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Sample records for bilateral motor representation

  1. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

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    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-01

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  2. Mental representation and motor imagery training.

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    Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations (MTMR) has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke. PMID:24904368

  3. Mental Representation and Motor Imagery Training

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    Thomas eSchack

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that Basic Action Concepts (BACs are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, SDA-M (structural dimensional analysis of mental representation, to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke.

  4. Ocular Motor Function in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Weakness

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    Seyyed Amir Hossein Ghazizadeh Hashemi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with bilateral weakness (BW have many difficulties in gaze stability that interfere with their normal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular motor functions in patients with BW to better understand the problem of gaze instability in these patients.   Materials and Methods: Patients were referred from the Otolaryngology Department for Vestibular Assessment to our clinic between November 2014 and March 2015. We assessed ocular motor function (gaze, saccade, and smooth pursuit in patients over the age of 18 years with BW, as verified by a caloric test.   Results: Seventy-eight patients completed all the tests. The mean age of patients was 51.9 (±15.9 years, and 47 (60% were female. Abnormal results were found in five (6.4%, 32 (41%, and seven (9% patients with respect to gaze, smooth pursuit, and saccade, respectively. There were positive but relatively weak relationships between age and ocular motor results.   Conclusion:  Patients with BW suffer from dizziness and unsteadiness. These patients have abnormal function in ocular motor (especially smooth pursuit tests. The ocular motor dysfunction is responsible for gaze instability in static positions such as standing.

  5. Ocular Motor Function in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Weakness

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    Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Seyyed Amir Hossein; Jafarzadeh, Sadegh; Haddadi Aval, Majid; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with bilateral weakness (BW) have many difficulties in gaze stability that interfere with their normal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular motor functions in patients with BW to better understand the problem of gaze instability in these patients. Materials and Methods: Patients were referred from the Otolaryngology Department for Vestibular Assessment to our clinic between November 2014 and March 2015. We assessed ocular motor function (gaze, saccade, and smooth pursuit) in patients over the age of 18 years with BW, as verified by a caloric test. Results: Seventy-eight patients completed all the tests. The mean age of patients was 51.9 (±15.9) years, and 47 (60%) were female. Abnormal results were found in five (6.4%), 32 (41%), and seven (9%) patients with respect to gaze, smooth pursuit, and saccade, respectively. There were positive but relatively weak relationships between age and ocular motor results. Conclusion: Patients with BW suffer from dizziness and unsteadiness. These patients have abnormal function in ocular motor (especially smooth pursuit) tests. The ocular motor dysfunction is responsible for gaze instability in static positions such as standing. PMID:27429945

  6. Somatotopic reorganization of hand representation in bilateral arm amputees with or without special foot movement skill.

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    Yu, Xiao Jing; He, Hong Jian; Zhang, Qiao Wei; Zhao, Feng; Zee, Chi Shing; Zhang, Shi Zheng; Gong, Xiang Yang

    2014-02-10

    Bilateral arm amputees usually are excellent foot users. To explore the plasticity of the primary motor cortex in upper-extremities amputees and to determine if the acquisition of special foot movement skill is related with the bilateral hand amputation, we studied the primary motor cortex by using combined task and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated 6 bilateral arm amputees with or without special foot movement skill. In the task fMRI study, we found that toe tapping of all the amputees activated the bilateral hand area, including cases without special foot skill. In addition, cases without special foot skill mainly activated the precentral gyrus, which differed from those with more adept foot motor skill who activated both the precentral and postcentral gyri. To further understand the plasticity of the hand area, the resting state functional connectivity was investigated between the foot and hand regions. One-tailed two-sample t-test suggested that the connections between two areas became significantly stronger in the amputee group. Our study demonstrates that hand region of the cortex does not remain 'silent' after bilateral arm amputation, but rather is recruited by other modalities such as adjacent or nonadjacent cortexes to process motor information in a functionally relevant manner. From the data presented, it seems that the bilateral arm amputees have a strong potential to develop new skills in their remaining extremities and practice may further enhance this potential.

  7. Mental Representation and Motor Imagery Training

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas eSchack; Kai eEssig; Cornelia eFrank; Dirk eKoester

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that Basic Action Concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, SDA-M (structural dimensional analysis of mental representation), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. Th...

  8. Mental representation and motor imagery training

    OpenAIRE

    Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs...

  9. Discretized representations of harmonic variables by bilateral Jacobi operators

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    Andreas Ruffing

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a discrete Heisenberg algebra we solve several representation problems for a discretized quantum oscillator in a weighted sequence space. The Schrödinger operator for a discrete harmonic oscillator is derived. The representation problem for a q-oscillator algebra is studied in detail. The main result of the article is the fact that the energy representation for the discretized momentum operator can be interpreted as follows: It allows to calculate quantum properties of a large number of non-interacting harmonic oscillators at the same time. The results can be directly related to current research on squeezed laser states in quantum optics. They reveal and confirm the observation that discrete versions of continuum Schrodinger operators allow more structural freedom than their continuum analogs do.

  10. Analogous corticocortical inhibition and facilitation in ipsilateral and contralateral human motor cortex representations of the tongue.

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    Muellbacher, W; Boroojerdi, B; Ziemann, U; Hallett, M

    2001-11-01

    How the human brain controls activation of the ipsilateral part of midline muscles is unknown. We studied corticospinal and corticocortical network excitability of both ipsilateral and contralateral motor representations of the tongue to determine whether they are under analogous or disparate inhibitory and facilitatory corticocortical control. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to unilateral focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the tongue primary motor cortex were recorded simultaneously from the ipsilateral and contralateral lingual muscles. Single-pulse TMS was used to assess motor threshold (MT) and MEP recruitment. Paired-pulse TMS was used to study intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) at various interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between the conditioning stimulus (CS) and the test stimulus (TS), and at different CS and TS intensities, respectively. Focal TMS invariably produced MEPs in both ipsilateral and contralateral lingual muscles. MT was lower and MEP recruitment was steeper when recorded from the contralateral muscle group. ICI and ICF were identical in the ipsilateral and contralateral representations, with inhibition occurring at short ISIs (2 and 3 ms) and facilitation occurring at longer ISIs (10 and 15 ms). Moreover, changing one stimulus parameter regularly produced analogous changes in MEP size bilaterally, revealing strong linear correlations between ipsilateral and contralateral ICI and ICF (P < 0.0001). These findings indicate that the ipsilateral and contralateral representations of the tongue are under analogous inhibitory and facilitatory control, possibly by a common intracortical network. PMID:11779968

  11. Motor function in a patient with bilateral lesions of the globus pallidus

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    Haaxma, R; vanBoxtel, A; Brouwer, WH; Goeken, LNH; vanderGon, JJD; Colebatch, JG; Martin, A; Brooks, DJ; Noth, J; Marsden, CD

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the long-term motor deficits of a patient who, after a toxic encephalopathy, sustained extensive bilateral damage to both segments of the globus pallidus (GP) and the right substantia nigra (SN). There were no signs of lesions of the pyramidal tracts or of other motor structures

  12. Daytime sleep enhances consolidation of the spatial but not motoric representation of motor sequence memory.

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    Geneviève Albouy

    Full Text Available Motor sequence learning is known to rely on more than a single process. As the skill develops with practice, two different representations of the sequence are formed: a goal representation built under spatial allocentric coordinates and a movement representation mediated through egocentric motor coordinates. This study aimed to explore the influence of daytime sleep (nap on consolidation of these two representations. Through the manipulation of an explicit finger sequence learning task and a transfer protocol, we show that both allocentric (spatial and egocentric (motor representations of the sequence can be isolated after initial training. Our results also demonstrate that nap favors the emergence of offline gains in performance for the allocentric, but not the egocentric representation, even after accounting for fatigue effects. Furthermore, sleep-dependent gains in performance observed for the allocentric representation are correlated with spindle density during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep of the post-training nap. In contrast, performance on the egocentric representation is only maintained, but not improved, regardless of the sleep/wake condition. These results suggest that motor sequence memory acquisition and consolidation involve distinct mechanisms that rely on sleep (and specifically, spindle or simple passage of time, depending respectively on whether the sequence is performed under allocentric or egocentric coordinates.

  13. Motor resonance in left- and right-handers: evidence for effector-independent motor representations

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    Luisa eSartori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The idea of motor resonance was born at the time that it was demonstrated that cortical and spinal pathways of the motor system are specifically activated during both action-observation and execution. What is not known is if the human action observation-execution matching system simulates actions through motor representations specifically attuned to the laterality of the observed effectors (i.e., effector-dependent representations or through abstract motor representations unconnected to the observed effector (i.e., effector-independent representations.To answer that question we need to know how the information necessary for motor resonance is represented or integrated within the representation of an effector. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs were thus recorded from the dominant and non-dominant hands of left- and right-handed participants while they observed a left- or a right-handed model grasping an object. The anatomical correspondence between the effector being observed and the observer’s effector classically reported in the literature was confirmed by the MEP response in the dominant hand of participants observing models with their same hand preference. This effect was found in both left- as well as in right-handers. When a broader spectrum of options, such as actions performed by a model with a different hand preference, was instead considered, that correspondence disappeared. Motor resonance was noted in the observer’s dominant effector regardless of the laterality of the hand being observed. This would indicate that there is a more sophisticated mechanism which works to convert someone else’s pattern of movement into the observer’s optimal motor commands and that effector-independent representations specifically modulate motor resonance.

  14. Repetition-induced plasticity of motor representations of action sounds.

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    Bourquin, Nathalie M-P; Simonin, Alexandre; Clarke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Action-related sounds are known to increase the excitability of motoneurones within the primary motor cortex (M1), but the role of this auditory input remains unclear. We investigated repetition priming-induced plasticity, which is characteristic of semantic representations, in M1 by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation pulses to the hand area. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were larger while subjects were listening to sounds related versus unrelated to manual actions. Repeated exposure to the same manual-action-related sound yielded a significant decrease in MEPs when right, hand area was stimulated; no repetition effect was observed for manual-action-unrelated sounds. The shared repetition priming characteristics suggest that auditory input to the right primary motor cortex is part of auditory semantic representations. PMID:23064984

  15. Beyond motor scheme: a supramodal distributed representation in the action-observation network.

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    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bonino, Daniela; Vecchi, Tomaso; Fadiga, Luciano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The representation of actions within the action-observation network is thought to rely on a distributed functional organization. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that the action-observation network encodes not merely the observed motor act, but rather a representation that is independent from a specific sensory modality or sensory experience. In the present study, we wished to determine to what extent this distributed and 'more abstract' representation of action is truly supramodal, i.e. shares a common coding across sensory modalities. To this aim, a pattern recognition approach was employed to analyze neural responses in sighted and congenitally blind subjects during visual and/or auditory presentation of hand-made actions. Multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifiers discriminated action from non-action stimuli across sensory conditions (visual and auditory) and experimental groups (blind and sighted). Moreover, these classifiers labeled as 'action' the pattern of neural responses evoked during actual motor execution. Interestingly, discriminative information for the action/non action classification was located in a bilateral, but left-prevalent, network that strongly overlaps with brain regions known to form the action-observation network and the human mirror system. The ability to identify action features with a multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifier in both sighted and blind individuals and independently from the sensory modality conveying the stimuli clearly supports the hypothesis of a supramodal, distributed functional representation of actions, mainly within the action-observation network.

  16. Beyond motor scheme: a supramodal distributed representation in the action-observation network.

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    Emiliano Ricciardi

    Full Text Available The representation of actions within the action-observation network is thought to rely on a distributed functional organization. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that the action-observation network encodes not merely the observed motor act, but rather a representation that is independent from a specific sensory modality or sensory experience. In the present study, we wished to determine to what extent this distributed and 'more abstract' representation of action is truly supramodal, i.e. shares a common coding across sensory modalities. To this aim, a pattern recognition approach was employed to analyze neural responses in sighted and congenitally blind subjects during visual and/or auditory presentation of hand-made actions. Multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifiers discriminated action from non-action stimuli across sensory conditions (visual and auditory and experimental groups (blind and sighted. Moreover, these classifiers labeled as 'action' the pattern of neural responses evoked during actual motor execution. Interestingly, discriminative information for the action/non action classification was located in a bilateral, but left-prevalent, network that strongly overlaps with brain regions known to form the action-observation network and the human mirror system. The ability to identify action features with a multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifier in both sighted and blind individuals and independently from the sensory modality conveying the stimuli clearly supports the hypothesis of a supramodal, distributed functional representation of actions, mainly within the action-observation network.

  17. The auditory representation of speech sounds in human motor cortex

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    Cheung, Connie; Hamilton, Liberty S; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2016-01-01

    In humans, listening to speech evokes neural responses in the motor cortex. This has been controversially interpreted as evidence that speech sounds are processed as articulatory gestures. However, it is unclear what information is actually encoded by such neural activity. We used high-density direct human cortical recordings while participants spoke and listened to speech sounds. Motor cortex neural patterns during listening were substantially different than during articulation of the same sounds. During listening, we observed neural activity in the superior and inferior regions of ventral motor cortex. During speaking, responses were distributed throughout somatotopic representations of speech articulators in motor cortex. The structure of responses in motor cortex during listening was organized along acoustic features similar to auditory cortex, rather than along articulatory features as during speaking. Motor cortex does not contain articulatory representations of perceived actions in speech, but rather, represents auditory vocal information. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12577.001 PMID:26943778

  18. Do women really have more bilateral language representation than men? A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, IEC; Aleman, A; Bouma, A; Kahn, RS

    2004-01-01

    Sex differences in cognition are consistently reported, men excelling in most visuospatial tasks and women in certain verbal tasks. It has been hypothesized that these sex differences in cognition results from a more bilateral pattern of language representation in women than in men. This bilateral p

  19. Bilateral plasticity of Vibrissae SII representation induced by classical conditioning in mice.

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    Debowska, Weronika; Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2011-04-01

    The somatosensory cortex in mice contains primary (SI) and secondary (SII) areas, differing in somatotopic precision, topographic organization, and function. The role of SII in somatosensory processing is still poorly understood. SII is activated bilaterally during attentional tasks and is considered to play a role in tactile memory and sensorimotor integration. We measured the plasticity of SII activation after associative learning based on classical conditioning, in which unilateral stimulation of one row of vibrissae was paired with a tail shock. The training consisted of three daily 10 min sessions, during which 40 pairings were delivered. Cortical activation driven by stimulation of vibrissae was mapped with 2-[(14)C]deoxyglucose (2DG) autoradiography 1 d after the end of conditioning. We reported previously that the conditioning procedure resulted in unilateral enlargement of 2DG-labeled cortical representation of the "trained" row of vibrissae in SI. Here, we measured the width and intensity of the labeled region in SII. We found that both measured parameters in SII increased bilaterally. The increase was observed in cortical layers II/III and IV. Apparently, plasticity in SII is not a simple reflection of changes in SI. It may be attributable to bilateral integrative role of SII, its lesser topographical specificity, and strong involvement in attentional processing.

  20. Neural Dynamics and Information Representation in Microcircuits of Motor Cortex

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    Yasuhiro eTsubo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain has to analyze and respond to external events that can change rapidly from time to time, suggesting that information processing by the brain may be essentially dynamic rather than static. The dynamical features of neural computation are of significant importance in motor cortex that governs the process of movement generation and learning. In this paper, we discuss these features based primarily on our recent findings on neural dynamics and information coding in the microcircuit of rat motor cortex. In fact, cortical neurons show a variety of dynamical behavior from rhythmic activity in various frequency bands to highly irregular spike firing. Of particular interest are the similarity and dissimilarity of the neuronal response properties in different layers of motor cortex. By conducting electrophysiological recordings in slice preparation, we report the phase response curves of neurons in different cortical layers to demonstrate their layer-dependent synchronization properties. We then study how motor cortex recruits task-related neurons in different layers for voluntary arm movements by simultaneous juxtacellular and multiunit recordings from behaving rats. The results suggest an interesting difference in the spectrum of functional activity between the superficial and deep layers. Furthermore, the task-related activities recorded from various layers exhibited power law distributions of inter-spike intervals (ISIs, in contrast to a general belief that ISIs obey Poisson or Gamma distributions in cortical neurons. We present a theoretical argument that this power law of in vivo neurons may represent the maximization of the entropy of firing rate with limited energy consumption of spike generation. Though further studies are required to fully clarify the functional implications of this coding principle, it may shed new light on information representations by neurons and circuits in motor cortex.

  1. Development of kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor representations in school-aged children.

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    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2015-07-01

    In two experiments using a center-out task, we investigated kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor integrations in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults. In experiment 1, participants moved a pen on a digitizing tablet from a starting position to one of three targets (visuo-motor condition), and then to one of four targets without visual feedback of the movement. In both conditions, we found that with increasing age, the children moved faster and straighter, and became less variable in their feedforward control. Higher control demands for movements toward the contralateral side were reflected in longer movement times and decreased spatial accuracy across all age groups. When feedforward control relies predominantly on kinesthesia, 7- to 10-year-old children were more variable, indicating difficulties in switching between feedforward and feedback control efficiently during that age. An inverse age progression was found for directional endpoint error; larger errors increasing with age likely reflect stronger functional lateralization for the dominant hand. In experiment 2, the same visuo-motor condition was followed by an auditory-motor condition in which participants had to move to acoustic targets (either white band or one-third octave noise). Since in the latter directional cues come exclusively from transcallosally mediated interaural time differences, we hypothesized that auditory-motor representations would show age effects. The results did not show a clear age effect, suggesting that corpus callosum functionality is sufficient in children to allow them to form accurate auditory-motor maps already at a young age.

  2. Double representation of the wrist and elbow in human motor cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strother, L.; Medendorp, W.P.; Coros, A.M.; Vilis, T.

    2012-01-01

    Movements of the fingers, hand and arm involve overlapping neural representations in primary motor cortex (M1). Monkey M1 exhibits a coresurround organisation in which cortical representation of the hand and fingers is surrounded by representations of the wrist, elbow and shoulder. A potentially hom

  3. The effect of tonic contraction of the finger muscle on the motor cortical representation of the contracting adjacent muscle.

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    Jono, Yasutomo; Chujo, Yuta; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Nikaido, Yasutaka; Hatanaka, Ryota; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of tonic contraction of the finger muscle on the motor cortical representation of the contracting adjacent muscle. A representation map of the motor evoked potential (MEP) in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles was obtained with the subject at rest or during tonic contraction of the ADM muscle while the FDI muscle was tonically contracted. The center of gravity (COG) of the MEP map in the FDI muscle shifted medially during contraction of the ADM muscle. Motor cortical excitability in the motor cortical representation of the FDI muscle that did not overlap with the motor cortical representation of the ADM muscle was suppressed, but motor cortical excitability in the motor cortical representation of the FDI muscle overlapping with the motor cortical representation of the ADM muscle was not suppressed during contraction of the ADM muscle. The motor cortical representation of the FDI muscle not overlapping with the motor cortical representation of the ADM muscle was located lateral to that of the FDI muscle that did overlap with the motor cortical representation of the ADM muscle. Medial shift of the COG of the motor cortical representation of the contracting finger muscle induced by tonic contraction of the adjacent finger muscle must be due to suppression of motor cortical excitability in the lateral part of the representation, which is not shared by the adjacent representation.

  4. Impairments of motor-cortex responses to unilateral and bilateral direct current stimulation in schizophrenia

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    Alkomiet eHasan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be applied to modulate cortical activity through induction of cortical plasticity. Since various neuropsychiatric disorders are characterised by fluctuations in cortical activity levels (e.g. schizophrenia, tDCS is increasingly investigated as a treatment tool. Several studies have shown that the induction of cortical plasticity following classical, unilateral tDCS is reduced or impaired in the stimulated and non-stimulated primary motor cortices (M1 of schizophrenia patients. Moreover, an alternative, bilateral tDCS setup has recently been shown to modulate cortical plasticity in both hemispheres in healthy subjects, highlighting another potential treatment approach. Here we present the first study comparing the efficacy of unilateral tDCS (cathode left M1, anode right supraorbital with simultaneous bilateral tDCS (cathode left M1, anode right M1 in schizophrenia patients. tDCS-induced cortical plasticity was monitored by investigating motor-evoked potentials induced by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to both hemispheres. Healthy subjects showed a reduction of left M1 excitability following unilateral tDCS on the stimulated left hemisphere and an increase in right M1 excitability following bilateral tDCS. In schizophrenia, no plasticity was induced following both stimulation paradigms. The pattern of these results indicates a complex interplay between plasticity and connectivity that is impaired in schizophrenia patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological underpinnings and clinical impact of these findings.

  5. Bilateral contributions of the cerebellum to the complex motor tasks on EPI fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate activation signals within the cerebellar cortex and to determine the side of the cerebellar cortex eliciting activation signals in response to complex motor tasks, as seen on EPI fMRI. Seven right-handed subjects (M : F=3 : 4; mean age, 30.3 years) underwent repetitive finger apposition with the dominant right hand. Using a 1.5 T MRI scanner, EPI fMR images were obtained. MR parameters used for EPI fMRI were TR/TE/Flip angle : 0.96 msec/64msec/90 deg FOV 22cm, 128 X 128 matrix, 10 slices, 10mm thickness while those for SE T1 weighted localized images were TR/TE : 450/16, FOV 23cm, 256 X 256 matrix. The paradigm was three sets of alternate resting and moving fingers for six cycles, resulting in times of 360 seconds (10 slices X 15 EPI X 6 cycles = 900 images). Image processing involved the use of a 200mHz Dual Pentium PC with homemade software. T-testing (p < 0.005 approx.= p < 0.0005) and time series analysis were performed, and to verify the locations of activated regions, resulting images were analyzed in a color-coded overlay to reference T1-weighted spin echo coronal images. Percentage change in signal intensity (PCSI) was calculated from the processed data. All normal subjects showed significant activation signals in both the contralateral (left) primary motor cortex (PCSI = 3.12% 0.96) and ipsilateral (right) cerebellar cortex (PCSI = 3.09% ±1.14). Signal activation was detected in the contralateral supplemental motor area (2.91% ±0.82), and motor activation in the anterior upper half of the contralateral cerebellum (PCSI 2.50% ±0.69). The difference in activation signals between both sides of the cerebellar cortex was not statistically significant. All data were matched with time-series analysis. Bilateral cerebellar activation is associated with unilateral complex finger movements, as seen on fMRI. This result may support the recent neurological observation that the cerebellum may exert bilateral effects on motor performance

  6. Maturation and experience in action representation: Bilateral deficits in unilateral congenital amelia.

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    Philip, B A; Buckon, C; Sienko, S; Aiona, M; Ross, S; Frey, S H

    2015-08-01

    Congenital unilateral absence of the hand (amelia) completely deprives individuals of sensorimotor experiences with their absent effector. The consequences of such deprivation on motor planning abilities are poorly understood. Fourteen patients and matched controls performed two grip selection tasks: 1) overt grip selection (OGS), in which they used their intact hand to grasp a three-dimensional object that appeared in different orientations using the most natural (under-or over-hand) precision grip, and 2) prospective grip selection (PGS), in which they selected the most natural grip for either the intact or absent hand without moving. For the intact hand, we evaluated planning accuracy by comparing concordance between grip preferences expressed in PGS vs. OGS. For the absent hand, we compared PGS responses with OGS responses for the intact hand that had been phase shifted by 180°, thereby accounting for mirror symmetrical biomechanical constraints of the two limbs. Like controls, amelic individuals displayed a consistent preference for less awkward grips in both OGS and PGS. Unexpectedly, however, they were slower and less accurate for PGS based on either the intact or the absent hand. We conclude that direct sensorimotor experience with both hands may be important for the typical development or refinement of effector-specific internal representations of either limb. PMID:26092768

  7. The Assessment of Postural Control, Reflex Integration, and Bilateral Motor Coordination of Young Handicapped Children. Final Report.

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    DeGangi, Georgia; Larsen, Lawrence A.

    A measurement device, Assessment of Sensorimotor Integration in Preschool Children, was developed to assess postural control, reflex integration and bilateral motor integration in developmentally delayed children (3 to 5 years old). The test was administered to 113 normal children and results were compared with data collected on 23 developmentally…

  8. Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.

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    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N = 52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only. PMID:24743576

  9. Intermanual transfer and bilateral cortical plasticity is maintained in older adults after skilled motor training with simple and complex tasks

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    Daina S. E. Dickins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermanual transfer refers to the phenomenon whereby unilateral motor training induces performance gains in both the trained limb and in the opposite, untrained limb. Evidence indicates that intermanual transfer is attenuated in older adults following training on a simple ballistic movement task, but not after training on a complex task. This study investigated whether differences in plasticity in bilateral motor cortices underlie these differential intermanual transfer effects in older adults. Twenty young (65 years trained on a simple (repeated ballistic thumb abduction and complex (sequential finger-thumb opposition task in separate sessions. Behavioral performance was used to quantify intermanual transfer between the dominant (trained and non-dominant (untrained hands. The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs induced by single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to investigate excitability changes in bilateral motor cortices. Contrary to predictions, both age groups exhibited performance improvements in both hands after unilateral skilled motor training with simple and complex tasks. These performance gains were accompanied by bilateral increases in cortical excitability in both groups for the simple but not the complex task. The findings suggest that advancing age does not necessarily influence the capacity for intermanual transfer after training with the dominant hand.

  10. Intracortical inhibition and facilitation in different representations of the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Tam, A; Bütefisch, C; Corwell, B; Ziemann, U; Rothwell, J C; Cohen, L G

    1998-12-01

    Intracortical inhibition and facilitation in different representations of the human motor cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 2870-2881, 1998. Intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) of the human motor cortex can be studied with paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Plastic changes and some neurological disorders in humans are associated with changes in ICI and ICF. Although well characterized in the hand representation, it is not known if ICI and ICF vary across different body part representations. Therefore we studied ICI and ICF in different motor representations of the human motor cortex. The target muscles were rectus abdominus (RA), biceps brachii (BB), abductor pollicis brevis (APB), quadriceps femoris (QF), and abductor hallucis (AH). For each muscle, we measured the rest and active motor thresholds (MTs), the motor-evoked potential (MEP) stimulus-response curve (MEP recruitment), ICI, and ICF. The effects of different interstimulus intervals (ISIs) were studied with a conditioning stimulus (CS) intensity of 80% active MT. The effects of different CS intensities were studied at ISI of 2 ms for ICI and ISI of 15 ms for ICF. MT was lowest for APB, followed by BB, AH, and QF, and was highest for RA. Except for BB, MEP recruitment was generally steeper for muscles with lower MT. ICI and ICF were present in all the motor representations tested. The stimulus intensity necessary to elicit ICI was consistently lower than that required to elicit ICF, suggesting that they are mediated by separate mechanisms. Despite wide differences in MT and MEP recruitment, the absolute CS intensities (expressed as percentage of the stimulator's output) required to elicit ICI and ICF appear unrelated to MT and MEP recruitment in the different muscles tested. These findings suggest that the intracortical mechanisms for inhibition and facilitation in different motor representations are not related to the strength of corticospinal projections. PMID

  11. The stuff that motor chunks are made of: Spatial instead of motor representations?

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    Verwey, Willem B; Groen, Eduard C; Wright, David L

    2016-02-01

    In order to determine how participants represent practiced, discrete keying sequences in the discrete sequence production task, we had 24 participants practice two six-key sequences on the basis of two pre-learned six-digit numbers. These sequences were carried out by fingers of the left (L) and right (R) hand with between-hand transitions always occurring between the second and third, and the fifth and sixth responses. This yielded the so-called LLRRRL and RRLLLR sequences. Early and late in practice, the keypad used for the right hand was briefly relocated from the front of the participants to 90° at their right side. The results indicate that after 600 practice trials, executing a keying sequence relies heavily on a spatial cross-hand representation in a trunk- or head-based reference frame that after about only 15 trials is fully adjusted to the changed hand location. The hand location effect was not found with the last sequence element. This is attributed to the application of explicit knowledge. The between-hand transitions appeared to induce initial segmentation in some of the participants, but this did not consolidate into a concatenation point of successive motor chunks. PMID:26487177

  12. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for.

  13. At the mercy of strategies: the role of motor representations in language understanding

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    Barbara eTomasino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical cognitive theories hold that word representations in the brain are abstract and amodal, and are independent of the objects’ sensorimotor properties they refer to. An alternative hypothesis emphasises the importance of bodily processes in cognition: the representation of a concept appears to be crucially dependent upon perceptual-motor processes that relate to it. Thus, understanding action-related words would rely upon the same motor structures that also support the execution of the same actions. In this context, motor simulation represents a key component. Our approach is to draw parallels between the literature on mental rotation and the literature on action verb/sentence processing. Here we will discuss recent studies on mental imagery, mental rotation, and language that clearly demonstrate how motor simulation is neither automatic nor necessary to language understanding. These studies have shown that motor representations can or cannot be activated depending on the type of strategy the participants adopt to perform tasks involving motor phrases. On the one hand, participants may imagine the movement with the body parts used to carry out the actions described by the verbs (i.e., motor strategy; on the other, individuals may solve the task without simulating the corresponding movements (i.e., visual strategy. While it is not surprising that the motor strategy is at work when participants process action-related verbs, it is however striking that sensorimotor activation has been reported also for imageable concrete words with no motor content, for non-words with regular phonology, for pseudo-verb stimuli, and also for negations. Based on the extant literature, we will argue that implicit motor imagery is not uniquely used when a body-related stimulus is encountered, and that it is not the type of stimulus that automatically triggers the motor simulation but the type of strategy. Finally, we will also comment on the view that

  14. At the mercy of strategies: the role of motor representations in language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2013-01-01

    Classical cognitive theories hold that word representations in the brain are abstract and amodal, and are independent of the objects' sensorimotor properties they refer to. An alternative hypothesis emphasizes the importance of bodily processes in cognition: the representation of a concept appears to be crucially dependent upon perceptual-motor processes that relate to it. Thus, understanding action-related words would rely upon the same motor structures that also support the execution of the same actions. In this context, motor simulation represents a key component. Our approach is to draw parallels between the literature on mental rotation and the literature on action verb/sentence processing. Here we will discuss recent studies on mental imagery, mental rotation, and language that clearly demonstrate how motor simulation is neither automatic nor necessary to language understanding. These studies have shown that motor representations can or cannot be activated depending on the type of strategy the participants adopt to perform tasks involving motor phrases. On the one hand, participants may imagine the movement with the body parts used to carry out the actions described by the verbs (i.e., motor strategy); on the other, individuals may solve the task without simulating the corresponding movements (i.e., visual strategy). While it is not surprising that the motor strategy is at work when participants process action-related verbs, it is however striking that sensorimotor activation has been reported also for imageable concrete words with no motor content, for "non-words" with regular phonology, for pseudo-verb stimuli, and also for negations. Based on the extant literature, we will argue that implicit motor imagery is not uniquely used when a body-related stimulus is encountered, and that it is not the type of stimulus that automatically triggers the motor simulation but the type of strategy. Finally, we will also comment on the view that sensorimotor activations

  15. Response to Niklasson's comment on Lin, et al. (2012) : "the relation between postural movement and bilateral motor integration".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Wu, Huey-Min

    2014-10-01

    In the study of Lin, Wu, Lin, Wu, Wu, Kuo, and Yeung (2012 ), the relationship between the validity of postural movement and bilateral motor integration in terms of sensory integration theory was examined. Postural movement is the ability to use the antigravity postures required for stabilization of the neck, trunk and upper extremities via muscle co-contractions in the neck and upper extremities, and balance. Niklasson's (2013 ) comment argued that postural movement should include primitive reflexes in terms of the general abilities approach. Niklasson (2013 ) focused on the efficacy of the treatment rather than the theoretical frameworks implied in the therapeutic activities. For that purpose Lin, et al. (2012 ) used sensory integration as the theoretical foundation, and the relationship between postural movement and bilateral motor integration was assessed via empirical data. The result of Lin, et al. (2012 ) was offered as a theoretical reference for therapeutic activities.

  16. Plasticity Induced by Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Bilateral Motor Cortices Is Not Altered in Older Adults

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    Daina S. E. Dickins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported that plasticity induced in the motor cortex by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is attenuated in older adults. Those investigations, however, have focused solely on the stimulated hemisphere. Compared to young adults, older adults exhibit more widespread activity across bilateral motor cortices during the performance of unilateral motor tasks, suggesting that the manifestation of plasticity might also be altered. To address this question, twenty young (65 years underwent intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS whilst attending to the hand targeted by the plasticity-inducing procedure. The amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by single pulse TMS was used to quantify cortical excitability before and after iTBS. Individual responses to iTBS were highly variable, with half the participants showing an unexpected decrease in cortical excitability. Contrary to predictions, however, there were no age-related differences in the magnitude or manifestation of plasticity across bilateral motor cortices. The findings suggest that advancing age does not influence the capacity for, or manifestation of, plasticity induced by iTBS.

  17. Motor cortex representation of the upper-limb in individuals born without a hand.

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    Karen T Reilly

    Full Text Available The body schema is an action-related representation of the body that arises from activity in a network of multiple brain areas. While it was initially thought that the body schema developed with experience, the existence of phantom limbs in individuals born without a limb (amelics led to the suggestion that it was innate. The problem with this idea, however, is that the vast majority of amelics do not report the presence of a phantom limb. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS applied over the primary motor cortex (M1 of traumatic amputees can evoke movement sensations in the phantom, suggesting that traumatic amputation does not delete movement representations of the missing hand. Given this, we asked whether the absence of a phantom limb in the majority of amelics means that the motor cortex does not contain a cortical representation of the missing limb, or whether it is present but has been deactivated by the lack of sensorimotor experience. In four upper-limb amelic subjects we directly stimulated the arm/hand region of M1 to see 1 whether we could evoke phantom sensations, and 2 whether muscle representations in the two cortices were organised asymmetrically. TMS applied over the motor cortex contralateral to the missing limb evoked contractions in stump muscles but did not evoke phantom movement sensations. The location and extent of muscle maps varied between hemispheres but did not reveal any systematic asymmetries. In contrast, forearm muscle thresholds were always higher for the missing limb side. We suggest that phantom movement sensations reported by some upper limb amelics are mostly driven by vision and not by the persistence of motor commands to the missing limb within the sensorimotor cortex. We propose that prewired movement representations of a limb need the experience of movement to be expressed within the primary motor cortex.

  18. Perceiving what is reachable depends on motor representations: evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

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    Yann Coello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visually determining what is reachable in peripersonal space requires information about the egocentric location of objects but also information about the possibilities of action with the body, which are context dependent. The aim of the present study was to test the role of motor representations in the visual perception of peripersonal space. METHODOLOGY: Seven healthy participants underwent a TMS study while performing a right-left decision (control task or perceptually judging whether a visual target was reachable or not with their right hand. An actual grasping movement task was also included. Single pulse TMS was delivered 80% of the trials on the left motor and premotor cortex and on a control site (the temporo-occipital area, at 90% of the resting motor threshold and at different SOA conditions (50ms, 100ms, 200ms or 300ms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results showed a facilitation effect of the TMS on reaction times in all tasks, whatever the site stimulated and until 200ms after stimulus presentation. However, the facilitation effect was on average 34ms lower when stimulating the motor cortex in the perceptual judgement task, especially for stimuli located at the boundary of peripersonal space. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that brain motor area participate in the visual determination of what is reachable. We discuss how motor representations may feed the perceptual system with information about possible interactions with nearby objects and thus may contribute to the perception of the boundary of peripersonal space.

  19. Trunk robot rehabilitation training with active stepping reorganizes and enriches trunk motor cortex representations in spinal transected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Chintan S; Giszter, Simon F

    2015-05-01

    Trunk motor control is crucial for postural stability and propulsion after low thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Robotic rehabilitation aimed at trunk shows promise in SCI animal models and patients. However, little is known about the effect of SCI and robot rehabilitation of trunk on cortical motor representations. We previously showed reorganization of trunk motor cortex after adult SCI. Non-stepping training also exacerbated some SCI-driven plastic changes. Here we examine effects of robot rehabilitation that promotes recovery of hindlimb weight support functions on trunk motor cortex representations. Adult rats spinal transected as neonates (NTX rats) at the T9/10 level significantly improve function with our robot rehabilitation paradigm, whereas treadmill-only trained do not. We used intracortical microstimulation to map motor cortex in two NTX groups: (1) treadmill trained (control group); and (2) robot-assisted treadmill trained (improved function group). We found significant robot rehabilitation-driven changes in motor cortex: (1) caudal trunk motor areas expanded; (2) trunk coactivation at cortex sites increased; (3) richness of trunk cortex motor representations, as examined by cumulative entropy and mutual information for different trunk representations, increased; (4) trunk motor representations in the cortex moved toward more normal topography; and (5) trunk and forelimb motor representations that SCI-driven plasticity and compensations had caused to overlap were segregated. We conclude that effective robot rehabilitation training induces significant reorganization of trunk motor cortex and partially reverses some plastic changes that may be adaptive in non-stepping paraplegia after SCI.

  20. The value of bilateral ipsilateral and contralateral motor evoked potential monitoring in scoliosis surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Y. L.; Dan, Y. F.; Teo, A; Tan, Y. E.; Yue, W. M.; Raman, S.; Tan, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) of the motor pathways is a routine procedure for ensuring integrity of corticospinal tracts during scoliosis surgery. We have previously demonstrated presence of ipsilateral motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during IOM for scoliosis surgery, but its significance was uncertain. In this case series, we show concurrent ipsilateral and contralateral MEP amplitude changes obtained with cortical stimulation are of value in reducing false positive observations during IOM...

  1. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

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    Svetlana ePundik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stoke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors. Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test (AMAT, collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was an linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke. Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e. increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases or different strategies of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery.

