an accompanying video may prove useful for other experienced hip arthroscopists. Pearls and pitfalls are discussed.

  5. A rat model of sciatic nerve deafferentation: anatomy, tracing and surgery%大鼠坐骨神经去感觉模型及其应用解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 张燕平; 糜大国; 顾剑辉; 胡文

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨大鼠坐骨神经感觉纤维在背根神经节的定位,建立大鼠坐骨神经去感觉模型.方法 采用True Blue坐骨神经逆行示踪法和大体解剖观察(17只大鼠,共34侧),了解大鼠坐骨神经感觉纤维起源于哪些背根神经节;在此基础上,选择性切除大鼠左侧L3~L6背根神经节(n=8),术后进行红外热痛觉测定和神经捏压试验,评价感觉去除情况.结果 神经逆行示踪显示坐骨神经感觉纤维的来源及比例如下:Ⅰ型,源自L4~L6,占58.8%;Ⅱ型,源于L4~L5,占8.8%;Ⅲ型,源于L3~L6,占23.5%;Ⅳ型,源自L3~L5,占8.9%.该组成和比例与大体解剖所见相似.切除大鼠左侧L3~L6背根神经节后,左足第五趾末节趾腹痛觉丧失,直接捏压术侧胫神经、腓总神经和腓肠神经时大鼠均无疼痛反应.结论 大鼠坐骨神经感觉纤维主要源于L4~L6背根神经节,但部分坐骨神经有L3参与,可通过切除一侧L3~L6背根神经节来建立大鼠坐骨神经去感觉传人模型.%Objective To identify the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) origin of sensory fibers in the rat sciatic nerve so as to establish a rat model of sciatic nerve deafferentation via selective DRG resection.Methods A total of 25 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study.The DRG from which sensory fibers in the sciatic nerve were originated were identified by retrograde neuronal tracing as well as anatomical observations in 34 sciatic nerves of 17 rats.The remaining 8 rats received a surgery during which the left L3 to L6 DRG were resected.Infrared plantar test and sensory nerve pinch test were utilized to assess deafferentation efficacy 2 weeks after DRG resection.Results Retrograde tracing showed that the sciatic nerves exhibited four types of sensory innervation from lumbar DRG with a proportionality similar to that observed in gross anatomy:type I,sensory nerve fibers originating from L4 to L6 DRG,a 58.8% incidence; type

  6. Contribution of myelunated fibers from spinal L4, L5 and L6 nerves to the sciatic nerve and its main branches in the adult rat Contribución de fibras mielínicas provenientes de los nervios espinales lumbares L4, L5 y L6 al nervio ciático de rata adulta y sus ramas principales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Robles

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The rat sciatic nerve is composed by the L4, L5 and L6 lumbar spinal nerves. However, the contribution in myelinated fibers originating from these nerves along this nervous trunk has not yet been defined. In the present study, the L4, L5 and L4-L5 spinal nerves were selectively transected. After one week the sciatic, tibial, sural and peroneal nerves were dissected. These samples were fixed and processed for optical microscopy, and both degenerated and normal myelinated fibers were counted in toluidine blue-stained semi-thin sections. L4 contributed with myelinated fibers mainly to the peroneal nerve, and L5 to the sciatic, tibial and sural nerves. In general, the contribution of L6 was smaller and variable along the nervous trunk in comparison to the other two spinal branches. Our results give key information for further studies looking to correlate the contribution of spinal nerves making part of the sciatic nerve and its main branches with hind limb function. El nervio ciático de la rata está formado por los nervios espinales (ne lumbares L4, L5 y L6. Sin embargo, aún no se ha definido el aporte en fibras mielínicas de estos nervios espinales a lo largo del tronco nervioso. En este estudio se transectaron selectivamente los NE L4, L5 y L4-L5. Luego de una semana se disecaron los nervios ciático, tibial, sural y peroneal. Estas muestras se fijaron y procesaron para microscopía óptica y a partir de cortes coloreados con azul de toluidina se contaron las fibras mielínicas degeneradas y normales. L4 contribuyó con fibras mielínicas principalmente al nervio peroneal y L5 a los nervios ciático, tibial y sural. En general, el aporte de L6 fue menor y variable a lo largo del tronco nervioso comparado con las otras dos ramas espinales. Nuestros resultados brindan información valiosa para posteriores estudios que busquen correlacionar la contribución de los nervios espinales que componen el ciático y sus ramas principales con la funci

  7. Characteristics of the sciatic nerve injuries inflicted by high-velocity triangle fragments in swine%高速三角破片致猪坐骨神经损伤的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志明; 张良潮; 林井副; 周继红; 张岫竹; 王旭辉; 何跃; 刘大维; 张良; 王伍超; 代维; 蔡双霜

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨高速三角破片致猪坐骨神经损伤的伤情特点. 方法 长白猪14只,体重(34.3±5.2)kg.采用随机数字表法分为A、B两组各7只,用初速为(773.1±12.4)m/s的0.37 g三角破片致伤,分别瞄准猪右后肢外侧坐骨神经体表投影线中点和旁开2 cm射击.观察伤道入口和出口大小、长度,神经与伤道位置关系,伤后48 h观察神经大体及光电镜改变. 结果 破片在伤道内存在不同程度的偏离原射入方向.A、B组分别有5只和1只坐骨神经位于原发伤道内,其中4例出现不间程度断裂;光镜下见神经严重出血水肿、炎细胞浸润,大量神经纤维、轴索断裂,髓鞘着色浅;电镜下见髓鞘严重溃变、轴索变形.A、B组分别有1只和5只位于震荡区内,距原发伤道(2.07±0.45)cm,光镜见神经轻度出血、充血,部分神经纤维、轴索断裂;电镜下可见髓鞘部分分层.A、B组各有1只位于挫伤区内,神经受损程度介于二者之间. 结论 高速三角破片在组织内走行不稳定;其原发伤道内的猪坐骨神经断裂发牛率高,损伤严重,范围广,华勒变性早;位于原发伤道旁的神经亦发生形态学改变,其损害程度与神经和原发伤道距离有关.%Objective To study the characteristics of the sciatic nerve injuries inflicted by highvelocity triangle fragments in swine.Methods According to the injury position,14 swines weighing (34.29±5.2)kg were divided into two groups.All swines were shot by 0.37 g triangle fragments at (773.1±12.4)m/s aimed at the midpoint of the lateral body surface projection of the right sciatic nerve in Group A(n=7)and at 2 cm aside from sciatic nerve in Group B(n=7).The entrance,exit and length of wound tract,distance between nerve and wound tract were detected,and the pathology of sciatic nerve and wound tract at 48 hours after injury were observed under light microscope and electron microscope.Results The course of the fragments was deviated to different

