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Sample records for bilateral renal cell

  1. Bilateral acrometastasis in a case renal cell carcinoma

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    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Vaish, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    We present a unique case of bilateral skeletal metastasis below the knee in a patient with renal cell carcinoma. In this rarest of rare cases, bony metastases were the first presentation of a primary tumour. Incidentally, the primary tumour (renal cell carcinoma) involved the solitary kidney of the patient and the same patient also had coexisting carcinoma of the prostate. PMID:25368128

  2. Synchronous Bilateral Adrenal Metastases from Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Kaan Gokcen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of synchronous bilateral adrenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. The contralateral metastatic adrenal mass was treated by the laparoscopic transperitoneal approach. The renal mass and its huge ipsilateral metastatic adrenal gland were removed en bloc with open procedure. A 54-year-old man presented to our clinic with left-sid renal cell carcinoma synchronously bilateral adrenal metastases. The primary tumor was localized in the upper-mid pole of the kidney. The diagnosis was established preoperatively by computed tomography. The size of the contralateral adrenal mass was 65 x 45 mm, but the ipsilateral metastatic adrenal mass was huge (140 x 65 mm. After all analysis and other scannings for any metastasis, a contralateral lapararoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy and a left open nephroadrenalectomy were performed simultaneously. Synchronous bilateral adrenal metastases from primary renal cell carcinoma without another metastasis is very rare. The optimal surgical procedure should be selected according to the metastatic adrenal masses size and the patient%u2019s status.

  3. Diffuse thyroid metastases and bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombus from renal cell cancer

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    Jha, Priyanka; Shekhar, Mallika; Wan, Jennifer; Mari-Aparici, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell cancer rarely metastasizes to the thyroid gland, and it has been reported to present as a solitary mass. We present a case of diffuse thyroid cancer metastases from renal cell cancer. Bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombi were also present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of diffuse thyroid metastases from renal cell cancer in the English literature. Renal cell cancer metastases should be considered in the differential of thyroid imaging abnormal...

  4. [Hemorrhagic bilateral renal angiomyolipoma].

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    Benjelloun, Mohamed; Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Joual, Abdenbi; Bennani, Saâd; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumour, often associated with congenital diseases especially de Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis. Bilateral angiomyolipoma is exceptional. The authors report a case of bilateral renal angiomyolipoma in a 33-year-old patient presenting with haemorrhagic shock. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this disease.

  5. Laparoscopic bilateral nephroureterectomy and bladder cuff excision for native renal pelvic and ureteral transitional cell carcinoma after renal transplantation.

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    Chen C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-years-old female who was suffering from end-stage renal disease for about 6 years received allograft renal transplantation 4 years ago. She has been receiving 50mg of Cyclosporin A orally daily for immuno-suppression since then. Gross haematuria was noted and computerised tomography showed native left renal pelvic and ureteral multi-focal transitional cell carcinoma with severe hydronephrosis. Laparoscopic bilateral nephroureterectomy and bladder cuff excision were performed. In the past, history of previous operation was considered a relative contraindication for laparoscopic surgery. To our knowledge, we present the first case of laparoscopic treatment for native renal pelvic and ureteral transitional cell carcinoma after renal allograft transplantation without a hand-assisted device. This case shows the feasibility of laparoscopic bilateral nephroureterectomy in patients with transplanted kidneys.

  6. Tuberous sclerosis with bilateral renal cell carcinoma in a child: A case report

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    Sanjay Choudhuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TCS is an autosomal dominant disease which comes under a group of diseases known as neurocutaneous syndrome. Incidence of TCS is around 1 in 6000. The clinical triad of papular facial nevus, seizures and mental retardation is found in less than 50% of the patients. Renal lesions in TCS commonly consist of simple renal cyst and angiomyolipomas. Renal cell carcinoma though rarely associated with tuberous sclerosis may be its significant manifestations. We report a case of TCS with bilateral renal cell carcinoma in a 12 year old child with classical radiological and clinical signs.

  7. Diffuse thyroid metastases and bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombus from renal cell cancer.

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    Jha, Priyanka; Shekhar, Mallika; Wan, Jennifer; Mari-Aparici, Carina

    2016-12-01

    Renal cell cancer rarely metastasizes to the thyroid gland, and it has been reported to present as a solitary mass. We present a case of diffuse thyroid cancer metastases from renal cell cancer. Bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombi were also present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of diffuse thyroid metastases from renal cell cancer in the English literature. Renal cell cancer metastases should be considered in the differential of thyroid imaging abnormalities arising in the setting of known renal cell carcinoma, particularly late in the course of disease. This is frequently associated with internal jugular vein thrombi, which should be evaluated with an abnormal thyroid. Thyroglobulin levels are usually normal in such patients.

  8. Bilateral tubulocystic renal cell carcinomas in diabetic end-stage renal disease: first case report with cytogenetic and ultrastructural studies

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    Max Xiangtian Kong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC is a rare renal tumor composed of well-differentiated tubules and cysts lined by neoplastic cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and prominent nucleoli. The origin of the tumor cells is still controversial. TC-RCC typically arises unilaterally. Involvement of both kidneys by multifocal TC-RCC has not been reported. In this study we report the first case of bilateral and multifocal TC-RCC. Immunohistochemical, cytogenetic and ultrastructural studies suggest TC-RCC is closely related to papillary RCC.

  9. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

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    Ozlem Tiryaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  10. Meridional lenticular astigmatism associated with bilateral concurrent uveal metastases in renal cell carcinoma

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    Priluck JC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Joshua C Priluck, Sandeep Grover, KV ChalamDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USAPurpose: To demonstrate a case illustrating meridional lenticular astigmatism as a result of renal cell carcinoma uveal metastases.Methods: Case report with images.Results: Clinical findings and diagnostic testing of a patient with acquired meridional lenticular astigmatism are described. The refraction revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20–1 OD (−2.50 + 0.25 × 090 and 20/50 OS (−8.25 + 3.25 × 075. Bilateral concurrent renal cell carcinoma metastases to the choroid and ciliary body are demonstrated by utilizing ultrasonography, ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography, and unique spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.Conclusions: Metastatic disease should be included in the differential of acquired astigmatism. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography have roles in delineating choroidal metastases.Keywords: astigmatism, metastasis, optical coherence tomography, renal cell carcinoma

  11. Tuberous sclerosis with bilateral renal cell carcinoma in a child: A case report

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    Sanjay Choudhuri; Jeevanjyoti Mishra; Gyan Prakash Singh; Datteswar Hota

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disease which comes under a group of diseases known as neurocutaneous syndrome. Incidence of TCS is around 1 in 6000. The clinical triad of papular facial nevus, seizures and mental retardation is found in less than 50% of the patients. Renal lesions in TCS commonly consist of simple renal cyst and angiomyolipomas. Renal cell carcinoma though rarely associated with tuberous sclerosis may be its significant manifestations. We report a c...

  12. A case of treatment in a patient with synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands: Clinical observation

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    V. R. Latypov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma occurs in 1.4 % of cases. The probability of bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma is less than 0.5 %. The clinical observation presents a case of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands. A 55‑year-old male patient was adm tted with the signs of hematuria and anemia to the Unit of Urology, Clinic of General Surgery, Siberian State Medical University. He was found to have synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement. Sequential surgical treatment – radical nephrectomy (with adrenal gland removal on the right side and, after 3 months, adrenalectomy and kidney resection on the left side were performed. All the organs removed displayed tumors that proved to be renal cell carcinomas (a clear cell variant. There were lymph node metastases in the right-sided renal portal. Postoperatively, the investigators performed hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, an immunotherapy cycle, three cycles of targeted therapy withsorafenib and sunitinib (at an interval of 0.5–2 years, and insulin therapy for new-onset diabetes mellitus. The duration of a follow-up was 6.2 years. When describing the case, the patient was alive and showed a generalized tumorous process with extensive tumor involvement of the solitary kidney. Sunitinib therapy was used.

  13. [Isolated bilateral adrenal metastasis from renal cancer. Case report].

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    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Naciri, K; Guessous, H; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    The authors report an uncommon case of bilateral synchronous adrenal gland metastases from left renal cell carcinoma. The diagnosis was established by abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography. The surgical approach initially consisted of left radical nephrectomy and ipsilateral adrenalectomy. Histologically, the tumor of the left adrenal gland was identical to the left renal cell carcinoma. Subsequent contralateral adrenalectomy showed an adrenal metastasis identical to the left renal cell carcinoma. Patient follow-up was good with no recurrence of the disease after one year. This is an uncommon case for renal cancer. The treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  14. Bilateral native kidney neoplasia detected by ultrasound in functionning renal allograft recipient.

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    Noce, Annalisa; Iaria, Giuseppe; Durante, Olga; Sforza, Daniele; Canale, Maria Paola; Di Villahermosa, Simone Manca; Castagnola, Veronica; Tisone, Giuseppe; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of bilateral renal clear cell carcinoma in the native kidney, occurring fouryears after renal transplantation. Renal Doppler duplex sonography revealed large solid bilateral neoformation. Total-body computed tomography confirmed the presence of bilateral kidney lesions and also showed the presence of concomitant gross dyscariocinetic lesion of left hemotorax. The patient underwent bilateral native nephrectomy and the histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma. Subsequent left upper lobectomy revealed necrotic keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Then, the patients was switched tacrolimus to everolimus treatment and mycophenolate mofetil was reduced.

  15. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

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    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia.

  16. Bilateral synchronous occurrence of three different histological types of renal tumor: a case report

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    Radopoulos Demetrios

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Renal cell carcinomas account for 85% of all renal neoplasms. With the introduction of modern imaging modalities, there has been an increased diagnosis of renal tumors. Recent studies have shown that partial nephrectomy can be as safe as radical nephrectomy for smaller renal tumors. Renal cell carcinomas are usually unilateral, however, they can be bilateral in 2% to 4% of sporadic cases and considerably more common in familial cases. Case presentation In this case report, we describe an unusual case of two bilateral synchronous chromophobe renal cell carcinomas accompanied by an oncocytoma and an angiomyolipoma, that were all treated by open partial nephrectomy. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on the synchronous occurrence of bilateral chromophobe renal cell carcinomas associated with an oncocytoma and an angiomyolipoma.

  17. Complete renal recovery from severe acute renal failure after thrombolysis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis.

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    Ramadoss, Suresh; Jones, Robert G; Foggensteiner, Lukas; Willis, Andrew P; Duddy, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    A previously healthy young man presented with acute renal failure due to extensive spontaneous deep vein thrombosis, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and both renal veins. The patient was treated with selectively delivered thrombolytic therapy over a 7-day-period, which resulted in renal vein patency and complete recovery of renal function. A stent was placed over a segment stenosis of the IVC. No thrombophilic factors were identified. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis in young fit individuals is an unusual cause of acute renal failure. Thrombolytic therapy, even with delay, can completely restore renal function.

  18. Management for Patients with De Novo or Recurrent Tumors in the Residual Kidney after Surgery for Nonfamilial Bilateral Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Noboru Hara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor de novo in the residual kidney after surgery for nonfamilial bilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC is problematic. We reviewed 5 patients who experienced such a situation. Three patients had had metachronous bilateral RCC, treated with radical nephrectomy in one kidney and nephron-sparing surgery (NSS in the other. Two patients had had synchronous disease; one patient had received radical nephrectomy and NSS, and the other bilateral NSS. The 5 patients had another solid mass/de novo tumor in the residual kidney 16–88 (mean 46.8 months after surgery. For the tumor de novo in earlier years (1992–1999, one patient underwent surgery and hemodialysis, and the other selected a conservative observation. In recent years (2000–2007, one patient was conservatively observed; the remaining 2 received computerized-tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation, and the local tumors were well controlled postoperatively for 20 and 12 months with their renal function unimpaired. Ablative techniques can potentially strike a balance between oncological and nephrological outcomes in patients with sporadic multiple RCC, successful management of which was difficult previously.

  19. Bilateral Psoas Haematomata Complicating Renal Transplantation

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    Jacob A. Akoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The challenge in managing patients undergoing renal transplantation is how to achieve optimum levels of anticoagulation to avoid both clotting and postoperative bleeding. We report a rare case of severe postoperative retroperitoneal bleeding including psoas haematomata complicating renal transplantation. Case Report. SM, a 55-year-old female, had a past history of aortic valve replacement, cerebrovascular event, and thoracic aortic aneurysm and was on long-term warfarin that was switched to enoxaparin 60 mg daily a week prior to her living donor transplantation. Postoperatively, she was started on a heparin infusion, but this was complicated by a large retroperitoneal bleed requiring surgical evacuation on the first postoperative day. Four weeks later, she developed features compatible with acute femoral neuropathy and a CT scan revealed bilateral psoas haematomata. Following conservative management, she made steady progress and was discharged home via a community hospital 94 days after transplantation. At her last visit 18 months after transplantation, she had returned to full fitness with excellent transplant function. Conclusion. Patients in established renal failure who require significant anticoagulation are at increased risk of bleeding that may involve prolonged hospitalisation and more protracted recovery and patients should be carefully counselled about this.

  20. Bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture in a renal disease patient

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    Pramod Devkota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bilateral femoral neck facture in a renal disease patient is not common. We report a case of 47-year-old female patient with chronic renal failure and on regular hemodialysis for the past 5 years who sustained bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture without history of trauma and injury and refused any surgical intervention. The patient was mobilised on wheel chair one year after the fractures. The cause of the fracture and the literature review of the bilateral femoral neck fracture in renal disease are discussed.

  1. Bilateral renal infarction: an uncommon presentation of fibromuscular dysplasia.

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    Ayach, Taha; Kazory, Amir

    2013-12-01

    While fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is an established cause of secondary hypertension, its association with renal infarction is less well recognized. We report a middle-aged man who presented with complaints of loin pain and severe hypertension. Computed tomography angiography of the abdomen revealed bilateral renal infarction with multiple short-segment arterial dissection compatible with FMD in the absence of systemic vasculitis and other risk factors for thromboembolic events. Bilateral renal infarction complicating FMD is extremely rare and has so far been reported only in a handful of cases. Physicians encountering cases of otherwise unexplained renal infarction/ischemia need to be aware of this complication.

  2. Plasma rennin activity: Early indicator of renal injury in bilateral pelviureteric junction obstruction in children

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    Amit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In bilateral PUJO where DRF and SFU grading of hydronephrosis did not correctly reflect renal injury, PRA showed a significant relationship with renal histopathologic grade and could be an early indicator of renal injury in bilateral PUJO.

  3. [The bilateral renal lymphoma: an incurable disease? Case report].

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    Napoli, Marcello; Montinaro, A M; D'Ambrosio, E; Di Renzo, N; Ambrosino, C; Lefons, M; Pati, C; Sozzo, E

    2014-01-01

    The bilateral primary renal lymphoma (PRL) is a rare disease with a high mortality rate (75% within the first year). We report the case of a fifty-three years old women observed in January 2011 for renal colic. Ultrasonography showed hypoechoic lobular formations in the kidney. Blood tests showed: creatinine 1.8 mg/dl, urea 75 mg/dl , Creatinine Clerance 35 ml/m, hemoglobinemia 11 g/dl, with blood cells 8.500/mcL, Albumin 2.8 g/dl, Beta -2 micro - 27.3/mL. Proteinuria was 0.3 g/24 hours. The CT scan showed kidneys with larger dimensions and multiple hypodense areas infiltrating the renal parenchyma with contrast-enhanced low in which kidneys had lesions similar to "leopard skin". The CT scan showed no enlarged lymph nodes. Renal biopsy showed: renal parenchyma largely occupied by infiltration of lymphoid elements, small and medium-sized, densely packed with compression of the tubular structures . Immunofluorescence for immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA, IgM, C3, C4, C1q, fibrinogen, kappa and lambda were negative. The bone marrow biopsy excluded lymphomatous infiltration. The histological diagnosis was "non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma"; the clinical diagnosis was LRBP. The patient was treated by 6 cycles of R-CHOP-21 protocol (rituximab - endoxan, adriblastina , vincristine, prendnisone), the latter of which practiced in August 2011. The pt is currently in follow-up hematology and nephrology . The first TAC control , in October 2011, showed a complete regression of the lesions infiltrating . This finding was confirmed by two other CT scan performed in February and October 2012. The last blood tests of February 2013 showed : creatinine 1.1 mg / dl , Urea 40 mg/dl, proteinuria absent. Currently, the pt is asymptomatic and is being treated by low dose of ACE inhibitor. The bilateral PRL is considered a severe disease with one-year mortality of 75% . The successful outcome of the case described can be attributed to haematological therapy and to the early diagnosis.

  4. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia with Bilateral Renal Masses Masquerading as Nephroblastomatosis

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    Poonam Thakore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common malignancy in the pediatric patient population. However, renal involvement as the primary manifestation of ALL is rare. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy with bilateral renal lesions resembling nephroblastic rests as the first finding of early stage ALL preceding hematological changes and subsequent classic clinical findings by two weeks. These renal hypodensities completely resolved after one week of induction chemotherapy. This case demonstrates that renal involvement can be the only initial presenting finding of leukemia. Children with lesions resembling nephroblastic rests need appropriate surveillance due to the risk of malignant disease.

  5. [Bilateral renal infarction after discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy].

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    Lavoignet, Charles-Éric; Le Borgne, Pierrick; Ugé, Sarah; Veneziano, Rinaldo; Brunhuber, Claudia; Kam, Claire; Bilbault, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Acute renal infarction is an uncommon and often under diagnosed condition mostly because of misleading symptoms. Accurate data regarding clinical presentation, laboratory tests, diagnostic and treatment are lacking. Detection is often delayed or missed because of non-specific clinical presentation. The mechanisms of acute renal infarction are various, mainly embolic or thrombotic. Abdominal CT scan remains the most valuable exam to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of renal embolism have not been well established. The standard treatment strategy includes anticoagulation with or without thrombolysis. Despite the uncertainty regarding management, the renal outcome remains favorable. Some patients do develop some degree of renal insufficiency during the acute episode. We report here the case of a 73-year-old woman with bilateral acute renal infarction after discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy.

  6. Bilateral Renal Agenezinin Prenatal Tanısı:Olgu Bildirimi

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    YANIK, F.F.; YANIK, A.; AKPOLAT, İ.

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal Diagnosis of Bilateral Renal Agenesis: Case Report Bilateral renal agenesis is a congenital anomaly incompatible with life and is observed in every 4000 births. Severe oligohydramnios, failure to identify fetal bladder and fetal kidneys are among the prenatal ultrasonographic findings. Here we present a case of bilateral renal agenesis observed in a pregnancy achieved by ovulation induction; as well as the literature review. Bilateral renal agenezi 4000 doğumda bir ...

  7. Management of obstructive renal failure caused by bilateral renal aspergilloma in an immunocompetent newborn.

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    Martinez-Pajares, J D; Martinez-Ferriz, M C; Moreno-Perez, D; Garcia-Ramirez, M; Martin-Carballido, S; Blanch-Iribarne, P

    2010-03-01

    Fungal infection of the kidneys is a rare condition that has been reported in premature babies and in diabetic or immunocompromised adult patients. Candida spp. is the most frequent micro-organism involved. This paper reports a case of an immunocompetent newborn with a bladder exstrophy who suffered from an acute renal failure caused by bilateral renal aspergilloma (Aspergillus flavus). The newborn was treated with amphotericin B urinary tract irrigation through bilateral nephrostomy catheters, combined with liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole therapy, which improved his renal function. However, due to persistent fungal colonization, a long antifungal treatment and permanent ureterostomies were necessary to deal with new episodes of ureterorenal obstruction. As of November 2009, despite the renal injuries, renal function had been conserved. The management of the mechanical obstruction and the choice of antifungal drugs are discussed in this unusual case.

  8. Infrahepatic inferior vena cava agenesis with bilateral renal vein thrombosis.

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    Skeik, Nedaa; Wickstrom, Kelly K; Schumacher, Clark W; Sullivan, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare and are estimated to be present in 0.07-8.7% of the general population. IVC agenesis (IVCA) is found in approximately 5% of cases of unprovoked lower extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is an extremely rare and unusual presentation of IVCA. We report a unique case of a 23-year-old previously healthy man presenting with infrahepatic IVCA-induced bilateral RVT with azygos and hemiazygos continuation. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case in the literature of IVCA-induced RVT and the first to affect the bilateral renal veins in the absence of any other thrombogenic risk factors or any lower extremity venous complications. We also present a literature review of IVCA-induced vein thrombosis and highlight the lack of literature to manage this condition.

  9. A rare consequence of blunt abdominal trauma: bilateral renal infarction.

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    Saritas, Ayhan; Kandis, Hayati; Gunes, Harun; Kayikci, Ali; Baltaci, Davut; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Ozaydinli, Ismet

    2014-05-01

    A 28-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with lumbar pain owing to a motorbike accident. On clinical examination, abdominal tenderness, pelvic and left cruris pains were present. Erythrocytes, leucocytes and protein was found to be positive in urine analysis. Abdominal computed tomography with intravenous contrast solution showed contrast enhancement in 80% of right kidney, and 30% of left kidney; some intra-abdominal free fluid was also seen. Conservative management was planned for bilateral renal infarction. Urine output was 1.1 L per day. He was discharged on the seventh day of the hospital stay. The patient had not got any problems on the sixth month follow-up. Urine output is a very important parameter for multiple trauma patients. Any decrease in urine output may not be seen inspite of the presence of bilateral renal damage as in the case of the patient, and this situation does not allow ruling out renal injury completely. Hence, emergency physician should still be careful about the risk of renal injury.

  10. Bilateral Renal Angiomyolipomas with Invasion of the Renal Vein: A Case Report

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    C. Blick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An angiomyolipoma (AML is usually a benign, rare, and, more commonly, a unilateral renal tumour. Bilateral tumours are very rare, particularly in the absence of tuberous sclerosis complex. Only in a few isolated cases have features of malignancy been associated with an AML. We present a unique case of bilateral AMLs mimicking invasive tumours in the absence of any other features of tuberous sclerosis complex.

  11. 双侧散发性肾癌的手术治疗与预后特点分析%To investigate the characteristics of bilateral sporadic renal cell carcinoma

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    李航; 赵耀瑞; 杨宪法; 孙光; 徐勇; 牛远杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of bilateral multi-focal renal cell carcinoma. Methods Retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of the 9 ca-ses with bilateral renal carcinoma,which was diagnosed and treated from 2006 to 2013. All cases had been treated with nephron sparing surgery(NSS)and radical nephrectomy. Results There were no postoperative surgical complications in these 9 patients.7 patients were bilateral clear cell carcinoma,2 patient were unilateral clear cell carcinoma with varied histologic origin in opposite kid-neys.During the follow-up of 8 to 98 months (average of 68 months),7 patients were disease-free survival,1 patient occurred pulmonary metastasis and died,1 patient died in laryngeal metastasis. Conclusions The most common histologic subtype of BSRCC was the conventional clear cell histolo-gy. Surgical removal of the tumor is the most accurate method of treatment.Additionally,we should pay attention to the protection of renal function.%目的:探讨双侧散发性肾癌(bilateral sporadic renal cell carcinoma,BSRCC)的手术治疗与预后特点。方法回顾性分析2006~2013年诊治的9例双侧肾癌患者的临床特点。结果9例患者术后均未出现并发症。7例为双侧透明细胞癌,2例为一侧透明细胞癌,对侧混合细胞型肿瘤。在随访的8~98个月中(中位随访时间68个月),7例无瘤生存,1例术后出现肾癌肺部转移并死亡,1例因术前喉癌的复发死亡。结论双侧肾癌主要病理类型为透明细胞癌,手术切除肿瘤是治疗的最确切手段,但同时应注意患者肾功能的保护。

  12. BILATERAL RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS IN A HYPERTENSIVE LUPUS PATIENT WITHOUT RENAL DYSFUNCTION: A CASE REPORT

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    Giulio Geraci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is associated with a high prevalence of atherosclero-sis and an enhanced cardiovascular mortality. In adult subjects, several studies have shown the coexistence of SLE and renal artery stenosis, most of them with unilateral in-volvement or with renal dysfunction. We observed a 62-year-old man with SLE and a 10-year history of moderate-to-severe hy-pertension who was admitted to our hospital because of uncontrolled blood pressure val-ues (152/95 mmHg, despite drug therapy. No signs of renal impairment were evident. After an initial physical examination, which presented a periumbilical bruit, a renal ultra-sound was performed with evidence of bilateral renal artery stenosis. An angio-MR study also confirmed the diagnosis and showed a double renal artery on the right side. Many different factors can contribute to the bilateral renal artery stenosis in this patient. Chronic inflammatory state associated to SLE, metabolic alterations with dyslipidemia and steroid therapy may all be involved in the development of the renal atherosclerotic le-sions.

  13. Fibromuscular dysplasia of renal arteries presenting with bilateral renal infarction in a young man.

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    Basile, Carlo; Lisi, Piero; Chimienti, Domenico; Antonelli, Maurizio; Bruno, Andrea; Giambersio, Silvia; Zurlo, Maria Teresa; Petronelli, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report the case of a previously healthy 43-year-old white man presenting with acute bilateral flank pain. The pain was more severe on the left side. Initially treated for ureteral colic, he was transferred to the nephrology unit upon recognition of a rising serum creatinine. He was found to have FMD of bilateral renal arteries with resultant infarctions in both kidneys. He was treated with intravenous heparin and, then, warfarin at discharge. At a 16-month review, the patient remained pain-free with normal renal function and with antiplatelet and dual antihypertensive therapy. In conclusion, renal infarction complicating FMD is rare, with most cases involving causative cardiovascular risk factors, including coagulopathy, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation or structural cardiac abnormalities, none of which was present in this case. What makes this case interesting are the clinically significant bilateral renal infarctions due to atypical asymmetric FMD in both kidneys in a young man.

  14. Anuric renal failure after same-session bilateral atraumatic flexible ureteroscopy

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    Gaurav Bandi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first known case of anuric renal failure after same-session bilateral atraumatic flexible ureteroscopy for renal calculi. Although, there is no consensus about stenting patients who undergo same-session bilateral ureteroscopy due to the lack of prospective randomized studies; strong consideration should be given to stenting the ureter at least one side to avoid this complication.

  15. Chronic bilateral renal denervation attenuates renal injury in a transgenic rat model of diabetic nephropathy.

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    Yao, Yimin; Fomison-Nurse, Ingrid C; Harrison, Joanne C; Walker, Robert J; Davis, Gerard; Sammut, Ivan A

    2014-08-01

    Bilateral renal denervation (BRD) has been shown to reduce hypertension and improve renal function in both human and experimental studies. We hypothesized that chronic intervention with BRD may also attenuate renal injury and fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy. This hypothesis was examined in a female streptozotocin-induced diabetic (mRen-2)27 rat (TGR) shown to capture the cardinal features of human diabetic nephropathy. Following diabetic induction, BRD/sham surgeries were conducted repeatedly (at the week 3, 6, and 9 following induction) in both diabetic and normoglycemic animals. Renal denervation resulted in a progressive decrease in systolic blood pressure from first denervation to termination (at 12 wk post-diabetic induction) in both normoglycemic and diabetic rats. Renal norepinephrine content was significantly raised following diabetic induction and ablated in denervated normoglycemic and diabetic groups. A significant increase in glomerular basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion was seen in the diabetic kidneys; this morphological appearance was markedly reduced by BRD. Immunohistochemistry and protein densitometric analysis of diabetic innervated kidneys confirmed the presence of significantly increased levels of collagens I and IV, α-smooth muscle actin, the ANG II type 1 receptor, and transforming growth factor-β. Renal denervation significantly reduced protein expression of these fibrotic markers. Furthermore, BRD attenuated albuminuria and prevented the loss of glomerular podocin expression in these diabetic animals. In conclusion, BRD decreases systolic blood pressure and reduces the development of renal fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, and albuminuria in this model of diabetic nephropathy. The evidence presented strongly suggests that renal denervation may serve as a therapeutic intervention to attenuate the progression of renal injury in diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Cloacal dysgenesis sequence with bilateral renal agenesis and normal pulmonary development in twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegadeesh, Sundram; Mahajan, Jai Kumar

    2016-01-20

    Cloacal dysgenesis sequence (CDS) is a rare congenital anomaly. It is characterised by a smooth perineum with absence of anal and genitourinary orifices, with reported incidence of 1:50,000-250,000 births. Association with bilateral renal agenesis is still rarer and resultant severe oligohydramnios is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Only a few cases of CDS with bilateral renal agenesis have been reported in the English language literature, with associated pulmonary hypoplasia as a default phenomenon. We report a case of CDS and bilateral renal agenesis without associated pulmonary hypoplasia in a twin pregnancy, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the second reported case of this amalgamation.

  17. A case report of renal cell carcinoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-S. Paşca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mix renal carcinoma was noticed during the necropsic examination of a 14 year old mix breed female. Tumours were bilateral and metastasis was noticed in the spleen and myocard. Histological examination evidenced morphological aspects characteristic to the mixt renal carcinoma. Histological aspects described in this individual characterize renal cell carcinoma, also known as renal adenocarcinoma, hypernephroma or, in older literature, Grawitz tumour.

  18. Surgical treatment of sporadic M0 bilateral renal cell carcinoma:a report of 22 cases%手术治疗散发性、无转移双侧肾细胞癌22例报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩苏军; 鲁力; 王栋; 肖泽均; 寿建忠; 李长岭

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of sporadic M0 bilateral renal cell carcinoma (BRCC) .Methods The clinical data of cases identified by pathology as sporadic M0 BRCC during 2000 and 2010 in Cancer Institute&Hospital ,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were retrospectively analyzed .The 5‐year disease‐free survival and renal function outcomes were reviewed .Results A total of 1 696(1 .3% ) patients surgically treated for RCC had sporadic M0 bilateral disease .Synchronous tumors were found in 16 patients (72 .7% ) and metachronous tumors in 6 (27 .3% ) .Mean age at diagnosis of the synchronous BRCC was 54 .2 ± 15 .6 .Mean age of the metachronous BRCC at diagnosis of the first and second renal cell carcinomas was 50 .8 ± 10 .4 and 57 .5 ± 12 .1 years ,respectively .A total of 47 renal tumors were found in the 22 pa‐tients ,22 tumors were on the left kidney ,and 25 on the right .The mean tumor size was 4 .3 cm in diameter (range:1 .0-12.0 cm) .Of the 47 tumors ,histology was conventional (clear cell) in 46 (97 .9% ) tumors ,papillary in 1 (2 .1% ) .All of these pa‐tients underwent staged surgical procedures (two operations) .The treatment included unilateral radical nephrectomy followed by contralateral nephron sparing surgery (RN plus NSS group ,10 cases) ,unilateral nephron sparing surgery followed by con‐tralateral radical nephrectomy (NSS plus RN group ,8 cases) ,bilateral nephron sparing surgery (NSS plus NSS group ,4 cases) . The risk of acute renal failure in RN plus NSS group ,NSS plus RN group and NSS plus NSS group was 60% ,25% and 0 ,re‐spectively ,after the second surgery .Mean follow‐up time was 72 months (range :25‐150 months) .The 5‐year disease‐free sur‐vival rate in synchronous BRCC and metachronous BRCC was 81 .8% and 50% respectively ( P= 0 .025) .Conclusions Nephron sparing surgery is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of sporadic M0 bilateral renal cell carcinoma ,resul

  19. BILATERAL MULTIPLE RENAL VASCULAR VARIATIONS AND RIGHT SIDED BIFID URETER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charitha GN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal blood supply presents a large degree of variations. In the present case there was existence of bilateral variations in renal blood supply along with right sided bifid ureter. During routine cadaveric dissection in a middle aged male cadaver we found two renal veins draining right kidney and a bifurcating single renal vein on left side. On both sides one polar artery arising from main renal artery going to upper pole of kidney and left side accessory renal artery originating from abdominal aorta and giving origin to left testicular artery were observed. There is bifid ureter on the right side. The knowledge of renal vascular anatomy and its variations are very much essential in case of renal transplantation, renal surgeries, uroradiology, gonadal color Doppler imaging, in abdominal aortic aneurysmal and gonadal surgeries.

  20. Percutaneous radial intervention for complex bilateral renal artery stenosis using paclitaxel eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granillo, Gastón A Rodriguez; van Dijk, Lukas C; McFadden, Eugène P; Serruys, Patrick W

    2005-01-01

    Techniques used in the coronary circulation may be useful in peripheral intervention. We report a case of bilateral renal artery stenosis treated via a radial approach by direct stenting with distal protection at a right ostial lesion and modified crush stenting at a left renal bifurcation lesion using paclitaxel-eluting stents.

  1. Post-partum bilateral renal cortical necrosis in antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Sainaresh Vellanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus or related autoimmune disorders, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is termed secondary APS. Pregnancy-related renal failure due to SAPS is rarely reported in the literature. We present the case of a young primgravida woman with bilateral renal cortical necrosis due to secondary APS in late pregnancy.

  2. A rare entity of acute bilateral cortical renal necrosis following acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti D Dave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute bilateral renal cortical necrosis following acute pancreatitis is extremely rare condition. Among all cases of acute renal failure, the incidence of renal cortical necrosis was 3.8% in one of the study in North India. Till date, only eight cases of bilateral cortical necrosis following acute pancreatitis were reported in the literature. We report a case of a 27-year-old male patient with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting since 2 days duration and anuria since 24 h. Serum amylase and lipase were raised, and elevated serum creatinine was noted on admission. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed changes of acute pancreatitis with hypoenhancement of renal cortex compared to medulla on both sides (reverse rim sign-stronger enhancement of the renal medulla compared to cortex, suggest an acute renal cortical necrosis.

  3. Bilateral parvus-tardus Doppler waveform in renal arteries suggests aortic coarctation: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conkbayir, I.; Yanik, B.; Keyik, B.; Edguer, T.; Hekimoglu, B. [Social Security Ankara Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Diskapi, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: iconkbayir@yahoo.com

    2004-02-01

    Doppler ultrasonography (US) is an effective, inexpensive and widely used modality in renal vascular imaging. Demonstration of a parvus-tardus waveform pattern in renal arteries or intrarenal segmental arteries with Doppler US indicates a significant proximal stenosis. In the presence of a parvus-tardus pattern in both renal arteries, bilateral renal artery stenosis or a stenosis more proximal to the renal arteries should be considered.{sup 1} We present such a case and describe the Doppler ultrasonographic findings that suggested coarctation of the aorta. (author)

  4. [Bilateral renal vein thrombosis and acute renal failure due to inferior vena cava filter thrombosis. Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jorge; Díaz, Rienzi

    2014-11-01

    Bilateral renal vein thrombosis is an unusual etiology of acute renal failure and usually is associated with nephrotic syndrome. We report a 77-year-old man, consulting in the emergency room for anuria that appeared 24 hours after a syncope. The patient was carrier of an inferior vena cava filter prophylactically installed 17 months earlier and was not receiving anticoagulation. Serum creatinine on admission was 5.45 mg/dl and blood urea nitrogen was 54 mg/dl. Computed tomography and Doppler ultrasonography showed an extensive thrombosis of inferior vena cava and both renal veins. Heparin therapy was started with a rapid recovery of renal function and diuresis.

  5. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbania, Thomas H. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kammen, Bamidele F.; Nancarrow, Paul A. [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Morrell, Rose Ellen [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Nephrology, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  6. Bilateral renal artery stenosis and pheochromocytoma an uncommon association: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail Anjum

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma and bilateral renal artery stenosis have a quite rare association. Although unilateral renal artery stenosis is reported in the literature with Pheochromocytoma but bilateral renal artery stenosis never reported before in Gulf region. A 56-years-old woman primarily referred to our facility for CABG for triple vessel disease but uncontrolled blood pressure and long standing history of hypertension rendered her for further investigations for secondary causes. The technical imaging techniques (USG, abdominal CT, magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA revealed bilateral renal artery stenosis and left supra-adrenal mass. Further hormonal assays confirmed high catecholamine and raised rennin and aldosterone secondary to Pheochromocytoma and bilateral renal artery stenosis. Laparoscopic removal of Pheochromocytoma with minimum invasive reconstructive surgery for bilateral renal artery stenosis was planned prior to CABG for triple vessel disease but patient declined any surgery or interventional and opted for conservative management inspite of repeated counselling sessions with the patient. Although these conditions co-existed simultaneously but differ in management.

  7. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-xiang Yuan; Jingxin Mo; Guixian Zhao; Gang Shu; Hua-lin Fu; Wei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rati...

  8. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M; Biering-Sorensen, F;

    1998-01-01

    annual urological evaluation. Urinary tract calculi, if detected, should be dealt with promptly to prevent renal damage due to urinary obstruction and urosepsis. Renal calculi can be treated effectively and safely by ESWL in spinal cord injury patients, thus avoiding the need for an invasive procedure...

  9. Successful lysis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis following neonatal truncus repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Sudesh; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Alphonso, Nelson; McCaffery, Kevin; Anderson, Ben; Karl, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is the most common noncatheter-related thrombosis encountered in infancy, most of which occurs in neonates. The optimal management strategy for neonatal RVT is unclear. Fibrinolytic and heparin therapy may play a role in preventing chronic renal failure in neonates with bilateral RVT. However, the use of fibrinolytics early after any major surgery requires tremendous caution. In this report, we describe the successful use of fibrinolysis in a neonate with bilateral RVT after repair of truncus arteriosus in the early postoperative period.

  10. Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in patient with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunseok; Kim, Byounggook; Chung, Ju-Hwan; Dan, Jinmyoung

    2011-12-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a very rare condition and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The etiology is not clear yet. But it occurs infrequently in patients with chronic metabolic disorders. A 30-year-old female patient with simultaneous bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture visited our hospital. She had chronic renal failure and her parathyroid hormone level was elevated due to parathyroid adenoma. We report a surgical repair of both quadriceps tendons of a patient with chronic renal failure as well as management of hyperparathyroidism.

  11. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Bilateral Mastoid Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım Bozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old male was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of headache, dizziness, nausea, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus, and hearing loss in both ears for 3 weeks. Physical examination revealed edema in the tympanic membrane and external ear canal, and pain by palpation in the mastoid area bilaterally. There was no nystagmus, and the rest of the physical examination was otherwise normal. Temporal bone high resolution computed tomography (CT showed a lesion causing erosion in the mastoid cortex, tegmen tympani, ossicles, and in the bone covering the sigmoid sinus bilaterally. There was also erosion in the superior semicircular canal and petrous bone on the left side. Cortical mastoidectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic examination of the tissue revealed Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH. In this paper a case with LCH, presenting with bilateral mastoid involvement which has been rarely reported in the literature, is discussed with the existing literature.

  12. Osteotendinous repair of bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon ruptures with the Krackow technique in two patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Adnan; Sari, Seçkin; Şeker, Ali; Öztürk, Irfan

    2013-01-01

    Although unilateral traumatic quadriceps tendon rupture is a relatively frequent pathology, bilateral non-traumatic spontaneous ruptures are uncommon and are usually associated with chronic renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, gout, and systemic lupus erythematosus. This paper aimed to discuss two patients with chronic renal failure treated with the Krackow suture technique for spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture.

  13. Bilateral Septic Arthritis Complicating Knee Osteonecrosis in Renal Transplant Recipient: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan TATAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Septic arthritis is rarely seen in transplant patients and differs from the general population with regards to gram negative and/or atypical agents being the prominent causes. In renal transplant patients, osteonecrosis is one of the major musculo-skeletal complications. In transplant patients, immunosupressive drugs, delayed graft function, genetics, HD duration before transplantation, cause of renal failure are among the risk factors for ostenecrosis. In this case report, we present a renal transplant patient with bilateral knee osteonecrosis and septic arthritis due to Escherichia coli.

  14. An uncommon cause of postpartum renal failure--bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Narinder Pal; Mittal, Amit; Valson, Anna T; Hira, Harmanjeet Singh

    2009-01-01

    Peripartum acute renal failure is an important complication related to pregnancy leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a severe necrotizing infection of the renal parenchyma, with formation of gas within the collecting system, renal parenchyma, or perirenal tissues. EPN is common in persons with diabetes or urinary tract obstruction. Herein we report a case of bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis in a postpartum lady who had no evidence of diabetes or urinary tract obstruction. Management of this condition has traditionally been aggressive, and surgery has been considered mandatory. Our patient was managed successfully with antibiotics and supportive measures alone.

  15. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  16. Multiple nephron-sparing procedures in solitary kidney with recurrent, metachronous, nonfamilial renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosnik, Israel P; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Nelson, Rendon; Polascik, Thomas J

    2006-12-01

    Patients with metachronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma pose a significant challenge given the high mortality of renal cell carcinoma and the poor quality of life should dialysis become necessary. In addition, patients may be subject to morbidity due to potential multiple treatments of the multifocal renal tumors. We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with multifocal, bilateral clear cell carcinoma who maintained a minimal change in serum creatinine after undergoing unilateral radical nephrectomy, subsequent percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, percutaneous cryoablation, laparoscopic cryoablation, and open partial nephrectomy for recurrent renal cell carcinoma in a solitary kidney.

  17. Isolated Bilateral Renal Mucormycosis Masquerading as Renal Abscess in an Immunocompetent Individual: A Lesson Learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somorendro Paonam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated renal mucormycosis is a rare entity in immunocompetent subjects. It is usually a rapidly progressive disease with poor prognosis but it can mimic renal abscess with a protracted course.

  18. BILATERAL VESICO-URETERAL REFLUX IN PATIENT WITH CROSSED RENAL ECTOPIA AND FUSION TYPE A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L Bulotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Crossed renal ectopia with fusion is a very rare congenital anomaly and the reported incidence varies between 1:1000 and 1:7000. The kidney is located on the opposite site of the mid- line from where the ureter enters the bladder. Eighty-five percent of crossed renal ectopia kid- neys are fused from below to the normally located kidney. This anomaly is more frequent for left kidney and it’s associated with vesico-ureteral re- flux (VUR in 25-70% of cases. We report the management of a six-years-old patient with Pluri- malformative Syndrome, trisomy p16 and mono- somy q2, crossed renal ectopia with fusion type A and bilateral vesico-ureteral reflux (grade IV in the right kidney and grade III in the left.Materials and Methods. A 6-year-old boy was ammitted to our hospital for UTI in plurimalfor- mative syndrome characterized at birth by cleft palate, macrocephaly, congenital clubfeet, twisted right arm, congenital dysplasia of the hip, balanic hypospadias, bilateral inguinal hernia, right renal agenesis and epilepsy tonic-clonic. MRI revealed a fusion of the ectopic kidney with the left ortho- topic kidney (crossed renal ectopia with fusion type A. Voiding cystography showed a dilatated ureter of the crossed ectopic kidney passing across the midline and of the left ureter, and a bilateral vesico-ureteral reflux ( grade IV VUR in the right kidney and grade III VUR in the left. For this reason bilaterally endoscopic subureteral infiltra- tion was performed with Deflux ( 0.3 cc for side. Results. Patient was discharged in third day and he took antibiotic for one week. There weren’t complications like fever, obstruction or UTI. Fol- low-up after 1 month is normal and there weren’t UTI. Conclusion. Generally the outcome of patients with fused crossed renal ectopia is good. Presence of associated pathology likeVUR, could lead to a progressive deterioration of renal function. There- fore, in patient with uninhabited kidney area and

  19. Large Bladder Clot-An Unusual Presentation of Neonatal Bilateral Renal Vein Thrombosis-Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Dangle, Pankaj P; Tennyson, Lauren E; Correa, Andres F; Cannon, Glenn M

    2015-10-01

    A 1-day-old boy born at 37 weeks gestation presented with hematuria, thrombocytopenia, and palpable irregular right flank mass. Renal ultrasound demonstrated large clot within the bladder, bilateral kidney masses with loss of corticomedullary differentiation, and reversal of diastolic flow. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral renal vein thrombosis and was managed conservatively. There was complete resolution of the bladder clot with restoration of corticomedullary differentiation bilaterally. We report the first case of renal vein thrombosis associated with a large bladder clot in a neonate.

  20. Association between renal cystic lesions and bilateral Wilms' tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Hiller, Nurith [Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center at Mt Scopus, Department of Medical Imaging, POB 12000, Jerusalem (Israel); Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Weintraub, Michael [Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Hematology/ Oncology, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-06-15

    Evaluate a potential association between Wilms' tumour (WT) and renal cystic lesions. Digital records and imaging files of consecutive patients diagnosed with WT between 2004 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed under an Institutional Review Board waiver of informed consent. The locations of renal cysts seen on US, CT, and/or MRI were recorded and compared with the locations of newly developed WT. A total of 48 patients (mean age 3 years 9 months) presented with newly diagnosed WT in the study period. Mean follow-up was 4.5 (range 1-10) years. WT was unilateral in 40 children, bilateral in 8. Renal cysts were identified in only one of the forty patients (2.5 %) with unilateral disease - in the contralateral kidney. In contrast, renal cysts were found in seven of eight patients with bilateral WT (87.5 %), in two of whom, new tumours developed in the same location where cysts had been seen on previous imaging studies. Renal cystic lesions in patients with Wilms' tumour should be regarded as potential tumour precursors, and followed with frequent imaging. (orig.)

  1. Bilateral enlargement of the orbital muscles: first manifestation of renal adenocarcinoma; Espessamento da musculatura extrinseca orbitaria bilateralmente: manifestacao primaria de adenocarcinoma renal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolosker, Angela M. Borri; Bekhor, Daniel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Goes, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Oftalmologia; Attie, Greicie Cristina Gerra [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia

    2000-06-01

    The authors present an unusual case of a patient with orbital metastases from renal carcinoma involving the extra ocular muscles bilaterally. The importance of computed tomography for the differential diagnosis with other orbital lesions is emphasized. (author)

  2. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhi-Xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rationale for therapies targeting this aggressive cell population. Precise identification of renal CSC populations and the complete cell hierarchy will accurately inform characterization of disease subtypes. This will ultimately contribute to more personalized and targeted therapies. Here, we summarize potential targeting strategies for renal cancer cells and renal CSCs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR), interleukins, CSC marker inhibitors, bone morphogenetic protein-2, antibody drug conjugates, and nanomedicine. In conclusion, targeting therapies for RCC represent new directions for exploration and clinical investigation and they plant a seed of hope for advanced clinical care.

  3. AN UNUSUAL CASE OF PRIMARY BILATERAL RENAL LYMPHOMA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal lymphoma (PRL is rare. They are variants of extranodal non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Lymphomatous involvement of the kidney is often seen as a part of disseminated disease. PRL can mimic other renal lesions such as renal cell carcinoma, renal abscess, and metastasis and may have aggressive clinical course. Pathological data are scanty and prognosis is usually poor with median survival less than a year. We present a rare case of a 22 year-old male who presented with acute febrile illness, respiratory problems and acute kidney injury. The clinical diagnosis was missed partly due to absence of obvious renal symptoms like renal mass lesion, gross hematuria or abdominal pain. However, radiological investigations combined with renal histology helped in establishing the diagnosis in the present case

  4. Computed tomography of renal cell carcinoma in patients with terminal renal impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferda, Jiri [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)], E-mail: ferda@fnplzen.cz; Hora, Milan [Department of Urology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Dr. Edvarda Benese 13, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Hes, Ondrej [Institut of Pathology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Reischig, Tomas [Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology Unit, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Kreuzberg, Boris; Mirka, Hynek; Ferdova, Eva; Ohlidalova, Kristyna; Baxa, Jan [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Urge, Tomas [Department of Urology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Dr. Edvarda Benese 13, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: An increased incidence of renal tumors has been observed in patients with end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD). The very strong association with acquired renal cystic disease (ACRD) and increased incidence of the renal tumors (conventional renal cell carcinoma (CRCC), papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) or papillary renal cell adenoma (PRCA)) was reported. This study discusses the role of computed tomography (CT) in detecting renal tumors in patients with renal impairment: pre-dialysis, those receiving dialysis or with renal allograft transplants. Materials and methods: Ten patients (nine male, one female) with renal cell tumors were enrolled into a retrospective study; two were new dialysis patients, three on long-term dialysis, and five were renal transplant recipients with history of dialysis. All patients underwent helical CT, a total of 11 procedures were performed. Sixteen-row detector system was used five times, and a 64-row detector system for the six examinations. All patients underwent nephrectomy of kidney with suspected tumor, 15 nephrectomies were performed, and 1 kidney was assessed during autopsy. CT findings were compared with macroscopic and microscopic assessments of the kidney specimen in 16 cases. Results: Very advanced renal parenchyma atrophy with small cysts corresponding to ESRD was found in nine patients, chronic pyelonephritis in remained one. A spontaneously ruptured tumor was detected incidentally in one case, patient died 2 years later. In the present study, 6.25% (1/16) were multiple PRCA, 12.5% (2/16) were solitary PRCC, 12.5% tumors (2/16) were solitary conventional renal cell carcinomas (CRCC's), 12.5% tumors (2/16) were multiple conventional renal cell carcinomas (CRCC's), 25% (4/16) were CRCC's combined with multiple papillary renal cell carcinomas with adenomas (PRCC's and PRCA's), and 25% (4/16) of the tumors were multiple PRCC's combined with PRCA's without coexisting CRCC

  5. [Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture and coexistent femoral neck fracture in a patient with chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimoğlu, Cemal; Yağdi, Serhan; Karapinar, Hasan; Sener, Muhittin

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a very rare injury mostly seen in patients with chronic renal failure or other systemic chronic diseases. Metabolic acidosis in chronic renal failure predisposes these patients to tendon degeneration. A 37-year-old woman who received hemodialysis for chronic renal failure for two years presented with complaints of severe pain in the left hip and inability to walk. She had a history of two consecutive falls in the past two months. On physical examination, there were joint spaces in both suprapatellar areas, active extension of both knees was inhibited, and movements of the left hip were quite painful. Knee ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture from patellar attachment. At surgery, full-thickness quadriceps tendon tears were repaired with Tycron transpatellar suture anchors. Internal fixation was not considered for hip fracture due to the presence of chronic renal failure, so hemiarthroplasty with bipolar endoprosthesis was performed in the same session for femoral neck fracture. Six months after the operation, the patient was able to walk without support and almost regained her normal knee functions.

  6. How renal cells handle urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, S M

    2000-01-01

    The urine concentration process requires an osmolality gradient along the renal cortico-medullary axis, with highest values in the renal papilla. NaCl and urea are the major solutes in the renal inner medulla, concentrations of urea up to 500-600 mM are found in the rat renal papilla. Urea can diffuse across cell membranes and contributes to balance intracellular and extracellular osmotic equilibrium. However, urea has perturbing effects on enzyme activity, and in concentrations above 300 mM is toxic for renal cultured cells. There is increasing evidence that urea can induce cellular responses distinct from those due to NaCl and other non-permeable solutes, including upregulation of immediate-early genes (IEGs). Urea transport by epithelial and endothelial cells is important for intra-medullary urea recycling and preservation of high urea concentration in the inner medulla. Trans-cellular movement of urea in cells expressing urea transporters may influence intracellular levels of this solute and modulate urea-induced signaling pathways. Regulation of urea transporters expression and activity can therefore be viewed as one aspect of cellular adaptation to urea. We have identified tonicity-responsive transcription as one mechanism regulating expression of the urea transporter UT-A. The short-term and long-term effects of variable extracellular urea concentration on the function of renal cells remain still unclear.

  7. Bilateral multiple cystic kidney disease and renal cortical abscess in a Boerboel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kitshoffa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystic renal disease is rare in dogs and although infected renal cysts have been reported in humans, no report could be found in dogs. A 58 kg, 5-year-old, castrated, male Boerboel presented with weight loss, pyrexia, lethargy and vomiting, 20 months after an incident of haematuria was reported. The initial ultrasonographic diagnosis was bilateral multiple renal cysts of unknown aetiology. The cysts had significantly increased in size over the 20-month period and some contained echogenic specks which could be related to infection, normal cellular debris or haemorrhage. In both kidneys the renal contours were distorted (the left more than the right. The abnormal shape of the left kidney was largely due to multiple cysts and a large crescent-shaped septate mass on the cranial pole of the kidney. Aspirates of the septate mass were performed (left kidney and the cytology and culture were indicative of an abscess. It is suggested that the previous incident of haematuria provided a portal of entry for bacteria into the cysts resulting in renal cortical abscess formation.

  8. Effect of renal and non-renal ischemia/reperfusion on cell-mediated immunity in organs and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Anne Craveiro; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Toft, Palle

    2010-01-01

    study, 80 mice were divided into four groups. The following surgeries were performed on the groups compared: bilateral renal I/R by clamping, unilateral renal ischemia, anesthesia only, and unilateral hind leg I/R. Half of the animals were killed after 2 h and the other half after 24 h. To assess...... following renal I/R. All kinds of I/R induced an upregulation of the adhesion molecule CD 11b and a downregulation of MHC II. Renal and non-renal I/R induced neutrophil infiltration in distant organs. Renal I/R does not induce a larger cell-mediated inflammatory response in blood and organs than non-renal I/R....

  9. Giant bilateral renal angiomyolipomas and lymphangioleiomyomatosis presenting after two successive pregnancies successfully treated with surgery and rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Peces, Carlos; Selgas, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old woman who presented with abdominal and flank pain with two successive pregnancies and was diagnosed of giant bilateral renal AMLs and pulmonary LAM associated with TSC in the post-partum of her second pregnancy. This case illustrates that in women with TSC rapid growth from renal AMLs and development of LAM may occur with successive pregnancies. It also stresses the potential for preservation of renal function despite successive bilateral renal surgery of giant AMLs. Moreover, the treatment with a low-dose rapamycin may be an option for LAM treatment. Finally, a low-dose rapamycin may be considered as an adjuvant treatment together to kidney-sparing conservative surgery for renal AMLs.

