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Sample records for bilateral functioning kidneys

  1. Bilateral Supernumerary Kidney: A Very Rare Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To our knowledge, bilateral supernumerary kidney is a very rare renal abnormality and there are five cases presented in the literature. It is difficult to diagnose supernumerary kidney and clinicians have not detected most cases preoperatively. Laboratory and imaging studies were acquired and carefully examined. The normal laboratory tests were found. Emergency ultrasonography was performed and they revealed no signs of parenchymal abnormality in both kidneys. Serial imaging study including enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed. An imaging study identified bilateral supernumerary kidney with expanded collecting systems. On each side, significant rotation anomaly was found. In addition, there were two different renal arteries originating from the aorta. This report presents radiological determinations of supernumerary kidney bilaterally in a young man. We think that CT commonly appears to be enough for the diagnosis of supernumerary kidneys

  2. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  3. Bilateral native nephrectomy for refractory hypertension in kidney transplant and kidney pancreas transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Lerman

    2015-01-01

    We found laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomy to be beneficial in renal and simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant patients with severe and refractory hypertension. Our patients with better baseline renal allograft function at time of nephrectomy received the most benefit. No decrease in allograft function could be attributed to acute rejection.

  4. HORSE SHOE KIDNEY WITH BILATERAL STAGHORN CALCULUS: A RARE PRESENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid,; Mahendra; Sangeeta; Vijoy; Ahsan; Vijayanand,

    2014-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common renal anomalies. Bilateral staghorn calculi in HSK are rare and management is challenging. Anatomic consideration is important in choosing treatment modality. We report a case of bilateral staghorn calculus and its management. We report a case of bilateral staghorn calculus due to its rarity and challenge associated with its management.

  5. HORSE SHOE KIDNEY WITH BILATERAL STAGHORN CALCULUS: A RARE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney (HSK is the most common renal anomalies. Bilateral staghorn calculi in HSK are rare and management is challenging. Anatomic consideration is important in choosing treatment modality. We report a case of bilateral staghorn calculus and its management. We report a case of bilateral staghorn calculus due to its rarity and challenge associated with its management.

  6. Bilateral perinephric pseudocysts and polycystic kidneys in a ferret

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3-year-old castrated male domestic ferret was evaluated for abdominal distention. Survey lateral and dorsoventral abdominal radiographs were made. There were two soft tissue radiopacities consistent with grossly enlarged kidneys displacing small bowel and colon cranially, ventrally and caudally. Abdominal ultrasound was performed and revealed bilateral perinephric pseudocysts and polycystic kidneys. The perinephric pseudocysts were found to be dilated renal capsules on exploratory surgery and were drained. On follow up examinations, the pseudocysts were drained by ultrasound-guided paracentesis. The perinephric cyst fluid was distinguished from urine by measuring creatinine concentration and plans were made to resect the renal capsules due to rapid re-accumulation of pseudocyst fluid. The ferret's condition deteriorated and euthanasia was performed. Post-mortem examination was declined by the owner. Perinephric pseudocysts are rare and this is the first published report in a ferret. Ultrasound examination is the most rapid, accurate and non-invasive method for diagnosis of perinephric pseudocysts

  7. Child with bilateral pheochromocytoma and a surgically solitary kidney: Anesthetic challenges

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    Manjunath Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of childhood. We present a 14-year-old boy with bilateral pheochromocytoma, post nephrectomy in view of a non-functioning kidney presenting with severe hypertension and end organ damage. Diagnosis was confirmed with 24-hour urinary VMA, catechol amines, and CT scan. Preoperative blood pressure (BP was controlled with prazosin, propranolol, nicardipine, and HCT-spironolactone. Anesthesia was given with general endotracheal anesthesia with epidural analgesia. Intraoperative BP rise was managed with infusion of NTG, MgSO4, esmolol, and dexmedetomidine which was especially challenging on account of bilateral tumor.

  8. Bilateral congenital midureteric strictures associated with multicystic dysplastic kidney and hydronephrosis: evaluation with MR urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of bilateral congenital midureteric strictures diagnosed using MR urography. The severity of obstruction differed in the two ureters, resulting in a multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) with an atretic ureter on one side and hydronephrosis that worsened over time due to progressive stenosis on the other. Although midureteric strictures are usually misdiagnosed as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) or ureterovesical junction (UVJ) obstruction on conventional imaging, MR urography was able to clearly demonstrate both the anatomical and functional abnormalities. Additionally, because of the excellent anatomical resolution, similarities in the underlying pathological lesions could be contrasted with the severity of the pathophysiological impact upon each kidney. (orig.)

  9. Bilateral renal cell carcinoma in a horseshoe kidney: preoperative assessment with MRI and digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal cell carcinoma in a horseshoe kidney is an unusual entity. To our knowledge, only 123 cases have been published to date. We report the first bilateral case of two clear-cell carcinomas in an asymmetrically fused kidney. Optimum preservation of renal function after radical tumor removal requires accurate preoperative imaging. Since the vascular supply in fusion anomalies is extremely variable, angiography is mandatory. Magnetic resonance imaging was most suitable to predict the tumor extent and localization, because it simultaneously gave the most comprehensive anatomical overview of the malformation. (orig.)

  10. Bilateral congenital midureteric strictures associated with multicystic dysplastic kidney and hydronephrosis: evaluation with MR urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattan-Smith, J.D.; Little, Stephen [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jones, Richard A. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kirsch, Andrew J. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Urology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We report a case of bilateral congenital midureteric strictures diagnosed using MR urography. The severity of obstruction differed in the two ureters, resulting in a multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) with an atretic ureter on one side and hydronephrosis that worsened over time due to progressive stenosis on the other. Although midureteric strictures are usually misdiagnosed as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) or ureterovesical junction (UVJ) obstruction on conventional imaging, MR urography was able to clearly demonstrate both the anatomical and functional abnormalities. Additionally, because of the excellent anatomical resolution, similarities in the underlying pathological lesions could be contrasted with the severity of the pathophysiological impact upon each kidney. (orig.)

  11. Radiotherapy to the surviving kidney after unilateral nephrectomy in bilateral Wilms' tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four out of seven patients with bilateral tumours died in the period from 1952 to 1960 and five out of eight in the period from 1971 to 1989, at St Bartholomew's Hospital and the Hospital for Sick Children. More aggressive chemotherapy with both adriamycin and actinomycin D and concern over young age being predisposed to late radiation morbidity kept radiotherapy dose prescriptions to the surviving kidney below the quoted renal radiation tolerance dose equivalent. In three long-term survivors treated with daily fractions up to 167 cGy and total doses of 1000-1200 cGy, renal function and growth was within the ''normal'' range at follow-up and the patients normotensive 6-8 years later. As four of the eight patients reported here died from local disease progression within the kidney (albeit despite slightly larger dose prescriptions), the authors discuss the potential for larger total doses to be delivered in this situation. (author)

  12. Successful conservative treatment of bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jaisuresh, K.; Bavaharan, R.

    2013-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare, potentially lethal complication of polycystic kidney disease. Treatment mostly includes emergency nephrectomy of the affected kidney. We report a case of bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis in a 57-year-old diabetic male with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, who recovered with conservative treatment. Escherichia coli was cultured from the cyst aspirate. He was treated with percutaneous needle aspiration of infected cysts and intravenous ...

  13. Huge bilateral polycystic kidneys with suspicion of malignancy, recurrent bleeding in cysts, and acute abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatty, TAN; Moazin, MS; Haque, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of huge bilateral polycystic kidneys, with suspicion of malignancy and repeated admissions with acute abdomen, secondary to bleeding in cysts, and anaemia, requiring affected side nephrectomy. Key message Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) mostly ends up with end stage renal disease (ESRD), requiring haemodialysis, with increased risk of malignancy and enlargement of kidneys with its associated complications, mostly dealt with conservatively, except maligna...

  14. Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture as the presenting manifestation of chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, N A; Malla, H. A.; Kosar, T; Dar, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral painful knees with loss of extension in a patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be due to spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture. This rare complication is usually seen in patients on long term dialysis. We present a case of bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging in a 20-year-old woman who on evaluation was found to have CKD.

  15. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B;

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had...... mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  16. Prune belly syndrome associated with bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys and urethral obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Akdag

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital disorder defined by a characteristic clinical triad: Abdominal muscle deficiency, severe urinary tract abnormalities, and bilateral cryptorchidism. We describe a preterm neonate of Prune Belly syndrome who had abdominal muscle deficiency, multicystic dysplastic kidney, urethral hypoplasia and pulmonary hypoplasia. We presented this rare case with the data gathered from the literatüre.

  17. Kidney volume and function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Higashihara, Eiji; Nutahara, Kikuo; Okegawa, Takatsugu; Shishido, Toshihide; Tanbo, Mitsuhiro; Kobayasi, Kuninori; Nitadori, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Background The significance of total kidney volume (TKV) as a biomarker of kidney function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is controversial and has been reappraised. Methods Between 2007 and 2012, 64 patients were followed with a mean 39.7-month observation period. TKV measurements by magnetic resonance imaging and estimation of renal function with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation and 24-h urine creati...

  18. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patient Specified Bilateral Renal Mass: A Case Report

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    Ercan Ogreden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary cystic lesions of the kidney cysts nonherediter lesion with a wide range. They may be the only finding in the form of extrarenal renal cysts may also be part of a clinical syndrome. For this reason, multi-disciplinary approach brings with cystic lesions in the different units. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, kidney different sizes and numbers of both systemic and hereditary disease that manifests itself in the form of cystic changes. Hereditary and acquired cystic lesions on the basis of some of the rare tumor association is determined in several studies. Here are diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, abdominal pain because of a mass in the last six months, physical examination, radiological and laboratory findings were diagnosed with bilateral renal tumors are uncommon and the right renal mass nephron-sparing surgery, the patients with left renal mass followed with active surveillance discussed in the current literature.

  19. Bilateral native nephrectomy for refractory hypertension in kidney transplant and kidney pancreas transplant patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Mark J.; Sandra Hinton; Ronald Aronoff

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is common in renal transplant patients and sometimes very difficult to control. Refractory hypertension can adversely affect renal graft and patient survival. Many antihypertensive medications are not well tolerated or can have important drug interactions with immunosuppressive medications. These drugs can cause significant side effects including fluid depletion, azotemia, electrolyte imbalance, and anemia. Bilateral native nephrectomy in renal transplant patients has been report...

  20. Clinical implications of the solitary functioning kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westland, R.; Schreuder, M.F.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Sanna-Cherchi, S.; Wijk, J.A. van

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are the major cause of ESRD in childhood. Children with a solitary functioning kidney form an important subgroup of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract patients, and a significant fraction of these children is at risk for progress

  1. Kidney function decline and physical function in women

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Julie; Curhan, Gary C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Cross-sectional analyses of kidney function and physical function have identified profound quality of life impairments in people with advanced kidney dysfunction. No data are currently available, however, on how kidney function decline may be associated with physical function.

  2. Bilateral spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage in an acquired cystic kidney disease hemodialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohama, Daigoro; Miyakawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) is a well-known late stage complication of chronic kidney disease. Cysts tend to grow with time on dialysis and could lead to malignant transformation, and intra- or perirenal hemorrhage is a rare complication of ACKD. Here we describe one case of bilateral spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage of ACKD in a 44-year-old man, on hemodialysis for 15 years. One was due to cyst rupture, and the other was due to aneurism rupture, both were controlled with transcatheter arterial embolization. In renal arteriography at the second rupture, we demonstrated extravasation from an aneurysm being present at the periphery of right renal artery. Several spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage cases were reported but its clinical information is limited, moreover, bilateral cases were extremely rare. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage caused by intraparenchymal renal artery aneurysm rupture in ACKD patients. We report this case because of its rarity and significance with respect to the complication of dialysis patients, review reported bilateral cases, and discuss some clinical characteristics. PMID:24533199

  3. Polyhydramnios in Lrp4 knockout mice with bilateral kidney agenesis: Defects in the pathways of amniotic fluid clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Hiroshi; Tian, Qing-Bao; Hara, Yoshinobu; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Endo, Shogo; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid volume during mid-to-late gestation depends mainly on the urine excretion from the foetal kidneys and partly on the fluid secretion from the foetal lungs during foetal breathing-like movements. Urine is necessary for foetal breathing-like movements, which is critical for foetal lung development. Bilateral renal agenesis and/or obstruction of the urinary tract lead to oligohydramnios, which causes infant death within a short period after birth due to pulmonary hypoplasia. Lrp4, which functions as an agrin receptor, is essential for the formation of neuromuscular junctions. Herein, we report novel phenotypes of Lrp4 knockout (Lrp4−/−) mice. Most Lrp4−/− foetuses showed unilateral or bilateral kidney agenesis, and Lrp4 knockout resulted in polyhydramnios. The loss of Lrp4 compromised foetal swallowing and breathing-like movements and downregulated the expression of aquaporin-9 in the foetal membrane and aquaporin-1 in the placenta, which possibly affected the amniotic fluid clearance. These results suggest that amniotic fluid removal was compromised in Lrp4−/− foetuses, resulting in polyhydramnios despite the impairment of urine production. Our findings indicate that amniotic fluid removal plays an essential role in regulating the amniotic fluid volume. PMID:26847765

  4. Polyhydramnios in Lrp4 knockout mice with bilateral kidney agenesis: Defects in the pathways of amniotic fluid clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Hiroshi; Tian, Qing-Bao; Hara, Yoshinobu; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Endo, Shogo; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid volume during mid-to-late gestation depends mainly on the urine excretion from the foetal kidneys and partly on the fluid secretion from the foetal lungs during foetal breathing-like movements. Urine is necessary for foetal breathing-like movements, which is critical for foetal lung development. Bilateral renal agenesis and/or obstruction of the urinary tract lead to oligohydramnios, which causes infant death within a short period after birth due to pulmonary hypoplasia. Lrp4, which functions as an agrin receptor, is essential for the formation of neuromuscular junctions. Herein, we report novel phenotypes of Lrp4 knockout (Lrp4(-/-)) mice. Most Lrp4(-/-) foetuses showed unilateral or bilateral kidney agenesis, and Lrp4 knockout resulted in polyhydramnios. The loss of Lrp4 compromised foetal swallowing and breathing-like movements and downregulated the expression of aquaporin-9 in the foetal membrane and aquaporin-1 in the placenta, which possibly affected the amniotic fluid clearance. These results suggest that amniotic fluid removal was compromised in Lrp4(-/-) foetuses, resulting in polyhydramnios despite the impairment of urine production. Our findings indicate that amniotic fluid removal plays an essential role in regulating the amniotic fluid volume. PMID:26847765

  5. Bilateral multiple cystic kidney disease and renal cortical abscess in a Boerboel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitshoff, A M; McClure, V; Lim, C K; Kirberger, R M

    2011-06-01

    Cystic renal disease is rare in dogs and although infected renal cysts have been reported in humans, no report could be found in dogs. A 58 kg, 5-year-old, castrated, male Boerboel presented with weight loss, pyrexia, lethargy and vomiting, 20 months after an incident of haematuria was reported. The initial ultrasonographic diagnosis was bilateral multiple renal cysts of unknown aetiology. The cysts had significantly increased in size over the 20-month period and some contained echogenic specks which could be related to infection, normal cellular debris or haemorrhage. In both kidneys the renal contours were distorted (the left more than the right). The abnormal shape of the left kidney was largely due to multiple cysts and a large crescent-shaped septate mass on the cranial pole of the kidney. Aspirates of the septate mass were performed (left kidney) and the cytology and culture were indicative of an abscess. It is suggested that the previous incident of haematuria provided a portal of entry for bacteria into the cysts resulting in renal cortical abscess formation. PMID:22135926

  6. Bilateral multiple cystic kidney disease and renal cortical abscess in a Boerboel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kitshoffa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystic renal disease is rare in dogs and although infected renal cysts have been reported in humans, no report could be found in dogs. A 58 kg, 5-year-old, castrated, male Boerboel presented with weight loss, pyrexia, lethargy and vomiting, 20 months after an incident of haematuria was reported. The initial ultrasonographic diagnosis was bilateral multiple renal cysts of unknown aetiology. The cysts had significantly increased in size over the 20-month period and some contained echogenic specks which could be related to infection, normal cellular debris or haemorrhage. In both kidneys the renal contours were distorted (the left more than the right. The abnormal shape of the left kidney was largely due to multiple cysts and a large crescent-shaped septate mass on the cranial pole of the kidney. Aspirates of the septate mass were performed (left kidney and the cytology and culture were indicative of an abscess. It is suggested that the previous incident of haematuria provided a portal of entry for bacteria into the cysts resulting in renal cortical abscess formation.

  7. Serum prolactin levels in a uremic child: effects of bilateral nephrectomy and kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Geneviève; Merouani, Aïcha; Phan, Véronique; Deal, Cheri; Robitaille, Pierre

    2011-10-01

    Elevated levels of serum prolactin (PRL) are common and well described in patients with chronic renal failure. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who also presented with premature thelarche and transient galactorrhea. Neither peritoneal dialysis nor hemodialysis reduced her extremely elevated levels of PRL, which fluctuated from time to time, probably reflecting variations in lactotroph secretion rate. Bilateral nephrectomy (BN) was eventually followed by a progressive and significant rise in PRL levels, suggesting that even uremic kidneys can eliminate PRL through tubular breakdown. Kidney transplantation was responsible for a very abrupt normalization of PRL serum levels, much faster than that observed for creatinine. This confirms animal studies suggesting that elimination of PRL occurs both through glomerular filtration and tubular breakdown. We hypothesized that the seemingly precocious puberty may have resulted from a combination of growth hormone therapy, elevated PRL and a rise in estrogens through the aromatization of adrenal androgens. This case illustrates the impact of dialysis, BN and kidney transplantation on PRL, providing new knowledge on renal PRL metabolism. PMID:25984175

  8. Management for Patients with De Novo or Recurrent Tumors in the Residual Kidney after Surgery for Nonfamilial Bilateral Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Noboru Hara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor de novo in the residual kidney after surgery for nonfamilial bilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC is problematic. We reviewed 5 patients who experienced such a situation. Three patients had had metachronous bilateral RCC, treated with radical nephrectomy in one kidney and nephron-sparing surgery (NSS in the other. Two patients had had synchronous disease; one patient had received radical nephrectomy and NSS, and the other bilateral NSS. The 5 patients had another solid mass/de novo tumor in the residual kidney 16–88 (mean 46.8 months after surgery. For the tumor de novo in earlier years (1992–1999, one patient underwent surgery and hemodialysis, and the other selected a conservative observation. In recent years (2000–2007, one patient was conservatively observed; the remaining 2 received computerized-tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation, and the local tumors were well controlled postoperatively for 20 and 12 months with their renal function unimpaired. Ablative techniques can potentially strike a balance between oncological and nephrological outcomes in patients with sporadic multiple RCC, successful management of which was difficult previously.

  9. Functional CT of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsushima, Yoshito. E-mail: yoshito@xa2.so-net.ne.jp

    1999-06-01

    The iodinated contrast agents used for computed tomography (CT) are filtered at the glomerulus and not reabsorbed by the tubules and have pharmacokinetics comparable to inulin. They can thus measure physiological indices such as contrast clearance per unit volume, which is closely related to glomerular filtration rate per unit renal volume of kidney, after due allowance for the difference between blood and plasma clearance. In this review, we show how dynamic CT can be used to measure both regional and global blood clearance of contrast material. A single slice of kidney is scanned sequentially after bolus intravenous (i.v.) injection of contrast material. Next, time-attenuation curves are constructed and contrast clearance per unit volume is calculated using a Patlak graphical analysis. CT determination of renal volume is made and global contrast clearance can be then also calculated. In normal kidneys, clearance/volume averaged 0.49{+-}0.11 ml min{sup -1} ml{sup -1} (mean {+-}S.D.), and these values agreed with literature data obtained using other techniques. A negative correlation between patient's age and clearance/volume was seen. A strong correlation was observed between creatinine whole blood clearance and the global contrast clearance (the product of renal volume determined by CT and contrast clearance/volume). Dynamic CT can provide quantitative renal physiological information on a regional basis non-invasively.

  10. Follow-up of vestibular function in bilateral vestibulopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Zingler, Vera C.; Weintz, E.; Jahn, Klaus; Mike, A; Huppert, Doreen; Rettinger, Nicole; BRANDT, THOMAS; Strupp, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Bilateral vestibulopathy (BV) leads to a bilateral deficit of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and has various aetiologies. The main goal of this study was to determine the frequency and degree of recovery or worsening of vestibular function over time.Methods: 82 patients (59 males, 23 females; mean age at the time of diagnosis 56.3 (SD 17.6) years) were re-examined 51 (36) months after the first examination. All patients underwent a standardised neuro-ophthalmological and neuro-otologi...

  11. Assessment of Renal Functional Status with the ''Kidney to Liver Ratio'' - A comparative study with Tc-99m DTPA Renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the assessment of renal functional status, DTPA renography is widely used. Split function provides excellent information, but it has certain shortcomings especially in bilateral renal disease or in solitary kidney. This study demonstrates the importance of kidney to liver ratio as a functional parameter. In 65 patients, a total of 123 kidney were studied. Renographic studies were done after a bolus of Tc-99m DTPA. The kidney to liver ratios was calculated at 3 minutes (K3/L3). The ratios and renography curve patterns correlated well in 101 (82%) kidneys, both normal in 42 and both abnormal in 59 kidneys. Only 22 (18%) kidneys had discrepancies and among them 12 showed abnormal ratios but having normal renogram curves. The findings display the usefulness of K3/L3 ratio. The authors advocate that it is a good parameter for renal studies. (author) 9 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Polyhydramnios in Lrp4 knockout mice with bilateral kidney agenesis: Defects in the pathways of amniotic fluid clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Tanahashi; Qing-Bao Tian; Yoshinobu Hara; Hiroyuki Sakagami; Shogo Endo; Tatsuo Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid volume during mid-to-late gestation depends mainly on the urine excretion from the foetal kidneys and partly on the fluid secretion from the foetal lungs during foetal breathing-like movements. Urine is necessary for foetal breathing-like movements, which is critical for foetal lung development. Bilateral renal agenesis and/or obstruction of the urinary tract lead to oligohydramnios, which causes infant death within a short period after birth due to pulmonary hypoplasia. Lrp4, ...

  13. Creatinine-Based Estimations of Kidney Function Are Unreliable in Obese Kidney Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Aggarwal; Porter, Anna C.; Tang, Ignatius Y. S.; Becker, Bryan N.; Sanjeev K. Akkina

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of kidney function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential to the risk assessment of prospective living kidney donors. We evaluated the performance of various estimating equations for creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault), GFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration), and 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance in obese potential kidney donors. We evaluated 164 potential kidney donors inc...

  14. Functional Benefits of Bilateral Emphysema Reduction Surgery in an Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Valérie; Moreau de Bellaing, Anne; Filaire, Marc; Richard, Ruddy; Labbé, André

    2016-09-01

    Acquired emphysema is a rare pathology in pediatrics. We report the case of a patient born at term with a neonatal respiratory distress, which had required mechanical ventilation. She developed gradually chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with severe emphysematous lesions, respiratory failure and functional impairments. Bilateral emphysema resection, performed at 16 years old, allowed major functional benefits at rest and during exercise. We present the results of respiratory functional evaluations, walk tests and maximal exercise tests (including measure of dynamic hyperinflation) before and after surgery, which highlights that surgery is a successful option in the treatment of compressive emphysema in childhood. PMID:27549540

  15. 15.1.Kidney function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930328 Serum and urine myoglobin:a sensitiveindex of diminishing renal function.CHEN Wei-wei (陈伟伟),WANG Jichao (王继超).LishuiPrefect Hosp,Zhejiang.Chin J Nephrol 1992;8(6):337—339.Measurement of the levels of serum and urinemyoglobin (Mb) by radioimmuncassay was car-ried out in 84 patients with renal failure,112patients with normal plasma creatinine levelsand 50 mormal subjects.Serum Mb levels inPre-dialysis and post-dialysis were deter-mined in 19 patients of maintained hemodialy-

  16. Radionuclide functional imaging in pediatric kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pediatric patients renal dynamic scintigraphy proves as a valuable help in decision making with respect to surgical measures, especially in cases of unilaterally small kidneys, obstructive uropathy, segmental or focal nephropathy and radiographically nonvisualized kidneys. In equivocal obstruction of the upper urinary tract, the individual renal function should be considered in addition to the dnyamic information of diuresis renography and upright images, respectively. It is probably wise, if not mandatory, to leave an indwelling catheter in the bladder with continuous drainage. In some cases of unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction, differential renal function of the obstructed kidney was determined to be significantly higher as compared to the postoperative results. This was true for individual renal DMSA uptake either, but only in well functioning organs, which were preserved anyway. The indirect radionuclide methods of assessing vesicoureteric reflux render valuable information without additional radiation exposure, and should be employed routinely in cases of possible reflux. The direct method of voiding cystography using a catheter is more practicable with respect to selective assessment of reflux. In pediatric patients renal dynamic scintigraphy should be performed with J-123-OJH, or better with Tc-99m-MAG3. Dual probe renography and J-131-OJH scintigraphy are not up to the required standard any more. (orig.)