  8. Effects of acanthopanax senticosus injection on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats%刺五加注射液对大鼠坐骨神经损伤修复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方欣; 贾建新; 闫旭升; 宋嵬; 杨占君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨刺五加注射液对大鼠坐骨神经损伤修复的影响。方法:将60只 SD雄性大鼠随机分为3组,分别为对照组、模型组和刺五加组,每组20只。对照组不施加任何干预,模型组和刺五加组进行左侧坐骨神经离断后缝合。术后刺五加组每日给予刺五加注射液腹腔注射(20 mg/kg),其余两组常规喂养。观察三组大鼠左足皮肤温度、坐骨神经功能指数(seiatic fanetion index ,SFI)和坐骨神经传导速度(sciatic nerve conduction velocity ,SNCV)。结果:在术后第3周和第4周,刺五加组大鼠左后足部皮肤温度均比模型组明显升高( P <0.01);术后第2周、第4周和第6周,刺五加组坐骨神经功能指数均明显优于模型组( P <0.01);术后第2周、第4周和第6周,刺五加组坐骨神经功能指数均明显优于模型组( P <0.01)。结论:刺五加注射液对大鼠周围神经损伤后功能恢复具有促进作用。%Objective :To explore the effect of acanthopanax senticosus injection on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats .Methods:60 SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (the control group ,the model group ,and the acanthopanax senticosus group) ,20 rats in each group .The rats in the control group were not given any intervention .All the left sciatic nerves were sutured after being cut in the other two groups .The rats in acanthopanax senticosus group were given daily intraperitoneal injection of acanthopanax senticosus (20mg/kg) ,and the rats in the control group and the model group were given normal feeding ,with skin temperature in the left foot ,sciatic nerve function index (SFI) and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV ) of rats in all groups observed .Results :3 or 4 weeks after surgery , compared with the model group ,the left foot skin temperature in acanthopanax senticosus group increased significantly ( P <0 .01) .SFI of acanthopanax senticosus

  9. Effects of xenotransplantation of microencapsulated sciatic nerve tissue cells on the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide after spinal cord injury in rats%异种细胞移植对大鼠损伤脊髓降钙素基因相关肽表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段平国; 孙贵才; 刘德明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of xenotransplantation of the microencapsulated sciatic nerve tissue/cella on the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats.Methods: Bilateral sciatic nerves of rabbits were preconditioned for 1 week were dissected under sterile conditions and made into nerve tissue/cells suspension which was mixed with 1.5% sodium alginate solution.The mixture was then extruded using a droplet generation device into 20 mmol/L barium chloride solution to form barium-alginate capsules.Microencapsulated nerve tissue/cells suspension was implanted into the injured sites of the spinal cord in rats.By immunohistochernstry, the expressions of CGRP were observed.Results: The number of CGRP-positive cells in the right ventral horn of spinal cord of rats reduced remarkably in each group after SCI, and it gradually recovered in varying degrees 1 week later.The difference of the number of CGRP-positive cells between the microcapsule group and the cell group was not remarkable, but both of them existed in the distinction when compared with the injury group (P <0.05).At 2, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after SCI, compared to the cell group and injury group,the number of CGRP-positive cells in the microcapsule group increased obviotrsly.Conclusion: The xenotransplantation of the microencapsulated sciatic nerve tissue/cells promotes the expression of CGRP after SCI in rats, benefiting the regeneration of neuron.%目的:观察微囊化异种坐骨神经组织细胞移植对脊髓损伤大鼠降钙素基因相关肽(CGRP)表达的影响.方法:取家兔预变性处理1周的坐骨神经制成组织细胞悬液,与1.5%海藻酸钠溶液混合并喷入20mmol/L氯化钡溶液中制成微囊化的组织细胞悬液.将其植入SD大鼠脊髓损伤处,通过免疫组织化学显色观察CGRP的表达情况.结果:SCI后各组大鼠右侧脊髓前角CGRP阳性细胞数减少,1周后均不同程度地逐渐恢复.SCI后1周,细

  10. Malignant otitis externa with bilateral cranial nerve involvement: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant otitis externa is an inflammatory condition caused by pseudomonas infection usually in the elderly diabetics, or an immunosuppressive condition that presents with diffuse otitis externa along with excruciating pain and granulations tissue in the external auditory meatus. Facial paralysis is common along with occasional involvement of other cranial nerves. Case report describing a patient of malignant otitis externa who presented to a tertiary referral hospital of eastern India. This patient had ipsilateral facial and tenth cranial nerve paralysis along with delayed-onset contralateral sixth and twelfth cranial nerve palsy. The patient was treated initially with intravenous anti-pseudomonal antibody followed by tympanic platectomy, facial nerve decompression and medialisation thyroplasty. The contralateral cranial nerve palsy was managed conservatively with partial recovery of function. Malignant otitis externa, though a common disease, may occasionally present with uncommon or unexplained presentations. The management of these cases should be prompt and aggressive and specifically address each of the debilitating complications.

  11. Effects of different neurolytic drugs on function of motor nerve fibers of rat sciatic nerve%不同神经毁损药对大鼠坐骨神经运动神经功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛春甫; 刘小立; 李志华; 苑进革; 常淑平

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价不同神经毁损药物对大鼠坐骨神经运动神经功能的影响.方法 SD大鼠35只,随机分为7组(n=5):正常对照组(C组)、阿霉素组(Ad组)、无水乙醇组(Aa组)、8%酚甘油组(Pg1组)、10%酚甘油组(Pg2组)、12%酚甘油组(Pg3组)和庆大霉素组(Ci组).于臀肌间隙显露左侧坐骨神经,在坐骨神经穿入半膜肌和内收肌处注射相应药液各0.2 ml,C组:0.9%生理盐水,Ad组:5 mg/ml阿霉素,Aa组:无水乙醇,Pg1组:8%酚甘油,Pg2组:10%酚甘油,Pg3组:12%酚甘油,Ci组:4000 U/ml庆大霉素.于注药后21 d记录复合肌肉诱发电位波幅,并计算运动神经传导速度.结果 各组感觉神经传导速度均为0.与C组比较,其余各组运动神经传导速度和复合肌肉诱发电位波幅均明显降低(P<0.05);Ad组运动神经传导速度和复合肌肉诱发电位波幅明显高于其它药物组(P<0.05);Aa组及Pg3组运动神经传导速度和复合肌肉诱发电位波幅明显低于其余各组(P<0.05).结论与无水乙醇、酚甘油及庆大霉素相比,5%阿霉素对大鼠运动神经功能的影响较小,提示其更适合作为神经毁损药物.%Objective To investigate the change in the function of the motor nerve fibers of the sciatic nerve of rat following injection of different neurolytic drugs. Methods Thirty-five SD rats weighing 350-380 g were randomly divided into 7 groups ( n = 5 each): group C received normal saline; group Ad adriamycin 5 mg/ml;group Aa anhydrous alcohol; group Pg1 8% phenol-glycerol; group Pg2 10% phenol-glycerol; group Pg3 12% phenol-glycerol and group Ci cidomycin 4000 U/ml. 0.2 ml of the different neurolytic drugs was injected at the points where the branches of the sciatic nerve entering semi-membranous and adductor magnus muscles. The action potential and conduction velocity of motor and sensory nerve fibers were measured at 21 d after injection. Results The conduction velocity of sensory nerve fibers was 0 in each group. The