  10. Giant Bilateral Renal Angiomyolipomas and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Presenting after Two Successive Pregnancies Successfully Treated with Surgery and Rapamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Peces

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old woman who presented with abdominal and flank pain with two successive pregnancies and was diagnosed of giant bilateral renal AMLs and pulmonary LAM associated with TSC in the post-partum of her second pregnancy. This case illustrates that in women with TSC rapid growth from renal AMLs and development of LAM may occur with successive pregnancies. It also stresses the potential for preservation of renal function despite successive bilateral renal surgery of giant AMLs. Moreover, the treatment with a low-dose rapamycin may be an option for LAM treatment. Finally, a low-dose rapamycin may be considered as an adjuvant treatment together to kidney-sparing conservative surgery for renal AMLs.

  11. Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava involving bilateral renal veins: Surgical challenges and reconstruction with upfront saphenous vein interposition graft for left renal vein outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Nayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava (IVC involving bilateral renal veins presents a surgical challenge. Herein, we report the successful management of two such cases using restoration of left renal venous outflow by saphenous vein interposition graft as first step of surgery. Then radical resection of tumor and right kidney was done. IVC was lastly reconstructed using Gore-Tex graft. This report highlights the surgical challenges to ensure radical resection. Furthermore, the importance of restoring left renal outflow in presence of concomitant right nephrectomy is discussed. Both the patients were disease free at six months with no loss of left renal glomerular filtration rate.

  12. Sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Ehsan Taghizadeh; bin-Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Javar, Hamid Akbari; Kadivar, Ali; Sabeti, Bahare

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is among most important causes of death in recent decades. Whoever the renal cell carcinoma incidence is low but it seems it is more complicated than the other cancers in terms of pathophysiology and treatments. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview and also deeper insight to renal cell carcinoma and the steps which have been taken to reach more specific treatment and target therapy, in this type of cancer by developing most effective agents such as Sorafenib. To achieve this goal hundreds of research paper and published work has been overviewed and due to limitation of space in a paper just focus in most important points on renal cell carcinoma, treatment of RCC and clinical development of Sorafenib. The information presented this paper shows the advanced of human knowledge to provide more efficient drug in treatment of some complicated cancer such as RCC in promising much better future to fight killing disease.

  13. Pre-interventional prognostic value of renal endocrine, hemodynamic and arteriographic parameters in hypertensive patients with uni- and bilateral renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlart, I.P.; Bargon, G.

    1982-02-01

    In order to improve pre-interventional prognosis of blood pressure normalization, in patients with angiographically proven uni- (n=75) and bilateral (n=38) renal artery stenosis, (RAS) evaluation of renal venous and peripheral renin activity including stimulative procedures and Saralasin-infusion-test was carried out. In addition selective renal arteriographic, hemodynamic and pharmacodynamic (133 xe-washout) investigations were performed. The data were correlated with operative results concerning response of blood pressure to surgical treatment in 54 patients with uni- and 30 patients with bilateral RAS. Our results suggest that a postoperative normalization of blood-pressure can only be expected if pre-interventional selective arteriograms reveal a normal vascular tree accompanied with normal cortical flow rates of both kidneys in uni- and bilateral RAS. Selective renin determinations, stimulative procedures of the renin-angiotensin system and application of angiotensin antagonists are only of value for selection of patients.

  14. Hemorragia adrenal bilateral com trombose da veia renal direita e veia cava inferior em um recém-nascido Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with right renal vein and inferior vena cava thrombosis in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Aires de Araújo Neto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de um recém-nascido com um tipo raro de associação de hemorragia adrenal bilateral com trombose de veia renal direita e de veia cava inferior, em que os exames de ultra-sonografia e tomografia computadorizada exerceram papel crucial no estabelecimento do diagnóstico, orientação da conduta e seguimento do paciente.We report a rare case of coexisting bilateral adrenal hemorrhage, right renal vein and inferior vena cava thrombosis in a neonate. Imaging studies played an important role in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of this patient.

  15. Renal cell carcinoma with areas mimicking renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor/clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Fredrik; Grossmann, Petr; Hora, Milan; Sperga, Maris; Montiel, Delia Perez; Martinek, Petr; Gutierrez, Maria Evelyn Cortes; Bulimbasic, Stela; Michal, Michal; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Hes, Ondrej

    2013-07-01

    We present a cohort of 8 renal carcinomas that displayed a variable (5%-95% extent) light microscopic appearance of renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor/clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (RAT/CCPRCC) without fulfilling the criteria for these tumors. All but 1 case predominantly (75%-95% extent) showed histopathologic features of conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In 5 of 7 cases with mostly conventional clear renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) morphology, a diagnosis of CRCC was supported by the molecular genetic findings (presence of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor [VHL] mutation and/or VHL promoter methylation and/or loss of heterozygosity [LOH] for 3p). Of the other 2 cases with predominantly characteristic CRCC morphology, 1 tumor did not reveal any VHL mutation, VHL promoter methylation, or LOH for 3p, and both chromosomes 7 and 17 were disomic, whereas the other tumor displayed polysomy for chromosomes 7 and 17 and no VHL mutation, VHL promoter methylation, or LOH for 3p. One tumor was composed primarily (95%) of distinctly RAT/CCPRCC-like morphology, and this tumor harbored a VHL mutation and displayed polysomy for chromosomes 7 and 17. Of the 5 cases with both histomorphologic features and molecular genetic findings of CRCC, we detected significant immunoreactivity for α-methylacyl-CoA racemase in 2 cases and strong diffuse immunopositivity for cytokeratin 7 in 3 cases. Despite the combination of positivity for α-methylacyl-CoA racemase and cytokeratin 7 in 2 cases, there was nothing to suggest of the possibility of a conventional papillary renal cell carcinoma with a predominance of clear cells.

  16. [The Dutch guideline 'Renal cell carcinoma'].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osanto, S.; Bex, A.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Stemkens, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch guideline 'Renal Cell Carcinoma' has been revised on the basis of new literature. With the assistance of the Netherlands Cancer Registry an assessment was made of the current care for patients with renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma is a type of cancer for which knowledge of the ge

  17. Guidelines on renal cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mickisch, G; Carballido, J; Hellsten, S; Schuize, H; Mensink, H

    2001-01-01

    Objectives., On behalf of the European Association of Urology (EAU), Guidelines for Diagnosis, Therapy and. Follow Up of Renal. Cell Carcinoma Patients were established. Criteria for recommendations were evidence based and included aspects of cost-effectiveness and clinical feasibility. Method: A sy

  18. Tuberous Sclerosis and Bilateral Renal Angiomyolipomas: A Case Report and Literature Review of Emerging Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Jo-Hoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare multisystemic genetic disorder associated with the development of benign hamartomas. Angiomyolipomas are one such characteristic finding that may be seen in 55–80% of tuberous sclerosis complex patients. While being normally asymptomatic, they can also cause significant morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex and recently discovered bilateral renal angiomyolipomas, admitted for hematuria who underwent left renal artery embolization; however, worsening renal function necessitated subsequent nephrectomy. Despite still being mainstays of treatment, invasive interventions are now being recommended for specific patient populations as demonstrated in our case. Emerging strategies targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway have been shown to reduce the size of angiomyolipomas and are now used to treat asymptomatic cases >3 cm. Our review discusses these treatment options with the intention of increasing awareness of current recommendations and hopefully leading to increased application of these novel therapies that will reduce the need for invasive interventions.

  19. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  20. Tumor Seeding With Renal Cell Carcinoma After Renal Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    M.F.B. Andersen; Norus, T.P.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor seeding following biopsy of renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare with an incidence of 1:10.000. In this paper two cases with multiple recurrent RRC metastasis in the biopsy tract following biopsy of renal tumor is presented and the current literature is shortly discussed.

  1. Complicated Candida parapsilosis peritonitis on peritoneal dialysis in a neonate with renal failure because of bilateral adrenal abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I; Chen, Yi-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Jow, Guey-Mei; Mu, Shu-Chi

    2011-10-01

    We present a full-term female infant with a difficult delivery course complicated with Escherichia coli sepsis and bilateral adrenal abscesses. She developed renal failure and received peritoneal dialysis. Peritonitis of Candida parapsilosis developed later. The infant was successfully treated with hemofiltration and a combination of antifungal agents.

  2. Open Partial Nephrectomy in Solitary Kidney with Multiple Renal Cell Carcinoma: a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-rui Niu; Quan-zong Mao; Zhi-gang Ji

    2011-01-01

    RENAL cell carcinoma (RCC) in a solitary kidney presents a unique clinical challenge to urological surgeons.Partial nephrectomy (PN) or nephron-sparing surgery in this condition provides good oncological and renal fuctional outcomes with an acceptable complication rate.1,2 Long-term renal function remains stable in most patients with solitary kidneys after a reduction of more than 50% in renal mass.3 PN is a surgical procedure reserved for patients with a tumor in a solitary kidney,bilateral renal tumors,or renal function impairment.4 The challenge of preserving renal parenchyma is significantly complicated with the discovery of multiple masses in a solitary kidney because any subsequent complications may result in a significant decline in quality of life.Particularly in the case of postoperative renal failure,dialysis becomes necessary.

  3. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  4. General Information about Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  6. [Intrascrotal metastasis in a renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja Escudero, J; Pascual Samaniego, M; Martín Blanco, S; de Castro Olmedo, C; Gonzalo, V; Fernández del Busto, E

    2004-04-01

    The present article reports a case of intrascrotal metastasis of renal adenocarcinoma. This is an unusual case. A 66-year-old male patient undewent right radical nephrectomy and cavotomy for renal cell carcinoma with renal vein infiltration and thrombus in cava. Six months later the patient present with a nodulous enlargement intrascrotal and roots of penis. And he died 15 moths after nephrectomy. Usually intrascrotal metastases are a late event in the course after detection of a renal carcinoma.

  7. Intravenous renal cell transplantation with SAA1-positive cells prevents the progression of chronic renal failure in rats with ischemic-diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Katherine J; Zhang, Jizhong; Han, Ling; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Dominguez, Jesus H

    2013-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy, the most common cause of progressive chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease, has now reached global proportions. The only means to rescue diabetic patients on dialysis is renal transplantation, a very effective therapy but severely limited by the availability of donor kidneys. Hence, we tested the role of intravenous renal cell transplantation (IRCT) on obese/diabetic Zucker/SHHF F1 hybrid (ZS) female rats with severe ischemic and diabetic nephropathy. Renal ischemia was produced by bilateral renal clamping of the renal arteries at 10 wk of age, and IRCT with genetically modified normal ZS male tubular cells was given intravenously at 15 and 20 wk of age. Rats were euthanized at 34 wk of age. IRCT with cells expressing serum amyloid A had strong and long-lasting beneficial effects on renal function and structure, including tubules and glomeruli. However, donor cells were found engrafted only in renal tubules 14 wk after the second infusion. The results indicate that IRCT with serum amyloid A-positive cells is effective in preventing the progression of chronic kidney disease in rats with diabetic and ischemic nephropathy.

  8. Bilateral renal tumors in an adult man with Smith-Magenis syndrome: The role of the FLCN gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardour, Leila; Verleyen, Pieter; Lesage, Karl; Holvoet, Maureen; Devriendt, Koen

    2016-10-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a contiguous-gene disorder most commonly caused by a deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. We report a 57 year-old man with SMS who presents bilateral renal tumors. This is most likely related to haploinsufficiency of FLCN gene, located in the deleted region, and a known tumor suppressor gene. Haploinsufficiency of FLCN causes Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), characterized by pulmonary cysts, renal and skin tumors. The present observation suggests that the follow-up of patients with SMS should also focus on possible manifestations of BHDS.

  9. [Renal cell carcinoma secondary to tuberculous nephritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mejjad, Amine; Fekak, Hamid; Debbagh, Adili; Joual, Abdenbi; Bennani, Saad; El Mrini, Mohamed

    2005-04-01

    The combination of renal tuberculosis and renal cancer is rare. The authors report the case of a patient who was followed for multifocal pulmonary, hepatic and renal tuberculosis. The diagnosis of associated renal tumour was raised in the presence of suggestive radiological images. Tumourectomy was performed after tuberculostatic therapy, and histological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma associated with caseo-follicular tuberculous granulomas. The outcome was favourable after a follow-up of 2 years. The objective of this study is to analyse the pathogenesis, diagnostic features and treatment modalities of this exceptional combination.

  10. Radiotherapy for Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of Bilateral Eyelids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jean-Marc; Lukovic, Jelena; Dar, A. Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder with numerous clinicopathological variants with differing clinical courses, treatment methods, and prognoses. We report one patient with atypical LCH of the bilateral lower eyelids and subsequent successful treatment with local radiation therapy. PMID:27004151

  11. A Unique Presentation of an Undiagnosed Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Kravvas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 58-year-old lady who presented initially to her general practitioner with a palpable warty urethral nodule. She was subsequently referred to the urology department for further investigations. She underwent flexible cystoscopy and imaging, followed by rigid cystoscopy and excision of the nodule. Histological analysis was consistent with renal cell carcinoma (RCC. CT imaging confirmed the presence of an invading metastatic left renal cell carcinoma with bilateral metastatic deposits to the lungs and adrenal glands. The patient was enlisted on the Panther Trial and received a course of Pazopanib before undergoing radical nephrectomy. Two years later she is still alive with metastases remaining reduced in size and numbers. During this study we have performed a literature review of similar cases with this unusual presentation of RCC.

  12. The Heidelberg classification of renal cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, G; Akhtar, M; Beckwith, BJ; Bugert, P; Cooper, CS; Delahunt, B; Eble, JN; Fleming, S; Ljungberg, B; Medeiros, LJ; Moch, H; Reuter, VE; Ritz, E; Roos, G; Schmidt, D; Srigley, [No Value; Storkel, S; VandenBerg, E; Zbar, B

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the conclusions of a workshop entitled 'Impact of Molecular Genetics on the Classification of Renal Cell Tumours', which was held in Heidelberg in October 1996, The focus on 'renal cell tumours' excludes any discussion of Wilms' tumour and its variants, or of tumours metastatic t

  13. Metachronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metachronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors is a rare known problem. However, no report of metachronus bilateralism was identified in the PubMed database published from India so far, where testicular cancer is relatively rare. We report the cases of two gentlemen. One had stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT at the age of 32 in 1990 and developed marker relapse on surveillance and had chemotherapy using cisplatin and etoposide for four cycles. He developed contralateral seminoma in the testis 13 years later. Another patient had left orchidectomy in 2003 for NSGCT, had adjuvant BEP for two cycles, and developed a contralateral testicular tumor 5 years later, which was also seminoma. As more patients with germ cell tumors are cured with chemotherapy, long-term problems become important. Contralateral testicular tumor is one of them. As it can be very late, many years of continued follow-up examination and patients′ awareness are necessary.

  14. Cell adhesion signalling in acute renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) remains a severe clinical problem with high mortality. Little progress has been made over the past two decades in preventing renal injury or reducing mortality. This thesis describes the research to investigate cell adhesion alterations during the pathopysiology of both isc

  15. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 2014 2013 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for kidney (renal cell) cancer. The list ...

  16. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  17. Cardiac metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Abdulaziz; Tam, James

    2006-01-01

    A 59-year-old man developed an episode of syncope while he was driving. This resulted in a motor vehicle accident, and the patient sustained an open fracture of the left femur. Biopsy of the left femur fracture showed a metastastic renal cell carcinoma, and echocardiography revealed a right ventricular mass without contiguous vena caval or right atrial involvement. This is one of the few reported cases of renal cell carcinoma associated with syncope as an initial symptom.

  18. Isolated pleural metastases from renal cell carcionoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Jens; Ladegaard, Lars; Licht, Peter Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    A 71-year-old female was referred with three right-sided intrathoracic tumours. In 2003, she underwent radical left nephrectomy for renal cell cancer (RCC) clinical stage 1. She was since followed at her local hospital with annual computed tomography (CT)-scans during the first five years and did....... Histology demonstrated metastases from RCC which apparently can reach the parietal pleura without lung metastases. Keywords: Pleural metastasis; Renal cell cancer....

  19. Single ectopic ureteral orifice with bilateral duplicated renal collecting systems in an adult girl: Diagnosis by magnetic resonance urography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Wang, Quanrongzi; Liu, Bianjiang; Li, Jie; Lu, Qiang; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Renal duplication accompanied by ureteral ectopia is an uncommon urinary congenital abnormality. We report the case of a 21-year-old girl who suffered from lifelong continuous urinary leakage. She was finally diagnosed with bilateral duplicated collecting systems complicated with right ectopic ureteral orifice - an extremely rare case. The patient underwent ureteric re-implantation for the ectopic side, and her urinary incontinence ceased soon thereafter. In this case, traditional imaging failed to show the exact insertion of an ectopic ureter. However, magnetic resonance urography combined with retrograde intubation radiography successfully depicted the point of ureteric insertion, which may make the diagnostic process accurate and efficient.

  20. Asynchronous Bilateral Renal Infarction and Thrombophilia With Associated Gene Mutations in a 43-Year-Old Man: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu-Jie; Liu, Li-Jun; Chen, Min; Zhou, Fu-De

    2016-04-01

    Renal infarction (RI) is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late because of its rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation, which may result in irreversible damage to the renal parenchyma or increase the risk of other embolic events affecting additional organs. Multiple causal mechanisms and cases of idiopathic RI have been reported, but the causal factors are not clear in most cases.Here, we report the case of a patient with heterochronic bilateral RI caused by thrombophilia. Although he had several risk factors for hypercoagulation disorders, two gene mutations-MTHFR 677 C>T and PLG 1858G>A-were identified by genome sequencing of the entire exome. The findings suggest the possibility of a synergistic relationship between the two gene mutations.Thus, screening for gene mutations may provide additional clues for clarifying the cause of RI and thrombophilia.

  1. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  2. Percutaneous Cryoablation for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsitskari Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Nephron sparing resection (partial nephrectomy has been the “gold standard” for the treatment of resectable disease. With the widespread use of cross sectional imaging techniques, more cases of renal cell cancers are detected at an early stage, i.e. stage 1A or 1B.  This has provided an impetus for expanding the nephron sparing options and especially, percutaneous ablative techniques.  Percutaneous ablation for RCC is now performed as a standard therapeutic nephron-sparing option in patients who are poor candidates for resection or when there is a need to preserve renal function due to comorbid conditions, multiple renal cell carcinomas, and/or heritable renal cancer syndromes. During the last few years, percutaneous cryoablation has been gaining acceptance as a curative treatment option for small renal cancers. Clinical studies to date indicate that cryoablation is a safe and effective therapeutic method with acceptable short and long term outcomes and with a low risk, in the appropriate setting.  In addition it seems to offer some advantages over radio frequency ablation (RFA and other thermal ablation techniques for renal masses.

  3. Renal calculus complicated with squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiantao; Lei, Jun; He, Leye; Yin, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding renal calculus is a risk factor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis. It is highly aggressive and usually diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. We present two cases of kidney stone complications with renal pelvic SCC. These two patients had a radical nephrectomy and the dissected tissues were renal pelvic SCC. Our cases further emphasize that renal pelvic SCC should be considered in patients with longstanding renal calculus. These cases contribute greatly to an early diagnosis and early treatment, both of which will significantly minimize the damage of, and markedly improve the prognosis of, renal pelvic SCC.

  4. Bilateral olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation promotes neurological function in a rat model of cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Yang; Wenli Sheng; Huiyong Shen; Qinghua Hou; Rui Li; Jinsheng Zeng; Ruxun Huang

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, olfactory ensheathing cells were transplanted into the cortices of infarcted (infarct transplantation group), normal (normal transplantation group), and bilateral hemispheres (bilateral transplantation group). Olfactory ensheathing cells migrated to the infarct focus. The number of growth associated protein 43-positive cells and nerve fibers was slightly increased in the infarct area. These changes were more evident in the bilateral cortical transplantation group. Results demonstrated that transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells can migrate in rats with cerebral infarction. The olfactory ensheathing cells on the normal side can also promote neurological function. Bilateral cortical transplantation exhibited superior effects over unilateral transplantation.

  5. Renal stem cells: fact or science fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCampbell, Kristen K; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2012-06-01

    The kidney is widely regarded as an organ without regenerative abilities. However, in recent years this dogma has been challenged on the basis of observations of kidney recovery following acute injury, and the identification of renal populations that demonstrate stem cell characteristics in various species. It is currently speculated that the human kidney can regenerate in some contexts, but the mechanisms of renal regeneration remain poorly understood. Numerous controversies surround the potency, behaviour and origins of the cell types that are proposed to perform kidney regeneration. The present review explores the current understanding of renal stem cells and kidney regeneration events, and examines the future challenges in using these insights to create new clinical treatments for kidney disease.

  6. Targeted Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma: a Prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Joshi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: In our cohort, use of sunitinib showed similar outcome to previously published articles. Our study supports the use of sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Keywords: metastatic renal cell carcinoma; sunitinib; tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

  7. Outcome of Patients With Metastatic Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results From the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakopoulos, Christos E; Chittoria, Namita; Choueiri, Toni K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis. Data regarding outcome in the targeted therapy era are lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical, prognostic, and treatment parameters in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients with and without sarcomatoid histology t...

  8. Case report - Bilateral renal aspergillosis in a patient with AIDS : A case report and review of reported cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, A.W.; Sprenger, H.G.; Van Leeuwen, J.T.M.; Meessen, N.E.L.; Van Assen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Renal aspergillosis is an extremely uncommon complication in HIV-infected patients. In general, prognosis is poor and the need for nephrectomy is emphasized. We report the case of a 37-year-old patient with AIDS since April 2003 (CD4 count 10 cells/mm(3), a high viral load, Candida esophagitis, bila

  9. The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljungberg, B.; Campbell, S.C.; Cho, H.Y.; Jacqmin, D.; Lee, J.E.; Weikert, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Kidney cancer is among the 10 most frequently occurring cancers in Western communities. Globally, about 270 000 cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed yearly and 116 000 people die from the disease. Approximately 90% of all kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas (RCC). OBJECTIVE: The causes

  10. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  11. Acute renal failure due to bilateral uric acid lithiasis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mete; Boleken, M Emin; Soran, Mustafa; Kanmaz, Turan; Yücesan, Selçuk

    2007-06-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the complications of urolithiasis, but the role of medical treatment to relieve urinary obstruction in children with ARF is uncertain. We report on infants with acute obstructive uric acid lithiasis. We describe presentation features as well as diagnosis methods and medical treatment in five infants who were admitted to our institution with ARF due to uric acid lithiasis. The medical treatments for all patients were fluid liberalization, urine alkalinization, and oral allopurinol. Two children underwent urinary diversion. Within 8 h, urine output improved in all patients, and the stones passed spontaneously. All obstructed kidneys were relieved with medical treatment, and no renal sequel remained. So this series has showed a role of medical therapy in acute obstructive uric acid lithiasis.

  12. Bilateral renal agenesis/hypoplasia/dysplasia (BRAHD: postmortem analysis of 45 cases with breakpoint mapping of two de novo translocations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Harewood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bilateral renal agenesis/hypoplasia/dysplasia (BRAHD is a relatively common, lethal malformation in humans. Established clinical risk factors include maternal insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and male sex of the fetus. In the majority of cases, no specific etiology can be established, although teratogenic, syndromal and single gene causes can be assigned to some cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 45 unrelated fetuses, stillbirths or infants with lethal BRAHD were ascertained through a single regional paediatric pathology service (male:female 34:11 or 3.1:1. The previously reported phenotypic overlaps with VACTERL, caudal dysgenesis, hemifacial microsomia and Müllerian defects were confirmed. A new finding is that 16/45 (35.6%; m:f 13:3 or 4.3:1 BRAHD cases had one or more extrarenal malformations indicative of a disoder of laterality determination including; incomplete lobulation of right lung (seven cases, malrotation of the gut (seven cases and persistence of the left superior vena cava (five cases. One such case with multiple laterality defects and sirelomelia was found to have a de novo apparently balanced reciprocal translocation 46,XY,t(2;6(p22.3;q12. Translocation breakpoint mapping was performed by interphase fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH using nuclei extracted from archival tissue sections in both this case and an isolated bilateral renal agenesis case associated with a de novo 46,XY,t(1;2(q41;p25.3. Both t(2;6 breakpoints mapped to gene-free regions with no strong evidence of cis-regulatory potential. Ten genes localized within 500 kb of the t(1;2 breakpoints. Wholemount in-situ expression analyses of the mouse orthologs of these genes in embryonic mouse kidneys showed strong expression of Esrrg, encoding a nuclear steroid hormone receptor. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Esrrg was restricted to proximal ductal tissue within the embryonic kidney. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The previously unreported

  13. The diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced CT in Acute bilateral renal cortical necrosis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Pil Youb; Lee, Su Han; Lee, Woo Dong [Masan Samsung General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    Acute renal cortical necrosis in which there is destruction of the renal cortex and sparing of the renal medulla, is a relatively rare cause of acute renal failure. A definitive diagnosis of acute renal cortical necrosis is based on renal biopsy, but on CT(computed tomography) the rather specific contrast-enhanced appearance of acute renal cortical necrosis has been described. As renal biopsy is not available, contrast-enhanced CT is a useful, noninvasive investigate modality for the early diagnosis of acute renal cortical necrosis. We report the characteristic CT findings of acute renal cortical necrosis in a patient with acute renal failure following an operation for abdominal trauma.

  14. Potential Use of Autologous Renal Cells from Diseased Kidneys for the Treatment of Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    George, Sunil K.; Abolbashari, Mehran; Jackson, John D.; AbouShwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; James J. Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (...

  15. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of spleen diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas H; Wu, Yaping; Weston, Allan P; McAnaw, Mary P; Bromfield, Cecil; Bhattatiry, Manu M

    2003-07-01

    Splenic metastases are infrequent, and determination of the primary site by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can be complex. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who was found to have a large heterogeneously enhancing 8 x 7-inch splenic mass by abdominal computed tomography (CT). FNA by transesophageal endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated atypical cells conclusive for malignancy and consistent with metastatic renal cell carcinoma based on cytomorphology, histochemical lipid positivity, and immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratin, vimentin, and renal cell carcinoma marker. Repeat CT with and without arteriovenous contrast demonstrated bilateral renal cysts, including a 0.9 x 0.8-cm lesion on the left with significant enhancement. Splenectomy confirmed the radiological and cytological findings, and left kidney exploration and nephrectomy demonstrated a small (1.5 cm) lower pole renal cell carcinoma of chromophil (papillary) type, histologically similar to the splenic metastasis. This case demonstrates the diagnostic importance of interdisciplinary involvement (oncology, radiology, gastroenterology, pathology, and general and urologic surgery); cytomorphology; histochemistry, including fat stain on frozen cell block; and immunohistochemistry, including the recently developed renal cell carcinoma marker.

  16. Composite renal cell carcinoma with clear cell renal cell carcinomatous and carcinoid tumoral elements: a first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressenot, A; Delaunay, C; Gauchotte, G; Oliver, A; Boudrant, G; Montagne, K

    2010-02-01

    Renal endocrine tumours are extremely rare, and carcinoid tumoral elements in renal cell carcinoma have never been reported. This is the first report of a composite renal cell carcinoma containing a clear cell renal cell carcinoma associated with carcinoid tumoral elements, in a patient with synchronous metastatic disease. In the absence of specific radiological and clinical manifestations, typical morphological features as well as an immunostaining profile of neuroendocrine differentiation were identified by microscopy. Secondary nodal and liver localisations were characterised by carcinoid elements only. Despite antiangiogenic therapy, liver metastasis progressed, suggesting that adjuvant therapy cannot be based on the presence of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma component. In this context, extensive tissue sampling is recommended to reveal the endocrine component that is the most aggressive element of such a composite carcinoma.

  17. Toxicity of uranium on renal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiebault, C.; Carriere, M.; Gouget, B. [CEA Saclay, CNRS, UMR9956, Lab Pierre Sue, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2007-07-01

    Kidney and bone are the main retention organs affected by uranium toxicity. Although the clinical effects of uranium poisoning are well known, only few studies dealt with cellular mechanisms of toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cyto- and genotoxicity of uranium (U) on renal cells. The cell death was also studied in this conditions of exposure. The effects of U were evaluated in acute and chronic exposure. The acute effects were evaluated after 24 h exposure to strong U concentrations (200-700{mu}M). The chronic exposure was observed on renal cells incubated with low U concentrations (0.1-100 {mu}M) until 70 days then with high uranium concentrations (400-500 {mu}M) during 24 h. U induces apoptosis cell death mainly by the intrinsic pathway. The high U concentrations (600-700 {mu}M) lead to necrosis. U induces DNA damages (single, double strand breaks, as well as alkali labile sites) from 300{mu}M. The cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation of uranium were less important in cells previously exposed to low uranium concentrations when compared to non-exposed cells. In the same time, DNA damage observed after acute exposure of uranium decreased with the increase of chronic uranium concentrations. These results suggest that renal cells became resistant to uranium, probably due to a cellular transformation process. In conclusion, high U concentrations (300-700{mu}M) induce apoptosis cell death and DNA damages. Cells previously exposed to low U concentrations present also DNA damages and a cellular transformation. (authors)

  18. Nanotechnology combined therapy: tyrosine kinase-bound gold nanorod and laser thermal ablation produce a synergistic higher treatment response of renal cell carcinoma in animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunologically naïve nude mice (Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu) were injected bilaterally on the flanks (n=36) with 2.5 x 106 cells of a human metastatic renal cell carcinoma cell line (RCC 786-O). Subcutaneous xenograft tumors developed 1 cm palpable nodules. AuNR encapsulated in Human Serum Albumin (HSA) P...

  19. Bilateral Choroidal Metastasis from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Namad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast and lung cancers are the most common primary neoplasms to manifest with choroidal metastases. The incidence of choroidal metastases from metastatic lung cancer was reported to be 2–6.7%. We report a case of bilateral choroidal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer. A 59-year-old Caucasian female patient, never a smoker, was diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pleura, bones, and the brain. Her initial scan of the chest showed innumerable soft tissue nodules and mediastinal adenopathy compatible with metastatic disease. Her initial brain MRI showed numerous small enhancing lesions consistent with extensive disease. Unfortunately, during her follow-up visits, she presented with bulge on her left eye. Simultaneously, her follow-up chest scan showed increase in the size of the lung nodules. She continued to have a reasonable performance status at that time, except for mild increase in her dyspnea. The choroidal metastases require a multidisciplinary care and should be among the differential patients with malignancy who present with ocular symptoms.

  20. Cistinúria como causa de litíase renal bilateral em lactente

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Rita; Moura, Márcio; Tapadinhas, Fernando; Simão, Carla; Mendes,Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    A litíase renal é pouco frequente em idade pediátrica e a sua manifestação clínica é variável. No entanto, é possível identificar em grande número destas crianças os factores precipitantes para formação de litíase, entre eles, causas metabólicas.Descreve-se o caso de um lactente de 5 meses, sexo masculino, que manifestou quadro de vómitos, recusa alimentar e presença de sangue na fralda. O exame citoquímico de urina revelou hematúria e o exame cultural foi negativo. A ecografia revelou litías...

  1. Associations of Unilateral Whisker and Olfactory Signals Induce Synapse Formation and Memory Cell Recruitment in Bilateral Barrel Cortices: Cellular Mechanism for Unilateral Training Toward Bilateral Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zilong; Chen, Lei; Fan, Ruicheng; Lu, Wei; Wang, Dangui; Cui, Shan; Huang, Li; Zhao, Shidi; Guan, Sudong; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Somatosensory signals and operative skills learned by unilateral limbs can be retrieved bilaterally. In terms of cellular mechanism underlying this unilateral learning toward bilateral memory, we hypothesized that associative memory cells in bilateral cortices and synapse innervations between them were produced. In the examination of this hypothesis, we have observed that paired unilateral whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motions in bilateral sides, which were attenuated by inhibiting the activity of barrel cortices. In the mice that showed bilateral cross-modal responses, the neurons in both sides of barrel cortices became to encode this new odor signal alongside the innate whisker signal. Axon projections and synapse formations from the barrel cortex, which was co-activated with the piriform cortex, toward its contralateral barrel cortex (CBC) were upregulated. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission in bilateral barrel cortices was upregulated and GABAergic synaptic transmission was downregulated. The associative activations of the sensory cortices facilitate new axon projection, glutamatergic synapse formation and GABAergic synapse downregulation, which drive the neurons to be recruited as associative memory cells in the bilateral cortices. Our data reveal the productions of associative memory cells and synapse innervations in bilateral sensory cortices for unilateral training toward bilateral memory. PMID:28018178

  2. Associations of unilateral whisker and olfactory signals induce synapse formation and memory cell recruitment in bilateral barrel cortices: cellular mechanism for unilateral training toward bilateral memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilong Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory signals and operative skills learned by unilateral limbs can be retrieved bilaterally. In terms of cellular mechanism underlying this unilateral learning toward bilateral memory, we hypothesized that associative memory cells in bilateral cortices and synapse innervations between them were produced. In the examination of this hypothesis, we have observed that paired unilateral whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motions in bilateral sides, which were attenuated by inhibiting the activity of barrel cortices. In the mice that showed bilateral cross-modal responses, the neurons in both sides of barrel cortices became to encode this new odor signal alongside the innate whisker signal. Axon projections and synapse formations from the barrel cortex, which was co-activated with the piriform cortex, toward its contralateral barrel cortex were upregulated. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission in bilateral barrel cortices was upregulated and GABAergic synaptic transmission was downregulated. The associative activations of the sensory cortices facilitate new axon projection, glutamatergic synapse formation and GABAergic synapse downregulation, which drive the neurons to be recruited as associative memory cells in the bilateral cortices. Our data reveals the productions of associative memory cells and synapse innervations in bilateral sensory cortices for unilateral training toward bilateral memory.

  3. Potential Use of Autologous Renal Cells from Diseased Kidneys for the Treatment of Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sunil K; Abolbashari, Mehran; Jackson, John D; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics. The expression levels of renal tubular cell markers, Aquaporin-1 and E-Cadherin, and podocyte-specific markers, WT-1 and Nephrin, were similar in both NK and CKD kidney derived cells. Using fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS), specific renal cell populations were identified and included proximal tubular cells (83.1% from NK and 80.3% from CKD kidneys); distal tubular cells (11.03% from NK and 10.9% from CKD kidneys); and podocytes (1.91% from NK and 1.78% from CKD kidneys). Ultra-structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed microvilli on the apical surface of cultured cells from NK and CKD samples. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a similar organization of tight junctions, desmosomes, and other intracellular structures. The Na+ uptake characteristics of NK and CKD derived renal cells were also similar (24.4 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L, respectively) and no significant differences were observed in the protein uptake and transport characteristics of these two cell isolates. These results show that primary renal cells derived from diseased kidneys such as CKD have similar structural and functional characteristics to their counterparts from a normal healthy kidney (NK) when grown in vitro. This study suggests that cells derived from diseased kidney may be used as an autologous cell source for renal cell therapy, particularly in patients with CKD or end

  4. [Metastasis to the Tongue from Renal Cell Carcinoma 10 Years after Nephrectomy : A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Takeda, Ken; Shiba, Masahiro; Takayama, Hitoshi; Munakata, Satoru

    2016-08-01

    A 71-year-old woman underwent left radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (clear cell carcinoma, pT1bN0M0) ten years previously. She noticed a tumor on the tip of her tongue and was admitted for dental and oral surgery. The tumor was about 10 mm in size, and tumor resection was done. It was pathologically diagnosed as clear cell carcinoma, which was metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Computer tomography scan during the same period revealed left hilar lymph node and bilateral lung metastases. We chose to use sunitinib as the treatment for the metastases. Computer tomography revealed a complete response (CR) after sunitinib treatment was given for 10 months, and we are still continuing the treatment to maintain the CR status.

  5. Intravenous Renal Cell Transplantation for Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    reports 28.2 (per million population) PKD patients on dialysis in 1985, 62.9 in 2000 and 92.5 in 2011. Although these data may reflect better diagnosis ...improves renal function and structure in other models of renal failure: CKD due to cisplatin-mediated injury (4), diabetic nephropathy (Am J Physiol...cells prevents progression of chronic renal failure in rats with ischemic-diabetic nephropathy . Am J Physiol. Renal. 305:F1804- F1812 6. Mason SB

  6. CONVENTIONAL RENAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH GRANULOMATOUS REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : Granulomatous inflammation is a distinctive pattern of chronic inflammatory reaction characterized by microscopic aggregation of activated macrophages which often develop epithelioid appearance and multinucleate giant cells. Granulomas are encountered in limited number of infectious and some non-infectious conditions. Granulomas have been described within the stroma of malignancies like carcinomas of the breast and colon, seminoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma, where they represent T-cell-mediated reaction of the tumor stroma to antigens expressed by the tumor. Granulomatous reaction in association with renal cell carcinoma (RCC is uncommon, with only few published reports in the literature. We describe a case of conventional (clear cell RCC associated with epithelioid cell granulomas within the tumor parenchyma.

  7. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  8. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: micro-RNA expression profiling and comparison with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Enrico; Marchionni, Luigi; Chitre, Apurva; Hayashi, Masamichi; Martignoni, Guido; Brunelli, Matteo; Gobbo, Stefano; Argani, Pedram; Allaf, Mohamad; Hoque, Mohammad O; Netto, George J

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a low-grade renal neoplasm with morphological characteristics mimicking both clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). However, despite some overlapping features, their morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular profiles are distinct. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression and are involved in various biological processes, including cancer development. To better understand the biology of this tumor, we aimed to analyze the miRNA expression profile of a set of CCPRCC using microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 cases diagnosed as CCPRCC were used in this study. Among the most differentially expressed miRNA in CCPRCC, we found miR-210, miR-122, miR-34a, miR-21, miR-34b*, and miR-489 to be up-regulated, whereas miR-4284, miR-1202, miR-135a, miR-1973, and miR-204 were down-regulated compared with normal renal parenchyma. To identify consensus of differentially regulated miRNA between CCPRCC, CCRCC, and PRCC, we additionally determined differential miRNA expression using 2 publically available microarray data sets from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE41282 and GSE3798). This comparison revealed that the miRNA expression profile of CCPRCC shows some overlapping characteristics between CCRCC and PRCC. Moreover, CCPRCC lacks dysregulation of important miRNAs typically associated with aggressive behavior. In summary, we describe the miRNA expression profile of a relatively infrequent type of renal cancer. Our results may help in understanding the molecular underpinning of this newly recognized entity.

  9. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene abnormalities in Indian males with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens & renal anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, Rahul; Kadam, Kaushiki; Khole, Aalok; Gaikwad, Avinash; Kadam, Seema; Shah, Rupin; Kumaraswamy, Rangaswamy; Khole, Vrinda

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens and unilateral renal agenesis (CBAVD-URA) has been controversial. Here, we report the cases of five Indian males with CBAVD-URA. The objective was to evaluate the presence or absence of CFTR gene mutations and variants in CBAVD-URA. The female partners of these males were also screened for cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier status. Methods: Direct DNA sequencing of CFTR gene was carried out in five Indian infertile males having CBAVD-URA. Female partners (n=5) and healthy controls (n=32) were also screened. Results: Three potential regulatory CFTR gene variants (c.1540A>G, c.2694T>G and c.4521G>A) were detected along with IVS8-5T mutation in three infertile males with CBAVD-URA. Five novel CFTR gene variants (c.621+91A>G, c.2752+106A>T, c.2751+85_88delTA, c.3120+529InsC and c.4375-69C>T), four potential regulatory CFTR gene variants (M470V, T854T, P1290P, Q1463Q) and seven previously reported CFTR gene variants (c.196+12T>C, c.875+40A>G, c.3041-71G>C, c.3271+42A>T, c.3272-93T>C, c.3500-140A>C and c.3601-65C>A) were detected in infertile men having CBAVD and renal anomalies Interpretation & conclusions: Based on our findings, we speculate that CBAVD-URA may also be attributed to CFTR gene mutations and can be considered as CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD). The CFTR gene mutation screening may be offered to CBAVD-URA men and their female partners undergoing ICSI. Further studies need to be done in a large sample to confirm the findings. PMID:27488005

  10. A Study of Varlilumab (Anti-CD27) and Sunitinib in Patients With Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Kidney Diseases; Kidney Neoplasms; Urogenital Neoplasms; Urologic Diseases; Urologic Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Clear-cell Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

  11. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaria R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reena Kabaria, Zachary Klaassen, Martha K Terris Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA Abstract: This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses. The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, risk factors, incidence, smoking, obesity, hypertension

  12. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Qi Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers.

  13. Three Dimensional Culture of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Organoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Batchelder

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinomas arise from the nephron but are heterogeneous in disease biology, clinical behavior, prognosis, and response to systemic therapy. Development of patient-specific in vitro models that efficiently and faithfully reproduce the in vivo phenotype may provide a means to develop personalized therapies for this diverse carcinoma. Studies to maintain and model tumor phenotypes in vitro were conducted with emerging three-dimensional culture techniques and natural scaffolding materials. Human renal cell carcinomas were individually characterized by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR to establish the characteristics of each tumor. Isolated cells were cultured on renal extracellular matrix and compared to a novel polysaccharide scaffold to assess cell-scaffold interactions, development of organoids, and maintenance of gene expression signatures over time in culture. Renal cell carcinomas cultured on renal extracellular matrix repopulated tubules or vessel lumens in renal pyramids and medullary rays, but cells were not observed in glomeruli or outer cortical regions of the scaffold. In the polysaccharide scaffold, renal cell carcinomas formed aggregates that were loosely attached to the scaffold or free-floating within the matrix. Molecular analysis of cell-scaffold constructs including immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR demonstrated that individual tumor phenotypes could be sustained for up to 21 days in culture on both scaffolds, and in comparison to outcomes in two-dimensional monolayer cultures. The use of three-dimensional scaffolds to engineer a personalized in vitro renal cell carcinoma model provides opportunities to advance understanding of this disease.

  14. (18)F-FDG PET/CT in bilateral primary adrenal T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Shankar, Praveen; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Baljinder; Das, Ashim; Bhansali, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Primary adrenal lymphoma is extremely rare. We report a young patient who presented with non- specific symptoms of fever and abdominal pain. Conventional imaging modalities demonstrated bilateral bulky adrenal masses, and whole-body fluorine-18-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed intense (18)F-FDG-avid bilateral adrenal masses with no evidence of extra-adrenal spread. A pathological diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of peripheral T-cell type was made. The present case indicates that primary adrenal lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of bilateral adrenal masses.

  15. Primary bilateral adrenal intravascular large B-cell lymphoma associated with adrenal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Ayumi; Okada, Yosuke; Tanikawa, Takahisa; Onaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Aya; Higashi, Takehiro; Tsukada, Junichi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2003-07-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with adrenal failure. A 66-year-old woman developed symptoms of adrenal failure. The cause of adrenal failure was suspected to be malignant lymphoma based on the high levels of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor and LDH. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed and pathological examination showed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Although complete remission was achieved, recurrence occurred three months later with brain metastases. IVL should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal tumors who present with rapidly progressive adrenal failure.

  16. Conditional survival predictions after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakiewicz, P.I.; Suardi, N.; Capitanio, U.; Isbarn, H.; Jeldres, C.; Perrotte, P.; Sun, M.; Ficarra, V.; Zigeuner, R.; Tostain, J.; Mejean, A.; Cindolo, L.; Pantuck, A.J.; Belldegrun, A.S.; Zini, L.; Taille, A. De La; Chautard, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Shariat, S.F.; Valeri, A.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Lang, H.; Lechevallier, E.; Patard, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Conditional survival implies that on average long-term cancer survivors have a better prognosis than do newly diagnosed individuals. We explored the effect of conditional survival in renal cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 3,560 patients with renal cell carcinoma of all stag

  17. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis causing spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Patra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral pneumothorax is very rare in childhood. Moreover, if it is due to pulmonary involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, it is even rarer in childhood. In our case, a nonsmoker 12-year-old boy presented with bilateral pneumothorax, whose high-resolution computed tomography scan was highly suggestive of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Excision biopsy of a clinically palpable cervical lymph node and histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry positivity for CD1a indicated a diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Clinicians should consider pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in differential diagnoses in dealing such a case.

  18. Current MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sae Lin; Sung, Seuk Jae [Dept. of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) consists of approximately 85-90% of renal masses, and its incidence is increasing due to widespread use of modern imaging modalities such as ultrasonography or computed tomography. Computed tomography has served an important role in the diagnosis and staging of RCC; however, recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have considerably improved our ability to predict tumor biology beyond the morphologic assessment. Multiparametric MRI protocols include standard sequences tailored for the morphologic evaluation and acquisitions that provide information about the tumor microenvironment such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The role of multiparametric MRI in the evaluation of RCC now extends to preoperative characterization of RCC subtypes, histologic grade, and quantitative assessment of tumor response to targeted therapies in patients with metastatic disease. Herein, the clinical applications and recent advances in MRI applied to RCC are reviewed along with its merits and demerits. We aimed to review MRI techniques and image analysis that can improve the management of patients with RCC. Familiarity with the advanced MRI techniques and various imaging findings of RCC would also facilitate optimal clinical recommendations for patients.

  19. Cell-to-cell communication in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing hypercortisolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herve eLefebvre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that, in the human adrenal gland, cortisol secretion is not only controlled by circulating corticotropin but is also influenced by a wide variety of bioactive signals, including conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, released within the cortex by various cell types such as chromaffin cells, neurons, cells of the immune system, adipocytes and endothelial cells. These different types of cells are present in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, a rare etiology of primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, where they appear intermingled with adrenocortical cells in the hyperplastic cortex. In addition, the genetic events which cause the disease favor abnormal adrenal differenciation that results in illicit expression of paracrine regulatory factors and their receptors in adrenocortical cells. All these defects constitute the molecular basis for aberrant autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms which are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia-associated hypercortisolism. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this topic as well as the therapeutic perspectives offered by this new pathophysiological concept.

  20. Skull Base Clear Cell Carcinoma, Metastasis of Renal Primary Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilson Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a patient who presented with cranial nerve VI bilateral paresis, absence of pharyngeal reflex, dysarthria, right tongue deviation, and right facial paralysis. Imaging studies showed an expansive process in the cranial base with clivus and petrous apex osteolysis. A biopsy confirmed the presence of clear cell adenocarcinoma and suspicion of renal tumor metastases. Abdominal imaging studies revealed a mass in the right kidney. Consequently, radiotherapy was performed, and the patient was enrolled in a palliative care and pain control program.

  1. Are primary renal cell carcinoma and metastases of renal cell carcinoma the same cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk-Wojtaś, Aleksandra; Stec, Rafał; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is a process consisting of cells spreading from the primary site of the cancer to distant parts of the body. Our understanding of this spread is limited and molecular mechanisms causing particular characteristics of metastasis are still unknown. There is some evidence that primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastases of RCC exhibit molecular differences that may effect on the biological characteristics of the tumor. Some authors have detected differences in clear cell and nonclear cell component between these 2 groups of tumors. Investigators have also determined that primary RCC and metastases of RCC diverge in their range of renal-specific markers and other protein expression, gene expression pattern, and microRNA expression. There are also certain proteins that are variously expressed in primary RCCs and their metastases and have effect on clinical outcome, e.g., endothelin receptor type B, phos-S6, and CD44. However, further studies are needed on large cohorts of patients to identify differences representing promising targets for prognostic purposes predicting disease-free survival and the metastatic burden of a patient as well as their suitability as potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, in this review we have attempted to summarize studies connected with differences between primary RCC and its metastases and their influence on the biological characteristics of renal cancer.

  2. Bilateral lamellar keratoplasty in descemetocele treatment in dog with botulism by use of equine renal capsule and conjunctival pedicle graft Emprego de ceratoplastia lamelar bilateral no tratamento de descemetocele em cão com botulismo, utilizando-se cápsula renal eqüina e enxerto conjuntival pediculado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Laus

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old, male mixed breed dog with botulism and bilateral descemetocele was submitted to lamellar keratoplasty with equine renal capsule preserved in glycerin in the right eye and conjunctival pedicle graft in the left eye. The evolution was satisfactory in both eyes, but better in the eye receiving the equine renal capsule, because the corneal transparence was more evident in that eye. On the other hand, the surgical period was more quickly in the eye receiving the equine renal capsule because the preparation of the conjunctival pedicle before the keratoplasty was not necessary.Um animal da espécie canina, macho, de 3 anos de idade, com botulismo e descemetocele bilateral foi submetido à ceratoplastia lamelar com cápsula renal eqüina preservada em glicerina no olho direito, e enxerto conjuntival pediculado no olho esquerdo. Ambos os olhos mostraram evolução satisfatória porém, o olho receptor da cápsula renal eqüina apresentou transparência corneana mais evidente.

  3. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  5. Computed tomography in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Nyree; Grant, Lee Alexander; Bharwani, Nishat; Sohaib, S Aslam

    2009-08-01

    Recent developments in chemotherapy have resulted in several new drug treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These therapies have shown improved progression-free survival and are applicable to many more patients than the conventional cytokine-based treatments for metastatic RCC. Consequently imaging is playing a greater part in the management of such patients. Computed tomography (CT) remains the primary imaging modality with other imaging modalities playing a supplementary role. CT is used in the diagnosis and staging of metastatic RCC. It is used in the follow-up of patients after nephrectomy, in assessing the extent of metastatic disease, and in evaluating response to treatment. This review looks at the role of CT in patients with metastatic RCC and describes the appearances of metastatic RCC before and following systemic therapy.

  6. Duodenal bleeding from metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; Rangasamy, Priya; Versland, Mark

    2011-04-20

    Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is relatively uncommon and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Duodenal metastasis is rare in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and early detection, especially in case of a solitary mass, helps in planning further therapy. We report a case of intractable upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic RCC to the duodenum. The patient presented with melena and anemia, 13 years after nephrectomy for RCC. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a submucosal mass was noted in the duodenum, biopsies of which revealed metastatic RCC. In conclusion, metastasis from RCC should be considered in nephrectomized patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and a complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination followed by biopsy, is suggested.

  7. Duodenal Bleeding from Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; Rangasamy, Priya; Versland, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is relatively uncommon and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Duodenal metastasis is rare in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and early detection, especially in case of a solitary mass, helps in planning further therapy. We report a case of intractable upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic RCC to the duodenum. The patient presented with melena and anemia, 13 years after nephrectomy for RCC. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a submucosal mass was noted in the duodenum, biopsies of which revealed metastatic RCC. In conclusion, metastasis from RCC should be considered in nephrectomized patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and a complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination followed by biopsy, is suggested. PMID:21577373

  8. Duodenal Bleeding from Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Rustagi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is relatively uncommon and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Duodenal metastasis is rare in renal cell carcinoma (RCC and early detection, especially in case of a solitary mass, helps in planning further therapy. We report a case of intractable upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic RCC to the duodenum. The patient presented with melena and anemia, 13 years after nephrectomy for RCC. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a submucosal mass was noted in the duodenum, biopsies of which revealed metastatic RCC. In conclusion, metastasis from RCC should be considered in nephrectomized patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and a complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination followed by biopsy, is suggested.