  2. Having a goal to stop action is associated with advance control of specific motor representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claffey, Michael P; Sheldon, Sarah; Stinear, Cathy M; Verbruggen, Frederick; Aron, Adam R

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of cognitive control consists in the ability to stop oneself from making inappropriate responses. In an earlier study we demonstrated that there are different mechanisms for stopping: global and selective [Aron, A. R., Verbruggen, F. (2008). Stop the presses: Dissociating a selective from a global mechanism for stopping. Psychological Science, 19(11) 1146-1153]. We argued that participants are more likely to use a global mechanism when speed is of the essence, whereas they are more likely to use a selective mechanism when they have foreknowledge of which response tendency they may need to stop. Here we further investigate the relationship between foreknowledge and selective stopping. In Experiment 1 we adapted the earlier design to show that individual differences in recall accuracy for the stopping goal correlate with the selectivity of the stopping. This confirms that encoding and using a foreknowledge memory cue is a key enabler for a selective stopping mechanism. In Experiment 2, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to test the hypothesis that foreknowledge "sets up" a control set whereby control is applied onto the response representation that may need to be stopped in the future. We applied TMS to the left motor cortex and measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right hand while participants performed a similar behavioral paradigm as Experiment 1. In the foreknowledge period, MEPs were significantly reduced for trials where the right hand was the one that might need to be stopped relative to when it was not. This shows that having a goal of what response may need to be stopped in the future consists in applying advance control onto a specific motor representation.

  3. Detecting bilateral motor associated areas with resting state functional magnetic resonance: the effect of different seed points selection on the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different seed points selection on localizing bilateral hand motor associated areas in resting state functional magnetic resonance. Methods: Thirty -one subjects were recruited (male 15, female 16), all of them underwent both block-designed fMRI scan during performing bilateral hand motor task and resting-state fMRI scan. DPARSA V2.0 and SPM8 were used to process the data. The peak voxels in the activity map of the task scan were selected as seeds to compute functional connectivity map of the resting-state scan. Spatial correlation analysis was performed to compare the activity map of the task scan and the connectivity map of the resting- state scan. Results: Fifteen isolated clusters were picked to generate the peak voxels, which were selected as seeds to compute functional connectivity maps. Among all the functional connectivity maps, those generated by motor area (SMA) presented the most consistent spatial distribution with task associated activity map, and the functional connectivity maps generated by primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) consisted of bilateral Ml and SMA. the functional connectivity maps generated by putamen (Pu), thalamus (Th), cerebellum anterior lobe (CbAL) and cerebellum posterior lobe (CbPL) consisted of the areas around the seeds and the mirror areas in the contralateral cortex. Conclusion: Using SMA as seed to compute resting-state functional connectivity map may produce the best spatial coherence with the activity map generated by bilateral hand motor task, and selecting M1 and PMd as seeds may present the best primary motor cortex in the connectivity map. (authors)

  4. Bilateral coordination and the motor basis of female preference for sexual signals in canary song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Roderick A; Vallet, Eric; Kreutzer, Michel

    2012-09-01

    The preference of female songbirds for particular traits in the songs of courting males has received considerable attention, but the relationship of preferred traits to male quality is poorly understood. Female domestic canaries (Serinus canaria, Linnaeus) preferentially solicit copulation with males that sing special high repetition rate, wide-band, multi-note syllables, called 'sexy' or A-syllables. Syllables are separated by minibreaths but each note is produced by pulsatile expiration, allowing high repetition rates and long duration phrases. The wide bandwidth is achieved by including two notes produced sequentially on opposite sides of the syrinx, in which the left and right sides are specialized for low or high frequencies, respectively. The emphasis of low frequencies is facilitated by a positive relationship between syllable repetition rate and the bandwidth of the fundamental frequency of notes sung by the left syrinx, such that bandwidth increases with increasing syllable repetition rate. The temporal offset between notes prevents cheating by unilaterally singing a note on the left side with a low fundamental frequency and prominent higher harmonics. The syringeal and respiratory motor patterns by which sexy syllables are produced support the hypothesis that these syllables provide a sensitive vocal-auditory indicator of a male's performance limit for the rapid, precisely coordinated interhemispheric switching, which is essential for many sensory and motor processes involving specialized contributions from each cerebral hemisphere. PMID:22875764

  5. Motor cortical plasticity in extrinsic hand muscles is determined by the resting thresholds of overlapping representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdamadi, J L; Suzuki, L Y; Meehan, S K

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge of the properties that govern the effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) interventions is critical to clinical application. Extrapolation to clinical populations has been limited by high inter-subject variability and a focus on intrinsic muscles of the hand in healthy populations. Therefore, the current study assessed variability of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), a patterned TMS protocol, across an agonist-antagonist pair of extrinsic muscles of the hand. Secondarily, we assessed whether concurrent agonist contraction could enhance the efficacy of cTBS. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were simultaneously recorded from the agonist flexor (FCR) and antagonist extensor (ECR) carpi radialis before and after cTBS over the FCR hotspot. cTBS was delivered with the FCR relaxed (cTBS-Relax) or during isometric wrist flexion (cTBS-Contract). cTBS-Relax suppressed FCR MEPs evoked from the FCR hotspot. However, the extent of FCR MEP suppression was strongly correlated with the relative difference between FCR and ECR resting motor thresholds. cTBS-Contract decreased FCR suppression but increased suppression of ECR MEPs elicited from the FCR hotspot. The magnitude of ECR MEP suppression following cTBS-Contract was independent of the threshold-amplitude relationships observed with cTBS-Relax. Contraction alone had no effect confirming the effect of cTBS-Contract was driven by the interaction between neuromuscular activity and cTBS. Interactions across muscle representations should be taken into account when predicting cTBS outcomes in healthy and clinical populations. Contraction during cTBS may be a useful means of focusing aftereffects when differences in baseline excitability across overlapping agonist-antagonist cortical representations may mitigate the inhibitory effect of cTBS.

  6. Improved methods for chronic light-based motor mapping in mice: automated movement tracking with accelerometers, and chronic EEG recording in a bilateral thin-skull preparation.

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    Gergely eSilasi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Optogenetic stimulation of the mouse cortex can be used to generate motor maps that are similar to maps derived from electrode-based stimulation. Here we present a refined set of procedures for repeated light-based motor mapping in ChR2-expressing mice implanted with a bilateral thinned-skull chronic window and a chronically implanted EEG electrode. Light stimulation is delivered sequentially to over 400 points across the cortex, and evoked movements are quantified on-line with a 3-axis accelerometer attached to each forelimb. Bilateral maps of forelimb movement amplitude and movement direction were generated at weekly intervals after recovery from cranial window implantation. We found that light pulses of ~2 mW produced well-defined maps that were centered approximately 0.7 mm anterior and 1.6 mm lateral from bregma. Map borders were defined by sites where light stimulation evoked EEG deflections, but not movements. Motor maps were similar in size and location between mice, and maps were stable over weeks in terms of the number of responsive sites, and the direction of evoked movements. We suggest that our method may be used to chronically assess evoked motor output in mice, and may be combined with other imaging tools to assess cortical reorganization or sensory-motor integration.

  7. Motoric Characteristics of Representational Gestures Produced by Young Children in a Naming Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettenati, Paola; Stefanini, Silvia; Volterra, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the form of representational gestures produced by forty-five hearing children (age range 2 ; 0-3 ; 1) asked to label pictures in words. Five pictures depicting objects and five pictures depicting actions which elicited more representational gestures were chosen for more detailed analysis. The range of gestures produced for each…

  8. Haptic fMRI: combining functional neuroimaging with haptics for studying the brain's motor control representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Samir; Brantner, Gerald; Aholt, Chris; Kay, Kendrick; Khatib, Oussama

    2013-01-01

    A challenging problem in motor control neuroimaging studies is the inability to perform complex human motor tasks given the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner's disruptive magnetic fields and confined workspace. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental platform that combines Functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging, haptic virtual simulation environments, and an fMRI-compatible haptic device for real-time haptic interaction across the scanner workspace (above torso ∼ .65×.40×.20m(3)). We implement this Haptic fMRI platform with a novel haptic device, the Haptic fMRI Interface (HFI), and demonstrate its suitability for motor neuroimaging studies. HFI has three degrees-of-freedom (DOF), uses electromagnetic motors to enable high-fidelity haptic rendering (>350Hz), integrates radio frequency (RF) shields to prevent electromagnetic interference with fMRI (temporal SNR >100), and is kinematically designed to minimize currents induced by the MRI scanner's magnetic field during motor displacement (haptically transparent and does not interfere with human motor tasks (tested for .4m reaches). By allowing fMRI experiments involving complex three-dimensional manipulation with haptic interaction, Haptic fMRI enables-for the first time-non-invasive neuroscience experiments involving interactive motor tasks, object manipulation, tactile perception, and visuo-motor integration.

  9. Haptic fMRI: combining functional neuroimaging with haptics for studying the brain's motor control representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Samir; Brantner, Gerald; Aholt, Chris; Kay, Kendrick; Khatib, Oussama

    2013-01-01

    A challenging problem in motor control neuroimaging studies is the inability to perform complex human motor tasks given the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner's disruptive magnetic fields and confined workspace. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental platform that combines Functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging, haptic virtual simulation environments, and an fMRI-compatible haptic device for real-time haptic interaction across the scanner workspace (above torso ∼ .65×.40×.20m(3)). We implement this Haptic fMRI platform with a novel haptic device, the Haptic fMRI Interface (HFI), and demonstrate its suitability for motor neuroimaging studies. HFI has three degrees-of-freedom (DOF), uses electromagnetic motors to enable high-fidelity haptic rendering (>350Hz), integrates radio frequency (RF) shields to prevent electromagnetic interference with fMRI (temporal SNR >100), and is kinematically designed to minimize currents induced by the MRI scanner's magnetic field during motor displacement (Tesla fMRI scanner's baseline noise variation (∼.85±.1%). Finally, HFI is haptically transparent and does not interfere with human motor tasks (tested for .4m reaches). By allowing fMRI experiments involving complex three-dimensional manipulation with haptic interaction, Haptic fMRI enables-for the first time-non-invasive neuroscience experiments involving interactive motor tasks, object manipulation, tactile perception, and visuo-motor integration. PMID:24110643

  10. Covert imitation of transitive actions activates effector-independent motor representations affecting "motor" knowledge of target-object properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, and in what conditions, covert imitation of different manual grasps of the same object influences estimation of those object properties whose variations afford those different grasp interactions. Participants matched the size of spheres after observation of the same spheres being grasped using both a power and a precision grasp: these actions are used preferentially to grasp large and small objects, respectively. The type of matching varied across four experiments. In experiment 1, participants matched the object size by opening their thumb and index finger; in experiment 2, they abducted their index and middle fingers as in a finger opening of a cutting pantomime, and in experiment 3, they opened their mouth. In experiment 4, the sphere size was reproduced on a PC monitor by moving the mouse forward/backward. Grasp observation affected matching in experiments 1 and 3. Kinematics analysis showed overestimation after observation of a power grasp as compared to a precision grasp. The data are interpreted as a consequence of covert imitation of the observed hand kinematics, which varied congruently with the object sizes potentially activating that type-of-grasp. This affected estimation of object size. Covert imitation was favored by the types of matching requiring motor patterns related to grasp movements independently of the effector used. This finding supports the existence of motor commands to the hand as well as to the mouth, activated when the same potential goal guides the movements of both these effectors. PMID:19850083

  11. Representational difference analysis, high-resolution physical mapping, and transcript identification of the zebrafish genomic region for a motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomomi; Mishina, Masayoshi

    2003-08-01

    Zebrafish is one of the best model organisms for investigating gene functions in vertebrates. By 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen mutagenesis, we isolated a zebrafish mutant, vibrato, with defects in the spontaneous contraction and touch response. Whole genome subtraction between the wild-type and the mutant genomes by representational difference analysis yielded polymorphic markers tightly linked to the vibrato locus. Using these markers, we constructed a high-resolution physical map and localized the vibrato locus within a genomic region of 720 kb. Direct cDNA selection with the contig led to the identification of a novel gene, solo, encoding a protein with SEC14 and spectrin repeat domains. These domains of Solo shared significant amino acid sequence identities with those of mammalian Trio and Karilin. In addition, we found the zebrafish orthologs for mammalian TTN, COL5A2, and CED-6 in the vibrato region. Mapping of these genes localized human chromosomal regions possibly involved in motor disorders. Our results suggest that representational difference analysis provides an efficient way to isolate mutated genomic regions in zebrafish. PMID:12837271

  12. Control of a five motors web transport system based on the Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachemi Glaoui,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to control a web transport system with winder and unwinder for elastic material. A physical mod-eling of this plant is made based on the general laws of physics. For this type of controlproblem, it is extremely important to prevent the occurrence of web break or fold by decoupling the web tension and the web velocity. Due to the wide-range variation of the radius and inertia of the rollers the system dynamics change considerably during the winding/unwinding process The system is composed of five paper rollers and a tensioning roller. A control structure is suggested for this system. This control is deduced from an Energetic Macroscopic Representation of the system. Neither robust control strategy nor mechanical emulation is required, but this control needs a large number of controllers.

  13. Representation of the deduction with tetravalent logic: realisation of fast inference motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building automats for surveillance, control or diagnosis, can be done by artificial intelligence. They function according to the formalism of O ordre propositional logic. Deduction modes can then easily be represented in a trivalent logic with both efficiency and concision. One can obtain workable codes with low storage of high speed (env. 5000 rules per second). This leads us to develop and entry langage with extremely simple statement rules which can be learnt by experts in practically no time. Finally in order to generalize this principle and draw rules with multi-choice conclusions, (if... then the motor stops or the pressure goes down), rewriting these processes enable to return to an equivalent system without multi-choice conclusions, providing the same amount of informations with the possibility of deciding. This study has been used on 2 different cases: first it served as a tool to analyse reliability, (OLAF), second to help diagnosis breakdown of pressurized water-reactors

  14. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one's mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning. PMID:26779089

  15. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi eShitara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to primary motor cortex (M1 is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or electrically stimulated the right median nerve (MNS in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG. We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10-20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging.

  16. Cortico-cortical connectivity between right parietal and bilateral primary motor cortices during imagined and observed actions: A combined TMS/tDCS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eFeurra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous TMS studies showed functional connections between the parietal cortex (PC and the primary motor cortex (M1 during tasks of different reaching-to-grasp movements. Here, we tested whether the same network is involved in cognitive processes such as imagined or observed actions. Single pulse TMS of the right and left M1 during rest and during a motor imagery and an action observation task (i.e. an index-thumb pinch grip in both cases was used to measure corticospinal excitability changes before and after conditioning of the right PC by 10 minutes of cathodal, anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Corticospinal excitability was indexed by the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the contralateral FDI (target and ADM (control muscles. Results showed selective ipsilateral effects on the M1 excitability, exclusively for motor imagery processes: anodal tDCS enhanced the MEPs’ size from the FDI muscle, whereas cathodal tDCS decreased it. Only cathodal tDCS impacted corticospinal facilitation induced by action observation. Sham stimulation was always uneffective. These results suggest that motor imagery, differently from action observation, is sustained by a strictly ipsilateral parieto-motor cortex circuits. Results might have implication for neuromodulatory rehabilitative purposes.

  17. Spatial localization and distribution of the TMS-related 'hotspot' of the tibialis anterior muscle representation in the healthy and post-stroke motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anjali; Tahara-Eckl, Lenore; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2016-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a type of noninvasive brain stimulation used to study corticomotor excitability of the intact and injured brain. Identification of muscle representations in the motor cortex is typically done using a procedure called 'hotspotting', which involves establishing the optimal location on the scalp that evokes a maximum TMS response with minimum stimulator intensity. The purpose of this study was to report the hotspot locations for the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle representation in the motor cortex of healthy and post stroke individuals. A retrospective data analyses from 42 stroke participants and 32 healthy participants was conducted for reporting TMS hotspot locations and their spatial patterns. Single pulse TMS, using a 110mm double cone coil, was used to identify the motor representation of the TA. The hotspot locations were represented as x and y-distances from the vertex for each participant. The mediolateral extent of the loci from the vertex (x-coordinate) and anteroposterior extent of the loci from the vertex (y-coordinate) was reported for each hemisphere: non-lesioned (XNLes, YNLes), lesioned (XLes, YLes) and healthy (XH, YH). We found that the mean hotspot loci for TA muscle from the vertex were approximately: 1.29cm lateral and 0.55cm posterior in the non-lesioned hemisphere, 1.25cm lateral and 0.5cm posterior in the lesioned hemisphere and 1.6cm lateral and 0.8cm posterior in the healthy brain. There was no significant difference in the x- and y-coordinates between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres. However, the locations of the XNLes (p=0.01) and XLes (p=0.004) were significantly different from XH. The YNLes and YLes showed no significant differences from YH loci. Analyses of spatial clustering patterns using the Moran's I index showed a negative autocorrelation in stroke participants (NLes: Moran's I=-0.09, p<0.001; Les: Moran's I=-0.14, p=0.002), and a positive autocorrelation in healthy participants

  18. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF CARBONATED FLUIDS ON THE HUMAN CORTICAL SWALLOWING MOTOR SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Elshukri, Omsaad

    2013-01-01

    AbstractSwallowing is a complex neurophysiological process involving the activation of several components of the central nervous system with bilateral but asymmetric representations of swallowing musculature in the motor cortex. Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) in stroke patients has been reported by up to 50% of victims, and can increase morbidity and mortality in this population due to the development of aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. One of the common factors that predispose pa...

  20. Comparative gait initiation kinematics between simulated unilateral and bilateral ankle hypomobility: Does bilateral constraint improve speed performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafontaine, A; Honeine, J-L; Do, M-C; Gagey, O; Chong, R K

    2015-08-31

    Improvement of motor performance in unilateral upper limb motor disability has been shown when utilizing inter-limb coupling strategies during physical rehabilitation. This suggests that 'default' bilateral central motor commands are facilitated. Here, we tested whether this bilateral motor control principle may be generalized to the lower limbs during gait initiation, which involves alternate bilateral actions. Disability was simulated by strapping to produce ankle hypomobility. Healthy adult subjects initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint (control), or with the stance, swing or bilateral ankles strapped. The duration of the anticipatory postural adjustments lengthened and the center of mass instantaneous progression velocity at foot-off decreased when the ankle was strapped. During the step execution phase, progression velocity at foot-contact was higher when both ankles were strapped compared to unilateral strapping of the stance ankle. These findings suggest that bilateral central motor commands are favored during walking tasks. Indeed, unilateral constraint of the stance ankle should compel the central nervous system to adapt specific commands to the constraint and normal sides whereas the 'default' bilateral motor commands would be utilized when both ankles are strapped leading to better kinematics performance. Bilateral in-phase upper limb coordination and bilateral alternating lower limb locomotor movements may share similar control mechanisms. PMID:26197055

  1. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  2. A review of bilateral training for upper extremity hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Upper extremity hemiparesis is the most common post-stroke disability. Longitudinal studies have indicated that 30-66% of stroke survivors do not have full arm function 6 months post-stroke. The current gold standard for treatment of mild post-stroke upper limb impairment is constraint-induced therapy but, because of the inclusion criteria, alternative treatments are needed which target more impaired subjects. Bilateral arm training has been investigated as a potential rehabilitation intervention. Bilateral arm training encompasses a number of methods including: (1) bilateral isokinematic training; (2) mirror therapy using bilateral training; (3) device-driven bilateral training; and (4) bilateral motor priming. Neural mechanisms mediating bilateral training are first reviewed. The key bilateral training studies that have demonstrated evidence of efficacy will then be discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning clinical implications based on the reviewed literature. PMID:19517519

  3. The lateralization of motor cortex activation to action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eHauk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What determines the laterality of activation in motor cortex for words whose meaning is related to bodily actions? It has been suggested that the neuronal representation of the meaning of action-words is shaped by individual experience. However, core language functions are left-lateralized in the majority of both right- and left-handers. It is still an open question to what degree connections between left-hemispheric core language areas and right-hemispheric motor areas can play a role in semantics. We investigated laterality of brain activation using fMRI in right- and left-handed participants in response to visually presented hand-related action-words, namely uni- and bi-manual actions (such as "throw" and "clap". These stimulus groups were matched with respect to general (hand-action-relatedness, but differed with respect to whether they are usually performed with the dominant hand or both hands. We may expect generally more left-hemispheric motor-cortex activation for hand-related words in both handedness groups, with possibly more bilateral activation for bimanual words as well as left-handers. In our study, both participant groups activated motor cortex bilaterally for bi-manual words. Interestingly, both groups also showed a left-lateralized activation pattern to uni-manual words. We argue that this reflects the effect of left-hemispheric language dominance on the formation of semantic brain circuits on the basis of Hebbian correlation learning.

  4. The bilateral advantage for famous faces: interhemispheric communication or competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lyndsay M; Burton, A Mike

    2008-04-01

    The bilateral advantage for the perception of famous faces was investigated using a redundant target procedure. In experiment 1 we compared simultaneous presentation of stimuli (a) bilaterally and (b) one above the other in the central field. Results showed a redundancy advantage, but only when faces were presented bilaterally. This result lends support to the notion of interhemispheric communication using cross-hemisphere representations. Experiment 2 examined the nature of such communication by comparing bilateral presentation of identical face images, with bilateral presentation of different images of the same person. When asked to make a familiar/unfamiliar face judgement, participants showed evidence for a redundancy advantage under both bilateral conditions. This suggests that the nature of the information shared in interhemispheric communication is abstract, rather than being tied to superficial stimulus properties.

  5. Bilateral pallidotomy for generalized dystonia Palidotomia bilateral para distonias generalizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bilateral pallidotomies in five patients with generalized dystonia. BACKGROUND: Generalized dystonias are frequently a therapeutic challenge, with poor responses to pharmacological treatment. GPi (globus pallidus internus pallidotomies for Parkinson's disease ameliorate all kinds of dyskinesias/dystonia, and recent studies reported a marked improvement of refractory dystonias with this procedure. METHODS: Five patients with generalized dystonias refractory to medical treatment were selected; one posttraumatic and four idiopathic. The decision to perform bilateral procedures was based on the predominant axial involvement in these patients. Dystonia severity was assessed with the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Scale (BFM. Simultaneous procedures were performed in all but one patient, who had a staged procedure. They were reevaluated with the same scale (BFM by an unblinded rater at 1, 2, 3, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days post-operatively. RESULTS: The four patients with idiopathic dystonia showed a progressive improvement up to three months; the patient with posttraumatic dystonia relapsed at three months. One patient had a marked improvement, being able to discontinue all the medications. A mean decrease in the BFM scores of 52,58% was noted. One patient had a trans-operative motor seizure followed by a transient hemiparesis secondary to rack hemorrhage; other was lethargic up to three days after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that bilateral GPi pallidotomies may be a safe and effective approach to medically refractory generalized dystonias; it can also be speculated that the posttraumatic subgroup may not benefit with this procedure.As distonias generalizadas são freqüentemente um desafio terapêutico, com pobres respostas aos tratamentos farmacológicos. As cirurgias estereotáxicas, como a palidotomia, têm sido utilizadas com êxito no tratamento da doença de Parkinson e estudos

  6. Neurobehavioural Changes in a Patient with Bilateral Lesions of the Globus Pallidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Haaxma

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has characterized the long-term neurobehavioural changes in a woman who, following the intake of an unidentified substance, sustained subtotal bilateral lesions of the globus pallidus and small lesions at selective sites adjacent to it. Associated with these lesions was a significantly reduced blood flow in multiple frontal cortical regions, most prominently in area 10, the anterior cingulate and the supplementary motor cortex. Her cognitive deficits were generally consistent with those found in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction but some deficits, i.e. in visual memory and learning, were more compatible with temporal lobe dysfunction. Incapacitating personality or obsessive compulsive changes as reported by others with similar lesions were absent and she could live independently. The cognitive changes are consistent with the view that the globus pallidus has important functions in mediating how internal representations of stimulus input are converted into various forms of action, for example, in planning solutions to problems and in working memory.

  7. Action observation has a positive impact on rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertelt, Denis; Small, Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Dettmers, Christian; McNamara, Adam; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Evidence exists that the observation of actions activates the same cortical motor areas that are involved in the performance of the observed actions. The neural substrate for this is the mirror neuron system. We harness this neuronal system and its ability to re-enact stored motor representations as a means for rehabilitating motor control. We combined observation of daily actions with concomitant physical training of the observed actions in a new neurorehabilitative program (action observation therapy). Eight stroke patients with moderate, chronic motor deficit of the upper limb as a consequence of medial artery infarction participated. A significant improvement of motor functions in the course of a 4-week treatment, as compared to the stable pre-treatment baseline, and compared with a control group have been found. The improvement lasted for at least 8 weeks after the end of the intervention. Additionally, the effects of action observation therapy on the reorganization of the motor system were investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using an independent sensorimotor task consisting of object manipulation. The direct comparison of neural activations between experimental and control groups after training with those elicited by the same task before training yielded a significant rise in activity in the bilateral ventral premotor cortex, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the contralateral supramarginal gyrus. Our results provide pieces of evidence that action observation has a positive additional impact on recovery of motor functions after stroke by reactivation of motor areas, which contain the action observation/action execution matching system. PMID:17499164

  8. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy...... was unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  9. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Karimi; Masoud Soheilian; Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lympho...

  10. Movement Sonification: Audiovisual benefits on motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes of motor control and learning in sports as well as in motor rehabilitation are based on perceptual functions and emergent motor representations. Here a new method of movement sonification is described which is designed to tune in more comprehensively the auditory system into motor perception to enhance motor learning. Usually silent features of the cyclic movement pattern "indoor rowing" are sonified in real time to make them additionally available to the auditory system when executing the movement. Via real time sonification movement perception can be enhanced in terms of temporal precision and multi-channel integration. But beside the contribution of a single perceptual channel to motor perception and motor representation also mechanisms of multisensory integration can be addressed, if movement sonification is configured adequately: Multimodal motor representations consisting of at least visual, auditory and proprioceptive components - can be shaped subtly resulting in more precise motor control and enhanced motor learning.

  11. Rare cause of paraparesis: bilateral obturator neuropathy after hysterosalpingectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Roberto; Mejía-Jiménez, Inmaculada; de Fuenmayor-Fernández de la Hoz, Carlos Pablo; Ruiz-Morales, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral obturator nerve injury during pelvic surgery is an infrequent cause of lower limb paraparesis. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with a large uterine leiomyoma who underwent simple total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy. At 24 h after the surgery, the patient noticed loss of muscle strength when adducting both legs. She had no problem with other movements and no sensory or sphincter abnormalities. Neurological examination confirmed that there was loss of strength only in the adductor muscles, with preserved sensory function and reflexes, suggesting bilateral obturator nerve involvement. Pelvic MRI showed a small postsurgical haematoma in the Douglas recess, but far from the obturator nerves. 2 weeks later, electromyography showed positive sharp waves and low motor unit recruitment in the adductor magnus muscles, confirming acute, bilateral obturator nerve neuropathy. The few cases of bilateral obturator neuropathy that have been reported were mostly related to abdominopelvic interventions. PMID:26689250

  12. Escleritis posterior bilateral Bilateral posterior scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zurutuza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática.Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

  13. Bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahemey, R.; Warfield, A.T.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas are the most common benign osteoclastic tumours of the paranasal sinuses. However, nasal cavity and turbinate osteomas are extremely rare. Only nine middle turbinate, three inferior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported to date. The present case report describes the management and follow-up of symptomatic bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. A 60-year-old female presented with symptoms of bilateral nasal obstruction and right-sided epiphora. Radiological investigation found hypertrophic bony changes involving both inferior turbinates. The patient was managed successfully by endoscopic inferior turbinectomies in order to achieve a patent airway, with no further recurrence of tumour after 3 months postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. We describe a safe and minimally invasive method of tumour resection, which has a better cosmetic outcome compared with other approaches. PMID:27534890

  14. "Ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David Z; Husain, M Rizwan

    2012-11-01

    Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. We present a case of bilateral extracranial VAD as a complication of conducting an orchestra. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. Conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place excessive rotational forces upon mobile portions of the verterbral arteries, tear the intima, deposit subintimal blood that extends longitudinally, and cause neck pain and/or posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. Magnetic resonance angiography examinations of axially oriented slices of bilateral VADs resemble the face of an ostrich. This observation is similar to the "puppy sign," in which bilateral internal carotid artery dissections resemble the face of a dog. Craniocervical dissections of either the carotid or vertebral arteries have the potential to form an aneurysm, cause artery-to-artery embolism, or completely occlude the parent artery, resulting in an ischemic stroke. Because bilateral VADs in axial magnetic resonance angiographic sections stand out like the eyes of an ostrich, and because the fast identification of VADs is so critical, we eponymize this image the "ostrich sign."

  15. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  16. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay; Aditya Pratap; Chetan; Ramesh; Rajlaxmi Jaysing

    2014-01-01

    : Immature teratoma (IMT) is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fac...

  17. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : Immature teratoma (IMT is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fact that the patient age is below the average for the occurrence of these tumors.

  18. Bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B.

  19. Bilateral akillesseneruptur hos nyretransplanterede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Nimb, L;

    1996-01-01

    Increased incidence of tendinitis and tendon ruptures is reported in recipients of a kidney transplant. Two cases of bilateral achilles tendon rupture after minimal trauma are described. Tendon ruptures are more frequent in individuals with kidney disease in dialysis or after transplantation comp...

  20. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Bergholt, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    ) surgery. The overall retreatment rate was 21.6% (57 of 264 patients). Cases treated with unilateral surgery had twice the risk of retreatment compared with cases undergoing bilateral surgery (28.7% vs 14.1%, respectively, p = 0.002). In accordance with previous studies, the data also showed...

  1. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  2. Bilateral adaptive deep brain stimulation is effective in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Simon; Beudel, Martijn; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan; Neal, Spencer; Cheeran, Binith; Cagnan, Hayriye; Gratwicke, James; Aziz, Tipu Z; Pogosyan, Alex; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction & objectives Adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) uses feedback from brain signals to guide stimulation. A recent acute trial of unilateral aDBS showed that aDBS can lead to substantial improvements in contralateral hemibody Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores and may be superior to conventional continuous DBS in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We test whether potential benefits are retained with bilateral aDBS and in the face of concurrent medication. Methods We applied bilateral aDBS in 4 patients with PD undergoing DBS of the subthalamic nucleus. aDBS was delivered bilaterally with independent triggering of stimulation according to the amplitude of β activity at the corresponding electrode. Mean stimulation voltage was 3.0±0.1 volts. Motor assessments consisted of double-blinded video-taped motor UPDRS scores that included both limb and axial features. Results UPDRS scores were 43% (p=0.04; Cohen’s d=1.62) better with aDBS than without stimulation. Motor improvement with aDBS occurred despite an average time on stimulation (ToS) of only 45%. Levodopa was well tolerated during aDBS and led to further reductions in ToS. Conclusion Bilateral aDBS can improve both axial and limb symptoms and can track the need for stimulation across drug states. PMID:26424898

  3. A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Sensorimotor Activity Differences during Unilateral and Bilateral Forearm Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei

    2010-01-01

    This study compared activation of the sensorimotor area using magnetoencephalography after unilateral and bilateral movements. Thirteen healthy individuals and a patient with mild hemiplegia performed unilateral and bilateral forearm pronation movements. Among healthy participants, there were no significant differences in motor-evoked field during…

  4. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    , and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...... be written up and disseminated. The article takes a methodological focus, considering general aims and methods of the research project, before turning to the elaboration on how poetic representations have been constructed and employed as a vehicle for certain kinds of participation, representation...

  5. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1]...

  6. Evidence suggesting individual ocular motor control of each eye (muscle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L F

    1994-01-01

    Current models of the ocular motor system are usually presented in their most reduced form, are unilateral in architecture, and precise yoking is presumed. Although this simplifies the models, it does not accurately simulate the actual neuroanatomy and limits the models to simple, stereotyped responses. Studies of normal humans and monkeys have demonstrated striking disconjugacies in normal responses. Normal saccades may be disconjugate, or 1 eye may exhibit a dynamic overshoot. Asymmetric vergence can result in disconjugate saccades, unequal magnification spectacles cause differential saccadic gain adjustment, and saccades to unequal disparities also cause unequal saccades in the 2 eyes. In strabismus, deviated eyes typically do not mimic the movements of the fixating eye nor do their latent or congenital nystagmus waveforms duplicate those of the fixating eye. In spasmus nutans, each eye oscillates independently of the other. In achiasmatic dogs, uni-ocular saccades and uni-ocular nystagmus waveforms are seen; the same may be true in human achiasma. These data from both normals and those with abnormalities suggest that current models for ocular motor control are inadequate representations of the actual system. The inability of unilateral, yoked control (or even bilateral, yoked control) system models to duplicate the ocular motor responses of binocular mammals suggests that their ocular motor systems evolved from the bilateral, independent control systems seen in chameleons. One need only postulate a yoking overlay superimposed on two independent control systems to achieve conjugacy (bilateral, yoked, independent control) of the eyes. Abnormalities producing grossly disconjugate eye movements may then be simulated using the independent control of each eye released by a deficiency in the yoking overlay. Independent control of each eye coupled with the essential bilateral brain stem architecture implies that each individual muscle is driven by independent

  7. Modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand of braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, A; Cammarota, A; Wassermann, E M; Brasil-Neto, J P; Cohen, L G; Hallett, M

    1993-07-01

    We used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation to map the motor cortical areas targeting the first dorsal interosseous and the abductor digiti minimi muscles bilaterally in 10 proficient braille readers and 10 blind controls who were matched for age (mean, 50.6 yr) and age at time of blindness (mean, 7.5 yr). The proficient braille readers had learned braille at age 8 to 14 years and used it daily for 5 to 10 hours. Controls had not learned braille until age 17 to 21 years and used it daily for braille readers, the representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle in the reading hand was significantly larger than that in the nonreading hand or in either hand of the controls. Conversely, the representation of the abductor digiti minimi muscle in the reading hand was significantly smaller than that in the nonreading hand or in either hand of the controls. These differences were not due to differences in motor thresholds. Our results suggest that the cortical representation of the reading finger in proficient braille readers is enlarged at the expense of the representation of other fingers.

  8. [Spontaneous bilateral Petit hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, Rodrigo Dias; Araújo, Emerson Silveira de; Oliveira, Gustavo Alves de; Sarmenghi Filho, Deolindo; Kalil, Mitre

    2011-01-01

    Petit's lumbar hernia is an uncommon defect of the posterior abdominal wall that represents less than 1% of all abdominal wall hernias. It is more often unilateral and founded in young females, rarely containing a real herniated sac. There are two different approaches to repair: laparoscopy and open surgery. The goal of this article is to report one case of spontaneous bilateral lumbar Petit's hernia treated with open surgery.

  9. Bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular dirofilariasis mostly presents as a subconjunctival or eyelid lesion. [1] Intraocular dirofilarial infestation is rare. [2],[3] We report a case of a young woman who was accidentally detected to have a live motile worm in the anterior segment in one eye and a cystic lesion on the optic disc in the other eye. To our knowledge, bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis has never been reported.

  10. Compressive Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kenjiro; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient constant-time bilateral filter that produces a near-optimal performance tradeoff between approximate accuracy and computational complexity without any complicated parameter adjustment, called a compressive bilateral filter (CBLF). The constant-time means that the computational complexity is independent of its filter window size. Although many existing constant-time bilateral filters have been proposed step-by-step to pursue a more efficient performance tradeoff, they have less focused on the optimal tradeoff for their own frameworks. It is important to discuss this question, because it can reveal whether or not a constant-time algorithm still has plenty room for improvements of performance tradeoff. This paper tackles the question from a viewpoint of compressibility and highlights the fact that state-of-the-art algorithms have not yet touched the optimal tradeoff. The CBLF achieves a near-optimal performance tradeoff by two key ideas: 1) an approximate Gaussian range kernel through Fourier analysis and 2) a period length optimization. Experiments demonstrate that the CBLF significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of approximate accuracy, computational complexity, and usability. PMID:26068315

  11. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...... are fictional, value-driven concepts developed to promote dialogue with users about their values and how they may materialize with respect to interaction design in their everyday lives....

  12. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  13. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Tok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results: Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion: Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia.

  14. Concurrent word generation and motor performance: further evidence for language-motor interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D Rodriguez

    Full Text Available Embodied/modality-specific theories of semantic memory propose that sensorimotor representations play an important role in perception and action. A large body of evidence supports the notion that concepts involving human motor action (i.e., semantic-motor representations are processed in both language and motor regions of the brain. However, most studies have focused on perceptual tasks, leaving unanswered questions about language-motor interaction during production tasks. Thus, we investigated the effects of shared semantic-motor representations on concurrent language and motor production tasks in healthy young adults, manipulating the semantic task (motor-related vs. nonmotor-related words and the motor task (i.e., standing still and finger-tapping. In Experiment 1 (n = 20, we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to affect postural control. In Experiment 2 (n = 40, we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to facilitate word generation and finger tapping. We conclude that engaging semantic-motor representations can have a reciprocal influence on motor and language production. Our study provides additional support for functional language-motor interaction, as well as embodied/modality-specific theories.

  15. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Alibeigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

  16. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon.

  17. Isolated bilateral ectopic microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Godefroy Koki2, Emilienne Epée2, Didier Owono2, Lucienne Bella Asumpta2, Côme Ebana Mvogo21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Douala Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé CameroonSummary: An eight-year-old school girl presented to us with a bilateral ectopic microspherophakia. She was surgically managed in the ophthalmology unit of the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaoundé in Cameroon. The postoperative follow up was uneventful, and the patient returned to school with a best corrected visual acuity of 4/10 in both eyes to the great satisfaction of her parents.Keywords: ectopic, microspherophakia, surgery

  18. Bilateral acute corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, T F; Leibowitz, H M

    1985-04-01

    A 38-year-old man with brittle, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral severe dry eyes with recurrent corneal ulcers developed atypical band-shaped calcifications of both corneas during a 24-hour period. Serum calcium, phosphate, and carbon dioxide levels all were within normal limits. The patient was mildly uremic but was not in renal failure. When EDTA chelation failed to clear the deposits, partial keratectomies were performed in both eyes and the specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy, including energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Microscopic studies revealed an atypical calcific keratopathy which involved neither Bowman's layer nor the most superficial stromal lamellae. The deposits were confined to deeper lamellae in the anterior stroma and by electron microscopy were composed of extracellular crystalline aggregates. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis of these aggregates confirmed the presence of calcium and phosphate. Corneal dessication appeared to be a major contributing factor in the rapid formation of these deposits.