  17. Scintigraphic determination of kidney volume for assessment of individual kidney function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemichen, C.; Vogt, H.; Schmitt, E.; Pohle, W.; Gaede, J.

    1980-09-01

    The right to left ratio in kidney function was evaluated in 145 patients by means of the secretory phase of the renogram as well as by means of the scintigraphically determined kidney volume. A good and linear correlation was found between both parameters, as far as there was no considerable obstructive uropathy. In this cases the right to left ratio in kidney volume can be directly used for judging the individual function of each kidney. The method seems to be most suitable for determining the functional portion of dystopic kidneys.

  18. Creatinine-Based Estimations of Kidney Function Are Unreliable in Obese Kidney Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of kidney function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR is essential to the risk assessment of prospective living kidney donors. We evaluated the performance of various estimating equations for creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault, GFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, and 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance in obese potential kidney donors. We evaluated 164 potential kidney donors including 49 with a BMI of 30–35 and 32 with a BMI >35 that have completed a routine living donor evaluation with a measured GFR. All the estimating equations performed poorly in obese donors. While 24-hour urine collections performed better, only 15% had an adequate 24-hour urine collection. Since obese kidney donors may be at higher than average risk for kidney failure, accurate assessment of kidney function in these donors is crucial to ensure their long-term health postdonation.

  19. Congenital thoracic ectopic kidney with eventration of the diaphragm bilateral pes equinovarus and developmental dislocation of the hip: A case report Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sezgin, Betül; Büyük, Sema; Yiğit, Özgül; Demircili, Oyhan; Sander, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    Congenital thoracic ectopic kidney is a very rare developmental anomaly It is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on a routine chest radiography We report a left thoracic ectopic kidney in a 2 months 22 days old girl with eventration of the diaphragm bilateral pes equinovarus and developmental dislocation of the hip Turk Arch Ped 2007; 42: 125 8 Key words: Congenital diaphragm eventration thoracic ectopic kidney

  20. Long-term functional outcome of bilateral spontaneous and simultaneous Achilles tendon ruptures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, Prasad

    2012-10-01

    Bilateral simultaneous ruptures are rare comprising less than 1% of all Achilles tendon ruptures. Risk factors for bilateral ruptures include chronic diseases and medications such as corticosteroids and fluoroquinolones. There is little in the literature on the long-term functional outcome of bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures. This article present a series of 3 cases of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures with a minimum of 5-year follow up suggesting a good functional outcome.

  1. Neuropsychological functioning following bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C E; Borod, J C; Perrine, K; Beric, A; Brin, M F; Rezai, A; Kelly, P; Sterio, D; Germano, I; Weisz, D; Olanow, C W

    2004-03-01

    The cognitive effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been examined. However, there are no reported studies that evaluate, by incorporating a disease control group, whether neuropsychological performance in surgical patients changes beyond the variability of the assessment measures. To examine this issue, 17 PD patients were tested before and after bilateral STN stimulator implantation, both on and off stimulation. Eleven matched PD controls were administered the same repeatable neuropsychological test battery twice. Relative to changes seen in the controls, the surgery for electrode placement mildly adversely affected attention and language functions. STN stimulation, per se, had little effect on cognition. The STN DBS procedure as a whole resulted in a mild decline in delayed verbal recall and language functions. There were no surgery, stimulation, or procedure effects on depression scale scores. In contrast to these group findings, one DBS patient demonstrated significant cognitive decline following surgery. PMID:15010083

  2. Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, R Todd; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Wiebe, Natasha; Bello, Aminu; Morgan, Catherine; Samuel, Susan; Klarenbach, Scott W; Curhan, Gary C.; Tonelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the presence of kidney stones increase the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) or other adverse renal outcomes. Design A registry cohort study using validated algorithms based on claims and facility utilisation data. Median follow-up of 11 years. Setting Alberta, Canada, between 1997 and 2009. Participants 3 089 194 adult patients without ESRD at baseline or a history of pyelonephritis. Of these, 1 954 836 had outpatient serum creatinine measurements and we...

  3. Histoautoradiographic and liquid scintillometric studies on DNA synthesis in the liver, kidneys, spleen and tongue after bilateral adrenalectomy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historadiographies and liquid scintillometries were carried out in 163 male Wistar rats in order to determine the effects of bilateral adrenalectomy on DNA synthesis in the liver, kidneys, spleen, and tongue. Both DNA synthesis and mitotic index are significantly increased from the 1st day p.o. onwards, with broad synthesis peaks between the 2nd and the 4th day. The intensity of DNA synthesis shows a gradual decrease with increasing duration of the experiment. In contrast to the adrenalectonized animals, the synthesis rate and mitotic index in the organs of sham-operated animals were significantly lower, although enhanced proliferation was observed after surgery. The enhanced DNA synthesis after bilateral adrenalectomy is interpreted in terms of a disinhibition; corticosteroids are assumed to play a key role. The effects of bilateral adrenalectromy on untreated organs are not organ-specific. The highest synthesis rate was observed in the tubular epithelia of the convoluted main parts, while the DNA synthesis in the tongue. The findings of autoradiography and liquid scintillometry are well correlated. (orig./MG)

  4. Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) Outperforms Serum Creatinine in Detecting Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury, Experiments on Bilateral Nephrectomy and Bilateral Ureter Obstruction Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Somparn, Poorichaya; Issara-Amphorn, Jiraphorn; Eiam-Ong, Somchai; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Srisawat, Nattachai

    2016-05-01

    Serum neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (sNGAL), a promising acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarker produced by renal and non-renal tissues, might be affected by sepsis. We evaluated sNGAL in zero glomerular filtration rate models [bilateral ureter obstruction (BUO) and bilateral nephrectomy (BiNx)] with subsequent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in 6 to 8-week-old ICR mice. We found that sNGAL increased earlier than serum creatinine (Scr) in BiNx/BUO with and without CLP. The earliest time-point of increased sNGAL in BiNx+CLP was 1 h after surgery. Scr, but not sNGAL, was lower at 18 h after BiNx/BUO+CLP compared with BiNx/BUO alone. Compared with BUO, BiNx had higher, and equal sNGAL at 1 to 18 h and 36 h, respectively. Additionally, similar NGAL expression in internal organs (heart, lung, liver, and spleen) and survival rates indicated the comparable severity of BiNx and BUO. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 was increased and correlated with sNGAL in BiNx/BUO with and without sepsis. In summary, we demonstrated: sNGAL is an early AKI biomarker, which is not affected by sepsis; sNGAL is mainly produced by extrarenal sources as demonstrated by the comparable sNGAL in BiNx and BUO; the saturation of renal NGAL re-absorption in BUO is demonstrated by lower sNGAL in BUO at 1 to 18 h, but not at 36 h when compared with BiNx; and a correlation of sNGAL and IL-6 implied sNGAL is a good sepsis prognostic biomarker. Therefore, sNGAL is a more beneficial sepsis-AKI biomarker than Scr. PMID:26863120

  5. Ocular Motor Function in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Seyyed Amir Hossein; Jafarzadeh, Sadegh; Haddadi Aval, Majid; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with bilateral weakness (BW) have many difficulties in gaze stability that interfere with their normal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular motor functions in patients with BW to better understand the problem of gaze instability in these patients. Materials and Methods: Patients were referred from the Otolaryngology Department for Vestibular Assessment to our clinic between November 2014 and March 2015. We assessed ocular motor function (gaze, saccade, and smooth pursuit) in patients over the age of 18 years with BW, as verified by a caloric test. Results: Seventy-eight patients completed all the tests. The mean age of patients was 51.9 (±15.9) years, and 47 (60%) were female. Abnormal results were found in five (6.4%), 32 (41%), and seven (9%) patients with respect to gaze, smooth pursuit, and saccade, respectively. There were positive but relatively weak relationships between age and ocular motor results. Conclusion: Patients with BW suffer from dizziness and unsteadiness. These patients have abnormal function in ocular motor (especially smooth pursuit) tests. The ocular motor dysfunction is responsible for gaze instability in static positions such as standing. PMID:27429945

  6. Ocular Motor Function in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Amir Hossein Ghazizadeh Hashemi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with bilateral weakness (BW have many difficulties in gaze stability that interfere with their normal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular motor functions in patients with BW to better understand the problem of gaze instability in these patients.   Materials and Methods: Patients were referred from the Otolaryngology Department for Vestibular Assessment to our clinic between November 2014 and March 2015. We assessed ocular motor function (gaze, saccade, and smooth pursuit in patients over the age of 18 years with BW, as verified by a caloric test.   Results: Seventy-eight patients completed all the tests. The mean age of patients was 51.9 (±15.9 years, and 47 (60% were female. Abnormal results were found in five (6.4%, 32 (41%, and seven (9% patients with respect to gaze, smooth pursuit, and saccade, respectively. There were positive but relatively weak relationships between age and ocular motor results.   Conclusion:  Patients with BW suffer from dizziness and unsteadiness. These patients have abnormal function in ocular motor (especially smooth pursuit tests. The ocular motor dysfunction is responsible for gaze instability in static positions such as standing.

  7. Serum prolactin levels in a uremic child: effects of bilateral nephrectomy and kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rondeau, Geneviève; Merouani, Aïcha; Phan, Véronique; Deal, Cheri; Robitaille, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum prolactin (PRL) are common and well described in patients with chronic renal failure. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who also presented with premature thelarche and transient galactorrhea. Neither peritoneal dialysis nor hemodialysis reduced her extremely elevated levels of PRL, which fluctuated from time to time, probably reflecting variations in lactotroph secretion rate. Bilateral nephrectomy (BN) was eventually followed by a progressive and significant ri...

  8. Bilateral generating functions for a new class of generalized Legendre polynominals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Srivastava

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently Chatterjea (1 has proved a theorem to deduce a bilateral generating function for the Ultraspherical polynomials. In the present paper an attempt has been made to give a general version of Chatterjea's theorem. Finally, the theorem has been specialized to obtain a bilateral generating function for a class of polynomials {Pn(x;α,β} introduced by Bhattacharjya (2.

  9. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of bilateral kidneys at 3 T MRI: Effects of age, gender, and laterality in healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the effects of age and gender on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of bilateral kidneys at 3 T MRI, and compare the ADC values of left and right kidneys. Materials and methods: In all, 137 healthy participants (mean age 42.8 ± 14.7 years; age range 16–75 years) comprising 68 male and 69 female participants were enrolled. Three Tesla echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of bilateral kidneys was performed and ADC values were measured in the cortex, medulla, and whole parenchyma. Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression were performed to determine the associations between the ADC values in each region and age. Effects of age and gender on ADC values were analysed using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The paired-samples t-test was established to compare the ADC values between left and right kidneys. Results: ADC values were significantly higher in the young group (≤50 years) than in the old group (>50 years), and correlated inversely with the age in all regions. Male participants had higher ADC values than female participants in all regions except left medulla. Two-factor ANOVA of age × gender showed no significant interactions between the variables age and gender were found. No significant differences in ADC values between left and right kidneys were observed. Conclusion: Renal ADC values are age- and gender-dependent, and show no significant difference between left and right kidneys. Age- and gender-related effects should be taken into consideration in future renal DWI studies when using normal ADC values from health controls. - Highlights: • Renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values decrease with ageing. • Men tend to have higher renal ADC values than women. • Bilateral kidneys seem to have no significantly different ADC values

  10. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Ying Zhou; Tian Wu Chen; Xiao Ming Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progres...

  11. Vesicostomy and Colostomy in a Premature Neonate With Posterior Urethral Valves, Bilateral Dysplastic Kidneys, and High Imperforate Anus: The Challenge of Stoma Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Melissa; Alnaqi, Amar A A; Braga, Luis H

    2016-07-01

    Although anorectal malformations are often associated with urinary tract abnormalities, the association with posterior urethral valves is exceptionally rare. We report a unique case of a premature (35 gestational weeks) male neonate born with posterior urethral valves, bilateral dysplastic kidneys, and imperforate anus, successfully treated by Blocksom vesicostomy and left upper quadrant loop colostomy. The challenges involving placement of both stomas in a small abdominal wall of a 2200 g premature neonate are discussed. PMID:27015939

  12. In vitro function of cyst epithelium from human polycystic kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone, R D

    1985-01-01

    It is thought that cysts in polycystic kidneys originate from nephron segments and function in a manner similar to the segment or origin. The indirect evidence for this derives from studies of microanatomy and cyst fluid composition. Cysts with low Na+ have been classified as distal, whereas cysts with high Na+ have been classified as proximal. In order to directly determine the transport characteristics of cyst epithelium, cysts from a human polycystic kidney were studied in vitro using Ussi...

  13. Study of the effects of uranium on kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical toxicity of inhaled or ingested soluble uranium, especially its nephrotoxicity surpasses its radiotoxicity. Because of the functional overcapacity of the kidney, it is probable that adverse effects on renal function due to occupational uranium exposure may be sustained long before this becomes evident. The advent of more sensitive and specific tests, particularly of proximal tubular dysfunction, suggests that it may now be possible to detect and monitor such sub-clinical effects on renal function. The Atomic Energy Control Board requires an updated review of uranium nephrotoxicity, and an evaluation of the various tests available which might be used to detect altered kidney function in uranium workers. Recommendations are also required regarding occupational studies which could be conducted in these workers to assess their current state of kidney function and possibly serve as monitoring tools in the future

  14. The effect of bilateral activities on the improvement of upper limb function in CVA patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Hassanpour; Sayed Ali Hoseini; Shahram Aboutaleb; Mahdi Rahgozar; Zohre Sarafraz

    2011-01-01

    1. Dept. of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Background: Bilateral activity is a rehabilitation method for cerebral vascular accident (CVA) patients with proven efficacy. This study investigated the effects of bilateral activities on the affected side upper limb functions in CVA patients.Methods: In this empirical study, 21 CVA patients were assigned into case and control groups. During 8 weeks interventions the case group received b...

  15. Vergence and Standing Balance in Subjects with Idiopathic Bilateral Loss of Vestibular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoula, Zoï; Gaertner, Chrystal; Yang, Qing; Denise, Pierre; Toupet, Michel

    2013-01-01

    There is a natural symbiosis between vergence and vestibular responses. Deficits in vergence can lead to vertigo, disequilibrium, and postural instability. This study examines both vergence eye movements in patients with idiopathic bilateral vestibular loss, and their standing balance in relation to vergence. Eleven patients participated in the study and 16 controls. Bilateral loss of vestibular function was objectified with many tests; only patients without significant response to caloric te...

  16. Functional genomics in renal transplantation and chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past decade, the development of genomic technology has revolutionized modern biological research. Functional genomic analyses enable biologists to study genetic events on a genome wide scale. Examples of applications are gene discovery, biomarker determination, disease classification, and drug target identification. Global expression profiles performed with microarrays enable a better understanding of molecular signature of human disease, including acute and chronic kidney disease. About 10 % of the population in western industrialized nations suffers from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment of end stage renal disease, the final stage of CKD is performed by either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis or renal transplantation. The preferred treatment is renal transplantation, because of the higher quality of life. But the pathophysiology of the disease on a molecular level is not well enough understood and early biomarkers for acute and chronic kidney disease are missing. In my studies I focused on genomics of allograft biopsies, prevention of delayed graft function after renal transplantation, anemia after renal transplantation, biocompatibility of hemodialysis membranes and peritoneal dialysis fluids and cardiovascular diseases and bone disorders in CKD patients. Gene expression profiles, pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction networks were used to elucidate the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of the disease or phenomena, identifying early biomarkers or predictors of disease state and potentially drug targets. In summery my PhD thesis represents the application of functional genomic analyses in chronic kidney disease and renal transplantation. The results provide a deeper view into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of kidney disease. Nevertheless, future multicenter collaborative studies, meta-analyses of existing data, incorporation of functional genomics into large-scale prospective clinical trials are needed and will give biomedical

  17. Influence of chronic kidney disease on cardiac structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; Ballew, Shoshana H; Coresh, Josef

    2015-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), the presence of kidney dysfunction and/or damage, is a worldwide public health issue. Although CKD is independently associated with various subtypes of cardiovascular diseases, a recent international collaborative meta-analysis demonstrates that CKD is particularly strongly associated with heart failure, suggesting its critical impact on cardiac structure and function. Although numerous studies have investigated the association of CKD and cardiac structure and function, these studies substantially vary regarding source populations and methodology (e.g., measures of CKD and/or parameters of cardiac structure and function), making it difficult to reach universal conclusions. Nevertheless, in this review, we comprehensively examine relevant studies, discuss potential mechanisms linking CKD to alteration of cardiac structure and function, and demonstrate clinical implications as well as potential future research directions. We exclusively focus on studies investigating both CKD measures, kidney function (i.e., glomerular filtration rate [GFR], creatinine clearance, or levels of filtration markers), and kidney damage represented by albuminuria, since current international clinical guidelines of CKD recommend staging CKD and assessing its clinical risk based on both GFR and albuminuria. PMID:26194332

  18. Biomarkers of delayed graft function as a form of acute kidney injury in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Glowinska, Irena; Durlik, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation ensures distinct advantages for patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, in some cases early complications can lead to allograft dysfunction and consequently graft loss. One of the most common early complications after kidney transplantation is delayed graft function (DGF). Unfortunately there is no effective treatment for DGF, however early diagnosis of DGF and therapeutic intervention (eg modification of immunosuppression) may improve outcome. Therefore, markers of acute kidney injury are required. Creatinine is a poor biomarker for kidney injury due principally to its inability to help diagnose early acute renal failure and complete inability to help differentiate among its various causes. Different urinary and serum proteins have been intensively investigated as possible biomarkers in this setting. There are promising candidate biomarkers with the ability to detect DGF. We focused on emerging biomarkers of DGF with NGAL is being the most studied followed by KIM-1, L-FABP, IL-18, and others. However, large randomized studies are needed to establish the value of new, promising biomarkers, in DGF diagnosis, prognosis and its cost-effectiveness. PMID:26175216

  19. 99Tcm-DTPA renography in evaluating the function of duplex kidneys in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the value of 99Tcm-DTPA dynamic renography in evaluating the function of duplex kidneys in pediatric patients. Methods: Twenty-five pediatric patients with duplex kidneys diagnosed by ultrasound or MR urography (MRU) were included (9 males, 16 females; mean age:(23.80 ± 20.97) months, range: 2-72 months). Twenty patients (9 males,11 females; mean age: (32.95 ± 23.58) months, range: 2-72 months) with urinary tract infection but without duplex kidneys confirmed by ultrasound or MRU were chosen as control group during the same period of this study. All patients and controls were divided into two subgroups according to their ages (group Ⅰ, 0-24 months; group Ⅱ, 25-72 months). The research was approved by the ethics committee, and all patients' parents (or guardians) signed informed consents. The time-activity curve was generated on the dynamic imaging data automatically with GFR calculated. The uptake rates of the upper and lower moieties were measured by drawing the corresponding ROIs in the duplex kidney. Dunnett-t test was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 25 patients with 26 duplex kidneys (1 case bilateral), 16 on the left and 10 on the right. The time-activity curve of 6 cases was normal, 9 with continuously upward type, 4 with high level plateau type, 2 with parabolic type and 5 with low level plateau type. There were 19 abnormal kidneys in group Ⅰ and 7 in group Ⅱ, and 20 kidneys in each control subgroup. The GFR of patients with normal renography was (78.81 ± 15.97) ml/min (group Ⅰ) and (64.68 ± 11.15) ml/min (group Ⅱ), continuously upward type was (72.11 ±22.76) ml/min (group Ⅰ) and (63.41 ± 16.42) ml/min (group Ⅱ), high level plateau and parabolic types were (68.74 ± 16.17) ml/min and (65.26 ± 15.27) ml/min in group Ⅰ, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the GFR of different renography type groups and that of the controls (group Ⅰ: (79.35 ±13.31) ml

  20. Predicting restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal failure is common in critically ill patients and frequently requires continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. CRRT is discontinued at regular intervals for routine changes of the disposable equipment or for replacing clogged filter membrane assemblies. The present study was conducted to determine if the necessity to continue CRRT could be predicted during the CRRT-free period. Materials and methods In the period from 2003 to 2006, 605 patients were treated with CRRT in our ICU. A total of 222 patients with 448 CRRT-free intervals had complete data sets and were used for analysis. Of the total CRRT-free periods, 225 served as an evaluation group. Twenty-nine parameters with an assumed influence on kidney function were analyzed with regard to their potential to predict the restoration of kidney function during the CRRT-free interval. Using univariate analysis and logistic regression, a prospective index was developed and validated in the remaining 223 CRRT-free periods to establish its prognostic strength. Results Only three parameters showed an independent influence on the restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free intervals: the number of previous CRRT cycles (medians in the two outcome groups: 1 vs. 2, the "Sequential Organ Failure Assessment"-score (means in the two outcome groups: 8.3 vs. 9.2 and urinary output after the cessation of CRRT (medians in two outcome groups: 66 ml/h vs. 10 ml/h. The prognostic index, which was calculated from these three variables, showed a satisfactory potential to predict the kidney function during the CRRT-free intervals; Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.798. Conclusion Restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free periods can be predicted with an index calculated from three variables. Prospective trials in other hospitals must clarify whether our results are generally transferable to other patient populations.

  1. The effect of bilateral activities on the improvement of upper limb function in CVA patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanpour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available 1. Dept. of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Background: Bilateral activity is a rehabilitation method for cerebral vascular accident (CVA patients with proven efficacy. This study investigated the effects of bilateral activities on the affected side upper limb functions in CVA patients.Methods: In this empirical study, 21 CVA patients were assigned into case and control groups. During 8 weeks interventions the case group received bilateral activities in addition to routine treatment, which performed in both groups. Upper limb function was measured using both Fugl- Meyer and Wolf tests at the beginning and end of the 8 week of the study. Data was analyzed using Chi–Square independent and paired sample T-tests.Results: In the case group, function time and sensory motor score were increased significantly after the intervention (p=0.023 and p-0.002 respectively. There was no significant difference between the case and control groups before and after intervention. Significant difference was not seen either in case or in control group in the motor function scores during the study period.Conclusion: Performing bilateral activities could not lead to significant upper limb function improvement. Due to the small sample size and the long time passed after CVA occurring in our study, it seems that more investigations in this filed is necessary.