  9. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, W. Marston; Spellman, Paul T.; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Creighton, Chad J.; Fei, Suzanne S.; Davis, Caleb; Wheeler, David A.; Murray, Bradley A.; Schmidt, Laura; Vocke, Cathy D.; Peto, Myron; Al Mamun, Abu Amar M.; Shinbrot, Eve; Sethi, Anurag; Brooks, Samira; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brooks, Angela N.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Brooks, Denise; Bowlby, Reanne; Sadeghi, Sara; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Baylin, Stephen B.; Laird, Peter W.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Saksena, Gordon; Haake, Scott; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Akbani, Rehan; Leiserson, Mark D.M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Anur, Pavana; Bottaro, Donald; Albiges, Laurence; Barnabas, Nandita; Choueiri, Toni K.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Ho, Thai; Hsieh, James; Ittmann, Michael; Kim, William Y.; Krishnan, Bhavani; Merino, Maria J.; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Reuter, Victor E.; Reznik, Ed; Shelley, Carl Simon; Shuch, Brian; Signoretti, Sabina; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thomas, George; Tickoo, Satish; Burnett, Kenneth; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph D.; Penny, Robert J.; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, W. Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Avedon, Melissa T.; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Santos, Tracie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buhay, Christian; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Chao, Hsu; Chuah, Eric; Clarke, Amanda; Covington, Kyle R.; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Dewal, Ninad; Dhalla, Noreen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Drummond, Jennifer; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Guin, Ranabir; Hale, Walker; Hawes, Alicia; Hayes, D. Neil; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kalra, Divya; Kovar, Christie; Lewis, Lora; Li, Jie; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Moore, Richard A.; Morton, Donna; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Muzny, Donna; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Sougnez, Carrie; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Thiessen, Nina; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Wang, Min; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Zhou, Jane; Bedford, Jason; Chen, Fengju; Fu, Yao; Gerstein, Mark; Haussler, David; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lai, Phillip; Ling, Shiyun; Radenbaugh, Amie; Van Den Berg, David; Weinstein, John N.; Zhu, Jingchun; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Auman, J. Todd; Bartlett, John; Bastacky, Sheldon; Bergsten, Julie; Blute, Michael L.; Boice, Lori; Bollag, Roni J.; Boyd, Jeff; Castle, Erik; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheville, John C.; Curley, Erin; Davies, Benjamin; DeVolk, April; Dhir, Rajiv; Dike, Laura; Eckman, John; Engel, Jay; Harr, Jodi; Hrebinko, Ronald; Huang, Mei; Huelsenbeck-Dill, Lori; Iacocca, Mary; Jacobs, Bruce; Lobis, Michael; Maranchie, Jodi K.; McMeekin, Scott; Myers, Jerome; Nelson, Joel; Parfitt, Jeremy; Parwani, Anil; Petrelli, Nicholas; Rabeno, Brenda; Roy, Somak; Salner, Andrew L.; Slaton, Joel; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Thorne, Leigh; Tucker, Kelinda; Weinberger, Paul M.; Winemiller, Cythnia; Zach, Leigh Anne; Zuna, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary renal cell carcinoma, accounting for 15% of renal cell carcinoma, is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma; no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. Methods We performed comprehensive molecular characterization utilizing whole-exome sequencing, copy number, mRNA, microRNA, methylation and proteomic analyses of 161 primary papillary renal cell carcinomas. Results Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas were found to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with Type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups based on molecular differences that influenced patient survival. MET alterations were associated with Type 1 tumors, whereas Type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-ARE pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was found in a distinct subset of Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma characterized by poor survival and mutation of the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Conclusions Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas are clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway are associated with Type 1 and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway with Type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in Type 2 convey a poor prognosis. Furthermore, Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma consists of at least 3 subtypes based upon molecular and phenotypic features. PMID:26536169

  10. Renal stem cells and their implications for kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Håkan; Johansson, Martin E

    2013-02-01

    The renal cell carcinomas (RCC) denote a diverse set of neoplasias with unique genetic and histological features. The RCCs emanate from the renal tubule, a highly heterogeneous epithelial structure, and depending on which cell is malignified the resulting cancer displays unique characteristics. Notwithstanding this, the cells of origin for the RCC forms are far from established, and only inferred by the accumulated weight of marker similarities, not always providing an unequivocal picture. The tubular epithelium is normally mitotically quiescent, but demonstrates a considerable regenerative capacity upon renal injury. Recently the hypothesis that regeneration is driven by adult stem cells has been added experimental support, providing further complexity to the issue of renal carcinogenesis. Whether these cells are linked to RCC is an open question. In the present review we therefore present the prevailing theories regarding kidney regeneration, since a better understanding of this process might be of relevance when considering the different malignancies that arise from kidney epithelium. Our own results show that papillary renal cell carcinoma displays considerable similarities to proximal tubular progenitor cells and we suggest that this tumor form may develop in a multi-step fashion via benign renal adenomas. The putative connection between renal stem cells and carcinomas is, however, not clarified, since the current understanding of the renal stem cell system is not complete. It is clear that the efforts to isolate and characterize renal progenitor/stem cells suffer from numerous technical limitations and that it remains likely that the kidney harbors different stem cell pools with a restricted differentiation potential.

  11. 13-year-old tuberous sclerosis patient with renal cell carcinoma associated with multiple renal angiomyolipomas developing multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnes Carl Ludwig

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The autosomal dominant tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis complex is caused by the mutated TSC1 gene, hamartin, and the TSC2 gene, tuberin. Patients with this complex develop typical cutaneus symptoms such as peau chagrin or angiofibromas of the skin as well as other lesions such as astrocytomas in the brain and lymphangioleiomyomatosis in the lung. Only a few tuberous sclerosis patients have been described who showed a multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia of the lung. Another benign tumor which often occurs together with tuberous sclerosis is the angiomyolipoma of the kidney. Furthermore, an increased incidence of renal cell carcinoma in connection with tuberous sclerosis has also been proven. Case presentation We report a 13-year-old white girl with epilepsy and hypopigmented skin lesions. Radiological studies demonstrated the typical cortical tubers leading to the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. In the following examinations a large number of angiomyolipomas were found in both kidneys. One lesion showed an increasing size and tumor like aspects in magnetic resonance imaging. The pathological examination of the following tumorectomy demonstrated an unclassified renal cell carcinoma. Four months postoperatively, a follow-up computer tomography revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. To exclude lung metastases of the renal cell carcinoma, multiple open-lung biopsies were performed. Conclusion Here we report a diagnostically challenging case of a 13-year-old patient with tuberous sclerosis and angiomyolipomas of the kidney who developed an unclassified renal cell carcinoma as well as multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia.

  12. Array-CGH and quantitative PCR genetic analysis in a case with bilateral hypoplasia of pulmonary arteries and lungs and simultaneous unilateral renal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Kais; Steinemann, Doris; Scholz, Henrike; Menkhaus, Ralf; Feist, Henning; Kreipe, Hans

    2010-08-18

    We describe the clinical course and have characterised anatomically and genetically a unique case of a newborn with bilateral hypoplasia of pulmonary arteries, consecutive extremely hypoplastic lung tissue and associated unilateral renal agenesis. Intrauterine oxygenation by the placenta seemed to have allowed normotrophic body maturity but immediately after delivery, in the third trimester, progressive hypoxemia developed and the newborn succumbed to acute respiratory failure. Genetic analysis by array-based comparative genomic hybridisation and quantitative PCR revealed duplication of 1p21, which, however, might not be the disease causing aberration. This case might represent an extreme form of previously reported, rare cases with simultaneous dysorganogenesis of lungs and kidneys.

  13. A patient with Multiple myeloma and Renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Farhad; Ghalamkari, Marziye; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Khatuni, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of two malignancies is rarely seen. A little association between hematologic malignancies especially multiple myeloma and renal cell carcinoma has been reported in the recent past. Several case series revealed a bidirectional association between these two malignancies which may be due to the common risk factors, similar cytokine growth requirements and clinical presentation. Here, we aim to describe a patient who had multiple myeloma and in his work up renal cell carcinoma was found out incidentally. We would like to create awareness among clinicians for the coincidence of Renal cell carcinoma and Multiple myeloma.

  14. Isolated renal metastasis from squamous cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer is rather uncommon. The mechanism underlying the occurrence of metastasis in this site is still not well understood. We report a case of a 53-year-old Chinese woman who had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. After a ten months post-surgery interval of disease free survival, computed tomography (CT scan found that left renal parenchymal was occupied by a mass, confirmed by kidney biopsy to be a metastasis from squamous cell lung carcinoma. Based on this case, we are warned to be cautious in diagnosis and treatment when renal lesion are detected.

  15. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of bilateral dysgerminoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Indranil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysgerminoma accounts for only 1-3% of ovarian cancers and about 30-40% of all ovarian germ cell malignant tumors. Literature states that about 2% of nonpregnant patients with dysgerminomas present with elevated serum or urine levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Here, we report a 34 year-old multiparous woman presenting with an abdominal lump, ascites, and abdominal pain with elevated urinary and serum hCG levels. An abdominal ultrasound showed bilateral ovarian mass. An ultrasound-guided, transabdominal fine needle aspiration revealed dysgerminoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells. Bilateral oophorectomy was done and the diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology.

  16. Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia of the Testis, Bilateral Testicular Cancer, and Aberrant Histologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pranav; Dhillon, Jasreman; Sexton, Wade J

    2015-08-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, most of which are early stage. ITGCN is also associated with testicular cancer or ITGCN in the contralateral testis, leading to a risk of bilateral testicular malignancy. Testicular biopsy detects most cases, and orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with unilateral ITGCN. Low-dose radiation therapy is recommended in patients with bilateral ITGCN or ITGCN in the solitary testis, but the long-term risks of infertility and hypogonadism need to be discussed with the patient. Rare histologies of primary testicular cancer are also discussed.

  17. Nivolumab versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motzer, Robert J; Escudier, Bernard; McDermott, David F;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, a programmed death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor, was associated with encouraging overall survival in uncontrolled studies involving previously treated patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma. This randomized, open-label, phase 3 study compared nivolumab with everolimus...... in patients with renal-cell carcinoma who had received previous treatment. METHODS: A total of 821 patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma for which they had received previous treatment with one or two regimens of antiangiogenic therapy were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive 3 mg...... patients with previously treated advanced renal-cell carcinoma, overall survival was longer and fewer grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred with nivolumab than with everolimus. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 025 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01668784.)....

  18. Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Karl M; Tasnim, Farah; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Annegret; Ni, Ming; Gao, Shujun; Gopalan, Began; Zink, Daniele; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-04-01

    Renal cells are used in basic research, disease models, tissue engineering, drug screening, and in vitro toxicology. In order to provide a reliable source of human renal cells, we developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into renal epithelial cells. The differentiated stem cells expressed markers characteristic of renal proximal tubular cells and their precursors, whereas markers of other renal cell types were not expressed or expressed at low levels. Marker expression patterns of these differentiated stem cells and in vitro cultivated primary human renal proximal tubular cells were comparable. The differentiated stem cells showed morphological and functional characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells, and generated tubular structures in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the differentiated stem cells contributed in organ cultures for the formation of simple epithelia in the kidney cortex. Bioreactor experiments showed that these cells retained their functional characteristics under conditions as applied in bioartificial kidneys. Thus, our results show that human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into renal proximal tubular-like cells. Our approach would provide a source for human renal proximal tubular cells that are not affected by problems associated with immortalized cell lines or primary cells.

  19. Renal cell carcinoma: complete pathological response in a patient with gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Campelo, Rosario; Quindós, Maria; Vázquez, Diana Dopico; López, Margarita Reboredo; Carral, Alberto; Calvo, Ovidio Fernández; Soto, José Manuel Rois; Grande, Enrique; Durana, Jesús; Antón-Aparicio, Luis Miguel

    2010-01-01

    A 75-year-old-man, with a 2-month history of abdominal pain, underwent a standard diagnostic workup that included a CT scan that showed a large right renal mass and subcentimeter nodes in the right and left lung lobes. In December 2003, the patient underwent right nephrectomy with adrenalectomy and a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (pT3N0M0 stage) was made. No further treatment was proposed and patient was followed up regularly. In October 2006, the annual gastrointestinal endoscopy showed asymptomatic multilobulated and polypoid masses in the gastric fundus and gastric body that corresponded to metastasis of the renal carcinoma that had been resected three years ago. Surgical treatment was refused and oral treatment with sunitinib (50 mg/day consecutively for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks off) was initiated. Patient completed one cycle and development of acute toxicity (grade 3 asthenia, anorexia and mucositis) led to treatment interruption. After recovering from acute toxicity, the patient was proposed to reinitiate treatment with dose reduction, but he refused any medical treatment. At the follow-up visit, three months later, the gastrointestinal endoscopy showed four unspecific 2 mm nodules without malignant evidence. The whole-body CT did not reveal any other abnormality except for the known lung nodes. PET scan six months after treatment confirmed complete gastric response.

  20. Incidentally detected clear cell renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh; Gowda, Kiran Krishne; Rao, Raman Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation (RCC-R) has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis. A recent consensus statement of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) proposed a nucleolar grading system (ISUP grade) for RCC to replace Fuhrman system and recommended reporting the presence of rhabdoid differentiation and considering tumors with rhabdoid differentiation to be ISUP Grade 4. We report a case of incidentally detected clear cell RCC-R in a 52-year-old man. This is one of the earliest cases of RCC-R (pT1b) detected and first such case from Indian subcontinent.

  1. Incidentally detected clear cell renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation (RCC-R has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis. A recent consensus statement of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP proposed a nucleolar grading system (ISUP grade for RCC to replace Fuhrman system and recommended reporting the presence of rhabdoid differentiation and considering tumors with rhabdoid differentiation to be ISUP Grade 4. We report a case of incidentally detected clear cell RCC-R in a 52-year-old man. This is one of the earliest cases of RCC-R (pT1b detected and first such case from Indian subcontinent.

  2. Ipsilateral synchronous renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩平; 魏强; 石明; 杨宇如

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reports of multiple synchronous primary renal neoplasms in the literature are rare. Although primary renal tumors of 2 distinctively dissimilar origins have been sporadically described,1-6 to our knowledge there have been no reported cases of triple primary renal neoplasms in the same kidney. Here we report a very rare case of ipsilateral synchronous renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma with marked hydronephrosis and multiple stones in the same kidney.

  3. Needle tract seeding following percutaneous biopsy of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dwayne T S; Sur, Hariom; Lozinskiy, Mikhail; Wallace, David M A

    2015-09-01

    A 66-year-old man underwent computed tomography-guided needle biopsy of a suspicious renal mass. Two months later he underwent partial nephrectomy. Histology revealed a 30-mm clear cell renal cell carcinoma, up to Fuhrman grade 3. An area of the capsule was interrupted, which corresponded to a hemorrhagic area on the cortical surface. Under microscopy, this area showed a tongue of tumor tissue protruding through the renal capsule. A tumor deposit was found in the perinephric fat. These features suggest that tumor seeding may have occurred during the needle biopsy.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma presenting as hemolytic anemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, M; Benson, G S; Parisi, V M

    1995-03-01

    A patient presented at 29 weeks' gestation with severe hemolytic anemia. She was subsequently diagnosed as having renal cell carcinoma and had a radical nephrectomy at 31 weeks' gestation, which demonstrated stage I disease. This was followed by a normal vaginal delivery of a healthy infant at term and complete resolution of her anemia. This unusual presentation of renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy is discussed.

  5. Perfusion computed tomography in renal cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandan; J; Das; Usha; Thingujam; Ananya; Panda; Sanjay; Sharma; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Various imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis, staging and response evaluation of patients with renal cell carcinoma(RCC). While contrast enhanced computed tomography(CT) is used as the standard of imaging for size, morphological evaluation and response assessment in RCC, a new functional imaging technique like perfusion CT(p CT), goes down to the molecular level and provides new perspectives in imaging of RCC. p CT depicts regional tumor perfusion and vascular permeability which are indirect parameters of tumor angiogenesis and thereby provides vital information regarding tumor microenvironment. Also response evaluation using p CT may predate the size criteria used in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, as changes in the perfusion occurs earlier following tissue kinase inhibitors before any actual change in size. This may potentially help in predicting prognosis, better selection of therapy and more accurate and better response evaluation in patients with RCC. This article describes the techniques and role of p CT in staging and response assessment in patients with RCCs.

  6. Role of viruses in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Salehipoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether viral infections are related to renal cell carcinoma (RCC, we studied 49 patients with RCC (29 patients were males with age ranging from 30 to 81 years and a mean of 57.5 years; 20 patients were females with age ranging from 36 to 70 years with a mean of 58.4 years and 16 non-neoplastic kidney patients as controls. Tissues specimens from study patients and controls were examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR to determine the presence of DNA of several viruses including human papilloma virus (HPV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and polyoma viruses (BKV and JCV. Our results revealed that 7 of 49 (14.29% RCC tissue specimens had HPV DNA compared with none of 16 non-cancer control subjects. Regarding the HPV types, all the positive results were high-risk HPV types (type 16 in three and 18 in four patients. The present study suggests that HPV infection, especially high-risk types, is associated with RCC. However, more studies are necessary to demonstrate the molecular oncogenic processes involved in this association.

  7. Microarray profile of human kidney from diabetes, renal cell carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kosti, Adam; Harry Chen, Hung-I; Mohan, Sumathy; Liang, Sitai; Chen, Yidong; Habib, Samy L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent study from our laboratory showed that patients with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing kidney cancer. In the current study, we have screened whole human DNA genome from healthy control, patients with diabetes or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or RCC+diabetes. We found that 883 genes gain/163 genes loss of copy number in RCC+diabetes group, 669 genes gain/307 genes loss in RCC group and 458 genes gain/38 genes loss of copy number in diabetes group, after removing gain/loss genes ob...

  8. Bilateral occurrence of granulosa-theca cell tumors in an Arabian mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Lisa M; Gerard, Mathew P; Pinto, Carlos R F; Gradil, Carlos M

    2007-05-01

    An Arabian mare was referred for right granulosa-theca cell tumor (GTCT) evaluation. The mare was presented 4.5 years later for a left GTCT, after successfully conceiving and delivering a normal foal in the interim. The concurrent or nonconcurrent occurrence of bilateral GTCT in mares appears to be rare.

  9. Renal erythropoietin-producing cells in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu eSouma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (Epo is an indispensable erythropoietic hormone primarily produced from renal Epo-producing cells (REPs. Epo production in REPs is tightly regulated in a hypoxia-inducible manner to maintain tissue oxygen homeostasis. Insufficient Epo production by REPs causes renal anemia and anemia associated with chronic disorders. Recent studies have broadened our understanding of REPs from prototypic hypoxia-responsive cells to dynamic fibrogenic cells. In chronic kidney disease, REPs are the major source of scar-forming myofibroblasts and actively produce fibrogenic molecules, including inflammatory cytokines. Notably, myofibroblast-transformed REPs recover their original physiological properties after resolution of the disease insults, suggesting that renal anemia and fibrosis could be reversible to some extent. Therefore, understanding the plasticity of REPs will lead to the development of novel targeted therapeutics for both renal fibrosis and anemia. This review summarizes the regulatory mechanisms how hypoxia-inducible Epo gene expression is attained in health and disease conditions.

  10. Long-Term Outcome after Rehabilitation of Bilateral Total Hip Arthroplasty in Renal Transplant Recipient – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erieta Nikolikj Dimitrova

    2016-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Rehabilitation is integral part of multidisciplinary treatment of renal transplant recipient after total hip arthroplasty. Regular exercise training of these patients is very important for improving of their long-term outcome.

  11. Renal cell apoptosis in human lupus nephritis: a histological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, M; Penkowa, Milena; Andersen, C B

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear autoantigens from apoptotic cells are believed to drive the immunological response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Conflicting data exist as to the possible renal origin of apoptotic cells in SLE patients with nephritis. We assessed the level of renal cell apoptosis in kidney...... biopsies from 35 patients with lupus nephritis by means of terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP)-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Five samples of normal kidney tissue served as control specimens. We did not observe apoptotic glomerular cells in any...... cells constitute a quantitatively important source of auto-antibody-inducing nuclear auto-antigens in human lupus nephritis....

  12. PRIMARY SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF RENAL PELVIS ASSOCIATED WITH RENAL CALCULUS AND RECURRENT PYONEPHROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoti Lal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the kidney is a rare malignant neoplasm associated with nephrolithiasis, typically monobacterial pyonephrosis and rarely Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. It is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis mostly due to lack of presenting clinical features like a palpable mass, gross haematuria and pain. We report a case presenting with renal calculus and pyonephrosis managed initially with percutaneous nephrostomy followed by nephrectomy due to complete loss of renal function. Histopathological evaluation revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma which is managed by chemotherapy, although initially beneficial, patients later develop disseminated metastatic disease which holds a poor prognosis.

  13. Gene expression profile of renal cell carcinoma clear cell type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall’Oglio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The determination of prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC is based, classically, on stage and histopathological aspects. The metastatic disease develops in one third of patients after surgery, even in localized tumors. There are few options for treating those patients, and even the new target designed drugs have shown low rates of success in controlling disease progression. Few studies used high throughput genomic analysis in renal cell carcinoma for determination of prognosis. This study is focused on the identification of gene expression signatures in tissues of low-risk, high-risk and metastatic RCC clear cell type (RCC-CCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of approximately 55,000 distinct transcripts using the Whole Genome microarray platform hybridized with RNA extracted from 19 patients submitted to surgery to treat RCC-CCT with different clinical outcomes. They were divided into three groups (1 low risk, characterized by pT1, Fuhrman grade 1 or 2, no microvascular invasion RCC; (2 high risk, pT2-3, Fuhrman grade 3 or 4 with, necrosis and microvascular invasion present and (3 metastatic RCC-CCT. Normal renal tissue was used as control. RESULTS: After comparison of differentially expressed genes among low-risk, high-risk and metastatic groups, we identified a group of common genes characterizing metastatic disease. Among them Interleukin-8 and Heat shock protein 70 were over-expressed in metastasis and validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: These findings can be used as a starting point to generate molecular markers of RCC-CCT as well as a target for the development of innovative therapies.

  14. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Lipworth

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth1,2, Robert E Tarone1,2, Lars Lund2,3, Joseph K McLaughlin1,21International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Medicine (JKM, RET and Preventive Medicine (LL, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Urology, Viborg Hospital, Viborg, DenmarkAbstract: Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches

  15. Pelvic Nephroureterectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma in an Ectopic Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Baldie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of an ectopic renal tumor in a 61-year-old morbidly obese man with a pelvic kidney found after presenting with hematuria and irritative voiding symptoms. The mass, along with the ectopic kidney and ureter, was radically resected through an open operation that involved removing both them and the renal vessels from the underlying iliac vessels. Pathological analysis demonstrated an 8.3 cm papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC with oncocytic features, Fuhrman nuclear grade 3, with angiolymphatic invasion and negative margins. The patient has been recurrence-free for over four years since tumor resection.

  16. Cortical Blindness due to Bilateral Occipital Infarcts in a Renal Failure Patient with Prostate Cancer: A Rare Complication of Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Doluoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of vision is a rare complication seen in hemodialysis patients. It is thought to develop because of the hypotension that can be observed during dialysis. This paper involves a patient with acute loss of vision during hemodialysis due to bilateral occipital infarcts.

  17. "Recurrent Bilateral Spontaneous Pneumothorax in Early Infancy: A Case of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alavi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare disorder characterized by infiltration of either single or multiple organs by S100 and CD1a positive cells. Patients with pulmonary LCH are predisposed to pneumothorax due to destructive changes in the lung parenchyma. Here, we report a case of multisystem LCH who presented at 2 months of age with simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax.

  18. Clear cell renal cell tumors: Not all that is "clear" is cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R; Cheng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Continued improvement of our understanding of the clinical, histologic, and genetic features of renal cell tumors has progressively evolved renal tumor classification, revealing an expanding array of distinct tumor types with different implications for prognosis, patient counseling, and treatment. Although clear cell renal cell carcinoma is unequivocally the most common adult renal tumor, there is growing evidence that some "clear cell" renal neoplasms, such as exemplified by multilocular cystic clear cell renal neoplasm of low malignant potential (formerly multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma), do not have the same potential for insidious progression and metastasis, warranting reclassification as low malignant potential tumors or benign neoplasms. Still other novel tumor types such as clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma have been more recently recognized, which similarly have shown a conspicuous absence of aggressive behavior to date, suggesting that these too may be recategorized as noncancerous or may be premalignant neoplasms. This importance for prognosis is increasingly significant in the modern era, in which renal masses are increasingly found incidentally by imaging techniques at a small tumor size, raising consideration for less aggressive management options guided by renal mass biopsy diagnosis, including imaging surveillance, tumor ablation, or partial nephrectomy.

  19. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haghighatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

  20. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Morteza Sanei

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC.

  1. Synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma and multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasia of low malignant potential: A clinico-pathologic and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Castiglione, Francesca; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    We report a rare case of synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma and multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasia of low malignant potential in the same kidney. The tumors were seen incidentally in a 45-year-old man. Pathologic study revealed that the former tumor was nucleolar grade 2, and the multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasia of low malignant potential was nucleolar grade 1. At immunohistochemistry, the clear cells in both tumors were positive for CD10 and CA IX. Interestingly, these uncommon synchronous tumors showed a different KRAS/NRAS mutation analysis that was characterized by KRAS mutation at codon p.G12C in the clear cell renal cell carcinoma, while this mutation was not present in the case of multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasia of low malignant potential. NRAS mutation was not seen in any of the tumors.

  2. Using Molecular Biology to Develop Drugs for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowey, C. Lance; Rathmell, W. Kimryn

    2010-01-01

    Background Renal cell carcinoma is a disease marked by a unique biology which has governed it’s long history of poor response to conventional cancer treatments. The discovery of the signaling pathway activated as a result of inappropriate constitutive activation of the hypoxia inducible factors (HIF), transcription factors physiologically and transiently stabilized in response to low oxygen, has provided a primary opportunity to devise treatment strategies to target this oncogenic pathway. Objective A review of the molecular pathogenesis of renal cell cancer as well as molecularly targeted therapies, both those currently available and those in development, will be provided. In addition, trials involving combination or sequential targeted therapy are discussed. Methods A detailed review of the literature describing the molecular biology of renal cell cancer and novel therapies was performed and summarized. Results/Conclusion Therapeutics targeting angiogenesis have provided the first class of agents which provide clinical benefit in a large majority of patients and heralded renal cell carcinoma as a solid tumor paradigm for the development of novel therapeutics. Multiple strategies targeting this pathway and now other identified pathways in renal cell carcinoma provide numerous potential opportunities to make major improvements in treating this historically devastating cancer. PMID:20648240

  3. C-reactive protein exacerbates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury: are myeloid-derived suppressor cells to blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegues, Melissa A; McWilliams, Ian L; Szalai, Alexander J

    2016-07-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a CD11b(+)Gr1(+) population in mice that can be separated into granulocytic (g-MDSC) and monocytic (m-MDSC) subtypes based on their expression of Ly6G and Ly6C. Both MDSC subtypes are potent suppressors of T cell immunity, and their contribution has been investigated in a plethora of diseases including renal cancer, renal transplant, and chronic kidney disease. Whether MDSCs contribute to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. Herein, using human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic (CRPtg) and CRP-deficient mice (CRP(-/-)) subjected to bilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), we confirm our earlier finding that CRP exacerbates renal IRI and show for the first time that this effect is accompanied in CRPtg mice by a shift in the balance of kidney-infiltrating MDSCs toward a suppressive Ly6G(+)Ly6C(low) g-MDSC subtype. In CRPtg mice, direct depletion of g-MDSCs (using an anti-Gr1 monoclonal antibody) reduced the albuminuria caused by renal IRI, confirming they play a deleterious role. Remarkably, treatment of CRPtg mice with an antisense oligonucleotide that specifically blocks the human CRP acute-phase response also led to a reduction in renal g-MDSC numbers and improved albuminuria after renal IRI. Our study in CRPtg mice provides new evidence that MDSCs participate in the pathogenesis of renal IRI and shows that their pharmacological depletion is beneficial. If ongoing investigations confirm that CRP is an endogenous regulator of MDSCs in CRPtg mice, and if this action is recapitulated in humans, then targeting CRP or/and MDSCs might offer a new approach for the treatment of AKI.

  4. [A case of papillary renal cell carcinoma mimicking a hemorrhagic renal cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Taku; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Sato, Masahiko; Izumi, Hideaki; Kawamorita, Naoki; Saito, Hideo; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Ito, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Haruo; Arai, Yoichi

    2012-12-01

    A right renal cyst was found in a 69-year-old man with stage IV chronic kidney disease on abdominal ultrasonography performed to investigate a right upper abdominal swelling. Aspiration cytology of the cyst revealed no malignancy, but malignancy could not be ruled out on magnetic resonance imaging because of the cyst's wall thickness and heterogeneous contents. At one-year of follow-up, emergent abdominal surgery was performed due to incidental perforation of ascending colon diverticulitis. At that time, cystic fenestration was performed because the large renal cyst obstructed the operative procedure. Pathological examination showed type-1 papillary renal cell carcinoma, and radical nephrectomy was performed after the patient's general condition improved. Hemodialysis was started after the operation, and there has been no disease recurrence for two years.

  5. Pilot study of transcatheter arterial ethanol embolization under closed renal circuit for large renal cell carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Satoru; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Onozawa, Shiro; Kumita, Shinichiro [Nippon Medical School, Department of Radiology/Center for Advanced Medical Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Yukihiro [Nippon Medical School, Department of Urology, Tokyo (Japan); Nomura, Kazuhiro [Tokyo Labor-Welfare Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    The safety of a new technique, designated ''transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with aspiration via a balloon-occluded renal drainage vein'' (TAE-ABOD), for the management of large renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). The subjects were 25 patients with RCC who underwent a total of 27 sessions of TAE-ABOD. This TAE-ABOD technique incorporates two procedures: balloon occlusion of renal drainage vein and infusion of absolute ethanol into the tumor-feeding arteries during aspiration of blood via a balloon catheter, thereby reducing leakage of absolute ethanol into the systemic circulation. Our primary endpoint was to establish a safe regimen for high-dose ethanol injection therapy, and our secondary endpoint was to assess global survival of the patients. The administered dose of ethanol ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 ml/kg [median: 0.34 (SD: 0.10) ml/kg], increased in a stepwise manner. The systemic ethanol concentration was measurable in 14 patients, and was less than 0.1 mg/ml in 12 and from 0.1 to less than 0.2 mg/ml in two. There were no major complications such as renal failure or renal abscess. TAE-ABOD can safely deliver a high dose of absolute ethanol for the treatment of large RCCs. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic value of multidetector computed tomography for renal sinus fat invasion in renal cell carcinoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cherry, E-mail: cherrykim0505@gmail.com; Choi, Hyuck Jae, E-mail: choihj@amc.seoul.kr; Cho, Kyoung-Sik, E-mail: kscho@amc.seoul.kr

    2014-06-15

    Objective: Although renal sinus fat invasion has prognostic significance in patients with renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), there are no previous studies about the value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) about this issue in the current literature. Materials and methods: A total of 863 consecutive patients (renal sinus fat invasion in 110 patients (12.7%)) from single institutions with surgically-confirmed renal cell carcinoma who underwent MDCT between 2010 and 2012 were included in this study. The area under the curves (AUCs) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare diagnostic performance. Reference standard was pathologic examination. Weighted κ statistics were used to measure the level of interobserver agreement. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to find the predictors for renal sinus fat invasion. Image analysis was first performed with axial-only CT images. A second analysis was then performed with both axial and coronal CT images. A qualitative analysis was then conducted by two reviewers who reached consensus regarding tumor size, decreased perfusion, tumor margin, vessel displacement, and lymph node metastasis. The reference standard was pathologic evaluation. Results: The AUCs of the ROC analysis were 0.881 and 0.922 for axial-only images and 0.889 and 0.902 for combined images in both readers. The AUC of tumor size was 0.884, a similar value to that of the reviewers. In multivariate analysis, tumor size, a linear-nodular or nodular type of fat infiltration, and an irregular tumor margin were independent predicting factors for perinephric fat invasion. Conclusion: MDCT shows relatively high diagnostic performance in detecting perinephric fat invasion of RCC but suffers from a relatively low PPV related to low prevalence of renal sinus fat invasion. Applying tumor size alone we could get similar diagnostic performance to those of radiologists. Tumor size, fat infiltration with a nodular appearance, and

  7. Unclassified renal cell carcinoma: an analysis of 85 cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakiewicz, P.I.; Hutterer, G.C.; Trinh, Q.D.; Pantuck, A.J.; Klatte, T.; Lam, J.S.; Guille, F.; Taille, A. De La; Novara, G.; Tostain, J.; Cindolo, L.; Ficarra, V.; Schips, L.; Zigeuner, R.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Chautard, D.; Lechevallier, E.; Valeri, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Lang, H.; Soulie, M.; Ferriere, J.M.; Pfister, C.; Mejean, A.; Belldegrun, A.S.; Patard, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare cancer-specific mortality in patients with unclassified renal cell carcinoma (URCC) vs clear cell RCC (CRCC) after nephrectomy, as URCC is a rare but very aggressive histological subtype. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-five patients with URCC and 4322 with CRCC were identified w

  8. Acanthosis Nigricans associated with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Margarita Rosa Aveiga; Reis, Paola Vasconcellos Soares; Gomes, Augusto Cesar Marins; Paraskevopoulos, Daniela Kallíope de Sá; Santana, Frederico; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN), an entity recognized since the 19th century, is a dermatopathy associated with insulin-resistant conditions, endocrinopathies, drugs, chromosome abnormalities and neoplasia. The latter, also known as malignant AN, is mostly related to abdominal neoplasms. Malignant AN occurs frequently among elderly patients. In these cases, the onset is subtle, and spreading involves the flexural regions of the body, particularly the axillae, palms, soles, and mucosa. Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most frequent associated neoplasia, but many others have been reported. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although already reported, is rarely associated with malignant AN. The authors report the case of a woman who was being treated for depression but presented a long-standing and marked weight loss, followed by darkening of the neck and the axillary regions. Physical examination disclosed a tumoral mass in the left flank and symmetrical, pigmented, velvety, verrucous plaques on both axillae, which is classical for AN. The diagnostic work-up disclosed a huge renal mass, which was resected and further diagnosed as a RCC. The post-operative period was uneventful and the skin alteration was evanescent at the first follow-up consultation. The authors call attention to the association of AN with RCC. PMID:27284539

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells and chronic renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Sales, Elizabeth B; Boim, Mirian A

    2016-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis is the main cause of renovascular hypertension and results in ischemic nephropathy characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress, microvascular loss, and fibrosis with consequent functional failure. Considering the limited number of strategies that effectively control renovascular hypertension and restore renal function, we propose that cell therapy may be a promising option based on the regenerative and immunosuppressive properties of stem cells. This review addresses the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an experimental animal model of renovascular hypertension known as 2 kidney-1 clip (2K-1C). Significant benefits of MSC treatment have been observed on blood pressure and renal structure of the stenotic kidney. The mechanisms involved are discussed.

  10. Renal stem cell reprogramming: Prospects in regenerative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elvin; E; Morales; Rebecca; A; Wingert

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising future enterprise for renal replacement in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease, conditions which affect millions worldwide and currently require patients to undergo lifelong medical treatments through dialysis and/or organ transplant. Reprogramming differentiated renal cells harvested from the patient back into a pluripotent state would decrease the risk of tissue rejection and provide a virtually unlimited supply of cells for regenerative medicine treatments, making it an exciting area of current research in nephrology. Among the major hurdles that need to be overcome before stem cell therapy for the kidney can be applied in a clinical setting are ensuring the fidelity and relative safety of the reprogrammed cells, as well as achieving feasible efficiency in the reprogramming processes that are utilized. Further, improved knowledge about the genetic control of renal lineage development is vital to identifying predictable and efficient reprogramming approaches, such as the expression of key modulators or the regulation of geneactivity through small molecule mimetics. Here, we discuss several recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell technologies. We also explore strategies that have been successful in renal progenitor generation, and explore what these methods might mean for the development of cell-based regenerative therapies for kidney disease.

  11. Effect of chaetocin on renal cell carcinoma cells and cytokine-induced killer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rombo, Roman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the cytotoxic effects of chaetocin on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC cells and the possibility to combine the effects of chaetocin with the effects of cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK assayed by MTT assay and FACS analysis. Chaetocin is a thiodioxopiperazine produced by fungi belonging to the chaetomiaceae family. In 2007, it was first reported that chaetocin shows potent and selectiveanti-cancer activity by inducing reactive oxygen species. CIK cells are generated from CD3+/CD56- T lymphocytes with double negative phenotype that are isolated from human blood. The addition of distinct interleukins and antibodies results in the generation of CIK cells that are able to specifically target and destroy renal carcinoma cells. The results of this research state that the anti-ccRCC activity of chaetocin is weak and does not show a high grade of selectivity on clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells. Although the CIK cells show a high grade of selective anti-ccRCC activity, this effect could not be improved by the addition of chaetocin. So chaetocin seems to be no suitable agent for specific targeting ccRCC cells or for the combination therapy with CIK cells in renal cancer.

  12. Trigeminal perineural spread of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornik, Alejandro; Rosenblum, Jordan; Biller, Jose [Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A 55-year-old man had a five-day history of 'pins and needles' sensation on the left chin. Examination showed decreased pinprick sensation on the territory of the left mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium showed enhancement involving the left mandibular branch. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed a left kidney mass diagnosed as renal carcinoma following nephrectomy. The 'numb-chin' syndrome heralds or accompanies systemic malignancies. Trigeminal perineural spread has been well-documented in head and neck neoplasms, however, to our knowledge, it has not been reported in renal neoplasms. (author)

  13. Oscillatory synchrony between head direction cells recorded bilaterally in the anterodorsal thalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, William N; Taube, Jeffrey Steven

    2017-03-01

    The head direction (HD) circuit is a complex, interconnected network of brain regions ranging from the brainstem to the cortex. Recent work found that HD cells co-recorded ipsilaterally in the anterodorsal nucleus (ADN) of the thalamus displayed coordinated firing patterns. A high frequency oscillation pattern (130-160 Hz) was visible in the cross-correlograms of these HD cell pairs. Spectral analysis further found that the power of this oscillation was greatest at 0 ms and decreased at greater lags, and demonstrated that there was greater synchrony between HD cells with similar tunings. Here, we demonstrate that the same high frequency synchrony exists in HD cell pairs recorded contralaterally from one another in the bilateral ADN. When we examined the cross-correlograms of HD cells that were co-recorded bilaterally we observed the same high frequency (~150-200 Hz) oscillatory relationship. The strength of this synchrony was similar to the synchrony seen in ipsilateral HD cell pairs, and the degree of synchrony in each cross-correlogram was dependent on the difference in tuning between the two cells. Additionally, the frequency rate of this oscillation appeared to be independent of the firing rates of the two cross-correlated cells. Taken together, these results imply that the left and right thalamic HD network are functionally related, despite an absence of direct anatomical projections. However, anatomical tracing has found that each of the lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) project bilaterally to both of the ADN, suggesting the LMN may be responsible for the functional connectivity observed between the two ADN.

  14. Bilateral renal infarction following atrial fibrillation and thromboembolism and presenting as acute abdominal pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouassida Khaireddine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Renal infarct is rare and often misdiagnosed because the symptoms are misleading. The mechanisms are various, mainly thrombotic and embolic. Case presentation In this review, we report the case of a 61-year-old Tunisian woman presented to the emergency unit with a 4-hour history of abdominal pain diffused at both flanks, ultrasounds was performed to remove a surgical emergency, showed a peri-renal fluid collection with heterogeneous parenchyma. We followed by a CT scan, which confirmed the diagnosis of renal infarct. The patient was treated by heparin at a curative dose, and the outcome was favorable. Conclusion Diagnosis is difficult and should be considered in patients with inexplicable flank or abdominal pain and with risk factors to this disease. Our purpose is to raise clinician’s awareness for this condition so that they will be more likely to diagnose it. This will facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. A review of the literature was performed and the case is discussed in the context of the current knowledge of this condition.

  15. Percutaneous and laparoscopic assisted cryoablation of small renal cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind; Borre, Michael;

    Aim: To evaluate the complication rate and short term oncological outcome of small renal cell carcinomas treated with cryoablation. Materials and methods: 91 biopsy verified renal cell carcinomas were cryoablated between 2006-11. Patients treated had primarily T1a tumors, but exceptions were made....... Of the 10 patients with residual tumor, 8 patients were reablated and 2 patients were referred to oncological treatment. Cancer specific survival was 100%. Overall survival was 91%. Complications: 8 pt. had minor bleeding in relation to cryoneedle removal, requiring Tachosil®. 1 pt. had subcutaneous...

  16. A Case of Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Paraganglioma

    OpenAIRE

    住吉, 崇幸; 清水, 洋祐; 井上, 貴博; 大久保, 和俊; 渡部, 淳; 神波, 大己; 吉村, 耕治; 兼松, 明弘; 中村, 英二郎; 西山, 博之; 賀本, 敏行; 住吉, 真治; 小川, 修

    2011-01-01

    A 64-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of left renal cell carcinoma associated with a tumor located on the back of the inferior vena cava. At first the tumor located on the back of the inferior vena cava was suspected to be lymphnode metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. A more detailed examination at our hospital revealed elevation of vanillylmandelic acid in urine and 131Imetaiodobenzylguanidine uptake in the tumor. We diagnosed the tumor as paraganglioma and operate...

  17. Ruptured renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy: a rare case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prameela RC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignancy in pregnancy is rare. Carcinomas in pregnancy are mostly kidney cell mass. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the commonest malignancy in pregnancy. Because of softness and increased vascularity, rupture of renal cell carcinoma is not uncommon. Here we are presenting a rare case of renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy with spontaneous rupture resulting in massive hemoperitoneum and serious outcome because of late presentation renal cell carcinoma seldom ruptures. A 26 year old woman G2P1L1 with term pregnancy was referred to hospital 80kms away from periphery with non-progression of labour. There was antenatal record suggesting hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in second trimester. On examination, patient was in hypovolemic shock with profuse distension of abdomen. Diagnosis of abruption grade 3 or rupture uterus was made and immediate laparotomy was done. On opening the abdomen, there was hemoperitoneum but uterus was intact. Emergency LSCS done extracted a stillborn baby. There were no retro placental clots also. There was lot of necrotic tissue in the abdomen and there was a tumour arising from lower pole of left kidney which had invaded the renal vessels and had ruptured. Peripartum hysterectomy and left nephrectomy was done. Women did not respond to treatment and died. The objective of presenting this case is the dilemmas faced by the obstetrician in case of shock in 2nd stage of labour. Simple diagnostic tool like renal ultrasound will help to detect at an early stage which could improve the outcome. All cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy should be investigated for secondary causes of hypertension. Abdominal USG must be done for all cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in 2nd trimester. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment is the key in management of such condition in pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1677-1679

  18. Cell cycle regulatory factors in juxta-tumoral renal parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruşcă, Daniela Nicoleta; Petrescu, Amelia; Vrabie, Camelia; Niculescu, L; Jinga, V; Diaconu, Carmen; Braşoveanu, Lorelei

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate regulatory cell cycle factors in juxta-tumoral renal parenchyma in order to obtain information regarding early primary changes occurred in normal renal cells. Specimens of juxta-tumoral renal parenchyma were harvested from the tumoral kidney in 10 patients with no history of treatment before surgery. The expression of p53, Bcl-2, Rb and PCNA was studied by immunohistochemical methods in paraffin-embedded tissues. The apoptotic status was evaluated by flow-cytometry analysis following propidium iodide incorporation. The p53 protein expression was recognized in most of the cases (80%) with different intensities. High intensity apoptotic process detected in juxta-tumoral parenchyma seemed to be p53 dependent and well correlated with the low Bcl-2 expression. 70% of cases were Rb positive. In this type of tissue Rb has only an anti-proliferative and anti-tumoral role. PCNA was present in half of the cases being low expressed due to the tissue regenerating mechanism. Our data suggest that the high intensity of programmed cell death in this type of tissue is supported by the status of cell regulatory factors that control this process. Previous studies have demonstrated that healthy renal tissue has neither apoptosis nor mitotic activity. Juxta-tumoral renal tissue is also displaying normal morphology and DNA content (diploidy) but the microenvironmental status induced by the tumor presence prompts cells to choose death rather than malignant transformation. Further studies are necessary to emphasize if these results have a clinical relevance for the outcome of therapeutical approaches in renal carcinomas.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Biomarker for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most common neoplasm arising from the kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC continues to have a significant impact on global health. Conventional cross-sectional imaging has always served an important role in the staging of RCC. However, with recent advances in imaging techniques and postprocessing analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI now has the capability to function as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarker for RCC. For this narrative literature review, a PubMed search was conducted to collect the most relevant and impactful studies from our perspectives as urologic oncologists, radiologists, and computational imaging specialists. We seek to cover advanced MR imaging and image analysis techniques that may improve the management of patients with small renal mass or metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  20. Intratubular germ cell neoplasms of the testis and bilateral testicular tumors: Clinical significance and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Risk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN is the precursor lesion for invasive testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs of adolescents and young adults. The rising incidence of these tumors has prompted a rigorous investigation of the etiology, diagnosis and management of ITGCN. Bilateral testicular cancer is closely linked with ITGCN, as patients with unilateral testicular cancer are at the highest risk for a future malignancy in the contralateral testicle. Methods : A literature review directed at ITGCN and bilateral testis cancer was performed using the Medline/PubMed database. Our review focused on the pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment regimens utilized. Results : Major advances have been made in the understanding of ITGCN over the past 30 years. There is evidence that TGCTs arise from ITGCN, ITGCN is closely related to fetal gonocytes, and that events in pre- and perinatal period may result in abnormal persistence of fetal gonocytes leading to ITGCN and subsequent TGCT. Controversy exists regarding the need to biopsy men at increased risk of TGCT, as well as the best approach to managing patients with known ITGCN. Bilateral testicular cancer has excellent outcomes in the current era of platinum-based chemotherapy. Conclusion : The optimal management of patients at risk for ITGCN and future TGCT is still a matter of debate. Individualization of management, including biopsy and treatment, should be based on risk factors for TGCT, compliance with potential surveillance, and patient preferences particularly with regard to fertility.

  1. Tubulocystic carcinoma of kidney associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Deshmukh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC is a rare variant of renal cell carcinoma, which has distinct histology but there is some controversy about its association with papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC and cell of origin in literature. We report an 18-year-old girl with the rare TCRCC of kidney associated with PRCC with metastases to the para-aortic nodes. The patient presented with hematuria and a right renal mass with enlarged regional nodes for which a radical nephrectomy with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was done. On gross examination, a solid cystic lesion involving the lower pole and middle pole of the kidney measuring 12x9x9 cm was seen along with an additional cystic lesion in upper pole of kidney. Microscopically the main tumor showed the typical histology of a tubulocystic carcinoma with multiple cysts filled with secretions lined by variably flattened epithelium with hobnailing of cells. The mass in the upper pole was a high-grade PRCC and the nodal metastases had morphology similar to this component. To conclude, at least a small but definite subset of TCRCC is associated with PRCC, and cases associated with PRCC do seem to have a higher propensity for nodal metastasis as in the case we report.

  2. Short-term outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the short-term functional and anatomical outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston Kpro implantation for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LCSD. Retrospective analysis was done on eight eyes of eight patients who underwent Boston Kpro implantation between July 2009 and October 2009. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. All eight eyes retained the prosthesis. BCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 8, 6, and 5 eyes at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, postoperatively. One patient each developed epithelial defect, sterile stromal melt and fungal keratitis in the late postoperative period associated with antecedent loss of the soft contact lens from the eye. Boston Kpro has good short-term visual and anatomical outcome in patients with bilateral LSCD, provided compliance with postoperative care can be ensured.

  3. Expression profiles of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human renal tissues and renal cell models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Buob, David [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); Flamand, Vincent [Service d' Urologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Hennino, Marie-Flore [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Perrais, Michaël [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); and others

    2014-09-15

    Numerous xenobiotics have been shown to be harmful for the kidney. Thus, to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these nephrotoxic compounds, we evaluated, by real-time PCR, the mRNA expression level of 377 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), transporters, as well as nuclear receptors and transcription factors that coordinate their expression in eight normal human renal cortical tissues. Additionally, since several renal in vitro models are commonly used in pharmacological and toxicological studies, we investigated their metabolic capacities and compared them with those of renal tissues. The same set of genes was thus investigated in HEK293 and HK2 immortalized cell lines in commercial primary cultures of epithelial renal cells and in proximal tubular cell primary cultures. Altogether, our data offers a comprehensive description of kidney ability to process xenobiotics. Moreover, by hierarchical clustering, we observed large variations in gene expression profiles between renal cell lines and renal tissues. Primary cultures of proximal tubular epithelial cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue in terms of transcript profiling. Moreover, compared to other renal cell models, Tacrolimus dose dependent toxic effects were lower in proximal tubular cell primary cultures that display the highest metabolism and disposition capacity. Therefore, primary cultures appear to be the most relevant in vitro model for investigating the metabolism and bioactivation of nephrotoxic compounds and for toxicological and pharmacological studies. - Highlights: • Renal proximal tubular (PT) cells are highly sensitive to xenobiotics. • Expression of genes involved in xenobiotic disposition was measured. • PT cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue.

  4. Primary renal carcinoid tumor mimicking non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Lee Hi; Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Mi Jeong; Choe, Mi Sun [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Carcinoid tumors are neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation, and they are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Primary renal carcinoid tumor has rarely been reported. Here, we present a case of primary renal carcinoid tumor manifesting as a small but a gradually enhancing mass with calcification and a cystic component.

  5. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma masquerading as a primary ovarian mass in a post-operative case of meningioma and renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Bohara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to ovary is extremely rare as well as confusing due to its close resemblance to primary ovarian tumors, especially clear cell carcinoma. We present a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma diagnosed in a 48-year-old female, who had renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney and right sphenoid wing meningioma of transitional type.

  6. Renal Cell Carcinoma Mimicking Adrenal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Moslemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of causes of adrenal pseudotumors on computerized tomography (CT scan, including upper-pole renal mass, gastric diverticulum, prominent splenic lobulation, pancreatic mass, hepatic mass, and periadrenal varices. We present a case of a large subhepatic mass that discrimination of its origin from neighborhood organs was difficult preoperatively. Our patient was a 58 years old man, that three months after an unsuccessful operation in another center for a pseudoadrenal mass underwent a very difficult subcapsular tumorectomy in our center.

  7. Renal Sinus Fat Invasion and Tumoral Thrombosis of the Inferior Vena Cava-Renal Vein: Only Confined to Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid angiomyolipoma (E-AML, accounting for 8% of renal angiomyolipoma, is usually associated with tuberous sclerosis (TS and demonstrates aggressive behavior. E-AML is macroscopically seen as a large infiltrative necrotic tumor with occasional extension into renal vein and/or inferior vena cava. However, without history of TS, renal sinus and venous invasion E-AML would be a challenging diagnosis, which may lead radiologists to misinterpret it as a renal cell carcinoma (RCC. In this case presentation, we aimed to report cross-sectional imaging findings of two cases diagnosed as E-AML and pathological correlation of these aforementioned masses mimicking RCC.

  8. Eplerenone-Mediated Aldosterone Blockade Prevents Renal Fibrosis by Reducing Renal Inflammation, Interstitial Cell Proliferation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prolonged elevation of serum aldosterone leads to renal fibrosis. Inflammation also plays a role in the pathogenesis of renal disease. We used a rat model of interstitial renal fibrosis to test the hypothesis that eplerenone-mediated aldosterone blockade prevents renal fibrosis due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. Methods: Eplerenone (a selective aldosterone blocker or vehicle (control, was given to male Wistar rats (50 mg/kg, twice daily for 7 days before unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO and for an additional 28 days after surgery. Body weight, blood pressure, renal histo-morphology, immune-staining for macrophages, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, and serum and urine markers of renal function and oxidative stress were determined for both groups on 7, 14, and 28 days after surgery. Results: Epleronone had no effect on body weight or blood pressure. However, eplerenone inhibited the development of renal fibrosis, inflammation (macrophage and monocyte infiltration, interstitial cell proliferation, and activation of interstitial cells (α-SMA expression. Epleronone also reduced oxidative stress. Conclusion: The anti-fibrotic effect of eplerenone appears to be unrelated to its effect on blood pressure. Eplerenone inhibits renal inflammation, interstitial cell proliferation, phenotypic changes of interstitial cells, and reduces oxidative stress.

  9. The Somatic Genomic Landscape of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Caleb F; Ricketts, Christopher J; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C; Hacker, Kathryn E; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Bristow, Christopher A; Donehower, Lawrence A; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B; Tickoo, Satish K; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S; Hsieh, James J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hakimi, A Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A Gordon; Laird, Peter W; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Park, Peter J; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A; Linehan, W Marston; Gibbs, Richard A; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J

    2014-01-01

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared

  10. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro C Ucero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alvaro C Ucero1,*, Sara Gonçalves2,*, Alberto Benito-Martin1, Beatriz Santamaría1, Adrian M Ramos1, Sergio Berzal1, Marta Ruiz-Ortega1, Jesus Egido1, Alberto Ortiz11Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Fundación Renal Iñigo Alvarez de Toledo, Madrid, Spain; 2Nefrologia e Transplantação Renal, Hospital de Santa Maria EPE, Lisbon, Portugal *Both authors contributed equally to the manuscriptAbstract: Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making.Keywords: urinary tract obstruction, renal injury, fluid mechanics, molecular cell biology

  11. Saudi Oncology Society clinical management guidelines for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouki Bazarbashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, guidelines for the evaluation, medical and surgical management of renal cell carcinoma is presented. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system, 7th edition. The recommendations are presented with supporting evidence level.

  12. Targeted treatments in advanced renal cell carcinoma: focus on axitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verzoni E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Elena Verzoni, Paolo Grassi, Isabella Testa, Roberto Iacovelli, Pamela Biondani, Enrico Garanzini , Filippo De Braud, Giuseppe ProcopioDepartment of Medical Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Antiangiogenesis options have evolved rapidly in the last few years, with an increasing number of agents currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. Angiogenesis inhibitors have been shown to be very effective for the treatment of metastatic renal cancer cell. Axitinib is a third-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and is currently being developed for the treatment of various malignancies. The pharmacokinetic properties of axitinib may have a selective therapeutic effect, with minimal adverse reactions and enhanced safety. In a large Phase III study of previously treated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, axitinib achieved a longer progression-free survival than sorafenib with an acceptable safety profile and good quality of life. This review focuses on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of axitinib in the current treatment of renal cell carcinoma. The role of axitinib in the adjuvant and/or neoadjuvant setting needs to be evaluated in further clinical trials.Keywords: axitinib, renal cell carcinoma, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, angiogenesis

  13. UOK 268 Cell Line for Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute’s Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties to co-develop the UOK 262 immortalized cell line as research tool to study aggressive hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC)-associated recurring kidney cancer.