  19. Forelimb training drives transient map reorganization in ipsilateral motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, David T; Schmid, Ariel N; Danaphongse, Tanya T; Flanagan, Kate E; Morrison, Robert A; Kilgard, Michael P; Rennaker, Robert L; Hays, Seth A

    2016-10-15

    Skilled motor training results in reorganization of contralateral motor cortex movement representations. The ipsilateral motor cortex is believed to play a role in skilled motor control, but little is known about how training influences reorganization of ipsilateral motor representations of the trained limb. To determine whether training results in reorganization of ipsilateral motor cortex maps, rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated motor task that requires skilled forelimb use. After either 3 or 6 months of training, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed to document motor representations of the trained forelimb in the hemisphere ipsilateral to that limb. Motor training for 3 months resulted in a robust expansion of right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex, demonstrating that skilled motor training drives map plasticity ipsilateral to the trained limb. After 6 months of training, the right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex was significantly smaller than the representation observed in rats trained for 3 months and similar to untrained controls, consistent with a normalization of motor cortex maps. Forelimb map area was not correlated with performance on the trained task, suggesting that task performance is maintained despite normalization of cortical maps. This study provides new insights into how the ipsilateral cortex changes in response to skilled learning and may inform rehabilitative strategies to enhance cortical plasticity to support recovery after brain injury. PMID:27392641

  20. Symbolic Representations in Motor Sequence Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bo, J.; Peltier, S.J.; Noll, D.C.; Seidler, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that varying the spatial versus symbolic nature of stimulus presentation and response production, which affects stimulus-response (S-R) mapping requirements, influences the magnitude of implicit sequence learning (Koch & Hoffman, 2000). Here, we evaluated how spatial and symbolic stimuli and responses affect the neural bases of sequence learning. We selectively eliminated the spatial component of stimulus presentation (spatial versus symbolic), response execution (manual ver...

  1. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts.

  2. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Fotedar Sanjay; Chaudhary Dhruva; Singhla Vikas; Narang Rajat

    2010-01-01

    Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  3. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  4. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  5. Substantial generalization of sensorimotor learning from bilateral to unilateral movement conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsung Wang

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding whether bimanual skill learning can generalize to unimanual performance. For example, some investigators showed that dynamic adaptation could only partially generalize between bilateral and unilateral movement conditions, while others demonstrated complete generalization of visuomotor adaptation. Here, we identified three potential factors that might have contributed to the discrepancy between the two sets of findings. In our first experiment, subjects performed reaching movements toward eight targets bilaterally with a novel force field applied to both arms, then unilaterally with the force field applied to one arm. Results showed that the dynamic adaptation generalized completely from bilateral to unilateral movements. In our second experiment, the same force field was only applied to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. Results indicated complete transfer again. Finally, our subjects performed reaching movements toward a single target with the force field or a novel visuomotor rotation applied only to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. The reduced breadth of experience obtained during bilateral movements resulted in incomplete transfer, which explains previous findings of limited generalization. These findings collectively suggest a substantial overlap between the neural processes underlying bilateral and unilateral movements, supporting the idea that bilateral training, often employed in stroke rehabilitation, is a valid method for improving unilateral performance. However, our findings also suggest that while the neural representations developed during bilateral training can generalize to facilitate unilateral performance, the extent of generalization may depend on the breadth of experience obtained during bilateral training.

  6. Neuromagnetic fields accompanying unilateral and bilateral voluntary movements: topography and analysis of cortical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, R; Cheyne, D; Deecke, L

    1991-08-01

    Movement-related magnetic fields (MRMFs) accompanying left and right unilateral and bilateral finger flexions were studied in 6 right-handed subjects. Six different MRMF components occurring prior to, and during both unilateral and bilateral movements are described: a slow pre-movement readiness field (RF, 1-0.5 sec prior to movement onset); a motor field (MF) starting shortly before EMG onset; 3 separate "movement-evoked" fields following EMG onset (MEFI at 100 msec; MEFII at 225 msec; and MEFIII at 320 msec); and a "post-movement" field (PMF) following the movement itself. The bilateral topography of the RF and MF for both unilateral and bilateral movements suggested bilateral generators for both conditions. Least-squares fitting of equivalent current dipole sources also indicated bilateral sources for MF prior to both unilateral and bilateral movements with significantly greater strength of contralateral sources in the case of unilateral movements. Differences in pre-movement field patterns for left versus right unilateral movements indicated possible cerebral dominance effects as well. A single current dipole in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex could account for the MEFI for unilateral movements and bilateral sensorimotor sources for bilateral movements. Other MRMF components following EMG onset indicated similar sources in sensorimotor cortex related to sensory feedback or internal monitoring of the movement. The results are discussed with respect to the possible generators active in sensorimotor cortex during unilateral and bilateral movement preparation and execution and their significance for the study of cortical organization of voluntary movement.

  7. Representation is representation of similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, S

    1998-08-01

    Advanced perceptual systems are faced with the problem of securing a principled (ideally, veridical) relationship between the world and its internal representation. I propose a unified approach to visual representation, addressing the need for superordinate and basic-level categorization and for the identification of specific instances of familiar categories. According to the proposed theory, a shape is represented internally by the responses of a small number of tuned modules, each broadly selective for some reference shape, whose similarity to the stimulus it measures. This amounts to embedding the stimulus in a low-dimensional proximal shape space spanned by the outputs of the active modules. This shape space supports representations of distal shape similarities that are veridical as Shepard's (1968) second-order isomorphisms (i.e., correspondence between distal and proximal similarities among shapes, rather than between distal shapes and their proximal representations). Representation in terms of similarities to reference shapes supports processing (e.g., discrimination) of shapes that are radically different from the reference ones, without the need for the computationally problematic decomposition into parts required by other theories. Furthermore, a general expression for similarity between two stimuli, based on comparisons to reference shapes, can be used to derive models of perceived similarity ranging from continuous, symmetric, and hierarchical ones, as in multidimensional scaling (Shepard 1980), to discrete and nonhierarchical ones, as in the general contrast models (Shepard & Arabie 1979; Tversky 1977). PMID:10097019

  8. Bilateral hand amyotrophy with PMP-22 gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochard, A; Guennoc, A M; Praline, J; Malinge, M C; de Toffol, B; Corcia, P

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) phenotypes are heterogeneous. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman without medical history, who complained of bilateral hand weakness suggestive first of a motor neuron disorder. The presence of a diffuse predominant distal demyelinating neuropathy suggested a deletion of PMP-22 gene, which was confirmed by genetic analysis. This case report underlines a novel phenotype related to the deletion of PMP-22 gene.

  9. Significant improvement of motor symptoms by deep brain stimulation of bilateral subthalamic nucleus in patients with moderate or advanced Parkinson's disease%双侧丘脑底核脑深部电刺激治疗中晚期帕金森病的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 张思乐; 陈玲; 黎锦如; 刘焯霖; 裴中; 刘金龙; 陈曦; 钱浩; 冼文彪; 周鸿雁; 刘妍梅; 叶小帆; 郑一帆

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) on the motor and non-motor symptoms in moderate or advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods From August 2006 to January 2010, 21 consecutive PD patients with refractory motor fluctuations or dyskinesia underwent operations at our hospital. All patients were evaluated by unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stage, Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39), mini mental state examination (MMSE), Parkinson's disease sleep scale-Chinese vision( PDSS-CV), Pittsburgh sleep quality index ( PSQI), Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) and Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAMA). And the daily dosage of dopaminergic agents was recorded at 1week pre-operation and 3, 6 and 12 months post-operation. Results Ten patients finished a 12-month follow-up. Their motor functions showed significant improvement. And the scores of UPDRS-motor, tremor,rigidity, bradykinesia and axial symptoms reduced significantly in the on-stimulation-off-medication condition and the on-stimulation-on-medication condition vs the on-medication condition pre-operation. And the improvement of tremor was the most pronounced ( 52. 1% and 77.7% respectively ) . The H&Y stage decreased significantly from 3.2 ± 0. 7 to 2. 5 ± 0. 4 post-operation. The activities of daily living improved while PDQ-39 declined significantly from 56 ±9 pre-operation to 32 ± 13 at 12 months follow-up. The score changes of MMSE, PDSS-CV, PSQI, HAMA and HAMD were statistically insignificant. The levo-dopa equivalent dose of 1-year post-operation decreased significantly by 49.2% versus that of pre-operation ( P <0.05). Conclusion Bilateral STN-DBS can significant ameliorate the motor symptoms of moderate or advanced PD patients, reduce the dosage of anti-PD medications and improve the quality of life. This procedure has the advantages of a greater safety, minor side effects and an easy

  10. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax. PMID:24862410

  11. Representational Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current...... representation? How is virtual reality used in public participation and how do virtual environments affect participatory decision making? How does VR thus affect the physical world of built environment? Given the practical collaborative possibilities of immersive technology, how can they best be implemented...

  12. Skilled Bimanual Training Drives Motor Cortex Plasticity in Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Kathleen M; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Fuller, Jason; Ferre, Claudio L; Brandão, Marina; Carmel, Jason B; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Gowatsky, Jaimie L; Stanford, Arielle D; Rowny, Stefan B; Luber, Bruce; Bassi, Bruce; Murphy, David L K; Lisanby, Sarah H; Gordon, Andrew M

    2016-10-01

    Background Intensive bimanual therapy can improve hand function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). We compared the effects of structured bimanual skill training versus unstructured bimanual practice on motor outcomes and motor map plasticity in children with USCP. Objective We hypothesized that structured skill training would produce greater motor map plasticity than unstructured practice. Methods Twenty children with USCP (average age 9.5; 12 males) received therapy in a day camp setting, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. In structured skill training (n = 10), children performed progressively more difficult movements and practiced functional goals. In unstructured practice (n = 10), children engaged in bimanual activities but did not practice skillful movements or functional goals. We used the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function (JTTHF), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) to measure hand function. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to map the representation of first dorsal interosseous and flexor carpi radialis muscles bilaterally. Results Both groups showed significant improvements in bimanual hand use (AHA; P < .05) and hand dexterity (JTTHF; P < .001). However, only the structured skill group showed increases in the size of the affected hand motor map and amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (P < .01). Most children who showed the most functional improvements (COPM) had the largest changes in map size. Conclusions These findings uncover a dichotomy of plasticity: the unstructured practice group improved hand function but did not show changes in motor maps. Skill training is important for driving motor cortex plasticity in children with USCP.

  13. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  14. Bilateral Polydactyly in a foal

    OpenAIRE

    Carstanjen, Bianca; Abitbol, Marie; Desbois, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The following case report describes the diagnosis and surgery of bilateral polydactyly of unknown origin in a colt. A 7-month-old Berber colt was referred for cosmetic and curative excision of supernumerary digits. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral polydactyly and well-developed first carpal bones. Surgery consisted of an osteotomy of both second metacarpal bones combined with an amputation of the supernumerary digits. The follow-up at 18 months after surgery revealed a sound horse ...

  15. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Arun; Nandini R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the li...

  16. Deep networks for motor control functions

    OpenAIRE

    Berniker, Max; Kording, Konrad P.

    2015-01-01

    The motor system generates time-varying commands to move our limbs and body. Conventional descriptions of motor control and learning rely on dynamical representations of our body's state (forward and inverse models), and control policies that must be integrated forward to generate feedforward time-varying commands; thus these are representations across space, but not time. Here we examine a new approach that directly represents both time-varying commands and the resulting state trajectories w...

  17. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Although bilateral facial nerve palsy is a rare condition, its etiology is more detectable than the unilateral type. A temporal bone fracture is one cause of bilateral facial nerve palsy, contributing in 3% of the cases. Case Presentation Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old man complaining of bilateral incomplete eye closure, two weeks after a closed head injury caused by a motor vehicle accident. Conclusions The high resolution computed tomography findings revealed a bilateral temporal bone fracture line, which extended to the fallopian canal. With regard to treatment, near complete recovery was obvious after two weeks of treatment with oral corticosteroids. Overall, bilateral facial palsy is hard to diagnose; therefore, clinical suspicion and the early detection of facial nerve injuries is necessary for good nerve recovery in temporal bone fractures.

  18. Chorea in systemic lupus erythematosus: evidence for bilateral putaminal hypermetabolism on F-18 FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Wook Jang; Chung, Son Mi; Koh, Su Jin; Lee, Chang Keun; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee Bom [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung; Im, Joo Hyuk [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    We describe a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who suddenly presented with chorea and had positive antiphospholipid antibodies. F-18 FDG PET showed abnormally increased glucose metabolism in bilateral putamen and primary motor cotex. Tc-99m ECD SPECT also showed abnormally increased regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral putamen. She was treated with corticosteroid and aspirin after which the symptoms improved. Four months later, follow up F-18 FDG PET showed improvement with resolution of hypermetabolism in bilateral putamen. This case suggests that striatal hypermetabolism is associated with chorea in SLE.

  19. 38 CFR 4.26 - Bilateral factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bilateral factor. 4.26... DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.26 Bilateral factor. When a partial disability results from disease... disability. The bilateral factor will be applied to such bilateral disabilities before other combinations...

  20. Manipulating Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N M

    2012-04-01

    The present paper proposes a definition for the complex polysemic concepts of consciousness and awareness (in humans as well as in other species), and puts forward the idea of a progressive ontological development of consciousness from a state of 'childhood' awareness, in order to explain that humans are not only able to manipulate objects, but also their mental representations. The paper builds on the idea of qualia intended as entities posing regular invariant requests to neural processes, trough the permanence of different properties. The concept of semantic differential introduces the properties of metaphorical qualia as an exclusively human ability. Furthermore this paper proposes a classification of qualia, according to the models-with different levels of abstraction-they are implied in, in a taxonomic perspective. This, in turn, becomes a source of categorization of divergent representations, sign systems, and forms of intentionality, relying always on biological criteria. New emerging image-of-the-world-devices are proposed, whose qualia are likely to be only accessible to humans: emotional qualia, where emotion accounts for the invariant and dominant property; and the qualic self where continuity, combined with the oneness of the self, accounts for the invariant and dominant property. The concept of congruence between different domains in a metaphor introduces the possibility of a general evaluation of truth and falsity of all kinds of metaphorical constructs, while the work of Matte Blanco enables us to classify conscious versus unconscious metaphors, both in individuals and in social organizations. PMID:22347988

  1. Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

  2. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  3. Motor Intentionality and the Case of Schneider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Thybo

    2009-01-01

    I argue that Merleau-Ponty’s use of the case of Schneider in his arguments for the existence of non-conconceptual and non-representational motor intentionality contains a problematic methodological ambiguity. Motor intentionality is both to be revealed by its perspicuous preservation and by its...

  4. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

  5. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, G. N.; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of...

  6. On the Bilateral Transfer to the Learning Effects of Motor Skills with Table Tennis Skill Learning as an Example%两侧性迁移对运动技能学习效果的研究--以乒乓球推挡球技能学习为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯向阳

    2014-01-01

    为了进一步了解非优势侧肢体(左上肢)的技能练习对优势侧肢体(右上肢)的技能学习效果的影响,通过文献资料法、实验法、数理统计法等研究方法对普通大学生进行两侧迁移对乒乓球推挡球技术学习效果影响的实验。结果显示,非优势侧肢体的优先有效练习比优势侧肢体更能促进其技能的有效掌握,运动效应也会有更明显的体现,如肌肉力量素质的增长更明显。经过一段时间的训练学习,非优势侧肢体可以取得与优势侧肢体一样的运动效能。在乒乓球推挡球技能教学中不应忽视非优势侧肢体,应全面综合协调两侧肢体,共同提高动作技能的学习效果。%In order to further understand the effect of the non dominant side (left upper limb)skill practice on the dominant side (right upper limb)in skill learning,we have carried out an experiment on ordinary college students’skill learning effect in the bilateral transfer to the table tennis driving and blocking skills through literature,experiment,mathematical statistics,etc.The result shows that the prior effective practice of non dominant side is more effective in helping mastering the skill than the dominant side and the sports effect is also more obvious,for example,the increase of muscle forces is more apparent.After a period of training,sports performance of non dominant side can achieve the same effect as the dominant side.In the teaching of table tennis driving and blocking skills,we cannot neglect the non dominant side but coordinate completely and comprehensively the limbs of the two sides,so as to totally improve the learning effect of the motor skills.

  7. Music perception and cognition following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, M J; Bharucha, J J; Musiek, F E

    1990-01-01

    We present experimental and anatomical data from a case study of impaired auditory perception following bilateral hemispheric strokes. To consider the cortical representation of sensory, perceptual, and cognitive functions mediating tonal information processing in music, pure tone sensation thresholds, spectral intonation judgments, and the associative priming of spectral intonation judgments by harmonic context were examined, and lesion localization was analyzed quantitatively using straight-line two-dimensional maps of the cortical surface reconstructed from magnetic resonance images. Despite normal pure tone sensation thresholds at 250-8000 Hz, the perception of tonal spectra was severely impaired, such that harmonic structures (major triads) were almost uniformly judged to sound dissonant; yet, the associative priming of spectral intonation judgments by harmonic context was preserved, indicating that cognitive representations of tonal hierarchies in music remained intact and accessible. Brainprints demonstrated complete bilateral lesions of the transverse gyri of Heschl and partial lesions of the right and left superior temporal gyri involving 98 and 20% of their surface areas, respectively. In the right hemisphere, there was partial sparing of the planum temporale, temporoparietal junction, and inferior parietal cortex. In the left hemisphere, all of the superior temporal region anterior to the transverse gyrus and parts of the planum temporale, temporoparietal junction, inferior parietal cortex, and insula were spared. These observations suggest that (1) sensory, perceptual, and cognitive functions mediating tonal information processing in music are neurologically dissociable; (2) complete bilateral lesions of primary auditory cortex combined with partial bilateral lesions of auditory association cortex chronically impair tonal consonance perception; (3) cognitive functions that hierarchically structure pitch information and generate harmonic expectancies

  8. Cerebral potentials preceding unilateral and simultaneous bilateral finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, R; Keller, E; Deecke, L; Kornhuber, H H

    1979-08-01

    Cerebral potentials preceding voluntary bilateral simultaneous finger movements were investigated in 19 right-handed young adult subjects, and were compared with unilateral right-sided finger m n the same experiment. With bilateral movements, the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) was not symmetrical or larger over the dominant hemisphere, but surprisingly, it was larger over the minor hemisphere. The BP averaged -3.66 microV (S.D. 1.96) over the left precentral region and -4.82 microV (S.D. 3.73) over the right precentral region in this condition. The difference was significant at 2P less than 0.01. This difference was pronounced in precentral leads but very small and almost missing in parietal leads. The pre-motion positivity (PMP) was well developed and even larger with bilateral than with unilateral (right-sides) movements. At the vertex it averaged +1.33 microV (S.D.4.16) with bilateral movements and only +0.15 microV (S.D. 1.42) with right-sided unilateral movements (2P less than 0.05). With bilateral movements the PMP could be observed in any record, but with unilateral movements it was missing at the left precentral lead, in accordance with previous publications (Deecke et al. 1969, 1976). The motor potential (MP), measured in a bipolar record from left and right precentral leads, was larger with unilateral (-1.25 microV, S.D. 1.33) than with bilateral movements (-0.36 microV, S.D. 0.92). Onset time differences of the BP preceding unilateral and bilateral movements were very small. However, there was a tendency towards earlier onset with unilateral than with bilateral movements (1031 msec, S.D. 358, as compared with 951 msec, S.D. 305). The averaged EMG revealed differences in movement onset. Muscular contraction tended to be earlier in the right than in the left m. flexor indicis in our right-handed subjects, on the average by 16 msec (S.D. 15). With unilateral right-sided movements, the left m. flexor indicis was not silent but showed an abortive mirror activity

  9. Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer (PSBBC is a rare clinical entity. The reported incidence ranges between 0.3% and 12%. There are several controversial issues regarding PSBBC pertaining to the diagnostic criteria, nomenclature, and management policies. Materials and Methods: Fourteen cases of PSBBC treated between 2001 to 2010 at our institute were retrospectively analysed in regards to demographic data, management and follow up. Results: PSBBC constituted 0.19% of total breast cancer patients at our institute. Age ranged from 28 to 78 years. PSBBC were detected by clinical examination in eight cases and by mammography in six cases. Twelve patients underwent bilateral modified radical mastectomy, one had unilateral mastectomy on one side and breast conservation on the other side and one patient has bilateral breast conservation. Majority of patients belonged to stage 2 and stage 3. All patients were found to have invasive ductal carcinoma. Five cases were ER/PR positive and 8 patients were triple hormone receptor negative. Eight patients received unilateral and six received bilateral adjuvant radiotherapy. Nine patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Median follow up of patients was 15.4 months. Conclusion: PSBBC is a rare event warranting awareness and screening of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral breast cancer. These patients require individualized treatment planning based on the tumor factors of the index lesion. Further multi institutional prospective studies are needed for adequate understanding of management of PSBBC.

  10. Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, N; Lee, K; Yegappan, M

    2007-11-01

    Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 30-year-old man with end-stage renal failure, who sustained this injury, and subsequently had surgical repair of both tendons on separate occasions. He has since regained full range of movement of both knees.

  11. Bilateral familial nevus of Ota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sunali; Uwaydat, Sami H; Phillips, Paul H; Schaefer, G Bradley

    2014-12-01

    Nevus of Ota is a benign congenital melanocytic lesion found most commonly in people of Asian ancestry. It is associated with an increased risk of glaucoma and uveal melanomas. Most cases are sporadic and unilateral. We present the first reported case of a brother and sister with familial, bilateral nevus of Ota.

  12. A Probabilistic Approach to Second Order Variational Inequalities with Bilateral Constraints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mrinal K Ghosh; K S Mallikarjuna Rao

    2003-11-01

    We study a class of second order variational inequalities with bilateral constraints. Under certain conditions we show the existence of a unique viscosity solution of these variational inequalities and give a stochastic representation to this solution. As an application, we study a stochastic game with stopping times and show the existence of a saddle point equilibrium.

  13. Factorizations and Physical Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Revzen, M.; F. C. Khanna(Edmonton, Canada); Mann, A.; Zak, J.

    2005-01-01

    A Hilbert space in M dimensions is shown explicitly to accommodate representations that reflect the prime numbers decomposition of M. Representations that exhibit the factorization of M into two relatively prime numbers: the kq representation (J. Zak, Phys. Today, {\\bf 23} (2), 51 (1970)), and related representations termed $q_{1}q_{2}$ representations (together with their conjugates) are analysed, as well as a representation that exhibits the complete factorization of M. In this latter repre...

  14. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C. Suárez; Mabel C. Ospina; Sandra A. Arias; González, María E

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT) o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicen...

  15. Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Metachronous Aldosteronomas

    OpenAIRE

    Rizek, Philippe; Gorecki, Piotr; Lindenmayer, Aristid; Moktan, Sabita

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Primary aldosteronism affects 5% to 13% of patients with hypertension. Idiopathic bilateral hyperplasia (IHA) and unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) are the most common types of primary aldosteronism. Bilateral APA is a very rare entity with only a few reports in the literature. We present the case of a patient with metachronous bilateral APA treated with metachronous bilateral total and near total adrenalectomy. Case Report: A 66-year-old female was evaluated for hy...

  16. Motor neglect.

    OpenAIRE

    Laplane, D.; Degos, J D

    1983-01-01

    Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection...

  17. Motor learning by observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Gribble, Paul L

    2005-04-01

    Learning complex motor behaviors like riding a bicycle or swinging a golf club is based on acquiring neural representations of the mechanical requirements of movement (e.g., coordinating muscle forces to control the club). Here we provide evidence that mechanisms matching observation and action facilitate motor learning. Subjects who observed a video depicting another person learning to reach in a novel mechanical environment (imposed by a robot arm) performed better when later tested in the same environment than subjects who observed similar movements but no learning; moreover, subjects who observed learning of a different environment performed worse. We show that this effect is not based on conscious strategies but instead depends on the implicit engagement of neural systems for movement planning and control. PMID:15820701

  18. Simultaneous and staged bilateral total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Joergensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral total hip arthroplasty (BTHA) and bilateral simultaneous total hip arthroplasty (BSTHA) are done increasingly. Previous studies evaluating outcomes after bilateral procedures have found different results. The aim of this study was to investigate length of hospital stay (LOS), 30 days...

  19. Bilateral Lhermitte-Duclos disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozbuga Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD is a pathologic entity with progrediating, diffuse hypertrophy chiefly of the stratum granulosum of the cerebellum. Typically LDD is a unilateral lesion of the cerebellum or in vermis. Here we report a case of LDD with bilateral lesions of cerebellar hemispheres managed surgically. A 28-year-old woman presented with one-year history of progressive headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision. Neurologic examination revealed a bilateral mild papilledema, mild dysmetria, and dysdiadochokinesia. The cerebellar lesions caused moderate mass effect in posterior fossa with hydrocephalus, and Chiari type I malformation. We performed the suboccipital-retrosigmoid approach, and removed completely the left intracerebellar mass. Symptoms related to elevated intracranial pressure disappeared in a short period postoperatively.

  20. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  1. Bilateral Molariform Mandibular Second Premolars

    OpenAIRE

    Sonu Acharya; Pradip Kumar Mandal; Chiranjit Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side ...

  2. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  3. Bilateral theta-burst TMS to influence global gestalt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzinger, Bernd; Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    While early and higher visual areas along the ventral visual pathway in the inferotemporal cortex are critical for the recognition of individual objects, the neural representation of human perception of complex global visual scenes remains under debate. Stroke patients with a selective deficit in the perception of a complex global Gestalt with intact recognition of individual objects - a deficit termed simultanagnosia - greatly helped to study this question. Interestingly, simultanagnosia typically results from bilateral lesions of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). The present study aimed to verify the relevance of this area for human global Gestalt perception. We applied continuous theta-burst TMS either unilaterally (left or right) or bilateral simultaneously over TPJ. Healthy subjects were presented with hierarchically organized visual stimuli that allowed parametrical degrading of the object at the global level. Identification of the global Gestalt was significantly modulated only for the bilateral TPJ stimulation condition. Our results strengthen the view that global Gestalt perception in the human brain involves TPJ and is co-dependent on both hemispheres.

  4. Bilateral theta-burst TMS to influence global gestalt perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Ritzinger

    Full Text Available While early and higher visual areas along the ventral visual pathway in the inferotemporal cortex are critical for the recognition of individual objects, the neural representation of human perception of complex global visual scenes remains under debate. Stroke patients with a selective deficit in the perception of a complex global Gestalt with intact recognition of individual objects - a deficit termed simultanagnosia - greatly helped to study this question. Interestingly, simultanagnosia typically results from bilateral lesions of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ. The present study aimed to verify the relevance of this area for human global Gestalt perception. We applied continuous theta-burst TMS either unilaterally (left or right or bilateral simultaneously over TPJ. Healthy subjects were presented with hierarchically organized visual stimuli that allowed parametrical degrading of the object at the global level. Identification of the global Gestalt was significantly modulated only for the bilateral TPJ stimulation condition. Our results strengthen the view that global Gestalt perception in the human brain involves TPJ and is co-dependent on both hemispheres.

  5. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  6. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  7. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  8. Developing Bilateral and Spatial Concepts in Primary School-aged Children: An Empirical Evaluation of the Anker Bilateral Spatial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Richmond PhD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual-spatial and visual-motor perceptual difficulties contribute to school-aged learning problems. Hence, a need exists to address children’s visual-spatial and visual-motor perceptual difficulties as early as possible in the child’s school career. Thus, this study reports on the evaluation of the Anker Bilateral Spatial System’s (ABSS effectiveness in remediating primary school children’s perceptual difficulties. Method: Thirty-one children (17 boys and 14 girls aged 6 to 12 years who had been identified by their classroom teacher as having observable visual-spatial and visual-motor perceptual difficulties participated in a 10-week pre/posttest intervention study. The study’s pre/posttest assessments included the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI, the Spatial Awareness Skills Program Test (SASP, and two subscales of the School Function Assessment (SFA. Results: Paired t-test statistics were calculated on the pre/post intervention scores. Paired t-test statistics calculated (p = .05 that significant change had occurred in the writing speed (t = -3.978, p < .001. Conclusion: Given that the study’s Year 1 students made progress in more areas of remediation than did any other year level, it is evident that the ABSS is particularly effective with this year group.

  9. The direction of bilateral transfer depends on the performance parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhujun; van Gemmert, Arend W A

    2013-10-01

    To acquire a more comprehensive understanding of the learning benefits associated with bilateral transfer and to gain knowledge of possible mechanisms behind bilateral transfer, we investigated the transfer direction of several parameters which are assumed to represent important features of movement control in a visuo-motor task. During the study, participants learned a multidirectional point-to-point drawing task in which the visual feedback was rotated 45° and the gain was increased. Performance changes of the untrained hand in movement time, trajectory length, normalized jerk, initial direction error, ratio of the primary sub-movement time to the total movement time, and the accuracy of the aiming movement after the primary sub-movement were investigated as indices of learning from bilateral transfer. The results showed that performance parameters related to the initial production of the movement, such as the initial direction, ratio of primary sub-movement to the total movement time, and movement accuracy after the primary sub-movement, only transferred to the non-dominant, while hand performance variables related to the overall outcome, such as movement duration, movement smoothness, and trajectory length, transferred in both directions. The findings of the current study support the basic principle of the "dynamic dominance model" because it is suggested that overall improvements in the non-dominant system are controlled by trajectory parameters in visuo-motor tasks, which resulted in transference of the afore mentioned production parameters to rather occur to the non-dominant hand as opposed to transference to the dominant hand.

  10. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajkta A Thete

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm and conservative or radical renal surgery

  11. Bilateral molariform mandibular second premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sonu; Kumar Mandal, Pradip; Ghosh, Chiranjit

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side and erupted macrodontic premolar on the other side and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, and molariform crowns and tapering, single roots. PMID:25685564

  12. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  13. Conceptual knowledge representation: A cross-section of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T; Wolmetz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    How is conceptual knowledge encoded in the brain? This special issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology takes stock of current efforts to answer this question through a variety of methods and perspectives. Across this work, three questions recur, each fundamental to knowledge representation in the mind and brain. First, what are the elements of conceptual representation? Second, to what extent are conceptual representations embodied in sensory and motor systems? Third, how are conceptual representations shaped by context, especially linguistic context? In this introductory article we provide relevant background on these themes and introduce how they are addressed by our contributing authors. PMID:27454108

  14. Error Sonification of a Complex Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riener Robert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual information is mainly used to master complex motor tasks. Thus, additional information providing augmented feedback should be displayed in other modalities than vision, e.g. hearing. The present work evaluated the potential of error sonification to enhance learning of a rowing-type motor task. In contrast to a control group receiving self-controlled terminal feedback, the experimental group could not significantly reduce spatial errors. Thus, motor learning was not enhanced by error sonification, although during the training the participant could benefit from it. It seems that the motor task was too slow, resulting in immediate corrections of the movement rather than in an internal representation of the general characteristics of the motor task. Therefore, further studies should elaborate the impact of error sonification when general characteristics of the motor tasks are already known.

  15. Bilateral ureteropelvic disruption following blunt abdominal trauma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureteral injury occurs in less than 1% of blunt abdominal trauma cases, partly because the ureters are relatively well protected in the retroperitoneum. Bilateral ureteral injury is extremely rare, with only 10 previously reported cases. Diagnosis may be delayed if ureteric injury is not suspected, and delay of 36 hours or longer has been observed in more than 50% of patients with ureteric injury following abdominal trauma, leading to increased morbidity. Case presentation A 29-year-old man was involved in a highway motor vehicle collision and was ejected from the front passenger seat even though wearing a seatbelt. He was in a preshock state at the scene of the accident. An intravenous line and left thoracic drain were inserted, and he was transported to our hospital by helicopter. Whole-body, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scan showed left diaphragmatic disruption, splenic injury, and a grade I injury to the left kidney with a retroperitoneal haematoma. He underwent emergency laparotomy. The left diaphragmatic and splenic injuries were repaired. Although a retroperitoneal haematoma was observed, his renal injury was treated conservatively because the haematoma was not expanding. In the intensive care unit, the patient's haemodynamic state was stable, but there was no urinary output for 9 hours after surgery. Anuresis prompted a review of the abdominal x-ray which had been performed after the contrast-enhanced CT. Leakage of contrast material from the ureteropelvic junctions was detected, and review of the repeat CT scan revealed contrast retention in the perirenal retroperitoneum bilaterally. He underwent cystoscopy and bilateral retrograde pyelography, which showed bilateral complete ureteral disruption, preventing placement of ureteral stents. Diagnostic laparotomy revealed complete disruption of the ureteropelvic junctions bilaterally. Double-J ureteral stents were placed bilaterally and ureteropelvic

  16. Bilateral Monteggia fracture in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 1814 Giovanni Monteggia first described two cases of fractures of the proximal third of ulna with dislocation of the radial head. These fractures are more common in children than in adults, and mutual Monteggia fracture is a rare complication. This study presents a treatment course of a patient with bilateral Monteggia fracture. Case report. A 55- year-old patient was injured by falling in the yard. Radiography showed bilateral Monteggia fracture type II (by the Badon classification. Operative treatment of fracture was done by a compression plate on the right side and by the zuggurtung technique on the left one. Closed repositioning of the radial head was done on both sides. The patient was wearing a plaster splint for the upper arm for 21 days. After removing the fixation, the function of the elbow was determined by the Broberg Morrey score (BM which was on the right side 45.5 and on the left side 47.5. After the proper physical therapy, four months after the surgery, BM score was 100 on the right side, and 93 on the left one. Conclusion. Surgical treatment and early rehabilitation is the key for the return of good function of both elbows.

  17. [Simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, A; Caminiti, F; Tosato, F; Ruggieri, M; Paolini, G; Carnevale, L; Corsini, F; Marano, S; Monsellato, I

    2001-04-01

    A case report of a 44 year-old white man admitted to the surgical unit for a bilateral simultaneous pneumothorax is presented. The pneumothorax occurred on day one after a surgical operation for discal hernia; in the past the patient already presented a right spontaneous pneumothorax at 32 years of age and a left pneumothorax at 37 years of age, both treated with a pleural drainage. A thoracic drain was bilaterally positioned with a good result only in the right side. The persistence of the left pneumothorax induced the authors to perform a postero-lateral thoracotomy bullae excision and pleurectomy with a good postoperative course. After a few months a new right pneumothorax occurred and the patient was treated with a right postero-lateral thoracotomy, bullae resection and pleurectomy. On the basis of the case reported, the authors consider the different opportunities in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to the present knowledges and technologies. Surgical procedure is to be preferred in case of persistence of pneumothorax despite a pleural drain and in case of pneumothorax in high risk subjects. Even if thoracoscopy seems to give better results regarding postoperative pain, it is not always possible with such a method to perform a careful pleurectomy neither to obtain it in all cases (above all in secondary pneumothorax). Every case must then be carefully studied to choose the best treatment at present available. PMID:11353349

  18. Danish Exports and Danish Bilateral Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    Danish bilateral development assistance is aimed at reducing poverty in the partner countries. Even so, bilateral assistance may have secondary, or knock-on, effects, which are beneficial for Denmark. An important secondary effect is the prospect of increased export from Denmark to the partner...... countries. This Evaluation Study presents an econometric analysis of Danish exports to 144 countries over the period from 1981 to 2010. The analysis is based on the gravity model of bilateral trade; a structural model developed over decades and now the central model in analyses of bilateral trade flows...... and trade policies. The main result of the study is that Danish bilateral aid has a positive and statistically significant impact on Danish exports to the recipient countries. Bilateral development assistance may affect exports through several channels. Three of the main channels are direct aid tying...

  19. New Curious Bilateral q-Series Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Jouhet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By applying a classical method, already employed by Cauchy, to a terminating curious summation by one of the authors, a new curious bilateral q-series identity is derived. We also apply the same method to a quadratic summation by Gessel and Stanton, and to a cubic summation by Gasper, respectively, to derive a bilateral quadratic and a bilateral cubic summation formula.

  20. Robotic unilateral and bilateral upper-limb movement training for stroke survivors afflicted by chronic hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Matt; Kim, Hyuchul; Abrams, Gary; Byl, Nancy; Rosen, Jacob

    2013-06-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of long-term neurological disability and the principle reason for seeking rehabilitative services in the US. Learning based rehabilitation training enables independent mobility in the majority of patients post stroke, however, restoration of fine manipulation, motor function and task specific functions of the hemiplegic arm and hand is noted in fewer than 15% of the stroke patients. Brain plasticity is the innate mechanism enabling the recovery of motor skills through neurological reorganization of the brain as a response to limbs' manipulation. The objective of this research was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy for the upper limbs with a dual arm exoskeleton system (EXO-UL7) using three different modalities: bilateral mirror image with symmetric movements of both arms, unilateral movement of the affected arm and standard care. Five hemiparetic subjects were randomly assigned to each therapy modality. An upper limb exoskeleton was used to provide bilateral and unilateral treatments. Standard care was provided by a licensed physical therapist. Subjects were evaluated before and after the interventions using 13 different clinical measures. Following these treatments all of the subjects demonstrated significant improved of their fine motor control and gross control across all the treatment modalities. Subjects exhibited significant improvements in range of motion of the shoulder, and improved muscle strength for bilateral training and standard care, but not for unilateral training. In conclusion, a synergetic approach in which robotic treatments (unilateral and bilateral depending on the level of the motor control) are supplemented by the standard of care may maximize the outcome of the motor control recover following stroke. PMID:24187321

  1. Bilateral brain abnormalities associated with dominantly inherited verbal and orofacial dyspraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Emma; Salmond, Claire H; Watkins, Kate E; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David G

    2003-03-01

    The KE family is a large three-generational pedigree in which half of the members suffer from a verbal and orofacial dyspraxia in association with a point mutation in the FOXP2 gene. This report extends previous voxel-based morphometric analyses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (Watkins et al. [2002] Brain 125:465-478) using a bilateral conjunction analysis. This searches specifically for areas of grey matter density that differ bilaterally in the affected members compared with both matched controls and the unaffected family members. 3-D T1-weighted MRI datasets of 17 family members (10 affected, 7 unaffected) and matched controls were compared. The most significant findings were reduced grey matter density bilaterally in the caudate nucleus, the cerebellum, and the left and right inferior frontal gyrus in the affected members. In addition, increased grey matter density was found bilaterally in the planum temporale. These results confirm that a point mutation in FOXP2 is associated with several bilateral grey matter abnormalities in both motor and language related regions. The results also demonstrate the advantages of using a conjunction analysis when bilateral abnormalities are suspected. PMID:12599277

  2. Bilateral Clavicle Fracture in Two Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Arun Ozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fracture of clavicle is the most frequently observed bone fracture as birth trauma and it is usually unilateral. It is seen following shoulder dystocia deliveries or breech presentation of macrosomic newborns.Case Presentation: We report two macrosomic newborns with bilateral clavicle fracture and brachial plexus palsy due to birth trauma. Chest X-rays confirmed bilateral fracture of clavicles. Both patients were recovered without any sequel.Conclusion: Bilateral clavicular fracture should be considered in any neonate with bilateral absent Moro reflexes.