  12. 化学去细胞同种异体神经复合神经生长因子移植后运动功能神经生理学观察%Motor Electrophysiological Experiments on Rate after a Sciatic Nerve Gap Repaired by a Chemically Extracte Acellular Nerve Allograft with Nerve Growth Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海龙; 项良碧; 周大鹏; 田竞; 毕岩

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the nerve electrophysiological restoration of a gap made in the sciatic nerve in rat which was repaired by chemically extracted acellular nerve graft with nerve growth factor (NGF).Methods: The microspheres of NGF were prepared with drug microsphere technology and fixed with the fibrin gels to make the complicated controlled release.The 30 Wister rats were randomly divided into three groups: autografting group (group A), acellular nerve allografting (group B) and acellular nerve allograft with the double controlled release NGF (group C).The nerve functional restoration was observed by electrophysiological experiments on all the rats at weeksl6 after the operation, including motor evoked potential of the muscular triceps surae and motor conduction velocity of the sciatic grafting nerve segment.Results: Stimulation of the experimented sciatic nerves proximal to the implanted segment resulted in motor evoked potentials recorded from the muscular triceps surae in all rats.The motor conducting velocities of the grafting segment were 52.6 m/s in group A, 35.4m/s in group B, and 47.2m/s in group C.Conclusion: The complicated controlled release drug of NGF can supply the exogenous NGF to improve motor conducting functional restoration in rats.%目的:观察化学去细胞同种异体神经复合神经生长因子(NGF)修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损的神经生理恢复情况.方法:采用药物微球技术制备的NGF微球,与生物纤维蛋白胶混合后,形成NGF复合缓释制剂,作为补充外源性NGF载体.选取30只Wister大鼠制备坐骨神经10 mm缺损进行神经修复,随机分为A、B、C3组,A组予自体神经反转吻合,B组予化学去细胞异体神经桥接,C组在化学去细胞神经移植段周围注射1 mL的NGF复合缓释制剂.术后16周观察大鼠在运动功能神经生理学恢复的情况.结果:方波刺激移植段近侧神经,均在小腿三头肌上记录到运动诱发电位曲线.A、B、C组的神经移植

  13. 无细胞神经移植物复合骨髓间充质干细胞修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损%Repairing rat sciatic nerve defects with the compound of acellular nerve graft and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩顺; 吕刚; 张基仁; 肖强

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have successfully prepared the natural and biologically degraded acellular nerve graft and have proved the effect of promoting neural regeneration.OBJECTIVE: To construct tissue engineered artificial nerve with acellular nerve graft and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and to observe the effect of promoting motor functional recovery and repairing rat sciatic nerve defects. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized control animal experiment was performed in the Medical TIssue Engineering Laboratory of the First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University between June 2008 and February 2009. MATERIALS: Wistar adult healthy male rats weighing 180-200 g were used to prepare acellular nerve graft, while Wistar adult healthy male rats weighing 100-120 g were used to prepare bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue engineered artificial nerve was produced with acellular nerve graft co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. METHODS: Sixty Wistar adult healthy male rats weighing 180-200 g were induced sciatic nerve defect models, 15 mm long. SD rats were divided into three groups at random with 20 animals in each group. ①Experiment group: Rat sciatic nerve defects were bridged with tissue engineered artificial nerve. ②Blank control group: Rat sciatic nerve defects were bridged with tissue engineered nerve scaffold. ③Autologous nerve control group: Rat sciatic nerve defects were bridged with autologous nerve graft. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 12 weeks postoperation, the recovery of motor function was evaluated with gross observation, electrophysiology, histological observation and triceps surae wet weight.RESULTS: ①At 12 weeks postoperation, the toes at the operation side could separate and supported to the ground in the experiment group; there was no significant difference in the regenerated nerve conduction velocity between experimental group and autologous nerve graft group. ②At 12 weeks postoperation, histochemical

  14. 同种异体神经复合体修复兔坐骨神经缺损的研究%Planting fetus rabbit schwann cells into the extracted acellular nerve graft of homogeneity in repairing rabbit sciatic nerve defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小华; 韩金豹; 张沉冰; 田德虎; 韩久卉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To plant fetus rabbit Schwann cells that were cultured and purified in vitro into the chemically extracted acellular nerve graft of homogeneity and made it into bridging complex. Then transplant the bridging complex into the rabbit defective sciatic nerve. The experiment was designed to investigate the effect of the nerve allografts on the functional recovery and the condition of nerve regeneration. Methods 48 adult healthy New-Zealand albino rabbits,weighing 1.5-2.0 kg,were randomly divided into 2 groups with 24 rabbits each group,based on different grafts. The bridging complex were composed of Schwann cell, then transplanted it to repair defective sciatic nerve of the experiment group rabbit. The control group did not transplant Schwann cells. The sciatic nerve of lower left limb was cut in order to emerge 2cm nerves defect for each rabbit,then was transplated with different grafts. Observed the ulcers on the feet of the rabbit 4,8 and 16 weeks after operation. To observe sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination by light microscope. To observe the information of nerve regeneration and myelination and the ultrastructural change of the mitochondrion, the microtubule, the microfilament and Schwann cells by electron microscope. Make use of the analytical system on picture to treat the number of regenerated nerve fiber and the axon diameter and the thickness of myelin sheath of medullated nerve fibers,then measured the wet weight of the triceps surae. Then analyzed them in statistics. Results After operation, the immunological rejection was not found in the operating field. The experimental group was better than the control group in healing of ulcers, after 4,8,16 weeks,the number of regenerated nerve fiber and the axon diameter and the thickness of myelin sheath of medullated nervefibers (906.25 ± 30.68,1726.25 ±51. 89,2825.13 ± 22.79) , (5.35 ± 0.62,5.46 ±0.38,5.59 ±0.80), (1.65 ±0.37,1.75 ±0.41,1.83 ±0.49) (P 0.05). But after 8 and 16 weeks

  15. A rare case of human immunodeficiency virus associated bilateral facial nerve palsy in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cases are on the increase in India and worldwide, so are its various complications. Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported

  16. A rare case of human immunodeficiency virus associated bilateral facial nerve palsy in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Gupta; Jitendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases are on the increase in India and worldwide, so are its various complications. Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported

  17. Efeito do laser de baixa intensidade (660 nm na regeneração do nervo isquiático lesado em ratos Effect of low- power laser (660 nm on regeneration of injured rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Inácio Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os nervos periféricos são estruturas que, ao sofrerem lesões, podem originar incapacidades motoras e sensitivas importantes. O laser de baixa intensidade é um dos diversos recursos terapêuticos para promover a regeneração nervosa precoce, mas ainda não há consenso sobre sua utilização. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar, por meio de avaliação funcional, o efeito da terapia a laser de baixa intensidade (660 nm na regeneração do nervo isquiático após esmagamento. Foram utilizados 18 ratos (Wistar submetidos à lesão do nervo isquiático divididos em dois grupos, controle e grupo laser, submetido ao tratamento a laser (AsGaAl, 660 nm, 10J/cm2, 30 mW e 0,06 cm² por 21 dias no local da lesão. Para a avaliação funcional, foi aplicado o índice funcional do ciático (IFC no pré-operatório e nos 7º, 14º e 21º dias de pós-operatório. Quando comparados o IFC dos grupos no 14o dia de pós-operatório, foi encontrada melhora significante no grupo laser em relação ao controle. Na amostra analisada e nos parâmetros utilizados, pôde-se constatar que a aplicação do laser foi eficaz na recuperação funcional precoce do nervo ciático esmagado.Peripheral nerves, when injured, may originate important motor and sensitive disability. Studies have used several therapeutic resources in order to achieve early nervous regeneration, such as low-power laser; but there is no consensus on its use, which leads to controversial conclusions. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of GaAlAs laser (660 nm on functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats. Sciatic nerves of 18 Wistar rats were crushed and divided into sham group and treated group, the latter submitted to laser therapy (660 nm, 10 J/cm², 30 mW and 0.06 cm2 for 21 days. The sciatic functional index (SFI was measured before surgery and on the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. A significant difference, showing better regeneration of the treated group, was

  18. Repairment of sciatic nerve defect by Schwann cell of adult rat combined with acellular nerve grafts%成年大鼠许旺细胞复合去细胞神经支架修复坐骨神经缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽娜; 崔晓军; 苏开鑫; 王晓红; 蔡雪彦; 郭金华; 纳青青

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨成年许旺细胞(SC)复合去细胞神经支架构建的组织工程化人工神经移植治疗外周神经损伤的效果。方法从 Wallerian 变性1周的成年 SD 大鼠远侧端神经中分离培养得到SC,复合去细胞神经支架构建组织工程化人工神经。移植分为 SC +去细胞 SD 大鼠神经支架组(SC治疗组)和空细胞 SD 大鼠神经支架组(阴性对照组),每组各5只。比较两组大鼠术后2、4、8周损伤侧坐骨神经功能指数(SFI),术后 8周损伤侧坐骨神经传导功能和小腿三头肌湿重恢复率等修复效果的指标。结果SC 治疗组术后2、4、8周损伤侧 SFI,术后 8周损伤侧坐骨神经传导功能和小腿三头肌湿重恢复率均优于或高于阴性对照组(均为 P <0.05)。结论采用成年 SC 复合去细胞神经支架的人工神经移植治疗外周神经缺损,可有效促进损伤神经的功能恢复。%Objective To investigate clinical efficacy of tissue-engineered artificial nerve grafts constructed by acellular nerve grafts combined with adult rat Schwann cell (SC)in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury.Methods SCs were isolated and cultured from the distal nerves of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 1-week Wallerian degeneration and then combined with acellular nerve grafts to construct tissue-engineered artificial nerve.All rats were divided into acellular nerve graft containing SCs (SC group)and nerve graft containing no cells groups (control group),five animals in each group.At 2-,4-and 8-week after surgery,sciatic function index (SFI)of the affected side was compared between two groups.At postoperative 8 weeks,nerve conduction of sciatic nerve of the injured side,recovery rate of triceps surae wet weight and other relevant parameters were equally compared between two groups.Results In the SC group,SFI of the affected side at 2-,4-and 8-week after surgery,nerve conduction of sciatic nerve at the injured side

  19. 医用胶制动对大鼠坐骨神经离断吻合修复效果影响研究%Effect of Medical Adhesive Braking on Severed Sciatic Nerves for Anastomosis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹秀强; 梁向党; 郭占芳; 孙赓; 余宽宽; 房卓群

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察医用胶制动对大鼠坐骨神经离断吻合修复效果的影响。方法选用健康雄性SD大鼠30只,造模成功后随机分为两组,每组各15只。实验组于坐骨神经中点处离断后手术显微镜下行传统针线缝合吻合,硅胶导管套在吻合口表面,导管中点与吻合口位置相同,导管两端口各滴20μl医用粘合剂固定。对照组于坐骨神经中点处离断后仅行手术显微镜下传统针线缝合吻合,未使用医用胶和导管固定。术后第8周对吻合口神经结缔组织行大体观察、神经功能指数、电生理检查和组织病理学观察,分别记录神经外膜内、外结缔组织增生情况,观测吻合口神经纤维再生数量。结果术后第8周,大体观察:两组大鼠神经与周围组织粘连明显,但实验组坐骨神经分离容易;实验组左侧坐骨神经功能指数(6、8周)、神经潜伏期、神经外膜瘢痕结缔组织最大厚度、4个视野神经内结缔组织面积之和均小于对照组(P<0.05);神经振幅、神经纤维再生计数大于对照组(P<0.05)。结论神经离断后使用医用胶对神经制动,可以抑制吻合口疤痕结缔组织的增生,促进神经纤维的再生。%Objective To observe the effect of medical adhesive braking on severed sciatic nerves for anastomo-sis in rats. Methods A total of 30 male SD rats were selected and models were established, and then the rats were ran-domly divided into experiment group (n=15) and control group (n=15). In experiment group, the sciatic nerves were transected at the midpoint, and then were sutured for anastomosis with traditional method under operating microscope. The silica gel tubes were put over the surfaces of nerve suture sites, and the stomas sites were similar with the axial center of the tubes, and then 20 μl medical adhesive were respectively dripped on two sides of the tubes. In control group, the sciatic nerves were transected at

  20. Acute sciatic neuropathy: "Saturday night palsy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manigoda Miodrag

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of 25-year old, unemployed male, admitted to hospital due to acute onset of the left foot drop, subsequent walking difficulty and numbness of the left calf and foot. Symptoms began after prolonged sleep with previous heroin abuse by sniffing. During neurological examination, mild weakness of knee flexors, moderate weakness of plantar flexors and paralysis of foot dorsiflexors, together with hypesthesia of the left calf, foot and fingers, predominantly in the innervation area of common peroneal nerve on the same side, were observed. The electrophysiologic examination revealed predominant involvement of peroneal division within the sciatic nerve, together with recorded conduction block indicating the compression as possible mechanism of nerve injury. The patient was administered corticosteroid therapy during two months, what resulted in almost complete recovery. The peculiarity of this case report is in the presence of the sciatic nerve "Saturday night palsy" with possible effect of former heroin abuse.

  1. Sildenafil Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pelvic Ganglia Neurons after Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah A. Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG. Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1, and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40 that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration.