  2. Kidney-to-liver ratio. A simple scintigraphic parameter for routine individual renal function assessment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, B C; Sostre, S

    1994-03-01

    DTPA renography is commonly used for measuring relative renal function. However, in patients with bilateral renal disease or solitary kidneys, split function studies are of no value. Available techniques to quantify individual renal function are either time consuming or inaccurate. The authors validate the kidney-to-liver ratio at 3 minutes (K3/L3) as an index of renal function, showing excellent correlation with GFR. Normal K3/L3 ranges were then computed in 113 pediatric kidneys (age 2 days to 16 years) and 24 adults. Indicative of renal maturation, the K3/L3 rapidly rose from a value of 1.32 at birth to 2.02 at 6 months. Subsequently, it increased slowly to reach a peak of 2.34 at age 2, followed by gradual decline to adult values after age 5. This decrease is due likely to continued growth of the hepatic blood pool after renal maturation. GFR followed the same maturation pattern to reach a plateau around 2 years of age. K3/L3 reflects individual kidney function, and it requires no blood sampling or urine collection. By establishing normal values at different stages of maturity, this method provides identification and quantification of renal dysfunction in infants, children, and adults. PMID:8033475

  3. Plasma Uromodulin Correlates With Kidney Function and Identifies Early Stages in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steubl, Dominik; Block, Matthias; Herbst, Victor; Nockher, Wolfgang Andreas; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Satanovskij, Robin; Angermann, Susanne; Hasenau, Anna-Lena; Stecher, Lynne; Heemann, Uwe; Renders, Lutz; Scherberich, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Uromodulin, released from tubular cells of the ascending limb into the blood, may be associated with kidney function. This work studies the relevance of plasma uromodulin as a biomarker for kidney function in an observational cohort of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and subjects without CKD (CKD stage 0). It should be further evaluated if uromodulin allows the identification of early CKD stages.Plasma uromodulin, serum creatinine, cystatin C, blood-urea-nitrogen (BUN) concentrations, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR CKD-EPIcrea-cystatin) were assessed in 426 individuals of whom 71 were CKD stage 0 and 355 had CKD. Besides descriptive statistics, univariate correlations between uromodulin and biomarkers/eGFR were calculated using Pearson-correlation coefficient. Multiple linear regression modeling was applied to establish the association between uromodulin and eGFR adjusted for demographic parameters and pharmacologic treatment. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis adjusted for demographic parameters was performed to test if uromodulin allows differentiation of subjects with CKD stage 0 and CKD stage I.Mean uromodulin plasma levels were 85.7 ± 60.5 ng/mL for all CKD stages combined. Uromodulin was correlated with all biomarkers/eGFR in univariate analysis (eGFR: r = 0.80, creatinine: r = -0.76, BUN: r = -0.72, and cystatin C: r = -0.79). Multiple linear regression modeling showed significant association between uromodulin and eGFR (coefficient estimate β = 0.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.603-0.719, P < 0.001). In ROC analysis uromodulin was the only parameter that significantly improved a model containing demographic parameters to differentiate between CKD 0° and I° (area under the curve [AUC] 0.831, 95% CI 0.746-0.915, P = 0.008) compared to creatinine, cystatin C, BUN, and eGFR (AUC for creatinine: 0.722, P = 0.056, cystatin C: 0.668, P = 0.418, BUN: 0.653, P = 0.811, and e

  4. Renal Artery Stenting in Patients with a Solitary Functioning Kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the results of renal artery stenting in patients with renovascular disease and a solitary functioning kidney.Methods: Palmazstents were placed in 16 patients with a solitary functioning kidney,renal artery stenosis, hypertension and renal failure. Stenoses were evaluated with color Doppler ultrasound, MR angiography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Indications for stenting were: recoil after percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) (63%),arterial dissection after PTRA (13%) and primary stenting (25%).Immediate results were evaluated by DSA. On follow-up (6-36 months),patients underwent periodical evaluation of clinical conditions (blood pressure and serum creatinine level) and stent patency, by means of color Doppler ultrasound.Results: Stent placement was successful in all patients (100%). Cumulative primary patency rate was: 100% at 1 day, 93.75% at 6 months, 81.25% at 12 months and 75% at 24 months. A significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure occurred (mean ± SD 104 ± 6 vs 92 ± 3;p 0.05).Conclusion: Renal artery stenting, both after PTRA and as primary stenting, represents a safe procedure, able to preserve renal function in patients with a solitary functioning kidney

  5. Reduced kidney function is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Jari A; Zaccardi, Francesco; Karppi, Jouni; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Kurl, Sudhir

    2016-08-01

    There is limited knowledge on the relationship between kidney function and incidence of atrial fibrillation. Thus, this prospective study was designed to evaluate whether various biomarkers of kidney function are associated to the risk of atrial fibrillation. The study population consisted of 1840 subjects (615 women and 1225 men) aged 61-82 years. Cystatin C- and creatinine-based estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys and eGRFcreat , respectively) and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) were assessed to investigate their relationship with the risk of atrial fibrillation. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, a total of 159 incident atrial fibrillation cases occurred. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of atrial fibrillation was increased (hazard ratio 2.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-4.81, P atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio 2.16, CI 1.35-2.82, P atrial fibrillation. PMID:26780558

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of renal function in the transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of a comprehensive renal function test based on the analysis of orthoiodohippurate kinetics carried out 223 times in 86 renal transplant patients, we have been able to separate clearly five clinical entities: normally functioning transplanted kidneys, acute tubular necrosis, cell-mediated rejection, humoral (chronic) rejection, and postrenal obstruction. Accurate prediction of the fate of the rejecting kidney can be made while still subclinical as much as a week before manifestations by other techniques are evident. Data on 22 donors studied 44 times are also presented. The comprehensive test consists of measurements of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), sequential scintigraphy, calculations of excretory index (EI) (percent dose actually found in bladder and voided urine as a fraction of the percent dose expected at a given time after injection at the patient's specific ERPF), and residual urine volume. Formulas and regression equations for the calculation of ERPF, EI, residual urine, etc., are presented

  7. Impaired renal function in relatives of chronic kidney disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pradip Kumar Dutta; Md Shafiul Haider; Abul Kashem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is now a public health burden. If simple screening tests like the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and presence of albuminuria are done in asymptomatic persons, CKD can be diagnosed earlier that will help in halting the disease and not let it progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Aim: This study was conducted to see the proportion of renal function abnormality in the relatives of CKD patients. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional compa...

  8. Salivary markers of kidney function - Potentials and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Šebeková, Katarína; Podracká, Ľudmila; Boor, Peter

    2016-01-30

    Saliva can be collected non-invasively, repeatedly and without trained personnel. It is a promising diagnostic body fluid with clinical use in endocrinology and dentistry. For decades, it is known that saliva contains also urea, creatinine and other markers of renal function. Clinical studies have shown that the salivary concentrations of these markers could be useful for the assessment of kidney function without the need of blood collection. This article summarizes the clinical and experimental data on the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in nephrology and points out the advantages, pitfalls, technical requirements and future perspective for the use of saliva as a novel potential diagnostic biofluid. PMID:26633856

  9. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ying Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progression of AKI. The early assessment of these changes remains a challenge. Many established approaches are not applicable to humans because of their invasiveness. Functional renal magnetic resonance (MR imaging offers an alternative assessment tool that could be used to evaluate renal morphology and function noninvasively and simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the principle, application, and role of the techniques of functional renal MR imaging, including blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, arterial spin labeling, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging, in the management of AKI. The use of gadolinium in MR imaging may exacerbate renal impairment and cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging will not be discussed in this paper.

  10. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai Ying; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progression of AKI. The early assessment of these changes remains a challenge. Many established approaches are not applicable to humans because of their invasiveness. Functional renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers an alternative assessment tool that could be used to evaluate renal morphology and function noninvasively and simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the principle, application, and role of the techniques of functional renal MR imaging, including blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, arterial spin labeling, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging, in the management of AKI. The use of gadolinium in MR imaging may exacerbate renal impairment and cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging will not be discussed in this paper. PMID:26925411

  11. Neural Precursor Cell Transplantation Enhances Functional Recovery and Reduces Astrogliosis in Bilateral Compressive/Contusive Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Jared T.; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Zuccato, Jeffrey A.; Nassiri, Farshad; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplants in a rodent model of bilateral cervical contusion-compression spinal cord injury. Transplantation of NPCs in the bilaterally injured cervical spinal cord resulted in significantly improved spinal cord tissue composition and forelimb function and warrants study in preclinical cervical models to improve this treatment paradigm for clinical translation.

  12. Human Medial Olivocochlear Reflex: Effects as Functions of Contralateral, Ipsilateral, and Bilateral Elicitor Bandwidths

    OpenAIRE

    Lilaonitkul, Watjana; Guinan, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Animal studies have led to the view that the acoustic medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent reflex provides sharply tuned frequency-specific feedback that inhibits cochlear amplification. To determine if MOC activation is indeed narrow band, we measured the MOC effects in humans elicited by 60-dB sound pressure level (SPL) contralateral, ipsilateral, and bilateral noise bands as a function of noise bandwidth from 1/2 to 6.7 octaves. MOC effects were quantified by the change in stimulus frequenc...

  13. Is kidney function affecting the management of myocardial infarction? A retrospective cohort study in patients with normal kidney function, chronic kidney disease stage III-V, and ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Marc; Karam, Boutros; Faddoul, Geovani; Douaihy, Youssef El; Yacoub, Harout; Baydoun, Hassan; Boumitri, Christine; Barakat, Iskandar; Saifan, Chadi; El-Charabaty, Elie; Sayegh, Suzanne El

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are three times more likely to have myocardial infarction (MI) and suffer from increased morbidity and higher mortality. Traditional and unique risk factors are prevalent and constitute challenges for the standard of care. However, CKD patients have been largely excluded from clinical trials and little evidence is available to guide evidence-based treatment of coronary artery disease in patients with CKD. Our objective was to assess whether a difference exists in the management of MI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) among patients with normal kidney function, CKD stage III-V, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital for the diagnosis of MI between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients were assigned to one of three groups according to their kidney function: Data collected on the medical management and the use of statins, platelet inhibitors, beta-blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers were compared among the three cohorts, as well as medical interventions including: catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) when indicated. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions between nominal variables. Binary logistic analysis was used in order to determine associations between treatment modalities and comorbidities, and to account for possible confounding factors. Three hundred and thirty-four patients (mean age 67.2±13.9 years) were included. In terms of management, medical treatment was not different among the three groups. However, cardiac catheterization was performed less in ESRD when compared with no CKD and CKD stage III-V (45.6% vs 74% and 93.9%) (PCardiac catheterization on the other hand carried the strongest association among all studied variables (Pstatistically different. Many

  14. Effect of Nigella sativa on the kidney function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an amazing herb which is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illnesses including bronchial asthma, dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, as well as beneficial effect on blood lipids, lowering blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides level. This study aimed to determine the toxic effect of N. sativa powder on the kidney function which was evaluated by serum urea and creatinine and through histopathological examination of kidney tissue. Methods and Materials: In this study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (six each. The rats were kept in the separate cage with three rats per cage. The treatment groups were given rat pellet containing N. sativa dose at 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 g/kg body weight which were considered as low, normal, and high dose for five weeks while control group fed with rat chow pellet without supplementation. At the end of 35 days, the rats were sacrificed to take the blood sample and to remove the kidney organ for toxicity evaluation. Statistical analyses were done through one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant difference in serum urea of treatment groups compared with the control group. The results showed a significant decline in serum creatinine of high dose of Nigella sativa  treated  compared with low dose treated and control groups (p

  15. Radionuclide assessment of renal function in the transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of radionuclide renal function to detect rejection and to presume the prognosis of the transplanted kidney was evaluated in 70 patients. Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), excretory index (EI) and perfusion index (PI) were examined by I-123 OIH and Tc-99 m DTPA. Numbers of the study in various status were as follows; 51 studies in good function, 43 in acute rejection and 18 in chronic rejection. Significant reduction in ERPF and EI and increase of PI were observed in the acute rejection (p<0.01). In the chronic rejection, there was a progressive decrease of ERPF (p<0.01). The patients were divided into two groups: group A; 46 patients with good function more than 9 months after transplantation and group B; 20 patients of whom recurrence of hemodialysis or nephectomy was done. In living transplantation, ERPF of group B at the first week after transplantation was remarkably lower than group A (p<0.05). In cadaveric transplantation, ERPF of group B at the sixth week was lower than that of group B (p<0.05). This study indicates that serial measurements of renal function by radionuclide methods may provide the state of rejection and prognosis of the transplanted kidney. (author)

  16. 99Tcm-MAG3 renogram deconvolution in normal subjects and in normal functioning kidney grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A; Puchal, R; Bajén, M T; Mairal, L; Prat, L; Martin-Comin, J

    1994-09-01

    This study provides values of transit times obtained by 99Tcm- mercaptoacetyl triglycine (99Tcm-MAG3) renogram deconvolution for both normal subjects and kidney graft recipients. The analysis included 50 healthy kidney units from 25 volunteers and 28 normal functioning kidney grafts. The parameters calculated for the whole kidney (WK) and for the renal parenchyma (P) were: mean transit time (MTT) and times at 20% (T20) and 80% (T80) of renal retention function initial height. For healthy kidneys the WK MTT was 174 +/- 27 s and P MTT 148 +/- 22 s. The WK T20 values were 230 +/- 33 s and P T20 231 +/- 34 s. The WK T80 was 108 +/- 19 s and P T80 106 +/- 12 s. Whole kidney and parenchymal values of transit times for normal functioning kidney grafts do not present significant differences with respect to healthy kidneys. PMID:7816379

  17. Kidney Function and Plasma Copeptin Levels in Healthy Kidney Donors and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; van den Berg, Else; Meijer, Esther; Boertien, Wendy E.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Plasma copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin, is elevated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and predicts disease progression. It is unknown whether elevated copeptin levels result from decreased kidney clearance or as compensation for impair

  18. Image Registration for Quantitative Analysis of Kidney Function using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sance, Rosario; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J.; Lundervold, Arvid; Santos, Andrés

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze the possibilities of registration algorithms to compensate respiratory motion and deformation in abdominal DCE-MRI 3D temporary series. The final objective is that from registered data, appropriate intensity curves of local renal activity along the time could be represented for each kidney voxel. Assuming a relation between the voxel intensity and the contrast media concentration, this non-invasive renographic method could be used to evaluate the local renal function, and to calculate typical renal parameters like glomerular filtration rate.

  19. Gonadal function and testicular histology in Noonan's syndrome with bilateral cryptorchidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, I; Nakada, T; Kubota, Y; Sawamura, T; Tateno, T; Ishigooka, M

    1994-01-01

    Testicular histology and gonadal function were studied in 2 patients with Noonan's syndrome accompanied by bilateral cryptorchidism. Plasma FSH level was elevated above the normal range, but plasma levels of LH, prolactin, and testosterone were within normal ranges in both cases. The administration of LH-RH resulted in abnormally high response of plasma gonadotropins in both cases. The response of plasma testosterone to the administration of LH-RH was poor in case 2, but case 1 showed normal response. Testicular histology showed reduction of tubular diameter, Leydig cells per seminiferous tubules, and spermatogonia per tubule in both cases. The results indicate that bilateral cryptorchid patients with Noonan's syndrome have an abnormality in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:7909426

  20. Bilateral akillesseneruptur hos nyretransplanterede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Nimb, L;

    1996-01-01

    Increased incidence of tendinitis and tendon ruptures is reported in recipients of a kidney transplant. Two cases of bilateral achilles tendon rupture after minimal trauma are described. Tendon ruptures are more frequent in individuals with kidney disease in dialysis or after transplantation comp...

  1. Functional reconstruction of a bilateral maxillectomy defect using a fibula osteocutaneous flap with osseointegrated implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, B; Matsuura, H; Ishihara, O; Hasegawa, H; Mataga, I; Torii, S

    1995-10-01

    We have achieved functional reconstruction for a bilateral upper alveolar bone, gingival, and palatal defect that has various problems originating from instability of the prosthesis using the fibula osteocutaneous flap with osseointegrated implants. The flap had three bone segments and two skin paddles. The combined bone segments created the upper alveolar arch, and the skin paddles closed the palatal defect. Nine months later, prosthodontic treatment was performed successfully. Our procedure restored the patient to masticatory function of the upper jaw, intelligible speech, and natural facial appearance. As a result, quality of life of the patient was extremely improved. PMID:7568500

  2. Role of Carbon Monoxide in Kidney Function: Is a little Carbon Monoxide Good for the Kidney?

    OpenAIRE

    Csongrádi Éva (1969-) (szakorvos); Juncos, Luis A.; Drummond, Heather A.; Vera, Trinity; Stec, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas resulting from the degradation of heme by heme oxygense or from fatty acid oxidation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are constitutively expressed in the kidney (HO-2) and HO-1 is induced in the kidney in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. While the beneficial actions of HO in the kidney have been recognized for some time, the important role of CO in mediating these effects has not been fully examined. Recent studies us...

  3. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in functional study of kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted MRI in the functional study of kidney. Methods: Fifteen volunteers as control group and 32 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were underwent DW MR imaging in a dehydrated state. In CKD group, 12 cases were with normal serum creatinine (Scr) level (CKD group 1) and 20 cases with Scr increased in different level (CKD group 2). Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) value of each kidney of all groups was measured and compared of their relationships with clinical data. Results: The ADC values of 15 volunteers in different b values (50, 100, 400) were (405.366±35.9639) x 10-5 mm2/s, (339.646±23.0594) x 10-5 mm2/s, and (254.532±13.6763) x 10-5 mm2/s, respectively. The ADC values of CKD group 1 were (336.622± 12.879) x 10-5 mm2/s, (308.142±20.998) x 10-5 mm2/s, and (211.398 ± 14.604) x 10-5 mm2/s, respectively. And of CKD group 2 were (307.717 ± 84.930) x 10-5 mm2/s, (265.415 ± 57.754) x 10-5 mm2/s, and (201.672±26.411) x 10-5 mm2/s, respectively. The ADC values in CKD group were lower than those of the normal kidneys (t values compared between the control group and CKD group 1 were 9.720, 5.190, 11.093 separately, between the control group and CKD group 2 were 6.533, 7.382, 10.864 separately in different b values, with all P values less than 0.05). In CKD group 2, it had been showed negative correlation between the level of Scr and ADC values of kidney, with mean level of Scr of (828.490± 699.350) μmol/L, but this was confirmed of no statistical meanings (the coefficient correlation were -0.272, -0.283, -0.023 separately in different b values, with p values more than 0.05). For the creatinine clearance rate(Ccr), it showed a weak positive correlation with ADC values of CKD group 2 (the coefficient correlation were 0.511, 0.430, 0.335 separately, with P values less than 0.05). Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI imaging and in vivo measurement of ADC values have the potential for use as a noninvasive

  4. Is kidney function affecting the management of myocardial infarction? A retrospective cohort study in patients with normal kidney function, chronic kidney disease stage III–V, and ESRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marc Saad,1 Boutros Karam,1 Geovani Faddoul,2 Youssef El Douaihy,1 Harout Yacoub,1 Hassan Baydoun,3 Christine Boumitri,1 Iskandar Barakat,1 Chadi Saifan,4 Elie El-Charabaty,4 Suzanne El Sayegh4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, 2Department of Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, NY, 3Department of Cardiology, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, 4Department of Nephrology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, USA Abstract: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are three times more likely to have myocardial infarction (MI and suffer from increased morbidity and higher mortality. Traditional and unique risk factors are prevalent and constitute challenges for the standard of care. However, CKD patients have been largely excluded from clinical trials and little evidence is available to guide evidence-based treatment of coronary artery disease in patients with CKD. Our objective was to assess whether a difference exists in the management of MI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction among patients with normal kidney function, CKD stage III–V, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital for the diagnosis of MI between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients were assigned to one of three groups according to their kidney function: Data collected on the medical management and the use of statins, platelet inhibitors, beta-blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers were compared among the three cohorts, as well as medical interventions including: catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG when indicated. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions between nominal variables. Binary logistic analysis was used in order to determine associations

  5. Functional imaging of the kidneys with fast MRI techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of faster and stronger gradient systems have given rise to a multitude of fast MRI data acquisition strategies which have tremendously increased the scope of MRI applications. These have led to the realization of long desired comprehensive approaches to evaluate anatomy and function using a single modality. In this work, we describe some of our own experiences with functional evaluation of the kidneys using MRI. Examples that suggest the feasibility of comprehensive approaches for evaluation of renal disease are also provided. We also introduce BOLD renal MRI, a method that may allow basic understanding of human renal physiology and pathophysiology in a way that has not been previously possible. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Biosignals Analysis for Kidney Function Effect Analysis of Fennel Aromatherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human effort in order to enjoy a healthy life is diverse. IT technology to these analyzes, the results of development efforts, it has been applied. Therefore, I use the care and maintenance diagnostic health management and prevention than treatment. In particular, the aromatherapy treatment easy to use without the side effects there is no irritation, are widely used in modern society. In this paper, we measured the aroma effect by applying a biosignal analysis techniques; an experiment was performed to analyze. In particular, we design methods and processes of research based on the theory aroma that affect renal function. Therefore, in this paper, measuring the biosignals and after fennel aromatherapy treatment prior to the enforcement of the mutual comparison, through the analysis, studies were carried out to analyze the effect of fennel aromatherapy therapy on kidney function.

  7. Biosignals analysis for kidney function effect analysis of fennel aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Hyun; Cho, Dong-Uk; Seo, Ssang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Human effort in order to enjoy a healthy life is diverse. IT technology to these analyzes, the results of development efforts, it has been applied. Therefore, I use the care and maintenance diagnostic health management and prevention than treatment. In particular, the aromatherapy treatment easy to use without the side effects there is no irritation, are widely used in modern society. In this paper, we measured the aroma effect by applying a biosignal analysis techniques; an experiment was performed to analyze. In particular, we design methods and processes of research based on the theory aroma that affect renal function. Therefore, in this paper, measuring the biosignals and after fennel aromatherapy treatment prior to the enforcement of the mutual comparison, through the analysis, studies were carried out to analyze the effect of fennel aromatherapy therapy on kidney function. PMID:25977696

  8. Incidence of renal carcinoma in non-functioning kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zengin, Kursad; TANIK, SERHAT; Sener, Nevzat Can; Albayrak, Sebahattin; Ekici, Musa; Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Bakirtas, Hasan; Gurdal, Mesut; Imamoglu, Muhammed Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of This study was to report our pathological findings in nephrectomy specimens from patients treated for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease. A total of 97 patients who underwent nephrectomy for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidneys between January, 2011 and June, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A non-functioning kidney was defined as one having paper-thin parenchyma on urinary ultrasound or computed tomography, exhibiting no contrast vis...

  9. Colistin Use in Patients With Reduced Kidney Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaccadori, Enrico; Antonucci, Elio; Morabito, Santo; d'Avolio, Antonio; Maggiore, Umberto; Regolisti, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Colistin (polymyxin E) is a mainly concentration-dependent bactericidal antimicrobial active against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. After being abandoned over the past 30 years due to its neuro- and nephrotoxicity, colistin has been reintroduced recently as a last-resort drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria infections in combination with other antimicrobials. Unfortunately, although renal toxicity is a well-known dose-related adverse effect of colistin, relatively few studies are currently available on its peculiar pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic properties in clinical settings at high risk for drug accumulation, such as acute or chronic kidney disease. In these specific contexts, the risk for underdosing is also substantial because colistin can be easily removed by dialysis/hemofiltration, especially when the most efficient modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are used in critically ill patients. For this reason, recent recommendations in patients undergoing RRT have shifted toward higher dosing regimens, and therapeutic drug monitoring is advised. This review aims to summarize the main issues related to chemical structure, pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics, and renal toxicity of colistin. Moreover, recent data and current recommendations concerning colistin dosing in patients with reduced kidney function, with special regard to those receiving RRT such as dialysis or hemofiltration, are also discussed. PMID:27160031

  10. Rapid estimation of split renal function in kidney donors using software developed for computed tomographic renal volumetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Fumi, E-mail: fumikato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Morita, Ken, E-mail: kenordic@carrot.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Muto, Natalia S., E-mail: nataliamuto@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Okamoto, Syozou, E-mail: shozo@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Omatsu, Tokuhiko, E-mail: omatoku@nirs.go.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Oyama, Noriko, E-mail: ZAT04404@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Terae, Satoshi, E-mail: saterae@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kanegae, Kakuko, E-mail: IZW00143@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Nonomura, Katsuya, E-mail: k-nonno@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: shirato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the speed and precision of split renal volume (SRV) measurement, which is the ratio of unilateral renal volume to bilateral renal volume, using a newly developed software for computed tomographic (CT) volumetry and to investigate the usefulness of SRV for the estimation of split renal function (SRF) in kidney donors. Method: Both dynamic CT and renal scintigraphy in 28 adult potential living renal donors were the subjects of this study. We calculated SRV using the newly developed volumetric software built into a PACS viewer (n-SRV), and compared it with SRV calculated using a conventional workstation, ZIOSOFT (z-SRV). The correlation with split renal function (SRF) using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was also investigated. Results: The time required for volumetry of bilateral kidneys with the newly developed software (16.7 {+-} 3.9 s) was significantly shorter than that of the workstation (102.6 {+-} 38.9 s, p < 0.0001). The results of n-SRV (49.7 {+-} 4.0%) were highly consistent with those of z-SRV (49.9 {+-} 3.6%), with a mean discrepancy of 0.12 {+-} 0.84%. The SRF also agreed well with the n-SRV, with a mean discrepancy of 0.25 {+-} 1.65%. The dominant side determined by SRF and n-SRV showed agreement in 26 of 28 cases (92.9%). Conclusion: The newly developed software for CT volumetry was more rapid than the conventional workstation volumetry and just as accurate, and was suggested to be useful for the estimation of SRF and thus the dominant side in kidney donors.

  11. Adult polycystic disease of kidneys: A potential cause of false-positive 67Ga images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 56-year-old man with adult polycystic disease of the kidneys complicated by renal failure, hypertension, and bacteremia underwent bilateral nephrectomy because the enlarged kidneys compromised his gastrointestinal function and respiratory capacity. A scan using sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate demonstrated nonfunctioning kidneys, bilaterally. An unusual radioactivity pattern in the bowel in 67Ga scintigraphy was due to extreme renal enlargement and should be kept in mind to avoid misinterpretation. (orig.)