  14. Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma: a new radiological entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, F.; Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Helenon, O.; Correas, J.M. [Necker Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Lemaitre, L. [Claude Huriez Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Andre, M. [La-Conception Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Meuwly, J.Y. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sengel, C. [Grenoble Hospital, Department of Radiology, Grenoble (France); Derchi, L. [Universita di Genova, Radiologia - DICMI, Genova (Italy); Yacoub, M. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bordeaux (France); Verkarre, V. [Necker Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France)

    2016-04-15

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC) is a recently identified renal malignancy. While approximately 100 cases of TC-RCC have been reported in the pathology literature, imaging features have not yet been clearly described. The purpose of this review is to describe the main radiologic features of this rare sub-type of RCC on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based jointly on the literature and findings from a multi-institutional retrospective HIPAA-compliant review of pathology and imaging databases. Using a combination of sonographic and CT/MRI features, diagnosis of TC-RCC appeared to be strongly suggested in many cases. (orig.)

  15. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase C correlates with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yibo; Liang, Chao; Zhu, Jundong; Miao, Chenkui; Yu, Yajie; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Pu; Li, Shuang; Bao, Meiling; Yang, Jie; Qin, Chao; Wang, Zengjun

    2017-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C is an isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase and a member of the cancer-testis antigens family. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and functional role of lactate dehydrogenase C and its basic mechanisms in renal cell carcinoma. First, a total of 133 cases of renal cell carcinoma samples were analysed in a tissue microarray, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between lactate dehydrogenase C expression and renal cell carcinoma progression. Lactate dehydrogenase C protein levels and messenger RNA levels were significantly upregulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues, and the patients with positive lactate dehydrogenase C expression had a shorter progression-free survival, indicating the oncogenic role of lactate dehydrogenase C in renal cell carcinoma. In addition, further cytological experiments demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase C could prompt renal cell carcinoma cells to produce lactate, and increase metastatic and invasive potential of renal cell carcinoma cells. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase C could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. In summary, these findings showed lactate dehydrogenase C was associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma and played a pivotal role in the migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells. Lactate dehydrogenase C may act as a novel biomarker for renal cell carcinoma progression and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

  16. Wnt and planar cell polarity signaling in cystic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggolidou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    Cystic kidney diseases can cause end stage renal disease, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. They may arise early or later in life, are characterized by a spectrum of symptoms and can be caused by diverse genetic defects. The primary cilium, a microtubule-based organelle that can serve as a signaling antenna, has been demonstrated to have a significant role in ensuring correct kidney development and function. In the kidney, one of the signaling pathways that requires the cilium for normal development is Wnt signaling. In this review, the roles of primary cilia in relation to canonical and non-canonical Wnt/PCP signaling in cystic renal disease are described. The evidence of the associations between cilia, Wnt signaling and cystic renal disease is discussed and the significance of planar cell polarity-related mechanisms in cystic kidney disease is presented. Although defective Wnt signaling is not the only cause of renal disease, research is increasingly highlighting its importance, encouraging the development of Wnt-associated diagnostic and prognostic tools for cystic renal disease.

  17. Efficacy of Second-line Targeted Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma According to Change from Baseline in International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Prognostic Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Ian D; Xie, Wanling; Pezaro, Carmel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that changes in International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) prognostic category at start of second-line therapy (2L) for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) might predict response. OBJECTIVE: To assess outcomes of 2L according to type....... PATIENT SUMMARY: The pattern of treatment failure might help to predict what the next treatment should be for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma....

  18. Polypoid Gallbladder Lesion in the Context of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Seeliger MD; Cosimo Callari MD; Michele Diana MD; Didier Mutter MD, PhD, FACS; Jacques Marescaux MD, FACS, HON FRCS, HON FJSES

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The only curative therapeutic approach for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is surgery. Laparoscopic surgery for RCC has become an established surgical procedure with equivalent cancer-free survival rate, following the same surgical oncological principles as open surgery. Metastatic RCC of the gallbladder is a rare phenomenon. Hence, there are few reports regarding their management. Case Presentation. We report 2 cases of gallbladder metastasis from clear cell RCC treated by laparosco...

  19. Clonal expansion of renal cell carcinoma-infiltrating T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sittig, Simone; Køllgaard, Tania; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions...... is an indication of ongoing HLA-restricted T cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple tumors, including renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), are often infiltrated by significant amounts of T cells, the so-called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In the present study, we analyzed RCC lesions (n = 13) for the presence...... of expanded T-cell clonotypes using T-cell receptor clonotype mapping. Surprisingly, we found that RCCs comprise relatively low numbers of distinct expanded T-cell clonotypes as compared with melanoma lesions. The numbers of different T-cell clonotypes detected among RCC-infiltrating lymphocytes were...

  20. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

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    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  1. Cabozantinib versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choueiri, Toni K; Escudier, Bernard; Powles, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib is an oral, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) as well as MET and AXL, each of which has been implicated in the pathobiology of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma or in the development of resistance...... to antiangiogenic drugs. This randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial evaluated the efficacy of cabozantinib, as compared with everolimus, in patients with renal-cell carcinoma that had progressed after VEGFR-targeted therapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned 658 patients to receive cabozantinib at a dose of 60 mg daily......-cell carcinoma that had progressed after VEGFR-targeted therapy. (Funded by Exelixis; METEOR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01865747.)....

  2. Review series: The cell biology of renal filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rizaldy P; Quaggin, Susan E

    2015-04-27

    The function of the kidney, filtering blood and concentrating metabolic waste into urine, takes place in an intricate and functionally elegant structure called the renal glomerulus. Normal glomerular function retains circulating cells and valuable macromolecular components of plasma in blood, resulting in urine with just trace amounts of proteins. Endothelial cells of glomerular capillaries, the podocytes wrapped around them, and the fused extracellular matrix these cells form altogether comprise the glomerular filtration barrier, a dynamic and highly selective filter that sieves on the basis of molecular size and electrical charge. Current understanding of the structural organization and the cellular and molecular basis of renal filtration draws from studies of human glomerular diseases and animal models of glomerular dysfunction.

  3. Múltiplos fibroadenomas bilaterais após transplante renal e imunossupressão com ciclosporina A Multiple bilateral fibroadenomas after kidney transplantation and immunossuppression with cyclosporine A

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    Afonso Celso Pinto Nazário

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O fibroadenoma é a neoplasia benigna mais freqüente da mama feminina e é considerado tumor misto, constituído por quantidades variáveis de tecido conjuntivo e epitelial. A ciclosporina parece ter implicações no desenvolvimento de fibroadenomas mamários em pacientes transplantadas renais em idade reprodutiva. Descrevemos o caso no qual a paciente, em uso terapêutico de ciclosporina A, após transplante renal, apresentou vários nódulos mamários bilaterais na evolução. O exame físico e os achados de imagem sugeriram fibroadenoma, diagnóstico que foi confirmado após biópsias.Fibroadenoma is the most frequent benign neoplasia in the female breast and it is considered a mixed tumor, constituted by variable amounts of connective and epithelial tissue. Cyclosporine A seems to be related with the development of mamary fibroadenomas in patients who underwent kidney transplantation in reproductive age. We reported the case in which the patient, in therapeutic use of cyclosporine A, after kidney transplantation, presented several bilateral lumps. The imaging and palpable findings suggested fibroadenoma, confirmed after biopsy.

  4. Differentiation of Renal Oncocytoma and Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma Using Relative CT Enhancement Ratio

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    An Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The difference between renal oncocytomas (RO and renal clear cell carcinomas (RCCs presents the greatest diagnostic challenge. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine if RO and RCCs could be differentiated on computed tomography (CT images on the basis of their enhancement patterns with a new enhancement correcting method. Methods: Forty-six patients with a solitary renal mass who underwent total or partial nephrectomy were included in this study. Fourteen of those were RO and 32 were RCCs. All patients were examined with contrast-enhanced CT. The pattern and degree of enhancement were evaluated. We selected the area that demonstrated the greatest degree of enhancement of the renal lesion in the corticomedullary nephrographic and excretory phase images. Regions of interest (ROI were also placed in adjacent normal renal cortex for normalization. We used the values of the normal renal cortex that were measured at the same time as divisors. The ratios of lesion-to-renal cortex enhancement were calculated for all three phases. The Student′s t-test and Pearson′s Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses. Results: All RCCs masses showed contrast that appeared to be better enhanced than RO on all contrast-enhanced phases of CT imaging, but there was no significant difference in absolute attenuation values between these two diseases (P > 0.05. The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase showed significantly different values between RO and RCCs. The degree of contrast enhancement in RCCs was equal to or greater than that of the normal renal cortex, but it was less than that of the normal cortex in RO in the corticomedullary phase. The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase was higher than the cut off value of 1.0 in most RCCs (84%, 27/32 and lower than 1.0 in most RO (93%, 13/14 (P < 0.05. In the nephrographic phase, the ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation

  5. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene abnormalities in Indian males with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens & renal anomalies

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    Rahul Gajbhiye

    2016-01-01

    Results: Three potential regulatory CFTR gene variants (c.1540A>G, c.2694T>G and c.4521G>A were detected along with IVS8-5T mutation in three infertile males with CBAVD-URA. Five novel CFTR gene variants (c.621+91A>G, c.2752+106A>T, c.2751+85_88delTA, c.3120+529InsC and c.4375-69C>T, four potential regulatory CFTR gene variants (M470V, T854T, P1290P, Q1463Q and seven previously reported CFTR gene variants (c.196+12T>C, c.875+40A>G, c.3041-71G>C, c.3271+42A>T, c.3272-93T>C, c.3500-140A>C and c.3601-65C>A were detected in infertile men having CBAVD and renal anomalies Interpretation & conclusions: Based on our findings, we speculate that CBAVD-URA may also be attributed to CFTR gene mutations and can be considered as CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD. The CFTR gene mutation screening may be offered to CBAVD-URA men and their female partners undergoing ICSI. Further studies need to be done in a large sample to confirm the findings.

  6. Renal arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read More Acute arterial occlusion - kidney Acute kidney failure Aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Blood clots Renal cell carcinoma Renal venogram X-ray Review Date 1/5/2016 Updated by: Jason Levy, ...

  7. Reduced expression of Slit2 in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Jie; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Dan; Dong, Dong; Tian, Xiao-Jun; Wen, Jie-Xi; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Slit2, initially identified as an important axon guidance molecule in the nervous system, was suggested to be involved in multiple cellular processes. Recently, Slit2 was reported to function as a potential tumor suppressor in diverse tumors. In this study, we systematically analyzed the expression level of Slit2 in renal cell carcinoma. Compared to paired adjacent non-malignant tissues, both Slit2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methylation-specific PCR showed that Slit2 promoter was methylated in two renal carcinoma cell lines. Pharmacologic demethylation dramatically induced Slit2 expression in cancer cell lines with weak expression of Slit2. Besides, bisulfite genomic sequencing confirmed that dense methylation existed in Slit2 promoter. Furthermore, in paired RCC samples, Slit2 methylation was observed in 8 out of 38 patients (21.1 %), which was well correlated with the down-regulation of Slit2 in RCC. Therefore, Slit2 may also be a potential tumor suppressor in RCC, which is down-regulated in RCC partially due to promoter methylation.

  8. c-Met in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlmeier, Franziska; Ivanyi, Philipp; Hartmann, Arndt; Autenrieth, Michael; Wiedemann, Max; Weichert, Wilko; Steffens, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    c-Met plays a role as a prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In addition, recently the tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib targeting c-Met was approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In contrast to clear cell RCC, little is known about c-Met expression patterns in rarer RCC subtypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, distribution and prognostic impact of c-Met expression on chromophobe (ch)RCC. Patients who underwent renal surgery due to chRCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumor specimens were analyzed for c-Met expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression data were associated with clinicopathological parameters including patient survival. Eighty-one chRCC patients were eligible for analysis. Twenty-four (29.6%) patients showed a high c-Met expression (c-Met(high), staining intensity higher than median). Our results showed an association between c-Met(high) expression and the existence of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.007). No further significant clinicopathological associations with c-Met were identified, also regarding c-Met expression and overall survival. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first study evaluating the prognostic impact of c-Met in a considerably large cohort of chRCC. High c-Met expression is associated with the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. This indicates that c-Met might be implicated into metastatic progression in chRCC.

  9. Human renal medullary interstitial cells and analgesic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, P H; Tisocki, K; Hawksworth, G M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of known papillotoxins using cultures of human renal interstital medullary cells (hRMIC). The culture of hMIC was based on the primary culture of human renal medullary explants, selective detachment of interstitial cells and selective overgrowth of these cells in a serum-rich medium after dilution cloning. The homogeneous population of cells obtained exhibited the characteristic morphological and functional characteristics of Type I interstitial cells, viz. stellate-shaped cells demonstrating numerous lipid droplets, abundant endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, fine filaments underlying the cell membrane and the production of extracellular matrix. Cytotoxicity studies using hMIC and known papillotoxins clearly demonstrated a reduction in cell viability that varied with bath exposure time and type of agent tested. While only phenylbutazone and mefenamic acid produced significant cytotoxicity after a 24 h incubation period, cell viability assessed using the MTT assay was only profoundly reduced by aspirin and paracetamol following sub-chronic exposure for 7 days. The rank order of cytotoxicity observed in hMIC was phenylbutazone > mefenamic acid > aspirin > paracetamol. The results demonstrate the potential of hMIC for investigating and defining the early cellular events in the pathogenesis of analgesic nephropathy.

  10. Renal cell apoptosis in human lupus nephritis: a histological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, M; Penkowa, Milena; Andersen, C B;

    2009-01-01

    biopsies from 35 patients with lupus nephritis by means of terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP)-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Five samples of normal kidney tissue served as control specimens. We did not observe apoptotic glomerular cells in any...... of the control or nephritis biopsies. Scarce apoptotic tubular cells were seen in 13 of 35 (37%) of the nephritis specimens and in two of five (40%) of the control sections. Within the SLE cohort, patients with TUNEL-positive tubular cells in their renal biopsies had significantly higher activity index scores...

  11. Metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: Biology and implications for therapy

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    Jun Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although multiple advances have been made in systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC, metastatic RCC remains incurable. In the current review, we focus on the underlying biology of RCC and plausible mechanisms of metastasis. We further outline evolving strategies to combat metastasis through adjuvant therapy. Finally, we discuss clinical patterns of metastasis in RCC and how distinct systemic therapy approaches may be considered based on the anatomic location of metastasis.

  12. Surgical Treatment of Pancreatic Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Molmenti E

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The pancreas is an unusual site for metastases of renal cell carcinoma origin, sometimes occurring many years after nephrectomy. We herein present two cases of pancreatic metastases of renal cell carcinoma which occurred 17 and 19 years after the primary diagnosis. CASE REPORT: In the first case, metastases were found in the head of the pancreas, upper right arm and the right lobe of the thyroid gland. In the second case, a tumor was found in the tail of the pancreas and a remnant of the right kidney. This was the third recurrence of the original tumor after an initial left nephrectomy and two subsequent partial right nephrectomies in the past. Treatment in the first case consisted of excision of the tumor in the upper right arm, a Whipple operation, and a thyroidectomy. In the second case, a distal pancreatectomy and remnant right nephrectomy were undertaken. Both patients recovered from the operations without complications and remain free of tumor in follow-up periods of 54 and 8 months respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Resection of renal cell carcinoma metastases involving the pancreas provides satisfactory long-term survival, and should be undertaken whenever possible.

  13. Pulmonary Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis due to Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddati, Achuta K; Marak, Creticus P

    2012-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease with a high rate of mortality. It is known to metastasize to the lung, liver, bone and brain. However, manifestation through lymphatic spread to the lungs is rare. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is commonly observed in malignancies of the breast, lung, pancreas, colon and cervix. It is unusual to observe lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs due to renal cell carcinoma. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs may result in severe respiratory distress and may be the direct cause of death. Currently, there are no known modalities of preventing or slowing lymphangitic carcinomatosis besides treating the primary tumor. However, early detection may change the course of the disease and may prolong survival. This is compounded by the difficulty involved in diagnosing lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lung which frequently involves lung biopsy. Immunohistochemical studies are often used in conjunction with regular histochemistry in ascertaining the primary tumor and in differentiating it from pulmonary metastasis. In this case report, we describe the presentation and clinical course of renal cell carcinoma in a patient which manifested as lymphangitis carcinomatosa of the lungs. The patient underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor with lymph node resection but presented with a fulminant lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs within two weeks. Immunohistochemistry of the tissue obtained by the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis which was subsequently corroborated during his autopsy. This case illustrates the necessity of an urgent follow-up of chemotherapy and immunotherapy in such patients.

  14. Pulmonary Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis due to Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Achuta K. Guddati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease with a high rate of mortality. It is known to metastasize to the lung, liver, bone and brain. However, manifestation through lymphatic spread to the lungs is rare. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is commonly observed in malignancies of the breast, lung, pancreas, colon and cervix. It is unusual to observe lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs due to renal cell carcinoma. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs may result in severe respiratory distress and may be the direct cause of death. Currently, there are no known modalities of preventing or slowing lymphangitic carcinomatosis besides treating the primary tumor. However, early detection may change the course of the disease and may prolong survival. This is compounded by the difficulty involved in diagnosing lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lung which frequently involves lung biopsy. Immunohistochemical studies are often used in conjunction with regular histochemistry in ascertaining the primary tumor and in differentiating it from pulmonary metastasis. In this case report, we describe the presentation and clinical course of renal cell carcinoma in a patient which manifested as lymphangitis carcinomatosa of the lungs. The patient underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor with lymph node resection but presented with a fulminant lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs within two weeks. Immunohistochemistry of the tissue obtained by the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis which was subsequently corroborated during his autopsy. This case illustrates the necessity of an urgent follow-up of chemotherapy and immunotherapy in such patients.

  15. Primary bilateral adrenal B-cell lymphoma associated with EBV and JCV infection

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    Guzzardo Vincenza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary lymphoma of the adrenal gland is a rare and highly aggressive disease, with only a few reports in the literature. The pathogenesis is unknown, but detection of Epstein Barr virus (EBV genome sequences and gene expression in some cases of primary adrenal lymphomas suggested the virus might be a causative agent of the malignancy. While investigating the presence of genome sequences of oncogenic viruses in a large series of adrenal tumors, both EBV and JC polyomavirus (JCV DNA sequences were detected in a diffuse large primary bilateral B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland, which was diagnosed only at postmortem examination in a 77 year-old woman with incidentally discovered adrenal masses and primary adrenal insufficiency. The presence of both EBV and JCV genome sequences suggests the relevance of EBV and JCV coinfection in the pathogenesis of this rare form of B-cell lymphoma.

  16. Cell therapy in renal and cardiovascular disease Terapia celular en enfermedades renales y cardiovasculares

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    Juan Manuel Senior Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been important advances in the field of molecular biology, the mechanisms responsible for nephrogenesis and the factors that modulate the process of development, proliferation, growth, and maturation during fetal and adult life have not been thoroughly explained. Animals, including mammals, share the intrinsic ability to regenerate tissues and organs as an important biological defense mechanism. In the case of the kidney, after tissue damage secondary to injury, anatomical and functional recovery of integrity is achieved, accompanied by the activation of a complex, poorly understood process, leading to the replacement of damaged tubular cells by functional ones that reorganize tubular architecture. This regeneration and repair process is produced by somatic, exogenous, adult stem cells, and probably by intrinsic renal stem cells, that are responsible for maintaining renal homeostasis Aunque se han logrado grandes avances en el campo de la biología molecular, todavía no se han esclarecido completamente los mecanismos responsables de la organogénesis y los factores que modulan el proceso de desarrollo, proliferación, crecimiento y maduración celulares durante la vida fetal y adulta. Los animales comparten la capacidad de regenerar tejidos y órganos, como un mecanismo biológico importante de defensa. En el caso del riñón, luego del daño tisular secundario a una noxa, se produce recuperación anatómica y funcional de la integridad, acompañada por la activación de un proceso sofisticado, mal comprendido, que lleva al reemplazo de las células tubulares dañadas por otras funcionalmente normales que reorganizan la arquitectura tubular. Este fenómeno de recambio se produce gracias a la presencia de células madre adultas somáticas exógenas, responsables del proceso de mantenimiento de la homeostasis renal, y posiblemente por células renales intrínsecas.

  17. F-18 FDG PET in Detecting Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ak, I.; Can, C. [Osmangazi Univ. Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey). Depts. of Nuclear Medicine and Urology

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of F-18 FDG imaging with a dual head coincidence mode gamma camera (Co-PET) in the detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with renal masses. Material and Methods: An F-18 FDG Co-PET study was performed in 19 patients (7 F, 12 M; mean age 58.15{+-}2.5 years, age range 45-79 years) with suspected primary renal tumors based on conventional imaging techniques, including computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) before nephrectomy or surgical resection of the mass. Results: Histologically documented RCC was present in 15 patients. Of the 19 patients with suspected primary renal tumors, F-18 FDG Co-PET was true-positive in 13, false-negative in 2, true-negative in 3, and false-positive in 1 patient. Twangiomyolipomas and one renal mass due to infarction and hemorrhage showed a true-negative Co-PET result. The patient with false-positive FDG Co-PET study was diagnosed as xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FDG Co-PET for RCC were 86% (13/15), 75% (3/4), and 84% (16/19), respectively. Positive predictive value for RCC was 92% and negative predictive value 60%. Conclusion: These findings suggest that F-18 FDG Co-PET may have a role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with RCC and primary staging of disease. Positive F-18 FDG study may be predictive of the presence of RCC. However, a negative study does not exclude the RCC.

  18. Suture Granuloma Mimicking Renal Cell Carcinoma: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Pathologic Correlation

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    İbrahim İlker Öz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid renal masses are generally distinguished with contrast enhancement and intratumoral fatty foci by radiological examinations. The present of enhancement is most important criteria for diagnosis of malignant lesions. Generally, a contrast enhanced solid mass in kidney is accepted as a neoplasm. Foreign body granuloma is an extraordinary cause of enhanced solid renal mass. This case of a renal suture granuloma demonstrated peripheral enhanced exophytic renal mass mimic renal cell carcinoma, and underwent surgery. At the solid renal mass with different radiological features, biopsy is an option to determining the necessity of surgery as well as the surgical approach.

  19. Progressive renal failure due to renal infiltration by BK polyomavirus and leukaemic cells: which is the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangala, Nicholas; Dewdney, Alex; Marley, Nicholas; Cranfield, Tanya; Venkat-Raman, Gopalakrishnan

    2011-02-01

    Renal infiltration with leukaemic cells is a common finding in patients suffering with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) but rarely does it lead to significant renal dysfunction. Similarly, BK nephropathy is a recognized cause of graft failure in renal transplant recipients but rarely causes significant disease in native kidneys. In the few reports where leukaemic infiltration of the kidney has led to significant renal impairment, the pathological process causing renal dysfunction is not identified on biopsy. In these cases, it is unclear whether BK polyomavirus (BKV) nephropathy has been excluded. We describe a case of dual pathologies in a patient with Binet stage C CLL and deteriorating renal function where renal biopsy reveals leukaemic infiltration of the kidney occurring alongside BKV nephropathy. The relative importance of each pathology in relation to the rapid decline to end-stage renal failure remains unclear, but the presence of both pathologies appears to impart a poor prognosis. Additionally, we describe the novel histological finding of loss of tubular integrity resulting in tubular infiltration and occlusion by leukaemic cells. It is possible that the patient with advanced CLL is at particular risk of BK activation, and the presence of BK nephropathy may compromise tubular integrity allowing leukaemic cell infiltration and obstruction of tubules. This case bares remarkable resemblance to the first and only other report of its kind in the literature. It is not clear how available immunocytochemistry for polyoma infection is outside transplant centres, and it is possible that BK nephropathy is being under-diagnosed in patients with CLL in the context of declining renal function. At present, the combination of BKV nephropathy and leukaemic infiltration represents a management conundrum and the prognosis is poor. Further research is required in order to better understand the pathological process and therefore develop management strategies.

  20. Suppression of renal fibrosis by galectin-1 in high glucose-treated renal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kaokano@kc.twmu.ac.jp; Tsuruta, Yuki; Yamashita, Tetsuri; Takano, Mari; Echida, Yoshihisa; Nitta, Kosaku

    2010-11-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the ability of intracellular galectin-1 (Gal-1), a prototype of endogenous lectin, to prevent renal fibrosis by regulating cell signaling under a high glucose (HG) condition. We demonstrated that overexpression of Gal-1 reduces type I collagen (COL1) expression and transcription in human renal epithelial cells under HG conditions and transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) stimulation. Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) is stimulated by Gal-1. HG conditions and TGF-{beta}1 treatment augment expression and nuclear translocation of Gal-1. In contrast, targeted inhibition of Gal-1 expression reduces COL1 expression and increases MMP1 expression. The Smad3 signaling pathway is inhibited, whereas two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), are activated by Gal-1, indicating that Gal-1 regulates these signaling pathways in COL1 production. Using specific inhibitors of Smad3, ERK, and p38 MAPK, we showed that ERK MAPK activated by Gal-1 plays an inhibitory role in COL1 transcription and that activation of the p38 MAPK pathway by Gal-1 plays a negative role in MMP1 production. Taken together, two MAPK pathways are stimulated by increasing levels of Gal-1 in the HG condition, leading to suppression of COL1 expression and increase of MMP1 expression.

  1. Losartan attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis and tubular cell apoptosis in a rat model of obstructive nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Li, Detian; Zhang, Beiru

    2014-08-01

    Ureteral obstruction leads to renal injury and progresses to irreversible renal fibrosis, with tubular cell atrophy and apoptosis. There is conflicting evidence concerning whether losartan (an angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist) mitigates renal interstitial fibrosis and renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis following unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of losartan on renal tubular cell apoptosis and renal fibrosis in a rat model of UUO. The rats were subjected to UUO by ureteral ligation and were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) or losartan. The controls underwent sham surgery. The renal tissues were collected 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after surgery for measurement of various indicators of renal fibrosis. UUO increased the expression levels of α‑smooth muscle actin and collagen I, and the extent of renal tubular fibrosis and apoptosis in a time‑dependent manner. Losartan treatment partially attenuated these responses. Progression of renal interstitial fibrosis was accompanied by phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and altered the expression levels of two apoptosis‑related proteins (Bax and Bcl2). Losartan treatment also partially attenuated these responses. The results indicated that losartan attenuated renal fibrosis and renal tubular cell apoptosis in a rat model of UUO. This effect appeared to be mediated by partial blockage of STAT3 phosphorylation.

  2. MUTATIONS IN THE VHL GENE FRIOM POTASSIUM BROMATE-INDUCED RAT CLEAR CELL RENAL TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a rat renal carcinogen and a major drinking water disinfection by-product in water disinfected with ozone. Clear cell renal tumors, the most common form of human renal epithelial neoplasm, are rare in animals but are inducible by KBrO3 in F344 rats. ...

  3. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muglia, Valdair F., E-mail: fmuglia@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CCIFM/FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica. Faculdade de Medicina; Prando, Adilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imaginologia

    2015-05-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes. (author)

  4. Effect of Intervention in Mast Cell Function Before Reperfusion on Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

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    Fei Tong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mast cells are sparsely distributed in the kidneys under normal conditions; however, the number of mast cells increases dramatically during renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (RI/RI. When mast cells are stimulated, numerous mediators are released, and under pathological conditions, they produce a wide range of biological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intervention in mast cell function before reperfusion on RI/RI. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n=50 were randomized into five groups: sham group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R group, cromolyn sodium treatment group (CS+I/R group, ketotifen treatment group (K+I/Rgroup, and compound 48/80 treatment group (C+I/R group. I/R injury was induced by bilateral renal artery and vein occlusion for 45 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The agents were intravenously administered 5 min before reperfusion through the tail vein. The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen(BUN, serum creatinine (Scr and histamine and the kidney levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were assessed. The expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in renal tissue was also measured. Results: I/R injury resulted in severe renal injury, as demonstrated by a large increase in injury scores; serum levels of BUN, Scr and histamine; and kidney levels of MDA, TNF-α, and IL-6; this was accompanied by reduced SOD activity and upregulated ICAM-1 expression. Treatment with cromolyn sodium or ketotifen markedly alleviated I/R-mediated kidney injury, whereas compound 48/80 further aggravated kidney injury. Conclusion: Intervention in mast cell activity prior to reperfusionhas a strong effect on RI/RI.

  5. Renal cell carcinoma-associated adult dermatomyositis treated laparoscopic nephrectomy

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    Elizabeth Nevins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old female, who suffered from rheumatoid arthritis and hypothyroidism, developed severe muscle weakness. Clinical features, blood results and muscle biopsy suggested a possible diagnosis of dermatomyositis. A computed tomography of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed a solid mass in the left kidney. She underwent a left laparoscopic nephrectomy and histology confirmed conventional (clear cell renal cell carcinoma. She recovered slowly and almost back to normal life after 6 months. Early appreciation of the typical skin rash may provide a clue to the diagnosis and screening for neoplasm may improve prognosis.

  6. Demyelinating Peripheral Neuropathy Due to Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Kenya; Fujimaki, Motoki; Kanai, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Yuta; Nakazato, Tomoko; Tanaka, Ryota; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2017-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients who develop a paraneoplastic syndrome may present with neuromuscular disorders. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old man who suffered from progressive gait disturbance and muscle weakness. The results of a nerve conduction study fulfilled the criteria of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. An abdominal CT scan detected RCC, the pathological diagnosis of which was clear cell type. After tumor resection and a single course of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, the patient's symptoms drastically improved over the course of one year. The patient's neurological symptoms preceded the detection of cancer. A proper diagnosis and the initiation of suitable therapies resulted in a favorable outcome. PMID:28049985

  7. Pituitary Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma: Description of a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Chloé; Campitiello, Marco; Plastino, Francesca; Eid, Nada; Hennequin, Laurent; Quétin, Philippe; Longo, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 61 Final Diagnosis: Pituitary metastasis from renal cell carcinoma Symptoms: Deterioration of visual acuity and field • persisting headache • excess thirst • polyuria Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Total body CT-scan • brain MRI • trans-sphenoidal endoscopical surgery • radiotherapy • anti-angiogenic therapy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Pituitary metastasis is uncommon, breast and lung cancers being the most frequent primary tumors. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare cause of pituitary metastases, with only a few cases described to date. Case Report: We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with a progressive deterioration of visual acuity and field associated with a bitemporal hemianopsia. Two years ago, he underwent radical right nephrectomy for a clear cell RCC (ccRCC). The biological tests showed pan-hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus. Brain MRI revealed a large sellar tumor lesion bilaterally infiltrating the cavernous sinuses, which was surgically resected. Histology confirmed a ccRCC pituitary metastasis. The patient received post-surgical radiotherapy. Considering the presence of concomitant extra-pituitary metastases, treatment with sunitinib was started, followed by several lines of therapy with axitinib, everolimus, and sorafenib because of tumor progression. The patient also presented with a pituitary tumor recurrence, which was treated by stereotaxic radiotherapy. He died five years after the initial diagnosis of RCC and 30 months after the diagnosis of the pituitary metastasis. Conclusions: There are no standardized treatment guidelines for management of pituitary metastases. Pituitary surgery plays a role in symptom palliation, and it does not have any relevant impact on survival. Exclusive radiotherapy or stereotaxic radiotherapy could be an alternative to surgery in patients whose general condition is poor or who have concomitant extra-pituitary metastases. PMID:28044054

  8. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors target cancer stem cells in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Solarek, Wojciech; Kornakiewicz, Anna; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to analyze the impact of multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the cancer stem cell subpopulation in renal cell cancer. The second objective was to evaluate the effect of tumor growth inhibition related to a tumor niche factor - oxygen deprivation - as hypoxia develops along with the anti-angiogenic activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in renal tumors. Cells were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, sunitinib, sorafenib and axitinib, in 2D and 3D culture conditions. Cell proliferation along with drug toxicity were evaluated. It was shown that the proliferation rate of cancer stem cells was decreased by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The efficacy of the growth inhibition was limited by hypoxic conditions and 3D intratumoral cell-cell interactions. We conclude that understanding the complex molecular interaction feedback loops between differentiated cancer cells, cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment in 3D culture should aid the identification of novel treatment targets and to evalute the efficacy of renal cancer therapies. Cell-cell interaction may represent a critical microenvironmental factor regulating cancer stem cell self-renewal potential, enhancing the stem cell phenotype and limiting drug toxicity. At the same time the role of hypoxia in renal cancer stem cell biology is also significant.

  9. Regenerative medicine for the kidney: renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Akito; Nakasatomi, Masao; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    The kidney has the capacity for regeneration and repair after a variety of insults. Over the past few decades, factors that promote repair of the injured kidney have been extensively investigated. By using kidney injury animal models, the role of intrinsic and extrinsic growth factors, transcription factors, and extracellular matrix in this process has been examined. The identification of renal stem cells in the adult kidney as well as in the embryonic kidney is an active area of research. Cell populations expressing putative stem cell markers or possessing stem cell properties have been found in the tubules, interstitium, and glomeruli of the normal kidney. Cell therapies with bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have been highly effective for the treatment of acute or chronic renal failure in animals. Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are also utilized for the construction of artificial kidneys or renal components. In this review, we highlight the advances in regenerative medicine for the kidney from the perspective of renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapies and discuss the issues to be solved to realize regenerative therapy for kidney diseases in humans.

  10. Renal Cell Carcinoma in A Patient with Kartagener Syndrome: First Case Report in English Language

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    Erkin Sağlam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac and pulmonary anomalies are common among patients with situs inversus totalis. Renal anomalies, including renal agenesis, dysplasia, hypoplasia, ectopia, polycystic kidney, and horseshoe kidney have been reported. We report a case of renal cell carcinoma in a patient with situs inversus totalis (SIT. Our case represents the fourth case report of renal cell carcinoma in a patient with situs inversus totalis and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report in English language. Due to the higher frequency of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and vascular anomalies the management of patients with situs inversus and urologic disease requires careful preoperative evaluation.

  11. PULMONARY LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS PRESENTING AS SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX IN A NON-SMOKER PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vaziri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH is a rare idiopathic disorder that primarily affects young adult cigarette smokers. Affected patients often present with cough and dyspnea and about 20% of patients present with or later develop pneumothorax. It is striking that more than 90% of patients are smokers. We report a very unusual case of PLCH in a 20-year- old male patient with no smoking history in whom a life- threatening complication such as simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax was the presenting feature. The final diagnosis was made by open surgical biopsy and recurrent pneumothoraces necessitated surgical management with pleurodesis. We emphasize the early use of pleurodesis in managing patients with PLCH and spontaneous pneumothorax.

  12. Role of everolimus in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma

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    Saby George

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Saby George1, Ronald M Bukowski21University of Texas Health Sciences Center, MC-8221, Division of Hematology and Oncology, San Antonio, Texas, USA; 2CCF Lerner College of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, Cleveland, Ohio, USAAbstract: The therapeutic options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma have been recently expanded by the discovery of the VHL gene, the mutation of which is associated with development of clear cell carcinoma, and overexpression of the angiogenesis pathway, resulting in a very vascular tumor. This breakthrough in science led to the development of a variety of small molecules inhibiting the VEGF-dependent angiogenic pathway, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. These agents prolong overall and progression-free survival, respectively. The result was the development of robust front-line therapies which ultimately fail and are associated with disease progression. In this setting, there existed an unmet need for developing second-line therapies for patients with refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC. Everolimus (RAD 001 is an oral inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial of everolimus (RECORD-1 conducted in MRCC patients after progression on sunitinib or sorafenib, or both, demonstrated a progression-free survival benefit favoring the study drug (4.9 months vs 1.9 months, HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.43, P ≤ 0 0.001. Everolimus thus established itself as a standard of care in the second-line setting for patients with MRCC who have failed treatment with VEGF receptor inhibitors.Keywords: mTOR inhibitor, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, signal transduction inhibitor, renal cell carcinoma, targeted therapy

  13. Cystic Renal Oncocytoma and Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skenderi, Faruk; Ulamec, Monika; Vranic, Semir; Bilalovic, Nurija; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Trpkov, Kiril; Vesela, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Kalusova, Kristyna; Sperga, Maris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Alvarado Cabrero, Isabel; Bulimbasic, Stela; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-02-01

    Renal oncocytoma (RO) may present with a tubulocystic growth in 3% to 7% of cases, and in such cases its morphology may significantly overlap with tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC). We compared the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these tumors, aiming to clarify the differential diagnostic criteria, which facilitate the discrimination of RO from TCRCC. Twenty-four cystic ROs and 15 TCRCCs were selected and analyzed for: architectural growth patterns, stromal features, cytomorphology, ISUP nucleolar grade, necrosis, and mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical panel included various cytokeratins (AE1-AE3, OSCAR, CAM5.2, CK7), vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CA-IX, antimitochondrial antigen (MIA), EMA, and Ki-67. The presence of at least focal solid growth and islands of tumor cells interspersed with loose stroma, lower ISUP nucleolar grade, absence of necrosis, and absence of mitotic figures were strongly suggestive of a cystic RO. In contrast, the absence of solid and island growth patterns and presence of more compact, fibrous stroma, accompanied by higher ISUP nucleolar grade, focal necrosis, and mitotic figures were all associated with TCRCC. TCRCC marked more frequently for vimentin, CD10, AMACR, and CK7 and had a higher proliferative index by Ki-67 (>15%). CD117 was negative in 14/15 cases. One case was weakly CD117 reactive with cytoplasmic positivity. All cystic RO cases were strongly positive for CD117. The remaining markers (AE1-AE3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, CA-IX, MIA, EMA) were of limited utility. Presence of tumor cell islands and solid growth areas and the type of stroma may be major morphologic criteria in differentiating cystic RO from TCRCC. In difficult cases, or when a limited tissue precludes full morphologic assessment, immunohistochemical pattern of vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CK7, and Ki-67 could help in establishing the correct diagnosis.

  14. Biology of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Michele Milella, Alessandra Felici

    2011-01-01

    cell biology and tumor-host interactions may hold the key to future advances in such a complex and challenging disease.

  15. Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma morphologically mimicking clear cell-papillary renal cell carcinoma in an adult patient: report of a case expanding the morphologic spectrum of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Asmita; Tickoo, Satish K; Kumar, Sunil; Arora, Vinod Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a relatively rare tumor mainly affecting children and adolescents. It shows significant morphological overlap with the 2 most common adult renal tumors, which are the clear cell (conventional) RCC and papillary RCC. We describe case of a young adult female who presented with right flank pain and abdominal mass. Radiological investigations showed features suggestive of renal cell carcinoma in the right kidney. Histopathological findings while suggestive of Xp11 carcinoma, showed significant overlap with the recently described entity clear cell papillary RCC. TFE3 immunohistochemistry confirmed the tumor to be Xp11 translocation RCC. The patient had an aggressive course with lymph node metastasis. In this report, we discuss differential diagnosis and the diagnostic challenges of Xp11 translocation RCC in adults.

  16. Multilevel Genomics-Based Taxonomy of Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Fengju Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive molecular characterization (including DNA methalylation and copy number, RNA, and protein expression, we classified 894 renal cell carcinomas (RCCs of various histologic types into nine major genomic subtypes. Site of origin within the nephron was one major determinant in the classification, reflecting differences among clear cell, chromophobe, and papillary RCC. Widespread molecular changes associated with TFE3 gene fusion or chromatin modifier genes were present within a specific subtype and spanned multiple subtypes. Differences in patient survival and in alteration of specific pathways (including hypoxia, metabolism, MAP kinase, NRF2-ARE, Hippo, immune checkpoint, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR could further distinguish the subtypes. Immune checkpoint markers and molecular signatures of T cell infiltrates were both highest in the subtype associated with aggressive clear cell RCC. Differences between the genomic subtypes suggest that therapeutic strategies could be tailored to each RCC disease subset.

  17. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Renal Pelvis in a Male Patient

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    Sarawut Kongkarnka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the renal pelvis is an uncommon renal neoplasm. Clear cell adenocarcinoma in the urinary tract is rare and has a histomorphology resembling that of the female genital tract. We herein present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, which is the first example in a male patient to our knowledge. A 54-year-old man presented with right flank pain. The tumor was associated with renal stones and hydronephrosis and invaded into the peripelvic fat tissue with regional lymph node metastasis. The patient died of metastatic disease six months postoperatively. Histologically, the tumor showed complex papillary architecture lined with clear and hobnail cells. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis may pose a diagnostic challenge on histological grounds, particularly in the distinction from renal cell carcinoma. The immunohistochemical stains could help confirm the diagnosis. Due to its rarity, an effective treatment regimen remains to be determined.

  18. Microarray gene expression profiling and analysis in renal cell carcinoma

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    Sadhukhan Provash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common cancer in adult kidney. The accuracy of current diagnosis and prognosis of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment for the disease are limited by the poor understanding of the disease at the molecular level. To better understand the genetics and biology of RCC, we profiled the expression of 7,129 genes in both clear cell RCC tissue and cell lines using oligonucleotide arrays. Methods Total RNAs isolated from renal cell tumors, adjacent normal tissue and metastatic RCC cell lines were hybridized to affymatrix HuFL oligonucleotide arrays. Genes were categorized into different functional groups based on the description of the Gene Ontology Consortium and analyzed based on the gene expression levels. Gene expression profiles of the tissue and cell line samples were visualized and classified by singular value decomposition. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the expression alterations of selected genes in RCC. Results Selected genes were annotated based on biological processes and clustered into functional groups. The expression levels of genes in each group were also analyzed. Seventy-four commonly differentially expressed genes with more than five-fold changes in RCC tissues were identified. The expression alterations of selected genes from these seventy-four genes were further verified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Detailed comparison of gene expression patterns in RCC tissue and RCC cell lines shows significant differences between the two types of samples, but many important expression patterns were preserved. Conclusions This is one of the initial studies that examine the functional ontology of a large number of genes in RCC. Extensive annotation, clustering and analysis of a large number of genes based on the gene functional ontology revealed many interesting gene expression patterns in RCC. Most

  19. Renal cell carcinoma with metastasis to the submandibular and parotid glands A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.G.; Slootweg, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between acinic cell carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma is an oft-quoted problem. A case is presented of a 60-year-old woman with metastatic lesions from a renal cell carcinoma to the parotid as well as the submandibular gland. Appropriate diagnosis was delayed due to lack of c

  20. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K J; Zhang, Jizhong; Han, Ling; Kamocka, Malgorzata; Miller, Caroline; Gattone, Vincent H; Dominguez, Jesus H

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  1. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K J Kelly

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  2. Molecular Genetic Alterations in Renal Cell Carcinomas With Tubulocystic Pattern: Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma, Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma With Heterogenous Component and Familial Leiomyomatosis-associated Renal Cell Carcinoma. Clinicopathologic and Molecular Genetic Analysis of 15 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulamec, Monika; Skenderi, Faruk; Zhou, Ming; Krušlin, Božo; Martínek, Petr; Grossmann, Petr; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Kalusova, Kristyna; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Daum, Ondrej; Dubova, Magdalena; Bauleth, Kevin; Slouka, David; Sperga, Maris; Davidson, Whitney; Rychly, Boris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic morphologic spectrum of tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC) may include areas resembling papillary RCC (PRCC). Our study includes 15 RCCs with tubulocystic pattern: 6 TC-RCCs, 1 RCC-high grade with tubulocystic architecture, 5 TC-RCCs with foci of PRCC, 2 with high-grade RCC (HGRCC) not otherwise specified, and 1 with a clear cell papillary RCC/renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor-like component. We analyzed aberrations of chromosomes 7, 17, and Y; mutations of VHL and FH genes; and loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 3p. Genetic analysis was performed separately in areas of classic TC-RCC and in those with other histologic patterns. The TC-RCC component demonstrated disomy of chromosome 7 in 9/15 cases, polysomy of chromosome 17 in 7/15 cases, and loss of Y in 1 case. In the PRCC component, 2/3 analyzable cases showed disomy of chromosome 7 and polysomy of chromosome 17 with normal Y. One case with focal HGRCC exhibited only disomy 7, whereas the case with clear cell papillary RCC/renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor-like pattern showed polysomies of 7 and 17, mutation of VHL, and loss of heterozygosity 3p. FH gene mutation was identified in a single case with an aggressive clinical course and predominant TC-RCC pattern. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) TC-RCC demonstrates variable status of chromosomes 7, 17, and Y even in cases with typical/uniform morphology. (2) The biological nature of PRCC/HGRCC-like areas within TC-RCC remains unclear. Our data suggest that heterogenous TC-RCCs may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome. (3) Hereditary leiomyomatosis-associated RCC can be morphologically indistinguishable from "high-grade" TC-RCC; therefore, in TC-RCC with high-grade features FH gene status should be tested.

  3. [WHO classification 2016 and first S3 guidelines on renal cell cancer: What is important for the practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, H

    2016-03-01

    The first S3 guidelines on renal cell cancer cover the practical aspects of imaging, diagnostics and therapy as well as the clinical relevance of pathology reporting. This review summarizes the changes in renal tumor classification and the new recommendations for reporting renal cell tumors. The S3 guidelines recommend the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of renal cell tumors. Novel renal cell tumor entities and provisional or emerging renal cell tumor entities of the 2016 WHO classification of renal tumors are discussed. The S3 guidelines for renal cell cancer also recommend the use of the WHO/International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) grading system for clear cell and for papillary renal cell carcinomas, which replaces the previously used Fuhrman grading system.

  4. Diagnosis and Management of Hereditary Renal Cell Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menko, Fred H; Maher, Eamonn R

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the common denominator for a heterogeneous group of diseases. The subclassification of these tumours is based on histological type and molecular pathogenesis. Insight into molecular pathogenesis has led to the development of targeted systemic therapies. Genetic susceptibility is the principal cause of RCC in about 2-4% of cases. Hereditary RCC is the umbrella term for about a dozen different conditions, the most frequent of which is von Hippel-Lindau disease . Here, we describe the main hereditary RCC syndromes, consider criteria for referral of RCC patients for clinical genetic assessment and discuss management options for patients with hereditary RCC and their at-risk relatives.

  5. Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis to the Penis

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Victor D.; Darwish, Oussama M.; Henry, Mary M.; Jun, Ik C.; Sameer A. Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancers of the penis are extremely uncommon with less than 300 cases reported in the past 100 years. These cancers are most frequently a result of an aggressive or poorly managed primary prostate or bladder cancer and rarely a metastasis from a primary kidney tumor. Currently, there is no published literature which describes the spread of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) to the penis. In this report, we present a 55-year-old-man who presented with a large right-sided SRCC wh...

  6. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

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    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  7. {sup 11}C-Acetate PET imaging for renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Nobuyuki; Kusukawa, Naoya; Kaneda, Taisei; Miwa, Yoshiji; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu [University of Fukui, Department of Urology, Fukui (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Welch, Michael J. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 11}C-acetate (AC) for evaluation of renal cell carcinoma. Enrolled in the study were 20 patients with suspected renal tumour, one of whom had three renal lesions. In all, 22 renal lesions were evaluated. Following administration of 350 MBq (10 mCi) of AC, whole-body PET images were obtained. Based on these PET findings, kidney lesions were scored as positive or negative. The PET results were correlated with the CT findings and histological diagnosis after surgery. In 18 patients, 20 tumours were diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma. Lesions in the remaining two patients were diagnosed as complicated cyst without malignant tissue. Of the 20 renal cell carcinomas. 14 (70%) showed positive AC PET findings; 6 were negative. The two patients with complicated cyst had negative AC PET findings. Of the 20 renal cell carcinomas, 19 were clear-cell carcinoma and 1 was a papillary cell carcinoma. This papillary cell carcinoma showed high AC uptake. AC demonstrates marked uptake in renal cell carcinoma. These preliminary data show that AC is a possible PET tracer for detection of renal cancer. (orig.)

  8. Multiple metastatic renal cell carcinoma isolated to pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comunoğlu, Cem; Altaca, Gülüm; Demiralay, Ebru; Moray, Gökhan

    2012-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastases to the pancreas are reported to be rare. Isolated multiple pancreatic metastases are even rarer. We report a 68-year-old asymptomatic male patient who presented with multiple metastatic nodular lesions in the pancreas demonstrated by computerized tomography 3.5 years after radical nephrectomy performed for clear cell RCC. Spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy was performed. Gross examination revealed five well-demarcated tumoral nodules in the head, body and tail of the pancreas. Histopathological examination revealed clusters of epithelial clear cells, immunohistochemically positive for CD10 and vimentin, and negative for CK19 and chromogranin, supporting a diagnosis of metastatic RCC. The patient has remained well at 29 months post-resection, in agreement with recent experience that radical resection for multiple isolated metastatic nodular lesions can achieve improved survival and better quality of life.

  9. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucero, Alvaro C; Gonçalves, Sara; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Santamaría, Beatriz; Ramos, Adrian M; Berzal, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2010-04-22

    Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making.

  10. Regulatory T cells, dendritic cells and neutrophils in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minárik, Ivo; Lašťovička, Jan; Budinský, Vít; Kayserová, Jana; Spíšek, Radek; Jarolím, Ladislav; Fialová, Anna; Babjuk, Marek; Bartůňková, Jiřina

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated dendritic cells (DC), regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) and neutrophils in 37 patients with newly diagnosed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the tumor and peripheral blood (PB) and correlated these parameters with tumor staging (early-T1, 2, late-T3, 4 and metastatic disease). The number of myeloid and plasmacytoid DC in blood of RCC patients was higher than in healthy controls. The percentage of myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) from CD45+ cells in tumors was higher in comparison with peripheral blood irrespective of disease stage. Higher percentage of these cells expressed a maturation marker in the periphery in the early stage (CD83 expressing cells). The number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in PB was similar in both early and late stage groups, but the early group displayed a significantly higher percentage of pDC in tumor cell suspension. Neutrophil counts in the peripheral blood of RCC patients were higher than in healthy controls, but the counts in both tumor stage groups were similar. The proportion of neutrophils from CD45+ cells was higher in late stage tumors. Higher percentage of Treg from CD4+ cells was detected in renal carcinoma tissue in comparison to PB with no difference between stages of the disease. Our results reflect the complex interplay between various cells of the immune system and the tumor microenvironment. Activation of dendritic cell subpopulations at early stages of the disease course is counterbalanced by the early appearance of T regulatory cells both in the periphery and tumor tissue. Later stages are characterized by the accumulation of neutrophils in the tumor. Appropriate timing of anticancer strategies, especially immunotherapy, should take these dynamics of the immune response in RCC patients into account.

  11. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibits human renal cell carcinoma proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Eva; Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Bajo, Ana M; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Schally, Andrew V; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

    2012-10-01

    Clear renal cell carcinoma (cRCC) is an aggressive and fatal neoplasm. The present work was undertaken to investigate the antiproliferative potential of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exposure on non-tumoral (HK2) and tumoral (A498, cRCC) human proximal tubular epithelial cell lines. Reverse transcription and semiquantitative PCR was used at the VIP mRNA level whereas enzyme immunoanalysis was performed at the protein level. Both renal cell lines expressed VIP as well as VIP/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (VPAC) receptors whereas only HK2 cells expressed formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL-1). Receptors were functional, as shown by VIP stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. Treatment with 0.1μM VIP (24h) inhibited proliferation of A498 but not HK2 cells as based on a reduction in the incorporation of [(3)H]-thymidine and BrdU (5'-Br-2'-deoxyuridine), PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) expression and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) expression and activation. VPAC(1)-receptor participation was established using JV-1-53 antagonist and siRNA transfection. Growth-inhibitory response to VIP was related to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling systems as shown by studies on adenylate cyclase stimulation, and using the EPAC-specific compound 8CPT-2Me-cAMP and specific kinase inhibitors such as H89, wortmannin and PD98059. The efficacy of VIP on the prevention of tumor progression was confirmed in vivo using xenografted athymic mouse. These actions support a potential role of this peptide and its agonists in new therapies for cRCC.

  12. Cystic papillary renal cell carcinoma arising from an involutional multicystic dysplastic kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Jae; Kim, Bong Soo; Huh, Jung Sik; Park, Kyung Gi; Choi, Guk Myung; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Maeng, Young Hee [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a common cystic renal disease that often occurs in infancy. Recent studies demonstrate the possibility for spontaneous involution of a dysplastic kidney. In such cases, the prognosis is generally excellent and there is a very low incidence of complications. Complications associated with multicystic dysplastic kidney include pain, infection, hypertension, and neoplasia. Renal cell carcinomas are extremely rare in multicystic dysplastic kidneys. To our knowledge, no case report has described a radiologic finding of renal cell carcinoma arising from an involutional multicystic dysplastic kidney. We report a case of histopathologically validated cystic papillary renal cell carcinoma arising from an involutional multicystic dysplastic kidney and describe its sonographic and CT features.

  13. Concurrent Multilocular Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma and Leiomyoma in the Same Kidney: Previously Unreported Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Su Cheong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of concurrent occurrence of a multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma and a leiomyoma in the same kidney of a patient with no evident clinical symptoms. A 38-year-old man was found incidentally to have a cystic right renal mass on computed tomography. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed under a preoperative diagnosis of cystic renal cell carcinoma. Histology revealed a multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma and a leiomyoma. This is the first report of this kind of presentation.