  2. [A Case of Left Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Showing Evoked Potentials on Bilateral Electrode by the Left Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Electromyographic Tracheal Tube].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Kinoshita, Yuki; Joyashiki, Takeshi; Enokida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we reported a case of brainstem cavernous hemangioma showing false positive responses to electromyographic tracheal tube (EMG tube). We concluded that the cause was spontaneous respiration accompanied by vocal cord movement. We report a case of left vertebral artery aneurysm showing evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes by the left vagus nerve stimulation to EMG tube. An 82-year-old woman underwent clipping of a left unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. General anesthesia was induced with remifentanil, propofol and suxamethonium, and was maintained with oxygen, air, remifentanil and propofol. We monitored somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, and electromyogram of the vocal cord. When the manipulation reached brainstem and the instrument touched the left vagus nerve, evoked potentials appeared on bilateral electrodes. EMG tube is equipped with two electrodes on both sides. We concluded that the left vagus nerve stimulation generated evoked potentials of the left laryngeal muscles, and they were simultaneously detected as potential difference between two electrodes on both sides. EMG tube is used to identify the vagus nerve. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that each vagus nerve stimulation inevitably generates evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes.

  3. O ultrassom terapêutico na medula espinhal acelera a regeneração do nervo ciático de ratos Therapeutic ultrasound on the spinal cord accelerates regeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Guadallini Jatte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da irradiação ultrassônica de baixa intensidade aplicada sobre a medula espinhal na regeneração do nervo ciático de ratos após lesão por esmagamento controlado, avaliando os resultados pelo índice funcional do ciático (SFI, medido nas imagens vídeo-filmadas das plantas das patas. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos foram submetidos a esmagamento controlado (do nervo ciático direito e divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o tratamento: Grupo 1 (n=9, irradiação simulada; Grupo 2 (n=9, irradiação efetiva. Irradiação ultrassônica de baixa intensidade foi iniciada no 7º dia pós-operatório e aplicada diariamente por 6 semanas. Imagens das plantas das patas dos animais foram vídeo-filmadas em uma esteira transparente sob velocidade controlada a intervalos semanais até a 6ª semana de irradiação e o correspondente SFI medido com um programa de computador específico. RESULTADOS: O SFI durante a 1ª e a 6ª semana de tratamento foi de -59,12 e -12,55 no Grupo 1, e -53,31 e -1,32 no Grupo 2, indicando uma melhora de 79% e 97%, respectivamente, mas as diferenças entre os grupos somente foram significantes (pOBJECTIVE: To study the effects of low intensity ultrasound irradiation applied on the spinal cord on the regeneration of the rat's sciatic nerve after a controlled crush injury, evaluating the functional results of the sciatic functional index as measured on the video recorded images of the foot sole. METHODS: Eighteen rats were submitted to a controlled crush injury of the right sciatic nerve and divided into two groups according to the treatment: Group 1 (n=9, simulated irradiation; Group 2 (n=9, effective irradiation. Low-intensity ultrasound irradiation was started on the 7th postoperative day and applied daily for 6 weeks. Images of the animals´ foot sole were video recorded on a see-through treadmill type walking belt machine at weekly intervals until the 6th week of irradiation and the corresponding

  4. 推拿治疗坐骨神经损伤大鼠行为学研究%Behavior Study of Tuina Treatment on Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凡; 张蓓; 郑慧敏; 韦景斌; 张晓晖; 于天源

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In order to confirm the ameliorative effects of Tuina treatment on the sensory disturbance caused by periph-eral nerve injuries, meanwhile interpret the central mechanism of Tuina on the restoration of peripheral nerve injury. Methods: The clamping injury of sciatic nerve in SD Rats is taken as the model. The Rat Tail-Flick thermal pain threshold is selected as the behavior index to improve the virtuous promoting effect of Tuina treatment on restoration of the limb sensory function after peripheral nerve injuries, to provide theoretical support for revealing the the central mechanism of Tuina treatment on the restoration of peripheral nerve injury. Results; The pain threshold of the Tuina treatment group is longer than the sham operation group, model group and control group, furthermore, difference was significant between treatment group and model group, it is indicating that Tuina treatment can promote the reaction time on the thermal pain stimulation, furthermore, Tuina treatment has the ameliorative effects on the sensory disturbance after peripheral nerve injuries. Conclusion: The study is testing the innervation situation of the injured nerve after restoration, the result is indicating that Tuina treatment can promote the regional pain threshold, prolong the reaction time an die noxious stimulation, finally illustrating that Tuina treatment has a good promoting effect in the restoration of sensory function to sciatic nerve injuried rats.%目的:从实验研究角度探寻推拿对周围神经损伤后所出现的感觉功能障碍的改善效应,并进一步揭示推拿对周围神经损伤后的中枢修复机制.方法:采用SD大鼠坐骨神经夹持损伤为模型,以“按摩手法模拟仪”于大鼠手术侧殷门穴、承山穴、阳陵泉穴施以点法、揉法,通过对大鼠甩尾热痛阈的分析,从行为学角度探寻推拿对坐骨神经损伤后的肢体感觉功能恢复的良性促进作用,为揭示推拿促进神经修复的

  5. Study of RBF Nerve Network Tuning PD Control Algoritm of Bilateral Servo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In construction tele-robot system. When p-f architecture force feedback was used, the impact of large feedback force result in the strike-like feeling on the operators hand. If the amplitude is high, it will cause the control unstable. So a improved force feedback control method with the feature of a T-S fuzzy feedback coefficient, which could be modified online nonlinearly and continuously, is developed. A RBF-PID force controller is also designed, and formed a bilateral hydraulic servo control system. The experimental results indicate that the new improved control method reduced the impact of the feedback force, enhanced the compliance and transparency of the tele-operation of construction tele-robot system.

  6. 氯化镁促进大鼠坐骨神经损伤修复的实验研究%An experimental study of the effects of magnesium chloride on the renovation of sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 宋永周; 曹舒兴; 李身泰; 李秋童; 马维

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究氯化镁是否对大鼠坐骨神经损伤修复具有促进作用。方法将60只SD大鼠随机分为3组,每组20只。制作1 cm坐骨神经缺损模型,分别以硅胶管桥接坐骨神经缺损,构成神经再生室。根据神经再生室中所注入介质不同分为:氯化镁组(MgCl2组),神经生长因子组(nerve growth factor,NGF组),0.9%氯化钠溶液组( control group ,对照组)。于术后1、2、4、8周观察大鼠下肢溃疡、肌电图变化情况。并于12周测量大鼠小腿三头肌湿重。结果术后8周时,NGF组和MgCl2组的大鼠术侧后肢肌肉萎缩有不同程度恢复,僵直度有所减少,肢体及足趾伸展角度增大,而对照组的大鼠后肢肌肉萎缩无明显恢复。12周时,NGF组和氯化镁组大鼠的术侧肢肌肉外观饱满,僵直度进一步降低。而0.9%氯化钠溶液组大鼠术侧肢体僵硬度降低不明显。术后4周,2个实验组神经传导速度较对照组恢复较快,直到术后12周,仍保持较快的恢复速度,与对照组相比,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。其中NGF组恢复最快,但和MgCl2组差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。于术后12周处死动物,取双侧小腿三头肌进行称重,发现2个实验组三头肌湿重较对照组有显著恢复。 NGF组恢复最快,但和MgCl2组差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。MgCl2和NGF同样具有促进神经损伤修复的作用,其各项结果差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。结论氯化镁可促进大鼠坐骨神经损伤修复。%Objective To investigate the effects of magnesium chloride on the renovation of sciatic nerve injury in rats.Methods Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 20 rats in each group.The rat models of sciatic nerve defect (1cm) were established by bridging sciatic nerve defect with silica gel tube to set up a nerve regeneration chamber ( NRC) .According to the