  12. Simple differential functional study of the kidney using sup(99m) technetium DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple technique has been developed to study the differential kidney function. It involves the intravenous injection of a product labelled with sup(99m)Tc, which possesses in vivo the characteristics of organo-mercurial derivatives. High-resolution kidney images are obtained, eliminating the excretion component which may be obtained with DTPA type products studying the glomerular filtration. The absolute quantitative uptake and the left kidney to right kidney activity ratio were measured successfully. This technique should find an increasing application in the evaluation of patients suffering from various kidney disorders including hypertension and acute pyelonephritis

  13. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) (PedsQLTM), muscular strength, pulmonary function test...

  14. Interactions between thyroid and kidney function in pathological conditions of these organ systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Ingrid; Daminet, Sylvie

    2009-02-01

    Thyroidal status affects kidney function already in the embryonic stage. Thyroid hormones influence general tissue growth as well as tubular functions, electrolyte handling and neural input. Hyper- and hypo-functioning of the thyroid influences mature kidney function indirectly by affecting the cardiovascular system and the renal blood flow, and directly by affecting glomerular filtration, electrolyte pumps, the secretory and absorptive capacity of the tubuli, and the structure of the kidney. Hyperthyroidism accelerates several physiologic processes, a fact which is reflected in the decreased systemic vascular resistance, increased cardiac output (CO), increased renal blood flow (RBF), hypertrophic and hyperplastic tubuli, and increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Renal failure can progress due to glomerulosclerosis, proteinuria and oxidative stress. Hypothyroidism has a more negative influence on kidney function. Peripheral vascular resistance is increased with intrarenal vasoconstriction, and CO is decreased, causing decreased RBF. The influence on the different tubular functions is modest, although the transport capacity is below normal. The GFR is decreased up to 40% in hypothyroid humans. Despite the negative influences on glomerular and tubular kidney function, a hypothyroid state has been described as beneficial in kidney disease. Kidney disease is associated with decreased thyroid hormone concentrations caused by central effects and by changes in peripheral hormone metabolism and thyroid hormone binding proteins. Geriatric cats form an animal model of disease because both hyperthyroidism and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalence among them, and the link between thyroid and kidney affects the evaluation of clinical wellbeing and the possible treatment options. PMID:19133263

  15. Functional appliance treatment for bilateral condylar fracture in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Aida Carolina

    2009-01-01

    Trauma to the mandible may cause condylar fracture (CF). The prevalence of CF in children is low and treatment must focus on possible long-term effects on the growing facial skeleton and soft tissues. Consequences may include functional disturbances, facial asymmetry, mandibular retrusion, temporomandibular joint dysfunction and ankylosis. Conservative treatment, including close observation, soft diet, physiotherapy, and functional appliances, is advised in most cases. The purpose of this report was to describe the case of a pediatric female patient with bilateral condylar fracture. Treatment consisted of physiotherapy and hybrid functional appliances. Satisfactory remodeling of both condyles occurred and normal occlusion and jaw movements were obtained. Close monitoring will continue throughout the 6-year follow-up period and completion of growth. The conservative treatment approach proved successful in this case. PMID:19947140

  16. Wound Healing in Patients With Impaired Kidney Function

    OpenAIRE

    Maroz, Natallia; Simman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Renal impairment has long been known to affect wound healing. However, information on differences in the spectrum of wound healing depending on the type of renal insufficiency is limited. Acute kidney injury (AKI) may be observed with different wound types. On one hand, it follows acute traumatic conditions such as crush injury, burns, and post-surgical wounds, and on the other hand, it arises as simultaneous targeting of skin and kidneys by autoimmune-mediated vasculitis. Chronic kidney dise...

  17. Impaired renal function in relatives of chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is now a public health burden. If simple screening tests like the glomerular filtration rate (GFR and presence of albuminuria are done in asymptomatic persons, CKD can be diagnosed earlier that will help in halting the disease and not let it progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Aim: This study was conducted to see the proportion of renal function abnormality in the relatives of CKD patients. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional comparative study conducted at Chittagong Medical College Hospital (CMCH, Chittagong, Bangladesh, a tertiary hospital in the southern part of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: We screened the relatives of CKD patients, as a risk population, by urine albumin and estimated GFR (eGFR. Results: We observed a significant difference in urine albumin (29% vs 10% in relatives and nonrelatives, respectively and abnormal renal function [albuminuria/creatinine clearance (CCr criteria] (30% vs 11% in relatives and nonrelatives, respectively between relatives and nonrelatives. Relatives of glomerulonephritis-CKD (GN-CKD patients had more albuminuria than others. Risk factors like hypertension (HTN, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT/diabetes mellitus (DM, and family history of DM/HTN/cardiovascular disease (CVD were significant among relatives and might have some link to familial influence on developing CKD. Conclusion: Relatives of CKD patients should be screened as a risk population to evaluate abnormal renal function.

  18. Bilateral ureteric obstruction: an unusual complication of male-to-female gender reassignment surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rezwan, Nivin; Basit, Anas Abdel; Andrews, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Gender reassignment surgery is a form of treatment for gender dysphoria. It can be male-to-female or female-to-male. We present a patient who underwent male to female reassignment and had a vaginal reconstruction. She presented almost a year later with acute kidney injury and bilateral ureteric obstruction, subsequently ending up with nephrectomy for a non-functioning kidney.

  19. Clinical use of estimated glomerular filtration rate for evaluation of kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Bo; Lindhardt, Morten; Rossing, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Estimating glomerular filtration rate by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formulas gives a reasonable estimate of kidney function for e.g. classification of chronic kidney disease. Additionally the estimated glomerular filtration rate...... is a significant predictor for cardiovascular disease and may along with classical cardiovascular risk factors add useful information to risk estimation. Several cautions need to be taken into account, e.g. rapid changes in kidney function, dialysis, high age, obesity, underweight and diverging and unanticipated...

  20. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Kidney Associated With Large Calculus in Non-functioning Kidney: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Sher S; Udawat, Hema; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Vyas, Nachiket; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of renal pelvis is a rare neoplasm. A 75-year old male presented with history of chronic dull aching pain in left flank region for last 10-years with history of left pyelolithotomy about 30-years back. After proper workup, large calculus with heterogeneous density mass detected in nonfunctioning left kidney. After radical nephrectomy, histopathological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis. SCC should be suspected in a patient with long history of renal calculous and associated mass in non functioning kidney. PMID:27313983

  1. Cochlear function in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Samantha Marlanie Govender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate cochlear functioning in patients (18 - 45 years old with varying stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Using purposive sampling, 50 participants, 10 in each of the 5 stages of CKD, were selected and underwent pure tone audiometric testing and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs.Results: Significant differences (p<0.05 were found between pure tone audiometry and DPOAEs in detecting early cochlear dysfunction in the high-frequency range in stages 3 (6 000/5 000 Hz; p=0.00, 4 (6 000/5 000 Hz; p<0.03 and 5 (4 000/3 333 Hz; p<0.01, 8 000/6 667 Hz:p<0.05 with DPOAEs being more sensitive in identifying early cochlear dysfunction. Patients in stages 1 and 2 presented with normal puretone thresholds and DPOAEs, suggesting that cochlear functioning in these patients was normal. Early cochlear dysfunction, thereby indicating a subclinical hearing loss, was identified in stages 3, 4 and 5 by DPOAE testing. In addition, blood test results, drug intake and concomitant conditions were recorded and analysed which suggested a relationship between reduced cochlear functioning and increased electrolyte levels, treatment regimens and concomitant conditions.Conclusion: Participants in the later stages of CKD presented with early cochlear dysfunction, presenting with subclinical hearing loss. It was postulated that this subclinical hearing loss resulted from a combination of electrolytic, urea and creatinine imbalances, together with concomitant medical conditions and ototoxic drug intake. It was concluded that audiological monitoring be included in the management of patients with CKD and that DPOAEs be introduced as part of the test battery to monitor cochlear function in patients with varying degrees of CKD.

  2. The tacrolimus metabolism rate influences renal function after kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Thölking

    Full Text Available The effective calcineurin inhibitor (CNI tacrolimus (Tac is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx. However, as a potent CNI it has nephrotoxic potential leading to impaired renal function in some cases. Therefore, it is of high clinical impact to identify factors which can predict who is endangered to develop CNI toxicity. We hypothesized that the Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose (C/D ratio is such a simple predictor. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the C/D ratio on kidney function after RTx. Renal function was analyzed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RTx in 248 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen including basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. According to keep the approach simple, patients were split into three C/D groups: fast, intermediate and slow metabolizers. Notably, compared with slow metabolizers fast metabolizers of Tac showed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR values at all the time points analyzed. Moreover, fast metabolizers underwent more indication renal biopsies (p = 0.006 which revealed a higher incidence of CNI nephrotoxicity (p = 0.015 and BK nephropathy (p = 0.024 in this group. We herein identified the C/D ratio as an easy calculable risk factor for the development of CNI nephrotoxicity and BK nephropathy after RTx. We propose that the simple C/D ratio should be taken into account early in patient's risk management strategies.

  3. The tacrolimus metabolism rate influences renal function after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thölking, Gerold; Fortmann, Christian; Koch, Raphael; Gerth, Hans Ulrich; Pabst, Dirk; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Kabar, Iyad; Hüsing, Anna; Wolters, Heiner; Reuter, Stefan; Suwelack, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The effective calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) tacrolimus (Tac) is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx). However, as a potent CNI it has nephrotoxic potential leading to impaired renal function in some cases. Therefore, it is of high clinical impact to identify factors which can predict who is endangered to develop CNI toxicity. We hypothesized that the Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose (C/D ratio) is such a simple predictor. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the C/D ratio on kidney function after RTx. Renal function was analyzed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RTx in 248 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen including basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. According to keep the approach simple, patients were split into three C/D groups: fast, intermediate and slow metabolizers. Notably, compared with slow metabolizers fast metabolizers of Tac showed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values at all the time points analyzed. Moreover, fast metabolizers underwent more indication renal biopsies (p = 0.006) which revealed a higher incidence of CNI nephrotoxicity (p = 0.015) and BK nephropathy (p = 0.024) in this group. We herein identified the C/D ratio as an easy calculable risk factor for the development of CNI nephrotoxicity and BK nephropathy after RTx. We propose that the simple C/D ratio should be taken into account early in patient's risk management strategies. PMID:25340655

  4. Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on Impaired Kidney Function in Sub-Saharan African Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally N Adebamowo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Diabetes is a leading risk factor for impaired kidney function, an indicator of chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between type 2 diabetes (T2D and impaired kidney function among adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Methods: Participants were enrolled from Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria. Impaired kidney function was based on an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1·73m2. Using logistic regression models, we conducted case-control analyses to estimate the multivariate adjusted association of T2D and kidney function.Results: We used data from 4,815 participants for whom the mean (SD age was 48 (15 years, 41% were male and 46% had T2D. Those with T2D were more likely to have impaired kidney function (13·4% [95% CI: 11·9 - 14·7] compared to those without T2D (4·8% [95% CI:4·0 - 5·6], p-value <0·001. The multivariate odds ratio of impaired kidney function among those with type 2 diabetes was 1·50 (95% CI: 1·17 - 1·91 p-value = 0.001, compared to those without T2D. Also, individuals with T2D who were at least 60 years old, obese, hypertensive or dyslipidemic were more likely to have impaired kidney function, compared to those without T2D. Conclusions: T2D was associated with 50% increased risk of impaired kidney function in this sample of adults from SSA. Interventions targeted at prevention, early diagnosis and management of T2D are likely to reduce the burden of kidney disease in SSA.

  5. Preoperative Evaluating of Kidney Function: Urea and Creatinine Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kadkhodayi

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Surgeons require determining urea and creatinine in patients undergoing surgery routinely as these parameters allow a judgment on the function of the kidneys. It is suggested that a normal urea level of blood is always associated with a normal value of creatinine in the same patient and, therefore, determination of urea alone suffices for this judgment. This spares collection of large volumes of blood sample for manual determination of creatinine, particularly in children and newborns. In this survey we analyzed the results of urea and creatinine estimation in blood samples of 1315 persons. In 95% of persons with a blood urea level of lower than 25 mg/dl and 99.8% havinglower than 20 mg/dl, the serum creatinine level was lower than 1 mg/dl. This confirms the suggestion that a person with a normal blood urea level will have a normal creatinine level too and an estimation of both of them is an unnecessary burden for the patient and the laboratory as well.

  6. Age at Immigration and Kidney Function among Self-Identified Healthy Africans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mana; Mwendwa, Denée T; Sims, Regina; Ricks, Madia; Sumner, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Kidney disease disparately affects those of African descent. Age trends have generally been established for kidney function in the overall US population, but the contribution of age at the time of immigration for African immigrants is unknown. To examine the independent and joint effects of age and age at the time of immigration, and kidney function. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated for 93 African immigrants (60 % male; mean age = 33.5). Hierarchical regression and post hoc analyses revealed a significant age × age at the time of immigration interaction after accounting for traditional risk factors among those who immigrated at age ≤21. Younger age at the time of immigration to the US may exacerbate an inverse relationship between age and kidney function in a self-identified healthy African immigrant sample. Investigation of biopsychosocial factors associated with kidney health among African immigrants is warranted. PMID:25420783

  7. Radionuclide methods for kidney function assessment in coral-like nephrolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic renoscintigraphy with 131I hippuran, DTPA-199mTc and indirect renoangiography (IRAG) are used to study the changes in functional violations, blood circulation state in kidneys and the nature of structural changes in kidneys in 57 patients with coral-like nephrolithiasis. During IRAG the reduction of arterial blood flow, venous stasis are found. Renoscintigraphy permits to find the reduction of the secretory capacity, considerable slow-down of recretory-excretory processes, decrease in the effective kidney plasma flow, pronounced destructive alterations. The dependence of the degree of functional kidney injury on the size of coral, process duration, accompanying pyelonephritis is found. Radionuclide methods of studies permit to estimate objectively the functional state of kidney with a coral calculus. 6 refs.; 6 figs

  8. Longitudinal Relationships among Coronary Artery Calcification, Serum Phosphorus, and Kidney Function

    OpenAIRE

    Tuttle, Katherine R.; Short, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is common in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet its onset and time course are uncertain. The study objective was to assess longitudinal relationships among CAC, kidney function, and traditional and putative cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.

  9. Vergence and Standing Balance in Subjects with Idiopathic Bilateral Loss of Vestibular Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoï Kapoula

    Full Text Available There is a natural symbiosis between vergence and vestibular responses. Deficits in vergence can lead to vertigo, disequilibrium, and postural instability. This study examines both vergence eye movements in patients with idiopathic bilateral vestibular loss, and their standing balance in relation to vergence. Eleven patients participated in the study and 16 controls. Bilateral loss of vestibular function was objectified with many tests; only patients without significant response to caloric tests, to video head impulse tests and without vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were included in the study.A LED display with targets at 20, 40, and 100 cm along the median plane was used to elicit vergence eye movements, recorded with the IRIS device.Four conditions were run, each lasting 1 min: fixation of a LED at 40 cm (convergence of 9°, at 150 cm (convergence of 2.3°; this last condition was repeated with eyes closed. Comparison of the eyes closed-eyes open conditions at 150 cm allowed evaluation of the Romberg Quotient. In the forth condition, two LEDS, at 20 and at 100 cm, were light on, one after the other for 1 sec, causing the eyes to converge then diverge. Standing balance was recorded with an accelerometer placed at the back near the center of mass (McRoberts, Dynaport.Relative to controls, convergence eye movements in patients showed significantly lower accuracy, lower mean velocity, and saccade intrusions of significantly higher amplitude.The normalized 90% area of body sway was significantly higher for patients than for controls for all conditions. Yet, similarly to controls, postural stability was better while fixating at near (sustained convergence than at far, or while making active vergence movements. We argue that vestibular loss deteriorates convergence, but even deficient, convergence can be helpful for postural control.

  10. Transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy of non-functional horseshoe kidney that could not be identified preoperatively in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Coban

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital fusion anomaly. Ureters being stuck between the isthmus and the intestines cause urinary stasis and lead to more common development of urinary tract infection and urolithiasis compared to a normal kidney. If not treated, kidney function may be gradually lost. Although the condition is usually diagnosed with ultrasound screening, the diagnosis may be overlooked in patients with a non-functional kidney due to the lack of renal vascularization. We aim to present a 6 years old boy who have non-functioning kidney which is a part of undiagnosed horseshoe kidney. We emphasize that horseshoe kidney should be suspected when live renal parenchyma tissue passing the midline is observed during laparoscopic nephrectomy of a non-functional kidney that could not be preoperatively diagnosed as a horseshoe kidney in this presentation.

  11. Neurturin enhances the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat

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    Klein Robert D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival and preservation of function for adult parasympathetic ganglion neurons following injury remain incompletely understood. However, advances in the neurobiology of growth factors, neural development, and prevention of cell death have led to a surge of clinical interest for protective and regenerative neuromodulatory strategies, as surgical therapies for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers often result in neuronal axotomy and debilitating loss of sexual function or continence. In vitro studies have identified neurturin, a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, as a neuromodulator for pelvic cholinergic neurons. We present the first in vivo report of the effects of neurturin upon the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat. Methods In these experiments, groups (n = 8 each consisted of uninjured controls and animals treated with injection of albumin (blinded crush control group, extended release neurotrophin-4 or neurturin to the site of cavernous nerve crush injury (100 μg per animal. After 5 weeks, recovery of erectile function (treatment effect was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation and peak aortic pressures were measured. Investigators were unblinded to specific treatments after statistical analyses were completed. Results Erectile dysfunction was not observed in the sham group (mean maximal intracavernous pressure [ICP] increase of 117.5 ± 7.3 cmH2O, whereas nerve injury and albumin treatment (control produced a significant reduction in ICP elevation of 40.0 ± 6.3 cmH2O. Neurturin facilitated the preservation of erectile function, with an ICP increase of 55% at 62.0 ± 9.2 cmH2O (p Conclusion Treatment with neurturin at the site of cavernous nerve crush injury facilitates recovery of erectile function. Results support further investigation of neurturin as a neuroprotective and/or neuroregenerative

  12. Acute Superoxide Radical Scavenging Reduces Blood Pressure but Does Not Influence Kidney Function in Hypertensive Rats with Postischemic Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Miloradović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hypertensive surroundings. We investigated superoxide radical molecules influence on systemic haemodynamic and kidney function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with induced postischemic AKI. Experiment was performed in anesthetized adult male SHR. The right kidney was removed, and left renal artery was subjected to ischemia by clamping for 40 minutes. The treated group received synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL in the femoral vein 5 minutes before, during, and 175 minutes after the period of reperfusion, while the control AKI group received the vehicle via the same route. All parameters were measured 24 h after renal reperfusion. TEMPOL treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance P<0.05 compared to AKI control. It also increased cardiac output and catalase activity P<0.05. Lipid peroxidation and renal vascular resistance were decreased in TEMPOL P<0.05. Plasma creatinine and kidney morphological parameters were unchanged among TEMPOL treated and control groups. Our study shows that superoxide radicals participate in haemodynamic control, but acute superoxide scavenging is ineffective in glomerular and tubular improvement, probably due to hypertension-induced strong endothelial dysfunction which neutralizes beneficial effects of O2− scavenging.

  13. Functional impairment of the kidney after nephrolithotomy determinated by 99mtechnetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of nephrolithotomy on renal function was assessed in 11 patients with unilateral renal calculi, using 99m Technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal uptake rate. There was mild decrease of DMSA uptake rate in the kidneys containing stones preoperatively. DMSA uptake rate of the operated kidneys decreased remarkably 3 weeks after operation. By one year after operation, DMSA uptake rate of the operated kidney recovered, but was still significantly lower than the preoperative value. We concluded that the rate of functional loss after nephrolithotomy was estimated to be about 5 % of the total renal function. (author)

  14. Functional evaluation of transplanted kidneys in normal function and acute rejection using BOLD MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we evaluated a large number of subjects using BOLD MRI to provide more information about oxygen metabolism in the normal function of transplanted kidneys and to distinguish acute graft rejection from normal function kidneys. This study included 122 subjects (20 volunteers, 72 patients with normal functioning transplants, and 21 patients with acute rejection), and 9 patients had normal function grafts received examination while grafts dysfunction occurred within 6 months during the follow-up. The R2* (1/s) values in the cortex and medulla as well as the R2* ratio of the medulla to cortex (R2* ratio of M/C) were recorded. The R2* values of the medulla were higher than those of the cortex in the normal function group and the volunteers which have a steep R2* ratio of M/C. All the R2* values in the acute rejection group were lower than those in the normal function grafts group (P 1.1) is an important reason for keeping clinical normal function.

  15. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced with aging. As ... more sensitive to certain medicines. For example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and some antibiotics may harm ...

  16. Apelin and copeptin: two opposite biomarkers associated with kidney function decline and cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Antonio; Chirico, Valeria; Lupica, Rosaria; Buemi, Antoine; Loddo, Saverio; Caccamo, Chiara; Salis, Paola; Bertani, Tullio; Buemi, Michele

    2013-11-01

    Vasopressin (AVP) plays a detrimental role in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Copeptin represents a measurable substitute for circulating AVP whereas apelin counteracts AVP signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of apelin and copeptin for the progression of ADPKD disease. 52 ADPKD patients were enrolled and followed until the end of the observation period or the primary study endpoint was reached, defined by the combined outcome of decrease of glomerular filtration rate associated with a total renal volume increase. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was employed for identifying the progression of renal disease and Kaplan-Meier curves assessed the renal survival. Adjusted risk estimates for progression endpoint and incident renal replacement therapy (RRT) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. ADPKD patients were characterized by lower apelin levels and higher copeptin levels when compared with healthy subjects. These biomarkers were strictly correlated with osmolality and markers of renal function. At ROC analysis, apelin and copeptin showed a very good diagnostic profile in identifying ADPKD progression. After the follow up of 24 months, 33 patients reached the endpoint. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that apelin predicted renal disease progression and incident RRT independently of other potential confounders. Apelin is associated with kidney function decline in ADPKD, suggesting that it may be a new marker to predict kidney outcome. PMID:23973863

  17. Proteinuria and function loss in native and transplanted kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    “Bones can break, muscles can atrophy, glands can loaf, even the brain can go to sleep, without immediately endangering our survival, but when the kidneys fail to manufacture the proper kind of blood neither bone, muscle, gland nor brain can carry on”. This quote from Homer Smith's book 'From Fish t

  18. Failure to visualize acutely injured kidneys with technetium-99m DMSA does not preclude recoverable function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35-yr-old patient developed severe acute tubular necrosis requiring hemodialysis. A [99mTc]dimercaptosuccinic acid scan of the kidneys showed no renal uptake at 4 or 24 hr, but the patient subsequently recovered normal renal function as judged by a normal serum creatinine. Based on this case report and a review of the literature, one cannot assume irreversible loss of function in patients with acute renal failure, based on the absence of radiopharmaceutical uptake by the kidneys

  19. Relation of Kidney Function and Albuminuria with Atrial Fibrillation (From the Heart and Soul Study)

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, David D.; Corteville, David C. M.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Whooley, Mary A.; Ix, Joachim H

    2009-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but the relationship between more modest decrements in kidney function or albuminuria with AF is uncertain. Among 956 outpatients with coronary heart disease (CHD), we assessed kidney function by 3 methods (cystatin C-based [eGFRcys] and creatinine-based [eGFRCr] estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio [ACR]) and prevalent AF by surface electrocardiogram. Multivariable logistic regressi...