  14. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma occurring in the renal allograft of a transplant recipient presenting with weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mahdi Althaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs in renal transplant recipients is reported as 1.1-1.5% in the native kidneys and 0.22-0.25% in the renal allograft. There are no data to support routine surveillance for tumors in transplant recipients. Most reported cases of RCCs occurring in renal allografts were incidental findings in asymptomatic patients. Herein, we report the second case of lone chromophobe RCC (ChRCC of the renal allograft presenting with weight loss. Loss of weight is a presenting symptom in one-third of ChRCCs occurring in the native kidneys in the general population. Based on the age of the patient, R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score of the tumor and the lack of data on the prognosis of this histological subtype in a climate of long-term immunosuppression, we elected for radical nephrectomy. We suggest that RCCs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a transplant recipient presenting with weight loss even in the absence of localizing symptoms or signs.

  15. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma occurring in the renal allograft of a transplant recipient presenting with weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaf, Mohammed Mahdi; Al-Sunaid, Mohammed S; Abdelsalam, Mohamed Said; Alkorbi, Lutfi A; Al-Hussain, Turki O; Dababo, Mohammed Anas; Haq, Naveed

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) in renal transplant recipients is reported as 1.1-1.5% in the native kidneys and 0.22-0.25% in the renal allograft. There are no data to support routine surveillance for tumors in transplant recipients. Most reported cases of RCCs occurring in renal allografts were incidental findings in asymptomatic patients. Herein, we report the second case of lone chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) of the renal allograft presenting with weight loss. Loss of weight is a presenting symptom in one-third of ChRCCs occurring in the native kidneys in the general population. Based on the age of the patient, R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score of the tumor and the lack of data on the prognosis of this histological subtype in a climate of long-term immunosuppression, we elected for radical nephrectomy. We suggest that RCCs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a transplant recipient presenting with weight loss even in the absence of localizing symptoms or signs.

  16. Large bilateral adrenal metastases in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanikiotis Charisios

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adrenal gland is one of the common sites of metastasis from primary lung cancer. Adrenal metastases are usually unilateral however bilateral adrenal metastases are seen in 10% of all lung cancer patients; of these 2–3% occurs at the initial presentation of non-small cell lung cancer. Secondary tumors can disrupt the structure and function of the adrenal. This can lead to adrenal hemorrhage, which constitutes a life threatening hazard for the patient. Case presentation A 59-year-old male presented with persisting abdominal pain. His initial work-up revealed significant anemia, an invasive process in the right upper lobe of the lung and large masses of heterogeneous texture, with hemorrhagic and necrotic elements in both adrenal glands. A biopsy confirmed it to be a large-cell carcinoma of the lungs. The patient developed severe leukocytosis akin to the paraneoplastic syndrome and died suddenly five days after the administration of chemotherapy. Conclusion Intratumoral hemorrhage is a rare but life threatening complication of adrenal metastases and should be treated as soon as it has been diagnosed. If adrenalectomy is not feasible, combination chemotherapy should be applied as in metastatic disease. For choosing the appropriate chemotherapeutic regimen it is important to accurately achieve the diagnosis.

  17. Sarcomatoid differentiation in renal cell carcinoma: prognostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall'Oglio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a tumor with aggressive behavior that is poorly responsive to immunotherapy. The objective of this study is to report our experience in the treatment of 15 patients with this tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive cases of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation diagnosed between 1991 and 2003. The clinical presentation and the pathological stage were assessed, as were the tumor's pathological features, use of adjuvant immunotherapy and survival. The study's primary end-point was to assess survival of these individuals. RESULTS: The sample included 8 women and 7 men with mean age of 63 years (44 - 80; follow-up ranged from 1 to 100 months (mean 34. Upon presentation, 87% were symptomatic and 4 individuals had metastatic disease. Mean tumor size was 9.5 cm (4 - 24 with the following pathological stages: 7% pT1, 7% pT2, 33% pT3, and 53% pT4. The pathological features showed high-grade tumors with tumoral necrosis in 87% of the lesions and 80% of intratumoral microvascular invasion. Disease-free and cancer-specific survival rates were 40 and 46% respectively, with 2 cases responding to adjuvant immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with sarcomatoid tumors of the kidney have a low life expectancy, and sometimes surgical resection associated with immunotherapy can lead to a long-lasting therapeutic response.

  18. The prospect of precision therapy for renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Chiara; Brunelli, Matteo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Iacovelli, Roberto; Heng, Daniel; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The therapeutic landscape of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has greatly expanded in the last decade. From being a malignancy orphan of effective therapies, kidney cancer has become today a tumor with several treatment options. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). In this complex scenario it is important to find prognostic and predictive factors that can help in decision making in the treatment of mRCC.

  19. Isolation, growth, and characterization of human renal epithelial cells using traditional and 3D methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; McGrath, Helen E; Van Sciver, Robert E; Wang, Dora Bigler; Felder, Robin A

    2013-01-01

    The kidney is a highly heterogeneous organ that is responsible for fluid and electrolyte balance. Much interest is focused on determining the function of specific renal epithelial cells in humans, which can only be accomplished through the isolation and growth of nephron segment-specific epithelial cells. However, human renal epithelial cells are notoriously difficult to maintain in culture. This chapter describes the isolation, growth, immortalization, and characterization of the human renal proximal tubule cell. In addition, we describe new paradigms in 3D cell culture which allow the cells to maintain more in vivo-like morphology and function.

  20. Bilateral Laparoscopic Gonadectomy in a Patient With Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Bilateral Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Asl Zare, Mohammad; Kalantari, Mahmood Reza; Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Kamalati, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (previously called testicular feminization) is specified by a 46 XY karyotype and negative sex chromatin, bilateral undescended testes, female genitalia appearance, and lack of mullerian derivatives. Case Presentation: A 28-year-old woman with complete (severe) androgen resistance underwent prophylactic laparoscopic bilateral gonadectomy because of the eventually increased risk of gonadal malignancy. Although the gonads appeared grossly n...

  1. Long-term follow-up of kidney allografts in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathy Transplante renal na anemia falciforme

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrisch,João R.; Barros, Elvino J.; Roberto C. Manfro; Bittar,Cristhina M.; Silla,Lúcia M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Although sickle cell anemia and sickle cell disease produce a variety of functional renal abnormalities they uncommonly cause end stage renal failure. Renal transplantation has been a successful alternative for the treatment of the rare terminal chronic renal failure with outcomes comparable with non-sickle recipients. This approach, however, has not been often described on patients with renal failure associated with SC hemoglobinopathy. Here we report the outcomes of two patients with chroni...

  2. Single metastatic renal cell carcinoma in gallbladder: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho; Lee, Seung Young; Yi, Kyung Sik; Park, Kil Sun; Sung, Ro Hyun [Chungbuk National Univ. Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of adult malignancy. 25% to 57% of RCC patients exhibit overt evidence of metastatic disease at initial presentation. Metastases to the gallbladder is uncommon and usually detected in only 0.4-0.6% of autopsies. We report the case of a 58 year old man who presented with a metastasis in the gallbladder from RCC. He had undergone went a right nephrectomy four years ago. There was no evidence of metastasis. A follow up abdomen CT scan taken three years after operation showed a polypoid lesion within the gallbladder. The size of the polypoid lesion had increased at the follow up CT and the enhancement pattern of lesion became similar to that of RCC. A Cholecystectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed the polyp was clear cell carcinoma of metastatic origin from kidney.

  3. Transduction of interleukin-10 through renal artery attenuates vascular neointimal proliferation and infiltration of immune cells in rat renal allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingxin; Li, Xueyi; Meng, Dan; Liang, Qiujuan; Wang, Xinhong; Wang, Li; Wang, Rui; Xiang, Meng; Chen, Sifeng

    2016-08-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal failure. Although acute rejection is not a major issue anymore, chronic rejection, especially vascular rejection, is still a major factor that might lead to allograft dysfunction on the long term. The role of the local immune-regulating cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in chronic renal allograft is unclear. Many clinical observations showed that local IL-10 level was negatively related to kidney allograft function. It is unknown this negative relationship was the result of immunostimulatory property or insufficient immunosuppression property of local IL-10. We performed ex vivo transduction before transplantation through artery of the renal allograft using adeno-associated viral vectors carrying IL-10 gene. Twelve weeks after transplantation, we found intrarenal IL-10 gene transduction significantly inhibited arterial neointimal proliferation, the number of occluded intrarenal artery, interstitial fibrosis, peritubular capillary congestion and glomerular inflammation in renal allografts compared to control allografts receiving PBS or vectors carrying YFP. IL-10 transduction increased serum IL-10 level at 4 weeks but not at 8 and 12 weeks. Renal IL-10 level increased while serum creatinine decreased significantly in IL-10 group at 12 weeks compared to PBS or YFP controls. Immunohistochemical staining showed unchanged total T cells (CD3) and B cells (CD45R/B220), decreased cytotoxic T cells (CD8), macrophages (CD68) and increased CD4+ and FoxP3+ cells in IL-10 group. In summary, intrarenal IL-10 inhibited the allograft rejection while modulated immune response.

  4. Adjuvant Sunitinib in High-Risk Renal-Cell Carcinoma after Nephrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravaud, Alain; Motzer, Robert J; Pandha, Hardev S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sunitinib, a vascular endothelial growth factor pathway inhibitor, is an effective treatment for metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of sunitinib in patients with locoregional renal-cell carcinoma at high risk for tumor recurrence after nephr...

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-1 sustains stem cell mediated renal repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imberti, B.; Morigi, M.; Tomasoni, S.; Rota, C.; Corna, D.; Longaretti, L.; Rottoli, D.; Valsecchi, F.; Benigni, A.; Wang, J.; Abbate, M.; Zoja, C.; Remuzzi, G.

    2007-01-01

    In mice with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) restores renal tubular structure and improves renal function, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we examined the process of kidney cell repair in co-culture experiments

  6. Renal cell carcinoma in an ectopic pelvic kidney in a patient presenting with acute urinary retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Dash

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of renal cell carcinoma in a pelvic kidney is rare, and has only been described in a very small number of cases. We describe a case where an incidental ectopic kidney with invasive renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed during a separate emergency admission for acute urinary retention.

  7. Automated grading of renal cell carcinoma using whole slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent technology developments have demonstrated the benefit of using whole slide imaging (WSI in computer-aided diagnosis. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using automatic WSI analysis to assist grading of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC, which is a manual task traditionally performed by pathologists. Materials and Methods: Automatic WSI analysis was applied to 39 hematoxylin and eosin-stained digitized slides of clear cell RCC with varying grades. Kernel regression was used to estimate the spatial distribution of nuclear size across the entire slides. The analysis results were correlated with Fuhrman nuclear grades determined by pathologists. Results: The spatial distribution of nuclear size provided a panoramic view of the tissue sections. The distribution images facilitated locating regions of interest, such as high-grade regions and areas with necrosis. The statistical analysis showed that the maximum nuclear size was significantly different (P < 0.001 between low-grade (Grades I and II and high-grade tumors (Grades III and IV. The receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that the maximum nuclear size distinguished high-grade and low-grade tumors with a false positive rate of 0.2 and a true positive rate of 1.0. The area under the curve is 0.97. Conclusion: The automatic WSI analysis allows pathologists to see the spatial distribution of nuclei size inside the tumors. The maximum nuclear size can also be used to differentiate low-grade and high-grade clear cell RCC with good sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that automatic WSI analysis may facilitate pathologic grading of renal tumors and reduce variability encountered with manual grading.

  8. Imaging findings of common benign renal tumors in the era of small renal masses: Differential diagnosis from small renal cell carcinoma: Current status and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sung Min; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs.

  9. Relationship of Serum Interleukin-18 and Interleukin-12 Levels with Clinicopathology in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NONG Shao-jun; WEN Duan-gai; FAN Cai-bin; OUYANG Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum interleukin-18 and interleukin-12 levels and clinicopathology of renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers and 60 patients with renal cell carcinoma before curative surgery. IL-12 and IL-18 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Mean serum IL-12 and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma compared with healthy volunteers (P<0.05) and mean serum IL-12 and IL-18 levels increased in patients as the pathologic stage progressed. A positive correlation was observed between serum IL-12 and IL-18 levels (P<0.05). In patients with renal cell carcinoma, increasing serum IL-12 and IL-18 levels correlated with pathological stage and Fuhrman grade. Conclusion: Serum IL-12 and IL-18 might be useful tumor markers in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

  10. Strong Expression of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 by Renal Cell Carcinoma Correlates with Advanced Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Wehler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse chemokines and their receptors have been associated with tumor growth, tumor dissemination, and local immune escape. In different tumor entities, the level of chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression has been linked with tumor progression and decreased survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of CXCR4 expression on the progression of human renal cell carcinoma. CXCR4 expression of renal cell carcinoma was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 113 patients. Intensity of CXCR4 expression was correlated with both tumor and patient characteristics. Human renal cell carcinoma revealed variable intensities of CXCR4 expression. Strong CXCR4 expression of renal cell carcinoma was significantly associated with advanced T-status (P=.039, tumor dedifferentiation (P = .0005, and low hemoglobin (P = .039. In summary, strong CXCR4 expression was significantly associated with advanced dedifferentiated renal cell carcinoma.

  11. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Early Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Hee Jin; Kim, Su Yeon; Kang, Myong Jin; Choi, Sun Seob; Sung, Gyung Tak [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the early clinical experience associated with radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The RF ablation treatment was performed on 17 tumors from 16 patients (mean age, 60.5 years; range, 43 73 years) with RCC. The treatment indications were localized, solid renal mass, comorbidities, high operation risk, and refusal to perform surgery. All tumors were treated by a percutaneous CT (n = 10), followed by an US-guided (n = 2), laparoscopy-assisted US (n = 2), and an open (n = 2) RF ablation. Furthermore, patients underwent a follow- up CT at one day, one week, one month, three and six months, and then every six months from the onset of treatment. We evaluated the technical success, technical effectiveness, ablation zone, benign periablation enhancement, irregular peripheral enhancement, and complications. All 17 exophytic tumors (mean size, 2.2 cm; range, 1.1 5.0 cm) were completely ablated. Technical success and effectiveness was achieved in all cases and the mean follow-up period was 23.8 months (range, 17 33 months). A local recurrence was not detected in any of the cases; however, five patients developed complications as a result of treatment, including hematuria (n = 2), mild thermal injury of the psoas muscle (n = 1), mild hydronephrosis (n = 1), and fistula formation (n = 1). The RF ablation is an alternative treatment for exophytic RCCs and represents a promising treatment for some patients with small RCCs.

  12. Characteristic Gene Expression Profiles of Human Fibroblasts and Breast Cancer Cells in a Newly Developed Bilateral Coculture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Ueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microenvironment of cancer cells has been implicated in cancer development and progression. Cancer-associated fibroblast constitutes a major stromal component of the microenvironment. To analyze interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts, we have developed a new bilateral coculture system using a two-sided microporous collagen membrane. Human normal skin fibroblasts were cocultured with three different human breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and HCC1937. After coculture, mRNA was extracted separately from cancer cells and fibroblasts and applied to transcriptomic analysis with microarray. Top 500 commonly up- or downregulated genes were characterized by enrichment functional analysis using MetaCore Functional Analysis. Most of the genes upregulated in cancer cells were downregulated in fibroblasts while most of the genes downregulated in cancer cells were upregulated in fibroblasts, indicating that changing patterns of mRNA expression were reciprocal between cancer cells and fibroblasts. In coculture, breast cancer cells commonly increased genes related to mitotic response and TCA pathway while fibroblasts increased genes related to carbohydrate metabolism including glycolysis, glycogenesis, and glucose transport, indicating that fibroblasts support cancer cell proliferation by supplying energy sources. We propose that the bilateral coculture system using collagen membrane is useful to study interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells by mimicking in vivo tumor microenvironment.

  13. Sunitinib activates Axl signaling in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mijn, Johannes C; Broxterman, Henk J; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R; De Haas, Richard R; Dekker, Henk; Pham, Thang V; Van Beusechem, Victor W; Halmos, Balazs; Mier, James W; Jiménez, Connie R; Verheul, Henk M W

    2016-06-15

    Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics provides a unique unbiased approach to evaluate signaling network in cancer cells. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is registered as treatment for patients with renal cell cancer (RCC). We investigated the effect of sunitinib on tyrosine phosphorylation in RCC tumor cells to get more insight in its mechanism of action and thereby to find potential leads for combination treatment strategies. Sunitinib inhibitory concentrations of proliferation (IC50) of 786-O, 769-p and A498 RCC cells were determined by MTT-assays. Global tyrosine phosphorylation was measured by LC-MS/MS after immunoprecipitation with the antiphosphotyrosine antibody p-TYR-100. Phosphoproteomic profiling of 786-O cells yielded 1519 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 675 unique proteins including 57 different phosphorylated protein kinases. Compared to control, incubation with sunitinib at its IC50 of 2 µM resulted in downregulation of 86 phosphopeptides including CDK5, DYRK3, DYRK4, G6PD, PKM and LDH-A, while 94 phosphopeptides including Axl, FAK, EPHA2 and p38α were upregulated. Axl- (y702), FAK- (y576) and p38α (y182) upregulation was confirmed by Western Blot in 786-O and A498 cells. Subsequent proliferation assays revealed that inhibition of Axl with a small molecule inhibitor (R428) sensitized 786-O RCC cells and immortalized endothelial cells to sunitinib up to 3 fold. In conclusion, incubation with sunitinib of RCC cells causes significant upregulation of multiple phosphopeptides including Axl. Simultaneous inhibition of Axl improves the antitumor activity of sunitinib. We envision that evaluation of phosphoproteomic changes by TKI treatment enables identification of new targets for combination treatment strategies.

  14. End-stage renal disease causes an imbalance between endothelial and smooth muscle progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerweel, Peter E; Hoefer, Imo E; Blankestijn, Peter J; de Bree, Petra; Groeneveld, Dafna; van Oostrom, Olivia; Braam, Branko; Koomans, Hein A; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2007-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contribute to vascular regeneration and repair, thereby protecting against CVD. However, circulating smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPC

  15. Cellular distribution of cell cycle-related molecules in the renal tubules of rats treated with renal carcinogens for 28 days: relationship between cell cycle aberration and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniai, Eriko; Hayashi, Hitomi; Yafune, Atsunori; Watanabe, Maiko; Akane, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    Some renal carcinogens can induce karyomegaly, which reflects aberrant cell division in the renal tubules, from the early stages of exposure. To clarify the cell cycle-related changes during the early stages of renal carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of tubular cells in male F344 rats treated with carcinogenic doses of representative renal carcinogens for 28 days. For this purpose, the karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens ochratoxin A (OTA), ferric nitrilotriacetic acid, and monuron, and the non-karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and potassium bromate were examined. For comparison, a karyomegaly-inducing non-carcinogen, p-nitrobenzoic acid, and a non-carcinogenic non-karyomegaly-inducing renal toxicant, acetaminophen, were also examined. The outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM) and the cortex + OSOM were subjected to morphometric analysis of immunoreactive proximal tubular cells. Renal carcinogens, irrespective of their karyomegaly-inducing potential, increased proximal tubular cell proliferation accompanied by an increase in topoisomerase IIα-immunoreactive cells, suggesting a reflection of cell proliferation. Karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens increased nuclear Cdc2-, γH2AX-, and phosphorylated Chk2-immunoreactive cells in both areas, the former two acting in response to DNA damage and the latter one suggestive of sustained G₂. OTA, an OSOM-targeting carcinogen, could easily be distinguished from untreated controls and non-carcinogens by evaluation of molecules responding to DNA damage and G₂/M transition in the OSOM. Thus, all renal carcinogens examined facilitated proximal tubular proliferation by repeated short-term treatment. Among these, karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens may cause DNA damage and G₂ arrest in the target tubular cells.

  16. Inhibition of tubular cell proliferation by neutralizing endogenous HGF leads to renal hypoxia and bone marrow-derived cell engraftment in acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Shinya; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2008-02-01

    During the progression of acute renal failure (ARF), the renal tubular S3 segment is sensitive to ischemic stresses. For reversing tubular damage, resident tubular cells proliferate, and bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) can be engrafted into injured tubules. However, how resident epithelium or BMDC are involved in tubular repair remains unknown. Using a mouse model of ARF, we examined whether hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) regulates a balance of resident cell proliferation and BMDC recruitment. Within 48 h post-renal ischemia, tubular destruction became evident, followed by two-waved regenerative events: 1) tubular cell proliferation between 2 and 4 days, along with an increase in blood HGF; and 2) appearance of BMDC in the tubules from 6 days postischemia. When anti-HGF IgG was injected in the earlier stage, tubular cell proliferation was inhibited, leading to an increase in BMDC in renal tubules. Under the HGF-neutralized state, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) levels increased in renal tubules, associated with the enhanced hypoxia. Administrations of anti-SDF1 receptor IgG into ARF mice reduced the number of BMDC in interstitium and tubules. Thus possible cascades include 1) inhibition of tubular cell proliferation by neutralizing HGF leads to renal hypoxia and SDF1 upregulation; and 2) BMDC are eventually engrafted in tubules through SDF1-mediated chemotaxis. Inversely, administration of recombinant HGF suppressed the renal hypoxia, SDF1 upregulation, and BMDC engraftment in ARF mice by enhancing resident tubular cell proliferation. Thus we conclude that HGF is a positive regulator for eliciting resident tubular cell proliferation, and SDF1 for BMDC engraftment during the repair process of ARF.

  17. Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis to the Penis.

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    Liou, Victor D; Darwish, Oussama M; Henry, Mary M; Jun, Ik C; Siddiqui, Sameer A

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancers of the penis are extremely uncommon with less than 300 cases reported in the past 100 years. These cancers are most frequently a result of an aggressive or poorly managed primary prostate or bladder cancer and rarely a metastasis from a primary kidney tumor. Currently, there is no published literature which describes the spread of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) to the penis. In this report, we present a 55-year-old-man who presented with a large right-sided SRCC which metastasized to the base of his penis within 1 month of symptom onset. We also discuss the possible route of metastasis based on primary tumor size and location within the retroperitoneum.

  18. Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis to the Penis

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    Victor D. Liou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary cancers of the penis are extremely uncommon with less than 300 cases reported in the past 100 years. These cancers are most frequently a result of an aggressive or poorly managed primary prostate or bladder cancer and rarely a metastasis from a primary kidney tumor. Currently, there is no published literature which describes the spread of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC to the penis. In this report, we present a 55-year-old-man who presented with a large right-sided SRCC which metastasized to the base of his penis within 1 month of symptom onset. We also discuss the possible route of metastasis based on primary tumor size and location within the retroperitoneum.

  19. Serum and Urine Biomarkers for Human Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    A. L. Pastore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC diagnosis is mostly achieved incidentally by imaging provided for unrelated clinical reasons. The surgical management of localized tumors has reported excellent results. The therapy of advanced RCC has evolved considerably over recent years with the widespread use of the so-called “targeted therapies.” The identification of molecular markers in body fluids (e.g., sera and urine, which can be used for screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and monitoring of drug-based therapy in RCC patients, is one of the most ambitious challenges in oncologic research. Although there are some promising reports about potential biomarkers in sera, there is limited available data regarding urine markers for RCC. The following review reports some of the most promising biomarkers identified in the biological fluids of RCC patients.

  20. Intragraft vascular occlusive sickle crisis with early renal allograft loss in occult sickle cell trait.

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    Kim, Lisa; Garfinkel, Marc R; Chang, Anthony; Kadambi, Pradeep V; Meehan, Shane M

    2011-07-01

    Early renal allograft failure due to sickle cell trait is rare. We present clinical and pathologic findings in 2 cases of early renal allograft failure associated with renal vein thrombosis and extensive erythrocyte sickling. Hemoglobin AS was identified in retrospect. In case 1, a 41-year-old female recipient of a deceased donor renal transplant developed abdominal pain and acute allograft failure on day 16, necessitating immediate nephrectomy. In case 2, the transplanted kidney in a 58-year-old female recipient was noted to be mottled blue within minutes of reperfusion. At 24 hours, the patient was oliguric; and the graft was removed. Transplant nephrectomies had diffuse enlargement with diffuse, nonhemorrhagic, cortical, and medullary necrosis. Extensive sickle vascular occlusion was evident in renal vein branches; interlobar, interlobular, and arcuate veins; vasa recta; and peritubular capillaries. The renal arteries had sickle vascular occlusion in case 1. Glomeruli had only focal sickle vascular occlusion. The erythrocytes in sickle vascular occlusion had abundant cytoplasmic filaments by electron microscopy. Acute rejection was not identified in either case. Protein C and S levels, factor V Leiden, and lupus anticoagulant assays were within normal limits. Hemoglobin analysis revealed hemoglobin S of 21.8% and 25.6%, respectively. Renal allograft necrosis with intragraft sickle crisis, characterized by extensive vascular occlusive erythrocyte sickling and prominent renal vein thrombosis, was observed in 2 patients with sickle cell trait. Occult sickle cell trait may be a risk factor for early renal allograft loss.

  1. Update on vaccine development for renal cell cancer

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    Nina Chi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nina Chi1, Jodi K Maranchie2,3, Leonard J Appleman3,4, Walter J Storkus1,3,51Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States; 2Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States; 3University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States; 4Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States; 5Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC remains a significant health concern that frequently presents as metastatic disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Current first-line therapeutics for the advanced-stage RCC include antiangiogenic drugs that have yielded high rates of objective clinical response; however, these tend to be transient in nature, with many patients becoming refractory to chronic treatment with these agents. Adjuvant immunotherapies remain viable candidates to sustain disease-free and overall patient survival. In particular, vaccines designed to optimize the activation, maintenance, and recruitment of specific immunity within or into the tumor site continue to evolve. Based on the integration of increasingly refined immunomonitoring systems in both translational models and clinical trials, allowing for the improved understanding of treatment mechanism(s of action, further refined (combinational vaccine protocols are currently being developed and evaluated. This review provides a brief history of RCC vaccine development, discusses the successes and limitations in such approaches, and provides a rationale for developing combinational vaccine approaches that may provide improved clinical benefits to patients with RCC.Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, vaccines, immunotherapy, combinational therapy, cellular immunity

  2. Tivozanib in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma

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    Hepgur M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Hepgur, Sarmad Sadeghi, Tanya B Dorff, David I Quinn Division of Medical Oncology, University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is an aggressive malignancy compared to other urological malignancies and has been associated with poor responses to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Interferon-a and interleukin-2 were previously utilized in a limited number of patients with good performance status due to toxicity and safety issues. Over the last decade, through advances in the understanding of the biology and pathology of RCC, the important role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in RCC has been identified. Data from randomized trials have led to the approval of first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib; however, these agents inhibit a wide variety of kinase targets and are associated with a range of adverse effects. More recently, a new generation TKI, axitinib, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Tivozanib is a novel TKI, which is a potent inhibitor of VEGF-1, VEGF-2, VEGF-3, c-kit, and PDGR kinases, with a more restricted target spectrum. Phase II and III studies have demonstrated significant activity and a favorable safety profile as an initial targeted treatment for advanced RCC. This review examines the emerging data with tivozanib for the treatment of advanced RCC. Preclinical investigations as well as Phase I, II, and III data are examined; data on the comparative benefits of tivozanib are reviewed. Finally, we discuss the future potential of tivozanib in combination, biomarkers associated with tivozanib response, and acquisition of resistance and nonkidney cancer indications. Keywords: targeted therapy, renal cell cancer, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tivozanib

  3. Perfluorooctanesulfonate Mediates Renal Tubular Cell Apoptosis through PPARgamma Inactivation.

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    Li-Li Wen

    Full Text Available Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs are ubiquitously distributed in the environments including stainless pan-coating, raincoat, fire extinguisher, and semiconductor products. The PPAR family has been shown to contribute to the toxic effects of PFCs in thymus, immune and excretory systems. Herein, we demonstrated that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS caused cell apoptosis through increasing ratio of Bcl-xS/xL, cytosolic cytochrome C, and caspase 3 activation in renal tubular cells (RTCs. In addition, PFOS increased transcription of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNFα, ICAM1, and MCP1 by NFκB activation. Conversely, PFOS reduced the mRNA levels of antioxidative enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, as a result of reduced PPARγ transactivational activity by using reporter and chromatin immuoprecipitation (ChIP assays. PFOS reduced the protein interaction between PPARγ and PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC1α by PPARγ deacetylation through Sirt1 upregulation, of which the binding of PPARγ and PGC1α to a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE in the promoter regions of these antioxidative enzymes was alleviated in the ChIP assay. Furthermore, Sirt1 also deacetylated p53 and then increased the binding of p53 to Bax, resulting in increased cytosolic cytochrome C. The effect of PPARγ inactivation by PFOS was validated using the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, whereas the adverse effects of PFOS were prevented by PPARγ overexpression and activators, rosiglitozone and L-carnitine, in RTCs. The in vitro finding of protective effect of L-carnitine was substantiated in vivo using Balb/c mice model subjected to PFOS challenge. Altogether, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for the protective mechanism of L-carnitine in eliminating PFOS-mediated renal injury, at least partially, through PPARγ activation.

  4. An association between overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 3B4 and clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

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    Liu, You; Sun, Liantao; Fong, Peter; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhuxia; Yin, Shuihui; Jiang, Shuyuan; Liu, Xiaolei; Ju, Hongge; Huang, Lihua; Bai, Jing; Gong, Kerui; Yan, Shaochun; Zhang, Chunyang; Shao, Guo

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that abnormal DNA methylations occur frequently in kidney cancer. However, it remains unclear exactly which types of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) contribute to the pathologies of kidney cancers. In order to determine the functions of DNA methyltransferase in kidney tumorigenesis on the molecular level, we examined the mRNA expression levels of DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and DNMT3B variants in renal cell carcinoma tissue. Both mRNA and protein levels of DNMT3B4, a splice variant of DNMT3B, were increased in renal cell carcinoma tissue compared with adjacent control tissues. Additionally, Alu elements and long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1) were hypomethylated in renal cell carcinoma tissue. Meanwhile, methylation of the promoter for RASSF1A, a tumor suppressor gene, was moderately increased in renal cell carcinoma tissue, while RASSF1A expression was decreased. Thus, our data suggest that the overexpression of DNMT3B4 may play an important role in human kidney tumorigenesis through chromosomal instability and methylation of RASSF1A.

  5. Cell Therapy Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Renal Progenitors Ameliorates Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

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    Toyohara, Takafumi; Mae, Shin-Ichi; Sueta, Shin-Ichi; Inoue, Tatsuyuki; Yamagishi, Yukiko; Kawamoto, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Tomoko; Hoshina, Azusa; Toyoda, Taro; Tanaka, Hiromi; Araoka, Toshikazu; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sato, Yasunori; Yamaji, Noboru; Ogawa, Seishi; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a rapid loss of renal function resulting from various etiologies, with a mortality rate exceeding 60% among intensive care patients. Because conventional treatments have failed to alleviate this condition, the development of regenerative therapies using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) presents a promising new therapeutic option for AKI. We describe our methodology for generating renal progenitors from hiPSCs that show potential in ameliorating AKI. We established a multistep differentiation protocol for inducing hiPSCs into OSR1+SIX2+ renal progenitors capable of reconstituting three-dimensional proximal renal tubule-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that renal subcapsular transplantation of hiPSC-derived renal progenitors ameliorated the AKI in mice induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury, significantly suppressing the elevation of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels and attenuating histopathological changes, such as tubular necrosis, tubule dilatation with casts, and interstitial fibrosis. To our knowledge, few reports demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy with renal lineage cells generated from hiPSCs have been published. Our results suggest that regenerative medicine strategies for kidney diseases could be developed using hiPSC-derived renal cells. Significance This report is the first to demonstrate that the transplantation of renal progenitor cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has therapeutic effectiveness in mouse models of acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, this report clearly demonstrates that the therapeutic benefits come from trophic effects by the renal progenitor cells, and it identifies the renoprotective factors secreted by the progenitors. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of developing regenerative medicine strategy using iPS cells against renal diseases

  6. Renal Presentation in Pediatric Acute Leukemia: Report of 2 Cases.

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    Sherief, Laila M; Azab, Seham F; Zakaria, Marwa M; Kamal, Naglaa M; Abd Elbasset Aly, Maha; Ali, Adel; Abd Alhady, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    Renal enlargement at time of diagnosis of acute leukemia is very unusual. We here in report 2 pediatric cases of acute leukemia who had their renal affection as the first presenting symptom with no evidences of blast cells in blood smear and none of classical presentation of acute leukemia. The first case is a 4-year-old girl who presented with pallor and abdominal enlargement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral symmetrical homogenous enlarged kidneys suggestive of infiltration. Complete blood picture (CBC) revealed white blood count 11 × 10⁹/L, hemoglobin 8.7 g/dL and platelet count 197 × 10⁹/L. Bone marrow aspiration was performed, and diagnosed precursor B-cell ALL was made. The child had an excellent response to modified CCG 1991 standard risk protocol of chemotherapy with sustained remission, but unfortunately relapsed 11 month after the end of therapy. The second child was 13-month old, presented with pallor, vomiting, abdominal enlargement, and oliguria 2 days before admission. Initial CBC showed bicytopenia, elevated blood urea, creatinine, and serum uric acid, while abdominal ultrasonography revealed bilateral renal enlargement. Bone marrow examination was done and showed 92% blast of biphenotypic nature. So, biphynotypic leukemia with bilateral renal enlargement and acute renal failure was subsequently diagnosed. The patients admitted to ICU and received supportive care and prednisolone. Renal function normalized and chemotherapy was started. The child achieved complete remission with marked reduction of kidney size but, unfortunately she died from sepsis in consolidation phase of therapy. This case demonstrates an unusual early renal enlargement in childhood acute leukemia. Renal involvement of acute leukemia should be considered in child presenting with unexplained bilateral renal enlargement with or without renal function abnormalities and bone marrow examination should be included in the workup.

  7. Relationships between oxidative stress markers and red blood cell characteristics in renal azotemic dogs.

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    Buranakarl, C; Trisiriroj, M; Pondeenana, S; Tungjitpeanpong, T; Jarutakanon, P; Penchome, R

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative stress parameters and erythrocyte characteristics were studied in 15 normal healthy dogs and 33 renal azotaemic dogs from Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University. Dogs with renal azotaemia had reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (PDogs with severe renal azotaemia had higher intraerythrocytic sodium contents (RBC-Na) (Pred blood cell catalase activity and glutathione and plasma malondialdehyde were unaltered while urinary malondialdehyde-creatinine ratio (U-MDA/Cr) increased significantly (Pdogs. Moreover, the U-MDA/Cr is a sensitive biochemical parameter which increased along with degree of renal dysfunction.

  8. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis from Biopsy Associated Hematoma Disruption during Robotic Partial Nephrectomy

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    Christopher Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case in which a patient with a past medical history of ovarian cancer received a diagnostic renal biopsy for an incidentally discovered renal mass. During left robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN, a perinephric hematoma was encountered. The hematoma was not present on preoperative imaging and was likely a result of the renal biopsy. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC and the associated hematoma were widely excised with negative surgical margins. On follow-up imaging at five months postoperatively, a recurrent renal mass at the surgical resection bed and several new nodules in the omentum were detected. During completion left robotic total nephrectomy and omental excision, intraoperative frozen sections confirmed metastatic RCC. We believe that a hematoma seeded with RCC formed as a result of the renal biopsy, and subsequent disruption of the hematoma during RPN caused contamination of RCC into the surrounding structures.

  9. Renal T-cell lymphoma with cerebral metastasis in a dog with chronic canine ehrlichiosis

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    E.P. Lane

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A renal T-cell lymphoma with exclusive cerebral metastasis was diagnosed in a 5-year-old Staffordshire bull terrier bitch euthanased for aggression. This is the first recorded case of primary renal lymphoma in a dog. Immune suppression, due to chronic canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, mayaccount for the unusual primary site and metastatic patternof the tumour.

  10. Immune reactivity of cells from long-term rat renal allograft survivors

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    Weiss, A.; Stuart, F.P.; Fitch, F.W.

    1978-11-01

    Lewis rats receiving an LBN kidney allograft demonstrate no signs of rejection if they are pretreated with donor spleen cells and antiserum reactive with the donor alloantigen. We examined the cellular reactivity of long-term kidney allograft survivors. Normal proliferative and cytolytic responses were obtained with spleen cells from long-term survivors, in marked contrast to the diminished responses of cells from neonatally tolerant rats or the heightened cytolytic response of cells from rats that had rejected a renal allograft. Serum from long-term renal allograft survivors as well as serum obtained from rats at the time of transplantation did not suppress proliferative or cytolytic responses of normal cells. The results of this study suggest that long-term renal allograft survivors possess the precursors of those cells which are responsible for proliferative and cytolytic responses in mixed leukocyte cultures, but that they have not been sensitized to their renal allograft.

  11. Downregulated ECRG4 is associated with poor prognosis in renal cell cancer and is regulated by promoter DNA methylation.

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    Luo, Liya; Wu, Jianting; Xie, Jun; Xia, Lingling; Qian, Xuemin; Cai, Zhiming; Li, Zesong

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) has been proposed as a putative tumor suppressor gene in several tumors. However, the role and regulation of ECRG4 in the pathogenesis of human renal cancer remain largely unknown. Our current study revealed that expression of ECRG4 is downregulated in renal cell lines and renal cancer tissues. ECRG4 expression was significantly associated with histological grade of tumors (p renal cancer patients. Silencing of ECRG4 expression in renal cell lines was associated with its promoter methylation. Moreover, ectopic expression of ECRG4 markedly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in renal cancer cell lines. These results indicated that ECRG4 is frequently silenced by the methylation of promoter in renal cell cancers. ECRG4 may be a tumor suppressor in renal cancer and serve as a prognostic marker.

  12. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a native kidney of a renal transplant patient diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA biopsy

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    Yaseen Alastal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA biopsy sampling of enlarged lymph nodes is increasingly used to diagnose metastatic tumors, especially of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs. Herein, we describe the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a native kidney of a 54 year-old male patient, who had a 5-years history of renal transplant, by EUS-FNA of mediastinal and celiac lymph nodes. Histological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the origin of metastatic tumor. EUS-FNA with proper cytological evaluation can be useful in the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in renal transplant patients. 

  13. Renal Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney with Synchronous Ipsilateral Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis

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    Dogan Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with flank pain and gross macroscopic hematuria. Radiologic examination revealed a solid mass in the left kidney and additionally another mass in the ureteropelvic junction of the same kidney with severe hydronephrosis. Left nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff removel was performed, and histopathological evolution showed a Fuhrman grade 3 clear cell type RCC with low-grade TCC of the pelvis.

  14. Implications of Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome and Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Ashouri, Kenan; Mohseni, Sophia; Tourtelot, John; Sharma, Pranav

    2015-01-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHLS) is a rare hereditary neoplastic disorder caused by mutations in the vhl gene leading to the development of tumors in several organs including the central nervous system, pancreas, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Manifestations of VHLS can present at different ages based on the affected organ and subclass of disease. In the subclasses of VHLS that cause renal disease, renal involvement typically begins closer to the end of the second decade of life and can present in different ways ranging from simple cystic lesions to solid tumors. Mutations in vhl are most often associated with clear cell renal carcinoma, the most common type of renal cancer, and also play a major role in sporadic cases of clear cell renal carcinoma. The recurrent, multifocal nature of this disease presents difficult challenges in the long-term management of patients with VHLS. Optimization of renal function warrants the use of several different approaches common to the management of renal carcinoma such as nephron sparing surgery, enucleation, ablation, and targeted therapies. In VHLS, renal lesions of 3 cm or bigger are considered to have metastatic potential and even small lesions often harbor malignancy. Many of the aspects of management revolve around optimizing both oncologic outcome and long-term renal function. As new surgical strategies and targeted therapies develop, the management of this complex disease evolves. This review will discuss the key aspects of the current management of VHLS.

  15. Implications of Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome and Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Kenan Ashouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHLS is a rare hereditary neoplastic disorder caused by mutations in the vhl gene leading to the development of tumors in several organs including the central nervous system, pancreas, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Manifestations of VHLS can present at different ages based on the affected organ and subclass of disease. In the subclasses of VHLS that cause renal disease, renal involvement typically begins closer to the end of the second decade of life and can present in different ways ranging from simple cystic lesions to solid tumors. Mutations in vhl are most often associated with clear cell renal carcinoma, the most common type of renal cancer, and also play a major role in sporadic cases of clear cell renal carcinoma. The recurrent, multifocal nature of this disease presents difficult challenges in the long-term management of patients with VHLS. Optimization of renal function warrants the use of several different approaches common to the management of renal carcinoma such as nephron sparing surgery, enucleation, ablation, and targeted therapies. In VHLS, renal lesions of 3 cm or bigger are considered to have metastatic potential and even small lesions often harbor malignancy. Many of the aspects of management revolve around optimizing both oncologic outcome and long-term renal function. As new surgical strategies and targeted therapies develop, the management of this complex disease evolves.  This review will discuss the key aspects of the current management of VHLS.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue are not affected by renal disease.

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    Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Reinders, Marlies E J; de Klein, Annelies; Douben, Hannie; Korevaar, Sander S; Mensah, Fane K F; Dor, Frank J M F; IJzermans, Jan N M; Betjes, Michiel G H; Baan, Carla C; Weimar, Willem; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are a potential therapeutic agent in renal disease and kidney transplantation. Autologous cell use in kidney transplantation is preferred to avoid anti-HLA reactivity; however, the influence of renal disease on mesenchymal stem cells is unknown. To investigate the feasibility of autologous cell therapy in patients with renal disease, we isolated these cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy controls and patients with renal disease and compared them phenotypically and functionally. The mesenchymal stem cells from both groups showed similar morphology and differentiation capacity, and were both over 90% positive for CD73, CD105, and CD166, and negative for CD31 and CD45. They demonstrated comparable population doubling times, rates of apoptosis, and were both capable of inhibiting allo-antigen- and anti-CD3/CD28-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation. In response to immune activation they both increased the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. These mesenchymal stem cells were genetically stable after extensive expansion and, importantly, were not affected by uremic serum. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells of patients with renal disease have similar characteristics and functionality as those from healthy controls. Hence, our results indicate the feasibility of their use in autologous cell therapy in patients with renal disease.

  17. Reduced cilia frequencies in human renal cell carcinomas versus neighboring parenchymal tissue

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    Basten Sander G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cilia are essential organelles in multiple organ systems, including the kidney where they serve as important regulators of renal homeostasis. Renal nephron cilia emanate from the apical membrane of epithelia, extending into the lumen where they function in flow-sensing and ligand-dependent signaling cascades. Ciliary dysfunction underlies renal cyst formation that is in part caused by deregulation of planar cell polarity and canonical Wnt signaling. Renal cancer pathologies occur sporadically or in heritable syndromes caused by germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes including VHL. Importantly, Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL patients frequently develop complex renal cysts that can be considered a premalignant stage. One of the well-characterized molecular functions of VHL is its requirement for the maintenance of cilia. In this study, tissue from 110 renal cancer patients who underwent nephrectomy was analyzed to determine if lower ciliary frequency is a common hallmark of renal tumorigenesis by comparing cilia frequencies in both tumor and adjacent parenchymal tissue biopsies from the same kidney. Methods We stained sections of human renal material using markers for cilia. Preliminary staining was performed using an immunofluorescent approach and a combination of acetylated-α-tubulin and pericentrin antibodies and DAPI. After validation of an alternative, higher throughput approach using acetylated-α-tubulin immunohistochemistry, we continued to manually quantify cilia in all tissues. Nuclei were separately counted in an automated fashion in order to determine ciliary frequencies. Similar staining and scoring for Ki67 positive cells was performed to exclude that proliferation obscures cilia formation potential. Results Samples from renal cell carcinoma patients deposited in our hospital tissue bank were previously used to compose a tissue microarray containing three cores of both tumor and parenchymal tissue per patient

  18. Gender specific expression of tumor suppressor PKCd versus oncogenic PKCn in renal cell carcinoma

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    Brenner, Walburgis; Färber, Gloria; Jan G. Hengstler; Herget, Thomas; Thüroff, Joachim W.; Wiesner, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    Tumor incidence for renal cell carcinoma is two-fold higher in males than in females. Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) gene family have been shown to be relevant for carcinogenesis. However, little is known about a possible gender specific role of PKC in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, we quantified expression of eleven PKC-isoforms in clear cell RCCs (ccRCC) and in the corresponding normal renal tissue. A possible association of PKC-isoforms with gender of the patients was ex...

  19. Collision tumor of kidney: A case of renal cell carcinoma with metastases of prostatic adenocarcinoma

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    Monika Vyas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous occurrence of prostatic adenocarcinoma and renal cell carcinoma is well documented in the literature. However, metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma in a kidney harboring a renal cell carcinoma (RCC is quite rare. Although renal cell carcinoma is the most common tumor that can harbor metastasis, metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma in a kidney harboring a RCC is quite rare. There are four cases in the literature showing metastasis of prostatic adenocarcinoma to RCC. However, as per our knowledge, this is the first case of a collision between RCC and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  20. Cadherin-9 is a novel cell surface marker for the heterogeneous pool of renal fibroblasts.

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    Cornelia Thedieck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interstitial fibroblasts are a minor, but nevertheless very important, component of the kidney. They secrete and remodel extracellular matrix and they produce active compounds such as erythropoietin. However, studying human renal fibroblasts has been hampered by the lack of appropriate surface markers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The expression of cadherin-9 in various human renal cell lines and tissues was studied on the mRNA level by RT-PCR and on the protein level with the help of newly generated cadherin-9 antibodies. The classical type II cadherin-9, so far only described in the neural system, was identified as a reliable surface marker for renal fibroblasts. Compared to FSP1, a widely-used cytosolic renal fibroblast marker, cadherin-9 showed a more restricted expression pattern in human kidney. Under pathological conditions, cadherin-9 was expressed in the stroma of renal cell carcinoma, but not in the tumor cells themselves, and in renal fibrosis the percentage of cadherin-9-positive cells was clearly elevated 3 to 5 times compared to healthy kidney tissue. Induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition in renal epithelial cells with cyclosporin-A, which causes renal fibrosis as a side effect, induced cadherin-9 expression. Functional studies following siRNA-mediated knockdown of cadherin-9 revealed that it acts in the kidney like a typical classical cadherin. It was found to be associated with catenins and to mediate homophilic but not heterophilic cell interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Cadherin-9 represents a novel and reliable cell surface marker for fibroblasts in healthy and diseased kidneys. Together with the established marker molecules FSP1, CD45 and alpha smooth muscle actin, cadherin-9 can now be used to differentiate the heterogenic pool of renal fibroblasts into resident and activated fibroblasts, immigrated bone marrow derived fibroblast precursors and cells in different stages of epithelial mesenchymal transition.

  1. Improved renal function in advanced renal cell carcinoma patient by targeted therapy%多靶点药物治疗晚期肾癌肾功能改善的临床观察

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    张荣明; 沈周俊; 何威; 邵琨; 王浩飞; 赵菊平; 戴军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To report and analyze the renal function improvement in a case with ad-vanced bilateral renal cell carcinoma after targeted therapy. Methods The patient was a 60-year-old man who complained of lower back pain for 1 month. Ultrasound and CT scan detected bilateral renal masses, left lesion was 11.0 cm×9.4 cm×8.5 cm, and the right one was 3.5 cm×4.3 cm×4.1 cm. X-ray examination showed metastatic lesions in liver and lower right lung. GFR was 20.39 ml/min of left kidney, 25.40 ml/min of right kidney. The renal biopsy confirmed renal clear cell carcinoma. Sorafenib was administrated 400 mg twice or once daily for 12 weeks. Results After the targeted therapy, the decreased bilateral kidney tumor sizes were identified by CT scan. There was liquid nec-rosis in the tumor, and no new metastatic lesion detected. The kidney function was improved as well. The total GFR increased to 71.38 ml/min. Left kidney GFR increased to 31.57 ml/min, right kidney GFR increased to 39.81 ml/min, respectively. Conclusion Targeted therapy could improve renal function in advanced renal cell carcinoma cases by controlling tumor development.%目的 总结多靶点药物治疗1例晚期双肾癌患者肾功能改善的效果. 方法 晚期双肾癌患者1例,男,60岁.腰痛1个月.B超及CT检查提示双肾癌.左肾肿瘤11.0 cm×9.4 cm×8.5 cm,右肾肿瘤3.5 cm×4.3 cm×4.1 cm,肾穿刺活检诊断为肾透明细胞癌.X线检查示肝及右下肺转移灶.实验室检查:左肾肾小球滤过率(GFR)20.39 ml/min,右肾25.40 ml/min.予多靶点药物索拉非尼400 mg,1~2次/d口服,共治疗12周. 结果 经索拉非尼治疗12周后.CT检查示左肾肿瘤缩小至9.0 cm×8.5 cm×7.4 cm,右肾肿瘤缩小至3.0 cm×3.6 cm×4.0 cm,病灶内部见液化坏死,未见新的转移灶.总肾GFR由治疗前45.79 ml/min升至71.38 ml/min,左肾GFR 31.57ml/min,较治疗前提高11.18 ml/min,右肾GFR 39.81 ml/min,较治疗前提高14.41 ml/min. 结论 多靶点药物治疗晚期肾

  2. Proximal tubule epithelial cell specific ablation of the spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase gene reduces the severity of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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    Kamyar Zahedi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expression and activity of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT increases in kidneys subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, while its ablation reduces the severity of such injuries. These results suggest that increased SSAT levels contribute to organ injury; however, the role of SSAT specifically expressed in proximal tubule epithelial cells, which are the primary targets of I/R injury, in the mediation of renal damage remains unresolved. METHODS: Severity of I/R injury in wt and renal proximal tubule specific SSAT-ko mice (PT-SSAT-Cko subjected to bilateral renal I/R injury was assessed using cellular and molecular biological approaches. RESULTS: Severity of the loss of kidney function and tubular damage are reduced in PT-SSAT-Cko- compared to wt-mice after I/R injury. In addition, animals treated with MDL72527, an inhibitor of polyamine oxidases, had less severe renal damage than their vehicle treated counter-parts. The renal expression of HMGB 1 and Toll like receptors (TLR 2 and 4 were also reduced in PT-SSAT-Cko- compared to wt mice after I/R injury. Furthermore, infiltration of neutrophils, as well as expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6 transcripts were lower in the kidneys of PT-SSAT-Cko compared to wt mice after I/R injury. Finally, the activation of caspase3 was more pronounced in the wt compared to PT-SSAT-Cko animals. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced SSAT expression by proximal tubule epithelial cells leads to tubular damage, and its deficiency reduces the severity of renal I/R injury through reduction of cellular damage and modulation of the innate immune response.

  3. Decoy cells in the urine cytology of a renal transplant recipient: An immunohistochemical study

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    Pillai K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human polyoma virus causes renal dysfunction and graft loss as a result of tubulo-interstial nephritis in renal transplant recipients after reactivation of latent virus in renal epithelium. The infected cells in the urinary sediments are characterized by large homogenous inclusions, which may cause diagnostic error in urine cytology. The epithelial cells with polyoma viral inclusions in urine cytology specimens are termed Decoy cells to caution pathologists not to misdiagnose these cells as cancer cells. We present a case of polyoma viral changes detected the first time in our laboratory in the urine of a 46year old male who underwent renal transplantation six months back and followed by immunotherapy. Urine cytological examination showed decoy cells and subsequently revealed on histopathology. Immunoperoxidase staining for SV-40 LT antigen (LT ag, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, p53 and Rb genes were also studied in the tissue sections for further observation. The expression of SV40 LT ag was negative, while PCNA showed strong positivity; p53 and Rb were expressed moderately in the nuclei of cells in the tubules. The report of a case of decoy cells in the urine of a patient with renal transplantation focuses the importance of cytologic analysis of urine as a diagnostic tool for screening renal transplant recipients at risk of polyoma viral infection.

  4. Decoy cells in the urine cytology of a renal transplant recipient: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, K Raveendran; Jayasree, K; Pisharody, Ramdas; Abraham, Elizabeth K

    2010-01-01

    Human polyoma virus causes renal dysfunction and graft loss as a result of tubulo-interstial nephritis in renal transplant recipients after reactivation of latent virus in renal epithelium. The infected cells in the urinary sediments are characterized by large homogenous inclusions, which may cause diagnostic error in urine cytology. The epithelial cells with polyoma viral inclusions in urine cytology specimens are termed Decoy cells to caution pathologists not to misdiagnose these cells as cancer cells. We present a case of polyoma viral changes detected the first time in our laboratory in the urine of a 46year old male who underwent renal transplantation six months back and followed by immunotherapy. Urine cytological examination showed decoy cells and subsequently revealed on histopathology. Immunoperoxidase staining for SV-40 LT antigen (LT ag), expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53 and Rb genes were also studied in the tissue sections for further observation. The expression of SV40 LT ag was negative, while PCNA showed strong positivity; p53 and Rb were expressed moderately in the nuclei of cells in the tubules. The report of a case of decoy cells in the urine of a patient with renal transplantation focuses the importance of cytologic analysis of urine as a diagnostic tool for screening renal transplant recipients at risk of polyoma viral infection.

  5. Reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Pedersen, Shona; Kristensen, Søren Risom;

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant renal cell carcinoma and benign oncocytoma is of great importance to choose the optimal treatment. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of renal tumor is therefore crucial; however, existing imaging techniques and histologic examinations are incapable of providing an ...