  3. [Role of different projection areas of the motor cortex in reorganization of the innate head-forelimb coordination in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, O G; Mats, V N

    2005-01-01

    Dogs were trained to perform the forelimb tonic flexion in order to lift a cup with meat from a bottom of the foodwell and hold it during eating with the head bent down to the cup. It is known that conditioning of the instrumental reaction is based on reorganization of the innate head-forelimb coordination into the opposite one. In untrained dogs, the forelimb flexion is accompanied by the anticipatory lifting of the head bent down to the foodwell. The following lowering of the head leads to an extension of the flexed forelimb. Tonic forelimb flexion is possible if the head is in the up position. Simultaneous holding of the flexed forelimb and lowered head providing food reinforcement is achieved only by learning. It was shown earlier that the lesion of the motor cortex contralateral to the "working" forelimb led to a prolonged disturbance of the elaborated coordination and reappearance of the innate coordination. In the present work we studied the influence of local lesions of the projection areas in the motor cortex, such as a "working" forelimb area, bilateral representation of the neck, and the medial part of the motor cortex, on the learned instrumental feeding reaction. It was found that only the lesion of the forelimb but not neck projection led to a disturbance of the learned head-forelimb movement coordination. PMID:16396488

  4. Learning Deep Face Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Haoqiang; Cao, Zhimin; Jiang, Yuning; Yin, Qi; Doudou, Chinchilla

    2014-01-01

    Face representation is a crucial step of face recognition systems. An optimal face representation should be discriminative, robust, compact, and very easy-to-implement. While numerous hand-crafted and learning-based representations have been proposed, considerable room for improvement is still present. In this paper, we present a very easy-to-implement deep learning framework for face representation. Our method bases on a new structure of deep network (called Pyramid CNN). The proposed Pyrami...

  5. Bilateral metachronous breast cancer with bilateral recurrences: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The incidence of bilateral breast cancer has been reported to range from 0.4% to 14%, and it increases gradually as a result of improved early detection capabilities and longer survival times. We report a rare case where the bilateral breast cancers occurred as a metachronous bilateral breast cancer with bilateral recurrences, detected by mammography, and the rapid growth of tumor that manifested as microcalcification and skin thickening within 3 months.

  6. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin Gulbahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  7. Bilateral fracture in atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana SIGNORINI

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the elderly population in Brazil has brought a higher number of patients of this age level for dental treatment in several areas of dentistry.Elderly patients are exposed to many kinds of aggressor agents, such as falling down and accidents that cause maxillofacial fractures, which require the specialized assistance of a maxillofacial surgeon. The elderly present a differentiated condition involving systemic changes and use of several drugs that must be taken into consideration when planning the therapeutics ofeach case. The treatment of facial trauma must aim fast recovery along with minimal morbidity. The authors present a case of mandible bilateral fracture in edentulous elderly patient with severe atrophy, treated with titanium plate and screws osteosynthesis. The healing period was satisfactory, without postoperative complications in 18 months follow up.

  8. Marfan's syndrome presenting as bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax.

    OpenAIRE

    Gawkrodger, D J

    1981-01-01

    A case of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in a 14-year-old girl with previously undiagnosed Marfan's syndrome is described. The pulmonary abnormalities of Marfan's syndrome are not commonly encountered and bilateral pneumothorax is itself a rare event which, in most instances, has been reported following invasive procedures.

  9. Bilateral failure of adduction following orbital decompression.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsella, F; Kyle, P.; Stansfield, A

    1990-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral complete failure of adduction following bilateral translid antralethmoidal orbital decompression. We believe the probable mechanism is neuropraxia (temporary dysfunction) of the third cranial nerves' supply to the medial recti, owing to these nerves' occupying an anatomically abnormal position. Partial recovery of adduction occurred over the ensuing six months.

  10. Secondary polycythaemia associated with bilateral renal lymphocoeles.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, I E; Sambrook, P.; McWilliam, L J

    1994-01-01

    A patient with a 15 year history of secondary polycythaemia due to renal erythropoietin hypersecretion is presented. Subsequent spontaneous development of bilateral renal lymphocoeles, which contained high erythropoietin levels, was shown by computerized tomography. The lymphocoeles were successfully treated by bilateral peritoneal marsupialization. No cause for the persistent polycythaemia or lymphocoeles was found at laparotomy or on renal biopsy.

  11. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin.

  12. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  13. Bilateral breast involvement in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakeem A, Mandakini BT, Asif K, Firdaus, Shagufta RC

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast involvement by leukemic infiltration is usually bilateral, but may be unilateral. Clinically patients can present with either single or multiple masses, or with diffuse breast engorgement, with or without nodularity. The affected patients are predominantly young adults. We present a case of an adolescent girl with acute myeloid leukemia having bilateral breast infiltration by leukemic cells.

  14. Concurrent bilateral ectopic pregnancy: a rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhleen Kaur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare twin gestation with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report a 30 year old woman without any high risk factor for ectopic pregnancy, who had concurrent bilateral ectopic pregnancy. A 30 year old female presented to the Gynecology emergency department complaining of vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. The presumptive diagnosis of ruptured left sided ectopic pregnancy was made on basis of clinical findings and ultrasound finings. An emergency laparotomy was done revealed a hemoperitoneum of 1.5 liters, a ruptured left tubal pregnancy with active bleeding and right tubal un-ruptured ectopic was found. A bilateral salpingectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed presence of chorionic villi in both tubes. In theory, laparoscopic salpingostomy is the best surgical approach in bilateral tubal pregnancy. However, bilateral salpingectomy may be necessary when both tubes are extensively damaged or are actively bleeding. Successful pregnancies have been reported after conservative surgical treatment of bilateral ectopic, but the risk of recurrence is high. Our decision for an emergency laparotomy followed by bilateral salpingectomy was based on the fact that the patient presented with acute abdomen and was haemodynamically unstable and there was extensive bilateral tubal damage. As the incidence of ectopic pregnancies is increasing concurrently with the incidences of pelvic inflammatory disease and use of assisted fertility techniques; it may be that these and ldquo;rare ectopics and rdquo; will become less uncommon. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1197-1199

  15. Acral osteolysis in bilateral compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Saeed

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common neurological condition with rare yet potentially serious cutaneous and skeletal complications. We present a case of mutilating/ulcerating bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a 63 year old female. Radiographs showed symmetrical acral osteolysis in the index and middle fingers distal phalanges bilaterally. Carpal tunnel decompressions provided symptomatic relief.

  16. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin. PMID:22561379

  17. The Guided Bilateral Filter: When the Joint/Cross Bilateral Filter Becomes Robust

    OpenAIRE

    Caraffa, Laurent; Tarel, Jean Philippe; Charbonnier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The bilateral filter and its variants such as the Joint/Cross bilateral filter are well known edge-preserving image smoothing tools used in many applications. The reason of this success is its simple definition and the possibility of many adaptations. The bilateral filter is known to be related to robust estimation. This link is lost by the ad hoc introduction of the guide image in the Joint/Cross bilateral filter. We here propose a new way to derive the Joint/Cross bilateral filter as a part...

  18. Motor and mental training in older people: Transfer, interference, and associated functional neural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraxbekk, C J; Hagkvist, Filip; Lindner, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Learning new motor skills may become more difficult with advanced age. In the present study, we randomized 56 older individuals, including 30 women (mean age 70.6 years), to 6 weeks of motor training, mental (motor imagery) training, or a combination of motor and mental training of a finger tapping sequence. Performance improvements and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to investigate performance gains and associated underlying neural processes. Motor-only training and a combination of motor and mental training improved performance in the trained task more than mental-only training. The fMRI data showed that motor training was associated with a representation in the premotor cortex and mental training with a representation in the secondary visual cortex. Combining motor and mental training resulted in both premotor and visual cortex representations. During fMRI scanning, reduced performance was observed in the combined motor and mental training group, possibly indicating interference between the two training methods. We concluded that motor and motor imagery training in older individuals is associated with different functional brain responses. Furthermore, adding mental training to motor training did not result in additional performance gains compared to motor-only training and combining training methods may result in interference between representations, reducing performance. PMID:27450266

  19. Bilateral sensory deprivation of trigeminal afferent fibers on corticomotor control of human tongue musculature: A preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Svensson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    nerve affects the excitability of the tongue motor cortex (MI) as measured by TMS. Methods: The effect on MEPs after bilateral LA of the lingual nerve was studied, while the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle served as a control in ten healthy participants. MEPs were measured on the right side...... of the tongue dorsum in four different conditions: (1) immediately prior to anaesthesia (baseline), (2) during bilateral LA block of the lingual nerve, (3) after anaesthesia had subjectively subsided (recovery) and (4) 3 hrs after bilateral lingual block injection. MEPs were assessed using stimulus......–response curves in steps of 10% of motor threshold (T). Eight stimuli were given at each stimulus level. Results: The amplitudes of the tongue MEPs were significantly influenced by the stimulus intensity (P

  20. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  1. Motor Magnates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABEL DING

    2008-01-01

    @@ The automotive industry is often seen as a man's world. Wang Fengying (王风英) begs to differ. The 38-year-old has presided over Great Wall Motors (长城汽车), the leading pick-up truck and Sport Utility Vehicle(SUV) manufacturer in China for the past five years.

  2. Motor radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Afsha; Camilleri, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    A 48-year-old immunosuppressed woman presented to a rheumatology follow-up clinic after suffering from herpes zoster infection. She had manifestations of foot drop 3 months after the initial infection. She was diagnosed with motor radiculopathy following herpes zoster infection that was effectively managed by physiotherapy and amitriptyline.

  3. Hand Specific Representations in Language Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMoody-Triantis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences - a dominant hand effect -. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

  4. Design and Development of a Bilateral Therapeutic Hand Device for Stroke Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Akhlaquor Rahman; Adel Al-Jumaily

    2013-01-01

    The major cause of disability is stroke. It is the second highest cause of death after coronary heart disease in Australia. In this paper, a post stroke therapeutic device has been designed and developed for hand motor function rehabilitation that a stroke survivor can use for bilateral movement practice. A prototype of the device was fabricated that can fully flex and extend metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the fingers, and ...

  5. Motor imagery development in primary school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caeyenberghs, K.; Tsoupas, J.; Wilson, P.H.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Motor imagery provides a unique window on the integrity of movement representation. How this ability unfolds during development remains unknown, however. It was the aim of this cross-sectional study to chart the development of movement imagery over childhood using validated measures, and to examine

  6. Bilateral panophthalmitis in dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral panophthalmitis as the initial ocular manifestation of dengue fever. The diagnosis was a little confusing as he initially presented with features suggestive of retrobulbar hemorrhage secondary to his very low platelet count, which is a common feature of dengue fever. Ophthalmic complications are usually seen in young adults who often present at the nadir of thrombocytopenia. Ocular findings may include anterior uveitis, vitritis, retinal hemorrhages, retinal vascular sheathing, yellow subretinal dots, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling, foveolitis that is clinically seen as a round subretinal yellowish lesion at the fovea, retinochoroiditis, choroidal effusion, optic disc swelling, optic neuritis, neuroretinitis, and oculomotor nerve palsy. [1] There is only one reported case of unilateral endogenous panophthalmitis due to dengue fever. Hence, clinicians and ophthalmologists have to be aware of this vision-threatening complication of dengue for early recognition and prompt treatment to save the vision of these young patients and prevent morbidity.

  7. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  8. [True hermaphroditism with bilateral ovotestis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güitrón, A; Forsbach, G; González, J M; Garza, J G; Vázquez, J; Espinoza, G

    1998-01-01

    A nineteen years old woman with ambiguous external genitalia was studied. This condition had been previously identified as a newborn, but her parents refused medical attention and it was reared as a girl. At 12-years, she began spontaneous mammary development, appearing pubic and axillary hair, and clitoral enlargement. The menarche occurred at 15-years and it was followed by irregular periods. Physical examination, showed absence of hirsutism and acne, normal mammary development equivalent to grade V of Tanner. The external genitalia showed fused labio-scrotal folds with an small introitus. The urethral meatus was absent and was later located inside the introitus. There was a big phallus similar to an adult penis with a normal glans, flexed by a chordee. Hormonal determinations discarded congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The karyotype was 46,XX and testosterone levels were in adult male range. Pelvic ultrasonography disclosed a normal uterus and both gonads in confirmed by laparoscopy identifying bilateral ovotestis. Testicular tissue was removed and plastic reconstruction of female genitals was done. PMID:9528217

  9. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  10. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Zampetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70% makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres.

  11. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was treated with heparin prior to starting warfarin. He made a partial recovery and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. This case is a reminder of carotid dissection as an uncommon but serious complication of high speed motor vehicle accident, which may be silent initially. Literature Review suggests risk stratification before relevant radiological screening at risk patients. Significant advances in CTA have made it the diagnostic tool of choice, but ultrasound is an important screening tool.

  12. Bilateral upper-limb rehabilitation after stroke using a movement-based game controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha M. Hijmans, PhD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a bilateral, self-supported, upper-limb rehabilitation intervention using a movement-based game controller for people with chronic stroke. Fourteen participants received a control treatment, followed by a washout period, and then the intervention. The intervention comprised playing computer games with the CyWee Z (CyWee Group Ltd; Taipei, Taiwan, a movement-based game controller similar to the Nintendo Wii remote. The CyWee Z was incorporated into a handlebar, making bilateral exercises possible by allowing the unaffected side to support and assist the affected side. The intervention lasted for 8 to 10 sessions of 45 to 60 minutes over a period of 2.5 weeks. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment upper-limb section (FMA-UL was used as the primary outcome. The Wolf Motor Function Test and the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand outcome measure were used as secondary outcomes. Postintervention, motor performance as measured by the FMA-UL was significantly improved compared with all preintervention assessments (p < 0.001, whereas no changes were found on both secondary outcomes. It can be concluded from this pilot study that upper-limb motor performance of adults with chronic stroke improves with repetitive, game-assisted, self-supported bilateral exercises.

  13. Advanced Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, “Motors and Generators for the 21st Century”. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to

  14. Deep networks for motor control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eBerniker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The motor system generates time-varying commands to move our limbs and body. Conventional descriptions of motor control and learning rely on dynamical representations of our body’s state (forward and inverse models, and control policies that must be integrated forward to generate feedforward time-varying commands; thus these are representations across space, but not time. Here we examine a new approach that directly represents both time-varying commands and the resulting state trajectories with a function; a representation across space and time. Since the output of this function includes time, it necessarily requires more parameters than a typical dynamical model. To avoid the problems of local minima these extra parameters introduce, we exploit recent advances in machine learning to build our function using a stacked autoencoder, or deep network. With initial and target states as inputs, this deep network can be trained to output an accurate temporal profile of the optimal command and state trajectory for a point-to-point reach of a nonlinear limb model, even when influenced by varying force fields. In a manner that mirrors motor babble, the network can also teach itself to learn through trial and error. Lastly, we demonstrate how this network can learn to optimize a cost objective. This functional approach to motor control is a sharp departure from the standard dynamical approach, and may offer new insights into the neural implementation of motor control.

  15. Deep networks for motor control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berniker, Max; Kording, Konrad P

    2015-01-01

    The motor system generates time-varying commands to move our limbs and body. Conventional descriptions of motor control and learning rely on dynamical representations of our body's state (forward and inverse models), and control policies that must be integrated forward to generate feedforward time-varying commands; thus these are representations across space, but not time. Here we examine a new approach that directly represents both time-varying commands and the resulting state trajectories with a function; a representation across space and time. Since the output of this function includes time, it necessarily requires more parameters than a typical dynamical model. To avoid the problems of local minima these extra parameters introduce, we exploit recent advances in machine learning to build our function using a stacked autoencoder, or deep network. With initial and target states as inputs, this deep network can be trained to output an accurate temporal profile of the optimal command and state trajectory for a point-to-point reach of a non-linear limb model, even when influenced by varying force fields. In a manner that mirrors motor babble, the network can also teach itself to learn through trial and error. Lastly, we demonstrate how this network can learn to optimize a cost objective. This functional approach to motor control is a sharp departure from the standard dynamical approach, and may offer new insights into the neural implementation of motor control. PMID:25852530

  16. Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma and on exploration it turned out to be rarest extra peritoneal bilateral Petit’s trianglehernia, fat as contents.

  17. Instrument specific brain activation in sensorimotor and auditory representation in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, B; Braun, Ch; Kaza, E; Altenmüller, E; Lotze, M

    2013-07-01

    Musicians show a remarkable ability to interconnect motor patterns and sensory processing in the somatosensory and auditory domains. Many of these processes are specific for the instrument used. We were interested in the cerebral and cerebellar representations of these instrument-specific changes and therefore applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in two groups of instrumentalists with different instrumental training for comparable periods (approximately 15 years). The first group (trumpet players) uses tight finger and lip interaction; the second (pianists as control group) uses only the extremities for performance. fMRI tasks were balanced for instructions (piano and trumpet notes), sensory feedback (keypad and trumpet), and hand-lip interaction on the trumpet. During fMRI, both groups switched between different devices (trumpet or keypad) and performance was combined with or without auditory feedback. Playing the trumpet without any tone emission or using the mouthpiece showed an instrument training-specific activation increase in trumpet players. This was evident for the posterior-superior cerebellar hemisphere, the dominant primary sensorimotor cortex, and the left Heschl's gyrus. Additionally, trumpet players showed increased activity in the bilateral Heschl's gyrus during actual trumpet playing, although they showed significantly decreased loudness while playing with the mouthpiece in the scanner compared to pianists. PMID:23454048

  18. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  19. Fine Motor Activities Program to Promote Fine Motor Skills in a Case Study of Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersilp, Suchitporn; Putthinoi, Supawadee; Panyo, Kewalin

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down's syndrome have developmental delays, particularly regarding cognitive and motor development. Fine motor skill problems are related to motor development. They have impact on occupational performances in school-age children with Down's syndrome because they relate to participation in school activities, such as grasping, writing, and carrying out self-care duties. This study aimed to develop a fine motor activities program and to examine the efficiency of the program that promoted fine motor skills in a case study of Down's syndrome. The case study subject was an 8 -year-old male called Kai, who had Down's syndrome. He was a first grader in a regular school that provided classrooms for students with special needs. This study used the fine motor activities program with assessment tools, which included 3 subtests of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) that applied to Upper-limb coordination, Fine motor precision and Manual dexterity; as well as the In-hand Manipulation Checklist, and Jamar Hand Dynamometer Grip Test. The fine motor activities program was implemented separately and consisted of 3 sessions of 45 activities per week for 5 weeks, with each session taking 45 minutes. The results showed obvious improvement of fine motor skills, including bilateral hand coordination, hand prehension, manual dexterity, in-hand manipulation, and hand muscle strength. This positive result was an example of a fine motor intervention program designed and developed for therapists and related service providers in choosing activities that enhance fine motor skills in children with Down's syndrome. PMID:27357876

  20. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge. PMID:27294428

  1. Motor Cortex Activity During Functional Motor Skills: An fNIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyori, Ryota; Bisconti, Silvia; Ulrich, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of brain activity during motor task performance have been limited to fine motor movements due to technological constraints presented by traditional neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers a promising method by which to overcome these constraints and investigate motor performance of functional motor tasks. The current study used fNIRS to quantify hemodynamic responses within the primary motor cortex in twelve healthy adults as they performed unimanual right, unimanual left, and bimanual reaching, and stepping in place. Results revealed that during both unimanual reaching tasks, the contralateral hemisphere showed significant activation in channels located approximately 3 cm medial to the C3 (for right-hand reach) and C4 (for left-hand reach) landmarks. Bimanual reaching and stepping showed activation in similar channels, which were located bilaterally across the primary motor cortex. The medial channels, surrounding Cz, showed significantly higher activations during stepping when compared to bimanual reaching. Our results extend the viability of fNIRS to study motor function and build a foundation for future investigation of motor development in infants during nascent functional behaviors and monitor how they may change with age or practice. PMID:26243304

  2. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S BILATERAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The EU is a world economic power and a major trading partner for most countries. All the time, this region has been interested and has acted towards a free and fair trade. The decrease and even the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers in the world trade are among the main objectives of the EU strategy for international trade. At the moment, the elusive outcome of the WTO Doha Round has led to the proliferation of bilateral trade agreements worldwide. Although the EU remains committed to further development of the multilateral trading system, however, the EU still has appealed also to the development of bilateral trade relations. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the current bilateral dimension of the common commercial policy of the EU. In conclusion, to describe this bilateral approach of the EU we are using one word, namely “diversity”.

  3. Bilateral areolar and periareolar pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárdy, Miklós; Korting, Hans Christian; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolff, Hans

    2010-08-01

    An adolescent boy presented with isolated, symmetrical, bilateral areolar and periareolar pityriasis versicolor. This extremely rare condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of light brown patches on the areolae.

  4. FLOWING BILATERAL FILTER: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Moreaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral filter plays a key role in image processing applications due to its intuitive parameterization and its high quality filter result, smoothing homogeneous regions while preserving the edges of the objects. Considering the image as a topological relief, seeing pixel intensities as peaks and valleys, we introduce a way to control the tonal weighting coefficients, the flowing bilateral filter, reducing "halo" artifacts typically produced by the regular bilateral filter around a large peak surrounded by two valleys of lower values. In this paper we propose to investigate exact and approximated versions of CPU and parallel GPU (Graphical Processing Unit based implementations of the regular and flowing bilateral filter using the NVidia CUDA API. Fast implementations of these filters are important for the processing of large 3D volumes up to several GB acquired by x-ray or electron tomography.

  5. An unusual cause of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, A; Kalra, S.; Woodcock, A

    1992-01-01

    In a patient who had a sudden onset of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after forceful neck manipulation complete, though gradual, recovery in lung function and transdiaphragmatic pressures was seen over three years. This is a previously unrecognised risk of neck osteopathy.

  6. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  7. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Geetha; Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V

    2016-04-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  8. Bilateral anophthalmia with septo-optic dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral anophthalmia is a rare entity and association with septo-optic dysplasia is an even rare condition. The condition is characterized by absent eyeballs in the presence of eyelids, conjunctiva or lacrimal apparatus. Though anophthalmia can be diagnosed clinically, imaging plays a crucial role in delineating the associated anomalies. In addition, often clinical anophthalmia may prove to be severe microphthalmia on imaging. We describe the imaging findings in an infant with bilateral anophthalmia and septo-optic dysplasia.

  9. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  10. Bilateral Keratectasia 34 Years after Corneal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Valldeperas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 µm in the right eye and of 710 µm in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 µm in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus.

  11. Speed controller for an alternating - current motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controller for a multi-phase ac motor that is subject to a large inertial load, e.g. an induction motor driving a heavy spinning rotor of a neutron chopper that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal Esub(L) having a meandering line frequency, includes a sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor which is compared (by counting clock pulses between feedback pulses) with a reference clock signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal Esub(c). The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error signal, a phase error signal, and a drift error signal, the magnitudes of which are recalculated and updated with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is constant for large speed errors but highly sensitive to small speed errors. The stator windings of the motor are driven by variable-frequency power amplifiers which are controlled by the motor control signal Esub(c) via PROMs which store digital representations of sine and cosine waveforms in quadrature. (author)

  12. The contribution of postural control and bilateral coordination to the impact of dual tasking on gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Giladi, Nir; Gruendlinger, Leor; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2013-04-01

    The simultaneous performance of a cognitive task while walking typically alters the gait pattern. In some populations, these alterations have been associated with an increased risk of falls, motivating study of this response from the clinical perspective. The mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood. The concurrent requirement to control upright posture and stepping, a bilaterally coordinated rhythmic task, may be the cause of this so-called dual-tasking effect. To evaluate this possibility, the present study was designed to isolate the individual contribution of these two demands by assessing the effects of cognitive loading on standing (i.e., postural control without bilateral coordination of stepping), cycling (i.e., bilateral coordination similar to stepping, but with minimal postural demands), and walking. We also investigated the effects of aging and parkinsonism on the performance of these three tasks in response to cognitive loading, also referred to as a dual task. Twenty-one healthy young adults, 15 healthy older adults, and 18 patients with Parkinson's disease were assessed while walking, standing, and cycling, with and without an additional cognitive load. In the young adults, the performance on the two motor tasks that involved bilateral coordination deteriorated significantly in response to the dual task, while standing was not impacted. Similar results, although less robust, were observed among the healthy older adults. In contrast, among the patients with Parkinson's disease, the dual-task costs, i.e., the impact of the simultaneously performed cognitive task on the gait pattern, were high in all motor tasks. These findings suggest that walking is especially vulnerable to cognitive loading, in part, because of the unique sensitivity of bilateral coordination of limb movements to the effects of dual tasking. PMID:23371748

  13. A Common Representation of Spatial Features Drives Action and Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens H; Christensen, Jeppe Høy; Grünbaum, Thor;

    2014-01-01

    Spatial features of an object can be specified using two different response types: either by use of symbols or motorically by directly acting upon the object. Is this response dichotomy reflected in a dual representation of the visual world: one for perception and one for action? Previously...

  14. Increased bilateral interactions in middle-aged subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien eHeetkamp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the age-related neural reorganization is that old vs. young adults execute typical motor tasks by a more diffuse neural activation pattern including stronger ipsilateral activation during unilateral tasks. Whether such changes in neural activation are present already at middle age and affect bimanual interactions is unknown. We compared the amount of associated activity, i.e., muscle activity and force produced by the non-task hand and motor evoked potentials (MEPs produced by magnetic brain stimulation between young (mean 24 y, n = 10 and middle-aged (mean 50 y, n = 10 subjects during brief unilateral (7 levels of % maximal voluntary contractions, MVC and bilateral contractions (4 x 7 levels of % MVC combinations, and during a 120-s-long MVC of sustained unilateral index finger abduction. During the force production the excitability of the ipsilateral (iM1 or contralateral (cM1 primary motor cortex was assessed. The associated activity in the ‘resting’ hand was ~2-fold higher in middle-aged (28% of MVC vs. young adults (11% of MVC during brief unilateral MVCs. After controlling for background muscle activity, MEPs in iM1 were similar in the two groups during brief unilateral contractions. At low (bilateral forces only, MEPs evoked in cM1 were 30% higher in the middle-aged vs. young adults. At the start of the sustained contraction, the associated activity was higher in the middle-aged vs. young subjects and increased progressively in both groups (30% vs. 15% MVC at 120 s, respectively. MEPs were greater at the start of the sustained contraction in middle-aged subjects but increased further during the contraction only in young adults. Under these experimental conditions, the data provide evidence for the reorganization of neural control of unilateral force production as early as age 50. Future studies will determine if the altered neural control of such inter-manual interactions are of functional significance.

  15. Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament: MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoya, Maria A.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McGraw, Michael H. [Hospitalof theUniversityof Pennsylvania, Divisionof Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare. We describe a 13-year-old girl who presented with bilateral knee pain without history of trauma; she has two family members with knee instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral absence of the ACL, and medial posterior horn meniscal tears. Bilateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed. (orig.)

  16. Why I tense up when you watch me: Inferior parietal cortex mediates an audience's influence on motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Michiko; Nagai, Yoko; Critchley, Hugo D; Harrison, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of an evaluative audience can alter skilled motor performance through changes in force output. To investigate how this is mediated within the brain, we emulated real-time social monitoring of participants' performance of a fine grip task during functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging. We observed an increase in force output during social evaluation that was accompanied by focal reductions in activity within bilateral inferior parietal cortex. Moreover, deactivation of the left inferior parietal cortex predicted both inter- and intra-individual differences in socially-induced change in grip force. Social evaluation also enhanced activation within the posterior superior temporal sulcus, which conveys visual information about others' actions to the inferior parietal cortex. Interestingly, functional connectivity between these two regions was attenuated by social evaluation. Our data suggest that social evaluation can vary force output through the altered engagement of inferior parietal cortex; a region implicated in sensorimotor integration necessary for object manipulation, and a component of the action-observation network which integrates and facilitates performance of observed actions. Social-evaluative situations may induce high-level representational incoherence between one's own intentioned action and the perceived intention of others which, by uncoupling the dynamics of sensorimotor facilitation, could ultimately perturbe motor output. PMID:26787326

  17. Response of SI cortex to ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral flutter stimulation in the cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favorov Oleg

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While SII cortex is considered to be the first cortical stage of the pathway that integrates tactile information arising from both sides of the body, SI cortex is generally not considered as a region in which neuronal response is modulated by simultaneous stimulation of bilateral (and mirror-image skin sites. Results Optical intrinsic signal imaging was used to evaluate the response of SI and SII in the same hemisphere to 25 Hz sinusoidal vertical skin displacement stimulation ("skin flutter" applied contralaterally, ipsilaterally, and bilaterally (simultaneously to the central pads of the forepaws. A localized increase in absorbance in both SI and SII occurred in response to both contralateral and bilateral flutter stimulation. Ipsilateral flutter stimulation evoked a localized increase in absorbance in SII, but little or no change in SI absorbance. In the forepaw representational region of SI, however, bilateral stimulation of the central pads evoked a response substantially smaller (approximately 30–35% smaller than the response to flutter stimulation of the contralateral central pad. Conclusion The finding that the response of SI cortex to bilateral central pad flutter stimulation is substantially smaller than the response evoked by a contralateral flutter stimulus, together with the recently published observation that a region located posteriorly in SII responds with a substantially larger response to a bilateral flutter stimulus than the response evoked from the contralateral central pad, lead us to propose that the SI activity evoked by contralateral skin stimulation is suppressed/inhibited (via corticocortical connections between SII and SI in the same hemisphere by the activity a simultaneous ipsilateral skin stimulus evokes in posterior SII.

  18. Bilateral ovarian cystic teratomata mimicking bilateral pure ovarian hemangiomata: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, I M; Aronson, B L; McCarthy, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral, benign cystic ovarian teratomata which were composed predominantly of cavernous hemangiomatous elements. The right-sided lesion, in particular, mimicked a pure ovarian hemangioma. The clinical presentation, bilaterality of the lesions, the sizes of the hemangiomata, and the subsequent hemangioma of the leg are all of interest in this very rare lesion. PMID:6511164

  19. The mirror neuron system: How cognitive functions emerge from motor organization

    OpenAIRE

    Fogassi, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    International audience In the cortical motor system, matching between motor representations and sensory inputs allows the emergence of different types of cognitive abilities. One of these matching mechanisms is represented by monkey mirror neurons that activate both when a monkey executes a goal-related motor act and when it observes a similar motor act performed by another individual. The mirror neuron matching system that probably underlies action understanding has been demonstrated also...

  20. Bilateral electric energy contracts: return and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, Laura K.; Silva, Elisa B.; Correia, Paulo B. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). College of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil electricity is traded through three segments: the spot market that balances offer and demand, with prices calculated by a cost-based computational model; the regulated market , where prices are settled in public auctions, and the free market for bilateral contracts. As spot and regulated market prices are public information, a seller is able to calculate his opportunity price to trade a bilateral contract in the free market by using the non-arbitrage principle. Thus, the seller searches the price of a bilateral contract in the free market that balances his/her revenues with the value expected in case it were negotiated in the regulated and the spot market. Besides the expected revenue, the seller may also consider the CVaR to measure the risk of her/his bilateral contract in the free market. So this paper develops a binomial lattice approach to price bilateral contracts in the free market, considering the seller's opportunity of negotiations in both regulated and spot markets, and measuring the contract risk directly. (author)

  1. Chronic Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures with Valgus Treated with Bilateral Intramedullary Nailing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K Dailey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress fractures are overuse injuries most commonly seen in athletes, military recruits, and individuals with endocrine abnormalities. It has been demonstrated that chronic cases of anterior tibial stress fractures refractory to conservative management respond well to intramedullary nailing. To our knowledge, only one report has been published concerning patients with bilateral tibial stress fractures treated with bilateral intramedullary nailing. All patients in the series were high-level athletes. We present the case of a non-athletic patient with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures and associated deformity successfully treated with bilateral intramedullary nails. Case Report: A 23-year-old Caucasian female full-time student presented with chronic bilateral shin pain for approximately five years. She had failed an extensive regimen of conservative management. She was diagnosed with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures based on history, physical examination, and radiologic findings. She subsequently underwent sequential intramedullary nailing of her tibiae. Both tibiae were in valgus alignment; however, this did not preclude nail placement. The nails deformed upon insertion into the sclerotic canals to conform to the deformation. Post operatively the tibiae united and patient was relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion: Bilateral intramedullary nailing of chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures should be considered as a treatment option for all patients, not just high-level athletes, who fail a trial of conservative management. Additionally, mild to moderate tibial malalignment does not necessarily preclude tibial nailing as the smaller nails placed in sclerotic canals will likely deform on insertion and conform to the canal. Keywords: Bilateral intramedullary nailing, bilateral tibial stress fractures, valgus

  2. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...... architecture that resides beyond their own imag- inative capabilities. In other words the core aim of the assignment is to equip students with an understand- ing that architecture can be devel- oped through a predetermined ge- neric process and that through this process opportunities exist to devel- op...... something original and genuine that decisively challenges the limits of the field of architecture. This un- derstanding is important if students are to avoid mimicking an existing world of imagery in architecture or fragments of it. The point of departure for the MO- TOR assignment is that a car engine...

  3. Hyperfinite Representation of Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sousa Pinto; R F Hoskins

    2000-11-01

    Hyperfinite representation of distributions is studied following the method introduced by Kinoshita [2, 3], although we use a different approach much in the vein of [4]. Products and Fourier transforms of representatives of distributions are also analysed.

  4. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet See a list of all ... can I get more information? What are motor neuron diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  5. Navigation based on a sensorimotor representation: a virtual reality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetzsche, Christoph; Galbraith, Christopher; Wolter, Johannes; Schill, Kerstin

    2007-02-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that the basic representation of space which underlies human navigation does not resemble an image-like map and is not restricted by the laws of Euclidean geometry. For this we developed a new experimental technique in which we use the properties of a virtual environment (VE) to directly influence the development of the representation. We compared the navigation performance of human observers under two conditions. Either the VE is consistent with the geometrical properties of physical space and could hence be represented in a map-like fashion, or it contains severe violations of Euclidean metric and planar topology, and would thus pose difficulties for the correct development of such a representation. Performance is not influenced by this difference, suggesting that a map-like representation is not the major basis of human navigation. Rather, the results are consistent with a representation which is similar to a non-planar graph augmented with path length information, or with a sensorimotor representation which combines sensory properties and motor actions. The latter may be seen as part of a revised view of perceptual processes due to recent results in psychology and neurobiology, which indicate that the traditional strict separation of sensory and motor systems is no longer tenable.

  6. Prognosis of synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Tjønneland, Anne; Balslev, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    Currently, no consistent evidence-based guidelines for the management of synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) exist and it is uncertain how presenting with SBBC affects patients' prognosis. We conducted a review of studies analyzing the association between SBBC and prognosis. The studies...... that reported adjusted effect measures were included in meta-analyses of effect of bilaterality on breast cancer mortality. From 57 initially identified records 17 studies from 11 different countries including 8,050 SBBC patients were included. The quality of the studies varied but was generally low with small...... sample sizes, and lack of consistent, detailed histo-pathological information. When doing meta-analysis on the subgroup of studies that provided adjusted effect estimates on breast cancer mortality (nine studies including 3,631 SBBC cases), we found that bilaterality in itself had a negative impact...

  7. Bilateral Sequential Pneumolabyrinth Resulting from Nose Blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Seob; Kwon, Sae Young; Kim, Ji Heui; Kim, Hyung-Jong

    2015-12-01

    Pneumolabyrinth describes a condition with entrapped air in the labyrinth and usually occurs in temporal bone fractures that involve the otic capsule. While sporadic cases of bilateral pneumolabyrinth have been reported, cases lacking head trauma are very rare. We report the case of a 43-year-old man who had sudden hearing loss bilaterally after blowing his nose at an interval of 1 year. Although conservative management for the right ear and exploratory tympanotomy with sealing of the possible site of perilymphatic leakage in the left ear were performed, hearing outcome was poor in both ears. To our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth occurring as a result of nose blowing. PMID:26771019

  8. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Bilateral Mastoid Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım Bozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old male was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of headache, dizziness, nausea, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus, and hearing loss in both ears for 3 weeks. Physical examination revealed edema in the tympanic membrane and external ear canal, and pain by palpation in the mastoid area bilaterally. There was no nystagmus, and the rest of the physical examination was otherwise normal. Temporal bone high resolution computed tomography (CT showed a lesion causing erosion in the mastoid cortex, tegmen tympani, ossicles, and in the bone covering the sigmoid sinus bilaterally. There was also erosion in the superior semicircular canal and petrous bone on the left side. Cortical mastoidectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic examination of the tissue revealed Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH. In this paper a case with LCH, presenting with bilateral mastoid involvement which has been rarely reported in the literature, is discussed with the existing literature.

  9. Bilateral collicular interaction: modulation of auditory signal processing in frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Mei, H-X; Tang, J; Fu, Z-Y; Jen, P H-S; Chen, Q-C

    2013-04-01

    In the ascending auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) receives and integrates excitatory and inhibitory inputs from a variety of lower auditory nuclei, intrinsic projections within the IC, contralateral IC through the commissure of the IC and the auditory cortex. All these connections make the IC a major center for subcortical temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. In this study, we examine bilateral collicular interaction in the modulation of frequency-domain signal processing of mice using electrophysiological recording and focal electrical stimulation. Focal electrical stimulation of neurons in one IC produces widespread inhibition and focused facilitation of responses of neurons in the other IC. This bilateral collicular interaction decreases the response magnitude and lengthens the response latency of inhibited IC neurons but produces an opposite effect on the response of facilitated IC neurons. In the frequency domain, the focal electrical stimulation of one IC sharpens or expands the frequency tuning curves (FTCs) of neurons in the other IC to improve frequency sensitivity and the frequency response range. The focal electrical stimulation also produces a shift in the best frequency (BF) of modulated IC (ICMdu) neurons toward that of electrically stimulated IC (ICES) neurons. The degree of bilateral collicular interaction is dependent upon the difference in the BF between the ICES neurons and ICMdu neurons. These data suggest that bilateral collicular interaction is a part of dynamic acoustic signal processing that adjusts and improves signal processing as well as reorganizes collicular representation of signal parameters according to the acoustic experience.