  7. Sodium alginate film promotes the regeneration of injured sciatic nerve in rats%海藻纤维膜片促进大鼠损伤坐骨神经的再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦伟东; 李延辉; 季爱玉; 夏玉军

    2014-01-01

    背景:课题组和青岛大学高分子材料研究所合作研制的海藻纤维生物膜,具有优良的生物相容性,常被用作制备各种复合材料。目的:观察海藻纤维膜片包绕覆盖神经断端吻合口对大鼠坐骨神经损伤后再生的影响。方法:切断36只雄性Wistar大鼠右侧坐骨神经,随机分组:对照组行神经外膜端端吻合;实验组行神经外膜端端缝合,将海藻纤维膜片包绕并覆盖神经吻合口远近端各约0.5 cm,形成封闭再生室。术后观察海藻纤维膜片降解吸收规律及缝合处粘连情况,组织学切片行苏木精-伊红染色、锇酸染色、白细胞介素2及白细胞介素4免疫组织化学染色。结果与结论:术后4-6周,实验组海藻纤维膜片逐渐被降解吸收,与周围组织粘连较少,炎性细胞浸润程度较轻,纤维组织增生较少。两组术后1,7,14 d的白细胞介素2及白细胞介素4含量比较差异无显著性意义。实验组术后6周再生神经纤维分布规则且大小较为均一,其神经纤维数量、轴突大小及髓鞘厚度等指标均显著优于对照组(P <0.05)。表明海藻纤维膜片具有良好的生物降解性和组织相容性,其包绕覆盖坐骨神经形成的神经再生密闭室可促进大鼠损伤坐骨神经再生。%BACKGROUND:The sodium alginate film, jointly developed by our research team and the Institute of Polymer Material of Qingdao University, has good biocompatibility and is often used for the preparation of a variety of composite materials. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of sodium alginate film wrapping and covering nerve anastomotic stoma on the regeneration of injured sciatic nerve in rats. METHODS: A total of 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups after the right sciatic nerve was cut. Control group: The nerve stump was sutured through epineurial end-to-end anastomosis; Experimental group: The nerve stump was sutured

  8. 小儿坐骨神经注射性麻痹的肌电图观察%Electromyography observation of sciatic nerve paralysis caused by injection in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓丽

    2004-01-01

    背景:肌电图检测是确诊注射性坐骨神经损伤重要方法之一,但其早期异常表现,异常程度与病程的相关性及各项指标的差异比较尚缺乏深入研究.目的:探讨注射性坐骨神经损伤的电生理特点.设计:以诊断为依据临床观察分析.地点和对象:104例南京医科大学附属脑科医院门诊确诊患儿,年龄4个月~14岁,病前均有明确臀部肌肉注射史,既往无其他神经肌肉疾病.干预:应用丹迪Neuromatic 2000 M型肌电仪检测患儿的患肢肌电图.主要观察指标:检测患儿的患肢腓总神经和胫神经/胫后神经的感觉传导速度(sensory conduction velocity,SCV)、运动传导速度(motor conduction velocity,MCV)、末端运动潜伏期(distal motor latency,dML)和末端复合肌肉动作电位波幅(distal compound muscle action potential amplitude,dCMAPA)、感觉神经动作电位波幅(sensory nerve action potential ampli-tude,SNAPA);同时检测坐骨神经支配肌的针极肌电图.结果:肌注后2~7 d已可检出多项电生理异常.腓总神经支的神经传导速度(nerve conduction velocity,NCV)异常率(68.0%)明显高于胫神经支(43.5%)(x2=12.199,P<0.005).腓总神经SCV,SNAPA和dML,dCMAPA异常程度与病程正相关(r=0.306 8,P<0.005;r=0.296 3,P<0.005;r=0.337 6,P<0.001;r=0.215 7,P<0.05).8个月以上病程患儿的SCV, SNAPA和dML异常程度明显增加(F=3.105,P<0.05;F=4.095,P<0.01;F=5.904,P<0.01),较8个月内有显著差异.腓总神经NCV各项配对t检验发现运动纤维dML和dCMAPA异常程度重于感觉纤维SCV和SNAPA(t=2.070,P<0.05;t=3.520,P<0.001).结论:化学药物对神经髓鞘传导功能有直接损伤.坐骨神经运动纤维的电生理异常早于且重于感觉纤维.腓总神经运动传导功能检测是本病早期诊断的重要依据.8个月以上病程的损伤神经恢复难度增加.%BACKGROUND: Electromyography(EMG)is one of the important methods in the diagnosis of sciatic nerve

  9. 催产素对蟾蜍离体坐骨神经-腓肠肌收缩的影响%Effect of Oxytocin on the Isolated Toad Sciatic Nerve Gastrocnemius Contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓霞; 付立波

    2015-01-01

    采用常规方法剥离制备神经-腓肠肌标本,分别用浸有0.5%、1%和1.5%催产素的纱布浸润标本,浸润5min后,测量蟾蜍坐骨神经-腓肠肌的阈强度(mv)、收缩幅度(g)以及收缩潜伏期(ms),与放入正常任氏液作比较。经0.5%的催产素浸润后,腓肠肌的阈强度无明显变化,收缩幅度增大,且潜伏期时间缩短;经1%的催产素浸润后,腓肠肌的阈强度减小,收缩幅度增大,潜伏期时间相应缩短;而经1.5%浓度的催产素浸润后,腓肠肌的阈强度、收缩幅度以及潜伏期均无明显变化。较低浓度催产素可以提高骨骼肌收缩的兴奋性,但受药物剂量的限制。超过一定范围,骨骼肌收缩不随催产素浓度变化或随浓度增加骨骼肌的收缩能力相应减弱。%Objective:To investigate the effect of oxytocin effect on isolated toad sciatic nerve gastrocnemius on -their contractile activi-ty.Methods:Method for preparing specimen gastrocnemius nerve -using conventional stripping process for the preparation of specimens, the gastrocnemius muscle of toad sciatic nerve -, respectively 0.5%, 1%and 1.5%leaching oxytocin gauze infiltration specimens, af-ter infiltration 5 minutes, measure the toad sciatic nerve of gastrocnemius threshold intensity ( mv) , contraction amplitude ( g) , and con-traction latency (MS).Results:After 0.5%of oxytocin after the invasion (P>0.05), the threshold intensity of gastrocnemius muscle had no obvious change, contraction amplitude increases, and shorten the latency time.After 1%of oxytocin after infiltration, reduce the threshold intensity of gastrocnemius muscle contraction amplitude increases, the contraction latencythe time gets shorter.The 1.5%con-centrations of oxytocin after the invasion (P>0.05), gastrocnemius muscle contraction amplitude and latency, threshold intensity had no obvious change.Conclusion:Contraction of the skeletal muscle affected by oxytocin