  6. Genetic characteristics of the non-clear cell renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Mikhaylenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cancer (RC is one of the most frequent diseases in oncological urology; the most common form of RC is the clear cell carcinoma. However, percentage of less-studied non-clear cell RC (nccRC reaches up to 25 % of cases suggesting further studying, improvement of diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. The key events of carcinogenesis are genetic alterations including chromosomal aberrations and point mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. This review describes cytogenetic aberrations in the context of nccRC diversity according to the current ISUP classification. Translocation variants of nccRC (MiT-RC were characterized separately as particular cases of the chromosome rearrangements involving MiT gene family (TFE3, TFEB, MITF. In addition, the main nccRC hereditary forms caused by germinal mutations in the genes FLCN, FH, and MET, as well as recent studies of sporadic tumors with using the next generation sequencing techniques were reviewed. These experiments were designed to search for somatic mutations throughout the tumor genome or exom and revealed the different mutational profiles of I/II papillary RC subtypes, chromophobe carcinoma versus oncocytoma. The review may be informative for oncologists, urologists, geneticists and specialists in related sciences. 

  7. Renal Medullary Cancer in a Patient with Sickle Cell Trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendrakumar Alappan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal medullary cancer is a rare malignancy almost exclusively seen in young patients of African ethnicity. These patients often present with the cardinal symptoms of hematuria, flank pain, and an abdominal mass, and this malignancy has been associated with patients carrying sickle cell trait. It is estimated that 300 million people worldwide carry sickle cell trait, and the presence of hematuria in these patients should be treated as a harbinger of a possible malignancy. Notably, this tumor mostly develops on the right side of the body. Patients often present with it at an advanced stage and the prognosis is poor. Therefore, a high index of suspicion in a patient of African descent presenting with a right sided abdominal mass and hematuria may assist in an early diagnosis. Current chemotherapy options are very limited, and early detection may provide a chance for surgical resection. It may also provide a bigger time frame for the initiation of novel chemotherapy regimens in patients who fail current chemotherapy regimens.

  8. Renal medullary cancer in a patient with sickle cell trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alappan, Narendrakumar; Marak, Creticus P; Chopra, Amit; Joy, Parijat S; Dorokhova, Olena; Guddati, Achuta K

    2013-01-01

    Renal medullary cancer is a rare malignancy almost exclusively seen in young patients of African ethnicity. These patients often present with the cardinal symptoms of hematuria, flank pain, and an abdominal mass, and this malignancy has been associated with patients carrying sickle cell trait. It is estimated that 300 million people worldwide carry sickle cell trait, and the presence of hematuria in these patients should be treated as a harbinger of a possible malignancy. Notably, this tumor mostly develops on the right side of the body. Patients often present with it at an advanced stage and the prognosis is poor. Therefore, a high index of suspicion in a patient of African descent presenting with a right sided abdominal mass and hematuria may assist in an early diagnosis. Current chemotherapy options are very limited, and early detection may provide a chance for surgical resection. It may also provide a bigger time frame for the initiation of novel chemotherapy regimens in patients who fail current chemotherapy regimens.

  9. Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: Unusual Variant Masquerading as Upper Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Akhavein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 gene located at the Xp11.2 locus. Initial cases were more common in children, but cases in older adults have begun to accrue and suggest a relatively more aggressive course. We report a case of Xp11 TRCC in a 63-year-old female patient with initial presentation mimicking upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma, with biopsy proving TRCC. She underwent a radical nephrectomy and paracaval lymph node dissection and is followed up with the intent to initiate vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy in case of recurrence.

  10. Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, N; Lee, K; Yegappan, M

    2007-11-01

    Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 30-year-old man with end-stage renal failure, who sustained this injury, and subsequently had surgical repair of both tendons on separate occasions. He has since regained full range of movement of both knees.

  11. Trisacryl Gelatin Microembolism and Metastases in the Lung after Renal Artery Embolization and Nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Borja Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report, to our knowledge, of widespread, histologically confirmed trisacryl gelatin pulmonary microembolism after renal artery embolization (RAE. In addition, this is the first report of lung involvement by both metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC and an embolic agent used for RAE. The patient was a 63-year-old woman who recently presented with both dyspnea on exertion and productive cough. Her past medical history included clear cell RCC, which was treated with preoperative trisacryl gelatin microsphere RAE and right nephrectomy 9 years earlier. Computed tomography of the chest showed multiple lung nodules, a mass-like density in the left lower lobe, and mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Wedge resections of the lung showed multiple foci of metastatic RCC and extensive involvement of the muscular pulmonary arteries by trisacryl gelatin microspheres.

  12. LMP2, a novel immunohistochemical marker to distinguish renal oncocytoma from the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Chaux, Alcides; Sharma, Rajni; Netto, George; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2013-02-01

    LMP2 is a subunit of the immunoproteasome that is overexpressed in oncocytic lesions of the thyroid gland. This study was designed to assess the expression profile and diagnostic utility of LMP2 in two renal oncocytic tumors that share similar morphologic features but have different clinical outcomes: renal oncocytoma (RO) and the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CHRCC-EO). A total of 56 RO, 38 classic CHRCC, and 7 CHRCC-EO cases, as well 84 normal kidney controls, were selected from the Johns Hopkins surgical pathology archive and stained for LMP2 using a standard immunohistochemical protocol. Sections were scored for cellular location (nuclear versus cytosolic), intensity (from 0 to 3), and percent of area involved (from 0 to 100%), and an H score was calculated multiplying the intensity by the extent of the staining signal. The cytoplasmic expression of LMP2 was similar among the renal lesions, being present in 44 of 56 (79%) ROs, 27 of 38 (71%) CHRCCs, and 7 of 7 (100%) CHRCC-EO cases. The nuclear expression of LMP2, however, was more informative. All CHRCC-EO cases (7 of 7, 100%) strongly showed nuclear LMP2 staining, as opposed to only 2 of 56 (4%, P<0.0001) ROs and 9 of 38 (24%, P=0.0001) classic CHRCCs. These results suggest that the nuclear LMP2 expression can be used in clinical scenarios where histological distinction between RO and CHRCC-EO remains challenging.

  13. Neovascularity as a prognostic marker in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Tyler M; Huang, Wei; Lee, Moon Hee; Abel, E Jason

    2016-11-01

    Endothelial markers platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), cluster of differentiation (CD31) and endoglin (CD105) may be used to identify endothelium and activated endothelium, respectively, with the CD105/CD31 ratio used to measure neovascularity. This study investigated the hypothesis that neovascularity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with more aggressive RCC tumors and can be used to predict oncological outcomes. Multiplexed immunohistochemistry using antibodies to detect endoglin and PECAM-1 was performed on tissue microarray of benign kidney samples and RCC tumors including clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, and collecting duct and unclassified tumors (combined for statistics), and multispectral imaging was used for analysis. The CD105/CD31 ratio was compared with clinical and pathologic features of RCC as well as clinical outcomes after surgery using Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. A total of 502 tumor samples and 122 normal kidney samples from 251 RCC patients were analyzed. The average CD105/CD31 expression ratio, an indicator of neovascularization, was increased in higher pathologic stage tumors (P< .0001). Among RCC morphotypes, the ratio was lower in papillary RCC morphotype tumors (P= .001) and higher in collecting duct/unclassified tumors (P= .0001) compared with clear cell RCC. Among nuclear grades, grade 4 RCC displayed a significantly elevated CD105/CD31 ratio (P< .0001). In multivariable analysis, increased neovascularity was associated with decreased overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.54 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.23]; P= .02). In patients receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy (VEGF, n = 13) for metastatic RCC, a low CD105/CD31 ratio was associated with increased survival (P= .02). We conclude that higher neovascularity is associated with worse outcomes after surgery for RCC. The ratio of CD105/CD31 expression is a potential indicator of response to anti

  14. The proximal tubular cell, a key player in renal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmeren, Mirjan Miranda van

    2008-01-01

    A decline in renal function is associated with the degree of proteinuria and with histological findings of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Proteinuria is not only a marker of renal damage, but ultrafiltered proteins can be toxic to the kidney, thereby contributing to tubulo-interstitia

  15. Bone marrow-derived cells in renal repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Martine

    2007-01-01

    The kidney can recover after acute renal injury due to its highly effective endogenous regenerative capacity. However, under certain conditions the balance between injury and repair can get disturbed. This can ultimately lead to chronic renal failure, which is an increasing problem in the clinical s

  16. Ipsilateral versus bilateral limb-training in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells following cerebral infarction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiyao Yang; Feng Zhu; Xiaomei Zhang; Zhuo Gao; Yunpeng Cao

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ipsilateral versus bilateral limb-training on promotion of endogenous neural stem cells in the peripheral infarct zone and the corresponding cerebral region in the unaffected hemisphere of rats with cerebral infarction. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in Wistar rats. The rat forelimb on the unaffected side was either wrapped up with tape to force the use of the paretic forelimb in rats or not braked to allow bilateral forelimbs to participate in training. Daily training consisted of mesh drum training, balance beam training, and stick rolling training for a total of 40 minutes, once per day. Control rats received no training. At 14 days after functional training, rats receiving bilateral limb-training exhibited milder neurological impairment than that in the ipsilateral limb-training group or the control group. The number of nestin/glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive and nestin/microtubule-associated protein 2-positive cells in the peripheral infarct zone and in the corresponding cerebral region in the unaffected hemisphere was significantly higher in rats receiving bilateral limb-training than in rats receiving ipsilateral limb-training. These data suggest that bilateral limb-training can promote the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells in the bilateral hemispheres after cerebral infarction and accelerate the recovery of neurologic function. In addition, bilateral limb-training produces better therapeutic effects than ipsilateral limb-training.

  17. Differentiations of transplanted mouse spermatogonial stem cells in the adult mouse renal parenchyma in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-peng WU; Da-lin HE; Xiang LI; Zhao-hui LIU

    2008-01-01

    Aim:Spermatogonial stem cells can initiate the process of cellular differentia-tion to generate mature spermatozoa, but whether it possess the characteristic of pluripotency and plasticity, similar to embryonic stem cells, has not been elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate the differentiation potential of spermatogonial stem cells into renal cells in vivo. Methods: Neonatal mouse spermatogonial stem cells were transplanted into mature male mice lacking en-dogenous spermatogenesis. The restoration of fertility in recipient males was observed. Spermatogonial stem cells were then injected into renal parenchyma of mature female mice to make a new extracellular environment for differentia-tion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technology (FISH) was used to detect the expression of chromosome Y in recipient renal tissues. To determine the type of cells differentiated from spermatogonial stem cells, the expression of ricinus communis agglutinin, vimentin, CD45, and F4/80 proteins were examined in the renal tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results: The proliferation of seminiferous epithelial cells was distinctly observed in seminiferous tubules of transplanted testes, whereas no regeneration of spermatogenesis was observed in non-transplanted control testes. In transplanted female renal tissues, FISH showed a much stronger immuno-fluorescence signal of chromosome Y in the nucleolus of epithelial cells of the renal tubule and podocytes of the glomerulus. Conclusion: The spermatogonial stem cells were successfully purified from mouse testicles. This finding demonstrated that spermatogonial stem cells could not only restore damaged spermatogenesis, but were also capable of differentiat-ing into mature renal parenchyma cells in vivo.

  18. Perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in patients with dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kaori; Ito, Fumio; Nakazawa, Hayakazu

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in patients with dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease and (ii) to reveal perioperative management problems that are unique to these patients. Between June 2004 and June 2011, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed in 39 patients who had renal cell carcinoma and dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease. The operative outcomes of these patients were compared with the operative outcomes of 104 non-end-stage renal disease patients with sporadic renal cell carcinoma who underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy during the same period. Laparoscopic surgery was completed in thirty-eight end-stage renal disease patients. One patient was converted to open surgery because of an intraoperative injury to the inferior vena cava. This patient was excluded from the analysis. The mean operative time was 240 min; blood loss, 157 mL; and postoperative hospital stay, 9.6 days. Postoperative complications were observed in six patients, as follows: retroperitoneal hematoma and abscess in one patient, thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in three patients, pneumonia in one patient, and gastrointestinal bleeding in one patient. Eleven patients required blood transfusions. There was no significant difference between the end-stage renal disease patients and the non-end-stage renal disease patients in the mean operative time or the amount of blood loss. In conclusion, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is feasible for dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease patients, as well as for non-end-stage renal disease patients; however, end-stage renal disease patients may have a higher probability of experiencing non-life-threatening complications.

  19. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with hemangioblastoma-like features: A recently described pattern with unusual immunohistochemical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankalp Sancheti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma may sometimes pose challenges because of the presence of uncharacteristic morphology, varied immunophenotypic patterns and due to lack of molecular or genetic determinants. More often, the morphological variations can be easily overlooked in routine practice and a more common diagnosis is usually put forward. Solid, acinar and alveolar are the common patterns described in the literature. We report a recently described pattern of clear cell renal cell carcinoma which has hemangioblastoma-like morphology and an unusual immunoprofile. In our case, the tumor showed a diffuse hemangioblastoma-like pattern and diffuse positivity for Alpha-inhibin on immunohistochemistry. A thorough literature search, extensive sampling and an expanded immunohistochemistry panel revealed a clear cell renal cell carcinoma component. Presence of renal vein thrombosis and focal necrosis were other helpful features in discerning the malignant nature of tumor.

  20. Synchronous sigmoid and caecal cancers together with a primary renal cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhargava, A

    2012-06-01

    Multiple primary neoplasms, a common clinical entity, can be classified as synchronous or metachronous. Renal cell carcinoma, in particular, is associated with a high rate of multiple primary neoplasms.

  1. Atypical presentation of primary renal squamous cell cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Pahwa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renal squamous cell cancer is one of the rare primary urothelial tumors with only a handful of cases reported in literature. Because of high grade, advanced and late presentation, they herald a grave prognosis. They are frequently associated with calculus disease, smoking, phenacetin consumption and foci of squamous metaplasia due to chronic irritation. Nephroureterectomy is the treatment of choice for such tumors. We hereby present a case of 59 year old female who presented with squamous cell cancer of renal pelvis. The case presented here is different from what has already been reported in literature, as the patient had no antecedent risk factors for renal squamous cell carcinoma.-------------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Pahwa M, Pahwa AR, Girotra M, Chawla A. Atypical presentation of primary renal squamous cell cancer: a case report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:02015.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.5

  2. Cadmium and cisplatin damage erythropoietin-producing proximal renal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Kayama, Fujio [Jichi Medical School, Division of Environmental Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Tochigi (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science Technology Corporation (CREST-JST), Saitama (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    The concomitant manifestations of proximal renal tubular dysfunction and anemia with erythropoietin (Epo) deficiency observed in chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication, such as Itai-itai disease, suggest a close local correlation between the Cd-targeted tubular cells and Epo-producing cells in the kidney. Therefore, we investigated the local relationship between hypoxia-induced Epo production and renal tubular injury in rats injected with Cd at 2 mg/kg twice a week for 8 months. Anemia due to insufficient production of Epo was observed in Cd-intoxicated rats. In situ hybridization detected Epo mRNA expression in the proximal renal tubular cells of hypoxic rats without Cd intoxication, and the Cd-intoxicated rats showed atrophy of Epo-expressing renal tubules and replacement of them with fibrotic tissue. A single dose of cisplatin at 8 mg/kg, which can induce clinical manifestations similar to those of Cd including renal tubular damage along with Epo-deficient anemia, resulted in Epo-expressing renal tubule destruction on day 4. These data indicate that Cd and cisplatin would induce anemia through the direct injury of the proximal renal tubular cells that are responsible for Epo production. (orig.)

  3. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare lesion composed of smooth muscle cells, adipose tissue and abnormal vessels. It is currently classified as a benign, non-epithelial renal tumor. It has a high incidence in patients suffering from tuberous sclerosis but is more frequently found as an isolated renal...

  4. Usefulness of resistive index on spectral Doppler ultrasonography in the detection of renal cell carcinoma in patients with end-stage renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Youn; Woo, Sung Min; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sung Il; Lee, Hak Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of adiology, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of the resistive index (RI) on spectral Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Seventeen ESRD patients with kidneys in which renal masses were suspected in routine US were subjected. They underwent computed tomography scans and additional Doppler US for the characterization of the detected lesions. All underwent radical nephrectomy with the suspicion of RCC. Fourteen patients finally were included. RI measurements were conducted in the region of the suspected renal mass and the background renal parenchyma. The intra class correlation coefficient was used to assess the reproducibility of the RI measurement. A paired t-test was used to compare the RI values between the renal mass and the background renal parenchyma (P<0.05). The RI values measured at the RCCs were significantly lower than those measured at the background renal parenchyma (0.41-0.65 vs. 0.75-0.89; P<0.001). The intrareader reproducibility proved to be excellent and good for the renal masses and the parenchyma, respectively (P<0.001). RI on spectral Doppler US is useful in detecting RCC in patients with ESRD. The RI values measured at the RCCs were significantly lower than those measured at the background renal parenchyma.

  5. Rate of renal cell carcinoma subtypes in different races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sankin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We sought to identify racial differences among histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC between black and non-black patients in an equal-access health care system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established a multi-institutional, prospective database of patients undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy between January 1, 2000 and Sept 31, 2009. For the purposes of this study, data captured included age at diagnosis, race, tumor size, presence of lymphovascular invasion, presence of capsular invasion, margin status, and tumor histology. RESULTS: 204 kidney tumors were identified (Table-1. Of these, 117 (57.4% were in black patients and 87 (42.6% were in non-black patients. Age at surgery ranged from 37 to 87 with a median of 62. Tumor size ranged from 1.0 to 22.0 cm with a median of 5.0 cm. Overall, tumors were composed of clear cell RCC in 97 cases (47.5%, papillary RCC in 65 cases (31.9%, chromophobe RCC in 13 cases (6.4%, collecting duct/medullary RCC in 2 cases (1.0%, RCC with multiple histological subtypes in 8 cases (3.9%, malignant tumors of other origin in 6 cases (2.9%, and benign histology in 13 cases (6.4%. Among black patients, papillary RCC was seen in 56 cases (47.9%, compared to 9 cases (10.3% among non-black patients (p < 0.001 (Table-2. Clear cell RCC was present in 38 (32.5% of black patients and in 59 (67.8% of non-blacks (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, papillary RCC had a much higher occurrence among black patients compared to non-black patients. This is the first study to document such a great racial disparity among RCC subtypes.

  6. Epidemiologic characteristics of renal cell carcinoma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo C. Nardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In Brazil, National data regarding the epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics of RCC diagnosed and treated by members of the SBU - Brazilian Society of Urology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, data were collected through an on line questionnaire available to the members of the Brazilian Society of Urology (SBU. Between May 2007 and May 2008, voluntary participant urologists collected data on demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics from patients diagnosed with RCC in their practice. RESULTS: Fifty SBU affiliated institutions contributed with patient information to the study. Of the 508 patients, 58.9% were male, 78.9% were white, and the mean age was 59.8 years. Smoking history, high blood pressure and a body mass index above 30 kg/m2 were present in 14.8%, 46.1% and 17.9% of the patients, respectively. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography were the main diagnostic methods. The majority of the cases were localized tumors and metastasis were presented in 9.5% of the patients; 98.4% underwent nephrectomy. Clear cell carcinoma was the most common histological type. In comparison with private institutions, stage IV disease was less frequent among patients treated at public health services (P = 0.033. CONCLUSIONS: RCC in Brazil is more common in white men in their sixth decade of life. Ultrasound is the main diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma and we found that localized disease was predominant. A national registry of RCC is feasible and may provide valuable information.

  7. Cardiac metastasis from renal cell carcinoma successfully treated with pazopanib: impact of TKIs' antiangiogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Giovanni; Monterisi, Santa; Signorelli, Diego; Cona, Silvia; Cassano, Alessandra; Danza, Francesco; Barone, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac metastasis from renal cell carcinoma, especially without neoplastic thrombosis of the vena cava, is extremely rare. The prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma has been radically influenced by the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but very few reports in the literature have described their activity in heart metastasis. We report the case of a woman with a left ventricle metastasis from kidney cancer without renal vein involvement, who was treated with pazopanib. The patient achieved a prolonged partial response, with clear signs of metastasis devascularization and a favorable toxicity profile.

  8. Auxin induces cell proliferation in an experimental model of mammalian renal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernaro, Valeria; Medici, Maria Antonietta; Leonello, Giuseppa; Buemi, Antoine; Kohnke, Franz Heinrich; Villari, Antonino; Santoro, Domenico; Buemi, Michele

    2015-06-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is the main auxin produced by plants and plays a key role in the plant growth and development. This hormone is also present in humans where it is considered as a uremic toxin deriving from tryptophan metabolism. However, beyond this peculiar aspect, the involvement of auxin in human pathophysiology has not been further investigated. Since it is a growth hormone, we evaluated its proliferative properties in an in vitro model of mammalian renal tubular epithelial cells. We employed an experimental model of renal tubular epithelial cells belonging to the LLC-PK1 cell line that is derived from the kidney of healthy male pig. Growth effects of auxin against LLC-PK1 cell lines were determined by a rapid colorimetric assay. Increasing concentrations of auxin (to give a final concentration from 1 to 1000 ng/mL) were added and microplates were incubated for 72 h. Each auxin concentration was assayed in four wells and repeated four times. Cell proliferation significantly increased, compared to control cells, 72 h after addition of auxin to cultured LLC-PK1 cells. Statistically significant values were observed when 100 ng/mL (p auxin influences cell growth not only in plants, where its role is well documented, but also in mammalian cell lines. This observation opens new scenarios in the field of tissue regeneration and may stimulate a novel line of research aiming at investigating whether this hormone really influences human physiology and pathophysiology and in particular, kidney regeneration.

  9. DNA damage response in renal ischemia-reperfusion and ATP-depletion injury of renal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhengwei; Wei, Qingqing; Dong, Guie; Huo, Yuqing; Dong, Zheng

    2014-07-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion leads to acute kidney injury (AKI) that is characterized pathologically by tubular damage and cell death, followed by tubular repair, atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Recent work suggested the possible presence of DNA damage response (DDR) in AKI. However, the evidence is sketchy and the role and regulation of DDR in ischemic AKI remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated the induction of phosphorylation of ATM, H2AX, Chk2 and p53 during renal ischemia-reperfusion in mice, suggesting DDR in kidney tissues. DDR was also induced in vitro during the recovery or "reperfusion" of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) after ATP depletion. DDR in RPTCs was abrogated by supplying glucose to maintain ATP via glycolysis, indicating that the DDR depends on ATP depletion. The DDR was also suppressed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD and the overexpression of Bcl-2, supporting a role of apoptosis-associated DNA damage in the DDR. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, suppressed the phosphorylation of ATM and p53 and, to a less extent, Chk2, but NAC increased the phosphorylation and nuclear foci formation of H2AX. Interestingly, NAC increased apoptosis, which may account for the observed H2AX activation. Ku55933, an ATM inhibitor, blocked ATM phosphorylation and ameliorated the phosphorylation of Chk2 and p53, but it increased H2AX phosphorylation and nuclear foci formation. Ku55933 also increased apoptosis in RPTCs following ATP depletion. The results suggest that DDR occurs during renal ischemia-reperfusion in vivo and ATP-depletion injury in vitro. The DDR is partially induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress-related DNA damage. ATM, as a sensor in the DDR, may play a cytoprotective role against tubular cell injury and death.

  10. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Parotid Gland in the Setting of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

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    Robert Deeb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is infamous for its unpredictable behavior and metastatic potential. We report a case of a patient with a complex history of multifocal renal cell carcinoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, who subsequently developed a parotid mass. Total parotidectomy revealed this mass to be an additional site of metastasis which had developed 19 years after his initial diagnosis of RCC.

  11. Hyponatremia as a prognostic and predictive factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, A N; Jensen, H K; Donskov, Frede;

    2010-01-01

    Low serum sodium has recently been associated with poor survival in localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We now show the prognostic effect of serum sodium in patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC).......Low serum sodium has recently been associated with poor survival in localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We now show the prognostic effect of serum sodium in patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC)....

  12. The importance of histology and cytogenetics in decision making for renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Julia G; Picken, Maria M; Flanigan, Robert C

    2008-04-01

    The role of histology and cytogenetics in the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma continues to evolve. The symbiotic relationship between histology and cytogenetics helps assure the most accurate diagnosis. Prognostic factors are known and continue to be undiscovered. Patient counseling certainly benefits from this information. Further knowledge and differentiation of renal cell carcinoma disease pathways has allowed for the development of targeted therapies. The benefit of these therapies hinges on the critical diagnosis attained via the role of histology and cytogenetics.

  13. Renal Impairment with Sublethal Tubular Cell Injury in a Chronic Liver Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tokiko; Kotani, Hirokazu; Miyao, Masashi; Kawai, Chihiro; Jemail, Leila; Abiru, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of renal impairment in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) has been primarily studied in the advanced stages of hepatic injury. Meanwhile, the pathology of renal impairment in the early phase of CLDs is poorly understood, and animal models to elucidate its mechanisms are needed. Thus, we investigated whether an existing mouse model of CLD induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) shows renal impairment in the early phase. Renal injury markers, renal histology (including immunohistochemistry for tubular injury markers and transmission electron microscopy), autophagy, and oxidative stress were studied longitudinally in DDC- and standard diet-fed BALB/c mice. Slight but significant renal dysfunction was evident in DDC-fed mice from the early phase. Meanwhile, histological examinations of the kidneys with routine light microscopy did not show definitive morphological findings, and electron microscopic analyses were required to detect limited injuries such as loss of brush border microvilli and mitochondrial deformities. Limited injuries have been recently designated as sublethal tubular cell injury. As humans with renal impairment, either with or without CLD, often show almost normal tubules, sublethal injury has been of particular interest. In this study, the injuries were associated with mitochondrial aberrations and oxidative stress, a possible mechanism for sublethal injury. Intriguingly, two defense mechanisms were associated with this injury that prevent it from progressing to apparent cell death: autophagy and single-cell extrusion with regeneration. Furthermore, the renal impairment of this model progressed to chronic kidney disease with interstitial fibrosis after long-term DDC feeding. These findings indicated that DDC induces renal impairment with sublethal tubular cell injury from the early phase, leading to chronic kidney disease. Importantly, this CLD mouse model could be useful for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms of

  14. Renal Impairment with Sublethal Tubular Cell Injury in a Chronic Liver Disease Mouse Model.

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    Tokiko Ishida

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of renal impairment in chronic liver diseases (CLDs has been primarily studied in the advanced stages of hepatic injury. Meanwhile, the pathology of renal impairment in the early phase of CLDs is poorly understood, and animal models to elucidate its mechanisms are needed. Thus, we investigated whether an existing mouse model of CLD induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC shows renal impairment in the early phase. Renal injury markers, renal histology (including immunohistochemistry for tubular injury markers and transmission electron microscopy, autophagy, and oxidative stress were studied longitudinally in DDC- and standard diet-fed BALB/c mice. Slight but significant renal dysfunction was evident in DDC-fed mice from the early phase. Meanwhile, histological examinations of the kidneys with routine light microscopy did not show definitive morphological findings, and electron microscopic analyses were required to detect limited injuries such as loss of brush border microvilli and mitochondrial deformities. Limited injuries have been recently designated as sublethal tubular cell injury. As humans with renal impairment, either with or without CLD, often show almost normal tubules, sublethal injury has been of particular interest. In this study, the injuries were associated with mitochondrial aberrations and oxidative stress, a possible mechanism for sublethal injury. Intriguingly, two defense mechanisms were associated with this injury that prevent it from progressing to apparent cell death: autophagy and single-cell extrusion with regeneration. Furthermore, the renal impairment of this model progressed to chronic kidney disease with interstitial fibrosis after long-term DDC feeding. These findings indicated that DDC induces renal impairment with sublethal tubular cell injury from the early phase, leading to chronic kidney disease. Importantly, this CLD mouse model could be useful for studying the

  15. Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

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    Rachna Raman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC is often curable by surgery alone. However, metastatic RCC is generally incurable. In the 1990s, immunotherapy in the form of cytokines was the mainstay of treatment for metastatic RCC. However, responses were seen in only a minority of highly selected patients with substantial treatment-related toxicities. The advent of targeted agents such as vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors VEGF-TKIs and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors led to a change in this paradigm due to improved response rates and progression-free survival, a better safety profile, and the convenience of oral administration. However, most patients ultimately progress with about 12% being alive at 5 years. In contrast, durable responses lasting 10 years or more are noted in a minority of those treated with cytokines. More recently, an improved overall survival with newer forms of immunotherapy in other malignancies (such as melanoma and prostate cancer has led to a resurgence of interest in immune therapies in metastatic RCC. In this review we discuss the rationale for immunotherapy and recent developments in immunotherapeutic strategies for treating metastatic RCC.

  16. CRM1 inhibitor S109 suppresses cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest in renal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejiao; Chong, Yulong; Liu, Huize; Han, Yan; Niu, Mingshan

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal localization of tumor suppressor proteins is a common feature of renal cancer. Nuclear export of these tumor suppressor proteins is mediated by chromosome region maintenance-1 (CRM1). Here, we investigated the antitumor eff ects of a novel reversible inhibitor of CRM1 on renal cancer cells. We found that S109 inhibits the CRM1-mediated nuclear export of RanBP1 and reduces protein levels of CRM1. Furthermore, the inhibitory eff ect of S109 on CRM1 is reversible. Our data demonstrated that S109 signifi cantly inhibits proliferation and colony formation of renal cancer cells. Cell cycle assay showed that S109 induced G1-phase arrest, followed by the reduction of Cyclin D1 and increased expression of p53 and p21. We also found that S109 induces nuclear accumulation of tumor suppressor proteins, Foxo1 and p27. Most importantly, mutation of CRM1 at Cys528 position abolished the eff ects of S109. Taken together, our results indicate that CRM1 is a therapeutic target in renal cancer and the novel reversible CRM1 inhibitor S109 can act as a promising candidate for renal cancer therapy.

  17. An obscure cause of gastrointestinal bleeding: Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn L. Gorski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the small intestine is a rare condition. It usually results in gastrointestinal bleeding and it could happen many years after the diagnosis with renal cell cancer. Treatment includes surgery as well as targeted agents such as tyrosine kinases. We report here the case of an 82-year-old man with a past medical history of high-grade renal cell carcinoma and right nephrectomy 6 years earlier, who presented with recurrent episodes of syncope and black stools. He underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy without evident source of bleeding. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE showed three bleeding lesions in the jejunum and ileum. Push enteroscopy revealed a proximal jejunum bleeding mass that was suspicious for malignancy. Histopathology demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinoma. Given the patient’s history of high-grade renal cell carcinoma, and similarity of histologic changes to the old renal cell cancer specimen, metastatic renal cell carcinoma was felt to be the responsible etiology.

  18. Continuous production of erythropoietin by an established human renal carcinoma cell line: development of the cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, J.B.; Shouval, D.

    1986-01-01

    Establishment of a stable, transformed human renal carcinoma cell line that produces erythropoietin in vitro and has maintained this function continuously since 1981 and for > 150 passages in monolayer culture was accomplished by transplantation of human renal clear cell carcinoma tissue from a patient with erythrocytosis into an immunosuppressed athymic mouse. In addition to its immunocrossreactivity with native human urinary erythropoietin, the tumor erythropoietin demonstrates biological activity in the in vitro mouse erythroid colony-forming unit assay and in tumor-bearing nude mice. The cloned renal carcinoma cell line has an abnormal human karyotype and has ultrastructural features characteristic of human renal clear cell carcinoma. This cell line provides a reproducible model system for the production of an erythropoietin-like material and for the study of its synthesis and secretion.

  19. Mecanismos del daño celular en la insuficiencia renal aguda Mechanisms of cell damage in acute renal failure

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    José Martínez

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Los mecanismos del da no celular en la insuficiencia renal aguda Incluyen alteraciones en la producción de energía, la permeabilidad celular y el transporte de calcio. Dichas alteraciones producen cambios progresivos en la estructura celular que pueden ser reversibles si desaparece la causa que llevó a la falla renal, excepto cuando se alcanza la fase final de la lesión de la membrana y se llega a necrosis celular. Este mismo fenómeno probablemente ocurre tambIén en situaciones clínicas.

    The mechanisms of cellular damage In acute renal failure Include alterations In energy production, cell membrane permeability and calcium transport. These changes lead to progressive damage of the whole cellular structure which In general can be reversible If the precipitating cause disappears, except when the final stages of cell membrane lesion take place and cellular necrosis has occurred. This phenomenon probably applies for the clinical settling as well.

  20. Interventions to improve chronic cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity through inhibiting renal cell apoptosis: a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zheng; LI Cheng-wen; SHAN Juan; LUO Lei; FENG Li; LU Jun; LI Sheng-fu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To reveal interventions for chronic cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity (CCN) and provide new targets for further studies,we analyzed all relevant studies about interventions in renal cell apoptosis.Data sources We collected all relevant studies about interventions for cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced renal cell apoptosis in Medline (1966 to July 2010),Embase (1980 to July 2010) and ISI (1986 to July 2010),evaluated their quality,extracted data following PICOS principles and synthesized the data.Study selection We included all relevant studies about interventions in CsA-induced renal cell apoptosis no limitation of research design and language) and excluded the duplicated articles,meeting abstracts and reviews without specific data.Results There were three kinds of intervention,include anti-oxidant (sulfated polysaccharides,tea polyphenols,apigenin,curcumin,spirulina,etc),biologics (recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO),a murine pan-specific transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-neutralizing monoclonal antibody1D11,cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-angiopoietin-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene),and other drugs (spironolactone,rosiglitazone,pirfenidone and colchicine).These interventions significantly improved the CCN,renal cell apoptosis and renal dysfunction through intervening in four apoptotic pathways in animals or protected renal cells from apoptosis induced by CsA and increased cell survival through respectively four pathways in vitro.Conclusions There are three group interventions for CCN.Especially anti-oxidant drugs can significantly improve CCN,renal cell apoptosis and renal dysfunction.Many drugs can improve CCN through intervening in Fas/Fas ligand or mitochondrial pathway with sufficient evidences.Angiotensin Ⅱ,nitric oxide (NO) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathways will be new targets for CCN.

  1. Splenic and portal vein thrombosis in pancreatic metastasis from Renal cell carcinoma

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    Loos Martin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic metastases from previously treated renal cell carcinoma are uncommon. Surgical resection of pancreatic metastasis remains the only worthwhile modality of treatment. Case presentation A case where pancreatic metastasis from previously resected right sided renal cell carcinoma was resected with a subtotal left pancreatectomy is described. An unusual feature was the presence of a large splenic vein tumor thrombus extending into the portal vein with associated portal hypertension. The patient underwent an uneventful portal vein resection with primary anastomosis. Conclusion This is possibly the first documented case of portal vein renal tumor thrombosis in a case of isolated pancreatic metastasis from previously operated renal cell carcinoma in published world surgical literature.

  2. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: Comprehensive analysis of 11 cases

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    Rajendra B Nerli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC is a subtype of RCC. chRCC is diagnosed mainly in sixth decade of life. An incidence of chRCC is similar in both men and woman. Eighty-six percent of chRCCs cases are diagnosed in early stages. To analyze the clinical behavior of chRCC, we retrospectively evaluated the data from our hospital. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, clinical presentation, prognosis, and clinical outcome of chRCC in a retrospective series of nephrectomy specimens. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively looked at our hospital database, which included 318 patients who had undergone surgery for RCC between January 2000 and December 2013. Several parameters were noted in each patient, which included age, sex, symptoms at presentation, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, tumor diameter, tumor node metastasis stage and grade, histologic cell type, follow-up time, local recurrence, disease progression, and death. Results: Of 318 patients included in the database, 11 (3.45% had chRCC. Preoperatively, 9 (81% had T1 lesions, and the remaining 2 (18.9% had T2 lesions. Of the T1 lesions, 6 had tumors ≤4 cm (T1a in diameter and the remaining 3 had tumors >4 cm (T1b in diameter. The mean survival of the patients was 99.27 ΁ 27 months. Conclusions: Our series confirms a favorable outcome for the chRCC subtype with little local aggressiveness and a low propensity for progression and death from cancer.

  3. The ISUP system of staging, grading and classification of renal cell neoplasia

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    Hemamali Samaratunga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been significant changes in the staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia in recent times. Major changes have occurred in our understanding of extra-renal extension by renal cell cancer and how gross specimens must be handled to optimally display extra-renal spread. Since the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO classification of renal tumors, in which only a handful of different entities were reported, many new morphological types have been described in the literature, resulting in 50 different entities reported in the 2004 WHO classification. Since 2004, further new entities have been recognized and reported necessitating an update of the renal tumor classification. There have also been numerous grading systems for renal cell carcinoma with Fuhrman grading, the most widely used system. In recent times, the prognostic value and the applicability of the Fuhrman grading system in practice has been shown to be, at best, suboptimal. To address these issues and to recommend reporting guidelines, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP undertook a review of adult renal neoplasia through an international consensus conference in Vancouver in 2012. The conduct of the conference was based upon evidence from the literature and the current practice amongst recognized experts in the field. Working groups selected to deal with key topics evaluated current data and identified points of controversy. A pre-meeting survey of the ISUP membership was followed by the consensus conference at which a formal ballot was taken on each key issue. A 65% majority vote was taken as consensus. This review summarizes the outcome and recommendations of this conference with regards to staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia.

  4. H-ras-transformed NRK-52E renal epithelial cells have altered growth, morphology, and cytoskeletal structure that correlates with renal cell carcinoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, C J; Tanzer, L R; Phelps, P C; Merriman, R L; Boder, G G; Trump, B F; Elliget, K A

    1999-04-01

    We studied the effect of the ras oncogene on the growth kinetics, morphology, cytoskeletal structure, and tumorigenicity of the widely used NRK-52E rat kidney epithelial cell line and two H-ras oncogene-transformed cell lines, H/1.2-NRK-52E (H/1.2) and H/6.1-NRK-52E (H/6.1). Population doubling times of NRK-52E, H/1.2, and H/6.1 cells were 28, 26, and 24 h, respectively, with the transformed cells reaching higher saturation densities than the parent cells. NRK-52E cells had typical epithelial morphology with growth in colonies. H/1.2 and H/6.1 cell colonies were more closely packed, highly condensed, and had increased plasma membrane ruffling compared to parent cell colonies. NRK-52E cells showed microfilament, microtubule, and intermediate filament networks typical of epithelial cells, while H/1.2 and H/6.1 cells showed altered cytoskeleton architecture, with decreased stress fibers and increased microtubule and intermediate filament staining at the microtubule organizing center. H/1.2 and H/6.1 cells proliferated in an in vitro soft agar transformation assay, indicating anchorage-independence, and rapidly formed tumors in vivo with characteristics of renal cell carcinoma, including mixed populations of sarcomatoid, granular, and clear cells. H/6.1 cells consistently showed more extensive alterations of growth kinetics, morphology, and cytoskeleton than H/1.2 cells, and formed tumors of a more aggressive phenotype. These data suggest that analysis of renal cell characteristics in vitro may have potential in predicting tumor behavior in vivo, and significantly contribute to the utility of these cell lines as in vitro models for examining renal epithelial cell biology and the role of the ras proto-oncogene in signal transduction involving the cytoskeleton.

  5. Effects of phlebotomy on the growth of ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced renal cell carcinoma.

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    Mizote A

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced carcinogenesis model is unique in that reactive oxygen species-free radicals are involved in the carcinogenic process. But the effects of iron-withdrawal in the progression of renal cell carcinoma are not well understood. We performed repeated phlebotomies on animals that had been administered ferric nitrilotriacetate in the initiation stage of renal cell carcinoma (phlebotomy group, and compared the development of renal tumors with those not receiving repeated phlebotomies (non-phlebotomy group. Ferric nitrilotriacetate-treated male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a phlebotomy group (21 rats and a non-phlebotomy group (17 rats. Ten age-adjusted normal rats were also observed as a normal group. Hematocrit was maintained under 25% in the phlebotomy group. Hematocrit levels in the normal group and in the non-phlebotomy group were not significantly different. As a result, the incidence of renal cell carcinoma was not significantly different between phlebotomy and non-phlebotomy animals. However, the total weight of the renal cell carcinoma was significantly heavier in the animals from non-phlebotomy group than in those from the phlebotomy group (23.64 g +/- 18.54 vs. 54.40 g +/- 42.40, P < 0.05. The present study demonstrated that phlebotomy after the administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate did not reduce the incidence of renal cell carcinoma. In addition, we showed that iron withdrawal at the promotion stage of carcinogenesis will retard tumor growth.

  6. In vitro transformation of rat renal cells by treatment with ferric nitrilotriacetate.

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    Kakehashi C

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA in vivo causes acute renal tubular injury and finally induces renal cell carcinoma. There is accumulating evidence that these processes involve free radicals generated by Fe-NTA. To study the mechanism of renal carcinogenesis by Fe-NTA, we attempted to induce malignant transformation of primary cultured renal cells by treatment with Fe-NTA. When primary cultured renal cells (PRC were treated continuously with Fe-NTA, all of the PRC died without transformation. On the other hand, when PRC were treated intermittently with Fe-NTA, transformed epithelial colonies were observed at 3 weeks after the first treatment. The established transformed cell line (RK523 showed drastic morphological transformation, grew in soft agar, and formed tumors when transplanted into athymic nude mice. These results indicate that the balance between cytotoxicity and mutagenecity is important for Fe-NTA induced transformation. The RK523 cell line may be a useful model for studying renal carcinogenesis in vitro.

  7. Oncological and functional outcomes of salvage renal surgery following failed primary intervention for renal cell carcinoma

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    Fernando G. Abarzua-Cabezas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the oncologic and functional outcomes of salvage renal surgery following failed primary intervention for RCC. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for suspected RCC during 2004-2012. We identified 839 patients, 13 of whom required salvage renal surgery. Demographic data was collected for all patients. Intraoperative and postoperative data included ischemic duration, blood loss and perioperative complications. Preoperative and postoperative assessments included abdominal CT or magnetic resonance imaging, chest CT and routine laboratory work. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was calculated according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results The majority (85% of the patients were male, with an average age of 64 years. Ten patients underwent salvage partial nephrectomy while 3 underwent salvage radical nephrectomy. Cryotherapy was the predominant primary failed treatment modality, with 31% of patients undergoing primary open surgery. Pre-operatively, three patients were projected to require permanent post-operative dialysis. In the remaining 10 patients, mean pre- and postoperative serum creatinine and eGFR levels were 1.35 mg/dL and 53.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to 1.43 mg/dL and 46.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Mean warm ischemia time in 10 patients was 17.4 min and for all patients, the mean blood loss was 647 mL. The predominant pathological stage was pT1a (8/13; 62%. Negative surgical margins were achieved in all cases. The mean follow-up was 32.9 months (3.5-88 months. Conclusion While salvage renal surgery can be challenging, it is feasible and has adequate surgical, functional and oncological outcomes.

  8. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer presenting as metastatic kidney cancer at 18 years of age : implications for surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y.; Badeloe, Sadhanna; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Semmelink, Harry J. F.; van Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A.; van Waesberghe, Jan Hein; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Menko, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skin piloleiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas and papillary type 2 renal cancer caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Previously, we proposed renal imaging for FH mutation

  9. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer presenting as metastatic kidney cancer at 18 years of age: implications for surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaendonck-Zwarts, K.Y. van; Badeloe, S.; Oosting, S.F.; Hovenga, S.; Semmelink, H.J.; Moorselaar, R.J. van; Waesberghe, J.H. van; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Menko, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skin piloleiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas and papillary type 2 renal cancer caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Previously, we proposed renal imaging for FH mutation

  10. Novel germline c-MET mutation in a family with hereditary papillary renal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Thomas V O;

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC) is a highly penetrant hereditary renal cancer syndrome caused by germline missense mutations in the c-MET proto-oncogene. HPRC is clinically characterized by multiple bilateral papillary renal-cell carcinomas. Here we report a family with a novel missense...... mutation in c-MET. The original pathology report of four primary kidney cancers (1988-1997) revealed renal-cell carcinoma. A revised report described multiple adenomas and papillary renal-cell carcinomas with focal clear cells and a mixture of type 1 and type 2 pattern, emphasizing the importance...... of revised pathology examinations in possible hereditary renal-cell carcinomas especially when described before 1997....

  11. Angiomotin promotes renal epithelial and carcinoma cell proliferation by retaining the nuclear YAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Meng; Li, Shuting; Luo, Changqin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Shen, Yanwei; Sui, Yan Xia; Wang, Fan; Wang, Xin; Yang, Jiao; Liu, Peijun; Yang, Jin

    2016-03-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the common tumors in the urinary system without effective therapies. Angiomotin (Amot) can interact with Yes-associated protein (YAP) to either stimulate or inhibit YAP activity, playing a potential role in cell proliferation. However, the role of Amot in regulating the proliferation of renal epithelial and RCC cells is unknown. Here, we show that Amot is expressed predominantly in the nucleus of RCC cells and tissues, and in the cytoplasm and nucleus of renal epithelial cells and paracancerous tissues. Furthermore, Amot silencing inhibited proliferation of HK-2 and 786-O cells while Amot upregulation promoted proliferation of ACHN cells. Interestingly, the location of Amot and YAP in RCC clinical samples and cells was similar. Amot interacted with YAP in HK-2 and 786-O cells, particularly in the nucleus. Moreover, Amot silencing mitigated the levels of nuclear YAP in HK-2 and 786-O cells and reduced YAP-related CTGF and Cyr61 expression in 786-O cells. Amot upregulation slightly increased the nuclear YAP and YAP-related gene expression in ACHN cells. Finally, enhanced YAP expression restored proliferation of Amot-silencing 786-O cells. Together, these data indicate that Amot is crucial for the maintenance of nuclear YAP to promote renal epithelial and RCC proliferation.

  12. Sarcoidose renal

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    AQUINO MARIA ENEDINA CLAUDINO DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em uma mulher de 62 anos, branca, em avaliação pré-operatória de facectomia, foram detectadas alterações urinárias, tendo sido firmados os diagnósticos de calculose renal esquerda e exclusão renal homolateral. No pré-operatório da nefrectomia foram evidenciados processo pulmonar intersticial bilateral e adenopatia torácica, cuja investigação foi adiada para após a cirurgia. No rim retirado foram detectados granulomas epitelióides não necrotizantes, o mesmo ocorrendo posteriormente em biópsia transbrônquica. A paciente foi tratada com metilprednisolona, com discreta melhora pulmonar, o que não ocorreu com a função renal. O diagnóstico final foi de sarcoidose com envolvimento pulmonar, ganglionar torácico e renal.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of bilateral multiple renal angiomyolipomas associated with tuberous sclerosis%双肾血管平滑肌脂肪瘤伴发结节性硬化症的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆华; 卢锦山; 董隽

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study the clinical features of renal angiomyolipomas with tuberous sclerosis and to improve the diagnosis and treatment. Methods The diagnosis and treatment of 1 case of bilateral multiple renal angiomyolipomas associated with tuberous scleros were reported and review the articles. Results The diagnosis of renal angiomyolipomas associated with tuberous sclerosisi was confirmed by ultrasonography and CT and MRI scan ning. However. the giant renal angiomyolipomas can be diagnosed from renal CT and MRI scan which demonstrate characteristic fatty tissue. Brain CT revealed classical calcified cortical tuber and subependymal nodule. Regular mo nitoring of the patient with conservative therapy was adopted for occupying multiple body and surgical treatment re sults were poor. Conclusions Ultrasonography and CT and MRI are important methods to diagnose and the choice of treatment is based on tumor size,distribution pattern,symptoms and associated progression.%目的 探讨双肾血管平滑肌脂肪瘤(AML)伴结节性硬化症(TSC)的临床特点,以提高该病的诊治水平.方法 报告本院收治1例双肾AML伴TSC的临床诊治资料并复习文献.结果经过B超、CT及MRI检查确诊.本例女性患者双肾CT及MRI检查发现肿瘤内特异性脂肪密度组织,头颅CT检查发现典型的大脑钙化结节灶.因患者全身多发占位,手术治疗效果不佳,行保守治疗,患者定期随诊.结论 B超、CT及MRI检查结合临床表现是诊断肾AML伴TSC的重要手段.其治疗方案应根据双侧肾肿瘤大小、分布、症状以及增长情况决定

  14. Interferon-Gamma-Induced Nitric Oxide Inhibits the Proliferation of Murine Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Tate Jr., John R. Patterson, Cruz Velasco-Gonzalez, Emily N. Carroll, Janie Trinh, Daniel Edwards, Ashok Aiyar, Beatriz Finkel-Jimenez, Arnold H. Zea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC remains one of the most resistant tumors to systemic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. Despite great progress in understanding the basic biology of RCC, the rate of responses in animal models and clinical trials using interferons (IFNs has not improved significantly. It is likely that the lack of responses can be due to the tumor's ability to develop tumor escape strategies. Currently, the use of targeted therapies has improved the clinical outcomes of patients with RCC and is associated with an increase of Th1-cytokine responses (IFNγ, indicating the importance of IFNγ in inhibiting tumor proliferation. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate a new mechanism by which IFNγ mediates direct anti-proliferative effects against murine renal cell carcinoma cell lines. When cultured RCC cell lines were exposed to murine recombinant IFNγ, a dose dependent growth inhibition in CL-2 and CL-19 cells was observed; this effect was not observed in Renca cells. Growth inhibition in CL-2 and CL-19 cell lines was associated with the intracellular induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein, resulting in a sustained elevation of nitric oxide (NO and citrulline, and a decrease in arginase activity. The inhibition of cell proliferation appears to be due to an arrest in the cell cycle. The results indicate that in certain RCC cell lines, IFNγ modulates L-arginine metabolism by shifting from arginase to iNOS activity, thereby developing a potent inhibitory mechanism to encumber tumor cell proliferation and survival. Elucidating the cellular events triggered by IFNγ in murine RCC cell lines will permit anti-tumor effects to be exploited in the development of new combination therapies that interfere with L-arginine metabolism to effectively combat RCC in patients.

  15. (1)H NMR metabolomics analysis of renal cell carcinoma cells: Effect of VHL inactivation on metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava; Cormier, Kevin; Touaibia, Mohamed; Reyjal, Julie; Robichaud, Sarah; Belbraouet, Mehdi; Turcotte, Sandra

    2016-05-15

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is an onco-suppressor involved in oxygen and energy-dependent promotion of protein ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Loss of function mutations of VHL (VHL-cells) result in organ specific cancers with the best studied example in renal cell carcinomas. VHL has a well-established role in deactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and in regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR activity. Cell culture metabolomics analysis was utilized to determined effect of VHL and HIF-1α or HIF-2α on metabolism of renal cell carcinomas (RCC). RCC cells were stably transfected with VHL or shRNA designed to silence HIF-1α or HIF-2α genes. Obtained metabolic data was analysed qualitatively, searching for overall effects on metabolism as well as quantitatively, using methods developed in our group in order to determine specific metabolic changes. Analysis of the effect of VHL and HIF silencing on cellular metabolic footprints and fingerprints provided information about the metabolic pathways affected by VHL through HIF function as well as independently of HIF. Through correlation network analysis as well as statistical analysis of significant metabolic changes we have determined effects of VHL and HIF on energy production, amino acid metabolism, choline metabolism as well as cell regulation and signaling. VHL was shown to influence cellular metabolism through its effect on HIF proteins as well as by affecting activity of other factors.

  16. HSP DNAJB8 Controls Tumor-Initiating Ability in Renal Cancer Stem-like Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishizawa, Satoshi; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Akari; Tamura, Yasuaki; Mori, Takashi; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Kamiguchi, Kenjiro; Asanuma, Hiroko; Morita, Rena; Sokolovskaya, Alice; Matsuzaki, Junichi; Yamada, Ren; Fujii, Reona; Kampinga, Harm H.; Kondo, Toru; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Hara, Isao; Sato, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are a small population of cancer cells with superior tumor initiating, self-renewal, and differentiation properties. In this study, we show that the cancer-testis antigen and HSP40 family member DNAJB8 contributes to the CSC phenotype in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). DNAJB

  17. Anti-T-cell antibodies for the treatment of acute rejection after renal transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogen, M.W.F. van den; Hoitsma, A.J.; Hilbrands, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Given the central role of T cells in the alloimmune response, anti-T-cell antibodies retain a prominent place in the treatment of renal allograft rejection. During the past decades, many anti-T-cell antibodies have emerged and subsequently left the field of solid organ transplantation,

  18. Association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and renal cell cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y Q; Guan, H; Liu, C H; Liu, D C; Xu, B; Jiang, L; Lin, Z X; Chen, M

    2016-04-25

    Epigenetic inactivation of Ras-associated domain family 1A (RASSF1A) by hyper-methylation of its promoter region has been identified in various cancers. However, the role of RASSF1A in renal cancer has neither been thoroughly investigated nor reviewed. In this study, we reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of 13 published studies reporting correlations between methylation frequency of the RASSF1A promoter region and renal cancer risk. The odds ratios (ORs) of eligible studies and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to correlate RASSF1A promoter methylation with renal cell cancer risk and clinical or pathological variables, respectively. RASSF1A promoter methylation was significantly associated with the risk of renal cell cancer (OR = 19.35, 95%CI = 9.57-39.13). RASSF1A promoter methylation was significantly associated with pathological tumor grade (OR = 3.32, 95%CI = 1.55-7.12), and a possible positive correlation between RASSF1A promoter methylation status and tumor stage was noted (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.00-3.56, P = 0.051). Overall, this meta-analysis demonstrated that RASSF1A promoter methylation is significantly associated with increased risk of renal cell cancer. RASSF1A promoter methylation frequency was positively correlated with pathological tumor grade, but not the clinical stage. This study showed that RASSF1A promoter methylation could be utilized to predict renal cell cancer prognosis.