  10. Embedded data representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willett, W.; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles ......-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications.......We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles...... are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion...

  11. Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome with hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Hattapoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS, whichis seen by indications of mental retardasyon, epilepsi,speech disorder and pseudobulbar palsy, is a diseasewhich comes up with genetic and non-genetic reasons.Revealing characteristic indications (like polymicrogyriawith MR imaging and clinic indications contributes makingdiagnosis. In present paper, we aimed to present 18month girl case report who diagnosed as CBPS with hydrocephaliindication. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 552-554Key words: Epilepsy, congenital bilateral perisylviansyndrome, polymicrogyria, hydrocephalus, pseudobulbarpalsy

  12. [Bilateral choroidal osteoma--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrychowska-Jamborska, Justyna; Kulig-Stochmal, Agnieszka; Markiewicz, Anna; Jakubowska, Barbara; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a an extremely rare (especially located bilaterally), benign, intraocular tumor, the type of choristoma. It occurs between 2-3 decades of life, women are particularly vulnerable. The main complication in 1/3 cases is a subretinal neovascularization which may cause bleeding. The gradually progressive decalcification develops within the tumour over time, which causes atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane deformity. The article presents a case of a 26-year-old woman with bilateral choroidal osteoma complicated by subretinal hemorrhage; the diagnosis was based on clinical examination (biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy) as well as specialised tests including: ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography.

  13. Bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration in Wilson disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Josephin; Guenther, Pete; Hoffmann, Karl Titus [Leipzig University Hospital, Leipzig (Greece)

    2013-04-15

    Hypertrophic olivary degeneration resulting from lesions of the dento-rubro-olivary pathway, also called Guillain-Mollaret-triangle, has been described previously in a number of cases. Reports about bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration of the inferior olivary nuclei are very limited, and the magnetic resonance imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration in Wilson disease have not yet been described to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we present the first report of bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging in a patient suffering from Wilson disease.

  14. Management strategy for bilateral complex vertebral artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norihiro; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Takizawa, Katsumi; Takebayashi, Seiji; Asano, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Rina; Kubota, Shunsuke; Ito, Yasuhiro; Karagiozov, Kostadin L

    2016-04-01

    Bilateral complex vertebral artery aneurysms (BCoVAAns) have no established strategy of management. We retrospectively reviewed five consecutive patients with unruptured BCoVAAns between January 2006 and December 2012. Considering surgical risks of lower cranial nerve (LCN) injuries and eventual growth of an opposite side lesion after unilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion, we proposed a strategy of combined open and interventional treatment using revascularization. We applied the following several specific techniques: (1) proximal clipping and occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (OA-PICA) and/or superficial temporary artery (STA)-superior cerebellar artery (SCA) bypasses; (2) Distal blood pressure, motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) monitoring after parent artery temporary occlusion for safe permanent occlusion of the proximal portions of VA and PICA; (3) V3 to V4 bypass using radial artery (RA) graft with proximal clipping or trapping, two of them combined with OA-PICA bypass; (4) VA fenestration as an opportunity to preserve the flow of the parent artery. Two patients were treated bilaterally and 3 unilaterally, with modified Rankin scale assessed at 39 months postoperatively in average 0 in 2, 1 in 2, and 2 in 1, respectively, and the untreated opposite side lesions without regrowth or bleeding. Two patients with patent V3-RA-V4 bypass complained of dysphagia due to LCN palsies. One of them however suffered a cerebellar infarction due to occlusion of the OA-PICA bypass. When BCoVAAns require surgical treatment, revascularization or preservation of the VA should be considered at the first operation. By doing so, the opposite aneurysm can be effectively occluded by coil embolization, even with VA sacrifice if required. PMID:26564148

  15. Bilateral Asymmetric Dislocations of Hip Joints: An Unusual Mechanism of Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Kanojia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric bilateral dislocations of the hips are rare injuries. Among the small number of reports in the literature, most have attributed the cause to high-velocity motor crashes. These dislocations are often seen to be associated with fractures of the proximal femur or the acetabulum. We present a case of a 45-year-old man with bilateral asymmetric dislocation of hips which were purely ligamentous in nature, without any fracture. He sustained his injuries due to a fall while getting on a moving bus. It was an unusual mechanism of injury as compared to the other cases of asymmetric hip dislocations reported in published studies. Both hips were reduced under general anaesthesia within three hours of the trauma. Skin traction and non-weight-bearing rehabilitation were continued for six weeks. After 35 months of followup, the patient remains asymptomatic. Early diagnosis and timely reduction of such dislocations under anaesthesia are necessary for prevention of complications.

  16. Intra-abdominal seminoma found incidentally during trauma workup in a man with bilateral cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Velez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cryptorchidism is a rare occurrence and seminoma is the most common germ cell tumor found in undescended testes when they occur. We present the case of a patient with bilateral cryptorchidism who presented to our trauma center after a motor vehicle collision and was found incidentally to have a 17-cm intra-abdominal mass. The mass was subsequently biopsied and proven to be seminoma. The patient completed three cycles of bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin chemotherapy and successfully underwent a postchemo retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with no viable residual tumor or positive lymph nodes found in the surgical specimen. He also had an orchiopexy of the contralateral testicle. The patient recovered fully and has been found to be recurrence-free four months postoperatively. We highlight the importance of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and extensive tumor resection as the mainstay of initial cancer control.

  17. Bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome: An uncommon presentation of a rare condition in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an adolescent girl who had left-sided neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS due to impingement of the scalenus anterior muscle with bilateral changes on nerve conduction studies and responded well to surgical decompression. A 13-year-old Caucasian girl presented with intermittent pain, swelling, erythema, tingling and numbness of the palmar aspect of her left hand. Nerve conduction studies revealed bilateral ulnar sensory and motor conduction abnormalities, suggesting early compressive neuropathy in the asymptomatic arm as well. She underwent surgical exploration when it was noted that the scalenus anterior itself was impinging on the brachial plexus. She had a good clinical response to scalenectomy. The diagnosis of neurogenic TOS remains difficult as no single test has been accepted as a gold standard. But, once diagnosed using clinical symptoms, nerve conduction studies, electromyography and radiological investigations, it is a treatable condition with good prognosis.

  18. Bilateral Diabetic Papillopathy and Metabolic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit;

    2010-01-01

    patient-years of observation, bilateral diabetic papillopathy developed in 5 patients. During the year preceding this incident, all 5 patients had experienced a decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1C)) at a maximum rate of -2.5 (mean) percentage points per quarter year, which was significantly...

  19. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer.

  20. Occipital seizures presenting with bilateral visual loss

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjikoutis S; Sawhney I

    2003-01-01

    Transient visual loss may occur with occipital seizures as an ictal or post-ictal phenomenon. Its duration varies from less than one minute to days, or can be permanent. We describe a 61-year-old man presenting with headache, vomiting and bilateral visual loss. EEG revealed persistent spike discharge in the occipital lobes suggesting occipital seizures. His vision improved with carbamazepine.

  1. Simulations of bilateral energy markets using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents simulation results of energy bilateral markets using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The algorithm for congestion management and transmission pricing is implemented by means of DC load flow. The simulation results show how elasticity of market participants to transmission usage charges can affect the overall network usage and its cost. (Author)

  2. Bilateral eyelid edema : Cutis laxa or blepharochalasis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakenburg, A; Nicolai, JPA

    2000-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman with massive bilateral edema of the upper and lower eyelids is presented. The edema occurred suddenly and without provocation. No cause could be identified despite a multitude of examinations. Initially the patient was diagnosed as having blepharochalasis, but later skin biopsy s

  3. A Bilateral Traumatic Hip Obturator Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Karci, Tolga; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    A case of a bilateral simultaneous traumatic obturator dislocation of both hip joints in an 18-year-old young man following a traffic accident is presented. We reduced the dislocated femoral heads immediately under general anesthesia followed by passive and active exercises and early full-weight bearing mobilization. After 5 years, the result was excellent. PMID:26977327

  4. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2012-09-01

    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  5. Fast and Provably Accurate Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Dabhade, Swapnil D

    2016-06-01

    The bilateral filter is a non-linear filter that uses a range filter along with a spatial filter to perform edge-preserving smoothing of images. A direct computation of the bilateral filter requires O(S) operations per pixel, where S is the size of the support of the spatial filter. In this paper, we present a fast and provably accurate algorithm for approximating the bilateral filter when the range kernel is Gaussian. In particular, for box and Gaussian spatial filters, the proposed algorithm can cut down the complexity to O(1) per pixel for any arbitrary S . The algorithm has a simple implementation involving N+1 spatial filterings, where N is the approximation order. We give a detailed analysis of the filtering accuracy that can be achieved by the proposed approximation in relation to the target bilateral filter. This allows us to estimate the order N required to obtain a given accuracy. We also present comprehensive numerical results to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of speed and accuracy. PMID:27093722

  6. Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis diagnosed during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Cid, P; Sendagorta Cudós, E; Noguera Morel, L; Beato Merino, M J

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare subtype of neurofibromatosis type 1 defined by lesions affecting a single segment of the body and crossing the midline, with no systemic involvement. We present a case diagnosed during pregnancy because of the characteristic increase in size of the lesions during this period. PMID:21635828

  7. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia.

  8. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer.

  9. Bilateral renal agenesis in an alpaca cria

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Keith P; Gerard, Mathew P.; Spaulding, Kathy A.; Geissler, Kyleigh A.; Anderson, Kevin L.

    2006-01-01

    A 3-day-old male alpaca cria was presented for lack of vigor and failure to urinate since birth. Based on the history, laboratory data, ultrasonographs, surgical findings, and postmortem examination, the cria was diagnosed with bilateral renal agenesis and hypoplastic bladder, a congenital condition rarely seen in veterinary medicine.

  10. Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil Pothiawala

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant.

  11. Severe Hyperkalemia and Bilateral Adrenal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nagler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal metastases are a common finding in metastatic lung and breast cancer. Often there are no clinical symptoms suggesting them. In this paper, we present a case of a 66-year-old man with metastatic lung cancer suffering from severe hyperkaliemia due to hypoaldosteronism as a result of bilateral adrenal metastasis.

  12. Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, P; Pavesi, G; Salaffi, F

    1987-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may be associated with endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism and acromegaly. A direct relationship between CTS and hyperthyroidism has recently been suggested. We now report a case in which bilateral CTS developed after treatment of Graves' disease, thus, questioning the possibility of a relationship between these two disease processes.

  13. Short and long term outcome of bilateral pallidal stimulation in chorea-acanthocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Miquel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc is a neuroacanthocytosis syndrome presenting with severe movement disorders poorly responsive to drug therapy. Case reports suggest that bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS of the ventro-postero-lateral internal globus pallidus (GPi may benefit these patients. To explore this issue, the present multicentre (n=12 retrospective study collected the short and long term outcome of 15 patients who underwent DBS. METHODS: Data were collected in a standardized way 2-6 months preoperatively, 1-5 months (early and 6 months or more (late after surgery at the last follow-up visit (mean follow-up: 29.5 months. RESULTS: Motor severity, assessed by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Score, UHDRS-MS, was significantly reduced at both early and late post-surgery time points (mean improvement 54.3% and 44.1%, respectively. Functional capacity (UHDRS-Functional Capacity Score was also significantly improved at both post-surgery time points (mean 75.5% and 73.3%, respectively, whereas incapacity (UHDRS-Independence Score improvement reached significance at early post-surgery only (mean 37.3%. Long term significant improvement of motor symptom severity (≥ 20 % from baseline was observed in 61.5 % of the patients. Chorea and dystonia improved, whereas effects on dysarthria and swallowing were variable. Parkinsonism did not improve. Linear regression analysis showed that preoperative motor severity predicted motor improvement at both post-surgery time points. The most serious adverse event was device infection and cerebral abscess, and one patient died suddenly of unclear cause, 4 years after surgery. CONCLUSION: This study shows that bilateral DBS of the GPi effectively reduces the severity of drug-resistant hyperkinetic movement disorders such as present in ChAc.

  14. Visual Space Constructed by Saccade Motor Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eckart; Lappe, Markus

    2016-01-01

    How visual space is represented in the brain is an open question in neuroscience. Embodiment theories propose that spatial perception is structured by neural motor maps. Especially, maps which code the targets for saccadic eye movements contain a precise representation of external space. In this review article, we examine how modifications in saccade maps are accompanied by changes in visual space perception. Saccade adaptation, a method which systematically modifies saccade amplitudes, alters the localization of visual objects in space. We illustrate how information about saccade amplitudes is transferred from the cerebellum (CB) to the frontal eye field (FEF). We argue that changes in visual localization after adaptation of saccade maps provide evidence for a shared representation of visual and motor space. PMID:27242488

  15. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  16. Delayed surgical treatment for a traumatic bilateral cervical facet joint dislocation using a posterior-anterior approach: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There have been few reports of patients with bilateral cervical facet dislocations that remain untreated for eight weeks or more. We report the case of a 76-year-old man with an old bilateral cervical facet joint dislocation fracture that was treated by posterior-anterior reduction and fixation. Case presentation A 76-year-old Asian man was involved in a road traffic accident. He presented with neck pain and arm pain on his right side, but motor weakness and paralysis were not observed. He was treated conservatively; however, instability and spondylolisthesis at the C5 to C6 joint increased eight weeks after the injury. We performed a posterior-anterior reduction and fixation. After surgery, bony union was achieved, and his neck pain and arm pain disappeared. Conclusion We recommend reduction and fixation surgery if a patient has an old bilateral facet joint dislocation fracture in the cervical spine.

  17. FMRI supports the sensorimotor theory of motor resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Claire; Landi, Sofia M; Grafton, Scott T; Della-Maggiore, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The neural mechanisms mediating the activation of the motor system during action observation, also known as motor resonance, are of major interest to the field of motor control. It has been proposed that motor resonance develops in infants through Hebbian plasticity of pathways connecting sensory and motor regions that fire simultaneously during imitation or self movement observation. A fundamental problem when testing this theory in adults is that most experimental paradigms involve actions that have been overpracticed throughout life. Here, we directly tested the sensorimotor theory of motor resonance by creating new visuomotor representations using abstract stimuli (motor symbols) and identifying the neural networks recruited through fMRI. We predicted that the network recruited during action observation and execution would overlap with that recruited during observation of new motor symbols. Our results indicate that a network consisting of premotor and posterior parietal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum was activated both by new motor symbols and by direct observation of the corresponding action. This tight spatial overlap underscores the importance of sensorimotor learning for motor resonance and further indicates that the physical characteristics of the perceived stimulus are irrelevant to the evoked response in the observer.

  18. FMRI supports the sensorimotor theory of motor resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Landmann

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms mediating the activation of the motor system during action observation, also known as motor resonance, are of major interest to the field of motor control. It has been proposed that motor resonance develops in infants through Hebbian plasticity of pathways connecting sensory and motor regions that fire simultaneously during imitation or self movement observation. A fundamental problem when testing this theory in adults is that most experimental paradigms involve actions that have been overpracticed throughout life. Here, we directly tested the sensorimotor theory of motor resonance by creating new visuomotor representations using abstract stimuli (motor symbols and identifying the neural networks recruited through fMRI. We predicted that the network recruited during action observation and execution would overlap with that recruited during observation of new motor symbols. Our results indicate that a network consisting of premotor and posterior parietal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum was activated both by new motor symbols and by direct observation of the corresponding action. This tight spatial overlap underscores the importance of sensorimotor learning for motor resonance and further indicates that the physical characteristics of the perceived stimulus are irrelevant to the evoked response in the observer.

  19. Representational neglect for words as revealed by bisection tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Lisa S; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Pasotti, Fabrizio; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Bottini, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we showed that a representational disorder for words can dissociate from both representational neglect for objects and neglect dyslexia. This study involved 14 brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect and a group of normal subjects. Patients were divided into four groups based on presence of left neglect dyslexia and representational neglect for non-verbal material, as evaluated by the Clock Drawing test. The patients were presented with bisection tasks for words and lines. The word bisection tasks (with words of five and seven letters) comprised the following: (1) representational bisection: the experimenter pronounced a word and then asked the patient to name the letter in the middle position; (2) visual bisection: same as (1) with stimuli presented visually; and (3) motor bisection: the patient was asked to cross out the letter in the middle position. The standard line bisection task was presented using lines of different length. Consistent with the literature, long lines were bisected to the right and short lines, rendered comparable in length to the words of the word bisection test, deviated to the left (crossover effect). Both patients and controls showed the same leftward bias on words in the visual and motor bisection conditions. A significant difference emerged between the groups only in the case of the representational bisection task, whereas the group exhibiting neglect dyslexia associated with representational neglect for objects showed a significant rightward bias, while the other three patient groups and the controls showed a leftward bisection bias. Neither the presence of neglect alone nor the presence of visual neglect dyslexia was sufficient to produce a specific disorder in mental imagery. These results demonstrate a specific representational neglect for words independent of both representational neglect and neglect dyslexia.

  20. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  1. Dr. Otto Soltmann (1876) on development of the motor cortex and recovery after its removal in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, S; Beyer, T; Koehler, P J

    2000-09-15

    In 1870, Fritsch and Hitzig demonstrated that dogs have a motor cortex. In a chapter published 6 years later, Otto Soltmann studied the functional development of the motor cortex, which he believed functioned in willed movement. He was the first to show that the dog's motor cortex becomes electrically excitable at about 10 days of age, with the contralateral forepaw area appearing first. He also studied the effects of ablating the cortical motor regions unilaterally and bilaterally, and encountered a remarkable degree of sparing of function in his animals operated on as newborns, but not in older-operated dogs. Soltmann turned to the theory of functional take-over (vicariation) to account for the absence of deficits in his young animals. He was especially intrigued by the fact that electrical stimulation of a healthy motor cortex could produce bilateral matched movements, but only in dogs that sustained opposite motor cortex lesions very early in life.

  2. Spatial hearing benefits demonstrated with presentation of acoustic temporal fine structure cues in bilateral cochlear implant listenersa)

    OpenAIRE

    Churchill, Tyler H.; Kan, Alan; Goupell, Matthew J.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2014-01-01

    Most contemporary cochlear implant (CI) processing strategies discard acoustic temporal fine structure (TFS) information, and this may contribute to the observed deficits in bilateral CI listeners' ability to localize sounds when compared to normal hearing listeners. Additionally, for best speech envelope representation, most contemporary speech processing strategies use high-rate carriers (≥900 Hz) that exceed the limit for interaural pulse timing to provide useful binaural information. Many...

  3. Towards Multimodal Content Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

  4. Understanding representations in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design....... The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work...... regarding use and design. The article proposes that abstraction, elevating the representation from the situation, is not the only way to do this, and it proposes alternatives....

  5. Memetics of representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Rubertis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss about the physiological genesis of representation and then it will illustrate the developments, especially in evolutionary perspective, and it will show how these are mainly a result of accidental circumstances, rather than of deliberate intention of improvement. In particular, it will be argue that the representation has behaved like a meme that has arrived to its own progressive evolution coming into symbiosis with the different cultures in which it has spread, and using in this activity human work “unconsciously”. Finally it will be shown how in this action the geometry is an element key, linked to representation both to construct images using graphics operations and to erect buildings using concrete operations.

  6. Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of preoperatively diagnosed bilateral obturator and incidental bilateral femoral herniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Usman; Connelly, Tara M; Hamid, Mustafa; Pretorius, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Obturator hernia (OH), a rare type of hernia, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often delayed as clinical symptoms are typically non-specific. OH is frequently associated with other occult inguinopelvic herniae. Early diagnosis is vital to decrease morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented to the surgical outpatients' department with non-specific bilateral groin pain radiating to the thighs. CT of the pelvis demonstrated bilateral OH with no radiological evidence of bowel obstruction. Semiurgent elective laparoscopic total extraperitoneal mesh repair was performed. Intraoperative findings confirmed bilateral obturator herniae as well as incidental bilateral femoral herniae. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for such concomitant hernias that, in the presence of OH, may only be identified intraoperatively. PMID:27113790

  7. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Şevik Eliçora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral facial paralysis caused by bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, with seven cases reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 40-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis and hearing loss that developed after an occupational accident. On physical examination, House-Brackmann (HB facial paralysis of grade 6 was observed on the right side and HB grade 5 paralysis on the left. Upon temporal bone computed tomography (CT examination, a fracture line exhibiting transverse progression was observed in both petrous temporal bones. Our patient underwent transmastoid facial decompression surgery of the right ear. The patient refused a left-side operation. Such patients require extensive monitoring in intensive care units because the presence of multiple injuries means that facial functions are often very difficult to evaluate. Therefore, delays may ensue in both diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial paralysis.

  8. Selective effect of physical fatigue on motor imagery accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Di Rienzo

    Full Text Available While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001 were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r=0.64; p<0.05 was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to

  9. Scientific Representation and Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ghins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of what I take to be the representational démarche in science, I stress the fundamental role of true judgements in model construction. The success and correctness of a representation rests on the truth of judgements which attribute properties to real targeted entities, called “ontic judgements”. I then present what van Fraassen calls “the Loss of Reality objection”. After criticizing his dissolution of the objection, I offer an alternative way of answering the Loss of Reality objection by showing that the contact of our models with reality is grounded on the truth of ontic judgements. I conclude by examining.

  10. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  11. The role of plastic changes in the motor cortex and spinal cord for motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    are key players in the early stages of skill acquisition and consolidation of motor learning. Expansion of the cortical representation of the trained muscles, changes in corticomuscular coupling and changes in stretch reflex activity are thus all markers of neuroplastic changes accompanying early skill...... acquisition. We have shown in recent experiments that sensory feedback from the active muscles play a surprisingly specific role at this stage of learning. Following motor skill training, repeated activation of sensory afferents from the muscle that has been involved in a previous training session, interfered......Adaptive changes of the efficacy of neural circuitries at different sites of the central nervous system is the basis of acquisition of new motor skills. Non-invasive human imaging and electrophysiological experiments have demonstrated that the primary motor cortex and spinal cord circuitries...

  12. Response retrieval and motor planning during typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Svetlana; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alario, F-Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Recent work in language production research suggests complex relationships between linguistic and motor processes. Typing is an interesting candidate for investigating further this issue. First, typing presumably relies on the same distributed left-lateralized brain network as handwriting and speech production. Second, typing has its own set of highly specific motor constraints, such as internal keystroke representations that hold information about both letter identity and spatial characteristics of the key to strike. The present study aims to further develop research on typed production, by targeting the dynamics between linguistic and motor neural networks. Specifically, we used a typed picture-naming task to examine the interplay between response retrieval and motor planning. To track processes associated with both linguistic processing and keystroke representation, we manipulated, respectively, the semantic context in which the target appeared and the side of the first keystrokes of the word. We recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) continuously from the presentation of a picture, to the typing of its name, and computed both event-related potentials (ERP) and beta-band power analyses. Non-parametric data-driven analysis revealed a clear pattern of response preparation over both hemispheres close to response time, in both the ERP and beta-band power modulations. This was preceded by a left-lateralized power decrease in the beta-band, presumably representing memory retrieval, and an early contrast in ERP, between left and right keystrokes' preparation. We discuss these results in terms of a dynamic access approach for internal keystroke representations, and argue for an integrative rather than separatist view of linguistic and motor processes. PMID:27344127

  13. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few ...

  14. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for

  15. Associations of Postural Knowledge and Basic Motor Skill with Dyspraxia in Autism: Implication for Abnormalities in Distributed Connectivity and Motor Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Dowell, Lauren R.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism often have difficulty performing skilled movements. Praxis performance requires basic motor skill, knowledge of representations of the movement (mediated by parietal regions), and transcoding of these representations into movement plans (mediated by premotor circuits). The goals of this study were: (a) to determine whether dyspraxia in autism is associated with impaired representational (“postural”) knowledge, and (b) to examine the contributions of postural knowledge and...

  16. Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary metastases of synovial sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary tumor is uncommon and with pulmonary metastases is rare. The clinical and radiological features of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax from a synovial sarcoma in a 14 years old boy are described. (author)

  17. Bilateral cerebellar activation in unilaterally challenged essential tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Broersma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results expand on previous findings of bilateral cerebellar involvement in ET. We have identified specific areas in the bilateral somatomotor regions of the cerebellum: lobules V, VI and VIII.

  18. Comparative effects of unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on gait kinematics in Parkinson's disease: a randomized, blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Jagid, Jonathan R; Luca, Corneliu C

    2016-08-01

    Gait dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) does not always respond to bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). Since right hemisphere motor networks may be dominant for gait control, identical stimulation of asymmetric circuits could account for gait dysfunction. We compared the effects of bilateral and unilateral STN-DBS on gait kinematics in PD patients who developed gait impairment after STN-DBS. Twenty-two PD patients with >50 % improvement in motor scores, but dopamine-resistant gait dysfunction 6-12 months after bilateral STN-DBS were blindly tested off dopaminergic effects in four randomly assigned DBS conditions: bilateral, right-sided, left-sided and off stimulation. Motor scores (MDS-UPDRS III), gait scores (MDS-UPRDS 2.11-2.13 + 3.9-3.13), turning time (seconds), stride length (meters) and velocity (meters/second) were measured 1 h after DBS changes. Motor and gait scores significantly improved with bilateral versus unilateral STN-DBS. Stride length and velocity (0.95 ± 0.06, 0.84 ± 0.07) significantly improved with bilateral (1.09 ± 0.04, 0.95 ± 0.05), right-sided (1.06 ± 0.04, 0.92 ± 0.05) and left-sided stimulation (1.01 ± 0.05, 0.90 ± 0.05) (p programming of right versus left-sided STN-DBS is unclear, this approach could be considered in the management of treatment-resistant gait dysfunction in PD. PMID:27278062

  19. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Suárez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, entre 1997 y 2007. MÉTODO: se hizo enucleación del ojo con el tumor de mayor tamaño. En el otro ojo se hizo tratamiento con TTT, con el láser diodo (810 nm, spot amplio, solo o combinado con otras terapias. RESULTADOS: se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos: 16 pacientes (32 ojos en el grupo 1 tratados conservadoramente y 4 pacientes (8 ojos en el grupo 2 con tratamiento convencional. El rango de edad fue de 1-72 meses en el grupo 1 y de 1-12 meses en el grupo 2. El tiempo de seguimiento fue de 7-67 meses para el grupo 1 y de 13-73 meses para el grupo 2. En el grupo 1 se hizo enucleación de 16 ojos (50%, radioterapia externa de uno (3,1%, quimioterapia más termoterapia de 5 (15,6% y quimioterapia más termoterapia más crioterapia de 10 (31,3%. En todos los pacientes se logró preservar al menos un ojo. En el grupo 2, se enuclearon 7 ojos (87,5% y se hizo radioterapia externa más enucleación en un paciente (12.5%. Además, todos los pacientes recibieron quimioterapia. CONCLUSIÓN: la terapia conservadora actual consistente en tratamiento local (termoterapia, crioterapia o braquiterapia y quimiorreducción permite preservar al menos un ojo y en algunos casos de los dos, muchas veces con buena agudeza visual, en niños con retinoblastoma bilateral; se evitan así la enucleación bilateral y la radioterapia externa usada en el tratamiento convencional con todos sus efectos secundarios. La enucleación contin

  20. Bilateral Symmetry of Distortions of Tactile Size Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Ghosh, Arko; Yahya, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on the limbs is generally bigger for distances oriented across the width of the limb than for distances oriented along the length of the limb. The present study aimed to investigate the coherence of such distortions of tactile size perception across different skin surfaces. We investigated distortions of tactile size perception on the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both the left and right hands as well as the forehead. Participants judged which of two tactile distances felt larger. One distance was aligned with the proximodistal axis (along the body), the other with the mediolateral axis (across the body). Clear distortions were found on all five skin surfaces, with stimuli oriented across the width of the body being perceived as farther apart than those oriented along the length of the body. Consistent with previous results, distortions were smaller on the palmar than on the dorsal hand surface. Distortion on the forehead was intermediate between the dorsal and palmar surfaces. There were clear correlations between distortion on the left and right hands, for both the dorsal and palmar skin surfaces. In contrast, within each hand, there was no significant correlation between the two skin surfaces. Distortion on the forehead was not significantly correlated with that on any of the other skin surfaces. These results provide evidence for bilaterally symmetric representations underlying tactile size perception.

  1. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  2. Proportional Representation with Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco De Sinopoli; Giovanna Iannantuoni; Elena Manzoni; Carlos Pimienta

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a model with strategic voting in a parliamentary election with proportional representation and uncertainty about voters’ preferences. In any equilibrium of the model, most voters only vote for those parties whose positions are extreme. In the resulting parliament, a consensus government forms and the policy maximizing the sum of utilities of the members of the government is implemented.

  3. Representation and human reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, Alice G.B.

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation and reasoning are two sides of sharing information. Representations of the context and common ground must capture the rich content of what has been said, by linking to situations in the world as well as to what has been said before, common sense and to the presuppositions and entailme

  4. Between Representation and Eternity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    . At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...

  5. Effects of working memory demand on neural mechanisms of motor response selection and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anita D; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2013-08-01

    Inhibitory control commonly recruits a number of frontal regions: pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), frontal eye fields (FEFs), and right-lateralized posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dorsal anterior insula (DAI), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and inferior frontal junction (IFJ). These regions may directly implement inhibitory motor control or may be more generally involved in executive control functions. Two go/no-go tasks were used to distinguish regions specifically recruited for inhibition from those that additionally show increased activity with working memory demand. The pre-SMA and IFG were recruited for inhibition in both tasks and did not have greater activation for working memory demand on no-go trials, consistent with a role in inhibitory control. Activation in pre-SMA also responded to response selection demand and was increased with working memory on go trials specifically. The bilateral FEF and right DAI were commonly active for no-go trials. The FEF was also recruited to a greater degree with working memory demand on go trials and may bias top-down information when stimulus-response mappings change. The DAI, additionally responded to increased working memory demand on both go and no-go trials and may be involved in accessing sustained task information, alerting, or autonomic changes when cognitive demands increase. DLPFC activation was consistent with a role in working memory retrieval on both go and no-go trials. The inferior frontal junction, on the other hand, had greater activation with working memory specifically for no-go trials and may detect salient stimuli when the task requires frequent updating of working memory representations.

  6. Discrete motor coordinates for vowel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Assaneo

    Full Text Available Current models of human vocal production that capture peripheral dynamics in speech require large dimensional measurements of the neural activity, which are mapped into equally complex motor gestures. In this work we present a motor description for vowels as points in a discrete low-dimensional space. We monitor the dynamics of 3 points at the oral cavity using Hall-effect transducers and magnets, describing the resulting signals during normal utterances in terms of active/inactive patterns that allow a robust vowel classification in an abstract binary space. We use simple matrix algebra to link this representation to the anatomy of the vocal tract and to recent reports of highly tuned neuronal activations for vowel production, suggesting a plausible global strategy for vowel codification and motor production.

  7. Recurrence of bilateral herpes simplex virus keratitis following bimatoprost use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Mihir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man presented with features of bilateral herpes simplex virus (HSV keratitis. It was found to be recurrence of bilateral HSV keratitis following the use of Bimatoprost eye drops for uncontrolled intraocular pressure in a case of bilateral primary open-angle glaucoma.

  8. Nocturnal seizure and simultaneous bilateral shoulder fracture-dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbudin, Ilfita; Filer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise fit and well 27-year-old man presented with acute onset unexplained bilateral shoulder pain, and was found to have bilateral shoulder fractures and dislocations on imaging. Although features were atypical, a nocturnal seizure causing the bilateral shoulder fractures was suspected and EEG showed features compatible with epilepsy. PMID:26838296

  9. Beyond natural numbers: negative number representation in parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Kristen P; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M; Schwartz, Daniel L; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference 6). Reaction times (RTs) for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS), middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster RTs. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation.

  10. Bilateral Nocardia Keratitis after Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Faramarzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical, confocal scan, and histopathologic features of Nocardia keratitis in a patient who developed bilateral infection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. Case Report: A 23-year-old woman underwent bilateral PRK for low myopia. On postoperative day 3, dense central stromal infiltrates were noticed in both eyes. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated which was converted into specific therapy after a definite diagnosis was made based on clinical features and confirmed by confocal scan and histopathologic findings. Clinical and confocal scan features were consistent with the diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis, and topical 2% amikacin eye drops were started. Because of poor response to medical therapy, lamellar keratectomy was performed in both eyes which shortened the treatment course. Histopathologic examination reconfirmed the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: Familiarity with clinical and confocal scan features facilitates early diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis leading to proper management and hence a rapid therapeutic response.

  11. Bilateral Nocardia Keratitis after Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Amir; Feizi, Sepehr; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Yazdizadeh, Forouzan; Moein, Hamid-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical, confocal scan, and histopathologic features of nocardia keratitis in a patient who developed bilateral infection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Case Report A 23-year-old woman underwent bilateral PRK for low myopia. On postoperative day 3, dense central stromal infiltrates were noticed in both eyes. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated which was converted into specific therapy after a definite diagnosis was made based on clinical features and confirmed by confocal scan and histopathologic findings. Clinical and confocal scan features were consistent with the diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis, and topical 2% amikacin eye drops were started. Because of poor response to medical therapy, lamellar keratectomy was performed in both eyes which shortened the treatment course. Histopathologic examination reconfirmed the initial diagnosis. Conclusion Familiarity with clinical and confocal scan features facilitates early diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis leading to proper management and hence a rapid therapeutic response. PMID:23275825

  12. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  13. Bilateral Psoas Abscess in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomich, Eric B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presented multiple times to the emergency department with acute low back pain and was subsequently diagnosed with bilateral psoas muscle abscess. Psoas abscess is an uncommon cause of acute low back pain that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The onset of symptoms is frequently insidious and the clinical presentation vague. Proper diagnosis requires vigilance of the physician to recognize signs in the history and physical examination that are suggestive of a potentially serious spinal condition and initiate further workup. While most patients with acute low back pain have a benign etiology, this case report demonstrates the challenge of diagnosing a patient with bilateral psoas abscess who had few known risk factors and symptoms typical of mechanical low back pain.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:288-291.

  14. Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata Chakrabarti; Koushik Pan

    2014-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features...

  15. Frequency and causes of bilateral ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency and causes of bilateral ocular trauma. All patients coming to the hospital with bilateral eye trauma and requiring admission were recruited into the study. The details of patients demographics, risk factors, ocular examination, treatment offered and final visual acuity were noted and described as frequency and percentages. Out of a total of 1551 patients of hospitalized ocular trauma, 46 (2.9%, 92 eyes) had bilateral ocular trauma. The majority (54.3%) were due to landmine blast injuries followed by dynamite blast in 10.8%, coalmine blast and firearm injury in 6.5% each. Pressure cooker explosion and road traffic accident was the cause in 4.3% each. Gas cylinder and automobile battery explosion, alkali and acid burn, assault and incidental trauma occurred in 2.1%. Sixty three percent were between 16 and 40 years of age. Males were affected in 93.4%. Corneal and / or scleral repair was done in 58.6%, conjunctival and or corneal foreign body removal in 26% and extracapular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation in 16.3%. The visual acuity was in the range of 6/60 and perception of light in 54.3%, while in 21.7%, there was no perception of light at the time of admission. Due to severity of injury, the final visual acuity was poor and only 28.2% regained vision between 6/18 and 6/60. In this series, landmine, dynamite and coalmine blasts were the major causes of bilateral ocular trauma. Victims were usually young males. Due to severity of ocular trauma, majority had poor visual outcome. (author)

  16. BILATERAL LUXATIO ERECTA, A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, César Augusto Xavier; da Silva Resch, Elemar; Rodrigues, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Inferior shoulder dislocation (luxactio erecta) is a rare lesion affecting approximately 0.5% of dislocations of this joint. The vast majority of these cases occur unilaterally. In September 2004, a 43 year old man was brought to the emergency room of the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) complaining of bilateral shoulder pain and inability to lower the arms, as a result of a fall with the arms abducted, while carrying out work activities. After physical examination and radiological e...

  17. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterio...

  18. Bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to erlotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Lik Thai; Blum, Robert Alexander; Cheng, Chee Peng; Hanifudin, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to erlotinib phone: +44-784-3617788 (Lim, Lik Thai) (Lim, Lik Thai) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - Glasgow - UNITED KINGDOM (Lim, Lik Thai) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - Glasgow - UNITED KINGDOM (Blum, Robert Alexander) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - G...

  19. Bilateral Pregnancy Luteoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Annu Nanda; Uday A. Gokhale; G Rajasekharan Pillai

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy luteoma is a non-neoplastic lesion of the ovary occurring during pregnancy and is usually discovered incidentally at the time of a cesarean section or during postpartum tubal ligation. An accurate diagnosis is important for the mother and the fetus as it can be confused with ovarian malignancy leading to unnecessary surgery. We report a case of a pregnant female who was discovered to have bilateral enlarged ovaries at the time of emergency cesarean section.

  20. Bilateral exposures and systemic solvency risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gouriéroux, Christian; Héam, Jean-Cyprien; Monfort, Alain

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a structure of the balance sheets of the banks, which takes into account their bilateral exposures in terms of stocks or lendings, we get a structural model for default analysis. This model allows us to distinguish the exogenous and endogenous default dependence. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the liquidation equilibrium, we study the consequences of exogenous shocks on the banking system and we measure contagion phenomena. This approach is illustrated by an applicati...