  10. Efeitos da aplicação do laser de baixa potência na regeneração do nervo isquiático de ratos Effects of low-power laser on injured rat sciatic nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Batagini Gonçalves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os nervos periféricos sofrem constantes lesões de origem traumática, o que resulta em perdas funcionais. A terapia com laser de baixa potência vem sendo utilizada para minimizar os efeitos maléficos da inflamação e acelerar o processo de cicatrização dos tecidos lesados. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da irradiação do laser 830 nm no comportamento do nervo isquiático de ratos submetido a esmagamento. Foram utilizados 20 ratos, todos tendo tido o nervo isquiático esmagado, divididos em 4 grupos (n=5: P7 e P14, tratamento placebo por 7 e 14 dias; L7 e L14, tratamento por laser (dosagem de 4 J/cm² por 7 e 14 dias. Os animais dos grupos P7 e P14 foram submetidos aos mesmos procedimentos, mas com o laser desligado. Os parâmetros analisados foram presença de infiltrado inflamatório e fibroblastos, destruição da bainha de mielina e degeneração axonal. Na análise estatística foi observada diferença estatística com relação a três parâmetros: os animais do grupo L14 apresentaram maior quantidade de fibroblastos (p=0,0001, menor degeneração da bainha de mielina (p=0,007 e menor quantidade de infiltrado inflamatório (p=0,001. A aplicação do laser de baixa potência contribuiu para a redução do processo inflamatório decorrente da lesão do nervo isquiático de ratos.Peripheral nerves are commonly subject to traumatic injuries, leading to functional loss. Low-power laser therapy has been used in order to minimize harmful effects of inflammation and to accelerate healing of injured tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 830 nm-laser irradiation on rat sciatic nerves submitted to crush. Twenty male Wistar rats had their sciatic nerve crushed and were divided into 4 groups (n=5: Sham7 and Sham14, placebo-treated for 7 and 14 days; L7 and L14, laser-treated (at 4 J/cm² for 7 and 14 days. Sham group animals were submitted to the same procedures, but with the laser turned off. Assessed

  11. The study of promoting rat sciatic nerve regeneration by cholecystokinin-octaneptide%胆囊收缩素促大鼠坐骨神经再生的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宣煌; 林海滨; 吴献伟; 张国栋; 陈国立; 郑祖高; 占鲤生; 张怀志; 扶银花

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe cholecystokinin-octapeptide ( CCK-8 ) on promoting the peripheral nervous system damage repair and the regeneration , anticipated for seek the peripheral nerve treatment medicine to provide a new mentality. Methods 32 SD rats were randomly divided into two groups : test group (CCK-8-treated group) and control group ( physiological saline-treated group) with 16 in each. The right sciatic nerve was transected and sutured epineurium immediately . CCK-8 groups were injected with CCK-8 (8 nmol/kg) intraperitoneally one time per day , 7 days total, and control groups received isotonic saline of the same volume. After operation, each group was randomly further divided into two groups which according to the observing periods for 4 and 12 weeks respectively. Denervated changes of rat and morphologic changes of regenerated nerve were observed and recovery rate of sciatic function index ( SFI% ) was measured to observe the function restoration of damaged hind limbs . Recovery rate of the complex muscular action potential ( CMAP%) and motor nerve conduction velocities ( MNCV% ) were measured with nerve -electrophysiological instrument. Specimens in the distal ends of regenerated nerves were sectioned histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin , firmly green myelinic membrane dyeing to observe the histomophologic changes under light microscope. Then, quantitative analysis of recovery rate of myelinated fiber populations were performed. Electron microscope was used to observe the ultrastructure changes . The recovery rate of wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle measured to observe the effect of CCK -8 on atrophy of skeletal muscles. Results ( 1 ) General morphology : at 12 weeks, the sciatic nerve of CCK-8 group was thicker than that of control group. (2) At 4 weeks and 12 weeks after operation ,SFI% ,MNCV% ,CMAP% , the recovery rate of myelinated fiber population ,the recovery rate of wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle were measured. The difference

  12. 大鼠坐骨神经髓鞘相关蛋白随年龄的变化%Change of myelin-associated protein expressions in rat sciatic nerves with age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦; 王彩萍; 蒋蔚; 蒋茂荣; 丁妹; 丁斐

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究大鼠坐骨神经髓鞘相关蛋白随年龄的变化及与髓鞘板层数之间的相互关系.方法:SD大鼠分别于饲养1周、1月、3月、9月、15月和21月后取坐骨神经,利用透射电镜观察计数髓鞘板层;采用免疫印迹检测髓鞘相关蛋白—髓鞘碱性蛋白(MBP)、髓鞘相关糖蛋白(MAG)和P0蛋白(P0)的表达变化,并分析与板层数之间的相关性;采用荧光免疫组织化学显色观察MBP的表达变化.结果:透射电镜观察显示,大鼠坐骨神经髓鞘板层数从1周到15月逐渐增加,直到21月无显著变化.免疫印迹显示,MBP的表达随年龄增长而增加,21月时达到高峰,与髓鞘板层数呈正性直线相关;MAG在出生后1周表达最高,而P0在1月时达峰值,后皆随年龄增加而下降,MAG与髓鞘板层数呈负性直线相关,而P0与髓鞘板层数之间呈非直线相关.荧光免疫组织化学显色显示,随着年龄增长,MBP在大鼠坐骨神经的髓鞘表达的荧光强度逐渐增强.结论:大鼠坐骨神经髓鞘相关蛋白随年龄改变呈现不同的表达模式,并与髓鞘板层数之间存在一定相关性.%Objective:To investigate the changes of myelin-associated proteins in myelin of rat sciatic nerves with age,as well as the relationships between the protein expressions and morphology changes.Methods:Sparague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 distinct age groups:1-week,1-,3-,9-,15-and 21-month age groups.The number of myelin sheath lamellae of the sciatic nerve was counted with electron micrographs.Western blotting was performed to examine the changes of protein expression levels of myelin-associated proteins in rat sciatic nerves,such as myelin basic protein (MBP),myelinassociated glycoprotein (MAG) and myelin protein zero (P0).And fluorescent immunohistochemistry was performed to observe the change of MBP in the sciatic nerve.The relationships between myelin sheath lamellae and the expression of myelin

  13. The Effects of Trimetazidine and Sildenafil on Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Injury Induced Oxidative Damage and Cavernosal Fibrosis in Rats

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    Dogan Atilgan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sildenafil and trimetazidine on bilateral cavernosal nerve injury-induced oxidative damage and fibrotic changes in cavernosal tissue in rat model. Material and Methods. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; each group consist 8 rats (control, BCI, BCI + TMZ, and BCI + sildenafil groups. Tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PC levels were determined biochemically and distribution of cavernosal fibrosis density among groups was performed histopathologically. Results. Tissue SOD levels in BCI group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05. Tissue MDA and PC levels in BCI group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. TMZ and sildenafil administration significantly increased tissue SOD levels (P<0.05 and reduced tissue MDA and PC levels (P<0.05. Histologically, the degree of cavernosal fibrosis and collagen density was higher in BCI group in comparison to control, TMZ-treated, and sildenafil-treated groups. Conclusion. BCI caused oxidative damage and increased cavernosal fibrosis in rat penis. TMZ and sildenafil treatment decreased oxidative damage and reduced the degree of fibrosis in penile tissue due to BCI.