  20. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K J Kelly

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  1. Complex radionuclide evaluation of structural and functional kidneys disorders of children with chronic obstructive pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children's chronic obstructive pyelonephritis (COPN) is the most important and difficult among microbes-inflammatory kidney's deceases. Kidney's COPN functional disorders are evaluated generally by clinical and laboratory criteria which not always have high informativity. Scintigraphic kidney's examinations with nephrotropic radiopharmaceuticals (NRP) are more informative. Conclusion. The most informative are 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTPA for initial examinations, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-pyrophosphate for monitoring examinations

  2. Associations of Perfusate Biomarkers and Pump Parameters With Delayed Graft Function and Deceased Donor Kidney Allograft Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, C R; Hall, I E; Bhangoo, R S; Ficek, J; Abt, P L; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Lin, H; Bimali, M; Murray, P T; Rao, V; Schröppel, B; Doshi, M D; Weng, F L; Reese, P P

    2016-05-01

    Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) is increasingly used in deceased donor kidney transplantation, but controversy exists regarding the value of perfusion biomarkers and pump parameters for assessing organ quality. We prospectively determined associations between perfusate biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], kidney injury molecule 1, IL-18 and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein [L-FABP]) and pump parameters (resistance and flow) with outcomes of delayed graft function (DGF) and 6-mo estimated GFR (eGFR). DGF occurred in 230 of 671 (34%) recipients. Only 1-h flow was inversely associated with DGF. Higher NGAL or L-FABP concentrations and increased resistance were inversely associated with 6-mo eGFR, whereas higher flow was associated with higher adjusted 6-mo eGFR. Discarded kidneys had consistently higher median resistance and lower median flow than transplanted kidneys, but median perfusate biomarker concentrations were either lower or not significantly different in discarded compared with transplanted kidneys. Notably, most recipients of transplanted kidneys with isolated "undesirable" biomarker levels or HMP parameters experienced acceptable 6-mo allograft function, suggesting these characteristics should not be used in isolation for discard decisions. Additional studies must confirm the utility of combining HMP measurements with other characteristics to assess kidney quality. PMID:26695524

  3. Ureteric lesions detected in normally functioning kidney allografts: risk factors and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, AJ; Cunha, MX; Mota, A.; Furtado, AL

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We characterized the alterations in ureteral biopsies from normally functioning kidney allografts to study risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 55 ureteral fragments from kidney grafts obtained during cystoscopy for routine double-J stent extraction. We evaluated the type and severity of the lesions, the risk factors for their occurrence, and their relation to the evolution of the transplant, including the occurrence of renal rejection episodes or ureteral complicatio...

  4. Human embryonic mesenchymal stem cell-derived conditioned medium rescues kidney function in rats with established chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne van Koppen

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major health care problem, affecting more than 35% of the elderly population worldwide. New interventions to slow or prevent disease progression are urgently needed. Beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been described, however it is unclear whether the MSCs themselves or their secretome is required. We hypothesized that MSC-derived conditioned medium (CM reduces progression of CKD and studied functional and structural effects in a rat model of established CKD. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNX combined with L-NNA and 6% NaCl diet in Lewis rats. Six weeks after SNX, CKD rats received either 50 µg CM or 50 µg non-CM (NCM twice daily intravenously for four consecutive days. Six weeks after treatment CM administration was functionally effective: glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance and effective renal plasma flow (PAH clearance were significantly higher in CM vs. NCM-treatment. Systolic blood pressure was lower in CM compared to NCM. Proteinuria tended to be lower after CM. Tubular and glomerular damage were reduced and more glomerular endothelial cells were found after CM. DNA damage repair was increased after CM. MSC-CM derived exosomes, tested in the same experimental setting, showed no protective effect on the kidney. In a rat model of established CKD, we demonstrated that administration of MSC-CM has a long-lasting therapeutic rescue function shown by decreased progression of CKD and reduced hypertension and glomerular injury.

  5. Classification of vascular function in upper limb using bilateral photoplethysmographic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral PPG signals have been used for comparative study of two groups of healthy (free from any cardiovascular risk factors) and diabetic (as cardiovascular disease risk group) subjects in the age-matched range 40–50 years. The peripheral blood pulsations were recorded simultaneously from right and left index fingers for 90 s. Pulses have been modeled with the ARX440 model in the interval of 300 sample points with 100 sample points overlap between segments. Model parameters of three segments based on the highest fitness (higher than 80%) of modeled segments were retained for each subject. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the parameters of retained segments to eliminate the existing correlation among parameters and provide uncorrelated variables. The first principal component (contains 78.2% variance of data) was significantly greater in diabetic than in control groups (P < 0.0001, 0.74 ± 2.01 versus −0.53 ± 1.66). In addition the seventh principal component, which contains 0.02% of the data variance, was significantly lower in diabetic than in control groups (P < 0.05, −0.007 ± 0.03 versus 0.005 ± 0.03). Finally, linear discrimination analysis (LDA) was used to classify the subjects. The classification was done using the robust leaving-one-subject-out method. LDA could classify the subjects with 71.7% sensitivity and 70.2% specificity while the male subjects resulted in a highly acceptable result for the sensitivity (81%). The present study showed that PPG signals can be used for vascular function assessment and may find further application for detection of vascular changes before onset of clinical diseases

  6. Effect of Kidney Function on Drug Kinetics and Dosing in Neonates, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodieux, Frederique; Wilbaux, Melanie; van den Anker, Johannes N; Pfister, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Neonates, infants, and children differ from adults in many aspects, not just in age, weight, and body composition. Growth, maturation and environmental factors affect drug kinetics, response and dosing in pediatric patients. Almost 80% of drugs have not been studied in children, and dosing of these drugs is derived from adult doses by adjusting for body weight/size. As developmental and maturational changes are complex processes, such simplified methods may result in subtherapeutic effects or adverse events. Kidney function is impaired during the first 2 years of life as a result of normal growth and development. Reduced kidney function during childhood has an impact not only on renal clearance but also on absorption, distribution, metabolism and nonrenal clearance of drugs. 'Omics'-based technologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, can be leveraged to uncover novel markers for kidney function during normal development, acute kidney injury, and chronic diseases. Pharmacometric modeling and simulation can be applied to simplify the design of pediatric investigations, characterize the effects of kidney function on drug exposure and response, and fine-tune dosing in pediatric patients, especially in those with impaired kidney function. One case study of amikacin dosing in neonates with reduced kidney function is presented. Collaborative efforts between clinicians and scientists in academia, industry, and regulatory agencies are required to evaluate new renal biomarkers, collect and share prospective pharmacokinetic, genetic and clinical data, build integrated pharmacometric models for key drugs, optimize and standardize dosing strategies, develop bedside decision tools, and enhance labels of drugs utilized in neonates, infants, and children. PMID:26138291

  7. [Validity of diagnostic methods for kidney function tests in the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Westhoff, A; Wohlsein, P; Nolte, I

    1996-08-01

    The diagnosis of kidney disease is difficult in the stage of compensation and impossible based solely on the routinely performed laboratory tests on blood and urine. For this reason, more sensitive methods are required. In the present study, three special techniques are compared with regard to their validity in the early diagnosis of kidney disease in the cat: 1. the molecular-weight related separation of urine proteins with the sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide-gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-page) in the PhastSystem, 2. measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with the renalyzer PRX90 using an iodine containing contrast medium and 3. kidney scintigraphy. The results of this comparison demonstrate that these procedures are important adjuncts to common laboratory investigations in the testing of renal function. The SDS-page allows an early qualitative assessment on alterations of specific functional compartments of the kidney. However, it is not possible with this method alone to evaluate the degree of renal disturbance and it does not give information concerning the severity of renal functional impairment. Measurement of the GFR is also a valuable procedure which gives a quantitative result on the global renal function within a few hours. It is of special importance when subclinically disturbed kidney function is present. In the cat however it is until now not possible to give a correct prognosis in high grade nephropathies. Only scintigraphy allows unilateral assessment of renal function, which is most important in cats with morphologically altered kidneys, such as kidney cysts, hydronephrosis or tumours. PMID:9012026

  8. Genome-wide association and functional follow-up reveals new loci for kidney function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Pattaro

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an important public health problem with a genetic component. We performed genome-wide association studies in up to 130,600 European ancestry participants overall, and stratified for key CKD risk factors. We uncovered 6 new loci in association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, the primary clinical measure of CKD, in or near MPPED2, DDX1, SLC47A1, CDK12, CASP9, and INO80. Morpholino knockdown of mpped2 and casp9 in zebrafish embryos revealed podocyte and tubular abnormalities with altered dextran clearance, suggesting a role for these genes in renal function. By providing new insights into genes that regulate renal function, these results could further our understanding of the pathogenesis of CKD.

  9. Effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training on functional parameters, gait, and the quality of life in patients with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Büyükvural Şen, Sıdıka; Özbudak Demir, Sibel; Ekiz, Timur; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training applied to knee and ankle muscles on balance, functional parameters, gait, and the quality of in stroke patients. Methods: Fifty patients (33 M, 17 F) with subacute-chronic stroke and 30 healthy subjects were included. Stroke patients were allocated into isokinetic and control groups. Conventional rehabilitation program was applied to all cases; additionally maximal concentric isokinetic strengthening traini...

  10. Use of potassium-42 in the study of kidney functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an intravenous injection of potassium-42 as indicator, an analysis of the specific activity vs. time curve in arterial plasma, in venous plasma efferent from the kidney, in urine and in various regions of the kidney of rabbits reveals that: 1) The turnover rate of potassium in the cortex cells (proximal and distal convoluted tubes) is very large, being limited only by renal blood flow. 2) The turnover rate of potassium in deep regions (Henle loops and collector tubules) is much smaller. 3) Potassium in the urine comes from cells of the convoluted tubes and not from cells of Henle loops, collector ducts, or glomerular filtrate. 4) Any potassium filtered at the level of the glomerules would be entirely reabsorbed at the level of the proximal tube, while total potassium in the urine results from a process of excretion by cells of the distal tube. These results are comparable with the assumption that the movement of potassium between interstitial medium and convoluted tube cells results from entirely passive processes. (author)

  11. Kidney compartment model. [Mathematical model for iodohippurate distribution as a function of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-09-01

    A multiparameter kidney compartment model which quantitates the amount of iodohippurate concentration as a function of time in the blood, tissue, kidneys and bladder is developed from a system of differential equations which represent first order kinetics. The kinetic data are obtained using a gamma camera and an HP5407 computer system which allows one to delineate areas of interest for the blood and tissue, kidneys, and bladder thus separating the data into four data sets. The estimated tubular transit times have a high ratio of the signal to the variance whereas the estimates of the amount of iodohippurate in the blood, tissue and kidneys have a low ratio of the signal to the variance. Application of this model to patient data requires better statistics than available with conventional /sup 131/I-hippurate doses; thus a true test of the efficacy awaits availability of /sup 123/I-hippurate.

  12. Compensatory changes in the function of the remaining kidney immediately after unilateral nephrectomy in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Live kidney donation is an established form of organ donation but carries the risk of an unnecessary surgery in a normal individual for the benefit of the recipient. Despite a number of recent studies on the renal function of long-term kidney donors, little attention has been paid to the damaging effects of compensatory hyper-filtration on renal tubular cells immediately after donor nephrectomy. The present study therefore aimed to examine the immediate changes in renal function of the remaining kidney using a sheep model of unilateral nephrectomy. We used the gamma camera-based method to measure the glomerular filtration rate and the tubular excretion values after simultaneous injection of 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and 131I-ortho-iodohippurate tracers. Compared were the differences in the functions between the remaining left kidney immediately after clamping the right renal pedicle and the baseline values that were measured one week before unilateral nephrectomy. After radionuclide data acquisition was completed, the right kidney was removed. The mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 52.3% from the baseline values (29.5±2.7 to 45.0±6.7 ml/min; n=40, p<0.001), while the mean effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) increased by 40% (225.5±27.8 to 357.8±38.94 ml/min; p<0.001), respectively. Mean filtration fraction was increased from 0.117 to 0.127 immediately after nephrectomy (p<0.001). We conclude that after unilateral nephrectomy the remaining kidney immediately compensates for the loss of a donated kidney by increasing glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow. (author)

  13. Pre-clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pt. I. The kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. In Europe alone, at least 8% of the population currently has some degree of CKD. CKD is associated with serious comorbidity, reduced life expectancy, and high economic costs; hence, the early detection and adequate treatment of kidney disease is important. Pre-clinical research can not only give insights into the mechanisms of the various kidney diseases but it also allows for investigating the outcome of new drugs developed to treat kidney disease. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive access to tissue and organ function in animal models. Advantages over classical animal research approaches are numerous: the same animal might be repeatedly imaged to investigate a progress or a treatment of disease over time. This has also a direct impact on animal welfare and the refinement of classical animal experiments as the number of animals in the studies might be reduced. In this paper, we review current state of the art in functional magnetic resonance imaging with a focus on pre-clinical kidney imaging.

  14. Pre-clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pt. I. The kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, Frank G.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. In Europe alone, at least 8% of the population currently has some degree of CKD. CKD is associated with serious comorbidity, reduced life expectancy, and high economic costs; hence, the early detection and adequate treatment of kidney disease is important. Pre-clinical research can not only give insights into the mechanisms of the various kidney diseases but it also allows for investigating the outcome of new drugs developed to treat kidney disease. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive access to tissue and organ function in animal models. Advantages over classical animal research approaches are numerous: the same animal might be repeatedly imaged to investigate a progress or a treatment of disease over time. This has also a direct impact on animal welfare and the refinement of classical animal experiments as the number of animals in the studies might be reduced. In this paper, we review current state of the art in functional magnetic resonance imaging with a focus on pre-clinical kidney imaging.

  15. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index in chronic kidney disease stage 2-5. Reproducibility and relationship with pulse wave parameters and kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesby, Lene; Thijs, Lutgarde; Elung-Jensen, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Arterial stiffness contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reproducible and easily obtainable indices of arterial stiffness are needed in order to monitor therapeutic strategies. The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) has been proposed...... as such a marker. The present study investigated the day-to-day reproducibility of AASI in CKD stage 2-5 and its relationship with other markers of arterial stiffness as well as with kidney function....

  16. Fetal multicystic kidney disease: Outcome and follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Trajković Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Congenital fetal anomalies are the great problem and one of the main causes of increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study is to determine the outcome of prenataly detected multicystic dysplastic kidney and to point to the necessity of postnatal diagnostic procedures. Material and methods The retrospective-prospective study encompasses 38 cases of the prenatally diagnosed unilateral fetal multicystic dysplastic kidney. The associated anomalies were revealed either by autopsy findings when the pregnancy was terminated, or when the pregnancy continued, by clinical and operative findings the newborns. Results The autopsy finding revealed bilateral multicystic displastic kidney or unilateral mylticystic displastic kidney and the agenesis of the contralateral kidney. The postnatal evaluation of the newborns with unilateral multicistic disease revealed that 84.3% of them had some concomitant anomaly of the urinary tract, most of them had an anomaly of the contralateral kidney (31.4%. The surgery was performed in 73.6% of children, in 17% of children the kidney function deteriorated after the surgery. Conclusion The findings of bilateral multicystic kidney disease and unilateral multicystic kidney disease and anamnion are the indication to terminate the pregnancy. The finding of an isolated unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney require thorough examination, both prenatally and postnatally. We propose obligatory serial prenatal ultrasound examinations, followed by postnatal ultrasound, isotope scan, and urinary cystourethography.

  17. Bilateral Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Language Treatment Enhances Functional Connectivity in the Left Hemisphere: Preliminary Data from Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangolo, Paola; Fiori, Valentina; Sabatini, Umberto; De Pasquale, Giada; Razzano, Carmela; Caltagirone, Carlo; Gili, Tommaso

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have already shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful tool for enhancing recovery in aphasia. However, no reports to date have investigated functional connectivity changes on cortical activity because of tDCS language treatment. Here, nine aphasic persons with articulatory disorders underwent an intensive language therapy in two different conditions: bilateral anodic stimulation over the left Broca's area and cathodic contralesional stimulation over the right homologue of Broca's area and a sham condition. The language treatment lasted 3 weeks (Monday to Friday, 15 sessions). In all patients, language measures were collected before (T0) and at the end of treatment (T15). Before and after each treatment condition (real vs. sham), each participant underwent a resting-state fMRI study. Results showed that, after real stimulation, patients exhibited the greatest recovery not only in terms of better accuracy in articulating the treated stimuli but also for untreated items on different tasks of the language test. Moreover, although after the sham condition connectivity changes were confined to the right brain hemisphere, real stimulation yielded to stronger functional connectivity increase in the left hemisphere. In conclusion, our data provide converging evidence from behavioral and functional imaging data that bilateral tDCS determines functional connectivity changes within the lesioned hemisphere, enhancing the language recovery process in stroke patients. PMID:26807842

  18. Value of plasma ADMA in predicting cardiac structure and function of patients with chronic kidney diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the predicting value of plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in cardiac structure and function of patients with chronic kidney diseases(CKD). Methods A total of 100 CKD patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. According to staging of the

  19. Impact of retrograde flexible ureteroscopy and intracorporeal lithotripsy on kidney functional outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hoarau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate renal function and to identify factors associated with renal function deterioration after retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS for kidney stones. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with renal stones treated by RIRS between January 2010 and June 2013 at a single institute. We used the National Kidney Foundation classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD to classify Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR in 5 groups. The baseline creatinine level was systematically pre-operatively and post-operatively evaluated. All patients had a creatinine blood measurement in June 2013. A change toward a less or a more favorable GFR group following RIRS was considered significant. Results: We included 163 patients. There were 86 males (52.8% and 77 females (47.3% with a mean age of 52.8±17 years. After a mean follow-up of 15.5±11.5 months, median GFR was not significantly changed from 84.3±26.2 to 84.9±24.5 mL/min (p=0.675. Significant renal function deterioration occurred in 8 cases (4.9% and significant renal function amelioration occurred in 23 cases (14.1%. In univariate analysis, multiple procedures (p=0.023; HR: 5.4 and preoperative CKD (p=0.011; HR: 6.8 were associated with decreased renal function. In multivariate analysis these factors did not remain as predictive factors. Conclusion: Stone management with RIRS seems to have favorable outcomes on kidney function; however, special attention should be given to patients with multiple procedures and preoperative chronic kidney disease.

  20. Antigravity suit inflation - Kidney function and cardiovascular and hormonal responses in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Kravik, Stein E.; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Leftheriotis, Georges; Vincent, Madeleine

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the lower body positive pressure (LBPP) on kidney function in normal men was investigated in experiments in which the subjects underwent 30 min of sitting and then were subjected to 4.5 h of 70-deg head-up tilt. During the last 3 h of the tilt period, an antigravity suit (60 T legs, 30 T abdomen) was applied. The results showed that LBPP induces a significant increase in effective renal plasma flow and significant changes in the kidney excretory patterns, which were similar to those observed during a water immersion or the early phase of bed rest.

  1. No effect of fibrin sealant on drain output or functional recovery following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christian; Holm, Bente; Troelsen, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we analyzed the possible effect of fibrin sealant on blood loss and early functional recovery in a fast-track setting. Methods 24 consecutive patients undergoing bilateral simultaneous TKA were included. 10 mL of fibrin sealant (Evicel) was sprayed onto one...... drain output in knees treated with fibrin sealant and placebo was similar (582 mL and 576 mL, respectively). Likewise, no statistically significant differences were found between groups regarding swelling, pain, strength of knee extension, and ROM. Interpretation Fibrin sealant as a local hemostatic in...

  2. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guimarães Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM, muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (p < 0.001; those who practiced physical activity had better quality of life when compared to the sedentary children (p < 0.001. From the children's and the parents' perspectives, the male gender had a higher quality of life score (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked at the 6MWT and age, height, final PedsQLTM, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, as well as a negative correlation between FEV1/FVC and the distance walked. CONCLUSION: A significant reduction in the quality of life and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style.

  3. Late Bilateral Renal Metastasis of Choriocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tahmasebi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Late bilateral renal metastasis of chori-ocarcinoma is a rare condition. Herein we report a case of late renal metastasis of choriocarcinoma."nCase Presentation: A 28 years old woman presented with gross hematuria since three months ago. A mo-bile palpable mass in her right flank was detected. She was not pregnant but had a history of abortion at six weeks of gestation in seven years age. Her gyneco-logic examination was normal. She had severe anemia (Hb=7.2, elevated ESR (52 with normal renal and liver function testes. Ultrasonography showed bilat-eral large kidney masses by solid-cystic components, with predominant solid parts. Bilateral lobulated het-erogeneous renal masses were found at non-enhancing axial CT-Scan, with notable enhancement of solid parts after administration of contrast agent. Angiography revealed bilateral hypovascular renal masses. Right radical nephrectomy performed for the patient and pathology reported choriocarcinoma of kidney. Finally, she was referred for chemotherapy of contralateral renal mass, but she delayed that for three months. She died following a seizure attack and cardiopulmonary arrest without response to prompt cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. Autopsy not permit-ted by relevants. "nConclusion: Late metastases of choriocarcinoma may appear in kidney or brain after a long time following the primary source of malignancy, when the primary lesion has disappeared.

  4. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) induces significant structural and functional changes in the kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P.; Willis, Lynn R.; Lingeman, James E.

    2003-10-01

    The foundation for understanding SWL-injury has been well-controlled renal structural and functional studies in pigs, a model that closely mimics the human kidney. A clinical dose (2000 shocks at 24 kV) of SWL administered by the Dornier HM3 induces a predictable, unique vascular injury at F2 that is associated with transient renal vasoconstriction, seen as a reduction in renal plasma flow, in both treated and untreated kidneys. Unilateral renal denervation studies links the fall in blood flow in untreated kidneys to autonomic nerve activity in the treated kidney. SWL-induced trauma is associated with an acute inflammatory process, termed Lithotripsy Nephritis and tubular damage at the site of damage that leads to a focal region of scar. Lesion size increases with shock number and kV level. In addition, risk factors like kidney size and pre-existing renal disease (e.g., pyelonephritis), can exaggerate the predicted level of renal impairment. Our new protection data show that lesion size can be greatly reduced by a pretreatment session with low kV and shock number. The mechanisms of soft tissue injury probably involves shear stress followed by acoustic cavitation. Because of the perceived enhanced level of bioeffects from 3rd generation lithotripters, these observations are more relevant than ever.

  5. Kidney function and size in normal subjects before and during growth hormone administration for one week

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Orskov, H; Andersen, A R;

    1981-01-01

    Kidney function and size were studied in seven normal male subjects before and after administration of highly purified human growth hormone for 1 week. Glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow (steady-state infusion technique with urinary collections using 125I-iothalamate and 131I......-hippuran) kidney size (ultrasonic scanning) and urinary excretion rates of albumin and beta 2-microglobulin (radioimmunoassays) were measured. Highly purified growth hormone was injected subcutaneously, 2 IU in the morning and 4 IU in the evening. Glomerular filtration rate increased from (mean +/- SEM) 114 +/- 5...... to 125 +/- 4 ml/min x 1.73 m2 (P less than 0.01) and renal plasma flow increased from 554 +/- 30 to 601 +/- 36 ml/min x 1.73 m2 (P less than 0.01). Kidney size and urinary excretion rates of albumin and beta 2-microglobulin did not change significantly. Our results show that raising plasma growth...

  6. Assessment of allograft function using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupma Kaul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing a non-invasive method such as diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI could be used as a feasible and reproducible modality in the differential diagnosis of allograft dysfunction. We assessed the functional status of the renal allograft by DWMRI and its applicability in assessment of graft dysfunction on all end-stage renal transplant patients who attained normal renal function on the 7 th day post-transplantation. Follow-up imaging of the recipient allograft was performed at the end of 90 and 180 days and in case of graft dysfunction. Kidney biopsies were performed to correlate with the corresponding MRI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC maps of the cortex and medulla were obtained by studying the DWMRI. The ADC values were significantly lower in the medulla compared with the cortex in normal donor kidneys and normally functioning transplanted kidneys, while they decreased significantly when rejection occurred. The reduction in ADC values occurred both in the cortex and in the medulla, and correlated with the degree of rejection on the kidney biopsies. The ADC values increased significantly during the recovery from rejection. We conclude that DWMRI can be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of transplant patients during acute rejection.

  7. Measuring Dynamic Kidney Function in an Undergraduate Physiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Scott; Harrington, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Most undergraduate physiology laboratories are very limited in how they treat renal physiology. It is common to find teaching laboratories equipped with the capability for high-resolution digital recordings of physiological functions (muscle twitches, ECG, action potentials, respiratory responses, etc.), but most urinary laboratories still rely on…

  8. Cognitive and kidney function: results from a british birth cohort reaching retirement age.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverwood, RJ; Richards, M; Pierce, M; Hardy, R; Sattar, N.; Ferro, C.; Savage, C.; Kuh, D; Nitsch, D.; NSHD scientific and data collection teams

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. Methods: Cognitive function at age 60–64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction tim...

  9. Kidney Function After In Vivo Gene Silencing of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Malou Friederich; Welch, William. J; Wilcox, Christopher S; Palm, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Kidney uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, resulting in mitochondria uncoupling, i.e., increased oxygen consumption unrelated to active transport. The present study aimed to investigate the role of UCP-2 for normal and diabetic kidney function utilizing small interference RNA (siRNA) to reduce protein expression. Diabetic animals had increased glomerular filtration rate and kidney oxygen consumption, resulting in decreased oxygen tension and transported ...