  1. Bilateral Filter Evaluation Based on Exponential Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ismaeil, Kassem; Aouada, Djamila; Mirbach, Bruno; Ottersten, Björn

    2012-01-01

    The well-known bilateral filter is used to smooth noisy images while keeping their edges. This filter is commonly used with Gaussian kernel functions without real justification. The choice of the kernel functions has a major effect on the filter behavior. We propose to use exponential kernels with L1 distances instead of Gaussian ones. We derive Stein's Unbiased Risk Estimate to find the optimal parameters of the new filter and compare its performance with the conventional one. We show that t...

  2. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterior uveitis. PMID:22694887

  3. China-Pakistan Strengthen Bilateral Custom Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mr.Abdullah Yusuf,Secretary General/Chairman,Central Board Of Revenue of Pakistan,arrived Shenzhen on April 22 to meet with Mr.Sheng Guangzu,the Chinese Minister for Customs Administration for discussing the bilateral customs issues.During his two-day visit,China's Foreign Trade Magazine interviewed to Mr.Abdullah Yusuf in Beijing,he gave the high evaluation on this visit and China's great development in the recent years.

  4. Characteristics of immigrants and bilateral trade

    OpenAIRE

    José Vicente Blanes-Cristóbal

    2008-01-01

    This paper tests the impact of immigration on bilateral trade using Spanish data from 1995 to 2003. It also explores some possible mechanisms behind this link. It uses a gravity equation for trade augmented with an immigrant’s stock variable and a set of control variables. The immigrants variable enters the estimated equation in different ways depending on immigrant relevant characteristics both individual and non individualspecific. Results show that there is a positive link between immigrat...

  5. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez; Sergio Bonafonte Royo

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL) implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for i...

  6. Psychosocial Outcomes after Bilateral Hand Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Mansher; Oser, Megan; Zinser, Jennifer; Sisk, Geoffroy; Carty, Matthew J; Sampson, Christian; Pribaz, Julian J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Talbot, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the first successful hand transplantation in 1998, there have been multiple reports about surgical technique, transplant survival, and immunosuppression. However, very limited published data exist on psychosocial outcomes following hand transplantation. Methods: We report psychosocial outcomes in a patient with bilateral hand transplants at the midforearm level with serial follow-ups over 3.5 years. Different metrics used to study psychosocial outcomes included the following...

  7. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  8. Bilateral Brodie's abscess at the proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, Halil; Bilen, Fikri Erkal; Eralp, Levent; Kocaoglu, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Brodie's abscess is a form of subacute osteomyelitis, which typically involves the metaphyses of the long tubular bones, particularly in the tibia. The diagnosis is usually made incidentally, as there are no accompanying symptoms or laboratory studies. Bilateral involvement at the proximal tibia is unusual. However, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of this entity, as it may present without symptoms. Checking the contralateral limb for concomitant Brodie's abscess is recommended.

  9. Movement sonification: Effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Oliver Effenberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities, but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicate an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation there is nearly no evidence about enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports.Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error feedback in motor learning settings we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting participants were asked to

  10. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  11. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  12. Is one motor cortex enough for two hands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simona; Staudt, Martin; Pannek, Kerstin; Borghetti, Davide; Biagi, Laura; Scelfo, Danilo; Rose, Stephen E; Tosetti, Michela; Cioni, Giovanni; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We report on a patient with mirror movements sustained by a mono-hemispheric fast control of bilateral hand muscles and normal hand function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right motor cortex evoked contractions of muscles in both hands while no responses were observed from the left hemisphere. Somatosensory-evoked potentials, functional magnetic resonance, and diffusion tractography showed evidence of sensorimotor dissociation and asymmetry of corticospinal projections, suggestive of reorganization after early unilateral left brain lesion. This is the first evidence that, in certain rare conditions, good hand function is possible with ipsilateral corticospinal reorganization, supporting the role of unexplored mechanisms of motor recovery. PMID:26104046

  13. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-06-05

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  14. Bilateral limbic system destruction in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Justin S.; Rudrauf, David; Khalsa, Sahib S.; Cassell, Martin D.; Bruss, Joel; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We report here a case study of a rare neurological patient with bilateral brain damage encompassing a substantial portion of the so-called “limbic system.” The patient, Roger, has been studied in our laboratory for over 14 years and the current article presents his complete neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profiles. The brain damage occurred in 1980 following an episode of herpes simplex encephalitis. The amount of destroyed neural tissue is extensive and includes bilateral damage to core limbic and paralimbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal poles, orbitofrontal cortex, basal forebrain, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex. The right hemisphere is more extensively affected than the left, although the lesions are largely bilateral. Despite the magnitude of his brain damage, Roger has a normal IQ, average to above average attention, working memory, and executive functioning skills, and very good speech and language abilities. In fact, his only obvious presenting deficits are a dense global amnesia and a severe anosmia and ageusia. Roger's case presents a rare opportunity to advance our understanding of the critical functions underlying the human limbic system, and the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical data presented here provide a critical foundation for such investigations. PMID:19763994

  15. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  16. Bilateral femoral neck fractures following pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 300 cases of femoral neck fractures following radiotherapy for intrapelvic malignant tumor have been reported in various countries since Baensch reported this disease in 1927. In Japan, 40 cases or so have been reported, and cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures have not reached to ten cases. The authors experienced a case of 75 year-old female who received radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, and suffered from right femoral neck fracture 3 months after and left femoral neck fracture one year and half after. As clinical symptoms, she had not previous history of trauma in bilateral femurs, but she complained of a pain in a hip joint and of gait disturbance. The pain in left femoral neck continued for about one month before fracture was recognized with roentgenogram. As histopathological findings, increase of fat marrow, decrease of bone trabeculae, and its marked degeneration were recognized. Proliferation of some blood vessels was found out, but thickness of the internal membrane and thrombogenesis were not recognized. Treatment should be performed according to degree of displacement of fractures. In this case, artificial joint replacement surgery was performed to the side of fracture of this time, because this case was bilateral femoral neck fractures and the patient had received artificial head replacement surgery in the other side of fracture formerly. (Tsunoda, M.)

  17. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  18. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  19. A case misdiagnosed as bilateral abducens palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 66-year-old male was admitted to our neurosurgical floor because of double vision and gait disturbance. Neurological examinations revealed bilateral 6th nerve palsy with both eyes pointing toward the midline. Initially, using a tentative diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions, especially localized at the base of the skull, computerized tomography of the head, cerebral angiography, orbital venography, and metrizamide CT cisternography were performed; the findings were normal. An orbital CT scan showed an enlargement of the bilateral medial rectus muscles, and the thyroid functions of T3 and T4 and the T3 uptake were all elevated, which was compatible with the diagnosis of Graves' disease. The limitations of both eyeballs were considered to be due not to the 6th nerve palsy, but to the hypertrophy of the bilateral medial rectus muscles. We neurosurgeons should recall Graves' disease as well as intracranial lesions, cerebrovascular disease, and post-traumatic sequelae when examining a patient who presents limitations of external ocular movement. (author)

  20. Diagnosis and management of bilateral nasolabial cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Parwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial cysts are painless, submucosal, non-odontogenic jaw cysts presenting as soft tissue swellings in the maxillary anterior mucolabial fold lateral to midline, leading to elevation of nasal ala. Present case documents bilateral nasolabial cysts in a 69-year-old Asian female patient. In the present case, extraoral swelling of maxillary lip and elevation of nasal ala was observed on right side of the face. Intraorally, soft and fluctuant bilateral cysts were observed. Straw-colored fluid was aspirated from the right cyst. Radiographically, erosion of bone in a "cupping" fashion was observed in the region of left cyst. The cysts were enucleated using intraoral approach. Histopathology of the right-sided cyst revealed a cystic cavity lined by stratified squamous cells along with a few mucosal cells. At few places, stratified squamous and pseudostratified columnar epithelia with many cilia and goblet cells were also evident. Capsule was loosely arranged with fibrous tissue and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Left-sided cystic specimen showed two or more layered stratified squamous lining epithelium with thin capsule. Diagnosis of bilateral nasolabial/nasoalveolar cysts was confirmed.

  1. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  2. Directed flux motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  3. FEATURES OF BILATERAL BREAST CANCER NODAL METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on issues related to the identification and investigation of the lymph node metastases with bilateral breast cancer. The presence of metastases in the lymph nodes determines the stage of the disease, and introducing a form of tumor progression, characterizes the course and prognosis for the future in a specific patient. Thus, the identification of possible morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor tissue and their comparison with the frequency and severity of regional lymph nodes would help to solve the problem of the identification of prognostic factors and markers associated with the risk of nodal metastasis in bilateral breast cancer. This work is relevant due to the fact that the literature on this issue to date are treated ambiguously, and answers to many questions, unfortunately, no.The authors performed a morphological study of the tumor tissue from 600 patients suffering from unilateral and bilateral breast cancer. To avoid false results were studied only cases corresponding to the histological type of invasive carcinoma of non-specific type. The study found that a greater number and a greater percentage of the affected lymph node metastases were observed in patients with bilaterally synchronous tumors. The patients of this group of metastatic lymph nodes was detected more frequently in the presence of infiltrative component of three or more types of structures with the presence of these discrete groups of tumor cells, and the observed maximum degree of inflammatory infiltration of the tumor stroma. In the group of patients with unilateral breast cancer nodal metastasis often detects when triple negative molecular genetic type of the lesion, with large amounts of tumor site, in the presence of infiltrative component of three or more types of structures with the obligatory presence of these microalveolar structures and discretely spaced groups of tumor cells and the highest severity of

  4. Cognitive representation of human action: theory, applications, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSeegelke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective article, we propose a cognitive architecture model of human action that stresses the importance of cognitive representations stored in long-term memory (LTM as reference structures underlying and guiding voluntary motor performance. We introduce an experimental approach to ascertain cognitive representation structures, and provide evidence from a variety of different studies, ranging from basic research in manual action to application-oriented research such as athlete performance and rehabilitation. As results from these studies strongly support the presence of functional links between cognitive and motor processes, we regard this approach as a suitable and valuable tool for a variety of different disciplines related to cognition and movement. We conclude this article by highlighting current advances in ongoing research projects aimed at improving interaction capabilities in technical systems, particularly for rehabilitation and everyday support of the elderly, and outline future research directions.

  5. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  6. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  7. Realizations of the Canonical Representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Vemuri

    2008-02-01

    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  8. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.

  9. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...... tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations...

  10. Dissociation and Association of the Embodied Representation of Tool-Use Verbs and Hand Verbs: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua; Bi, Yanchao; Liu, Youyi; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Embodied semantic theories suppose that representation of word meaning and actual sensory-motor processing are implemented in overlapping systems. According to this view, association and dissociation of different word meaning should correspond to dissociation and association of the described sensory-motor processing. Previous studies demonstrate…

  11. The alluring but misleading analogy between mirror neurons and the motor theory of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lori L; Lotto, Andrew J

    2014-04-01

    Speech is commonly claimed to relate to mirror neurons because of the alluring surface analogy of mirror neurons to the Motor Theory of speech perception, which posits that perception and production draw upon common motor-articulatory representations. We argue that the analogy fails and highlight examples of systems-level developmental approaches that have been more fruitful in revealing perception-production associations.

  12. Comprehension and Representation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉萍

    2010-01-01

    Transhfion is the faithful rcpresentation in one language of the thought, content, feeling and style written in another language. It involves two processes: comprehension and representation. Correct comprehension is the base for adequate representation. Criteria for good representation lies in two points: the version should be faithful to the original, and the version should be as intelligible as possible.

  13. Multiple Forms of Dynamic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; VanLabeke, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when…

  14. Developing representations of compound stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Visser; M.E.J. Raijmakers

    2012-01-01

    Classification based on multiple dimensions of stimuli is usually associated with similarity-based representations, whereas uni-dimensional classifications are associated with rule-based representations. This paper studies classification of stimuli and category representations in school-aged childre

  15. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  16. The field representation language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field. PMID:17434811

  17. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  18. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... figure out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination ...

  19. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We...... compare the effects of these two instruments of economic diplomacy on bilateral trade by employing a gravity model for 45 African states over the period 1980-2005. The results show that bilateral diplomatic exchange is a relatively more significant determinant of bilateral exports among African states...... that there exists a trade-off between regional integration and commercial diplomacy in facilitating exports or a lack of complementarity between these two instruments of economic diplomacy....

  20. Spectral analysis of bilateral or alternate-site kindling-induced afterdischarges in the rabbit hippocampi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Komei; Kogure, Shinichi

    2012-09-01

    Kindling is one of the popular animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study following the previous results obtained using unilateral hippocampal kindling (UK), we performed spectral analysis of bilateral or alternate-site kindling-induced afterdischarges (ADs) in the rabbit hippocampi. Eight and ten adult rabbits were used for bilateral kindling (BK) and alternate-site kindling (AK), respectively. Kindling stimuli consisted of a train of biphasic pulses (1ms duration each) of 50Hz for 1s, with suprathreshold intensity for AD. The stimulations were applied simultaneously to the bilateral hippocampi in the BK and were delivered to the right and left hippocampus once every 24h in the AK. Motor responses were classified into five stages according to the conventional criteria. All animals in BK as well as AK developed stage 5 convulsions. This contrasts to the result of UK (kindled: 50%; incomplete: 50%). We normalized power spectral density (PSD) and monitored the changes in the proportion of lower frequency band component (LFB: 0-9Hz) and the higher frequency band (HFB: 12-30Hz). BK animals showed a significantly large decrement (0.5 times, pkindling progression. Very strong positive correlations were found in both kindling animals. Chronological spectral analysis of seizure discharges, resulting in a pattern of LFB decrement accompanied by HFB increment, is a convenient tool to investigate epileptic disorders and diagnose epileptic states.

  1. Akinetic Mutism Following Bilateral Anterior Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction Due to Aneurysm: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Özözen Ayas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bilateral anterior cerebral artery (ACA territory infarction is rare localization in stroke which should always prompt a search for an anterior communicating artery (ACoA aneurysm. The common neurological manifestations are contralateral weakness predominate in the lower extremite, behavior disturbance, motor inertia, muteness, incontinence, grasp reflex, diffuse rigidity, akinetic mutism. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a 38-year-old woman presented with a left sided hemiparesia and decrease of speech for last days. She was a smoker and morbide obese. She had no any diagnosed disease. Her neurological examination had weakness of left extremites affected leg more than the arm and akinetic mutism like as no spontaneously speech and move and grasp reflex. CT showed bilateral ACA infarction which included cingulate gyrus, the right side more than left and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the interhemispheric fissure. MRI angiography showed the appearance of AcoA aneurysm. CONCLUSION: We report a patient with bilateral infarction in the ACA which a rare localization and clinicians must be alert to exist AcoA aneurysm which may bleed, different symptoms and signs like as akinetic mutism, primitive reflexes.

  2. Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS) is a brief motor screening test, specifically designed for assessment of patients with dementia, aphasia and other cognitive disorders. It focuses, therefore, on those motor symptoms, which are known to occur in association with these diseases, such as extrapyramidal, amyotrophic, and cerebellar features as well as complex cognitive‐motor phenomena such as apraxia. EMAS has been developed by a team of neurologists and psychiatrists at the ...

  3. CONSOLIDATION OF MOTOR MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    Krakauer, John W.; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-01-01

    A question of great recent interest is whether motor memory consolidates in a manner analogous to declarative memories, with the formation of a memory that progresses over time from a fragile state, susceptible to interference by a lesion or a conflicting motor task, to a stabilized state, resistant to such interference. Here, we first review studies that examine the anatomical basis for motor consolidation: evidence implicates cerebellar circuitry for two types of associative motor learning,...

  4. Sensory and Motor Processes Involved in Semantic Processing of Concrete Words

    OpenAIRE

    Takamura, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    How a semantic representation is represented in human brain is an important problem in cognitive psychology. Although some previous studies suggested that semantic processing is related to sensory or motor processes, they have not shown clear evidence that the sensory and motor processes contribute to semantic processing per se. In the present study, I examined the effects of visual and motor dual tasks on the semantic processing of animal names, tool names, and abstract words. In order to su...

  5. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study

    OpenAIRE

    Yohana eLévêque; Neil eMuggleton; Lauren eStewart; Daniele eSchön

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx pre-motor area or on the vertex and the...

  6. Motor Neurons that Multitask

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Animals use a form of sensory feedback termed proprioception to monitor their body position and modify the motor programs that control movement. In this issue of Neuron, Wen et al. (2012) provide evidence that a subset of motor neurons function as proprioceptors in C. elegans, where B-type motor neurons sense body curvature to control the bending movements that drive forward locomotion.

  7. Quantum motor and future

    CERN Document Server

    Fateev, Evgeny G

    2013-01-01

    In a popular language, the possibilities of the Casimir expulsion effect are presented, which can be the basis of quantum motors. Such motors can be in the form of a special multilayer thin film with periodic and complex nanosized structures. Quantum motors of the type of the Casimir platforms can be the base of transportation, energy and many other systems in the future.

  8. Ceratite bilateral por Acanthamoeba: relato de caso Bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nahmatallah Obeid

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A ceratite por Acanthamoeba é uma infecção ocular grave que, apesar dos recentes progressos no diagnóstico e tratamento, ainda provoca prolongada morbidade e perda da acuidade visual. Relatamos um caso de ceratite bilateral por Acanthamoeba em usuário de lentes de contato, que é o primeiro caso descrito na literatura brasileira.Acanthamoeba keratitis is a severe ocular infection which even with recent progress in diagnosis and treatment still causes long morbidity and loss of visual acuity. We describe a case of bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis in a user of contact lenses, which is the first case discussed in Brazilian literature.

  9. Effect of bilateral lesion of fastigial nucleus on postural sensorimotor behavior of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebellum has been considered a motor structure, because the majority of the cerebellum and #8217;s outputs are parts of the motor system. The cerebellum plays a major role in motor learning by adapting and fine-tuning motor programs to make accurate movements through a trial-and-error process. All outputs from the cerebellum originate from the cerebellar deep nuclei. The fastigial nucleus receives input from the vermis and from cerebellar afferents that carry vestibular, proximal somatosensory, auditory and visual information. It projects to the vestibular nuclei and the reticular formation. In this study, we aimed to clarify whether bilateral electrolytic lesion of cerebellar fastigial nucleus can modulate postural sensorimotor task in rats. Methods: Using a stereotaxic frame, the fastigial nuclei were injured by a direct current of 2 mA at 100 volts for 10 seconds. Narrow beam-walking test, grid runway test and rotarod coordination test were the main measures of the experiment. Results: The alterations in behavior were only observed on the 10th day but not on 15th day. The changes perceived in behavior on 10th day may be due the inflammation or reduced metabolism in the damaged areas followed which may recovered on 15th day as inflammation subsides or the metabolism is normalized. Conclusion: These results indicate that cerebellar fastigial nucleus lesion can modulate the motor performance and motor coordination in rats and also indicate that the behavioral alteration can be recovered after cerebellar deep nuclei destruction. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(4.000: 249-254

  10. Multiple forms of dynamic representation

    OpenAIRE

    Ainsworth, Shaaron E.; Van Labeke, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when the values occur. Time-singular representations show only a single point of time. In this paper, we examine the use of dynamic representations in inst...

  11. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kotwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS.

  12. Oscillatory entrainment of the motor cortical network during motor imagery is modulated by the feedback modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukelić, Mathias; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-05-01

    Neurofeedback of self-regulated brain activity in circumscribed cortical regions is used as a novel strategy to facilitate functional restoration following stroke. Basic knowledge about its impact on motor system oscillations and functional connectivity is however scarce. Specifically, a direct comparison between different feedback modalities and their neural signatures is missing. We assessed a neurofeedback training intervention of modulating β-activity in circumscribed sensorimotor regions by kinesthetic motor imagery (MI). Right-handed healthy participants received two different feedback modalities contingent to their MI-associated brain activity in a cross-over design: (I) visual feedback with a brain-computer interface (BCI) and (II) proprioceptive feedback with a brain-robot interface (BRI) orthosis attached to the right hand. High-density electroencephalography was used to examine the reactivity of the cortical motor system during the training session of each task by studying both local oscillatory power entrainment and distributed functional connectivity. Both feedback modalities activated a distributed functional connectivity network of coherent oscillations. A significantly higher skill and lower variability of self-controlled sensorimotor β-band modulation could, however, be achieved in the BRI condition. This gain in controlling regional motor oscillations was accompanied by functional coupling of remote β-band and θ-band activity in bilateral fronto-central regions and left parieto-occipital regions, respectively. The functional coupling of coherent θ-band oscillations correlated moreover with the skill of regional β-modulation thus revealing a motor learning related network. Our findings indicate that proprioceptive feedback is more suitable than visual feedback to entrain the motor network architecture during the interplay between motor imagery and feedback processing thus resulting in better volitional control of regional brain activity.

  13. Creating abstract topographic representations: implications for coding, learning and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Chris J

    2009-06-01

    Topographic maps are a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of the sensory and motor regions of the brain. There is less evidence for the existence of conventional topographic maps in associational areas of the brain such as the prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex. The existence of topographically arranged anatomical projections is far more widespread and occurs in associational regions of the brain as well as sensory and motor regions: this points to a more widespread existence of topographically organised maps within associational cortex than currently recognised. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that abstract topographic representations may also occur in these regions. For example, a topographic mnemonic map of visual space has been described in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and topographically arranged visuospatial attentional signals have been described in parietal association cortex. This article explores how abstract representations might be extracted from sensory topographic representations and subsequently code abstract information. Finally a simple model is presented that shows how abstract topographic representations could be integrated with other information within the brain to solve problems or form abstract associations. The model uses correlative firing to detect associations between different types of stimuli. It is flexible because it can produce correlations between information represented in a topographic or non-topographic coordinate system. It is proposed that a similar process could be used in high-level cognitive operations such as learning and reasoning.

  14. Motor extinction: a deficit of attention or intention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T David Punt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor extinction refers to a deficit of motor production on the side opposite a brain lesion that either only becomes apparent or disproportionately worsens during bilateral motor activity. It may arise due either to a contralesional deficit in setting the motor activation level (an intentional deficit or a deficit in contralesional awareness of the sensory consequences of movement (an attentional deficit. In this study, we investigate the nature of motor extinction in a patient (LR with a right fronto-temporal lesion through the kinematic analysis of unimanual and bimanual circle drawing movements. While the ipsi- and contralesional limbs performed comparably for unimanual movements, the contralesional limb demonstrated marked bradykinesia and hypometria during bimanual movements. Furthermore, these deficits were not overcome when visual feedback of the contralesional limb was provided (Experiment 1. However, when performing bimanual movements in the presence of a visual template (Experiment 2, LR was able to overcome the contralesional hypometria but not the bradykinesia which proved intractable across both experiments. Both the bradykinesia and hypometria could result from an intentional deficit of motor production. However, in Experiment 2, LR also demonstrated an abnormal level of positional drift in the contralesional limb for bimanual movements indicative of an additional attentional deficit. We conclude that LR’s presentation of motor extinction is the result of a primary intentional deficit and a secondary attentional deficit.

  15. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for it could be the only sign of secondary glaucoma.

  16. Bilateral generating functions and operational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Bilateral generating functions are those involving products of different types of polynomials. It is showed that operational methods offer a powerful tool to derive these families of generating functions. Cases relevant to products of Hermite and Laguerre, Hermite and Legendre ... polynomials and propose further extensions of the method are studied in this report. [Italian] Le funzioni generatrici bilaterali sono quelle che coinvolgono prodotti di tipi differenti di polinomi, si dimostra che i metodi operazionali offrono uno strumento potente per derivare queste nuove famiglie di funzioni speciali. Si studiano casi relativi a prodotti di polinomi di Hermite e Laguerre, Hermite e Legendre. Si propongono infine possibili estensioni del metodo.

  17. Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia following mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, N; Veerarajkumar, N; Madeswaran, K

    2001-05-01

    A 7-year-old child presented with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) following a trivial head injury. CT was normal. MRI revealed a pontine lesion. Two months after the injury the patient was neurologically normal. INO following head injury is rare. Rarer still is INO following mild head injury. To date, only four cases of INO had been reported following mild head injury; the present case is the fifth and the first in which the lesion was documented using MRI. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:11417420

  18. Bilateral maculopathy associated with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Matthew T; Vasan, Ryan; Levy, Richard; Davis, Jessica; Chan, R V Paul

    2012-08-01

    Pierre Robin sequence has been associated with a number of ocular complications, including myopia, strabismus, Möbius syndrome, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, glaucoma, cataract, microphthalmos, coloboma of choroid, and retinal detachment. We report a 10-day-old boy who presented with micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate as well as multiple congenital anomalies. Ophthalmic examination was notable for bilateral maculopathy, with focal areas of retinal and retinal pigment epithelial atrophy. The association of Pierre Robin sequence and maculopathy has been reported only twice previously.

  19. Bilateral akillesseneruptur efter behandling med ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attarzadeh, Amir Pasha; Ryge, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons following ciprofloxacin treatment. A 54-year-old man presented with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture on the left side, tendinitis and partial tear on the right side following few days of treatment with...... ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily and long-term treatment with prednisolon 10 mg once daily. This rare side effect caused by concurrent treatment with steroids and ciprofloxacin should be kept in mind. Any signs of tendinitis following this treatment should arouse the physicians' suspicion towards ciprofloxacin....

  20. Bilateral pulmonary sequestration: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja Hong; Jeon, Eui Yong; Seo, Heung Suk; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    A 21-year-old woman presented with productive cough and hemoptysis. Chest radiograph shows a large thin-walled cystic lesion with an air-fluid level in medial portion of the left lower lung zone and opacity in paravertebral area of the right lower lung zone. Chest CT scan shows a thin-walled cavitary lesion in the posterior basal segment of left lower lobe with an air-fluid level. Area of consolidation containing air-filled cysts was also observed in medial aspect of right lower lobe. Selective angiogram obtained from aberrant artery arising from descending abdominal aorta showed two main branches of the artery supplying bilateral pulmonary lesions.

  1. The mental representation of music notation: notational audiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Warren; Kessler, Yoav; Rubinstein, Bat-Sheva; Ginsborg, Jane; Henik, Avishai

    2008-04-01

    This study investigated the mental representation of music notation. Notational audiation is the ability to internally "hear" the music one is reading before physically hearing it performed on an instrument. In earlier studies, the authors claimed that this process engages music imagery contingent on subvocal silent singing. This study refines the previously developed embedded melody task and further explores the phonatory nature of notational audiation with throat-audio and larynx-electromyography measurement. Experiment 1 corroborates previous findings and confirms that notational audiation is a process engaging kinesthetic-like covert excitation of the vocal folds linked to phonatory resources. Experiment 2 explores whether covert rehearsal with the mind's voice also involves actual motor processing systems and suggests that the mental representation of music notation cues manual motor imagery. Experiment 3 verifies findings of both Experiments 1 and 2 with a sample of professional drummers. The study points to the profound reliance on phonatory and manual motor processing--a dual-route stratagem--used during music reading. Further implications concern the integration of auditory and motor imagery in the brain and cross-modal encoding of a unisensory input. PMID:18377180

  2. Structural hemispheric asymmetries in the human precentral gyrus hand representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S; Rowland, T; Pannek, K; Baumann, F; Coulthard, A; McCombe, P; Henderson, R

    2012-05-17

    The superior region of the precentral gyrus (preCG) is known to be actively involved with hand function and has been proposed as a possible neural correlate of handedness. To test this hypothesis, we used a combined voxel-based morphometric (VBM) asymmetry analysis of structural MRI, along with diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography to investigate laterality indices of corticomotor white matter (WM) pathways, based on measures of fractional anisotropy (FA). The relationship between measures of motor performance and FA laterality indices was also investigated. In a cohort of 14 right-handed healthy participants, the VBM asymmetry analysis revealed an area within the preCG associated with hand representation. The tractography analysis revealed that this region possessed a number of major WM intrahemispheric connections to the brain stem, thalamus, cerebellum, postcentral, caudal middle and superior frontal, and superior and inferior parietal corticomotor regions. Within the corticospinal tracts, we found FA was significantly higher in the left hemisphere compared with the right. Furthermore, significant correlations were found between FA asymmetry measures projecting from this region, namely corticospinal tracts and those connecting the postcentral gyri, with grip strength and finger-tapping performance, respectively. A number of the motor pathways projecting from this region also exhibited leftward asymmetry of FA distributions. The findings from this study highlight the role of the left motor cortex in skilled motor performance and provide a framework for the study of the relationship between handedness and preCG hand representation in larger normative populations. PMID:22433295

  3. Solid propellant motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  4. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  5. Induction motor control design

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Riccardo; Verrelli, Cristiano M

    2010-01-01

    ""Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design for Induction Motors"" is a unified exposition of the most important steps and concerns in the design of estimation and control algorithms for induction motors. A single notation and modern nonlinear control terminology is used to make the book accessible to readers who are not experts in electric motors at the same time as giving a more theoretical control viewpoint to those who are. In order to increase readability, the book concentrates on the induction motor, eschewing the much more complex and less-well-understood control of asynchronous motors. The

  6. Pain relativity in motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, I T; Seymour, B; Vlaev, I; Trommershäuser, J; Dolan, R J; Chater, N

    2010-06-01

    Motivational theories of pain highlight its role in people's choices of actions that avoid bodily damage. By contrast, little is known regarding how pain influences action implementation. To explore this less-understood area, we conducted a study in which participants had to rapidly point to a target area to win money while avoiding an overlapping penalty area that would cause pain in their contralateral hand. We found that pain intensity and target-penalty proximity repelled participants' movement away from pain and that motor execution was influenced not by absolute pain magnitudes but by relative pain differences. Our results indicate that the magnitude and probability of pain have a precise role in guiding motor control and that representations of pain that guide action are, at least in part, relative rather than absolute. Additionally, our study shows that the implicit monetary valuation of pain, like many explicit valuations (e.g., patients' use of rating scales in medical contexts), is unstable, a finding that has implications for pain treatment in clinical contexts.

  7. Pain relativity in motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, I T; Seymour, B; Vlaev, I; Trommershäuser, J; Dolan, R J; Chater, N

    2010-06-01

    Motivational theories of pain highlight its role in people's choices of actions that avoid bodily damage. By contrast, little is known regarding how pain influences action implementation. To explore this less-understood area, we conducted a study in which participants had to rapidly point to a target area to win money while avoiding an overlapping penalty area that would cause pain in their contralateral hand. We found that pain intensity and target-penalty proximity repelled participants' movement away from pain and that motor execution was influenced not by absolute pain magnitudes but by relative pain differences. Our results indicate that the magnitude and probability of pain have a precise role in guiding motor control and that representations of pain that guide action are, at least in part, relative rather than absolute. Additionally, our study shows that the implicit monetary valuation of pain, like many explicit valuations (e.g., patients' use of rating scales in medical contexts), is unstable, a finding that has implications for pain treatment in clinical contexts. PMID:20435952

  8. Music as Representational Art

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONVolume IMusic as Representational ArtVolume IIAwakeningbyDaniel WalkerDoctor of Philosophy in MusicUniversity of California, Los Angeles, 2014Professor Ian Krouse, ChairThere are two volumes to this dissertation; the first is a monograph, and the second is a musical composition, both of which are described below.Volume IMusic is a language that can be used to express a vast range of ideas and emotions. It has been part of the human experience since before recorded ...

  9. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2012-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...... Satan episode in Under Satan’s Sun is neither a break with the seriousness nor with the realism of the Catholic novel. On the basis of Tvetan Todorov’s definition of the traditional fantastic tale, the analysis shows that only the beginning of the fantastic episode follows Todorov’s definition...

  10. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...... Satan episode in Under Satan’s Sun is neither a break with the seriousness nor with the realism of the Catholic novel. On the basis of Tvetan Todorov’s definition of the traditional fantastic tale, the analysis shows that only the beginning of the fantastic episode follows Todorov’s definition...

  11. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  12. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  13. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  14. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our......Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...

  15. Increased cortico-striatal connectivity during motor practice contributes to the consolidation of motor memory in writer's cramp patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gallea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor representations of movements are created in the sensorimotor network through repeated practice to support successful and effortless performance. Writer's cramp (WC is a disorder acquired through extensive practice of finger movements, and it is likely associated with the abnormal acquisition of sensorimotor representations. We investigated (i the activation and connectivity changes in the brain network supporting the acquisition of sensorimotor representations of finger sequences in patients with WC and (ii the link between these changes and consolidation of motor performance 24 h after the initial practice. Twenty-two patients with WC and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers practiced a complex sequence with the right (pathological hand during functional MRI recording. Speed and accuracy were measured immediately before and after practice (day 1 and 24 h after practice (day 2. The two groups reached equivalent motor performance on day 1 and day 2. During motor practice, patients with WC had (i reduced hippocampal activation and hippocampal–striatal functional connectivity; and (ii overactivation of premotor–striatal areas, whose connectivity correlated with motor performance after consolidation. These results suggest that patients with WC use alternative networks to reach equiperformance in the acquisition of new motor memories.

  16. Distributed representations accelerate evolution of adaptive behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Stone

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals with rudimentary innate abilities require substantial learning to transform those abilities into useful skills, where a skill can be considered as a set of sensory-motor associations. Using linear neural network models, it is proved that if skills are stored as distributed representations, then within-lifetime learning of part of a skill can induce automatic learning of the remaining parts of that skill. More importantly, it is shown that this "free-lunch" learning (FLL is responsible for accelerated evolution of skills, when compared with networks which either 1 cannot benefit from FLL or 2 cannot learn. Specifically, it is shown that FLL accelerates the appearance of adaptive behaviour, both in its innate form and as FLL-induced behaviour, and that FLL can accelerate the rate at which learned behaviours become innate.

  17. Timpanismo bilateral de bolsa gutural em potro Bilateral tympany of a guttural pouch in foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Araújo Valadão

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma potra da raça Quarto de Milha com dois meses de idade apresentava aumento de volume bilateral na região da parótida desde algumas horas após o nascimento. Por exame radiográfico diagnosticou-se timpanismo bilateral de bolsa gutural. Realizou-se a abertura cirúrgica da bolsa gutural esquerda e fenestrou-se o septo medial das bolsas guturais. Adicionalmente, procedeu-se à ressecção parcial da mucosa na abertura do orifício guturo-faríngeo. A afecção foi debelada, sem recidivas.A 2-month old Quarter Horse filly presented, since few hours after birth, increased bilateral volume in the parotid gland region, with progressive enlargement. The radiographic examination revealed bilateral tympany of guttural pouch. Surgery was performed by medial septal fenestration. In addition, partial ressection of mucous membrane of the pharingeal orifice was performed. The disease was healed without recurrences.

  18. Representation of action in Parkinson's disease: imagining, observing, and naming actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakoff, Ellen

    2013-09-01

    People with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit slowed movements and difficulty in initiating movements. This review addresses the issue of whether or not cognitive representations of actions in PD are affected, alongside these motor problems. In healthy people, the motor system can be involved in tasks such as observing a graspable object or another person's action, or imagining and naming actions, in the absence of overt movement. As described in this review, the fact that the slowed real movements exhibited by PD patients are coupled with slower motor imagery and verb processing provides additional evidence for the involvement of the motor system in these processes. On the other hand, PD patients can still engage in motor imagery and action observation to some extent, which is encouraging for the use of these processes in rehabilitation. Findings across the different domains of action-representation reveal several important factors. First, the nature of action is critical: patients' performance in observation and naming tasks is influenced by whether or not the action is in their repertoire and by the extent of motion required to execute the action. Second, people with PD may use alternative or compensatory mechanisms to represent actions, such as relying more on a third-person perspective or a visual strategy. Third, people with PD show a lack of specificity, responding as strongly to stimuli related and unrelated to actions. Investigating action-representation in PD has implications for our understanding of both the symptoms of PD and the cognitive representation of actions in the healthy system.

  19. Unusual Bilateral Rim Fracture in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of one case of bilateral acetabular rim fracture in association with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI, which was treated with a hip arthroscopic procedure, performing a partial resection, a labral reinsertion, and a subsequential internal fixation with cannulated screws. Up to date, there are in the literature only two reports of rim fracture and “os acetabuli” in association with FAI. In the case we present, the pincer and cam resection were performed without complications; the technique used was published previously. With this technique the head of the screw lays hidden by the reattached labrum. We removed partially the fractured rim fragment and the internal fixation of the remaining portion was achieved with a screw. In the event of a complete resection of the fragment, it would have ended with a LCE angle of 18° and a high probability of hip instability. We believe that this bilateral case helps establish the efficacy and reproducibility of the technique described by Larson.

  20. A RARE CASE OF BILATERAL MICROSPHEREPHAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microspherophakia is rare bilateral congenital anamoly of the crystalline lens. The condition may be isolated , familial or it may be associated with systemic affections like Marfan's syndrome , Weil - Marchesani syndrome , hyperlysinemia and congenital rubella. Microspherophakia results in lenticular myopia , lens dislocation , usually inferiorly and inverse glaucoma. We present a case in a 8 year old child who presented with bilateral microspherophakia and anterior dislocation of lens of right eye. visual acuity in right eye was counting fingers close to face and i n left eye 6/60.IOP with perkins applanation tonometer was 30mmHg in right eye 22mmHg in left eye , cornea was hazy due to edema , anterior chamber was shallow in both eye patient was managed with emergency lens extraction of right eye and secondary ACIOL im plantation. Left eye was managed by laser peripheral iridotomy. IOP was within normal limits postoperatively in both eyes without any antiglaucoma medications. Postoperatively best corrected visual acuity in right was 6/18 and 6/9 in left eye.

  1. [Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mejido, José Antonio; Delgado-Jiménez, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Palomino, Laura; Sánchez-Sevilla, Miguel; Iglesias-Bravo, Eva; Caballero-Fernández, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: el cáncer de mama en el hombre es una enfermedad con baja incidencia, que se reduce aún más cuando es bilateral sincrónica. Existen pocas publicaciones en los últimos años. Objetivo: establecer pautas para el tratamiento de este cáncer, aunque sea infrecuente. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 75 años de edad, con tumores en ambas mamas, que se le resecaron completamente con exéresis de ganglios palpables. El estudio histopatológico informó que se trataba de un carcinoma ductal infiltrante no especificado. Se indicó tratamiento adyuvante con tamoxifeno y radioterapia; en la actualidad está libre de enfermedad. Conclusiones: el carcinoma mamario bilateral sincrónico en el varón es una enfermedad poco frecuente. Su tratamiento principal es la cirugía, de ahí la importancia del diagnóstico temprano. En la mayoría de los casos se requiere quimioterapia y radioterapia adyuvante porque suelen diagnosticarse en un estadio avanzado.