  19. Recurrence rates and survival in a Danish cohort with renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Tesfalem, Helen; Mosholt, Karina Sif Søndergaard;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with localised and locally advanced renal cancer experience about 20% recurrence during a five-year follow-up period. The aim of the present study was to report recurrence rates and survival in a Danish population with renal cancer. METHODS: Data on patients diagnosed...... with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at our institute from January 2005 to December 2013 were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: Overall, 367 patients were diagnosed with RCC during the period, and 78 patients (21%) presented with metastasis. The mean follow-up period for all patients was 41 months (standard...

  20. Chronic lymphocytic lymphoma and concomitant renal cell carcinoma (Clear Cell Type: Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Uz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, a 73 years-old male patient who developed clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC 5 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL and plausible explanations for this association were discussed by the authors. The incidence of CLL and RCC occurring in the same patient is higher than that expected in the general population. Various explicative hypotheses of this concurrence include treatment-related development of a second malignancy, immunomodulatory mechanisms, viral aetiology, cytokine (interleukin 6 release from a tumor, and common genetic mutations. Further investigations are warranted.

  1. Presence of intratumoral neutrophils is an independent prognostic factor in localized renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Krogh; Donskov, Frede; Marcussen, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously demonstrated a significant negative impact of intratumoral neutrophils in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. This study assessed intratumoral neutrophils in localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study comprised 121 consecutive patients...... neutrophils was also an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival (HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.9 to 6.4; P .... CONCLUSION: The presence of intratumoral neutrophils is a new, strong, independent prognostic factor for short recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival in localized clear cell RCC....

  2. An aggressive merkel cell carcinoma in a patient with chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Gizlenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare cutaneous tumor arising from neuroendocrine cells and Merkel cells. Early diagnosis and treatment is important because of its aggressive course. We here report a 61 years old man with chronic renal failure, 3x5 cm mass on his right leg and inguinal-paraaortic lymph node metastases and resulting in death. MCC in the literature of the AIDS disease, organ transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy areas, and additional malignancies (multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and melanoma have been reported in patients with increased incidence. Up to date a patient with renal transplantation and Merkel cell carcinoma have been reported in the literature, Merkel cell carcinoma with chronic renal failure have not been reported.

  3. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. Bukowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Many retrospective studies on the use of all three of these targeted therapies in patients with non-clear cell histology have demonstrated response rates ranging from 3.7%–16%. Although response rates may not be as high compared to patients with clear cell histologies, targeted therapy does provide a clinically meaningful response.

  4. Renal Cell Protection of Erythropoietin beyond Correcting The Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Nasri

    2013-01-01

    Currently many patients with chronic renal failure have profited from the use of erythropoietin to correct anemia (1,2). In chronic kidney disease, anemia is believed to be a surrogate index for tissue hypoxia that continues preexisting renal tissue injury (1-3). Erythropoietin is an essential glycoprotein that accelerates red blood cell maturation from erythroid progenitors and facilitates erythropoiesis. It is a 30.4 kD glycoprotein and class I cytokine containing 165 amino acids (3,4). App...

  5. A case of renal cell carcinoma with an extensive inferior vena cava thrombosis

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    Majd Alfreijat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most prevalent primary renal malignant neoplasm in adults. Most of the cases are usually found incidentally. It is commonly associated with venous thrombosis. We demonstrate a case of a RCC which was associated with an extensive thrombus that reached the upper part of the inferior vena cava (IVC. We also perform a brief literature review about the association between RCC and IVC thrombosis.

  6. An atypical case of dermatomyositis associated with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael David; Lahouti, Arash H; Christopher-Stine, Lisa

    2016-01-19

    Dermatomyositis and polymyositis are the major idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in adults. They are associated with an elevated risk of malignancy. However, renal tumours have rarely been described in dermatomyositis patients. We report the case of a 27-year-old Caucasian man with chromophobe renal cell cancer (ChRCC) and antinuclear matrix protein (NXP-2)-associated dermatomyositis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of ChRCC presenting with dermatomyositis.

  7. Expression of CIDE proteins in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and their prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Jun; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Chao; Li, Jing; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Liying; Li, Qing; Ye, Jing

    2013-06-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the major and aggressive subtype of renal cell carcinoma. It is known to derive its histologic appearance from accumulation of abundant lipids and glycogens. The cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE) family has been characterized as the lipid droplet proteins involved in the metabolism of lipid storage droplets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of CIDE proteins in ccRCC cells and to investigate their prognostic significance. We examined consecutive patients with sporadic ccRCC, who underwent nephrectomy, to measure their mRNA and protein expression of CIDE proteins. We found that Cidec and ADRP expression were significantly up-regulated in ccRCC, compared with normal kidney tissues. Cideb was down-regulated. We also found that Cideb was expressed more in low-grade ccRCC than in high-grade tumors. To further clarify the relationship between Cideb expression and patient prognosis, we evaluated 57 ccRCC patients followed up for 120 months. Reduced ccRCC Cideb expression was associated with a higher Fuhrman nuclear grade. Patients with high Cideb expression had better overall survival rate than those with low expression (p < 0.05). Cideb expression was an independent predictor of survival (p = 0.001). Although the biologic function of Cideb in ccRCC remains unknown, the expression level of Cideb might be a novel predictor of prognosis in ccRCC.

  8. Adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO GU; JIN YING CHEN; MIN HOU; JING DONG HE; JI WU CHANG

    2006-01-01

    Human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis was established to investigate the adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to this cell line, in which the primary cell culture was performed by using cultivation of the normal epithelium of renal pelvis in keratinocyte serum free medium (K-SFM)with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE). Both UPEC132 obtained from urine specimen of patients with pyelonephritis and the pilus-free representative strain E. coli K-12p678-54 were used to study the adherence of these strains on human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis.The UPEC adherence was performed with observation on the morphological changes of the adhered cells,while the adhesion rates and indices were calculated in different times of experiment. In addition, the virulence genes hly and cnf1 of UPEC132 were detected by multiplex PCR assay. In this study, the human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis was found to exhibit the character of the transitional epithelial cells. Compared with the control group, the adhesion rates and indices began to increase from 15 min of the experiment time and reached its peak in 120 min. The adhesion rate and index of UPEC132 to human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis were 74.4% and 34.0 respectively. Many microscopic changes in the primary cells adhered with UPEC132 could be detected, such as rounding or irregularity in shape,unevenness in staining and the cytoplasmic and nuclear changes. It suggests that human primary epithelial cells of renal pelvis can be used for the experiment on UPEC adhesion, thus providing a basis for the further study on the pathogenesis of UPEC.

  9. Therapeutic dendritic cell vaccination of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a clinical phase 1/2 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Annika; Trepiakas, Redas; Wenandy, Lynn;

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic dendritic cell (DC) vaccination against cancer is a strategy aimed at activating the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells. In this nonrandomized phase 1/2 trial, we investigated the safety, feasibility, induction of T-cell response, and clinical response after treatment...... with a DC-based vaccine in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-seven patients with progressive cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma were vaccinated with DCs loaded with either a cocktail of survivin and telomerase peptides or tumor lysate depending on their HLA-A2 haplotype...

  10. Renal Cell Carcinoma Mimicking Igg4-Related Pseudotumor in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

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    Muhammad Ali Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Autoimmune pancreatitis is classified into two distinct clinical profiles. Care report Type 1 autoimmunepancreatitis (AIP is considered to be a manifestation of a novel clinicopathological entity called IgG4 related sclerosingdisease, diagnosed using the Mayo Clinic HISORt criteria. Extra-pancreatic manifestations can include involvement of bileducts, salivary gland, lung nodules, thyroiditis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, renal masses, and retroperitoneal fibrosis. Type2 autoimmune pancreatitis on the other hand is confirmed by histologically seen duct centric pancreatitis without elevationof IgG4 or involvement of other organs. In type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis, extrapancreatic manifestations like bile ductstrictures, tubulointerstitial nephritis, renal nodules, retroperitoneal fibrosis respond to steroid therapy. Conclusion Wepresent a case of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis in which the renal mass did not respond to steroid therapy and was later on found to be renal cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge this is only the third reported case of autoimmune pancreatitis in which the patient had renal cell carcinoma. Our case highlights the importance of close follow up of lesions that do not respond to steroid treatment which in this case proved to be renal cell cancer.

  11. [Radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy in patients with renal cell cancer complicated by tumoral thrombosis of the renal vein and vena cava inferior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, V I; Korsak, V V; Rusyn, A V; Boĭko, S O

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment was conducted in 81 patients, suffering renocellular cancer (RCC), complicated by a renal vein and vena cava inferior thrombosis. According to the Mayo clinic classification, the level of a tumoral thrombus spread was established: the 0 level--in 37 patients, the level I--in 19, the level II--in 17, the level III --in 6, and the level IV--in 2. There were substantiated the optimal surgical accesses and technique of radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy for RCC, complicated by a renal vein and vena cava inferior thrombosis. It is recommended to apply transabdominal accesses: the extended median laparotomic, bilateral subcostal of a "Chevron" or "Mercedes" type. There was shown, that the access choice depends on the level of the tumoral thrombus localization.

  12. Amygdalin inhibits the growth of renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengel, Eva; Thomas, Anita; Rutz, Jochen; Makarevic, Jasmina; Tsaur, Igor; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2016-02-01

    Although amygdalin is used by many cancer patients as an antitumor agent, there is a lack of information on the efficacy and toxicity of this natural compound. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of amygdalin on the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells was examined. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to the RCC cell lines, Caki-1, KTC-26 and A498, for 24 h or 2 weeks. Untreated cells served as controls. Tumor cell growth and proliferation were determined using MTT and BrdU tests, and cell cycle phases were evaluated. Expression of the cell cycle activating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1 and D3 as well as of the cell cycle inhibiting proteins p19 and p27 was examined by western blot analysis. Surface expression of the differentiation markers E- and N-cadherin was also investigated. Functional blockade by siRNA was used to determine the impact of several proteins on tumor cell growth. Amygdalin treatment caused a significant reduction in RCC cell growth and proliferation. This effect was correlated with a reduced percentage of G2/M-phase RCC cells and an increased percentage of cells in the G0/1-phase (Caki-1 and A498) or cell cycle arrest in the S-phase (KTC-26). Furthermore, amygdalin induced a marked decrease in cell cycle activating proteins, in particular cdk1 and cyclin B. Functional blocking of cdk1 and cyclin B resulted in significantly diminished tumor cell growth in all three RCC cell lines. Aside from its inhibitory effects on growth, amygdalin also modulated the differentiation markers, E- and N-cadherin. Hence, exposing RCC cells to amygdalin inhibited cell cycle progression and tumor cell growth by impairing cdk1 and cyclin B expression. Moreover, we noted that amygdalin affected differentiation markers. Thus, we suggest that amygdalin exerted RCC antitumor effects in vitro.

  13. Bilateral giant renal angiomyolipoma associated with hepatic lipoma in a patient with tuberous sclerosis Angiomiolipomas renais gigantes bilateralmente associados a lipoma hepático em pacientes com esclerose tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Daniel Schneider-Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report a case of bilateral giant renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis, with successful treatment, and to review the literature concerning angiomyolipoma treatment. CASE REPORT: Patient with tuberous sclerosis and angiomyolipoma diagnosed by ultrasonography during her pregnancy. At that time, the angiomyolipoma on the right side was 9 cm in diameter. Conservative management was selected during her pregnancy. The patient returned 7 years later, with a 24.7 x 19.2 x 10.7 cm tumor on the right side and another of 13 x 11.5 x 6.5 cm on the left side, in addition to multiple small angiomyolipomas. A nephron-sparing surgery with tumoral enucleation was performed on the right side, and after 3 months, the tumor on the left side was removed. Renal function in the post-operative period was preserved, and contrast medium progression was uniform and adequate in both kidneys. CONCLUSION: We conclude that an angiomyolipoma larger than 4 cm should be removed surgically, since they have a greater growth rate and pose a risk of hemorrhage. Resection of smaller tumors is safe and has decreased morbidity. Tumoral enucleation is an effective treatment method that preserves kidney function.OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de angiomiolipoma gigante, bilateral, associado a esclerose tuberosa, tratado com sucesso e revisar a literatura concernente ao tratamento do angiomiolipoma. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente portadora de esclerose tuberosa, com diagnóstico de angiomiolipoma realizado por ultra-sonografia durante gestação. O tumor apresentava 9cm de diâmetro, à direita. Optou-se por conduta conservadora durante a gestação, e a paciente retornou somente 7 anos após, com tumor de 24,7 x 19,2 x 10,7 cm à direita e outro à esquerda de 13 x 11,5 x 6,5 cm, além de múltiplos angiomiolipomas pequenos. Realizada inicialmente ressecção tumoral à direita, por enucleação, com preservação do parênquima renal, e 3 meses após à esquerda. A

  14. Organ-sparing surgery of renal cell carcinoma - operative technique and findings in radiological follow-up; Organerhaltende Chirurgie des Nierenzellkarzinoms - Operationstechniken und Befunde in der radiologischen Nachsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallscheidt, P.; Hansmann, J.; Schenk, J.P.; Radeleff, B.A.; Kauffmann, G.W. [Abt. Radiodiagnostik der Radiologischen Klinik der Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Riedasch, G. [Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik der Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery of renal cell carcinoma in the 1970's and 1980's in patients with bilateral renal tumors or reduced renal function (imperative indication) has shown a very low risk of recurrent cancer. Today, nephron-sparing surgery in renal cell carcinoma is considered in an increasing number of patients with expected sufficient renal function after nephrectomy (elective indication). Resection technique, the use of Tabotamp trademark to reduce bleeding, and pseudotumors do complicate the interpretation of the images. It has been not yet defined which diagnostic modality is best suited for follow-up after renal cell carcinoma resection. Follow-up protocols in different institutions show a wide variety. The follow-up of patients after nephron-sparing surgery is performed by annual sonography or MRI every three months. Up to now, CT and ultrasound are the standard methods. MRI with its multiplanar imaging and improved soft tissue contrast seems to have an equal diagnostic value. Additionally, MRI seems to be suited for patients with reduced renal function. The aim of this paper is to give guidelines for the radiologist to understand the different surgical procedures and to evaluate the post-operative findings. Different imaging modalities in the follow-up of patients and special radiological phenomena are discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Nachuntersuchungen der in den 70er und 80er Jahren des vergangenen Jahrhunderts organerhaltend operierten Patienten mit beidseitigen Nierenzellkarzinomen oder eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion der Gegenseite (imperative Indikation) zeigten eine sehr niedrige Rezidivrate. Heute wird die organerhaltende Operation von Nierentumoren zunehmend auch bei den Patienten in Erwaegung gezogen, deren Nierenfunktion nach der Tumornephrektomie der betroffenen Niere noch ausreichen wuerde (elektive Indikation). Spezielle Operationstechniken wie die Verwendung von Tabotamp trademark zur Blutstillung und die Bildung von Pseudotumoren

  15. Prolactin and dopamine 1-like receptor interaction in renal proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crambert, Susanne; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eklöf, Ann-Christine; Ibarra, Fernando; Holtbäck, Ulla

    2010-07-01

    Prolactin is a natriuretic hormone and acts by inhibiting the activity of renal tubular Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. These effects require an intact renal dopamine system. Here, we have studied by which mechanism prolactin and dopamine interact in Sprague-Dawley rat renal tissue. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was measured as ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis in microdissected renal proximal tubular segments. Intracellular signaling pathways were studied by a variety of different techniques, including Western blotting using phosphospecific antibodies, immunoprecipitation, and biotinylation assays. We found that dopamine and prolactin regulated Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity via similar signaling pathways, including protein kinase A, protein kinase C, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. The cross talk between prolactin and dopamine 1-like receptors was explained by a heterologous recruitment of dopamine 1-like receptors to the plasma membrane in renal proximal tubular cells. Prolactin had no effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a rat strain with a blunted response to dopamine. These results further emphasize the central role of the renal dopamine system in the interactive regulation of renal tubular salt balance.

  16. Prognostic impact of in vivo soluble cell adhesion molecules in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R; Franzke, A; Buer, J; Sel, S; Oevermann, K; Duensing, A; Probst, M; Duensing, S; Kirchner, H; Ganser, A; Atzpodien, J

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine prognostic significance of pretreatment serum levels of different molecules involved in cell to cell interactions along with other clinical parameters in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sELAM-1 serum levels were determined by ELISA assays in sera from 99 patients with histologically confirmed progressive metastatic renal cell carcinoma prior to initiation of systemic therapy. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log-rank statistics and two-proportional Cox regression analyses were employed to identify risk factors and to demonstrate statistical independence. In univariate analyses, the following pretreatment risk factors could be identified: serum sICAM-1 level > 360 ng ml(-1), erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 70 mm h(-1), serum C-reactive protein level > 8 mg l(-1), serum lactic dehydrogenase level > 240 U/l and neutrophil count > 6000 microl(-1). Multivariate analyses demonstrated statistical independence for serum sICAM-1 level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as pretreatment predictors of overall patient survival. The prognostic significance of sICAM-1 might indicate a role of this molecule for tumour progression, potentially in association with the abrogation of anti-tumour immune responses. The possibility of defining a pretreatment risk model based on sICAM-1 level, ESR and CRP also warrants further investigation, with regard to a possible linkage between acute phase proteins and sICAM-1 levels.

  17. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morizane, Ryuji [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Monkawa, Toshiaki, E-mail: monkawa@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  18. The clinicalapplication of interleukin-2therapy in patients withmetastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wen Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical application of interleukin-2 therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.Methods:From January 2010 to July 2014 of 108 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients in our hospital as research subjects were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group received IL-2 combined with Nexavar therapy, and the control group only received Nexavar treatment, clinical efficacy and incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups of patients were compared.Results:Compared with the control group, clinical efficacy in the experimental group was significantly higher, the difference was statistically significant. The incidence of adverse events was higher in patients than that in the experimental group, the difference was statistically significant, but IL-2 had no new adverse reactions and side effects.Conclusions:Interleukin-2 combined with Nexavar treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma can improve the clinical efficacy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in patients, and ease the patient's condition from worsening and promote the quality of life. However, adverse reactions caused by drugs were inevitable; we should pay attention to treatment and prevention of adverse reactions in order to improve the quality of life of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  19. Induction of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression inhibits proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Piotr; Rybicka, Beata; Boguslawska, Joanna; Rodzik, Katarzyna; Visser, Theo J; Nauman, Alicja; Piekielko-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2017-02-15

    Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1) regulates peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones that control cellular proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. The significance of DIO1 in cancer is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that diminished expression of DIO1, observed in renal cancer, contributes to the carcinogenic process in the kidney. Here, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of DIO1 in renal cancer cells changes the expression of genes controlling cell cycle, including cyclin E1 and E2F5, and results in inhibition of proliferation. The expression of genes encoding collagens (COL1A1, COL4A2, COL5A1), integrins (ITGA4, ITGA5, ITGB3) and transforming growth factor-β-induced (TGFBI) is significantly altered in renal cancer cells with induced expression of DIO1. Finally, we show that overexpression of DIO1 inhibits migration of renal cancer cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that loss of DIO1 contributes to renal carcinogenesis and that its induced expression protects cells against cancerous proliferation and migration.

  20. Chelerythrine chloride induces apoptosis in renal cancer HEK-293 and SW-839 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Meng; Fan, Peng-Li; Qin, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid chelerythrine chloride (CC) has inhibitory effects on various tumors. However, the anticancer activity of CC and its underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in renal cancer cells. The present study examined the effects of CC on growth inhibition and apoptosis of renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays revealed that CC markedly suppressed the growth of HEK-293 and human renal cancer SW-839 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The xenograft mouse model, which was performed in nude mice, exhibited a reduced tumor growth following CC treatment. In addition, the present study revealed that CC significantly decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, which was accompanied by upregulation of p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and downregulation of Bcl-2, caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, the use of PD98059, a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, potentiated the proapoptotic effects of CC, which indicated that CC may induce apoptosis in renal cancer cells partly via inhibition of ERK activity. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrated that CC may be developed as a potential anticancer treatment for patients with renal cancer.

  1. Stem cell factor expression after renal ischemia promotes tubular epithelial survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Stokman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration of renal tissue. The cytokine stem cell factor (SCF has been shown to protect the tubular epithelium against apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a mouse model for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, we studied how expression of c-KIT on tubular epithelium and its ligand SCF protect cells against apoptosis. Administration of SCF specific antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased specific staining of SCF following ischemia. Reduced SCF expression resulted in impaired renal function, increased tubular damage and increased tubular epithelial apoptosis, independent of inflammation. In an in vitro hypoxia model, stimulation of tubular epithelial cells with SCF activated survival signaling and decreased apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate an important role for c-KIT and SCF in mediating tubular epithelial cell survival via an autocrine pathway.

  2. Distribution of Cytoskeletal Components in Endothelial Cells in the Guinea Pig Renal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Katoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytoskeletal components of endothelial cells in the renal artery were examined by analysis of en face preparations under confocal laser scanning microscopy. Renal arterial endothelial cells were shown to be elongated along the direction of blood flow, while stress fibers ran perpendicular to the flow in the basal portion. Focal adhesions were observed along the stress fibers in dot-like configurations. On the other hand, stress fibers in the apical portion of cells ran along the direction of flow. The localizations of stress fibers and focal adhesions in endothelial cells in the renal artery differed from those of unperturbed aortic and venous endothelial cells. Tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins were mainly detected at the sites of cell-to-cell apposition, but not in focal adhesions. Pulsatile pressure and fluid shear stress applied over endothelial cells in the renal artery induce stress fiber organization and localization of focal adhesions. These observations suggest that the morphological alignment of endothelial cells along the direction of blood flow and the organization of cytoskeletal components are independently regulated.

  3. Laparoscopic Nephrectomy with Adrenalectomy for Synchronous Adrenal Myelolipoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallappan Senthil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon nonfunctioning tumors of the adrenal. Synchronous renal cell carcinomas with adrenal myelolipomas are very rare. We present the case report of adrenal myelolipoma with synchronous RCC managed laparoscopically. Case Report. A 60-year-old old gentleman presented with incidental right upper polar mass with right adrenal mass. Metastatic work-up was negative. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy with adrenalectomy was done under general anesthesia. The biopsy report was right kidney clear cell adenocarcinoma (T1b with right adrenal myelolipoma. Conclusion. This is the first case report of laparoscopic adrenalectomy with nephrectomy for ipsilateral synchronous renal cell carcinoma with adrenal myelolipoma.

  4. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: novel FLCN frameshift deletion in daughter and father with renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näf, Ernst; Laubscher, Dominik; Hopfer, Helmut; Streit, Markus; Matyas, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutation of the FLCN gene causes Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and renal tumours. We identified a hitherto unreported pathogenic FLCN frameshift deletion c.563delT (p.Phe188Serfs*35) in a family of a 46-year-old woman presented with macrohematuria due to bilateral chromophobe renal carcinomas. A heritable renal cancer was suspected due to the bilaterality of the tumour and as the father of this woman had suffered from renal cancer. Initially, however, BHD was overlooked by the medical team despite the highly suggestive clinical presentation. We assume that BHD is underdiagnosed, at least partially, due to low awareness of this variable condition and to insufficient use of appropriate genetic testing. Our study indicates that BHD and FLCN testing should be routinely considered in patients with positive family or personal history of renal tumours. In addition, we demonstrate how patients and their families can play a driving role in initiating genetic diagnosis, presymptomatic testing of at-risk relatives, targeted disease management, and genetic counselling of rare diseases such as BHD.

  5. Neoadjuvant targeted therapy in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoreductive nephrectomy as an independent option in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC cannot be considered as the only effective method, with rare exception, of a few patients with solitary metastases. Cytoreductive nephrectomy is now part of a multimodal approach encompassing surgical treatment and systemic drug therapy. Many retrospective and two prospective studies have demonstrated that it is expedient to perform cytoreductive nephrectomy. Immunotherapy should not be used as preoperatively in the era of cytokine therapy for mRCC due to that fact that it has no impact on primary tumor. In the current targeted therapy era, many investigators have concentrated attentionon the role of neoadjuvant targeted therapy for the treatment of patients with both localized and locally advanced mRCC. The potential benefits of neoadjuvant therapy for localized and locally advanced RCC include to make surgery easier and to increase the possibility of organsparing treatment, by decreasing the stage of primary tumor and the size of tumors. The possible potential advantages of neoadjuvant targeted therapy in patients with mRCC include prompt initiation of necessary systemic therapy; identification of patients with primary refractory tumors; and a preoperative reduction in the stage of primary tumor. Numerous retrospective and some prospective phase II studies have shown that neoadjuvant targeted therapy in patients with localized and locally advanced RCC is possible and tolerable and surgical treatment after neoadjuvant targeted therapy is safe and executable with a low incidence of complications. If neoadjuvant therapy is to be performed, it should be done within 2–4 months before surgery. Sorafenib and sunitinib are now most tested and suitable for neoadjuvant targeted therapy. Sorafenib is a more preferred drug due to its shorter half-life and accordingly to the possibility of discontinuing the drug immediately prior to

  6. Famitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a single center study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen; ZHOU Ai-ping; QIN Qiong; CHANG Chun-xiao; JIANG Hao-yuan; MA Jian-hui; WANG Jin-wan

    2013-01-01

    Background Famitinib is a novel and potent multitargeting receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.The phase I clinical study showed that famitinib was well tolerated and had a broad anti-tumor spectrum.The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of famitinib for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).Methods The data of famitinib in treating patients with mRCC from the single-center phases Ⅰ and Ⅱ clinical trials were analyzed.Famitinib was administered orally at the dose of 13-30 mg once daily until tumor progression,occurrence of intolerable adverse reactions or withdrawal of the informed consent.Results A total of 24 patients with mRCC were treated including 17 patients at a dose of 25 mg once daily,4 patients at a dose of 27 mg and 1 patient each at a dose of 13 mg,20 mg and 30 mg,respectively.Twelve (50.0%) patients achieved partial response (PR) and 9 patients achieved stable disease (SD).Progressive disease was found in 3 (12.5%) patients.The disease control rate was 87.5%.The median follow-up time was 17.6 months; the median progression free survival (PFS) was 10.7 (95% Cl7.0-14.4) months; and the estimated median overall survival (OS) time was 33.0 (95% Cl8.7-57.3) months.The adverse drug reactions mainly included hypertension (54.1%),hand-foot skin reactions (45.8%),diarrhea (33.3%),mucositis (29.2%),neutropenia (45.8%),thrombocytopenia (29.2%),hyperlipidemia (41.7%) and proteinuria (41.7%).The incidence rate of grades 3 and 4 adverse events was low,mainly including hypertension 12.5%,hand-foot skin reactions 4.2%,neutropenia 4.2%,thrombocytopenia 4.2%,hyperlipidemia 4.2% and proteinuria 12.5%.Conclusions Famitinib has significant anti-tumor activity in mRCC.The common adverse reactions are generally manageable.

  7. Invasion and metastasis ability of renal cancer cell strains 786-0: under the influence of miR-141.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Lv, L N; Guo, Z Y; Zhang, W

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the invasion and metastasis ability of miR-141 in 786-0 renal cancer tissue cells, as well as identify the key function of endogenous miR-141 in adjustment and control of malignant activities of renal cancer. The renal cancer cell strain with overexpression of miR-141 and its control renal cancer cell line were constructed; methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was adopted to measure proliferation of renal cancer cells; Transwell assay was performed to measure the invasion and metastasis ability of cells; MTT assay and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) were used for measurement of cell apoptosis and drug susceptibility. Results indicated that the expression of miR-141 in 786-0 cells could be significantly increased 400-fold by slow viruses that contained miR-141; moreover, c omprehensive functions showed that miR-141 inhibited the invasion and metastasis ability of renal cancer cells to a great extent (p less than 0.001), partially inhibited cell growth (p less than 0.05) and also induced cell cycle to be arrested in G0/G1 as well as reducing the number of cells in S phase (DNA replicative phase). Moreover, miR-141 could not induce morphologic changes of renal cancer cells, had no direct stimulating effect on cell apoptosis and could not improve the drug susceptibility of renal cancer cells to drugs such as cis-Dichlorodiamineplatinum (DDP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and tumor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In conclusion, miR-141 can be considered an important cancer suppressor gene of renal cancer by inhibiting proliferation and metastasis of renal cancer cells.

  8. The Relationship of the Expression of Estrogen Receptor in Cartilage Cell and Osteoarthritis Induced by Bilateral Ovariectomy in Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Guofeng; LI Jianmin; LIU Xinyu; LIU Qiaohui; LIU Chunmei

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the estrogen receptor(ER) expression in cartilage cell in the development of osteoarthritis induced by bilateral ovariectomy in guinea pig and to find their relationship. 30two-month-old female guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups (n= 15 each): sham operation (control)group and ovariectomized group (OVX); Scanning electorne microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were obtained to analysis the cartilage degeneration of the hind limb knee joint after 6 and 12 weeks of ovariectomy. Dextran-Coated Charcoal (DCC) was taken to quantitively detect the expression of ER. The serum levels of estrogen and gestone were deteeted by immune contest assay. The results showed that ER do exist in the cartilages of the guinea pigs, with higher expression in the control group than in OVX group at the same time point (P<0. 05). It was increased also at 12 th week after operation than that of preoperation. The blood serum levels of estrogen and gestone showed a similar tendency to the expression of ER. Joint cartilage degeneration detected by SEM and TEM could be found at 6 th week, but severe degenerative lesions at 12 th week in the OVX group compared with the control group (P<0.01). The data suggested that bilateral ovariectomy in guinea pig lead to severe osteoarthritis which mighgt be related to the lower serum level of estrogen and the downregulation of the expression of ER in the cartilage also.

  9. Frequent mutations of genes encoding ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway components in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Guangwu; Gui, Yaoting; Gao, Shengjie;

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced whole exomes of ten clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and performed a screen of similar to 1,100 genes in 88 additional ccRCCs, from which we discovered 12 previously unidentified genes mutated at elevated frequencies in ccRCC. Notably, we detected frequent mutations in the u......We sequenced whole exomes of ten clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and performed a screen of similar to 1,100 genes in 88 additional ccRCCs, from which we discovered 12 previously unidentified genes mutated at elevated frequencies in ccRCC. Notably, we detected frequent mutations...

  10. Targeted Therapies: Bevacizumab and interferon-alpha in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2009-05-01

    Rini and colleagues provide additional data on bevacizumab and interferon-alpha in clear-cell carcinoma of the kidney; a comparison of these results with the findings from contemporary trials suggests that bevacizumab and interferon-alpha is another clinically useful treatment option for patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.

  11. Biotransformation, transport and toxicity studies in rat renal proximal tubular cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, H.E.M.G.

    1996-01-01

    SummaryRenal proximal tubular (RPT) cells can be exposed apically to glomerulary filtrated and basolaterally to non-filtrated nephrotoxic compounds. To excrete these compounds via the urine, RPT cells are equipped with transport systems able to transport nephrotoxicants from the basolateral to the a

  12. A phase II trial of chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 for advanced renal cell carcinoma patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleumer, I.; Knuth, A.; Oosterwijk, E.; Hofmann, R.; Varga, Z.; Lamers, C.B.H.W.; Kruit, W.; Melchior, S.; Mala, C.; Ullrich, S.; Mulder, P.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Beck, J.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 (WX-G250) binds to a cell surface antigen found on >90% of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). A multicentre phase II study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of WX-G250 in metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients. In all, 36 patients with mRCC were included. WX-G250 w

  13. Determinants of tubular bone marrow-derived cell engraftment after renal ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, M; Harmsen, MC; Koerts, JA; Petersen, AH; van Luyn, MJA; Navis, G; Popa, ER

    2005-01-01

    Background. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of acute renal failure (ARF). ARF is reversible, due to an innate regenerative process, which is thought to depend partly on bone marrow-derived progenitor cells. The significance of these cells in the repair process has been questioned

  14. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

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    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  15. Gender Specific Mutation Incidence and Survival Associations in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (CCRCC.

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    Christopher J Ricketts

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is diagnosed in >200,000 individuals worldwide each year, accounting for ~2% of all cancers, but the spread of this disease amongst genders is distinctly uneven. In the U.S. the male:female incidence ratio is approximately 2:1. A potential hypothesis is mutation spectra may differ between tumors dependent upon the gender of the patient, such as mutations of X chromosome encoded genes being more prevalent in male-derived tumors. Combined analysis of three recent large-scale clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC mutation sequencing projects identified a significantly increased mutation frequency of PBRM1 and the X chromosome encoded KDM5C in tumors from male patients and BAP1 in tumors from female patients. Mutation of BAP1 had previously been significantly associated with poorer overall survival; however, when stratified by gender, mutation of BAP1 only significantly affected overall survival in female patients. Mutation of chromatin remodeling genes alters gene regulation, but the overall effect of these alterations may also be modified by the presence of other gender specific factors. Thus, the combination of gender and mutation of a specific gene, such as BAP1, may have implications not only for prognosis but also for understanding the role of chromatin remodeling gene mutations in kidney cancer progression.

  16. Not all renal stem cell niches are the same: anatomy of an evolution

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    Clara Gerosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The renal stem cell niche represents the most important structure of the developing kidney, responsible for nephrogenesis. Recently, some Authors have reported, at ultrastructural level, a previously unknown complexity of the architecture of renal stem cell niche in experimental models. This study was aimed at studying, at histological level, the anatomy of renal stem cell niches in the human fetal kidney. To this end, ten fetal kidneys, whose gestational ages ranged from 11 up to 24 weeks, were studied. H&E-stained sections were observed at high power. The study of the anatomy of renal stem cell niches in the human kidney revealed a previously unreported complexity: some niches appeared as a roundish arrangement of mesenchymal cells; others showed the initial phases of induction by ureteric buds; in other niches the process of mesenchymal epithelial transition was more evident; finally, in other stem cell niches the first signs of nephron origin were detectable. These findings suggest the existence of niches with different anatomy in the same kidney, indicating different stages of evolution even in adjacent niches. All stem cell niches were in strict contact with the capsular cells, suggesting a major role of the renal capsule in nephrogenesis. Finally, our study confirms the existence of a strict contact between the bud tip cells and the surrounding mesenchyme in the human developing kidney, giving a morphological support to the theory of intercellular channels allowing the passage of transcription factors from the epithelial to the mesenchymal stem/progenitors cells.Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligands induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-guang YANG; Zhi-wen ZHANG; Dian-qi XIN; Chang-jin SHI; Jie-ping WU; Ying-lu GUO; You-fei GUAN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of peroxisome proliferator-actived receptor γ (PPARγ)ligands on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cell lines.Methods: The expression of PPARγ was investigated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry.The effect of thiazolidinedione (TZD) PPARγ ligands on growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells was measured by MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Cell death ELISA, Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining and DNA ladder assay were used to observe the effects of PPARγ ligands on apoptosis. Regulatory proteins of cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by Western blot analysis. Results:PPARγ was expressed at much higher levels in renal tumors than in the normal kidney (2.16±0.85 vs 0.90±0.73; P<0.01 ). TZD PPARγ ligands inhibited RCC cell growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 7.08 μmol/L and 11.32 μmol/L for pioglitazone, and 5.71 μmol/L and 8.38 μmol/L for troglitazone in 786-O and A498 cells, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed a G0/G1 arrest in human RCC cells following 24-h exposure to TZD. Analysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins revealed that TZD decreased the protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, pRb, cyclin D1, and Cdk4 but increased the levels of p21 and p27 in a timedependent manner. Furthermore, high doses of TZD induced massive apoptosis in renal cancer cells, with increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression.Conclusion: TZD PPARγ ligands showed potent inhibitory effect on proliferation,and could induce apoptosis in RCC cells. These results suggest that ligands for PPARγ have potential antitumor effects on renal carcinoma cells.

  18. Remarkable shrinkage of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with single-agent gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Takigawa, Nagio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Umemura, Shigeki; Omori, Masako; Gemba, Kenichi; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2008-04-01

    A 60-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a painful left hip. Computed tomography showed a tumor in the left kidney and metastases in the left gluteus maximus muscle and lung. The pathological diagnosis of a biopsy specimen obtained from a metastatic lesion in the left gluteus maximus muscle was sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. On admission, his general condition was extremely poor. He was confined to bed because of severe left hip pain and confusion, possibly caused by hypercalcemia. This seriously ill patient suffering from advanced sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma was treated with single-agent gemcitabine, resulting in symptom relief and a dramatic improvement in his status; all of the tumors had regressed significantly by the 11th dose of gemcitabine. These findings indicate that single-agent gemcitabine is one of the few chemotherapeutic agents effective for palliation in patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma, even those with poor performance status.

  19. Concurrent renal-cell carcinoma and cutaneous leiomyomas: A case of HLRCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Fondriest, BS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old Caucasian female presenting with renal-cell cancer and cutaneous leiomyomas was later diagnosed with Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC Syndrome. HLRCC is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a mutation in the fumarate hydratase gene, which encodes for an enzyme in the citric acid cycle. This syndrome has been reported in over 100 families throughout the world, the majority of whom are of Eastern European descent. Those with this syndrome have a significantly increased risk of developing renal-cell carcinoma, cutaneous leiomyomas, and uterine leiomyomas, and a smaller chance of developing uterine leiomyosarcomas. This syndrome has a relatively poor prognosis, with tumor metastasis occurring in approximately 50% of patients. However, more aggressive prophylactic measures and recent studies have shown potential to improve patient prognosis.

  20. Serial Pancreas, Liver and Duodenal Metastasis from Renal Clear Cell Cancer: a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case Report In August 2004, a 76-year-old patient was referred to our hospital for progressive loss of appetite, accompanied with mild upper abdominal distention, pain, hiccups and dyspepsia over a recent 3 months period. Reviewing his disease history showed that 16 months before admission (April 2003), he was diagnosed with a recurring left renal clear cell cancer (immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells were positive for CK and Vim, but negative for SMA, HMB-45 and HHF-35, Fig. 1) 10 years after a nephrectomy due to a right renal cancer. At that time, he was treated with photodynamic therapy followed by bio-immunotherapy(interleukine-2 plus lymphokine-activated killer cells). Follow-up by an abdominal CT scan every 3 months showed significant regression of the left renal carcinoma.

  1. RENAL CRYOABLATION

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    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  2. Renal Cell Protection of Erythropoietin beyond Correcting The Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Currently many patients with chronic renal failure have profited from the use of erythropoietin to correct anemia (1,2). In chronic kidney disease, anemia is believed to be a surrogate index for tissue hypoxia that continues preexisting renal tissue injury (1-3). Erythropoietin is an essential glycoprotein that accelerates red blood cell maturation from erythroid progenitors and facilitates erythropoiesis. It is a 30.4 kD glycoprotein and class I cytokine containing 165 amino acids (3,4). Approximately 90% of systemic erythropoietin in adults is produced by peritubular interstitial fibroblasts in the renal cortex and outer medulla of the kidney (3-5). A feedback mechanism involving oxygen delivery to the tissues seems to regulate erythropoietin production. Hypoxia-inducible factor regulates transcription of the erythropoietin gene in the kidney, which determines erythropoietin synthesis (3-5). Erythropoietin is an essential glycoprotein that accelerates red blood cell maturation from erythroid progenitors and mediates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow (4-6). Kidney fibrosis is the last common pathway in chronic renal failure irrespective of the initial etiology (5,6). Constant inflammatory cell infiltration and pericyte-myofibroblast transition lead to renal fibrosis and insufficiency which result in decreased production of erythropoietin (4-7). Thus far, therapeutic efforts to treat patients with chronic renal failure by administering erythropoietin have been made only to correct anemia and putative hypoxic tissue damage. The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin has marked a significant advance in the management of anemia associated with chronic renal failure (6-9). With an increasing number of patients with chronic renal failure receiving erythropoietin treatment, emerging evidence suggests that erythropoietin not only has an erythropoietic function, but also has renoprotective potential. In fact, in recent years, the additional non

  3. Clinical Studies Applying Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for the Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara E. Jäkel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC seems to be resistant to conventional chemo- and radiotherapy and the general treatment regimen of cytokine therapy produces only modest responses while inducing severe side effects. Nowadays standard of care is the treatment with VEGF-inhibiting agents or mTOR inhibition; nevertheless, immunotherapy can induce complete remissions and long-term survival in selected patients. Among different adoptive lymphocyte therapies, cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells have a particularly advantageous profile as these cells are easily available, have a high proliferative rate, and exhibit a high antitumor activity. Here, we reviewed clinical studies applying CIK cells, either alone or with standard therapies, for the treatment of RCC. The adverse events in all studies were mild, transient, and easily controllable. In vitro studies revealed an increased antitumor activity of peripheral lymphocytes of participants after CIK cell treatment and CIK cell therapy was able to induce complete clinical responses in RCC patients. The combination of CIK cell therapy and standard therapy was superior to standard therapy alone. These studies suggest that CIK cell immunotherapy is a safe and competent treatment strategy for RCC patients and further studies should investigate different treatment combinations and schedules for optimal application of CIK cells.

  4. PKB and megalin determine the survival or death of renal proximal tubule cells

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso-Neves, Celso; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia S.; Cai, Hui; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Guggino, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Renal proximal tubule cells have a remarkable ability to reabsorb large quantities of albumin through megalin-mediated endocytosis. This is an essential process for overall body homeostasis. Overstressing this endocytic system with a prolonged excess of albumin is injurious to proximal tubule cells. How these cells function and protect themselves from injury is unknown. Here, we show that megalin is the sensor that determines whether cells will be protected or injured by albumin. Megalin, thr...

  5. Systematic Evaluation of the Prognostic Impact and Intratumour Heterogeneity of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Sakshi; Martinez, Pierre; Joshi, Tejal;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCandidate biomarkers have been identified for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients, but most have not been validated. ObjectiveTo validate published ccRCC prognostic biomarkers in an independent patient cohort and to assess intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) of the most promising...... markers to guide biomarker optimisation. Design, setting, and participantsCancer-specific survival (CSS) for each of 28 identified genetic or transcriptomic biomarkers was assessed in 350 ccRCC patients. ITH was interrogated in a multiregion biopsy data set of 10 ccRCCs. Outcome measurements...... of published biomarkers to predict the survival of patients with clear cell kidney cancer in an independent patient cohort. Only one molecular test adds prognostic information to routine clinical assessments. This marker showed good and poor prognosis results within most individual cancers. Future biomarkers...

  6. The Presence of Recipient-Derived Renal Cells in Kidney Allografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan METE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Stem cells may be involved in the repair processes of renal tissues during various disorders. We aimed to search the presence of recipient originated cells in renal allograft tissues from patients with various types of allograft dysfunction including acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, and chronic rejection. MATERIAL and METHODS: Eleven kidney transplant recipients were enrolled in the study. Seven patients who had sex-mismatched donors were regarded as the study group and the remaining were the controls (male-male, positive controls, n=2; female-female, negative controls, n=2. Histopathological examinations in the study group had revealed chronic rejection in four patients(together with calcineurin inhibitor toxicity in three and acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, and cyclosporine toxicity in one patient each. Deparaffi nised biopsy specimens were examined using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH method for the XY cocktail probe. RESULTS: Renal cells of positive controls had XY, whereas those of negative controls had XX chromosomal signals. Examination of the biopsy samples from the study group showed variable ratios of recipient-derived tubular(2-76%, interstitial mesenchymal(5-83%, and endothelial cells(1-53%. CONCLUSION: The presence of recipient-derived renal cells in injured kidney allografts suggests that there is a possible dynamic interaction between allograft and stem cells of the recipient. Further studies are needed to clarify the origin and the function of these cells.

  7. KRT6 interacting with notch1 contributes to progression of renal cell carcinoma, and aliskiren inhibits renal carcinoma cell lines proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Zhang, Li-Chao; Song, Xu; Lu, Jian-Rao; Jin, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is a conserved and widely expressed signaling pathway, which mediates various physiological processes including tumorigenesis. This study aims to explore the potential role and mechanism of notch1 interacting with KRT6B in the progression of RCC. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein expression of notch1 and KRT6 were significantly increased in tumor tissues, and highly positive correlation existed between notch1 and KRT6. Moreover, the patients with high notch1 expression had a significantly poorer prognosis than those of low expression patients. In vitro, KRT6 loss-of-function could inhibit the expression of notch1 and induce renal carcinoma cell death. Eventually, we found that renin inhibitor, aliskiren, could inhibit cell proliferation and decrease the expression of notch1 and KRT6 as well as regulate apoptosis-related protein expression in 786-O and ACHN renal carcinoma cell lines. These results suggested that the upregulation of notch1 and KRT6B might be involved in the development, progression and prognosis of human RCC, and aliskiren could suppress renal carcinoma cell proliferation, at least partially, through downregulation the expression of notch1 and KRT6.

  8. Renal-cell carcinomas in end-stage kidneys: a clinicopathological study with emphasis on clear-cell papillary renal-cell carcinoma and acquired cystic kidney disease-associated carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Ramneesh; Alexiev, Borislav A

    2012-02-01

    Clear-cell papillary renal-cell carcinoma (CCPC) and acquired cystic kidney disease-associated carcinoma (ACDAC) are neoplasms with distinct morphological characteristics that behave less aggressively than conventional renal-cell carcinomas. End-stage kidney specimens from 61 patients (47 males and 14 females) with 109 renal-cell carcinomas were selected. Papillary renal-cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy (61/109, 56%), followed by CCPC (20/109, 18%). The CCPC showed a papillary or tubular/solid architecture, clear cytoplasm, low nuclear grade, and a distinct immunohistochemical profile (RCC-, vimentin+, CK7+, p504S-). ACDAC displayed a variety of architectural patterns, eosinophilic cytoplasm, high nuclear grade, intratumoral calcium oxalate deposits, and an immunohistochemical profile similar to type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinoma (RCC+, vimentin+, CK7-/+, p504S+). Less than 5% (3/69) of pathologically staged renal-cell carcinomas in end-stage kidneys presented with lymphogenous and/or hematogenous metastases.

  9. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Buus Jensen

    Full Text Available Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1, late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D or recycling endosomes (Rab11. Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  10. Sensorineural Hearing Affection In Sickle Cell Disease Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Under Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abdelwhab Saeed MD*, Magdy M El Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the problem of hearing loss in patients of chronic renal failure on regular haemodialysis and The factors which affect it. And to study the effect of sickle cell disease on hearing loss. we studied hearing loss in dialysis patients, sickle cell disease patients and patients of sickle cell disease with chronic renal failure under dialysis compared to normal control subjects. Design: !"",include sickle cell disease patients with chronic renal fa"# $%& ' ", i ,nclude ( # #"# $%&'", , ,( #&'", i 9nclude the normal *+&*+' All groups are subjected to full history, thorough clinical examination including neurological and ENT examination, investigations includes Hb, s. creatinine, s.albumen, s.calcium and calculation of kt/v for dialysis patients. Full audiological assessment, using #,-GSI audiometer was done for all groups with special concentration at frequency of - .Results: hearing loss was found in patients with chronic renal failure more than normal control. Patient with sickle cell disease have hearing disorders significantly higher than $/%- .% 0( # #cell disease have significantly. Marked degree of SNHL than those with SCD only. Hearing loss in patients with 12( # * 3 &4 !4! '#"#"patients with chronic renal failure with or without SCD correlate with duration of dialysis , presence of peripheral neuropathy, s. calcium level, efficiency of dialysis marked by kt/v. Conclusion and recommendation: hearing disorder is common in patients with chronic renal failure under regular haemodialysis and it increase with duration of dialysis it should be suspected if there is Peripheral neuropathy. It can be reduced with efficient dialysis, correction of anemia, adjustment of calcium level. Patients with SCD suffer also some degree of hearing loss especially at higher frequency and this degree of hearing loss

  11. Cell-metal interactions: A comparison of natural uranium to other common metals in renal cells and bone osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milgram, S. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carriere, M. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thiebault, C. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Berger, P. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Khodja, H. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gouget, B. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: barbara.gouget@cea.fr

    2007-07-15

    Uranium acute intoxication has been documented to induce nephrotoxicity. Kidneys are the main target organs after short term exposures to high concentrations of the toxic, while chronic exposures lead to its accumulation in the skeleton. In this paper, chemical toxicity of uranium is investigated for rat osteoblastic bone cells and compared to results previously obtained on renal cells. We show that bone cells are less sensitive to uranium than renal cells. The influence of the chemical form on U cytotoxicity is demonstrated. For both cell types, a comparison of uranium toxicity with other metals or metalloids toxicities (Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd) permits classification of Cd, Zn, Se{sup IV} and Cu as the most toxic and Ni, Se{sup VI}, Mn and U as the least toxic. Chemical toxicity of natural uranium proves to be far less than that of cadmium. To try to explain the differences in sensitivities observed between metals and different cell types, cellular accumulations in cell monolayers are quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), function of time or function of dose: lethal doses which simulate acute intoxications and sub-lethal doses which are more realistic with regard to environmentally metals concentrations. In addition to being more resistant, bone cells accumulated much more uranium than did renal cells. Moreover, for both cell models, Mn, U-citrate and U-bicarbonate are strongly accumulated whereas Cu, Zn and Ni are weakly accumulated. On the other hand, a strong difference in Cd behaviour between the two cell types is shown: whereas Cd is very weakly accumulated in bone cells, it is very strongly accumulated in renal cells. Finally, elemental distribution of the toxics is determined on a cellular scale using nuclear microprobe analysis. For both renal and osteoblastic cells, uranium was accumulated in as intracellular precipitates similar to those observed previously by SEM/EDS.

  12. Bilateral psoas and bilateral perinephric abscesses complicating acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Acute pyelonephritis complicates 1-2% of pregnancies and causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of renal tuberculosis (TB) is often delayed and commonly presents with sterile pyuria or along with other pyogenic organisms. We report a case where the diagnosis of renal TB was missed in a pregnant woman when she presented with acute pyelonephritis, septic shock, and acute renal failure. There was clinical recovery with antibiotics, but bilateral psoas and pe...

  13. Induction of Apoptosis by Luteolin Involving Akt Inactivation in Human 786-O Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chuan Ou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the health-promoting effects of natural substances obtained from plants. Although luteolin has been identified as a potential therapeutic and preventive agent for cancer because of its potent cancer cell-killing activity, the molecular mechanisms have not been well elucidated. This study provides evidence of an alternative target for luteolin and sheds light on the mechanism of its physiological benefits. Treatment of 786-O renal cell carcinoma (RCC cells (as well as A498 and ACHN with luteolin caused cell apoptosis and death. This cytotoxicity was caused by the downregulation of Akt and resultant upregulation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (Ask1, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activities, probably via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activation. In addition to being a concurrent substrate of caspases and event of cell death, heat shock protein-90 (HSP90 cleavage might also play a role in driving further cellular alterations and cell death, at least in part, involving an Akt-related mechanism. Due to the high expression of HSP90 and Akt-related molecules in RCC and other cancer cells, our findings suggest that PP2A activation might work in concert with HSP90 cleavage to inactivate Akt and lead to a vicious caspase-dependent apoptotic cycle in luteolin-treated 786-O cells.

  14. Induction of cell death by ascorbic acid derivatives in human renal carcinoma and glioblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Y; Sakagami, H; Takeda, M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium-L-ascorbate, L-ascorbic acid, D-isoascorbic acid, sodium 5,6-benzylidene-L-ascorbate and sodium-6-beta-O-galactosyl-L-ascorbate, which produce ascorbyl radicals during the oxidative degradation, also induced cytotoxicity against cultured human renal carcinoma (TC-1) and glioblastoma multiform tumor (T98G) cell lines. On the other hand, L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate magnesium and L-ascorbic acid 2-sulfate dipotassium salt, which do not produce the ascorbyl radical, were inactive. This suggests the possible role of the ascorbyl radical for cell death induction. T98G cells were more resistant to ascorbate analogs than TC-1 and HL-60 cells, possibly due to higher intracellular glutathione concentrations. Ascorbate treatment induced rapid elevation of both intracellular concentration of cAMP and Ca2+ in HL-60 cells, but not in TC-1 and T98G cells. However, the elevation of cAMP by theophyline and N,2-dibutyryl adenosine 3,5 cyclic monophosphate (dibutyryl cAMP) resulted in a decrease in the viable cell number. This suggests the possible role of cAMP for ascorbate-induced cell death.

  15. Hyperglycemia: GDNF-EGR1 pathway target renal epithelial cell migration and apoptosis in diabetic renal embryopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yuang Lin

    Full Text Available Maternal hyperglycemia can inhibit morphogenesis of ureteric bud branching, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophilic factor (GDNF is a key regulator of the initiation of ureteric branching. Early growth response gene-1 (EGR-1 is an immediate early gene. Preliminary study found EGR-1 persistently expressed with GDNF in hyperglycemic environment. To evaluate the potential relationship of hyperglycemia-GDNF-EGR-1 pathway, in vitro human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HRPTE cells as target and in vivo streptozotocin-induced mice model were used. Our in vivo microarray, real time-PCR and confocal morphological observation confirmed apoptosis in hyperglycemia-induced fetal nephropathy via activation of the GDNF/MAPK/EGR-1 pathway at E12-E15. Detachment between ureteric branch and metanephrons, coupled with decreasing number and collapse of nephrons on Day 1 newborn mice indicate hyperglycemic environment suppress ureteric bud to invade metanephric rudiment. In vitro evidence proved that high glucose suppressed HRPTE cell migration and enhanced GDNF-EGR-1 pathway, inducing HRPTE cell apoptosis. Knockdown of EGR-1 by siRNA negated hyperglycemic suppressed GDNF-induced HRPTE cells. EGR-1 siRNA also reduced GDNF/EGR-1-induced cRaf/MEK/ERK phosphorylation by 80%. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of GDNF/MAPK/EGR-1 activation playing a critical role in HRPTE cell migration, apoptosis and fetal hyperglycemic nephropathy.