  10. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic bilateral vestibular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Göttlich

    2014-01-01

    Using whole brain resting-state connectivity analysis in BVF patients we show that enduring bilateral deficient or missing vestibular input leads to changes in resting-state connectivity of the brain. These changes in the resting brain are robust and task-independent as they were found in the absence of sensory stimulation and without a region-related a priori hypothesis. Therefore they may indicate a fundamental disease-related change in the resting brain. They may account for the patients' persistent deficits in visuo-spatial attention, spatial orientation and unsteadiness. The relation of increasing connectivity in the inferior parietal lobe, specifically SMG, to improvement of VOR during active head movements reflects cortical plasticity in BVF and may play a clinical role in vestibular rehabilitation.

  11. Treatment of Hyperlipidemia Changes With Level of Kidney Function-Rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Kaysen, George A

    2016-07-01

    Lipoprotein abnormalities such as low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and high triglycerides (TGs), associated with the metabolic syndrome, are also associated with subsequent decline in kidney function. Patients with end-stage kidney disease also exhibit low HDL and high TGs and a modest reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), although the mechanisms responsible for these changes differ when patients with end-stage kidney disease are compared with those having metabolic syndrome with normal kidney function, as do lipoprotein structures. Among dialysis patients, oxidized LDL, levels of TG-rich intermediate-density lipoprotein, and low HDL are associated with aortic pulsewave velocity and other markers of atherosclerosis. Statins are effective in reducing LDL and do decrease risk of cardiovascular events in patients with CKD not requiring dialysis but have no significant effect on outcomes, including all-cause mortality among dialysis patients. Similarly gemfibrozil and other fibrates lower TGs, increase HDL, and reduce cardiovascular events, but not mortality, among patients with CKD not requiring dialysis but have no significant effect on cardiovascular outcomes in dialysis patients. There is potential clinical benefit in treating elevated LDL, TGs, and low HDL in patients with CKD using statins or fibrates in those not yet requiring dialysis. PMID:27324678

  12. The most common cause of non-functioning kidney nephrectomy: Urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenol Adanur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate and present the characteristics of patients underwent nephrectomy due to nonfunctional kidney secondary to urolithiasis in our clinic. Methods:Totally 696 patients were anlyzed retrospectively who underwent nephrectomy in our clinic between January 2000 and December 2012. Etiologies and characteristics of nephrectomy applied patients due to nontumoral non-functional kidney related with urinary tract stones are evaluated. Diagnoses of the patients were confirmed by using urinary system ultrasonography, ab dominal computed tomography, intravenous urography and renal scintigraphy. Results:Nephrectomy was performed for 280 (40.2% patients due to tumor formation and for 416 (59.8% patients due to non-functional kidney of totally 696 patients.43.8% (182 of non-funtional kidney cases were resulted by upper urinary tract stones. Mean age of nephrectomy performed urolithiasis patients were 43.7±16.9 years. 53.3% (97 of patients were male and 46.7% (85 patients were female. Preoperative mean creatinine value of patients were detected 2.98±0.47 mg/dl. Renal stone local izatian was ureteropelvic junction in 81.3% (148, ureter in 14.3% (26 and renal+ureter in 4.4% (8 of the patients. 66.8% of reteropelvic junction stones were 10-30 mm in size. Conclusion: Upper urinary tract stones are primer responsible of non-functional kidney development besides forming most of the non-tumor related nephrectomies. Routine urinary system examination should be suggested to patients with a history of urolithiasis in order to prevent later probable organ losses.

  13. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is associated with kidney function in uraemic patients before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Nils Erik; Hornum, Mads; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker;

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a biomarker of kidney injury. We examined plasma levels of NGAL in a cohort of 57 kidney allograft recipients (Tx group, 39 ± 13 years), a uraemic group of 40 patients remaining on the waiting list (47 ± 11 years) and a control group of 14...... healthy subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). The kidney graft recipients were studied at baseline before transplantation and 3 and 12 months after transplantation and the uraemic group at baseline and after 12 months....

  14. Restoring ADL function after wrist surgery in children with cerebral palsy: a novel Bilateral robot system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, D; Theriault, A; Kamara, S; Anewenter, V; Hughes, D; Johnson, M J

    2013-06-01

    Cerebral palsy is a leading cause of disability in children and reducing its effects on arm function will improve quality of life. Our goal is to train children with CP after wrist tendon transfer surgery using a robotic therapy system consisting of two robot arms and wrist robots. The therapeutic goal is to determine if the robot training combined with surgery intervention improved functional outcomes significantly more than surgery alone. To accomplish this long-term goal we have developed a Bilateral ADL Exercise Robot, BiADLER aimed at training children with CP in reach to grasp coordination on ADLs. Specifically, the robot will provide active training using an assist-as-needed. This paper presents the design concepts. PMID:24187280

  15. Evidence that kidney function but not type 2 diabetes determines retinol-binding protein 4 serum levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Andrea; Frey, Simone K; Raila, Jens; Tepel, Martin; Scholze, Alexandra; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Weickert, Martin O; Spranger, Joachim; Schweigert, Florian J

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) links adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, circulating RBP4 levels are also affected by kidney function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether RBP4 serum levels are primarily associated with kidney...

  16. Determination of kidney function with 99mTc-DTPA renography using a dual-head camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus J; Møller, Michael L; Zerahn, Bo;

    2013-01-01

    Single-head gamma camera renography has been used for decades to estimate kidney function. An estimate of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be obtained using Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA). However, because of differing attenuation, an error is introduced when the kidney...

  17. Bilateral microperc in a severe kyphoscoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağgülli, Mansur; Penbegül, Necmettin; Dede, Onur; Utanğaç, Mehmet Mazhar

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the standard modality for large renal calculi in normal and abnormal renal anatomic situations. This case report describes a 57-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral kidney stones and severe kyphoscoliosis. He had successfully been treated with a bilateral microperc technique. PMID:27011881

  18. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  19. A comparison between uni- and bilateral tDCS effects on functional connectivity of the human motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Sehm

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1 has been shown to induce changes in motor performance and learning. Recent studies indicate that tDCS is capable of modulating widespread neural network properties within the brain. However the temporal evolution of online- and after- effects of tDCS on functional connectivity within and across the stimulated motor cortices (M1 still remain elusive. In the present study, two different tDCS setups were investigated: (i unilateral M1 tDCS (anode over right M1, cathode over the contralateral supraorbital region and (ii bilateral M1 tDCS (anode over right M1, cathode over left M1. In a randomized single-blinded crossover design, 12 healthy subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest (rs-fMRI before, during and after 20 min of either bi-, unilateral or sham M1 tDCS. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis (FC was used to investigate tDCS-induced changes across and within M1. We found that bilateral M1 tDCS induced (a a decrease in interhemispheric FC during stimulation and (b an increase in intracortical FC within right M1 after termination of the intervention. While unilateral M1 tDCS also resulted in similar effects during stimulation, no such changes could be observed after termination of tDCS. Our results provide evidence that depending on the electrode montage, tDCS acts upon a modulation of either intracortical and/or interhemispheric processing of M1.

  20. Insulin Resistance, Incident Cardiovascular Diseases, and Decreased Kidney Function Among Nondiabetic American Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Best, Lyle G.; Umans, Jason G.; YEH, Jeunliang; Wang, Wenyu; Yeh, Fawn; ALI, Tauqeer; Devereux, Richard B.; de Simone, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Prevalence of insulin resistance is high in the American Indian population, likely as a result of the high prevalence of obesity. This condition may be influential for clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and decreased kidney function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Normal glucose tolerant (NGT) participants free of hypertension and CVD at the baseline examination (1989–1992) (N = 964) of the Strong Heart Study were selected to explore the cross-sectional association ...

  1. Exercise ameliorates chronic kidney disease–induced defects in muscle protein metabolism and progenitor cell function

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaonan H.; Du, Jie; Klein, Janet D.; Bailey, James L; Mitch, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) impairs muscle protein metabolism leading to muscle atrophy, and exercise can counteract this muscle wasting. Here we evaluated how resistance exercise (muscle overload) and endurance training (treadmill running) affect CKD-induced abnormalities in muscle protein metabolism and progenitor cell function using mouse plantaris muscle. Both exercise models blunted the increase in disease-induced muscle proteolysis and improved phosphorylation of Akt and the forkhead t...

  2. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Left Ventricular Function in Early Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sourabh Chand; Colin D Chue; Edwards, Nicola C.; James Hodson; Simmonds, Matthew J.; Alexander Hamilton; Gough, Stephen C L; Lorraine Harper; Steeds, Rick P.; Townend, Jonathan N.; Ferro, Charles J.; Richard Borrows

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with accelerated cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Glu298Asp single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype has been associated with a worse phenotype amongst patients with established heart failure and in patients with progression of their renal disease. The association of a cardiac functional difference in non-dialysis CKD patients with no known previous heart failure, and eNOS gene variant is investi...

  3. Relationship of serum bilirubin concentration to kidney function and 24-hour urine protein in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Yeon Soon; Shin Ho Sik; Rim Hark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, kidney function and proteinuria have yet to be fully elucidated, nor have these relationships been investigated in Korean adults. Method We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Korean adults who were evaluated at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea) during a five-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. We evaluated the relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, estimate...

  4. Radionuclide functional imaging in pediatric kidney disease. Nuklearmedizinische Nierenfunktionsdiagnostik im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, O. (Staedtische Krankenanstalten Krefeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1991-12-01

    In pediatric patients renal dynamic scintigraphy proves as a valuable help in decision making with respect to surgical measures, especially in cases of unilaterally small kidneys, obstructive uropathy, segmental or focal nephropathy and radiographically nonvisualized kidneys. In equivocal obstruction of the upper urinary tract, the individual renal function should be considered in addition to the dnyamic information of diuresis renography and upright images, respectively. It is probably wise, if not mandatory, to leave an indwelling catheter in the bladder with continuous drainage. In some cases of unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction, differential renal function of the obstructed kidney was determined to be significantly higher as compared to the postoperative results. This was true for individual renal DMSA uptake either, but only in well functioning organs, which were preserved anyway. The indirect radionuclide methods of assessing vesicoureteric reflux render valuable information without additional radiation exposure, and should be employed routinely in cases of possible reflux. The direct method of voiding cystography using a catheter is more practicable with respect to selective assessment of reflux. In pediatric patients renal dynamic scintigraphy should be performed with J-123-OJH, or better with Tc-99m-MAG{sub 3}. Dual probe renography and J-131-OJH scintigraphy are not up to the required standard any more. (orig.).

  5. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects.

  6. Renal function markers and thyroid hormone status in undialyzed chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Rajagopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to quantify thyroid hormones in undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses controls and to study the correlation between renal function markers and thyroid hormones. Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with a higher prevalence of primary hypothyroidism (HT, but at the same studies on thyroid hormone status in uremic patients has reported conflicting results. Methods: Thyroid hormones and renal function parameters like serum urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, total protein and albumin were estimated and correlations between thyroid hormones and renal function parameters were studied in 60 undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses 100 healthy controls. Results: We found both T3 and T4 were significantly reduced (p<0.0001 for T3 and 0.007 for T4 whereas TSH remains to be unchanged in patient group compared to controls. We also observed that urea and creatinine were negatively correlated whereas creatinine clearance was positively correlated with both T3 and T4 that has high statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.01 level. But urea alone is negatively correlated with TSH that has statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.05 level. Conclusion: From our data, we speculate that renal insufficiency may lead to thyroid hormone disturbances.

  7. Increased primary non-function in transplanted deceased-donor kidneys flushed with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R B; Skorupa, J Y; Rigley, T H; Yannam, G R; Nielsen, K J; Schriner, M E; Skorupa, A J; Murante, A; Holdaway, E; Wrenshall, L E

    2009-05-01

    Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK) solution is increasingly used to flush and preserve organ donor kidneys, with efficacy claimed equivalent to University of Wisconsin (UW) solution. We observed and reported increased graft pancreatitis in pancreata flushed with HTK solution, which prompted this review of transplanting HTK-flushed kidneys. We analyzed outcomes of deceased-donor kidneys flushed with HTK and UW solutions with a minimum of 12 months follow-up, excluding pediatric and multi-organ recipients. We evaluated patient and graft survival and rejection rates, variables that might constitute hazards to graft survival and renal function. Two-year patient survival, rejection, renal function and graft survival were not different, but early graft loss (flushed kidneys (p flush solution showed that only HTK use predicted early graft loss (p kidneys, suggesting it should be used with caution in marginal donors. PMID:19422334

  8. Kidney function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008322 Activation of NF-κB and regulation by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the aorta of rats with chronic renal failure.YANG Xu(杨旭), et al. Dept Nephrol, Xinqiao Hosp, 3rd Milit Med Univ, Chongqing 400037. Chin J Nephrol 2008;24(3):179-184.Objective To investigate the activation of NF-κB and regulation by ubiquitin(Ub)-proteasome pathway in the aorta of rats with chronic renal failure(CRF).Methods

  9. Kidney function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950350 Improving lithium clearance——a methodfor measuring sodium delivery of tubule in human.WANG Huamin(王化民),et al.Nephrol Div,1stTeach Hosp,Beijing Med Univ.Chin J Nephrol 1994;10(6):326-328.Based on the method for lithium clearance,we ob-served the relationship between serum lithium concen-tration at the fouth hour in the test and the representa-tive serum lithium concentration,and verified that they

  10. Kidney function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970361 Chinese herbs improving transcription of thegene for albumin in nephrotic syndrome rats. LI Liying(李丽英), et al. Nephrol Instit, Beijing Med Univ, Bei-jing, 100034. Chin J Nephrol 1997; 13(1): 25-28. Objective: To investigate the role of Astragali andAngelica (A&A) on improving the level of albumin

  11. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can maintain normal kidney function. Additional Resources Afinitor® www.afinitor.com | Download the AfiniTRAC patient support brochure . National Kidney Foundation: www.kidney.org Kidney and Urology Foundation: www.kidneyurology. ...

  12. The FOXD1 lineage of kidney perivascular cells and myofibroblasts: functions and responses to injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ivan G; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a poorly appreciated yet extensive population of perivascular mesenchymal cells in the kidney, which are derived from metanephric mesenchyme progenitor cells during nephrogenesis at which time they express the transcription factor FOXD1. Some studies have called these resident fibroblasts, whereas others have called them pericytes. Regardless of nomenclature, many are partially integrated into the capillary basement membrane and contribute in important ways to the homeostasis of peritubular capillaries. Fate-mapping studies using conditional CreER recombinase-mediated tracing of discrete cell cohorts have identified these pericytes and resident fibroblasts as the major precursor population of interstitial myofibroblasts in animal models of kidney disease. Here, we will review the evidence that they are the major population of myofibroblast precursors, highlight some critical functions in homeostasis, and focus on the cell signaling pathways that are important to their differentiation into, and persistence as myofibroblasts. PMID:26312147

  13. Results of kidney function measurement and blood pressure in population from endemic region of Vitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stašević Zvonimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The analysis of frequency of kidney diseases, causes of terminal renal failure in patients subjected to repeated dialysis in major dialysis centers in the region of Kosovo and Metohija as well as mortality rate in these patients showed a stable number of patients with kidney diseases, evidencing that the populations of Vitina and Gnjilane were the most commonly affected. These towns are designated as regions with the highest incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy. The present analysis was aimed at: 1. establishing the incidence rate of hypertension and renal function impairment by using clinical and laboratory analyses in individuals from Vitina and neighboring villages, and 2. investigating the correlation between creatinine clearance, age and arterial blood pressure in the studied group. Material and methods. The analysis included 510 individuals (excluding diabetics over the one-month period during 2004 (201 males with their age ranging from 18 to 90 years. Blood pressure measurements were performed in all the individuals, while renal function was determined by glomerular filtration rate (GFR, as calculated according to Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results. Creatinine clearance was lower than 100 ml/min in 237 (46.5% individuals, out of whom 62 (12% had GFR below 60 ml/min. Among the remaining 273 (53.5% individuals with GFR above 100 ml/min, 68 individuals had GFR above 140 ml/min. The distribution of patients depending on their systolic blood pressure values revealed that systolic blood pressure was lower in 44 subjects and higher in 302 subjects (59%. The correlation test revealed significant association between the studied parameters. The positive correlation between patients' age and kidney function means the higher the age of subjects the lower creatinine clearance value (r=-0.622, p<0.001. The negative correlation of the systolic blood pressure value and kidney function was found, meaning that higher the systolic blood

  14. Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Reflects Both Inflammation and Kidney Function in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Hoffmann, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    . Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between plasma NGAL, inflammation and kidney function in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: We prospectively included 584 patients with acute ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from 2006 to......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has emerged as a marker for acute kidney injury and cardiovascular outcome. However, the relative importance of inflammation versus kidney function on plasma NGAL levels is uncertain, making the interpretation of plasma NGAL unclear...

  15. Comparison of Serum Cystatin C and Creatinine Levels to Evaluate Early Renal Function after Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Eshraghi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate and rapid assessment of allograftfunction is essential in renal transplant recipients in order todetect allograft rejection and to monitor drug nephrotoxicity.We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of cystatin C as a markerof kidney allograft function in the early post-transplant periodand to compare this value with that of conventional serumcreatinine concentration.Methods: Twenty four patients scheduled for kidney transplantationat the Kidney Transplant Center of Ghaem Hospital,Mashhad, Iran from September 2006 to November 2007,were sequentially enrolled into the present study. Serumcreatinine and cystatin C concentrations and urine output weremeasured daily after transplantation for 3 weeks or until dischargefrom the hospital.Results: On the 3rd postoperative day, with a cut-off value of75 mL/min for glomerular filtration rate, areas under the receiveroperating characteristic (ROC curves were 0.926 forcreatinine (P=0.021 and 0.815 for cystatin C (P=0.088. Atthis point creatinine was more sensitive and specific than cystatinC in estimating glomerular filtration rate. On the 7th dayafter transplantation, areas under ROC curves were 0. 893 forcreatinine (P=0.066 and 1.000 for cystatin C (P=0.017.Therefore, cystatin C was more sensitive and specific thancreatinine in estimating glomerular filtration rate. In two patientswith acute rejection and arterial thrombosis, serum cystatinC concentrations increased earlier than serum creatinine.Conclusion: There is a correlation between creatinine and cystatinC early after kidney transplantation. Serum creatinine levelsseem to be more sensitive and specific for detecting transitorychanges in renal function in the 1st week after transplantation.After the 1st week after transplantation, cystatin C wasmore sensitive and specific than serum creatinine concentration.

  16. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys; Funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie der Nieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzman, R.S.; Wittsack, H.J. [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Duesseldorf (Germany); Notohamiprodjo, M. [Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Interest in functional renal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has significantly increased in recent years. This review article provides an overview of the most important functional imaging techniques and their potential clinical applications for assessment of native and transplanted kidneys, with special emphasis on the clarification of renal tumors. (orig.) [German] Die funktionelle MRT der Nieren hat in den letzten Jahren zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. In diesem Uebersichtsartikel werden die wichtigsten funktionellen Untersuchungstechniken vorgestellt und deren potenzielle klinische Bedeutung zur Evaluation von Nieren und Transplantatnieren hervorgehoben, wobei ein besonderes Augenmerk auf die Abklaerung von Nierentumoren gelegt wird. (orig.)

  17. The first pass MTT for the assessment of transplanted kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study confirms that additional parameters for renal blood flow assessment as MTT mean transit time and elimination index may be helpful in the determination of renal function. The MTT ratio was always in the normal range in good kidney function, moderately increased in rejection, and markedly increased in extrarenal complications with or without rejection. As a first result, the MTT ratio appears to be more reliable than the perfusion index. Further investigations are now underway for evaluating these parameters for other renal diseases in non transplanted patients

  18. Copeptin Is Associated with Kidney Length, Renal Function, and Prevalence of Simple Cysts in a Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Guessous, Idris; Ehret, Georg; Alwan, Heba; Youhanna, Sonia; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has a key role in osmoregulation by facilitating water transport in the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that AVP may have additional effects on renal function and favor cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Whether AVP also affects kidney structure in the general population is unknown. We analyzed the association of copeptin, an established surrogate for AVP, with parameters of renal function and morphology in a multicentric population-based cohort. Pa...

  19. Pulse-Wave Analysis of Optic Nerve Head Circulation Is Significantly Correlated with Kidney Function in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Shiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine whether there is a significant correlation between the optic nerve head (ONH circulation determined by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG and kidney function. Materials. Seventy-one subjects were investigated. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR and serum creatinine, cystatin C, and urinary albumin excretion were measured. The ONH circulation was determined by an analysis of the pulse wave of LSFG, and this parameter was named blowout time (BOT. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was defined to be present when the estimated GFR was <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the BOT and the kidney function. We also examined whether there were significant differences in all parameters in patients with and without CKD. Results. BOT was significantly correlated with the level of creatinine (r=-0.24, P=0.04, the estimated GFR (r=0.42, P=0.0003, cystatin C (r=-0.29, P=0.01, and urinary albumin excretion (r=-0.29, P=0.01. The BOT level in subjects with CKD was significantly lower than that in subjects without CKD (P=0.002. Conclusion. BOT in ONH by LSFG can detect the organ damage such as kidney dysfunction, CKD.

  20. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for vasopressin, is associated with kidney function decline in subjects with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertien, Wendy E.; Meijer, Esther; Zittema, Debbie; van Dijk, Marjan A.; Rabelink, Ton J.; Breuning, Martijn H.; Struck, Joachim; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Peters, Dorien J. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2012-01-01

    The observational study by Boertin et al makes a valuable contribution to the research field of prevention and control of polycystic kidney disease, supports the assumption that copeptin is associated with disease severity in ADPKD and may have useful implications for the design of future clinical t

  1. Transcriptome-Based Analysis of Molecular Pathways for Clusterin Functions in Kidney Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairi, Ghida; Guan, Qiunong; Roshan-Moniri, Mani; Collins, Colin C; Ong, Christopher J; Gleave, Martin E; Nguan, Christopher Y C; Du, Caigan

    2016-12-01

    Clusterin (CLU) is a chaperone-like protein and plays a protective role against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI); however, the molecular pathways for its functions in the kidney are not fully understood. This study was designed to investigate CLU-mediating pathways in kidney cells by using bioinformatics analysis. CLU null renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) expressing human CLU cDNA (TEC-CLU(hCLU) ) or empty vector (TEC-CLU(-/-) ) were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia (1% O2 ). Transcriptome profiling with a significant twofold change was performed using SurePrint G3 Mouse Gene Expression 8 × 60 K microarray, and the signaling pathways was ranked by using Ingenuity pathway analysis. Here, we showed that compared to CLU null controls, ectopic expression of human CLU in CLU null kidney cells promoted cell growth but inhibited migration in normoxia, and enhanced cell survival in hypoxia. CLU expression affected expression of 3864 transcripts (1893 up-regulated) in normoxia and 3670 transcripts (1925 up-regulated) in hypoxia. CLU functions in normoxia were associated mostly with AKT2/PPP2R2B-dependent PI3K/AKT, PTEN, VEGF, and ERK/MAPK signaling and as well with GSK3B-mediated cell cycle progression. In addition to unfolded protein response (UPR) and/or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, CLU-enhanced cell survival in hypoxia was also associated with PIK3CD/MAPK1-dependent PI3K/AKT, HIF-α, PTEN, VEGF, and ERK/MAPK signaling. In conclusion, our data showed that CLU functions in kidney cells were mainly mediated in a cascade manner by PI3K/AKT, PTEN, VEGF, and ERK/MAPK signaling, and specifically by activation of UPR/ER stress in hypoxia, providing new insights into the protective role of CLU in the kidney. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2628-2638, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27155085

  2. Bilateral hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 534. Frokiaer J, Zeidel ML. ... and Rector's The Kidney . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 37. Hsu THS, Nakada SY. ...

  3. Bilateral dacryoadenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Derr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute dacryoadenitis is an uncommon condition that involves inflammation of the lacrimal gland. In rare instances, dacryoadenitis may be bilateral. A delay in proper treatment of an otherwise simple case of dacryoadenitis may lead to significant soft tissue morbidity such as cellulitis, lacrimal gland abscess, or orbital abscess. We report the case of a 24-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with acute bilateral dacryoadenitis. The patient′s symptoms did not respond to oral antibiotics and he subsequently required admission for intravenous antibiotics. During his hospitalization the patient had diagnostic testing to try to determine the etiology for his symptoms. The unique aspects of managing a case of bilateral dacryoadenitis as well as treatment recommendations are discussed in this case report.