  2. Bilateral Electrical Cataract: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To present a rare complication, such as bilateral cataracts, in a man who sustained a high-voltage electrical injury. A 35- year-old man was admitted with a complaint of decrease in visual acuity. He had a history of a contact with a power line carrying 30.000 volts of electricity while working at a construction site. Examination at a burn center revealed second-degree facial, neck and left foot burns. One month later, the patient underwent amputation of fourth and fifth toes of his left foot. During the next 6 months, he noted decreasing vision in both eyes. Ocular examination 1 year after the accident revealed that the patient’s visual acuity had deteriorated to 1/10 in both eyes. The cornea on the left eye showed superficial punctate opacities. The lenses in both eyes had anterior subcapsular cortical lens opacities and posterior subcapsular opacities. Uncomplicated bilateral phacoemulsification surgery with intraocular lens implantation was performed and the patient’s visual acuity returned to 10/10 in both eyes. We noted that the fundus remained normal in both eyes. Electrical cataracts are still a serious potential complication that may occur after electrical injury. Awareness of this by burn team members is important for providing optimal treatment to those who have suffered an electrical injury. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 197-9

  3. Hiatus Hernia Repair with Bilateral Oesophageal Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Rajith; Cheung, Caran; Martin, David

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite advances in surgical repair of hiatus hernias, there remains a high radiological recurrence rate. We performed a novel technique incorporating bilateral oesophageal fixation and evaluated outcomes, principally symptom improvement and hernia recurrence. Methods. A retrospective study was performed on a prospective database of patients undergoing hiatus hernia repair with bilateral oesophageal fixation. Retrospective and prospective quality of life (QOL), PPI usage, and patient satisfaction data were obtained. Hernia recurrence was assessed by either barium swallow or gastroscopy. Results. 87 patients were identified in the database with a minimum of 3 months followup. There were significant improvements in QOL scores including GERD HRQL (29.13 to 4.38, P < 0.01), Visick (3 to 1), and RSI (17.45 to 5, P < 0.01). PPI usage decreased from a median of daily to none, and there was high patient satisfaction (94%). 57 patients were assessed for recurrence with either gastroscopy or barium swallow, and one patient had evidence of recurrence on barium swallow at 45 months postoperatively. There was an 8% complication rate and no mortality or oesophageal perforation. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that our technique is both safe and effective in symptom control, and our recurrence investigations demonstrate at least short term durability. PMID:26065030

  4. Hiatus Hernia Repair with Bilateral Oesophageal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajith Mendis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite advances in surgical repair of hiatus hernias, there remains a high radiological recurrence rate. We performed a novel technique incorporating bilateral oesophageal fixation and evaluated outcomes, principally symptom improvement and hernia recurrence. Methods. A retrospective study was performed on a prospective database of patients undergoing hiatus hernia repair with bilateral oesophageal fixation. Retrospective and prospective quality of life (QOL, PPI usage, and patient satisfaction data were obtained. Hernia recurrence was assessed by either barium swallow or gastroscopy. Results. 87 patients were identified in the database with a minimum of 3 months followup. There were significant improvements in QOL scores including GERD HRQL (29.13 to 4.38, P<0.01, Visick (3 to 1, and RSI (17.45 to 5, P<0.01. PPI usage decreased from a median of daily to none, and there was high patient satisfaction (94%. 57 patients were assessed for recurrence with either gastroscopy or barium swallow, and one patient had evidence of recurrence on barium swallow at 45 months postoperatively. There was an 8% complication rate and no mortality or oesophageal perforation. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that our technique is both safe and effective in symptom control, and our recurrence investigations demonstrate at least short term durability.

  5. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  6. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  7. Spatial constancy mechanisms in motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medendorp, W Pieter

    2011-02-27

    The success of the human species in interacting with the environment depends on the ability to maintain spatial stability despite the continuous changes in sensory and motor inputs owing to movements of eyes, head and body. In this paper, I will review recent advances in the understanding of how the brain deals with the dynamic flow of sensory and motor information in order to maintain spatial constancy of movement goals. The first part summarizes studies in the saccadic system, showing that spatial constancy is governed by a dynamic feed-forward process, by gaze-centred remapping of target representations in anticipation of and across eye movements. The subsequent sections relate to other oculomotor behaviour, such as eye-head gaze shifts, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements, and their implications for feed-forward mechanisms for spatial constancy. Work that studied the geometric complexities in spatial constancy and saccadic guidance across head and body movements, distinguishing between self-generated and passively induced motion, indicates that both feed-forward and sensory feedback processing play a role in spatial updating of movement goals. The paper ends with a discussion of the behavioural mechanisms of spatial constancy for arm motor control and their physiological implications for the brain. Taken together, the emerging picture is that the brain computes an evolving representation of three-dimensional action space, whose internal metric is updated in a nonlinear way, by optimally integrating noisy and ambiguous afferent and efferent signals. PMID:21242137

  8. A case of bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas differentiated by segmental adrenal venous sampling for bilateral adrenal sparing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, R; Satani, N; Iwakura, Y; Ono, Y; Kudo, M; Nezu, M; Omata, K; Tezuka, Y; Seiji, K; Ota, H; Kawasaki, Y; Ishidoya, S; Nakamura, Y; Arai, Y; Takase, K; Sasano, H; Ito, S; Satoh, F

    2016-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is a surgically curable form of hypertension. Bilateral APA can also be surgically curable in theory but few successful cases can be found in the literature. It has been reported that even using successful adrenal venous sampling (AVS) via bilateral adrenal central veins, it is extremely difficult to differentiate bilateral APA from bilateral idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) harbouring computed tomography (CT)-detectable bilateral adrenocortical nodules. We report a case of bilateral APA diagnosed by segmental AVS (S-AVS) and blood sampling via intra-adrenal first-degree tributary veins to localize the sites of intra-adrenal hormone production. A 36-year-old man with marked long-standing hypertension was referred to us with a clinical diagnosis of bilateral APA. He had typical clinical and laboratory profiles of marked hypertension, hypokalaemia, elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) of 45.1 ng dl(-1) and aldosterone renin activity ratio of 90.2 (ng dl(-1) per ng ml(-1 )h(-1)), which was still high after 50 mg-captopril loading. CT revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumours of 10 and 12 mm in diameter on the right and left sides, respectively. S-AVS confirmed excess aldosterone secretion from a tumour segment vein and suppressed secretion from a non-tumour segment vein bilaterally, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral APA. The patient underwent simultaneous bilateral sparing adrenalectomy. Histopathological analysis of the resected adrenals together with decreased blood pressure and PAC of 5.2 ng dl(-1) confirmed the removal of bilateral APA. S-AVS was reliable to differentiate bilateral APA from IHA by direct evaluation of intra-adrenal hormone production. PMID:26538381

  9. Effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation on resting-state cerebral glucose metabolism in advanced Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永波; 孙伯民; 李殿友; 王乔树

    2004-01-01

    Background The major neuropathological symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) consist of a loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies. This study was to investigate the effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation on resting-state cerebral glucose metabolism in advanced PD, and investigate the mechanism of deep brain stimulation (DBS).Methods Seven consecutive advanced PD patients (4 men and 3 women, mean age 64±4 years, mean H-Y disability rating 4.4±0.65) receiving bilateral STN DBS underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)/positron-emission tomography (PET) examinations at rest both preoperatively and one month postoperatively, with STN stimulation still on. The unified PD rating scale was used to evaluate the clinical state under each condition. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to investigate the regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRGlu) during STN stimulation, and to compare these values to rCMRGlu preoperation. Results STN stimulation clearly improved clinical symptoms in all patients. A significant increase in rCMRGlu was found in the bilateral lentiform nucleus, brainstem (midbrain and pons), bilateral premotor area (BA6), parietal-occipital cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex, and a marked decrease in rCMRGlu was noted in the left limbic lobe and bilateral inferior frontal cortex (P<0.05). Conclusion Bilateral STN stimulation may activate the projection axon from the STN, improving clinical symptoms in advanced PD patients by improving both ascending and descending pathways from the basal ganglia and increasing the metabolism of higher-order motor control in the frontal cortex.

  10. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  11. Knowledge representation with SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gotseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of supporting the software development process through the artificial intelligence. The expert systems could advise the Domain Engineer in programming without the detailed experience in programming languages. He will use and integrate, with the help of deductive database and domain knowledge, the previously developed software components to new complex functionalities. The objective of this document is to provide the knowledge representation about atomic Web Services which will be registered as the facts in the deductive database. The author proposes to use the decision rules in decision tables for representing the service model which consists of semantic specification, interface description, service quality (QoS, non-functional properties. Also the use of Domain Specific Languages (DSL for modeling Domain Engineers re-quests to the expert system will be considered within this document. As the illustrative use case for described knowledge representation the author proposes the domain of SOA-based geographic information systems (GIS which represent a new branch of information and communication technologies.

  12. Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with congenital pleuro-pleural communication

    OpenAIRE

    HATA, YOSHINOBU; Suzuki, Takashi; Yokoi, Masahide; Yoshida, Shuji; Takeyama, Teruaki; Nakazaki, Haruhiro; Goto, Hidenori; Sato, Fumitomo; Takagi, Keigo; Otsuka, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    A single pleural space can lead to serious simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax in cases of congenital or acquired pleuro-pleural communication. Here we report a 35-year-old man with bilateral pneumothorax. Chest computed tomography scans revealed a small air space between the esophagus and aorta, suggesting pleuro-pleural communication. Bilateral thoracoscopic bullectomy was performed. Repeated inspection revealed a 2-cm-long pleural window between the aorta and esophagus, which was closed wi...

  13. Bilateral Traumatic Anterior Dislocation of Shoulder – a rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Yashavantha Kumar C; Nalini K B; Lalit Maini; Prashanth Nagaraj

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Bilateral shoulder dislocation are most commonly posterior type. These are most commonly due to seizure disorder and electrocution. Anterior shoulder dislocations occurring bilaterally without any predisposing factors are very rare. These types of injuries are due to trauma with a unique mechanism of injury. To best of our knowledge there are only few cases of similar kind are reported in literature. We hereby report a interesting case of posttraumatic, bilateral anterior dislo...

  14. Bilateral fat necrosis of the breast: report of a case.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonobe,Hiroshi; SATO, Yasuo; Suzuki,Yoshihide; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kawabata, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral fat necrosis of the breast is reported. The patient was a 50-year-old unmarried woman having no history of trauma, disease or surgery of the breast. In the bilateral breasts, ill-defined, firm masses with skin retraction were noted. Bilateral breast cancer was diagnosed clinically. However, both lesions showed histologically chronic granulomatous inflammation with foci of fatty necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, lipid containing foamy cells, foreign ...

  15. Unilateral versus Bilateral Instrumentation in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Molinari, Robert W.; Saleh, Ahmed; Molinari, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeff; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) What is the comparative efficacy of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? (2) What is the safety of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched up to September 30, 2014, to identify studies reporting the comparative efficacy and safety of unilateral versus bilateral instrume...

  16. Bilateral pneumothoraces complicating reduction mammoplasty: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Stylianos; Gnauk, Hans Georg; Schumacher, Martina; Wagner, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Background Bilateral pneumothoraces after cosmetic breast surgery are rare and sporadically reported in the literature. Case presentation A 65-year-old female patient developed bilateral pneumothoraces after bilateral breast reduction surgery. Emergent chest tube thoracostomy was performed on both sides. The chest drains were removed on the fourth day (left side) and sixth day (right side), and the patient was discharged after 7 days of hospitalization without any further complications. Concl...

  17. Associations of postural knowledge and basic motor skill with dyspraxia in autism: implication for abnormalities in distributed connectivity and motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Lauren R; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2009-09-01

    Children with autism often have difficulty performing skilled movements. Praxis performance requires basic motor skill, knowledge of representations of the movement (mediated by parietal regions), and transcoding of these representations into movement plans (mediated by premotor circuits). The goals of this study were (a) to determine whether dyspraxia in autism is associated with impaired representational ("postural") knowledge and (b) to examine the contributions of postural knowledge and basic motor skill to dyspraxia in autism. Thirty-seven children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 50 typically developing (TD) children, ages 8-13, completed (a) an examination of basic motor skills, (b) a postural knowledge test assessing praxis discrimination, and (c) a praxis examination. Children with ASD showed worse basic motor skill and postural knowledge than did controls. The ASD group continued to show significantly poorer praxis than did controls after accounting for age, IQ, basic motor skill, and postural knowledge. Dyspraxia in autism appears to be associated with impaired formation of spatial representations, as well as transcoding and execution. Distributed abnormality across parietal, premotor, and motor circuitry, as well as anomalous connectivity, may be implicated. PMID:19702410

  18. Bilateral Filtering using Modified Fuzzy Clustering for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Vijaya,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel bilateral filtering using weighed fcm algorithm based on Gaussian kernel unction for image manipulations such as segmentation and denoising . Our proposed bilateral filteringconsists of the standard bilateral filter and the original Euclidean distance is replaced by a kernel – induced distance in the algorithm. We have applied the proposed filtering for image denoising with both the impulse and Gaussian random noise, which achieves better results than the bilateral filtering based denoising approaches, the Perona-Maliks anisotropic diffusion filter, the fuzzy vector median filter and the Non-Local Means filter.

  19. Representation of Musical Computer Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fober, Dominique; Orlarey, Yann; Letz, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    International audience The paper presents a study about the representation of musical computer processes within a music score. The idea is to provide performers with information that could be useful especially in the context of interactive music. The paper starts with a characterization of a musical computer process in order to define the values to be represented. Next it proposes an approach to time representation suitable to asynchronous processes representation.

  20. Bilateral pulmonary emboli after bilateral mastectomy in a 15-year-old boy with hypogonadism: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Piggott, JR; Yazdani, Arjang

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary emboli are rare, yet serious, complications of body contouring surgery. When they occur, they more often follow as complications of long, invasive procedures in adults. The present report details a case of bilateral pulmonary emboli in an obese 15-year-old boy with hypogonadism undergoing bilateral mastectomy for gynecomastia. The diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary emboli was made on the basis of clinical presentation and positive ventilation/perfusion scan. The patient responded well...

  1. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations....... Concerning this congruence property, it turns out that working with the induced representations is easier than with Selberg's character itself. We also show that the kernels of the induced representations determine an infinite sequence of noncongruence groups, whose noncongruence property can not be detected...

  2. Integral geometry and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gel'fand, I M; Vilenkin, N Ya

    1966-01-01

    Generalized Functions, Volume 5: Integral Geometry and Representation Theory is devoted to the theory of representations, focusing on the group of two-dimensional complex matrices of determinant one.This book emphasizes that the theory of representations is a good example of the use of algebraic and geometric methods in functional analysis, in which transformations are performed not on the points of a space, but on the functions defined on it. The topics discussed include Radon transform on a real affine space, integral transforms in the complex domain, and representations of the group of comp

  3. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi eNaito

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available How very long-term (over many years motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while he rotated his right ankle at 1Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar’s brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  4. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  5. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  6. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  7. Parental representations of transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Barr, R

    1982-06-01

    The parental representations of 30 male-to-female transsexuals were rated using a measure of fundamental parental dimensions and shown to be of acceptable validity as a measure both of perceived and actual parental characteristics. Scores on that measure were compared separately against scores returned by matched male and female controls. The transsexuals did not differ from the male controls in their scoring of their mothers but did score their fathers as less caring and more overprotective. These differences were weaker for the comparisons made against the female controls. Item analyses suggested that the greater paternal "overprotection" experienced by transsexuals was due to their fathers being perceived as offering less encouragement to their sons' independence and autonomy. Several interpretations of the findings are considered. PMID:7138296

  8. Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Chakrabarti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features of Marfan syndrome and was stamped as a case of Marfan syndrome by Ghent criteria . The point to stress upon is that a young male developing spontaneous retinal detachment, a diagnosis of underlying Marfan syndrome should be kept in mind if appropriate clinical stigmata are present. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 104-105

  9. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  10. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  11. CASE OF BILATERAL ANTERIOR SEGMENT TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Kishan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an important cause of uveitis in our country. India has been declared the country with the highest tuberculosis burden with 25 % of the cases . (1 This is especially true in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana which have a high percentage of affected patients. However , tuberculous uveitis is usually a unilateral presen tation. We report a case of bilateral uveitis of tuberculous origin in a 55 year old woman. She presented with different tuberculous manifestations in the two eyes. While the RE showed non granulomatous uveitis with sclerosing keratitis , the LE showed gran ulomatous uveitis with mutton fat keratic precipitates. Systemic examination revealed an enlarged lymph node which was positive for tuberculosis on biopsy. She was hence diagnosed as extra pulmonary tuberculosis and was treated with ATT regimen. In this pa tient , uveitis was the initial manifestation and resulted in a systemic diagnosis.

  12. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in polycythemia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shruti; Agito, Katrina; Krug, Esther I

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH) is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support. Despite primary coronary intervention, he remained hypotensive. Random cortisol level was low. He received stress dose hydrocortisone with immediate hemodynamic stability. BAH was highly suspected and was confirmed by non-contrast abdominal computed tomography. Prompt recognition and timely initiated treatment remain crucial to impact the mortality associated with acute adrenal insufficiency. PMID:27609733

  13. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in polycythemia vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Bhandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support. Despite primary coronary intervention, he remained hypotensive. Random cortisol level was low. He received stress dose hydrocortisone with immediate hemodynamic stability. BAH was highly suspected and was confirmed by non-contrast abdominal computed tomography. Prompt recognition and timely initiated treatment remain crucial to impact the mortality associated with acute adrenal insufficiency.

  14. Bilaterally Microstructured Thin Polydimethylsiloxane Film Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager;

    2015-01-01

    /S produces films with a one-sided microstructured surface only. It would be advantageous to produce a film with both surfaces microstructured, as this increases the film’s performance efficiency. The new technique introduced herein produces bilaterally microstructured film by combining an embossing method...... retain an imprint made on it. The preheated film at gel point is embossed between the rolls of a gravure lab coater, which corrugates the top surface of the film. The films are then heated, in order to cure completely. For the LSR systems used in this process, the optimum conditions for preheating...... are 110°C for 4–7 s, while for embossing the temperature is 110°C with 25 psi pressure between the rolls at a speed of 1.4 rpm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images confirm the formation of microstructures on both the surfaces of the film....

  15. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  16. Bilateral Scapulohumeral Ankylosis after Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lotten, Manon L; Schreinemakers, J Rieneke; van Noort, Arthur; Rademakers, Maarten V

    2016-09-01

    This case demonstrates a rarely reported bilateral scapulohumeral bony ankylosis. A young woman developed extensive heterotopic ossifications (HOs) in both shoulder joints after being mechanically ventilated for several months at the intensive care unit in a comatose status. She presented with a severe movement restriction of both shoulder joints. Surgical resection of the bony bridges was performed in 2 separate sessions with a significant improvement of shoulder function afterwards. No postoperative complications, pain, or recurrence of HOs were noted at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockage, and prolonged sedation are known risk factors for the development of HOs in the shoulder joints. Relatively early surgical resection of the HOs can be performed safely in contrary to earlier belief. Afterwards, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or radiation therapy can be possible treatment modalities to prevent recurrence of HOs. PMID:27583120

  17. Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Das, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities ("sandstorm-like") in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with "crazy paving" appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge. PMID:21686505

  18. Modeling the motor cortex: Optimality, recurrent neural networks, and spatial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu

    2016-03-01

    Specialization of motor function in the frontal lobe was first discovered in the seminal experiments by Fritsch and Hitzig and subsequently by Ferrier in the 19th century. It is, however, ironical that the functional and computational role of the motor cortex still remains unresolved. A computational understanding of the motor cortex equals to understanding what movement variables the motor neurons represent (movement representation problem) and how such movement variables are computed through the interaction with anatomically connected areas (neural computation problem). Electrophysiological experiments in the 20th century demonstrated that the neural activities in motor cortex correlated with a number of motor-related and cognitive variables, thereby igniting the controversy over movement representations in motor cortex. Despite substantial experimental efforts, the overwhelming complexity found in neural activities has impeded our understanding of how movements are represented in the motor cortex. Recent progresses in computational modeling have rekindled this controversy in the 21st century. Here, I review the recent developments in computational models of the motor cortex, with a focus on optimality models, recurrent neural network models and spatial dynamics models. Although individual models provide consistent pictures within their domains, our current understanding about functions of the motor cortex is still fragmented.

  19. Motor Axon Pathfinding

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanomi, Dario; Pfaff, Samuel L

    2010-01-01

    Motor neurons are functionally related, but represent a diverse collection of cells that show strict preferences for specific axon pathways during embryonic development. In this article, we describe the ligands and receptors that guide motor axons as they extend toward their peripheral muscle targets. Motor neurons share similar guidance molecules with many other neuronal types, thus one challenge in the field of axon guidance has been to understand how the vast complexity of brain connection...

  20. [Bilateral ovarian Burkitt's lymphoma. A case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseño-Hernández, Andrés Alejandro; Quezada-López, Deissy Roxana; Castañeda-Chávez, Agar; Dassaejv Macías-Amezcua, Michel; Pintor-Belmontes, Julio Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el linfoma de Burkitt es una forma agresiva de los linfomas no Hodgkin de células B que ocurre con mayor frecuencia en niños y adultos jóvenes; el linfoma de ovario puede aparecer como lesión primaria o, más comúnmente, como una metástasis. Las lesiones primarias de ovario son manifestaciones raras que corresponden a 0.5% de los linfomas no Hodgkin y 1.5% de los tumores de ovario. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 31 años de edad, con debilidad generalizada, incapacidad para la marcha, disnea, hiporexia, fiebre, diaforesis, pérdida de 20 kg de peso, abdomen plano, con dolor abdominal; Ca125 610 U/mL. La tomografía computada abdominal mostró un gran tumor de aspecto sólido que afectaba a la cavidad pélvica derecha. Se extirparon los tumores ováricos bilaterales. Desde el punto de vista microscópico ambas lesiones muestran una imagen en "cielo estrellado" compuesta por un patrón de infiltrado monótono de linfocitos mezclada con macrófagos de citoplasma amplio y claro, abundantes mitosis atípicas, zonas de necrosis y hemorragia. La inmunohistoquímica reveló positividad para CDI0 y CD20, negativo con CD3, índice de proliferación Ki67 alto. Se diagnosticó linfoma tipo Burkitt bilateral de ovario. Conclusiones: el linfoma de Burkitt de ovario bilateral es poco frecuente, con variabilidad de presentación; el dolor abdominal y los tumores abdominales son lo más frecuente. El pronóstico a corto plazo de las pacientes es malo, por lo que es necesario conocer esta afección para poder establecer el diagnóstico temprano.

  1. Conscious attention, meditation, and bilateral information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Zimmerman, Elizabeth M; Hamilton, Elizabeth A; Sheftel, Jenna G; Bajo, Stephanie D; Raboch, Jiri; Golla, Megan; Konopka, Lukasz M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that conscious attention is related to large-scale information integration of various brain regions, including both hemispheres, that enables integration of parallel distributed modalities of processed information. There is also evidence that the level of information transference related to integration or splitting among brain regions, and between hemispheres, establishes a certain level of efficiency of the information processing. The level of information transference also may have modulatory influences on attentional capacity that are closely linked to the emotional arousal and autonomic response related to a stimulus. These findings suggest a hypothesis that changes in conscious attention, specifically during meditation could be reflected in the autonomic activity as the left-right information transference calculated from bilateral electrodermal activity (EDA). With the aim to compare conscious attention during meditation with other attentional states (resting state, Stroop task, and memory task), we performed bilateral EDA measurement in 7 healthy persons during resting state, Stroop task, neurofeedback memory test, and meditation. The results indicate that the information transference (ie, transinformation) is able to distinguish those attentional states, and that the highest level of the transinformation has been found during attentional processing related to meditation, indicating higher level of connectivity between left and right sides. Calculations other than pointwise transinformation (PTI) performed on EDA records, such as mean skin conductance level or laterality index, were not able to distinguish attentional states. The results suggest that PTI may present an interesting method useful for the assessment of information flow, related to neural functioning, that in the case of meditation may reflect typical integrative changes in the autonomic nervous system related to brain functions and focused attentional processing.

  2. Cortical Motor Circuits after Piano Training in Adulthood: Neurophysiologic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdayer, Elise; Cursi, Marco; Nuara, Arturo; Zanini, Sonia; Gatti, Roberto; Comi, Giancarlo; Leocani, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal mechanisms involved in brain plasticity after skilled motor learning are not completely understood. We aimed to study the short-term effects of keyboard training in music-naive subjects on the motor/premotor cortex activity and interhemispheric interactions, using electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve subjects (experimental group) underwent, before and after a two week-piano training: (1) hand-motor function tests: Jamar, grip and nine-hole peg tests; (2) electroencephalography, evaluating the mu rhythm task-related desynchronization (TRD) during keyboard performance; and (3) TMS, targeting bilateral abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM), to obtain duration and area of ipsilateral silent period (ISP) during simultaneous tonic contraction of APB and ADM. Data were compared with 13 controls who underwent twice these measurements, in a two-week interval, without undergoing piano training. Every subject in the experimental group improved keyboard performance and left-hand nine-hole peg test scores. Pre-training, ISP durations were asymmetrical, left being longer than right. Post-training, right ISPAPB increased, leading to symmetrical ISPAPB. Mu TRD during motor performance became more focal and had a lesser amplitude than in pre-training, due to decreased activity over ventral premotor cortices. No such changes were evidenced in controls. We demonstrated that a 10-day piano-training was associated with balanced interhemispheric interactions both at rest and during motor activation. Piano training, in a short timeframe, may reshape local and inter-hemispheric motor cortical circuits.

  3. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  4. Control motor brushless sensorless

    OpenAIRE

    Solchaga Pérez de Lazárraga, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en la creación de un circuito capaz de controlar la velocidad de un motor brushless sensorless. Este tipo de motores eléctricos tienen como característica que no tienen escobillas para cambiar la polaridad del bobinado de su interior y tampoco precisan de un sensor que indique que ha realizado una vuelta. Los motores brushless que son controlados por este tipo de circuitos son específicos para aeronaves no tripuladas y requieren un diseño diferente a un motor brushless pe...

  5. Timpanismo bilateral de bolsa gutural em potro Bilateral tympany of a guttural pouch in foal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Augusto Araújo Valadão; Júlio Carlos Canola; Roberta Ferro de Godoy

    2004-01-01

    Uma potra da raça Quarto de Milha com dois meses de idade apresentava aumento de volume bilateral na região da parótida desde algumas horas após o nascimento. Por exame radiográfico diagnosticou-se timpanismo bilateral de bolsa gutural. Realizou-se a abertura cirúrgica da bolsa gutural esquerda e fenestrou-se o septo medial das bolsas guturais. Adicionalmente, procedeu-se à ressecção parcial da mucosa na abertura do orifício guturo-faríngeo. A afecção foi debelada, sem recidivas.A 2-month old...

  6. Simultaneous bilateral shoulder and bilateral central acetabular fracture dislocation: What to do?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hardik Sheth; Abhijeet Ashok Salunke; Ramesh Panchal; Jimmy Chokshi; G.I.Nambi; Saranjeet Singh; Amit Patel

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries following seizures have a high morbidity and mortality.These injuries are often missed and the diagnosis is delayed due to a lack of clinical suspicion and appropriate investigations.We report a case of 72 years old male with simultaneous bilateral central acetabular fracture dislocation and bilateral posterior shoulder fracture dislocation secondary to an epileptic seizure.Present study highlights the significance of clinical suspicion and clinico-radiological evaluation for diagnosis of a rare injury following episode of seizures.Simultaneous fracture dislocation of all four limbs treated with a holistic approach can lead to a good functional recovery.Surgical management with open reduction and internal fixation is preferred and replacement arthroplasty should be reserved for cases with implant failure and elderly patients.

  7. Paresia diafragmática bilateral idiopática Idiopathic bilateral diaphragmatic paresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Corso Pereira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de um paciente com dispnéia intensa ao se deitar, em que foram excluídas doenças pulmonares, neuromusculares ou cardíacas, cuja investigação revelou paresia diafragmática bilateral. Um sinal chave para o diagnóstico foi a evidência de respiração paradoxal com o doente em decúbito supino. Havia piora da oxigenação e da capacidade vital forçada com a mudança da posição ortostática para supina. A fluoroscopia ortostática foi normal. A pressão inspiratória máxima estava muito reduzida. A estimulação elétrica transcutânea do diafragma foi normal, e a eletroestimulação do nervo frênico mostrou ausência de resposta, permitindo o diagnóstico de paresia bilateral do diafragma.We report the case of a patient with severe dyspnea upon reclining. Lung disease, neuromuscular disorders and heart disease were ruled out. However, during the course of the investigation, bilateral diaphragmatic paresis was discovered. A key sign leading to the diagnosis was evidence of paradoxical respiration in the dorsal decubitus position. When the patient was moved from the orthostatic position to the dorsal decubitus position, oxygenation and forced vital capacity worsened. The orthostatic fluoroscopy was normal. Maximal inspiratory pressure was severely reduced. The responses to transcutaneous electric stimulation of the diaphragm were normal. However, electric stimulation of the phrenic nerve produced no response, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral diaphragmatic paresis.

  8. [Bilateral anterior uveiopapillitis, suspicious of Lyme disease--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicula, Cristina; Nicula, D; Rusu, Ioana; Popescu, Raluca

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a patient which associated bilateral anterior uveitis manifestations with those of bilateral anterior inflammatory optic neuropathy. We followed the evolution of the case under treatment and we discussed the differential diagnosis and the association of the two ocular pathologies.

  9. Bilateral Occipital Condyle Fracture: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Schrödel, Markus H.; Kestlmeier, Ralph; Trappe, Anna E.

    2002-01-01

    Occipital condyle fractures are a rare finding in trauma victims. Bilateral fractures are even more unusual and have typically been reported in autopsy studies. We treated two patients with bilateral occipital condyle fractures who had only minor symptoms. Anderson and Montesano's classification,1 possible cranial nerve palsies, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare fracture are discussed.

  10. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar;

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  11. Hierarchical bilateral filtering based disparity estimation for view synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hong-Chang; Lee, Gwangsoon; Cheong, Won-Sik; Hur, Namho

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a high efficient and practical disparity estimation using hierarchical bilateral filtering for real-time view synthesis. The proposed method is based on hierarchical stereo matching with hardware-efficient bilateral filtering. Hardware-efficient bilateral filtering is different from the exact bilateral filter. The purpose of the method is to design an edge-preserving filter that can be efficiently parallelized on hardware. The proposed hierarchical bilateral filtering based disparity estimation is essentially a coarse-to-fine use of stereo matching with bilateral filtering. It works as follows: firstly, the hierarchical image pyramid are constructed; the multi-scale algorithm then starts by applying a local stereo matching to the downsampled images at the coarsest level of the hierarchy. After the local stereo matching, the estimated disparity map is refined with the bilateral filtering. And then the refined disparity map will be adaptively upsampled to the next finer level. The upsampled disparity map used as a prior of the corresponding local stereo matching at the next level, and filtered and so on. The method we propose is essentially a combination of hierarchical stereo matching and hardware-efficient bilateral filtering. As a result, visual comparison using real-world stereoscopic video clips shows that the method gives better results than one of state-of-art methods in terms of robustness and computation time.

  12. Hansen′s disease with bilateral tarsal disorganisation

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Pradeep; Vijayadharan M; Yogirajan K; Suprakasan S; Rajasree P

    1999-01-01

    A 37-year old male patient with Hansen′s disease midborderline spectrum, presented with bilateral pedal edema. X-ray examination of the feet showed disorganisation and disintegration of the tarsal bones. Bilateral tarsal disorganisation which can develop in Hansen′s disease is usually not recognised by the clinician.

  13. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697

  14. Adjoint Functors and Representation Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Chang XI

    2006-01-01

    We study the global dimensions of the coherent functors over two categories that are linked by a pair of adjoint functors. This idea is then exploited to compare the representation dimensions of two algebras. In particular, we show that if an Artin algebra is switched from the other, then they have the same representation dimension.

  15. Quantum operations in probabilistic representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpati, A; Adam, P; Janszky, J [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: adam@szfki.hu

    2009-07-15

    Representing a single qubit by using a set of totally decohered mixed-state qubits is considered. A representation is constructed where physically realizable quantum mechanical transformations correspond approximately to unitary operations on the qubit. It is shown that the representation is valid for multiple qubit systems as well, and the precision of the approximation is sufficient for the realization of quantum algorithms.

  16. Deconfinement of higher representation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the finite-temperature phase transition of non-abelian gauge theories static quarks, external sources in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, are deconfined. We discuss the behavior of 'quark' sources in higher representations of the gauge group around this deconfinement phase transition. (orig.)

  17. Induction of quantum group representations

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccoli, N.

    1998-01-01

    Induced representations for quantum groups are defined starting from coisotropic quantum subgroups and their main properties are proved. When the coisotropic quantum subgroup has a suitably defined section such representations can be realized on associated quantum bundles on general embeddable quantum homogeneous spaces.

  18. The Representation of Legal Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalopulu, Aspassia; Sergot, Marek

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines ongoing research on logic-based tools for the analysis and representation of legal contracts of the kind frequently encountered in large-scale engineering projects and complex, long-term trading agreements. We consider both contract formation and contract performance, in each case identifying the representational issues and the prospects for providing automated support tools.

  19. Bilateral Clavicle Fractures: A Report of Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhotia, Devendra; Khatri, Kavin; Sharma, Vijay; Farooque, Kamran; Sharma, Swati

    2016-06-01

    Bilateral clavicle fractures are uncommonly reported in the literature with the incidence being less than 0.5% of all the clavicle fractures. Bilateral clavicle fractures are caused either by high-energy transfer of compression forces across both shoulder girdles or by a direct trauma to one clavicle followed by that to the other clavicle. These fractures could be missed due to their association with more severe chest injuries or a more symptomatically displaced fracture on one side or due to inadequate chest radiographs. We report three cases of traumatic bilateral clavicle fractures with three modes of injuries in different age groups. All the fractures were treated conservatively with good functional outcomes without any sequelae. Bilateral clavicle fractures should be actively sought by every trauma team with proper clinical examination and chest radiographs including both shoulder joints in high-energy trauma cases or with bilateral shoulder compression injuries. PMID:27504365

  20. MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Jadwat, Saaleeha [Institute of Child Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, 7700, Cape Town (South Africa); McHugh, Kieran; Linward, Jane [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report the MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy and highlight the diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI especially with regard to those lesions that may cause respiratory compromise. Retrospective review of MRI scans in six infants with bilateral parotid haemangiomas. The bilateral haemangiomas were symmetrical in all but one patient. On T1-weighted images the masses were isointense to muscle and on T2 they were hyperintense with numerous small vessels giving a septated appearance. There was vivid enhancement with gadolinium in all cases. In three patients, deep bilateral extensions were demonstrated involving the parapharyngeal spaces resulting in respiratory compromise which required tracheostomy. Bilateral parotid haemangiomas are rare, but when present may have deep extensions, which can result in respiratory compromise requiring tracheostomy. (orig.)

  1. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with megalencephaly: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yu; Kobayashi, Satoru; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Tanaka, Soichiro; Inui, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kunishima, Shinji; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia is a neuronal migration disorder characterized by gray matter cellular rests in the periventricular regions. Megalencephaly has not been reported in children with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia. No other disorder with a similar phenotype has been reported. Here we report the case of a 5-year-old Japanese boy with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and megalencephaly. Relative macrocephaly was evident at birth, and bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and megalencephaly were noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, no hydrocephalus or indication of cerebral cortical dysplasia was seen. A mild intellectual disability was present, but the patient had no history of seizures. Genetic analysis revealed no mutation on the capillary sequences for FLNA, and no pathogenic abnormalities were evident on array comparative genomic hybridization. This case could represent a new disease entity: bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with megalencephaly. PMID:23439715

  2. Bilateral Tubal Gestation Associated with Schistosomiasis in an African Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Odubamowo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of tubal ectopic gestation caused by schistosomiasis induced tubal pathology is undocumented in this environment, which may be due to rarity of this pathology. Bilateral tubal gestation is common in patients that have undergone in vitro fertilization. We report a hitherto undocumented case of spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation following tubal schistosomiasis. Case Report. Mrs. OB was a 32-year-old G4P3+0 (3 alive woman who complained of abdominal pain and bleeding per vaginam of 4 and 2 days’ duration respectively following 8 weeks of amenorrhea. A clinical impression of ruptured ectopic gestation was confirmed by ultrasound scanning. She had bilateral salpingectomy with histology of specimens showing bilateral ectopic gestation with Schistosoma haematobium induced salpingitis (findings of Schistosoma haematobium ova noted on slide. Conclusion. Schistosoma induced salpingitis is a rare but possible cause of bilateral tubal gestation.

  3. Moving sounds within the peripersonal space modulate the motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finisguerra, Alessandra; Canzoneri, Elisa; Serino, Andrea; Pozzo, Thierry; Bassolino, Michela

    2015-04-01

    Interactions between ourselves and the external world are mediated by a multisensory representation of the space surrounding the body, i.e. the peripersonal space (PPS). In particular, a special interplay is observed among tactile stimuli delivered on a body part, e.g. the hand, and visual or auditory external inputs presented close, but not far, from the same body part, e.g. within hand PPS. This coding of multisensory stimuli as a function of their distance from the hand has a role in upper limb actions. However, it remains unclear whether PPS representation affects the motor system only when stimuli occur specifically at the hand location or when they move within a continuous portion of space where the hand can potentially act. Here, in order to study these two alternatively hypotheses, we assessed the critical distance at which moving sounds have a direct effect on hand corticospinal excitability by using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Specifically, TMS single pulses were delivered when a sound source was perceived at six different positions in space: from very close to subjects' hand (15 cm) to far away (90 cm). Moreover, sound direction was manipulated to test if stimuli approaching and receding from the hand might have the same relevance for the motor system. MEPs amplitude was enhanced when sounds were delivered within a limited distance from the hand (around 60 cm) as compared to when the sounds were beyond this space. This effect captures the spatial boundaries within which PPS representation modulates hand cortico-motor excitability. This spatially-dependent modulation of corticospinal activity was not further affected by the sound direction. Such findings support a strict link between the multisensory representation of the space around the body and the motor representation of potential approaching or defensive acts within that space. PMID:25281311

  4. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  5. Representation theory and homological stability

    CERN Document Server

    Church, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the idea of *representation stability* (and several variations) for a sequence of representations V_n of groups G_n. One main goal is to expand the important and well-studied concept of homological stability so that it applies to a much broader variety of examples. Representation stability also provides a framework in which to find and to predict patterns, from classical representation theory (Littlewood--Richardson and Murnaghan rules, stability of Schur functors), to cohomology of groups (pure braid, Torelli and congruence groups), to Lie algebras and their homology, to the (equivariant) cohomology of flag and Schubert varieties, to combinatorics (the (n+1)^(n-1) conjecture). The majority of this paper is devoted to exposing this phenomenon through examples. In doing this we obtain applications, theorems, and conjectures. Beyond the discovery of new phenomena, the viewpoint of representation stability can be useful in solving problems outside the theory. In addition to the applications given in...