  14. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a nerve conduit engineering with a membrane derived from natural latex Regeneração do nervo ciático em ratos através de um conduto confeccionado com uma membrana de látex natural

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    Marcos Vinícius Muniz Ganga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the capacity of natural latex membrane to accelerate and improve the regeneration quality of the of rat sciatic nerves. METHODS: Forty male adult Wistar rats were used, anesthetized and operated to cut the sciatic nerve and receive an autograft or a conduit made with a membrane derived from natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis. Four or eight weeks after surgery, to investigate motor nerve recovery, we analyzed the neurological function by walking pattern (footprints analysis and computerized treadmill, electrophysiological evaluation and histological analysis of regenerated nerve (autologous nerve graft or tissue cables between the nerve stumps, and anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles. RESULTS: All functional and morphological analysis showed that the rats transplanted with latex conduit had a better neurological recovery than those operated with autologous nerve: quality of footprints, performance on treadmill (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade de uma membrana de látex natural em acelerar e melhorar a qualidade da regeneração do nervo ciático seccionado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 40 ratos machos adultos da linhagem Wistar, anestesiados e operados com autoenxerto ou com interposição de um tubo confeccionado com uma membrana derivada do latex natural (Havea brasiliensis. Quatro ou oito semanas após a cirurgia, para investigar a recuperação motora do nervo, foram analisadas a função neurológica através do padrão da marcha (análise das pegadas e esteira computadorizada, avaliação eletrofisiológica e análise histológica do nervo regenerado (enxerto de nervo autólogo ou formação de nervo novo entre os cotos nervosos e músculos gastrocnêmio e tibial anterior. RESULTADOS: Todas as análises morfológicas e funcionais demonstraram que os ratos transplantados com o conduto de látex tiveram recuperação melhor do que aqueles operados com nervo autólogo: qualidade das pegadas impressas, desempenho

  15. Improvement in the field of binocular single vision following bilateral phacoemulsification with toric intraocular lens implantation in a patient with a partial third nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash, Malavika; Sloper, John J; Wilkins, Mark R

    2010-12-01

    A 44-year-old female teacher with partial third (oculomotor) nerve palsy had a small central field of binocular single vision (BSV) following three strabismus procedures. Over several years her field of BSV constricted further, coincident with the development of myopia in one eye secondary to early lens change and in the presence of significant astigmatism. Following bilateral lens extraction with toric intraocular lens implants, her field of BSV reexpanded.

  16. Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Martins Dallo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC, a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fiber outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or dorsal horn of the rat. METHODS: Injections of a cultured SC suspension or a lesioned spinal cord homogenized extract were made in a reservoir promoted by a contiguous double crush of the rat sciatic nerve. Local injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS served as control. One week later, rats were euthanized and spinal cord astrocytes were labeled by immunohistochemistry and quantified by means of quantitative image analysis. RESULTS: In the ipsilateral ventral horn, slight astroglial activations were seen after PBS or SC injections, however, a substantial activation was achieved after cord extract injection in the sciatic nerve reservoir. Moreover, SC suspension and cord extract injections were able to promote astroglial reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn bilaterally. Conclusion: Spinal cord astrocytes react according to repair processes of axotomized nerve, which may influence the functional outcome. The event should be considered during the neurosurgery strategies.OBJETIVO: Astrócitos reativos participam de vários mecanismos após lesões do sistema nervoso central e periférico, os quais incluem neuroproteção, brotamento neuronal, neurotransmissão e dor neuropática. As células de Schwann (CS, um tipo de glia periférica, também reagem com a lesão do nervo, podendo interferir com o reparo e cicatrização, crescimento de fibras e regeneração neuronais. Investigamos aqui a possibilidade da terapia celular para o reparo do nervo ci

  17. Persistência da veia ciática Persistent sciatic vein

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    Bárbara Borges Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    and expansion. Consequently, anomalies may occur during this process. When there is persistence of the sciatic vein, it may communicate with the small saphenous vein or with the popliteal vein during its route, being anastomosed to the superior perforating vein and to the medial circumflex femoral vein. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of bilateral persistent sciatic vein on the lower limbs in comparison to the literature. METHODS: Thirty-two lower limbs from 16 corpses preserved in formaldehyde were dissected at the Laboratory of Anatomy of the discipline of Topographic Anatomy of the Medical School of Universidade Santo Amaro (Unisa, during 2006 and 2007, and the sciatic vein was observed in 2 lower limbs of one single corpse. RESULTS: On the left lower limb of a corpse that presented bilateral anomaly, the vein had 37 cm, emerging on the popliteal vein, accompanying the sciatic nerve, perforating the long adductor muscle and leading into the deep femoral vein. On the right lower limb, it measured 36 cm, emerged receiving the veins of the anterior tibial compartment, accompanied the sciatic nerve, perforated the long adductor muscle and led into the internal iliac vein. CONCLUSION: The anatomical variations of the lower limb venous system are the most common ones. The persistent sciatic vein may cause chronic venous failure in the lower limbs and, in this manner, must be investigated aiming at a better clinical or surgical management.

  18. Bell palsy in lyme disease-endemic regions of canada: a cautionary case of occult bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy due to Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen; Melanson, Michel; Desai, Jamsheed A

    2012-09-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is a multisystem disorder characterized by three clinical stages: dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic. The number of known Lyme disease-endemic areas in Canada is increasing as the range of the vector Ixodes scapularis expands into the eastern and central provinces. Southern Ontario, Nova Scotia, southern Manitoba, New Brunswick, and southern Quebec are now considered Lyme disease-endemic regions in Canada. The use of field surveillance to map risk and endemic regions suggests that these geographic areas are growing, in part due to the effects of climate warming. Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the most common neurologic abnormality in the second stage of Lyme borreliosis, with up to 25% of Bell palsy (idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy) occurring due to Lyme disease. Here we present a case of occult bilateral facial nerve palsy due to Lyme disease initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. In Lyme disease-endemic regions of Canada, patients presenting with unilateral or bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy should be evaluated for Lyme disease with serologic testing to avoid misdiagnosis. Serologic testing should not delay initiation of appropriate treatment for presumed Bell palsy.

  19. Experimental study of recombinant human erythropoietin on sciatic nerve regeneration%促红细胞生成素促进坐骨神经再生的实验研究