  16. Case report demonstrating effectiveness of sorafenib in multiple lung and bone metastases of renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    HOSHI, MANABU; OEBISU, NAOTO; Takada, Jun; IWAI, TDASHI; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents the case of a 59-year-old male with advanced-stage renal cell carcinoma and bone metastases in the proximal femur and ilium (cT3aN3M1; stage IV). Resection of the primary renal cell cancer and palliative surgery with a γ-nail for an impending fracture of the right proximal femur were performed, followed by radiotherapy. Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor that blocks the raf and tyrosine kinases of the vascular endothelial and platelet-derived growth factor receptor...

  17. Temsirolimus Is Highly Effective as Third-Line Treatment in Chromophobe Renal Cell Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Zardavas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report unexpectedly high efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment in a patient with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. After failure of two sequentially administered tyrosine kinase inhibitors, treatment with temsirolimus resulted in a prolonged partial remission of 14 months, and the response is still continuing. Up to now, no data from randomized clinical studies have been published addressing the question of efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The case presented here implies that temsirolimus could be a viable option for patients with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

  18. Temsirolimus is highly effective as third-line treatment in chromophobe renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardavas, Dimitrios; Meisel, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Knuth, Alexander; Renner, Christoph; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Stenner-Liewen, Frank

    2011-01-15

    We report unexpectedly high efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment in a patient with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. After failure of two sequentially administered tyrosine kinase inhibitors, treatment with temsirolimus resulted in a prolonged partial remission of 14 months, and the response is still continuing. Up to now, no data from randomized clinical studies have been published addressing the question of efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The case presented here implies that temsirolimus could be a viable option for patients with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

  19. A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis in association with Schistosoma hematobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. A. Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old man presented with painless frank haematuria. Investigations included intravenous urogram and abdominal/pelvic CT which revealed a marked focal thickening of the wall of the inferior aspect of the left renal pelvis extending into the lower pole calyx and into the pelviureteric junction resulting in left hydronephrosis. Urine cytology demonstrated clusters of malignant keratinised squamous cells and schistosome ova. He underwent left laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy and histology revealed moderately differentiated keratinising squamous cell carcinoma in the renal pelvis.

  20. Isolated Late Metastasis of a Renal Cell Cancer Treated by Radical Distal Pancreatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Barras

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A 53–year-old man underwent right nephrectomy for a locally advanced renal cell carcinoma with concomitant resection of a solitary metastasis in the right lung. Ten years later, he presented with haematochezia caused by a tumour in the tail of pancreas, invading the transverse colon and the greater curvature of the stomach. The tumour was radically resected, and histological examination revealed a solitary metastasis of the previous renal cell carcinoma. This case illustrates a rare indication for pancreatic resection because of pancreatic metastasis.

  1. Predictive factors of response to treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Giuseppe; Fratto, Maria Elisabetta; Imperatori, Marco; Pantano, Francesco; Vincenzi, Bruno; Santini, Daniele

    2011-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma represents approximately 3% of adult malignancies and 90-95% of neoplasms arising from the kidney. Many agents that target angiogenesis (e.g., sunitinib, sorafenib, bevacizumab and pazopanib) and mTOR-targeted therapy (e.g., temsirolimus and everolimus) have been approved as first-line agents. The choice of the most suitable treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma depends on the definition of risk. In this article, we reviewed the scientific literature identifying predictive factors on the activity/efficacy of a specific therapy.

  2. Multifocal renal cell carcinoma of different histological subtypes in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ki Yong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Park, Yong-Koo; Chang, Sung-Goo; Kim, Youn Wha

    2012-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney (ADPKD) is rare. To date, 54 cases of RCC in ADPKD have been reported. Among these, only 2 cases have different histologic types of RCC. Here we describe a 45-year-old man who received radical nephrectomy for multifocal RCC with synchronous papillary and clear cell histology in ADPKD and chronic renal failure under regular hemodialysis. The case reported herein is another example of the rare pathological finding of RCC arising in a patient with ADPKD.

  3. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the renal parenchyma: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of renal parenchyma is a very rare entity although renal pelvic SCC is common. We probably are reporting the third case in a 35 years female presenting with left lumbar pain and weight loss. Lower pole mass was found on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT study of abdomen for which left total nephrectomy was done. Histopathological examination revealed a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Her physical condition did not permit for any adjuvant therapy. Two months after surgery she expired.

  4. Ischiogluteal bursitis mimicking soft-tissue metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelk, M.; Gmeinwieser, J.; Manke, C.; Strotzer, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Regensburg (Germany); Hanika, H. [Department of Urology, St. Josef Hospital, Regensburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    We report a case of ischiogluteal bursitis mimicking a soft-tissue metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma. A 66-year-old woman suffered from pain over the left buttock 6 months after she was operated on for renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney. CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a tumor-like lesion adjacent to the left os ischii, which was suspected to be a soft-tissue metastasis. Percutaneous biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy, but the histopathological diagnosis of chronic bursitis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  5. Autocrine stimulation of clear-cell renal carcinoma cell migration in hypoxia via HIF-independent suppression of thrombospondin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienes-Martínez, Raquel; Ordóñez, Angel; Feijoo-Cuaresma, Mónica; Corral-Escariz, María; Mateo, Gloria; Stenina, Olga; Jiménez, Benilde; Calzada, María J.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 is a matricellular protein with potent antitumour activities, the levels of which determine the fate of many different tumours, including renal carcinomas. However, the factors that regulate this protein remain unclear. In renal carcinomas, hypoxic conditions enhance the expression of angiogenic factors that help adapt tumour cells to their hostile environment. Therefore, we hypothesized that anti-angiogenic factors should correspondingly be dampened. Indeed, we found that hypoxia decreased the thrombospondin-1 protein in several clear cell renal carcinoma cell lines (ccRCC), although no transcriptional regulation was observed. Furthermore, we proved that hypoxia stimulates multiple signals that independently contribute to diminish thrombospondin-1 in ccRCC, which include a decrease in the activity of oxygen-dependent prolylhydroxylases (PHDs) and activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. In addition, thrombospondin-1 regulation in hypoxia proved to be important for ccRCC cell migration and invasion. PMID:23145312

  6. Genome-wide methylation analysis of tubulocystic and papillary renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabecna, M; Geryk, J; Hora, M; Steiner, P; Seda, O; Tesar, V

    2016-01-01

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) represents a rare tumor with incidence lower than 1 % of all renal carcinomas. This study was undertaken to contribute to characterization of molecular signatures associated with TRCC and to compare them with the features of papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) at the level of genome wide methylation analysis.We performed methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) coupled with microarray analysis (Roche NimbleGen). Using the CHARM package, we compared the levels of gene methylation between paired samples of tumors and control renal tissues of each examined individual. We found significant global demethylation in all tumor samples in comparison with adjacent kidney tissues of normal histological appearance but no significant differences in gene methylation between the both compared tumor entities. Therefore we focused on characterization of differentially methylated regions between both tumors and control tissues. We found 42 differentially methylated genes.Hypermethylated genes for protocadherins (PCDHG) and genes coding for products associated with functions of plasma membrane were evaluated as significantly overrepresented among hypermethylated genes detected in both types of renal cell carcinomas.In our pilot study, we provide the first evidence that identical features in the process of carcinogenesis leading to TRCC and/or to PRCC may be found at the gene methylation level.

  7. Development of a living membrane comprising a functional human renal proximal tubule cell monolayer on polyethersulfone polymeric membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schophuizen, Carolien M S; De Napoli, Ilaria E; Jansen, Jitske; Teixeira, Sandra; Wilmer, Martijn J; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Van den Heuvel, Lambert P W; Masereeuw, R.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The need for improved renal replacement therapies has stimulated innovative research for the development of a cell-based renal assist device. A key requirement for such a device is the formation of a "living membrane", consisting of a tight kidney cell monolayer with preserved functional organic ion

  8. Expression of mitochondrial fission protein locus Fisl and ultrastructural changes in the renal cells of rats with chronic fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦双立

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of mitochondrial fission protein locus Fis1 and ultrastructural changes in the renal cells of rats with chronic fluorosis,and to reveal the mechanism in mitochondrial damage of the renal cells.Methods Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups according

  9. Analysis of differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins in chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and renal oncocytomas by 2-D gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Yusenko, Thomas Ruppert, Gyula Kovacs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal oncocytomas (RO and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (RCC display morphological and functional alterations of the mitochondria. Previous studies showed that accumulation of mitochondria in ROs is associated with somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA resulting in decreased activity of the respiratory chain complex I, whereas in chromophobe RCC only heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations were found. To identify proteins associated with these changes, for the first time we have compared the mitochondrial proteomes of mitochondria isolated from ROs and chromophobe RCCs as well as from normal kidney tissues by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteome profiles were reproducible within the same group of tissues in subsequent experiments. The expression patterns within each group of samples were compared and 81 in-gel digested spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS-based identification of proteins. Although the list of mitochondrial proteins identified in this study is incomplete, we identified the downregulation of NDUFS3 from complex I of the respiratory chain and upregulation of COX5A, COX5B, and ATP5H from complex IV and V in ROs. In chromophobe RCCs downregulation of ATP5A1, the alpha subunit of complex V, has been observed, but no changes in expression of other complexes of the respiratory chain were detected. To confirm the role of respiratory chain complex alterations in the morphological and/or functional changes in chromophobe RCCs and ROs, further studies will be necessary.

  10. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  11. Direct Reprogramming of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells into Functional Renal Cells Using Cell-free Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Papadimou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine is gaining recognition. Here, we show that human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, can be reprogrammed into renal proximal tubular-like epithelial cells using cell-free extracts. Streptolysin-O-permeabilized BMSCs exposed to HK2-cell extracts underwent morphological changes—formation of “domes” and tubule-like structures—and acquired epithelial functional properties such as transepithelial-resistance, albumin-binding, and uptake and specific markers E-cadherin and aquaporin-1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of brush border microvilli and tight intercellular contacts. RNA sequencing showed tubular epithelial transcript abundance and revealed the upregulation of components of the EGFR pathway. Reprogrammed BMSCs integrated into self-forming kidney tissue and formed tubular structures. Reprogrammed BMSCs infused in immunodeficient mice with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury engrafted into proximal tubuli, reduced renal injury and improved function. Thus, reprogrammed BMSCs are a promising cell resource for future cell therapy.

  12. Direct Reprogramming of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells into Functional Renal Cells Using Cell-free Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimou, Evangelia; Morigi, Marina; Iatropoulos, Paraskevas; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Tomasoni, Susanna; Benedetti, Valentina; Longaretti, Lorena; Rota, Cinzia; Todeschini, Marta; Rizzo, Paola; Introna, Martino; Grazia de Simoni, Maria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Goligorsky, Michael S.; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-01-01

    Summary The application of cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine is gaining recognition. Here, we show that human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), also known as bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, can be reprogrammed into renal proximal tubular-like epithelial cells using cell-free extracts. Streptolysin-O-permeabilized BMSCs exposed to HK2-cell extracts underwent morphological changes—formation of “domes” and tubule-like structures—and acquired epithelial functional properties such as transepithelial-resistance, albumin-binding, and uptake and specific markers E-cadherin and aquaporin-1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of brush border microvilli and tight intercellular contacts. RNA sequencing showed tubular epithelial transcript abundance and revealed the upregulation of components of the EGFR pathway. Reprogrammed BMSCs integrated into self-forming kidney tissue and formed tubular structures. Reprogrammed BMSCs infused in immunodeficient mice with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury engrafted into proximal tubuli, reduced renal injury and improved function. Thus, reprogrammed BMSCs are a promising cell resource for future cell therapy. PMID:25754206

  13. Protection of Renal Tubular Cells by Antioxidants: Current Knowledge and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Baradaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal damage mainly develops following toxic or ischemic insults and is defined as acute. These damages have largely been attributed to oxidative stress. Recently much attention has been directed toward decreased renal tubular cell regeneration during tubular cell injury. Antioxidants have recently been the focus of researchers and scientists for prevention and treatment of various oxidative stress-related conditions, including renal toxicities. Although free radicals are known to contribute in kidney injury and abundant researches, particularly laboratory trials, have shown the beneficial effects of antioxidants against these complications, long term clinical trials do not uniformly confirm this matter,especially for single antioxidant consumption such as vitamin C. The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible explanation of this matter.

  14. [Current strategies in the treatment of renal-cell cancer: targeted therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, José Manuel; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2008-03-22

    Renal-cell carcinoma represents 95% of all renal tumours. The Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor-suppressor gene is mutated or silenced in most clear cell renal carcinomas. pVHL loss results in the stabilization of the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and enhanced transactivation of HIF target genes. HIF itself has been difficult to inhibit with drug-like molecules although a number of agents that indirectly inhibit HIF, including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitors, have been identified. Moreover, a number of drugs have been developed that target HIF-responsive gene products, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), implicated in tumor angiogenesis. Many of these targeted therapies, especially sunitinib, have demonstrated significant activity in kidney cancer clinical trials and represent a substantive advance in the treatment of this disease.

  15. Cloning and functional research of renal cell carci noma related novel gene-G YLZ-R CC1 8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After the renal cell carcinoma related novel gene fragment GYLZ-RCC18 was cloned by using suppres sion subtractive hybridization (SSH), we used the SMART RACE technology to clone the full length of GYLZ-RCC18and performed chromosome location by the FISH method.RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of the first read ing frame of GYLZ-RCC18 in different stages and grades of renal cell carcinoma tissue and other tissues. Also we trans fected the antisense oligonucleotide of GYLZ-RCC18 to renal cell carcinoma cell line GRC-1, and analyzed the prolifera tion activity, growth speed, apoptosis and mortality changes in GRC-1. The results show that the full length of GYLZ-RCC18 (GenBank accession No.: BE825133) cDNA is about 3.5 kb long which is located at No. 14 chromosome.GYLZ-RCC18 has a higher expression in higher grades and stages of renal cell carcinoma than in the lower ones. The expression of GYLZ-RCC18 in renal cell carcinoma was much higher than that in normal kidney and other tissues.After transfection of GYLZ-RCC18 antisense oligonucleotide,the mortality of GRC-1 increases evidently, the proliferation activity and growth speed were inhibited remarkably at the same time. Also the antisense oligonucleotide can induce the apoptosis of GRC-1 all through the observation time. Our results indicated that GYLZ-RCC18 is an important novel gene related to renal cell carcinoma. Its overexpression would stimulate the growth and proliferation activity and plays an antidead and antiapoptosis effect in renal cell car cinoma. Transfection of antisense oligonucleotide could in hibit the generation and development of renal cell carcinoma.The study provides a new clue for the research of renal cell carcinoma, and also provides an instruction for special ge netic diagnosis and the therapy of renal cell carcinoma.

  16. Overendocytosis of gold nanoparticles increases autophagy and apoptosis in hypoxic human renal proximal tubular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding F

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fengan Ding,1 Yiping Li,1 Jing Liu,1 Lei Liu,1 Wenmin Yu,1 Zhi Wang,1 Haifeng Ni,2 Bicheng Liu,2 Pingsheng Chen1,2 1School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Nephrology, The Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Background: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs can potentially be used in biomedical fields ranging from therapeutics to diagnostics, and their use will result in increased human exposure. Many studies have demonstrated that GNPs can be deposited in the kidneys, particularly in renal tubular epithelial cells. Chronic hypoxic is inevitable in chronic kidney diseases, and it results in renal tubular epithelial cells that are susceptible to different types of injuries. However, the understanding of the interactions between GNPs and hypoxic renal tubular epithelial cells is still rudimentary. In the present study, we characterized the cytotoxic effects of GNPs in hypoxic renal tubular epithelial cells.Results: Both 5 nm and 13 nm GNPs were synthesized and characterized using various biophysical methods, including transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. We detected the cytotoxicity of 5 and 13 nm GNPs (0, 1, 25, and 50 nM to human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2 by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and lactate dehydrogenase release assay, but we just found the toxic effect in the 5 nm GNP-treated cells at 50 nM dose under hypoxic condition. Furthermore, the transmission electron microscopy images revealed that GNPs were either localized in vesicles or free in the lysosomes in 5 nm GNPs-treated HK-2 cells, and the cellular uptake of the GNPs in the hypoxic cells was significantly higher than that in normoxic cells. In normoxic HK-2 cells, 5 nm GNPs (50 nM treatment could cause autophagy and cell survival. However, in hypoxic conditions, the GNP exposure at the same condition led to the

  17. Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer: A Review and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Erotocritou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC is resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, immunotherapy appears to be effective in 15—20% of cases, with interleukin-2 becoming the standard therapy for this disease. As a consequence of the immune susceptibility of RCC, other avenues of immunotherapy are being explored, such as nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation (NST. A number of trials have shown NST to be effective in varying degrees, causing partial or complete regression. Although nonmyeloablative conditioning is safer than myeloablative conditioning, its role has yet to be clearly proven as many studies have shown variable effect. Alongside this limitation, transplant-related toxicity also forms obstacles. Regardless of the limitation of NST, further refinement of the technique, with appropriate patient selection, may lead to this being an effective therapeutic choice for a significant number of individuals.

  18. Left Hand-assisted Laparoscopic Nephrectomy With Renal Vein Thrombectomy for Stage T3b Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, George M; Kenleigh, Dorian A; Brown, James A

    2016-04-01

    A 60-year-old male was found to have an 8.0 cm left renal mass and associated renal vein thrombus on computed tomography. The thrombus extended 3 mm beyond the right aortic border to within 1.6 cm of the left border of the inferior vena cava. The patient underwent left nephrectomy with renal vein thrombectomy using a hand-assisted laparoscopic approach. The tumor thrombus was "milked" proximally back into left renal vein, which was then divided with an endovascular stapler. Left renal vein thrombi extending to right margin of the aorta can be managed with hand-assisted laparoscopic approach.

  19. Stepwise renal lineage differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells tracing in vivo development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Masaki, E-mail: masakiwestriver@gmail.com [Medical and Research Services, Greater Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Healthcare System at Sepulveda, North Hills, CA (United States); University of California at Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 91343 (United States); Yanagawa, Naomi [Medical and Research Services, Greater Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Healthcare System at Sepulveda, North Hills, CA (United States); University of California at Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 91343 (United States); Kojima, Nobuhiko [Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Yuri, Shunsuke; Hauser, Peter V.; Jo, Oak D.; Yanagawa, Norimoto [Medical and Research Services, Greater Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Healthcare System at Sepulveda, North Hills, CA (United States); University of California at Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 91343 (United States)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We induced renal lineages from mESCs by following the in vivo developmental cues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We induced nephrogenic intermediate mesoderm by stepwise addition of factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We induced two types of renal progenitor cells by reciprocal conditioned media. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose the potential role of CD24 for the enrichment of renal lineage cells. -- Abstract: The in vitro derivation of renal lineage progenitor cells is essential for renal cell therapy and regeneration. Despite extensive studies in the past, a protocol for renal lineage induction from embryonic stem cells remains unestablished. In this study, we aimed to induce renal lineages from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) by following in vivo developmental stages, i.e., the induction of mesoderm (Stage I), intermediate mesoderm (Stage II) and renal lineages (Stage III). For stage I induction, in accordance with known signaling pathways involved in mesoderm development in vivo, i.e., Nodal, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt, we found that the sequential addition of three factors, i.e., Activin-A (A), a surrogate for Nodal signaling, during days 0-2, A plus BMP-4 (4) during days 2-4, and A4 plus lithium (L), a surrogate for Wnt signaling, during days 4-6, was most effective to induce the mesodermal marker, Brachyury. For stage II induction, the addition of retinoic acid (R) in the continuous presence of A4L during days 6-8 was most effective to induce nephrogenic intermediate mesodermal markers, such as Pax2 and Lim1. Under this condition, more than 30% of cells were stained positive for Pax2, and there was a concomitant decrease in the expression of non-mesodermal markers. For stage III induction, in resemblance to the reciprocal induction between ureteric bud (UB) and metanephric mesenchyme (MM) during kidney development, we found that the exposure to conditioned media derived from UB and MM cells was

  20. HIV-1 infection initiates an inflammatory cascade in human renal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael J; Fan, Cheng; Ross, Michael D; Chu, Te-Huatearina; Shi, Yueyue; Kaufman, Lewis; Zhang, Weijia; Klotman, Mary E; Klotman, Paul E

    2006-05-01

    HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the most common cause of chronic renal failure in HIV-infected patients. Tubulointerstitial inflammation is a prominent component of the histopathology of HIVAN. The pathogenesis of HIVAN is a result of infection of renal epithelial cells, but the cellular response to this infection remains poorly defined. In these studies, we used oligonucleotide microarrays to identify differentially expressed genes in renal tubular epithelial cells from a patient with HIVAN at three time points after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus-pseudotyped gag/pol-deleted HIV-1. Very few genes were differentially expressed 12 and 24 hours after infection. Three days after infection, however, 47 genes were upregulated by at least 1.8-fold. The most prominent response of these cells to HIV-1 expression was production of proinflammatory mediators, including chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules. Many of the upregulated genes are targets of interleukin 6 and nuclear factor kappa B regulation, suggesting a central role for these proteins in the response of tubular epithelial cells to HIV-1 infection. Analysis of kidneys from HIV-1 transgenic mice revealed upregulation of many of the proinflammatory genes identified in the microarray studies. These studies provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which HIV-1 infection of tubular epithelial cells leads to tubulointerstitial inflammation and progressive renal injury.

  1. Bilateral acute corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, T F; Leibowitz, H M

    1985-04-01

    A 38-year-old man with brittle, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral severe dry eyes with recurrent corneal ulcers developed atypical band-shaped calcifications of both corneas during a 24-hour period. Serum calcium, phosphate, and carbon dioxide levels all were within normal limits. The patient was mildly uremic but was not in renal failure. When EDTA chelation failed to clear the deposits, partial keratectomies were performed in both eyes and the specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy, including energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Microscopic studies revealed an atypical calcific keratopathy which involved neither Bowman's layer nor the most superficial stromal lamellae. The deposits were confined to deeper lamellae in the anterior stroma and by electron microscopy were composed of extracellular crystalline aggregates. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis of these aggregates confirmed the presence of calcium and phosphate. Corneal dessication appeared to be a major contributing factor in the rapid formation of these deposits.

  2. Bilateral Renal Denervation Ameliorates Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure through Downregulation of the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Cheng, Ai-Yuan; Huo, Yan-Li; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Fang, Zhi-Qin; Sun, Hong-Sheng; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by cardiac dysfunction along with autonomic unbalance that is associated with increased renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). Renal denervation (RD) has been shown to improve cardiac function in HF, but the protective mechanisms remain unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that RD ameliorates isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced HF through regulation of brain RAS and PICs. Chronic ISO infusion resulted in remarked decrease in blood pressure (BP) and increase in heart rate and cardiac dysfunction, which was accompanied by increased BP variability and decreased baroreflex sensitivity and HR variability. Most of these adverse effects of ISO on cardiac and autonomic function were reversed by RD. Furthermore, ISO upregulated mRNA and protein expressions of several components of the RAS and PICs in the lamina terminalis and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, two forebrain nuclei involved in cardiovascular regulations. RD significantly inhibited the upregulation of these genes. Either intracerebroventricular AT1-R antagonist, irbesartan, or TNF-α inhibitor, etanercept, mimicked the beneficial actions of RD in the ISO-induced HF. The results suggest that the RD restores autonomic balance and ameliorates ISO-induced HF and that the downregulated RAS and PICs in the brain contribute to these beneficial effects of RD. PMID:27746855

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase as a biomarker for early renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S Alzahri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among many complications of sickle cell disease, renal failure is the main contributor to early mortality. It is present in up to 21% of patients with sickle cell disease. Although screening for microalbuminuria and proteinuria is the current acceptable practice to detect and follow renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease, there is a crucial need for other, more sensitive biomarkers. This becomes especially true knowing that those biomarkers start to appear only after more than 60% of the kidney function is lost. The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether lactate dehydrogenase (LDH correlates with other, direct and indirect bio-markers of renal insufficiency in patients with sickle cell disease and, therefore, could be used as a biomarker for early renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease. Fifty-five patients with an established diagnosis of sickle cell disease were recruited to in the study. Blood samples were taken and 24-h urine collection samples were collected. Using Statcrunch, a data analysis tool available on the web, we studied the correlation between LDH and other biomarkers of kidney function as well as the distribution and relationship between the variables. Regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between serum LDH and creatinine clearance, R (correlation coefficient = -0.44, P = 0.0008. This correlation was more significant at younger age. This study shows that in sickle cell patients LDH correlates with creatinine clearance and, therefore, LDH could serve as a biomarker to predict renal insufficiency in those patients.

  4. Kidney specific protein-positive cells derived from embryonic stem cells reproduce tubular structures in vitro and differentiate into renal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizane, Ryuji; Monkawa, Toshiaki; Fujii, Shizuka; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Homma, Koichiro; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Okano, Hideyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various organs and tissues, and are regarded as new tools for the elucidation of disease mechanisms as well as sources for regenerative therapies. However, a method of inducing organ-specific cells from pluripotent stem cells is urgently needed. Although many scientists have been developing methods to induce various organ-specific cells from pluripotent stem cells, renal lineage cells have yet to be induced in vitro because of the complexity of kidney structures and the diversity of kidney-component cells. Here, we describe a method of inducing renal tubular cells from mouse embryonic stem cells via the cell purification of kidney specific protein (KSP)-positive cells using an anti-KSP antibody. The global gene expression profiles of KSP-positive cells derived from ES cells exhibited characteristics similar to those of cells in the developing kidney, and KSP-positive cells had the capacity to form tubular structures resembling renal tubular cells when grown in a 3D culture in Matrigel. Moreover, our results indicated that KSP-positive cells acquired the characteristics of each segment of renal tubular cells through tubular formation when stimulated with Wnt4. This method is an important step toward kidney disease research using pluripotent stem cells, and the development of kidney regeneration therapies.

  5. Comparison of circulating and intratumoral regulatory T cells in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Gati; Amal, Gorrab; Raja, Marrakchi; Amine, Derouiche; Mohammed, Chebil; Amel, Ben Ammar Elgaaied

    2015-05-01

    The clear evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) exists in the tumor microenvironment raises the question why renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progresses. Numerous studies support the implication of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T (Treg) cells in RCC development. We aimed in this study to characterize the phenotype and function of circulating and intratumoral Treg cells of RCC patient in order to evaluate their implication in the inhibition of the local antitumor immune response. Our results demonstrate that the proportion of Treg in TIL was, in average, similar to that found in circulating CD4(+) T cells of patients or healthy donors. However, intratumoral Treg exhibit a marked different phenotype when compared with the autologous circulating Treg. A higher CD25 mean level, HLA-DR, Fas, and GITR, and a lower CD45RA expression were observed in intratumoral Treg, suggesting therefore that these cells are effector in the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, intratumoral Treg showed a higher inhibitory function on autologous CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells when compared with circulating Treg that may be explained by an overexpression of FoxP3 transcription factor. These findings suggest that intratumoral Treg could be major actors in the impairment of local antitumor immune response for RCC patients.

  6. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide by Trypanosoma cruzi in renal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel M; Yoshida, Nobuko; Higa, Elisa M S; Shenkman, Sérgio; Alves, Monique; Staquicini, Daniela; Cascabulho, Cynthia; Schor, Nestor

    2011-08-01

    Chagas disease is typically associated with cardiac involvement. During the acute phase of murine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, severe acute myocarditis can develop. Prior to cardiac alteration, however, infected mice present with renal inflammatory infiltration causing acute kidney injury due to an ischemia/reperfusion lesion. Thus, the present study was undertaken in order to evaluate whether the parasites or some of their components would directly affect renal cells. As such, this study employed kidney cell lines (mesangial, epithelial, and proximal tubular) that mimic different regions of the renal system. Mesangial cells are more resistant to infection, showing reduced parasite internalization relative to epithelial and proximal tubular cells. Upon infection, mesangial cells produced more nitric oxide, tumor factor necrosis-α, and interferon-γ and showed decreased viability when compared to the other cell lines. These results indicate that the resistance of mesangial cells to infection may be related to the increased expression of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. Conversely, the high levels of nitric oxide produced by these cells caused impairment of cell integrity and viability. Higher nitric oxide concentrations promote cellular injury and can be involved in the genesis of ischemia/reperfusion lesions in acute kidney injury.

  7. ABT-737, a Bcl-2 Selective Inhibitor, and Chloroquine Synergistically Kill Renal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Pei; Jia, Jinpeng; Li, Jijun; Song, Yan; Zhang, Yiyan; Chen, Fengkun

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy in the kidney in the world, and the 5-year overall survival for patients remains poor due to the lack of effective treatment strategies. Although ABT-737, as a Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor, has recently emerged as a novel cancer therapeutic reagent, apoptosis induced by ABT-737 is often blocked in several types of cancer cells. This study investigated whether the combination of the small-molecule BH3 mimetic ABT-737 and the lysosome inhibitor chloroquine was an effective strategy for treating renal cancer cells. We found that the combination of ABT-737 and chloroquine synergistically decreased cell viability when compared to treatment with either single reagent. Cell apoptosis induced by a combined treatment was markedly inhibited by the caspase inhibitors z-DEVD-FMK and z-VAD-FMK. It was also inhibited by cathepsin inhibitor E-64 and CTSI (cathepsin inhibitor), which suggested that apoptosis was dependent on the cascade of caspase activation and cathepsins released from lysosomes. Furthermore, we found that ABT-737 could increase the cell level of ROS, which triggers cathepsin-mediated cell death and augments the role of chloroquine in cell death. So the combination of ABT-737 and chloroquine was an effective strategy for the treatment of renal cancer cells, and this combined strategy may widen the therapeutic window of ABT-737 and chloroquine as well as enhance the clinical efficacy of synergistic drug combinations.

  8. Surgical Management of Ectopic Kidney with Bilateral Iliac Vein Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Harshwardhan V; Wagaskar, Vinayak G; Fernandes, Gwendolyn; Patil, Bhushan; Patwardhan, Sujata K

    2016-03-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a very rare phenomenon in an ectopic kidney. We come across a 61-year-old gentleman with a history of 2 months of gross, painless haematuria and palpable pelvic mass on examination. CT scan showed 6.5cm X 5.1cm X 5.8cm mass in pelvic kidney with bilateral iliac vein invasion. With the help of intra-operative ultra-sound, tumour thrombus was extracted from both iliac veins with en mass removal of tumour. Patient was well intraoperatively as well as in postoperatively. We also presented an elegant imaging for the case.

  9. Fetal kidney stem cells ameliorate cisplatin induced acuterenal failure and promote renal angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether fetal kidney stem cells(fKSC) ameliorate cisplatin induced acute renal failure(ARF) in rats and promote renal angiogenesis.METHODS: The fKSC were isolated from rat fetusesof gestation day 16 and expanded in vitro up to 3rdpassage. They were characterized for the expressionof mesenchymal and renal progenitor markers by flowcytometry and immunocytochemistry, respectively.The in vitro differentiation of fKSC towards epitheliallineage was evaluated by the treatment with specificinduction medium and their angiogenic potential bymatrigel induced tube formation assay. To study theeffect of fKSC in ARF, fKSC labeled with PKH26 wereinfused in rats with cisplatin induced ARF and, the bloodand renal tissues of the rats were collected at differenttime points. Blood biochemical parameters werestudied to evaluate renal function. Renal tissues wereevaluated for renal architecture, renal cell proliferationand angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry, renal cellapoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nickendlabeling assay and early expression of angiogenicmolecules viz . vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and endothelial nitricoxide synthase (eNOS) by western blot.RESULTS: The fKSC expressed mesenchymal markersviz . CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105 as well as renal progenitor markers viz . Wt1, Pax2 and Six2. Theyexhibited a potential to form CD31 and Von Willebrandfactor expressing capillary-like structures and could bedifferentiated into cytokeratin (CK)18 and CK19 positiveepithelial cells. Administration of fKSC in rats with ARF ascompared to administration of saline alone, resulted in asignificant improvement in renal function and histology onday 3 (2.33 ± 0.33 vs 3.50 ± 0.34, P 〈 0.05) and on day7 (0.83 ± 0.16 vs 2.00 ± 0.25, P 〈 0.05). The infusedPKH26 labeled fKSC were observed to engraft in damagedrenal tubules and showed increased proliferation andreduced

  10. Urinalysis: do not forget this type of cell in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Massimo; Motta, Daria; Giunti, Sara; Maddalena, Emanuela; Messina, Maria; Lasaponara, Fedele; Lanfranco, Giacomo; Segoloni, Giuseppe P

    2007-01-01

    Microscopic sediment analysis of urine from a 56-year-old woman who underwent renal transplantation showed many uncommon clusters of rounded and translucent cells containing globular mucous cytoplasmic inclusions (HPF, x400). These cells were bigger than leukocytes and, compared with uroepithelial cells, showed a smaller nucleus to cytoplasm ratio and appeared eosinophilic, being pink rather than azurophilic with Sternheimer-Malbin stain. They were also unlikely to be tubular cells, which are usually smaller, singly distributed and associated with dysmorphic erythrocytes and/or casts and/or a worsening in renal function. A review of the patient's history showed that a pretransplantation urologic surgical treatment, including ileal bladder reconstruction, had been performed. Intestinal epithelial cells should be remembered when examining urinary sediment.

  11. Increased intratumoral FOXP3-positive regulatory immune cells during interleukin-2 treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Krogh; Donskov, Frede; Nordsmark, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) may increase the frequency of peripherally circulating FOXP3-positive regulatory immune cells, thus potentially compromising this treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The impact of IL-2-based therapy on the accumul......PURPOSE: The administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) may increase the frequency of peripherally circulating FOXP3-positive regulatory immune cells, thus potentially compromising this treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The impact of IL-2-based therapy......-treatment FOXP3-positive cells (n = 31) had a 5-year survival rate of 19% (hazard ratio, 2.2; confidence interval, 1.03-4.5; P = 0.043). All long-term survivors were characterized by low-baseline FOXP3-positive cells and a modest absolute rise in FOXP3-positive cells. CONCLUSION: Intratumoral FOXP3-positive...

  12. The notochord breaks bilateral symmetry by controlling cell shapes in the zebrafish laterality organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnon, Julien; Barone, Vanessa; Rajshekar, Srivarsha; Kottmeier, Rita; Pranjic-Ferscha, Kornelija; Behrndt, Martin; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2014-12-22

    Kupffer's vesicle (KV) is the zebrafish organ of laterality, patterning the embryo along its left-right (LR) axis. Regional differences in cell shape within the lumen-lining KV epithelium are essential for its LR patterning function. However, the processes by which KV cells acquire their characteristic shapes are largely unknown. Here, we show that the notochord induces regional differences in cell shape within KV by triggering extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation adjacent to anterior-dorsal (AD) regions of KV. This localized ECM deposition restricts apical expansion of lumen-lining epithelial cells in AD regions of KV during lumen growth. Our study provides mechanistic insight into the processes by which KV translates global embryonic patterning into regional cell shape differences required for its LR symmetry-breaking function.

  13. Immature CD4+ dendritic cells conditioned with donor kidney antigen prolong renal allograft survival in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; XU Lin; LI Heng; HUANG Zheng-yu; ZHANG Sheng-ping; MIAO Bin; NA Ning

    2012-01-01

    Background AIIogeneic transplant rejection is currently a major problem encountered during organ transplantation.The dendritic cell (DC) is the most effective powerful known professional antigen-presenting cell,and recent studies have found that DCs can also induce immune tolerance,and avoid or reduce the degree of transplant rejection.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transfused immature CD4+ DCs on renal allografts in the rat model.Methods In this study,we induced CD4+ immature DCs from rat bone marrow cells by a cytokine cocktail.The immature CD4+ DCs were identified by morphological analysis and then the suppressive activity of these cells conditioned with donor kidney antigen was evaluated in vitro and in vivo.Results Immature CD4+ DCs conditioned with donor kidney antigen possessed immunosuppressive activity in vitro and they were able to prolong renal transplant survival in an allograft rat model in vivo.Conclusions Our study provides new information on efficacious renal transplantation,which might be useful for understanding the function of immature CD4+ DCs in modulating renal transplant rejection and improving clinical outcome in future studies.

  14. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that include

  15. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that include

  16. Multidisciplinary management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the era of targeted therapies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudier, B.; Osanto, S.; Ljungberg, B.; Porta, C.; Wagstaff, J.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Gore, M.; Bex, A.; Bellmunt, J.; Bracarda, S.; Franklin, A.; Honore, P.H.; Ravaud, A.; Steijn, J.; Aziz, Z.; Akaza, H.

    2012-01-01

    The use of targeted agents to treat metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has significantly extended progression-free and overall survival but raises issues relating to the long-term delivery of care and the sustained monitoring of efficacy and toxicities, certain of which have not previously been

  17. Body Composition in Relation to Clinical Outcomes in Renal Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Alina; Kampman, Ellen; Knijnenburg, Nathalja C.; Mulders, Peter F.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Baracos, Vickie E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Several studies suggest that body composition (ie, body proportions of muscle and fat defined by computed tomography) is associated with clinical outcomes of several cancer types, including renal cell cancer (RCC). Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence

  18. Vascular endothelial cell function and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, A B; Eidemak, I; Jensen, T

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors and markers of endothelial cell function were studied in nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic renal failure. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin and the plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and plasma lipids were measured in 29...

  19. Inhibitory effects of tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and diacylglycerol on erythropoietin production in human renal carcinoma cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Masamichi; Nagakura, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Munehisa; Fisher, J.W. (Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States))

    1987-11-01

    A human renal carcinoma from a patient with an erythrocytosis, serially transplanted into athymic nude mice, was grown in primary monolayer cell cultures. After reaching confluency the cultured cells formed multicellular hemicysts (domes) which became more abundant as the cultures approached saturation density. Erythropoietin (Ep) production by this renal carcinoma in culture was only slightly increased at the time of semiconfluency but showed a marked increase in Ep levels in the culture medium after the cultures reached confluency, in parallel with an increase in dome formation. The phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) showed a significant dose-related inhibitory effect on Ep production and dome formation in the renal carcinoma cell cultures, suggesting an important role of protein kinase C, the only known receptor for TPA, in inhibiting the expression of differentiated phenotypes in the renal carcinoma cells. These studies suggest a role of the inositol-lipid second messenger path and protein kinase C in the regulation of Ep production.

  20. Cost utility analysis of everolimus in the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlović, J.; Minović, I.; Bruinsma, A.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) is becoming an important part of Dutch health care expenditure due to expensive pharmaceutical options for disease control and lack of adequate prevention methods. New targeted therapeutics, such as sunitinib, sorafenib and everolimus, have recently em

  1. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis in a patient with renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Waal, RIF; Van de Scheur, MR; Pas, HH; Jonkman, MF; Van Groeningen, CJ; Nieboer, C; Starink, TM

    2001-01-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations, characterized by linear deposition of IgA along the epidermal basement membrane zone. We report a patient with a metastasized renal cell carcinoma who developed an extensive

  2. Systematic Review of Adrenalectomy and Lymph Node Dissection in Locally Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekema, Hendrika J.; MacLennan, Steven; Imamura, Mari; Lam, Thomas B. L.; Stewart, Fiona; Scott, Neil; MacLennan, Graeme; McClinton, Sam; Griffiths, T. R. Leyshon; Skolarikos, Andreas; MacLennan, Sara J.; Sylvester, Richard; Ljungberg, Borje; N'Dow, James

    2013-01-01

    Context: Controversy remains over whether adrenalectomy and lymph node dissection (LND) should be performed concomitantly with radical nephrectomy (RN) for locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cT3-T4N0M0. Objective: To systematically review all relevant literature comparing oncologic, periope

  3. Renal cell carcinoma with vena caval tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hai; ZHANG Zhi-gen; CHEN Zhao-dian; SHI Shi-fang; CAI Song-liang; WANG Shuo

    2006-01-01

    @@ The incidence of the inferior vena cava (IVC)tumor thrombus is reported to be 4%-10% in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Tumor thrombus may extend through to the right atrium.Management of patients with level Ⅲ/Ⅳ tumor thrombus is usually difficult. We report two cases of level Ⅳ thrombus in our hospital in 2002 and 2004.

  4. Prognostic value of histologic subtypes in renal cell carcinoma: a multicenter experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patard, J.J.; Leray, E.; Rioux-Leclercq, N.; Cindolo, L.; Ficarra, V.; Zisman, A.; Taille, A. De La; Tostain, J.; Artibani, W.; Abbou, C.C.; Lobel, B.; Guille, F.; Chopin, D.K.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Wood, C.G.; Swanson, D.A.; Figlin, R.A.; Belldegrun, A.S.; Pantuck, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze to what extent histologic subtype is of prognostic importance in renal cell carcinoma based on a large, international, multicenter experience. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four thousand sixty-three patients from eight international centers were included in this retrospective study. Hist

  5. Outpatient-based subcutaneous interleukin-2 monotherapy in advanced renal cell carcinoma : An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieken, J; Sleijfer, DT; deLeij, L; Mulder, NH

    1996-01-01

    To minimize interleukin-2-related toxicity while retaining its efficacy, a treatment schedule utilizing subcutaneous IL-2 was evaluated in a phase II setting. Eighty unselected consecutive patients with metastatic or recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC), mean age 58 years (range, 21 to 76), received

  6. [Angiogenesis inhibitors for the systemic treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: sunitinib, sorafenib, bevacizumab and temsirolimus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.H.M. de; Haanen, J.B.; Sleijfer, S.; Kruit, W.H.; Gietema, J.A.; Richel, D.J.; Groenewegen, G.; Voest, E.E.; Eertwegh, A.J. van den; Osanto, S.; Jansen, R.L.; Mulders, P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma is evolving rapidly due to the advent of novel targeted therapies. Improved knowledge of the underlying pathogenesis has led to the development of drugs that modulate the dominant signal transduction pathways for this disease, which results

  7. Genetics as a diagnostic tool in sarcomatoid renal-cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, T; VandenBerg, E; van den Berg, A.; VandeVeen, A; Faber, H; Buys, CHCM; Storkel, S; DeJong, B; Dam, A.

    1997-01-01

    Renal-cell cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, which currently can be sub-divided into morphologically distinct entities, each characterized by a specific combination of genetic changes. Sarcomatoid transformation might occur in any of the sub-types, resulting in tumors consisting of b

  8. Primary Thyroid-Like Follicular Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Emerging Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney is a rare but newly emerging histological variant of renal cell carcinoma RCC, with only nine cases reported in the literature to date. We present a further case of this unique condition, discuss the workup and typical histological findings, and review the literature regarding this rare histological variant.

  9. Amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor gene in renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, Peter; El-Hariry, Iman; Powles, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) may be of prognostic value in renal cell cancer (RCC). Gene amplification of EGFR was investigated in a cohort of 315 patients with advanced RCC from a previously reported randomised study. Using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, only 2...

  10. Cruciferous vegetables consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ben; Mao, Qiqi; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Jindan; Wang, Chaojun; Lin, Yiwei; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Previous cohort and case-control studies on the association between cruciferous vegetables consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma have illustrated conflicting results so far. To demonstrate the potential association between them, a meta-analysis was performed. Eligible studies were retrieved via both computerized searches and review of references. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest vs. the lowest consumption of cruciferous vegetables were calculated. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated. Stratified analyses were performed as well. Three cohort and 7 case-control studies were included. A significantly decreased risk with renal cell carcinoma was observed in overall cruciferous vegetables consumption group (RR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.63-0.83) and subgroup of case-control studies (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60-0.78), but not in cohort studies (RR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.71-1.21). No heterogeneity and publication bias were detected across studies. Our findings supported that cruciferous vegetables consumption was related to the decreased risk of renal cell carcinoma. Because of the limited number of studies, further well-designed prospective studies and researches need to be conducted to better clarify the protective effect of cruciferous vegetables on renal cell carcinoma and potential mechanism.

  11. Targeted therapy of renal cell carcinoma: synergistic activity of cG250-TNF and IFNg.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, S.; Oosterwijk-Wakka, J.C.; Adrian, N.; Oosterwijk, E.; Fischer, E.; Wuest, T.; Stenner, F.; Perani, A.; Cohen, L.; Knuth, A.; Divgi, C.; Jager, D.; Scott, A.M.; Ritter, G.; Old, L.J.; Renner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic targeting of G250/Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) represents a promising strategy for treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The well characterized human-mouse chimeric G250 (cG250) antibody has been shown in human studies to specifically enrich in CA-IX positive tumors and was cho

  12. Better survival of renal cell carcinoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, L.A.A.P.; Nissen, L.H.C.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Herpen, C.M.L. van; Kievit, W.; Verhoeven, R.H.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Kaa, C.A. van de; Boers-Sonderen, M.J.; Heuvel, T.R. van den; Pierik, M.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Hoentjen, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive therapy may impact cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Cancer specific data regarding risk and outcome are scarce and data for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are lacking. We aimed(1) to identify risk factors for RCC development in IBD patients (2) to compare RC

  13. Castleman Disease in the Kidney and Retroperitoneum Mimicking Renal Cell Carcinoma with Retroperitoneal Lymphadenopathy: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Hee Sun; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Jung, Ah Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Castleman disease, or angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia, is a fairly rare benign tumor of lymphoid origin with unknown etiology. Castleman disease arises mostly in the mediastinum, and some cases of renal and retroperitoneal involvement have been reported. However, Castleman disease that simultaneously involves the kidney and regional lymph nodes has not been reported in radiologic literature. We report a case of renal and pararenal Castleman disease, mimicking renal cell carcinoma with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.

  14. Computerized image analysis of cell-cell interactions in human renal tissue by using multi-channel immunoflourescent confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Liarski, Vladimir M.; Kaverina, Natalya; Clark, Marcus R.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of interactions between B and T cells in tubulointerstitial inflammation is important for understanding human lupus nephritis. We developed a computer technique to perform this analysis, and compared it with manual analysis. Multi-channel immunoflourescent-microscopy images were acquired from 207 regions of interest in 40 renal tissue sections of 19 patients diagnosed with lupus nephritis. Fresh-frozen renal tissue sections were stained with combinations of immunoflourescent antibodies to membrane proteins and counter-stained with a cell nuclear marker. Manual delineation of the antibodies was considered as the reference standard. We first segmented cell nuclei and cell membrane markers, and then determined corresponding cell types based on the distances between cell nuclei and specific cell-membrane marker combinations. Subsequently, the distribution of the shortest distance from T cell nuclei to B cell nuclei was obtained and used as a surrogate indicator of cell-cell interactions. The computer and manual analyses results were concordant. The average absolute difference was 1.1+/-1.2% between the computer and manual analysis results in the number of cell-cell distances of 3 μm or less as a percentage of the total number of cell-cell distances. Our computerized analysis of cell-cell distances could be used as a surrogate for quantifying cell-cell interactions as either an automated and quantitative analysis or for independent confirmation of manual analysis.

  15. Tracking sub-clonal TP53 mutated tumor cells in human metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Guilhem; El Bouchtaoui, Morad; Leboeuf, Christophe; Battistella, Maxime; Varna, Mariana; Ferreira, Irmine; Plassa, Louis-François; Hamdan, Diaddin; Bertheau, Philippe; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Damotte, Diane; Janin, Anne

    2015-08-07

    Renal Cell Carcinomas (RCCs) are heterogeneous tumors with late acquisition of TP53 abnormalities during their evolution. They harbor TP53 abnormalities in their metastases. We aimed to study TP53 gene alterations in tissue samples from primary and metastatic RCCs in 36 patients followed up over a median of 4.2 years, and in xenografted issued from primary RCCs. In 36 primary RCCs systematically xenografted in mice, and in biopsies of metastases performed whenever possible during patient follow-up, we studied p53-expressing tumor cells and TP53 gene abnormalities.We identified TP53 gene alterations in primary tumors, metastases and xenografts. Quantification of tumors cells with TP53 gene alterations showed a significant increase in the metastases compared to the primary RCCs, and, strikingly, the xenografts were similar to the metastases and not to the primary RCCs from which they were derived.Using laser-microdissection of p53-expressing tumor cells, we identified TP53-mutated tumor cells in the xenografts derived from the primary RCC, and in a lung metastasis later developed in one patient. The mutation enabled us to track back their origin to a minority sub-clone in the primary heterogeneous RCC. Combining in situ and molecular analyses, we demonstrated a clonal expansion in a living patient with metastatic RCC.

  16. Effect of arginase II on L-arginine depletion and cell growth in murine cell lines of renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson John R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-arginine is the common substrate for the two isoforms of arginase. Arginase I, highly expressed in the liver and arginase II mainly expressed in the kidney. Arginase I-producing myeloid derived suppressor cells have been shown to inhibit T-cell function by the depletion of L-arginine. On the other hand, arginase II has been detected in patients with cancer and is thought to metabolize L-arginine to L-ornithine needed to sustain rapid tumor growth; however its role in L-arginine depletion is unclear. Thus, in tumor biology, L-arginine metabolism may play a dual role in tumor growth and in the induction of T cell dysfunction. Therefore, we studied in murine renal cell carcinoma (RCC cell lines, the effect of arginase II on tumor cell proliferation and L-arginine depletion. The effect of arginase inhibitors on cell proliferation was also tested. Methods Three murine renal cell carcinoma (mRCC cell lines were tested for the presence of arginase. nor-NOHA, an arginase inhibitor was used to substantiate the effect of arginase on cell growth and L-arginine depletion. Amino acid levels were tested by HPLC. Results Our results show that mRCC cell lines express only arginase II and were able to deplete L-arginine from the medium. Cell growth was independent of the amount of arginase activity expressed by the cells. nor-NOHA significantly (P = 0.01 reduced arginase II activity and suppressed cell growth in cells exhibiting high arginase activity. The depletion of L-arginine by mRCC induced the decrease expression of CD3ζ a key element for T-cell function. Conclusion The results of this study show for the first time that arginase II produced by RCC cell lines depletes L-arginine resulting in decreased expression of CD3ζ. These results indicate that RCC cell lines expressing arginase II can modulate the L-arginine metabolic pathway to regulate both cell growth and T-cell function. Blocking arginase may lead to a decrease in RCC cell

  17. Sorafenib-induced hand-foot syndrome in a patient of renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Sil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, is approved for treatment of renal cell cancer and hepatocellular cancer. Hand-foot syndrome (HFD is a condition where erythema, scaling, and bullous lesion affect the hand and feet. In this case, a post-nephrectomy renal carcinoma patient prescribed sorafenib developed HFD 1 week after the drug usage. All laboratory parameters were within normal limits. The dose of sorafenib was reduced and topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, and emollients were prescribed. The reaction reduced after 2 weeks of therapy, only to reappear again when the second cycle of sorafenib-targeted therapy was started. The case was diagnosed as sorafenib-induced HFD.

  18. [Renal cell carcinoma in patient with situs inversus and Kartagener syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Verdejo, A; Martínez Torres, J L; Palao Yago, F; Tinaut Ranera, J; Arrabal Martín, M; Miján Ortiz, J L; Zuluaga Gómez, A

    2000-02-01

    A case of a adenocarcinoma renal in a patient with situs inversus complete to which was associated bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis (kartagener's syndrome) is reported. It is the third case described in the international literature of a renal cells carcinoma in a patient with situs inversus totalis and the first in patient the one which has the triada classic of the kartagener's syndrome plus sterility. The tumor was discovered in a way incidental upon accomplishing a TAC toracoabdominal and was solved through nefrectomia for lumbotomy approach.

  19. [Social medicine assessment after surgical and targeted treatment of renal cell cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlensieck, W; Hoffmann, W; Zermann, D-H

    2016-12-01

    In Germany, renal cell cancer counts for 2.5 % of all carcinomas in women and 3.5 % in men. Curative therapy ensures good chances of recovery. But there might be permanent complications like renal insufficiency, pain, incisional hernia, flank muscle relaxation, and paresis. In addition, targeted therapy is associated with several potential side effects. In both therapy groups, severe psychological problems may occur. Still employed patients with these problems must be examined by an expert to estimate the possibilities of returning to working (positive scope of work) and occupations which can not be performed anymore (negative scope of work).

  20. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Paraneoplastic Hallucinations and Cognitive Decline from Limbic Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joshua W; Cherukuri, Ramesh; Buchan, Debra

    2015-07-01

    We present a 66-year-old woman with 2 months of visual hallucinations, unintentional weight loss, and short-term memory decline, whose clinical presentation and EEG supported a diagnosis of limbic encephalitis. Subsequent evaluation for a paraneoplastic etiology revealed a renal mass, which was resected and identified as clear cell renal carcinoma. The patient's clinical condition improved after resection of the mass. When patients present with incongruous subacute neuropsychiatric symptoms, clinicians should be mindful of paraneoplastic neurological disorders, as early diagnosis and treatment of malignancy may lead to symptomatic improvement.