  6. Developing Representations of Compound Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar eVisser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Classification based on multiple dimensions of stimuli is usually associated with similarity-based representations, whereas uni-dimensional classifications are associated with rule-based representations. This paper studies classification of stimuli and category representations in school-aged children and adults when learning to categorize compound, multidimensional stimuli. Stimuli were such that both similarity-based and rule-based representations would lead to correct classification. This allows testing whether children have a bias for formation of similarity-based representations. The results are at odds with this expectation. Children use both uni-dimensional and multidimensional classification, and the use of both strategies increases with age. Multidimensional classification is best characterized as resulting from an analytic strategy rather than from procedural processing of overall-similarity. The conclusion is that children are capable of using complex rule-based categorization strategies that involve the use of multiple features of the stimuli.

  7. Observation and execution of upper-limb movements as a tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits in paretic stroke patients: protocol of a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ertelt Denis; Hemmelmann Claudia; Dettmers Christian; Ziegler Andreas; Binkofski Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence exist that motor observation activates the same cortical motor areas that are involved in the performance of the observed actions. The so called “mirror neuron system” has been proposed to be responsible for this phenomenon. We employ this neural system and its capability to re-enact stored motor representations as a tool for rehabilitating motor control. In our new neurorehabilitative schema (videotherapy) we combine observation of daily actions with concomitant ...

  8. Neuronal representation of saccadic error in macaque posterior parietal cortex (PPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Yining; Lu, Haidong; Wu, Si; Zhang, Mingsha

    2016-01-01

    Motor control, motor learning, self-recognition, and spatial perception all critically depend on the comparison of motor intention to the actually executed movement. Despite our knowledge that the brainstem-cerebellum plays an important role in motor error detection and motor learning, the involvement of neocortex remains largely unclear. Here, we report the neuronal computation and representation of saccadic error in macaque posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Neurons with persistent pre- and post-saccadic response (PPS) represent the intended end-position of saccade; neurons with late post-saccadic response (LPS) represent the actual end-position of saccade. Remarkably, after the arrival of the LPS signal, the PPS neurons' activity becomes highly correlated with the discrepancy between intended and actual end-position, and with the probability of making secondary (corrective) saccades. Thus, this neuronal computation might underlie the formation of saccadic error signals in PPC for speeding up saccadic learning and leading the occurrence of secondary saccade. PMID:27097103

  9. Archival Representation in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…

  10. The relationship between motor development, gestures and language production in the second year of life: a mediational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2014-02-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationships between motor, gestural and linguistic abilities using two parent report instruments. Motor skills at 12 months significantly correlated with language production at 16, 20 and 23 months, but these associations were mediated by the use of representational gestures.

  11. The relationship between motor development, gestures and language production in the second year of life: a mediational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2014-02-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationships between motor, gestural and linguistic abilities using two parent report instruments. Motor skills at 12 months significantly correlated with language production at 16, 20 and 23 months, but these associations were mediated by the use of representational gestures. PMID:24317372

  12. The Role of Sensory-Motor Information in Object Recognition: Evidence from Category-Specific Visual Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, D.A.; Coslett, H.B.; Glosser, G.

    2005-01-01

    The role of sensory-motor representations in object recognition was investigated in experiments involving AD, a patient with mild visual agnosia who was impaired in the recognition of visually presented living as compared to non-living entities. AD named visually presented items for which sensory-motor information was available significantly more…

  13. Islam and Media Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bensalah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For the author of this article, the media’s treatment of Islam has raised numerous polymorphous questions and debates. Reactivated by the great scares of current events, the issue, though an ancient one, calls many things into question. By way of introduction, the author tries to analyse the complex processes of elaboration and perception of the representations that have prevailed during the past century. In referring to the semantic decoding of the abundant colonial literature and iconography, the author strives to translate the extreme xenophobic tensions and the identity crystallisations associated with the current media orchestration of Islam, both in theWest and the East. He then evokes the excesses of the media that are found at the origin of many amalgams wisely maintained between Islam, Islamism and Islamic terrorism, underscoring their duplicity and their willingness to put themselves, consciously, in service to deceivers and directors of awareness, who are very active at the heart of the politico-media sphere. After levelling a severe accusation against the harmful drifts of the media, especially in times of crisis and war, the author concludes by asserting that these tools of communication, once they are freed of their masks and invective apparatuses, can be re-appropriated by new words and bya true communication between peoples and cultures.

  14. Organizing motor imageries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakawa, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, motor imagery has attracted the attention of researchers as a prototypical example of 'embodied cognition' and also as a basis for neuro-rehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The current definition of motor imagery is widely accepted, but it is important to note that various abilities rather than a single cognitive entity are dealt with under a single term. Here, motor imagery has been characterized based on four factors: (1) motor control, (2) explicitness, (3) sensory modalities, and (4) agency. Sorting out these factors characterizing motor imagery may explain some discrepancies and variability in the findings from previous studies and will help to optimize a study design in accordance with the purpose of each study in the future. PMID:26602980

  15. MISR Motor Data V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the output for the Level 1A Motor data (Suggested Usage: MISR SCF processing needs the MISR motor data samples for the analysis of motor...

  16. A New Face Recognition Framework: Symmetrical Bilateral 2DPLS plus LDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadong Song

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel face recognition framework is proposed in this paper to alleviate "Small Sample Size" (SSS problem of the conventional Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. This method is based on the feature extraction of global odd and even face image representation, and a dimension reduction process via Symmetrical Bilateral 2D Partial Least Square Analysis(2DPLS. The low-dimensional features are then used to train a LDA classifier which uses Frobenius-norm classification measure, and uses pseudo inverse to make sure between-class matrix Sw be full rank. Experimental results on Yale Face Database B, ORL, and FERET Face Database demonstrate that our framework is highly efficient and gives the state-of-the-art recognition rate.

  17. Bilateral Psoas Haematomata Complicating Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Akoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The challenge in managing patients undergoing renal transplantation is how to achieve optimum levels of anticoagulation to avoid both clotting and postoperative bleeding. We report a rare case of severe postoperative retroperitoneal bleeding including psoas haematomata complicating renal transplantation. Case Report. SM, a 55-year-old female, had a past history of aortic valve replacement, cerebrovascular event, and thoracic aortic aneurysm and was on long-term warfarin that was switched to enoxaparin 60 mg daily a week prior to her living donor transplantation. Postoperatively, she was started on a heparin infusion, but this was complicated by a large retroperitoneal bleed requiring surgical evacuation on the first postoperative day. Four weeks later, she developed features compatible with acute femoral neuropathy and a CT scan revealed bilateral psoas haematomata. Following conservative management, she made steady progress and was discharged home via a community hospital 94 days after transplantation. At her last visit 18 months after transplantation, she had returned to full fitness with excellent transplant function. Conclusion. Patients in established renal failure who require significant anticoagulation are at increased risk of bleeding that may involve prolonged hospitalisation and more protracted recovery and patients should be carefully counselled about this.

  18. BILATERAL OSSIFIED STYLOHYOID COMPLEX: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Devi S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Mineralisation of all components of stylohyoid complex or chain, a 2nd branchial arch derivative is frequently reported. But bilateral occurrence of continuous bands of ossified tissue involving stylohyoid complex, are less commonly encountered. An adult skull specimen presented abnormally long osseous bands extending from base of skull in place of styloid process. On left side a band of 6.5cm long x1cm wide and 0.3cm in thickness, and on right side an irregularly rounded elongated structure of 7.5cm length were noticed. Lower end of the left process was fused to hyoid bone. Either abnormally long styloid process or this type of ossified stylohyoid complex may be a causative factor for severe pharyngeal pain, dysphagia, may be a cause for occasional swelling in submandibular region or may be associated with Eagle syndrome. Due to its close proximity to tonsillar bed, if elongated it may be felt during tonsillectomy in tonsillar fossa. In this backdrop reports of this type may be of interest to clinicians.

  19. Outcome of bilateral ureteroscopic retrieval of stones in a single session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mushtaque

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Bilateral same-session ureteroscopy is a safe and effective procedure in the management of bilateral ureteral stones. The results are comparable to unilateral or staged bilateral procedures.

  20. Purtscher’s retinopathy: A case of severe bilateral visual loss due to chest compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel P Hashim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of bilateral Purtscher’s retinopathy in a young man following a motor vehicle rollover accident. Decreased vision was noticed on the fifth day following the trauma. Visual acuity in the right eye was close counting finger, and left eye, counting finger one meter. There was no evidence of direct ocular, head or facial trauma. Purtscher flecken, pre-retinal and retinal hemorrhages were present in both eyes. The right eye showed optic disc edema and more extensive areas of capillary dropout. Patient was treated with intravenous methyl prednisolone. After 5 weeks the right eye vision improved to counting finger one meter and left eye improved to 6/18. Early detection, proper documentation and treatment of the underlying causes in these cases is very important in order to avoid medico-legal pitfalls.

  1. Bilateral medial foot compartment syndrome after an aerobics class: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Suet Kam; McAlister, Jeffrey; Oliver, Noah; Pontell, David

    2012-01-01

    The authors present an unusual case of bilateral medial foot compartment syndrome in a healthy woman after a low-intensity aerobics exercise class. The majority of compartment syndrome cases have occurred after trauma, such as combat crush injuries and motor vehicle accidents. We wish to call attention to a rare situation in which compartment syndrome occurs in a healthy young adult after low-intensity exercise and highlight the necessity of a high clinical suspicion and a low threshold for fasciotomies to prevent irreversible muscle damage as a result of extremely high pressures. There is a paucity of cases on the clinical management and follow-up of this rare occurrence of compartment syndrome. PMID:22621857

  2. NEUROLOGICAL SEQUELAE FOLLOWING ANAESTHETIC RECOVERY AFTER BILATERAL TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT – TWO CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thromboembolism is a common and serious complication of joint replacement surgery. Cognitive decline occurs in 5-29% of patients, undergoing major orthopaedic surgery. Many studies show that systemic embolism may occur in the absence of venous-arterial shunts leading to cognitive dysfunction and neurological sequelae. METHODS We present two cases of neurological consequences occurring post bilateral TKR. Cases were successfully done under Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia. Steroids were not used intraoperatively. RESULTS Both cases had neurological complications following completion of surgery. First case had posterior circulation TIA while the other had a right upper motor neuron facial palsy. CONCLUSION We suspect both as cases of cerebral fat microembolism in the absence of any venous-arterial shunt.

  3. Functional Plasticity in Somatosensory Cortex Supports Motor Learning by Observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R; Cashaback, Joshua G A; Gribble, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    An influential idea in neuroscience is that the sensory-motor system is activated when observing the actions of others [1, 2]. This idea has recently been extended to motor learning, in which observation results in sensory-motor plasticity and behavioral changes in both motor and somatosensory domains [3-9]. However, it is unclear how the brain maps visual information onto motor circuits for learning. Here we test the idea that the somatosensory system, and specifically primary somatosensory cortex (S1), plays a role in motor learning by observing. In experiment 1, we applied stimulation to the median nerve to occupy the somatosensory system with unrelated inputs while participants observed a tutor learning to reach in a force field. Stimulation disrupted motor learning by observing in a limb-specific manner. Stimulation delivered to the right arm (the same arm used by the tutor) disrupted learning, whereas left arm stimulation did not. This is consistent with the idea that a somatosensory representation of the observed effector must be available during observation for learning to occur. In experiment 2, we assessed S1 cortical processing before and after observation by measuring somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) associated with median nerve stimulation. SEP amplitudes increased only for participants who observed learning. Moreover, SEPs increased more for participants who exhibited greater motor learning following observation. Taken together, these findings support the idea that motor learning by observing relies on functional plasticity in S1. We propose that visual signals about the movements of others are mapped onto motor circuits for learning via the somatosensory system.

  4. Functional Plasticity in Somatosensory Cortex Supports Motor Learning by Observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R; Cashaback, Joshua G A; Gribble, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    An influential idea in neuroscience is that the sensory-motor system is activated when observing the actions of others [1, 2]. This idea has recently been extended to motor learning, in which observation results in sensory-motor plasticity and behavioral changes in both motor and somatosensory domains [3-9]. However, it is unclear how the brain maps visual information onto motor circuits for learning. Here we test the idea that the somatosensory system, and specifically primary somatosensory cortex (S1), plays a role in motor learning by observing. In experiment 1, we applied stimulation to the median nerve to occupy the somatosensory system with unrelated inputs while participants observed a tutor learning to reach in a force field. Stimulation disrupted motor learning by observing in a limb-specific manner. Stimulation delivered to the right arm (the same arm used by the tutor) disrupted learning, whereas left arm stimulation did not. This is consistent with the idea that a somatosensory representation of the observed effector must be available during observation for learning to occur. In experiment 2, we assessed S1 cortical processing before and after observation by measuring somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) associated with median nerve stimulation. SEP amplitudes increased only for participants who observed learning. Moreover, SEPs increased more for participants who exhibited greater motor learning following observation. Taken together, these findings support the idea that motor learning by observing relies on functional plasticity in S1. We propose that visual signals about the movements of others are mapped onto motor circuits for learning via the somatosensory system. PMID:26972317

  5. Neural Correlates of Body and Face Perception Following Bilateral Destruction of the Primary Visual Cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eVan den Stock

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-conscious visual processing of different object categories was investigated in a rare patient with bilateral destruction of the visual cortex (V1 and clinical blindness over the entire visual field. Images of biological and non-biological object categories were presented consisting of human bodies, faces, butterflies, cars, and scrambles. Behaviorally, only the body shape induced higher perceptual sensitivity, as revealed by signal detection analysis. Passive exposure to bodies and faces activated amygdala and superior temporal sulcus. In addition, bodies also activated the extrastriate body area, insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and cerebellum. The results show that following bilateral damage to the primary visual cortex and ensuing complete cortical blindness, the human visual system is able to process categorical properties of human body shapes. This residual vision may be based on V1-independent input to body-selective areas along the ventral stream, in concert with areas involved in the representation of bodily states, like insula, OFC and cerebellum.

  6. Improve Motor System Efficiency for a Broad Range of Motors with MotorMaster+ International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-05-01

    Available at no charge, MotorMaster+ International is designed to support motor systems improvement planning at industrial facilities by identifying the most cost-effective choice when deciding to repair or replace older motor models.

  7. Synchronous Bilateral Solid Papillary Carcinomas of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Yoshimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a case of synchronous bilateral solid papillary carcinoma of the breast. A 73-year-old female had a mass that was detected in the right breast on mammography. An ultrasound examination revealed one intracystic tumor in the right breast and two tumors in the left breast. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy of these three tumors was performed, which revealed a diagnosis of malignancy. A magnetic resonance imaging examination of the breasts showed diffuse small nodules surrounding these tumors bilaterally. Bilateral partial mastectomy and a sentinel lymph node biopsy were performed. Lymph node metastasis was detected in the right axilla, and additional lymph node dissection was performed. The pathological diagnosis was synchronous bilateral breast cancer, invasive ductal carcinoma NOS of the right breast, mucinous carcinomas of the left breast, and bilateral SPCs. A wide range of surgical margins were positive for SPCs, and additional bilateral total mastectomy was then performed. To the best of our knowledge, little is known about synchronous bilateral SPCs. Our case indicates that some SPCs can be widely scattered and make up a variety of invasive carcinomas. It is difficult to make a correct preoperative evaluation in such cases.

  8. Supporting the translation between multiple representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der J.; Jong, de T.; Mason, Lucia; Andreuzza, Silvia; Arfè, Barbara; Del Favero, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Modern, computer based, learning environments often embrace a multitude of representations. Research with learning environments that contain multiple representations has revealed that learning with multiple representations can lead to deeper understanding but also that processing different represent

  9. Irreducible representations of Birman-Wenzl algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘峰

    1995-01-01

    Irreducible representations of Birman-Wenzl algebras are constructed by using the induced representation and the linear equation method. Self-adjoint representations of Birman-Wenzl algebras Cf (r, q) with f≤4 are presented.

  10. New Learning of Music after Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobe Damage: Evidence from an Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi eValtonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly-identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ’s rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed, closely matched for factors contributing to a piece’s musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ’s complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance.

  11. Functional Representations for Fock Superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kupsch, J; Kupsch, Joachim; Smolyanov, Oleg G.

    1997-01-01

    The Fock space of bosons and fermions and its underlying superalgebra are represented by algebras of functions on a superspace. We define Gaussian integration on infinite dimensional superspaces, and construct superanalogs of the classical function spaces with a reproducing kernel -- including the Bargmann-Fock representation -- and of the Wiener-Segal representation. The latter representation requires the investigation of Wick ordering on Z2-graded algebras. As application we derive a Mehler formula for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck semigroup on the Fock space.

  12. Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

  13. NEURAL PATHWAYS OF TRIGEMINAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE AFFERENTS COORDINATE ORAL MOTOR BEHAVIORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Pifu; Zhang Jingdong; Li Jishuo

    2003-01-01

    Neural pathways and synaptic connections from the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vme) neurons to the cranial motor nuclei were studied in the rat using double labelling methodologies of intracellular Neurobiotin staining combined with retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) transport, anterograde biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) tracing combined with retrograde HRP transport, and a dual fluorescent labelling of BDA anterograde combined tracing with Cholera Toxin B (CTB) retrograde transport. Direct projections and synapses were demonstrated from Vme neuronal boutons to motoneurons (MNs) of the trigeminal motor nucleus (Vmo), the hypoglossal nucleus (Ⅻ) and the ambiguus nucleus (Amb). Indirect projections and pathways from Vme neurons to the cranial motor nuclei including Vmo, Ⅻ, the facial nucleus (Ⅶ) and the cervical spinal cord (C1~5) were seen to relay on their premotor neurons. The premotor neurons of above cranial motor nuclei were overlapped in bilateral premotor neuronal pool including the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt) and its alpha division (PCRtA), the dorsomedial part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis (Vodm), and interpolaris (Vidm), the medullary reticular nucleus dorsal division (MdD), the supratrigeminal region (Vsup) and the dorsomedial part of the principal trigeminal sensory nucleus (Vpdm).Synapses between Vme neuronal boutons and Vmo and Ⅻ MNs and Ⅻ premotor neurons were predominantly asymmetric.There were four types of synaptic organizations, i.e. synaptic convergence; synaptic divergence presynaptic inhibition and afferent feedforward inhibition seen between Vme boutons and Vmno, Ⅻ MNs and between Vme boutons and Ⅻ premotor neurons.The results of present studies have demonstrated direct pathways from the trigeminal proprioceptive afferents to Vmo, Ⅻ and Amb MNs, and indirect pathways from the trigeminal proprioceptive afferents to bilateral Vmno, Ⅻ, Ⅶ and C1~s via their premotor neurons. It provides

  14. Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome Presented with Sensory Ataxia Associated with Bilateral Hearing Loss and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjdinasab Nastaran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary Sjorgen syndrome is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases with characteristic of involvement of lachrymal and salivary glands, but other organ involvements as peripheral and central nervous system are also possible. The reported case is a 23 year old lady presented with progressive sensory ataxia and weakness of four limbs, bilateral sensory hearing loss and cognitive impairment with minimental score equal to 15/30 since one year prior to admission with associated bilateral central corneal opacity, dry mouth and dry eyes. Electro physiologic studies showed sensory motor axonal polyneuropathy . A biopsy of sural nerve and salivary glands of lower lip showed lymphocytic infiltration. Serologic evidence showed positive Anti Ro (SS-B, negative HCV and HIV antibody, thereafter the diagnosis was confirmed and according to this diagnosis she received high dose of intravenous methyl prednisolon then both hearing loss and cognitive impairment improved partially (minimental score 21/30 . At last, she underwent plasmapheresis and her sensory ataxia improved greatly.

  15. Calcium signalling indicates bilateral power balancing in the Drosophila flight muscle during manoeuvring flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Skandalis, Dimitri A; Berthé, Ruben

    2013-05-01

    Manoeuvring flight in animals requires precise adjustments of mechanical power output produced by the flight musculature. In many insects such as fruit flies, power generation is most likely varied by altering stretch-activated tension, that is set by sarcoplasmic calcium levels. The muscles reside in a thoracic shell that simultaneously drives both wings during wing flapping. Using a genetically expressed muscle calcium indicator, we here demonstrate in vivo the ability of this animal to bilaterally adjust its calcium activation to the mechanical power output required to sustain aerodynamic costs during flight. Motoneuron-specific comparisons of calcium activation during lift modulation and yaw turning behaviour suggest slightly higher calcium activation for dorso-longitudinal than for dorsoventral muscle fibres, which corroborates the elevated need for muscle mechanical power during the wings' downstroke. During turning flight, calcium activation explains only up to 54 per cent of the required changes in mechanical power, suggesting substantial power transmission between both sides of the thoracic shell. The bilateral control of muscle calcium runs counter to the hypothesis that the thorax of flies acts as a single, equally proportional source for mechanical power production for both flapping wings. Collectively, power balancing highlights the precision with which insects adjust their flight motor to changing energetic requirements during aerial steering. This potentially enhances flight efficiency and is thus of interest for the development of technical vehicles that employ bioinspired strategies of power delivery to flapping wings.

  16. Bilateral control-based compensation for rotation in imaging in scan imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dapeng; Wang, Yutang; Wang, Fuchao; Zhang, Yupeng

    2015-12-01

    Scan imaging systems rely on the rotation of a mirror to scan an image. The rotation in the resulting image must be compensated to prevent information loss. Satisfactory performance of an imaging system is difficult to achieve when employing the methods of mechanical transmission and unilateral tracking control, especially when the system suffers from nonlinear factors, disturbances, and dynamic uncertainties. This paper proposes a compensation method based on bilateral control derived from the field of haptic robots. A two-loop disturbance observer was designed to guarantee that the dynamic characteristics of the motor are close to those of the nominal model. The controllers were designed on the basis of the small gain theorem. Experiments were conducted for a comparison with the traditional unilateral control-based compensation. The comparison showed a reduction of 99.83% in the L2 norm of error, which validates the method. The proposed method improves the accuracy of compensation for rotation in imaging, and demonstrates that bilateral control has feasibility for application in various fields, including photogrammetry.

  17. Representation of identities and the politics of representation in cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavillil Rajagopalan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    In this paper, I make a plea for viewing representation as first and foremost a political matter. I argue that by so doing we may avoid the many of pitfalls of contemporary theories of cognition as they attempt to tackle the issue of representation. Most of these problems have to do with the fact that representation is treated exclusively as a mimetic or theatrical question. The fact of the matter is however that representation also has a political dimension. Indeed it has always had this political dimension which, counterintuitive though it may seem at first glimpse, manifests itself even in very the attempt to aestheticise the whole issue of representation (as in some versions of postmodernism or to deny its role altogether as a tertium quid between the external world and the cognising mind (as in contemporary neo-pragmatism. I also contend that, by recognising the political nature of representation, we also pave the way for endorsing the thesis that the mind is a social construct, thereby taking some steam out of the thesis of "mind-brain identity" (so-called "identity theory of mind".

  18. A 72-year-old patient with bilateral Maisonneuve fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dienstknecht

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maisonneuve fractures result from a disruption of the medial ankle structures and a proximal fibular fracture. Patient complaints can be misleading and there is a significant rate of delayed diagnosed injuries. We present a case of bilateral Maisonneuve fractures after a fall due to a syncopal collapse. A precise clinical examination led to this rare diagnosis. The injuries were treated with syndesmotic screw fixation, removal of hardware followed after 6 weeks. The patient was asymptomatic at threemonths follow up. Patients with bilateral injuries undergoing standard surgical treatment can gain full recovery, but high suspicion in clinical examination is needed to detect this uncommon bilateral injury.

  19. Geleophysic dysplasia associated with bilateral angle closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sinan Saricaoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we present occurrence of bilateral angle closure glaucoma in a 9-year-old girl with geleophysic dysplasia. Bilateral YAG laser iridotomy was applied, but intraocular pressure (IOP remained at high levels, necessitating bilateral trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. On her follow-up examinations for 3 years, IOP remained in the mid-20s with no need for further intervention or antiglaucoma medication. There are few reports describing the ocular findings of geleophysic dysplasia in literature. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing an application of glaucoma surgery and its results at geleophysic dysplasia.

  20. Bilateral Ota nevus in a 15 years old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Öztürk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a dermal melanocytosis, clinically localizedon skin that is innervated by the first and secondbranches of the trigeminal nerve. It occurs almost entirelyin Asian people. The clinical manifestations are usuallyunilateral; only 5% of cases are bilateral. In this article,due to rarity of the case, a 15-year-old patient, who was diagnosedwith bilateral ota nevus, without having any dermatologicalcomplaints other than cosmetic appearenceand stains in her eyes and around was presented.Key words: Bilateral ota nevus, child, melanocytosis

  1. Bilateral Tibial Tubercle Sleeve Fractures in a Skeletally Immature Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasesh R. Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibial tubercle sleeve fracture is a rare injury. In concept, it is similar to the patellar sleeve fracture in a skeletally immature patient. We describe a unique case of simultaneous bilateral tibial tubercle sleeve fractures in a 12-year-old boy. Radiographs and MRI confirmed the injury. The patient underwent open surgical repair of bilateral sleeve fractures with suture anchor fixation. At the final followup, 3 years after his initial injury, the patient demonstrated full knee function bilaterally without radiographic evidence of growth disturbances.

  2. Early morbidity after simultaneous and staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the early morbidity after bilateral simultaneous and staged total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to clarify potential benefits of a well-established fast-track regime. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was searched for all...... with 14 % (CI 11.5-20.1) after bilateral staged TKA within 7-18 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this nationwide study indicate that bilateral simultaneous TKA can safely be performed in a fast-track set-up....

  3. Haptic Manipulation of Deformable Objects in Hybrid Bilateral Teleoperation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ibarra-Zannatha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the integration of a virtual environment containing a deformable object, manipulated by an open kinematical chain virtual slave robot, to a bilateral teleoperation scheme based on a real haptic device. The virtual environment of this hybrid bilateral teleoperation system combines collision detection algorithms, dynamical, kinematical and geometrical models with a position–position and/or force–position bilateral control algorithm, to produce on the operator side the reflected forces corresponding to the virtual mechanical interactions, through a haptic device. Contact teleoperation task over the virtual environment with a flexible object is implemented and analysed.

  4. BILATERAL ANOMALOUS MUSCLE IN THE POPLITEAL FOSSA & ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variation may occur due to genetic or developmental causes. Some variations may compromise the vascular, muscular or nervous system in the region. Bilateral muscle variation in popliteal fossa is very rare. In present study an instance of bilateral muscle variation in popliteal fossa, arising from different muscles like gastrocnemius and from biceps femoris is recorded. There is no report of such variations. These observations are rare of its kind because of bilateral asymmetrical presence and difference in the origins in different legs. This is the first report as for the literatures available. Clinical and functional importance of such variation is discussed with the morphological aspects of this anomalous muscle.

  5. Luxatio erecta bilateral: um relato de caso Bilateral luxatio erecta, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    César Augusto Xavier Acosta; Elemar da Silva Resch; Rafael Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    O deslocamento inferior do ombro (luxatio erecta) é uma lesão rara, acometendo aproximadamente 0,5% dos deslocamentos dessa articulação. A grande maioria desses casos ocorre unilateralmente. Em setembro de 2004, um homem de 43 anos chegou ao pronto-socorro do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (HUSM) com queixa de dor bilateral no ombro e incapacidade de abaixar os braços, em consequência de uma queda com os braços abduzidos, enquanto desempenhava sua atividade laboral. Após o exame físico...

  6. Luxatio erecta bilateral: um relato de caso Bilateral luxatio erecta, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Xavier Acosta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O deslocamento inferior do ombro (luxatio erecta é uma lesão rara, acometendo aproximadamente 0,5% dos deslocamentos dessa articulação. A grande maioria desses casos ocorre unilateralmente. Em setembro de 2004, um homem de 43 anos chegou ao pronto-socorro do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (HUSM com queixa de dor bilateral no ombro e incapacidade de abaixar os braços, em consequência de uma queda com os braços abduzidos, enquanto desempenhava sua atividade laboral. Após o exame físico e radiológico constatou- se que o indivíduo apresentava uma luxação inferior bilateral dos ombros. O paciente foi então encaminhado ao bloco cirúrgico onde foi realizada redução incruenta das luxações sob anestesia através da técnica de tração e contra-tração. No dia seguinte recebeu alta com imobilização tipo Velpeau mantendo os ombros totalmente aduzidos e rotados internamente, com orientação de manter a imobilização por três semanas. Foi orientado também a realizar fisioterapia.Inferior shoulder dislocation (luxactio erecta is a rare lesion affecting approximately 0.5% of dislocations of this joint. The vast majority of these cases occur unilaterally. In September 2004, a 43 year old man was brought to the emergency room of the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM complaining of bilateral shoulder pain and inability to lower the arms, as a result of a fall with the arms abducted, while carrying out work activities. After physical examination and radiological exams, it was found that the patient had a bilateral inferior shoulder dislocation. He was referred to the surgical ward and after intravenous sedation, both shoulders were reduced by closed reduction using the traction-countertraction maneuver. The patient was discharged the day after the reduction. Both arms were immobilized with a velpeau sling in total adduction and intrarotation, with instructions to maintain immobilization for three weeks. The patient was

  7. Point Climat no. 11 'Japan's Bilateral Offset Crediting Mechanism: A Bilateral Solution to a Global Issue?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: In order to achieve its long-term emission reduction target following the Fukushima incident, Japan would rely more heavily on international offsetting activities. Concurrent to vigorous proposals to reform the CDM, Japan is also promoting an offset crediting scheme through bilateral agreements with developing countries as a post-2012 market mechanism. Despite potential benefits, issues relating to the accounting rules, environmental integrity and implications to carbon markets warrant further consideration prior to international recognition

  8. Bilateral Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Due To Bilateral Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eren CANSÜ, İstemi YÜCEL, Kutay ÖZTURAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tarsal tunnel syndrome is an entrapment neuropathy of posterior tibial nerve under the flexorretinaculum. Patients generally present with paresthesias on the plantar side of foot and fingersand in the distal kruris.The causes of tarsal tunnel syndrome are space occupying lesions within or around the tunnelwhich exert pressure to the nerve, ankle deformities, systemic illnesses, trauma or lesions ofthe nerve itself.In this study a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome due to bilateral lipoma which was treated surgicallyis presented.

  9. Evidence for a motor and a non-motor domain in the human dentate nucleus--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küper, M; Dimitrova, A; Thürling, M; Maderwald, S; Roths, J; Elles, H G; Gizewski, E R; Ladd, M E; Diedrichsen, J; Timmann, D

    2011-02-14

    Dum and Strick (J. Neurophysiol. 2003; 89, 634-639) proposed a division of the cerebellar dentate nucleus into a "motor" and "non-motor" area based on anatomical data in the monkey. We asked the question whether motor and non-motor domains of the dentate can be found in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Therefore dentate activation was compared in motor and cognitive tasks. Young, healthy participants were tested in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Data from 13 participants were included in the final analysis. A block design was used for the experimental conditions. Finger tapping of different complexities served as motor tasks, while cognitive testing included a verbal working memory and a visuospatial task. To further confirm motor-related dentate activation, a simple finger movement task was tested in a supplementary experiment using ultra-highfield (7 T) fMRI in 23 participants. For image processing, a recently developed region of interest (ROI) driven normalization method of the deep cerebellar nuclei was used. Dorso-rostral dentate nucleus activation was associated with motor function, whereas cognitive tasks led to prominent activation of the caudal nucleus. The visuospatial task evoked activity bilaterally in the caudal dentate nucleus, whereas verbal working memory led to activation predominantly in the right caudal dentate. These findings are consistent with Dum and Strick's anatomical findings in the monkey. PMID:21081171

  10. Voluntary motor commands reveal awareness and control of involuntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Havas, Jack; Ghosh, Arko; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    The capacity to inhibit actions is central to voluntary motor control. However, the control mechanisms and subjective experience involved in voluntarily stopping an involuntary movement remain poorly understood. Here we examined, in humans, the voluntary inhibition of the Kohnstamm phenomenon, in which sustained voluntary contraction of shoulder abductors is followed by involuntary arm raising. Participants were instructed to stop the involuntary movement, hold the arm in a constant position, and 'release' the inhibition after ∼2s. Participants achieved this by modulating agonist muscle activity, rather than by antagonist contraction. Specifically, agonist muscle activity plateaued during this voluntary inhibition, and resumed its previous increase thereafter. There was no discernible antagonist activation. Thus, some central signal appeared to temporarily counter the involuntary motor drive, without directly affecting the Kohnstamm generator itself. We hypothesise a form of "negative motor command" to account for this novel finding. We next tested the specificity of the negative motor command, by inducing bilateral Kohnstamm movements, and instructing voluntary inhibition for one arm only. The results suggested negative motor commands responsible for inhibition are initially broad, affecting both arms, and then become focused. Finally, a psychophysical investigation found that the perceived force of the aftercontraction was significantly overestimated, relative to voluntary contractions with similar EMG levels. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the Kohnstamm generator does not provide an efference copy signal. Our results shed new light on this interesting class of involuntary movement, and provide new information about voluntary inhibition of action. PMID:27399155

  11. Energetic Macroscopic Representation Applied To An Electrical Urban Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia POPESCU

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available An energetic description of the electric transport urban system ASTRAIK 415T is proposed according to a specific formalism. This is used to simulate the trolleybus system, equipped with a chopper and a direct current series motor. DC series motor is still used for trolleybus and metro, driven by a GTO or IGBT chopper µC-controlled, which allows the implementation of command algorithms. From this synthetically representation a complete model of the electromechanical system was implemented using the Matlab-Simulink simulation environment. A control structure was deduced through model inversion. This will allow the study of the transient phenomena and the implementation of different command laws taking into account the minimum energy losses

  12. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-07-06

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered.

  13. Probability representation of classical states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man'ko, OV; Man'ko, [No Value; Pilyavets, OV

    2005-01-01

    Probability representation of classical states described by symplectic tomograms is discussed. Tomographic symbols of classical observables which are functions on phase-space are studied. Explicit form of kernel of commutative star-product of the tomographic symbols is obtained.

  14. Representations of twisted current algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We use evaluation representations to give a complete classification of the finite-dimensional simple modules of twisted current algebras. This generalizes and unifies recent work on multiloop algebras, current algebras, equivariant map algebras, and twisted forms.

  15. Modular Representations of Profinite Groups

    CERN Document Server

    MacQuarrie, John

    2010-01-01

    Our aim is to transfer several foundational results from the modular representation theory of finite groups to the wider context of profinite groups. We are thus interested in profinite modules over the completed group algebra k[[G

  16. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  17. (Self)-representations on youtube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    This paper examines forms of self-representation on YouTube with specific focus on Vlogs (Video blogs). The analytical scope of the paper is on how User-generated Content on YouTube initiates a certain kind of audiovisual representation and a particular interpretation of reality that can...... be distinguished within Vlogs. This will be analysed through selected case studies taken from a representative sample of empirically based observations of YouTube videos. The analysis includes a focus on how certain forms of representation can be identified as representations of the self (Turkle 1995, Scannell...... 1996, Walker 2005) and further how these forms must be comprehended within a context of technological constrains, institutional structures and social as well as economical practices on YouTube (Burgess and Green 2009, Van Dijck 2009). It is argued that these different contexts play a vital part...

  18. Integral representation of Skorokhod reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Anantharam, Venkat; Konstantopoulos, Takis

    2010-01-01

    We show that a certain integral representation of the one-sided Skorokhod reflection of a continuous bounded variation function characterizes the reflection in that it possesses a unique maximal solution which solves the Skorokhod reflection problem.

  19. Supplementary motor area deactivation impacts the recovery of hand function from severe peripheral nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-chen Lu; Han-qiu Liu; Xu-yun Hua; Yun-dong Shen; Wen-dong Xu; Jian-guang Xu; Yu-dong Gu

    2016-01-01

    Although some patients have successful peripheral nerve regeneration, a poor recovery of hand function often occurs after peripheral nerve injury. It is believed that the capability of brain plasticity is crucial for the recovery of hand function. The supplementary motor area may play a key role in brain remodeling after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we explored the activation mode of the supplementary motor area during a motor imagery task. We investigated the plasticity of the central nervous system after brachial plexus injury, using the motor imagery task. Results from functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that after brachial plexus injury, the motor imagery task for the affected limbs of the patients triggered no obvious activation of bilateral supplementary motor areas. This result indicates that it is dififcult to excite the supplementary motor areas of brachial plexus injury patients during a motor imagery task, thereby impacting brain remodeling. Deactivation of the supplementary motor area is likely to be a serious problem for brachial plexus injury patients in terms of preparing, initiating and executing certain movements, which may be partly responsible for the unsatisfactory clinical recovery of hand function.

  20. Representations of mad cow disease

    OpenAIRE

    Washer, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of the story of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and its human derivative variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (vCJD) in the British newspapers. Three ‘snapshots’ of newspaper coverage are sampled and analysed between the period 1986 and 1996 focusing on how representations of the disease evolved over the 10-year period. Social representations theory is used to elucidate how this new disease threat was conceptualised in the newspaper reporting a...