  4. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information > Health Communication Programs > National Kidney Disease Education Program > Learn About Kidney Disease > Living With Kidney Disease > Kidney Failure | Share External Link Disclaimer Living With Kidney Disease ...

  5. Do women really have more bilateral language representation than men? A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, IEC; Aleman, A; Bouma, A; Kahn, RS

    2004-01-01

    Sex differences in cognition are consistently reported, men excelling in most visuospatial tasks and women in certain verbal tasks. It has been hypothesized that these sex differences in cognition results from a more bilateral pattern of language representation in women than in men. This bilateral p

  6. New technique of investigating the kidney function in infants using 125I-hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scanner is described with an optimized profilographic detection system which allows to examine the relative position of the kidneys, their function and the filling of the bladder in infants and toddlers using 125I-hippuran or radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 99mTc. The chosen design of the apparatus eliminates the shortcomings of existing renographic examinations and considerably increases the validity of investigations. The scanned field is sufficiently large to take the entire abdominal cavity of infants and toddlers. There is thus no need to know the position of the kidneys and the bladder and there is no need to adjust collimated detectors above the kidneys. The high sensitivity of the scanner allows to evaluate the results from the screen of a multi-channel analyzer during applications of 125I-hippuran with an activity level of over 100 kBq without adjustment data and of under 74 kBq with data smoothing. The radiation burden of the examined child is thereby reduced to approximately one quarter. (Z.M.). 6 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

  7. Functional reorganization of motor and limbic circuits after exercise training in a rat model of bilateral parkinsonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    Full Text Available Exercise training is widely used for neurorehabilitation of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, little is known about the functional reorganization of the injured brain after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation (bilateral, dorsal striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. One week after training, cerebral perfusion was mapped during treadmill walking or at rest using [(14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Regional cerebral blood flow-related tissue radioactivity (rCBF was analyzed in three-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. In non-exercised rats, lesions resulted in persistent motor deficits. Compared to sham-lesioned rats, lesioned rats showed altered functional brain activation during walking, including: 1. hypoactivation of the striatum and motor cortex; 2. hyperactivation of non-lesioned areas in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit; 3. functional recruitment of the red nucleus, superior colliculus and somatosensory cortex; 4. hyperactivation of the ventrolateral thalamus, cerebellar vermis and deep nuclei, suggesting recruitment of the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit; 5. hyperactivation of limbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, septum, raphe, insula. These findings show remarkable similarities to imaging findings reported in PD patients. Exercise progressively improved motor deficits in lesioned rats, while increasing activation in dorsal striatum and rostral secondary motor cortex, attenuating a hyperemia of the zona incerta and eliciting a functional reorganization of regions participating in the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit. Both lesions and exercise increased activation in mesolimbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, laterodorsal tegmental n., ventral pallidum, as well as in related paralimbic regions (septum, raphe, insula. Exercise, but not lesioning, resulted

  8. Balanced Hydroxyethylstarch (HES 130/0.4 Impairs Kidney Function In-Vivo without Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Alexander Schick

    Full Text Available Volume therapy is a standard procedure in daily perioperative care, and there is an ongoing discussion about the benefits of colloid resuscitation with hydroxyethylstarch (HES. In sepsis HES should be avoided due to a higher risk for acute kidney injury (AKI. Results of the usage of HES in patients without sepsis are controversial. Therefore we conducted an animal study to evaluate the impact of 6% HES 130/0.4 on kidney integrity with sepsis or under healthy conditions Sepsis was induced by standardized Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis (sCASP. sCASP-group as well as control group (C remained untreated for 24 h. After 18 h sCASP+HES group (sCASP+VOL and control+HES (C+VOL received 50 ml/KG balanced 6% HES (VOL 130/0.4 over 6 h. After 24 h kidney function was measured via Inulin- and PAH-Clearance in re-anesthetized rats, and serum urea, creatinine (crea, cystatin C and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL as well as histopathology were analysed. In vitro human proximal tubule cells (PTC were cultured +/- lipopolysaccharid (LPS and with 0.1-4.0% VOL. Cell viability was measured with XTT-, cell toxicity with LDH-test. sCASP induced severe septic AKI demonstrated divergent results regarding renal function by clearance or creatinine measure focusing on VOL. Soleley HES (C+VOL deteriorated renal function without sCASP. Histopathology revealed significantly derangements in all HES groups compared to control. In vitro LPS did not worsen the HES induced reduction of cell viability in PTC cells. For the first time, we demonstrated, that application of 50 ml/KG 6% HES 130/0.4 over 6 hours induced AKI without inflammation in vivo. Severity of sCASP induced septic AKI might be no longer susceptible to the way of volume expansion.

  9. Impact of sleep disturbances on kidney function decline in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaussent, Isabelle; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Stengel, Benedicte; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Besset, Alain; Helmer, Catherine; Ritchie, Karen; Berr, Claudine; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-03-01

    While sleep disturbances are frequent in renal disease patients, no studies have examined prospectively the associations between sleep disturbances and kidney function decline in community-dwelling elderly subjects.Glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated at baseline and at 11-year follow-up. A glomerular filtration decline over the follow-up period was defined as a percentage decline greater than or equal to the cut-off value of the highest tertile of kidney function decline (22%) in 1105 subjects. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and insomnia complaints were self-rated at baseline. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and its age at onset were assessed at study end-point. An ambulatory polysomnography recording was performed during the follow-up in 277 subjects. Apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and total sleep time were analysed.An increased risk of eGFR decline was associated with EDS (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.18-2.34) and RLS (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.18-3.30) independently of potential confounders including cardiovascular risk factors. Among insomnia complaints, a borderline association with eGFR decline was found for early morning awakening only. High AHI (≥30 events·h(-1)) and short total sleep time (<6 h), but not PLMS were linked to eGFR decline in crude associations, but only AHI remained significantly associated after multi-adjustments.EDS, RLS and AHI constitute independent risk factors for kidney glomerular function decline. PMID:26647438

  10. SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling preserves microvascular integrity and renal function in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hao Chen

    Full Text Available The progressive decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by both disruption of the microvascular architecture and the accumulation of fibrotic matrix. One angiogenic pathway recently identified as playing an essential role in renal vascular development is the stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. Because similar developmental processes may be recapitulated in the disease setting, we hypothesized that the SDF-1/CXCR4 system would regulate microvascular health in CKD. Expression of CXCR4 was observed to be increased in the kidneys of subtotally nephrectomized (SNx rats and in biopsies from patients with secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, a rodent model and human correlate both characterized by aberration of the renal microvessels. A reno-protective role for local SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling was indicated by i CXCR4-dependent glomerular eNOS activation following acute SDF-1 administration; and ii acceleration of renal function decline, capillary loss and fibrosis in SNx rats treated with chronic CXCR4 blockade. In contrast to the upregulation of CXCR4, SDF-1 transcript levels were decreased in SNx rat kidneys as well as in renal fibroblasts exposed to the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β, the latter effect being attenuated by histone deacetylase inhibition. Increased renal SDF-1 expression was, however, observed following the treatment of SNx rats with the ACE inhibitor, perindopril. Collectively, these observations indicate that local SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling functions to preserve microvascular integrity and prevent renal fibrosis. Augmentation of this pathway, either purposefully or serendipitously with either novel or existing therapies, may attenuate renal decline in CKD.

  11. Pyridoxamine reduces postinjury fibrosis and improves functional recovery after acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnyk, Nataliya I; Voziyan, Paul; Yang, Haichun; de Caestecker, Christian R; Theberge, Marie-Claude; Drouin, Mathieu; Hudson, Billy; Harris, Raymond C; de Caestecker, Mark P

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and independent risk factor for death and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite promising preclinical data, there is no evidence that antioxidants reduce the severity of injury, increase recovery, or prevent CKD in patients with AKI. Pyridoxamine (PM) is a structural analog of vitamin B6 that interferes with oxidative macromolecular damage via a number of different mechanisms and is in a phase 3 clinical efficacy trial to delay CKD progression in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Because oxidative stress is implicated as one of the main drivers of renal injury after AKI, the ability of PM to interfere with multiple aspects of oxidative damage may be favorable for AKI treatment. In these studies we therefore evaluated PM treatment in a mouse model of AKI. Pretreatment with PM caused a dose-dependent reduction in acute tubular injury, long-term postinjury fibrosis, as well as improved functional recovery after ischemia-reperfusion AKI (IR-AKI). This was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in the oxidative stress marker isofuran-to-F2-isoprostane ratio, indicating that PM reduces renal oxidative damage post-AKI. PM also reduced postinjury fibrosis when administered 24 h after the initiating injury, but this was not associated with improvement in functional recovery after IR-AKI. This is the first report showing that treatment with PM reduces short- and long-term injury, fibrosis, and renal functional recovery after IR-AKI. These preclinical findings suggest that PM, which has a favorable clinical safety profile, holds therapeutic promise for AKI and, most importantly, for prevention of adverse long-term outcomes after AKI. PMID:27194713

  12. Evaluation of regenerative capacity after kidney ischemic/reperfustion injury using 99mTc-DMSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, W. J.; Kim, J. W.; Park, K. M.; Lee, S. W.; Ahn, B. C.; Lee, J. T.; Yoo, J. S. [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Acute renal failure can be caused by a reduced renal blood flow induced because of ischemic injury. The damaged kidney can be completely restored in structure and function. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA binds to cortical tubules in kidney and its uptake has been suggested to indicate function of cortical mass. Herein, the generative capacity of kidney after bilateral or unilateral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was evaluated non-invasively by scintigraphic imaging. Three different animal models were used. One or both kidneys of mice were subjected ischemic for 30 min for unilateral or bilateral I/R model, respectively. In third model, one kidney was excised and the other kidney was subjected ischemic for 30 min to give nephrectomy model. At 1 hr, 1 d, 3 d, 1 w, 2 w, 3 w after reperfusion, {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA (27.7 MBq) was injected via tail vein. After 3 hr, the mice were scanned for 30 min with pinhole equipped gamma camera. The ratio of ROI counts of kidney to total counts was calculated. In unilateral I/R mouse, the {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake of injured kidney was decreased continuously up to 3 w (13.9 to 7.7%), while uptake in normal kidney is slowly increased. In case of nephrectomy model, {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake of injured kidney was rapidly restored within 1 w after I/R operation (8.5 to 30%). Bilateral model showed reduced {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake at 1 d, but total uptake in both I/R kidney was also increase up to 30% after 1 w and the uptake was maintained up to 3 w. In unilateral model, the {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake of injured kidney kept decreasing up to 3 w while normal kidney showed increased {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake. The restoration of I/R kidney was not observed within 3 w. However, in case of animal models which have only I/R kidneys such as bilateral and nephrectomy models, the {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake was restored within 1 w and the excised kidney size was also normal in contrast to much smaller I/R kidney of unilateral model.

  13. Evaluation of regenerative capacity after kidney ischemic/reperfustion injury using 99mTc-DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute renal failure can be caused by a reduced renal blood flow induced because of ischemic injury. The damaged kidney can be completely restored in structure and function. 99mTc-DMSA binds to cortical tubules in kidney and its uptake has been suggested to indicate function of cortical mass. Herein, the generative capacity of kidney after bilateral or unilateral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was evaluated non-invasively by scintigraphic imaging. Three different animal models were used. One or both kidneys of mice were subjected ischemic for 30 min for unilateral or bilateral I/R model, respectively. In third model, one kidney was excised and the other kidney was subjected ischemic for 30 min to give nephrectomy model. At 1 hr, 1 d, 3 d, 1 w, 2 w, 3 w after reperfusion, 99mTc-DMSA (27.7 MBq) was injected via tail vein. After 3 hr, the mice were scanned for 30 min with pinhole equipped gamma camera. The ratio of ROI counts of kidney to total counts was calculated. In unilateral I/R mouse, the 99mTc-DMSA uptake of injured kidney was decreased continuously up to 3 w (13.9 to 7.7%), while uptake in normal kidney is slowly increased. In case of nephrectomy model, 99mTc-DMSA uptake of injured kidney was rapidly restored within 1 w after I/R operation (8.5 to 30%). Bilateral model showed reduced 99mTc-DMSA uptake at 1 d, but total uptake in both I/R kidney was also increase up to 30% after 1 w and the uptake was maintained up to 3 w. In unilateral model, the 99mTc-DMSA uptake of injured kidney kept decreasing up to 3 w while normal kidney showed increased 99mTc-DMSA uptake. The restoration of I/R kidney was not observed within 3 w. However, in case of animal models which have only I/R kidneys such as bilateral and nephrectomy models, the 99mTc-DMSA uptake was restored within 1 w and the excised kidney size was also normal in contrast to much smaller I/R kidney of unilateral model

  14. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine as Kidney Function Biomarkers in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, J.A.; Obare, E.; Yerramilli, M.; Jewell, D.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been shown to be an accurate and precise biomarker for calculating estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in humans, as well as a more sensitive biomarker than serum creatinine concentration (sCr) for assessing renal dysfunction. Objectives The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the utility of measuring serum SDMA concentrations in cats for detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) before diagnosis by conventional measurem...

  15. The effect of short-term glucagon infusion on kidney function in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Noer, J; Kehlet, H;

    1977-01-01

    Kidney function was studied in six normal males before and during a 2 h glucagon (10 ng/kg/min) infusion. The following variables were determined during each 20 min clearance period; glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma-flow (RPF) , filtration fraction (FF), urinary albumin and beta2......-microglobulin-excretion rates. Glucagon infusion resulted in a fourfold increase in plasma glucagon concentration. The infusion induced a significant increase in GFR (+9%), FF (+9%) and urinary beta2-microglobulin excretion rate (+32%), (p less than 0.01). RPF and urinary albumin excretion rates were...

  16. The influence of contrast media on kidney function in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Simon Bertram; Harutyunyan, Marina; Mygind, Naja Dam;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the incidence of contrast media-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for elective coronary intervention following hydration routines. The reversibility of CIN was followed in a 6 month-period. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total....... Kidney function was not normalized in CIN patients 6 months after the intervention. Two patients still met the definition of CIN. CONCLUSION: With no restriction in fluid intake and supplementary infusion of saline, only a few patients with stable CAD developed early indications of CIN during elective...

  17. How does your kidney smell? Emerging roles for olfactory receptors in renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe D; Pluznick, Jennifer L

    2016-05-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are chemosensors that are responsible for one's sense of smell. In addition to this specialized role in the nose, recent evidence suggests that ORs are also found in a variety of additional tissues including the kidney. As this list of renal ORs continues to expand, it is becoming clear that they play important roles in renal and whole-body physiology, including a novel role in blood pressure regulation. In this review, we highlight important considerations that are crucial when studying ORs and present the current literature on renal ORs and their emerging relevance in maintaining renal function. PMID:26264790

  18. Impairment of renal function after islet transplant alone or islet-after-kidney transplantation using a sirolimus/tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Axel; Toso, Christian; Morel, Philippe; Demuylder-Mischler, Sandrine; Bosco, Domenico; Baertschiger, Reto; Pernin, Nadine; Bucher, Pascal; Majno, Pietro E; Bühler, Leo H; Berney, Thierry

    2005-11-01

    The immunosuppressive (IS) regimen based on sirolimus/low-dose tacrolimus is considered a major determinant of success of the Edmonton protocol. This regimen is generally considered safe or even protective for the kidney. Herein, we analyzed the impact of the sirolimus/low-dose tacrolimus combination on kidney function. The medical charts of islet transplant recipients with at least 6 months follow up were reviewed. There were five islet-after-kidney and five islet transplantation alone patients. Serum creatinin, albuminuria, metabolic control markers and graft function were analyzed. Impairment of kidney function was observed in six of 10 patients. Neither metabolic markers nor IS drugs levels were significantly associated with the decrease of kidney function. Although a specific etiology was not identified, some subsets of patients presented a higher risk for decline of kidney function. Low creatinin clearance, albuminuria and long-established kidney graft were associated with poorer outcome. PMID:16221151

  19. Genetic risk factors affecting mitochondrial function are associated with kidney disease in people with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swan, E J; Salem, R M; Sandholm, N;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association with diabetic kidney disease of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. METHODS: The mitochondrial genome and 1039 nuclear genes that are integral to mitochondrial function were investigated using a case (n = 823...... phenotypes to those of the discovery collection. Association analyses were performed using the plink genetic analysis toolset, with adjustment for relevant covariates. RESULTS: A total of 25 SNPs were evaluated in the mitochondrial genome, but none were significantly associated with diabetic kidney disease...... or end-stage renal disease. A total of 38 SNPs in nuclear genes influencing mitochondrial function were nominally associated with diabetic kidney disease and 16 SNPS were associated with end-stage renal disease, secondary to diabetic kidney disease, with meta-analyses confirming the same direction of...

  20. Vascular function assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts survival in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steedman Tracey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased arterial stiffness is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR permits assessment of the central arteries to measure aortic function. Methods We studied the relationship between central haemodynamics and outcome using CMR in 144 chronic kidney disease patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate Results Median follow up after the scan was 24 months. There were no significant differences in aortic distensibilty or aortic volumetric arterial strain between pre-dialysis and dialysis patients. Aortic distensibilty and volumetric arterial strain negatively correlated with age. Aortic distensibilty and volumetric arterial strain were lower in diabetics, patients with ischaemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. During follow up there were 20 deaths. Patients who died had lower aortic distensibilty than survivors. In a survival analysis, diabetes, systolic blood pressure and aortic distensibilty were independent predictors of mortality. There were 12 non-fatal cardiovascular events during follow up. Analysing the combined end point of death or a vascular event, diabetes, aortic distensibilty and volumetric arterial strain were predictors of events. Conclusion Deranged vascular function measured with CMR correlates with cardiovascular risk factors and predicts outcome. CMR measures of vascular function are potential targets for interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  1. Aspects of Regulation of GFR and Tubular Function in the Diabetic Kidney : Roles of Adenosine, Nitric Oxide and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause for initiation of renal replacement therapy and early symptoms in patients include increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), decreased oxygen tension and albuminuria, followed by a progressive decline in GFR and loss of kidney function. Experimental models of diabetes display increased GFR, decreased tissue oxygenation and nitric oxide bioavailability. These findings are likely to be intertwined in a mechanistic pathway to kidney damage and this thesis...

  2. Alcohol and Exercise Affect Declining Kidney Function in Healthy Males Regardless of Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Muneyuki, Toshitaka; Suwa, Kaname; Nakajima, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Background Although lifestyle is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, there has been no sufficient evidence of lifestyles on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of lifestyles on kidney function in healthy people. Methods A total of 7473 healthy people were enrolled in this Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Data on alcohol consumption, exercise frequency, an...

  3. Recurrence of primary hyperoxaluria: An avoidable catastrophe following kidney transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiwale C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare autosomal recessive disease due to deficiency of an oxalate-metabolizing liver enzyme, which results in nephrolithiasis and renal failure. Concomitant liver and kidney transplant is recommended as isolated kidney transplant is inevitably complicated by recurrence of the disease. We present a 25-year-old man with end-stage nephrolithiatic renal disease who underwent bilateral nephrectomy, followed by kidney transplantation. There was progressive worsening of kidney function two weeks post transplant. Review of nephrectomy and transplant kidney biopsy showed abundant calcium oxalate crystals and further workup revealed hyperoxaluria, which was previously unsuspected. Later he developed fever, breathlessness, hemiparesis and died 10 weeks after transplant. Autopsy revealed multi-organ deposits of oxalate crystals as well as widespread zygomycosis. This case emphasizes the need for careful pre-transplant evaluation of patients with renal calculus disease in order to exclude primary hyperoxaluria.

  4. Kidney Function Decline and Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Jean; Metzger, Marie; Helmer, Catherine; Berr, Claudine; Tzourio, Christophe; Massy, Ziad A.; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies show a strong association between chronic kidney disease and apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, but the longitudinal association of the rate of kidney function decline with the risk of resistant hypertension is unknown. Methods The population-based Three-City included 8,695 participants older than 65 years, 4265 of them treated for hypertension. We estimated the odds ratios (OR) of new-onset apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg despite use of 3 antihypertensive drug classes or ≥ 4 classes regardless of blood pressure, associated with the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) level and its rate of decline over 4 years, compared with both controlled hypertension and uncontrolled nonresistant hypertension with ≤ 2 drugs. GFR was estimated with three different equations. Results Baseline prevalence of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension and of controlled and uncontrolled nonresistant hypertension, were 6.5%, 62.3% and 31.2%, respectively. During follow-up, 162 participants developed apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. Mean eGFR decline with the MDRD equation was 1.5±2.9 mL/min/1.73 m² per year: 27.7% of the participants had an eGFR ≥3 and 10.1% ≥ 5 mL/min/1.73 m² per year. After adjusting for age, sex, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular history, the ORs for new-onset apparent treatment-resistant hypertension associated with a mean eGFR level, per 15 mL/min/1.73m² drop, were 1.23 [95% confidence interval 0.91–1.64] compared to controlled hypertension and 1.10 [0.83–1.45] compared to uncontrolled nonresistant hypertension; ORs associated with a decline rate ≥ 3 mL/min/1.73m² per year were 1.89 [1.09–3.29] and 1.99 [1.19–3.35], respectively. Similar results were obtained when we estimated GFR with the CKDEPI and the BIS1 equations. ORs tended to be higher for an eGFR decline rate ≥ 5 mL/min/1.73m² per year. Conclusion The speed of

  5. Kidney Function Decline and Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension in the Elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kaboré

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies show a strong association between chronic kidney disease and apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, but the longitudinal association of the rate of kidney function decline with the risk of resistant hypertension is unknown.The population-based Three-City included 8,695 participants older than 65 years, 4265 of them treated for hypertension. We estimated the odds ratios (OR of new-onset apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg despite use of 3 antihypertensive drug classes or ≥ 4 classes regardless of blood pressure, associated with the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR level and its rate of decline over 4 years, compared with both controlled hypertension and uncontrolled nonresistant hypertension with ≤ 2 drugs. GFR was estimated with three different equations.Baseline prevalence of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension and of controlled and uncontrolled nonresistant hypertension, were 6.5%, 62.3% and 31.2%, respectively. During follow-up, 162 participants developed apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. Mean eGFR decline with the MDRD equation was 1.5±2.9 mL/min/1.73 m² per year: 27.7% of the participants had an eGFR ≥3 and 10.1% ≥ 5 mL/min/1.73 m² per year. After adjusting for age, sex, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular history, the ORs for new-onset apparent treatment-resistant hypertension associated with a mean eGFR level, per 15 mL/min/1.73 m² drop, were 1.23 [95% confidence interval 0.91-1.64] compared to controlled hypertension and 1.10 [0.83-1.45] compared to uncontrolled nonresistant hypertension; ORs associated with a decline rate ≥ 3 mL/min/1.73 m² per year were 1.89 [1.09-3.29] and 1.99 [1.19-3.35], respectively. Similar results were obtained when we estimated GFR with the CKDEPI and the BIS1 equations. ORs tended to be higher for an eGFR decline rate ≥ 5 mL/min/1.73 m² per year.The speed of kidney function decline is

  6. Isoforms of Spectrin and Ankyrin Reflect the Functional Topography of the Mouse Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Stankewich

    Full Text Available The kidney displays specialized regions devoted to filtration, selective reabsorption, and electrolyte and metabolite trafficking. The polarized membrane pumps, channels, and transporters responsible for these functions have been exhaustively studied. Less examined are the contributions of spectrin and its adapter ankyrin to this exquisite functional topography, despite their established contributions in other tissues to cellular organization. We have examined in the rodent kidney the expression and distribution of all spectrins and ankyrins by qPCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescent and immuno electron microscopy. Four of the seven spectrins (αΙΙ, βΙ, βΙΙ, and βΙΙΙ are expressed in the kidney, as are two of the three ankyrins (G and B. The levels and distribution of these proteins vary widely over the nephron. αΙΙ/βΙΙ is the most abundant spectrin, found in glomerular endothelial cells; on the basolateral membrane and cytoplasmic vesicles in proximal tubule cells and in the thick ascending loop of Henle; and less so in the distal nephron. βΙΙΙ spectrin largely replaces βΙΙ spectrin in podocytes, Bowman's capsule, and throughout the distal tubule and collecting ducts. βΙ spectrin is only marginally expressed; its low abundance hinders a reliable determination of its distribution. Ankyrin G is the most abundant ankyrin, found in capillary endothelial cells and all tubular segments. Ankyrin B populates Bowman's capsule, podocytes, the ascending thick loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule. Comparison to the distribution of renal protein 4.1 isoforms and various membrane proteins indicates a complex relationship between the spectrin scaffold, its adapters, and various membrane proteins. While some proteins (e.g. ankyrin B, βΙΙΙ spectrin, and aquaporin 2 tend to share a similar distribution, there is no simple mapping of different spectrins or ankyrins to most membrane proteins. The implications of this data

  7. Biochemical markers of liver and kidney function are influenced by thyroid function-a case-controlled follow up study in Indian hypothyroid subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Sarika; Chawla, Ranjna; Tayal, Devika; Gupta, Vinod K.; Mr. Jagdeep S Sohi; Mallika, V.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate the renal hemodynamics and basal metabolic rate of most cells. This hospital-based case-control study was done to evaluate the changes in biochemical markers of liver and kidney function in hypothyroid subjects before and after treatment. The study included 176 subjects randomly selected from Thyroid clinics. Serum T3, T4, TSH, Liver and Kidney Function tests were analysed using standard kits. Forty-six hypothyroid patients were re-evaluated 6 weeks after thyroxine s...

  8. Optimising the management of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Declan; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2016-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is the most common inherited renal disorder that results in chronic kidney disease. PKD has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The prevalence is between 1:500 and 1:1,000. Up to 10% of adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a genetic disorder such as PKD. A family history of PKD may be absent in up to 25% of affected individuals. The most common clinical features are visible haematuria, loin pain, UTI and hypertension. The typical clinical course is a progressive increase in the number and size of renal cysts associated with gradual loss of kidney function (falling eGFR). Risk factors for progression include: younger age at diagnosis; large kidney volume; rapid cyst growth; hypertension; male gender; and visible haematuria. Approximately 50% of individuals with PKD will require renal replacement therapy by the sixth decade of life. PKD is a multisystem disorder associated with multiple bilateral renal cysts, slowly increasing kidney size and progressive chronic kidney disease. Diagnosis of PKD is confirmed by ultrasound showing the presence of multiple kidney cysts. More than 80% will also have multiple liver cysts, which can lead to local pressure effects. Cerebral haemorrhage, secondary to rupture of a berry aneurysm, occurs in up to 8% of individuals. Mitral valve prolapse occurs in up to 25% of patients. PMID:27032221

  9. Recovery of Native Renal Function in Patients with Hepatorenal Syndrome Following Combined Liver and Kidney Transplant with Mercaptoacetyltriglycine-3 Renogram: Developing a Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Bains, Sukhkarn N.; Carlson, David; Qian, Jesse; Liou, Douglas; Wojciechowski, David; Werner, Jacob; Khan, Sana; Kroll, Cameron; Sandhu, Manreet; Nguyen, Nhan; Hawkins, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) end up receiving a combined liver and kidney transplant (CKLT) with preservation of native kidneys, specially type 1 HRS since is characterizes by a very rapid deterioration of renal function. Eventually, most of the patients regain renal function, but it is unknown if this is due to the transplanted kidney, the recovery of native renal function, or both. The aim of this study is to evaluate if there is recovery of native renal function in patient...

  10. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1......] and the class of multivariate matrix-exponential distributions of [9]. We prove a characterization theorem stating that a random variable has a bilateral multivariate distribution if and only if all linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate bilateral matrix-exponential distribution. As...... an application we demonstrate that certain multivariate disions, which are governed by the underlying Markov jump process generating a phasetype distribution, have a bilateral matrix-exponential distribution at the time of absorption, see also [4]....

  11. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties of red kidney beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, S. A.; Deshpande, R.; Khamesra, Arohi; Ibrahim, Geeta; Jamdar, Sahayog N.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), irradiated in the dose range of 0.25-10.0 kGy were evaluated for proximate composition, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties. Radiation processing up to 10 kGy did not affect proximate composition, hydration capacity and free fatty acid value. All the sensory attributes were unaffected at 1.0 kGy dose. The dose of 10 kGy, showed lower values for odor and taste, however, they were in acceptable range. Significant improvement in textural quality and reduction in cooking time was observed at dose of 10 kGy. Antioxidant activity of radiation processed samples was also assessed after normal processing such as soaking and pressure cooking. Both phenolic content and antioxidant activity evaluated in terms of DPPH free radical scavenging assay and inhibition in lipid peroxidation using rabbit erythrocyte ghost system, were marginally improved (5-10%) at the dose of 10 kGy in dry and cooked samples. During storage of samples for six months, no significant change was observed in sensory, cooking and antioxidant properties. Thus, radiation treatment of 1 kGy can be applied to get extended shelf life of kidney beans with improved functional properties without impairing bioactivity; nutritional quality and sensory property.

  12. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  13. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbania, Thomas H. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kammen, Bamidele F.; Nancarrow, Paul A. [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Morrell, Rose Ellen [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Nephrology, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  14. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure can accelerate the loss of kidney function when the kidneys are filled with cysts. If ... surgical removal can lead to loss of kidney function. As of April 26, 2012, adults with TSC ...

  15. Bilateral peri-renal lymphangioma - a case report and review of literature; Linfangioma perirrenal bilateral - relato de um caso e revisao bibliografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Sonia Marcelino; Borges, Aurea Valeria Rosa Mohana; Dinoa, Vanessa de Albuquerque [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson; Mello, Walter Assis de; Teixeira, Graca Helena Maia do Canto [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Radiologia

    1996-11-01

    Lymphangioma are rare benign lesions and it is difficult to state whether they are true neoplasm, hamartomas or lymphangiectasias. They are most commonly seen in children and occur in regions of the neck and axilla. They increase in size both by proliferation and by the collection of fluid, thus forming cysts. The authors report a case of a 70-year-old man, who presented abdominal swelling, a palpable mass in both flanks and polycythemia. Abdominal sonography, kidney arteriograpy, CT scan and MRI have shown multiple cysts bilaterally surrounding the kidneys without either parenchymal or functional involvement. During surgery several intercommunicating cysts were found surrounding both kidneys. Biopsies were taken from the perirenal fat, the wall of the cysts and the kidney. The histologic diagnosis was cystic lymphangioma. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cysts do not enlarge the kidneys, replace their normal structure, or cause reduced kidney function like cysts do in people with PKD. ... the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the ...

  17. Detecting bilateral motor associated areas with resting state functional magnetic resonance: the effect of different seed points selection on the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different seed points selection on localizing bilateral hand motor associated areas in resting state functional magnetic resonance. Methods: Thirty -one subjects were recruited (male 15, female 16), all of them underwent both block-designed fMRI scan during performing bilateral hand motor task and resting-state fMRI scan. DPARSA V2.0 and SPM8 were used to process the data. The peak voxels in the activity map of the task scan were selected as seeds to compute functional connectivity map of the resting-state scan. Spatial correlation analysis was performed to compare the activity map of the task scan and the connectivity map of the resting- state scan. Results: Fifteen isolated clusters were picked to generate the peak voxels, which were selected as seeds to compute functional connectivity maps. Among all the functional connectivity maps, those generated by motor area (SMA) presented the most consistent spatial distribution with task associated activity map, and the functional connectivity maps generated by primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) consisted of bilateral Ml and SMA. the functional connectivity maps generated by putamen (Pu), thalamus (Th), cerebellum anterior lobe (CbAL) and cerebellum posterior lobe (CbPL) consisted of the areas around the seeds and the mirror areas in the contralateral cortex. Conclusion: Using SMA as seed to compute resting-state functional connectivity map may produce the best spatial coherence with the activity map generated by bilateral hand motor task, and selecting M1 and PMd as seeds may present the best primary motor cortex in the connectivity map. (authors)

  18. Role of radiopharmaceutical renal function studies in the medical surveillance of patients with transplanted kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study group of 35 patients having received a total of 37 kidneys 204 renal function scintiscans were obtained following administration of 99mTc DTPA and analysed with regard to the question as to whether radiopharmaceutical investigations using a gamma camera are a useful auxiliary tool to detect and diagnose functional disorders in the transplant that occur soon after surgery. In all of 13 patients showing complications in the form of prolonged anuria or oliguria during a period of up to 14 days following surgical intervention, the renal function scintiscans either permitted as firm diagnosis to be established or revealed conclusive findings that pointed to the necessity of further specific tests. Long-term follow-up studies carried out in 33 individuals failed or were slow to reveal acute or chronic rejection processes in one quarter of the patients, whereas the renal function scintiscans gave the earliest warning of functional disorders, unfavourable developments and complications in another quarter of patients; in the remaining part, the test results were in keeping with the clinical findings. Renal function scintiscans were thus judged to be a valuable diagnostic tool to ascertain and identify disorders occurring soon after surgery as well as to detect the early signs of functional disorders in the transplant during long-term follow-up studies. In view of the fact, however, that the sensitivity of the method in this field of application only is of the order of 75%, further research work appears to be required here. (TRV)

  19. Cognitive and kidney function: results from a British birth cohort reaching retirement age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Silverwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. METHODS: Cognitive function at age 60-64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction times and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at the same age was estimated using cystatin C. The cross-sectional association between cognitive function and eGFR was adjusted for background confounding factors (socioeconomic position, educational attainment, prior cognition, and potential explanations for any remaining association (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, obesity. RESULTS: Data on all the analysis variables were available for 1306-1320 study members (depending on cognitive measure. Verbal memory and simple and choice reaction times were strongly associated with eGFR. For example, the lowest quartile of verbal memory corresponded to a 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0, 6.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2 lower eGFR relative to the highest quartile. Some of this association was explained by confounding due to socioeconomic factors, but very little of it by prior cognition. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and obesity explained some but not all of the remaining association. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses support the notion of a shared pathophysiology of impaired cognitive and kidney function at older age, which precedes clinical disease. The implications of these findings for clinical care and research are important and under-recognised, though further confirmatory studies are required.

  20. Monitoring the Intracellular Tacrolimus Concentration in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Stable Graft Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Seok; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Min Chang; Cho, Joo-Youn; Min, Sang-Il; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Dong Ki; Ha, Jongwon; Kim, Yon Su

    2016-01-01

    Although monitoring the intracellular concentration of immunosuppressive agents may be a promising approach to individualizing the therapy after organ transplantation, additional studies on this issue are needed prior to its clinical approval. We investigated the relationship between intracellular and whole blood concentrations of tacrolimus (IC-TAC and WB-TAC, respectively), the factors affecting this relationship, and the risk of rejection based upon IC-TAC in stable kidney recipients. Both IC-TAC and WB-TAC were measured simultaneously in 213 kidney recipients with stable graft function using LC-MS/MS. The tacrolimus ratio was defined as IC-TAC per WB-TAC. The genetic polymorphism of ABCB1 gene and flow cytometric analyses were conducted to probe the correlation between tacrolimus concentrations and the immunoreactivity status as a potential risk of rejection, respectively. The correlation between IC-TAC and WB-TAC was relatively linear (r = 0.67; Pionomycin, the proportion of T cells producing interferon-gamma or interleukin-2 was higher in the low-IC-TAC group than in the high-IC-TAC group. Further studies are required to evaluate the value of the intracellular tacrolimus concentrations in several clinical settings, such as rejection, infection, and drug toxicity. PMID:27082871

  1. Optical Spectroscopy Approach for the Predictive Assessment of Kidney Functional Recovery Following Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R N; Pivetti, C D; Rubenchik, A M; Matthews, D L; Troppmann, C; Demos, S G

    2010-02-11

    Tissue that has undergone significant yet unknown amount of ischemic injury is frequently encountered in organ transplantation and trauma clinics. With no reliable real-time method of assessing the degree of injury incurred in tissue, surgeons generally rely on visual observation which is subjective. In this work, we investigate the use of optical spectroscopy methods as a potentially more reliable approach. Previous work by various groups was strongly suggestive that tissue autofluorescence from NADH obtained under UV excitation is sensitive to metabolic response changes. To test and expand upon this concept, we monitored autofluorescence and light scattering intensities of injured vs. uninjured rat kidneys via multimodal imaging under 355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm excitation as well as scattering under 500 nm illumination. 355 nm excitation was used to probe mainly NADH, a metabolite, while 266 nm excitation was used to probe mainly tryptophan to correct for non-metabolic signal artifacts. The ratio of autofluorescence intensities derived under these two excitation wavelengths was calculated and its temporal profile was fit to a relaxation model. Time constants were extracted, and longer time constants were associated with kidney dysfunction. Analysis of both the autofluorescence and light scattering images suggests that changes in microstructure tissue morphology, blood absorption spectral characteristics, and pH contribute to the behavior of the observed signal which may be used to obtain tissue functional information and offer predictive capability.

  2. Comparative study of kidney function based on quantitative nuclear medicine techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general purpose of this work was to evaluate and to compare the measurements of renal function by quantitative methods with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. Dynamic renal images were obtained from the database of the General University Hospital in Prague. Images of one hundred and seven (107) patients were used. Regions of Interest (ROI’s) were applied over each kidney and a background area for background activity correction using software called pmod. From the renograms, Split Renal Function (SRF) was determined using integral method. The Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), both as a total value and individually for each kidney using 99m-Tc MAG3 (Mercaptoactyltriglycine) was also determined using the Gate formula and Tonnesen formula for determining renal depth. For the left kidney function a strong positive association (n= 107; R² = 0.95) was found between the values obtained by calculation using integral method and that of the Czech data base. The mean difference between our calculation and Czech values was -0.91 with a standard deviation of 4.57 and the 95% limits of agreement -5.48 and 3.66. In 85 patients the difference was ≤ ±5%, in 17 patients it was between ±5% and ±10% and in 5 patients the difference was between ±10% and ±15%. For the total GFR, the accuracy is less compare to SRF (n = 60; R² = 0.66) was found between the values obtained by calculation using Gate method and that of the Czech value using MDRD methods. The mean difference between our calculation and the Czech values was -2.82 ml/min/1.73 m² with a standard deviation of 22.46 and the 95% limits of agreement -25.28 and 19.64 ml/min/1.73 m². In 21 patients the difference was 0 and ±10%, in 23 patients it was between ±10% and ±20%, in 9 patients it was between ±20% and ±30%, in 3 patients it was between ±30% and ±40%, and in 4 patients it was between ±40% and ±65%. Quantitative imaging has only recently emerged as a promising approach for diagnosis and

  3. Evaluation of gamma camera-based measurement of individual kidney function using iodine-123 orthoiodohippurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the accuracy of these techniques, we measured RUR by an optimized procedure and compared it with standard ERPF. Iodine-123 orthoiodohippurate (OIH) scintigraphy and simultaneous para-aminohippurate clearance study for measuring standard ERPF were performed in three hospitals in 24 patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function. 123I-OIH was injected intravenously and 10-s consecutive imaging of the kidneys was started when the abdominal aorta was seen. The attenuation coefficient for 123I was measured in each hospital using the same water-equivalent absorption materials and used for the attenuation correction. After subtracting background radioactivity, RURs were defined as the count ratios of fractional renal uptakes based on the integral from 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 1.5 to 2.5 and 1 to 3 min after the injection of 123I-OIH in relation to injected doses using the following three procedures in respect of attenuation correction: (1) RUR without attenuation correction, (2) RUR with fractional renal uptake corrected by the measured attenuation coefficient, (3) RUR with the total injected dose corrected by the absorption material. To decide upon the appropriate correction method and time interval, RURs were compared with standard ERPF. Among the three correction methods, procedure 2 showed the highest correlation between RUR and standard ERPF, but the correlation coefficient was low (r=0.75). No significant difference was observed among the RURs of each time interval. Individual kidney function measured from early renal uptake may be inaccurate even when appropriate correction is made for attenuation, background activity or time lag between injection and data acquisition. Gamma camera-based measurement of renal function using 123I-OIH is limited with regard to accuracy and reproducibility, though it is convenient and non-invasive. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Effects of acute and chronic hypohydration on kidney health and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehally, John; Khosravi, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the homeostasis of body fluid tonicity and effective circulating volume. Renal homeostatic mechanisms are frequently challenged in acutely ill people. Fluid depletion causing hypovolemia may result in renal hypoperfusion that, if left untreated, may lead to acute kidney failure. Some populations, notably older people and neonates, are less tolerant of extremes in fluid loading and deprivation, similar to those with established chronic kidney disease. Risk of kidney injury during fluid depletion is increased by medications including diuretics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and renin-angiotensin system blockers. There is no consistent evidence indicating that lower-than-average fluid intake can cause chronic kidney disease, nor accelerate progression of established kidney disease. Increasing consumption of sugar-containing beverages is, however, a major concern for kidney health as a precursor of obesity and diabetes. There is no evidence that high dietary protein intake can cause chronic kidney disease, nor accelerate progression of established kidney disease. Idiosyncratic, adverse renal responses have been described with creatine supplements. There are only a few clinical conditions for which high fluid intake should be considered. These include recurrent kidney stones or urinary tract infections and, possibly, polycystic kidney disease. PMID:26290296

  5. Regulation of Kidney Function and Metabolism: A Question of Supply and Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blantz, Roland C.; Deng, Aihua; Miracle, Cynthia M.; Thomson, Scott C.

    2007-01-01

    Kidney blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are maintained relatively constant by hormonal influences and by efficient autoregulation. However, the kidney remains at risk for ischemia and acute kidney injury. Increases in kidney blood flow cause parallel increments in GFR, thereby dictating tubular reabsorption and increased oxygen/metabolic demands. Coordination between kidney blood flow and GFR with tubular reabsorption is maintained by the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) system whereby delivery of NaCl to the macula densa varies inversely with nephron GFR. Metabolic products, ATP and adenosine, are the mediators of TGF via afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction, and nitric oxide; COX-2 products and angiotensin II are modulators of acute TGF responses and temporal adaptation of TGF. Oxygen requirements and metabolic efficiency of Na transport in the kidney are significant variables that are regulated by both mediators and modulators of TGF. These metabolic and hormonal substances efficiently regulate both kidney supply and demand. PMID:18528487

  6. A MULTI-STATION PROPRIOCEPTIVE EXERCISE PROGRAM IN PATIENTS WITH BILATERAL KNEE OSTEOARTHROSIS: FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY, PAIN AND SENSORIOMOTOR FUNCTION. A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Sekir

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a multi-station proprioceptive exercise program on functional capacity, perceived knee pain, and sensoriomotor function. Twenty-two patients (aged 41-75 years with grade 2-3 bilateral knee osteoarthrosis were randomly assigned to two groups: treatment (TR; n = 12 and non-treatment (NONTR; n = 10. TR performed 11 different balance/coordination and proprioception exercises, twice a week for 6 weeks. Functional capacity and perceived knee pain during rest and physical activity was measured. Also knee position sense, kinaesthesia, postural control, isometric and isokinetic knee strength (at 60, 120 and 180°·s-1 measures were taken at baseline and after 6 weeks of training. There was no significant difference in any of the tested variables between TR and NONTR before the intervention period. In TR perceived knee pain during daily activities and functional tests was lessened following the exercise program (p < 0.05. Perceived knee pain was also lower in TR vs. NONTR after training (p < 0.05. The time for rising from a chair, stair climbing and descending improved in TR (p < 0.05 and these values were faster compared with NONTR after training (p < 0.05. Joint position sense (degrees for active and passive tests and for weight bearing tests improved in TR (p < 0.05 and the values were lower compared with NONTR after training (p < 0.05. Postural control ('eyes closed' also improved for single leg and tandem tests in TR (p < 0.01 and these values were higher compared with NONTR after training. The isometric quadriceps strength of TR improved (p < 0.05 but the values were not significantly different compared with NONTR after training. There was no change in isokinetic strength for TR and NONTR after the training period. The results suggest that using a multi-station proprioceptive exercise program it is possible to improve postural control, functional capacity and decrease perceived knee pain in patients with bilateral knee

  7. Angiotensin II Removes Kidney Resistance Conferred by Ischemic Preconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Seong Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic preconditioning (IPC by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R renders resistance to the kidney. Strong IPC triggers kidney fibrosis, which is involved in angiotensin II (AngII and its type 1 receptor (AT1R signaling. Here, we investigated the role of AngII/AT1R signal pathway in the resistance of IPC kidneys to subsequent I/R injury. IPC of kidneys was generated by 30 minutes of bilateral renal ischemia and 8 days of reperfusion. Sham-operation was performed to generate control (non-IPC mice. To examine the roles of AngII and AT1R in IPC kidneys to subsequent I/R, IPC kidneys were subjected to either 30 minutes of bilateral kidney ischemia or sham-operation following treatment with AngII, losartan (AT1R blocker, or AngII plus losartan. IPC kidneys showed fibrotic changes, decreased AngII, and increased AT1R expression. I/R dramatically increased plasma creatinine concentrations in non-IPC mice, but not in IPC mice. AngII treatment in IPC mice resulted in enhanced morphological damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses, with functional impairment, whereas losartan treatment reversed these effects. However, AngII treatment in non-IPC mice did not change I/R-induced injury. AngII abolished the resistance of IPC kidneys to subsequent I/R via the enhancement of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, suggesting that the AngII/AT1R signaling pathway is associated with outcome in injury-experienced kidney.

  8. New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calinisan, Venice; Gravem, Dana; Chen, Ray Ping-Hsu; Brittin,Sachi; Mohandas, Narla; Lecomte, Marie-Christine; Gascard, Philippe

    2005-06-17

    Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1 proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physiopathology.

  9. Genetic risk factors affecting mitochondrial function are associated with kidney disease in people with Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, E J; Salem, R M; Sandholm, N; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P; Lajer, M; Groop, P H; Maxwell, A P; McKnight, A J

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the association with diabetic kidney disease of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods The mitochondrial genome and 1039 nuclear genes that are integral to mitochondrial function were investigated using a case (n = 823 individuals with diabetic kidney disease) vs. control (n = 903 individuals with diabetes and no renal disease) approach. All people included in the analysis were of white European origin and were diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes before the age of 31 years. Replication was conducted in 5093 people with similar phenotypes to those of the discovery collection. Association analyses were performed using the plink genetic analysis toolset, with adjustment for relevant covariates. Results A total of 25 SNPs were evaluated in the mitochondrial genome, but none were significantly associated with diabetic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. A total of 38 SNPs in nuclear genes influencing mitochondrial function were nominally associated with diabetic kidney disease and 16 SNPS were associated with end-stage renal disease, secondary to diabetic kidney disease, with meta-analyses confirming the same direction of effect. Three independent signals (seven SNPs) were common to the replication data for both phenotypes with Type 1 diabetes and persistent proteinuria or end-stage renal disease. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in nuclear genes that influence mitochondrial function are significantly associated with diabetic kidney disease in a white European population. What’s new? Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified in diabetic kidney disease, but relatively large-scale genetic and epigenetic studies focused on mitochondria have not yet been described. We report a novel case–control analysis, with independent replication, of genetic variation focused on the mitochondrial genome and 1039 nuclear genes that are important for mitochondrial function. Single nucleotide

  10. Infective endocarditis: long-term reversibility of kidney function impairment. A 1-y post-discharge follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T; Hassager, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the long-term reversibility of kidney function decrease occurring during hospitalization and treatment for infective endocarditis (IE). A prospective observational cohort study was performed at a tertiary university hospital in Copenhagen from October 2002...... through May 2008; 223 consecutive IE patients were included. Forty patients died in hospital and 38 within 1 y of discharge. Of the 145 patients called in for the 1-y follow-up, 111 accepted. Kidney function was assessed by estimated endogenous creatinine clearance (EECC). Statistical correlation between...

  11. Interactive effects of diabetes and impaired kidney function on cognitive performance in old age: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Zhaoxue; Yan, Zhongrui; Liang, Yajun; Jiang, Hui; Cai, Chuanzhu; Song, Aiqin; Feng, Lei; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The interactive effect between diabetes and impaired kidney function on cognitive impairment in older adults has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of diabetes and impaired kidney function with cognitive impairment among Chinese older people living in a rural area. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,358 participants (age ≥60 years; 60.5 % women) in the population-based Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong, China. Data ...

  12. Kidney-enquete 1992: State of the art of renal function scintigraphy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the 'Nierenenquete 1992' was to evaluate the present importance, indications and methodological strategies of the renography (RG) in Germany. A questionnaire containing 11 issues was sent to a total of 158 nuclear medicine physicians. 103 of these are practicing at a hospital, 55 at a clinic. The questionnaire demonstrated, that RG today is carried out at a highly differentiated level. An important step toward this status today is the introduction of 99mTc-MAG-3, which has rapidly become the renal radiopharmaceutical agent of first choice for RG in Germany. The increasing use of RG in the pediatric field and for functional monitoring of the transplanted kidney is very likely due to the excellent acceptance of 99mTc-MAG-3. 84% of all nuclear medicine physicians have adopted interventional techniques (e.g. Furosemid, Captopril). These additional indications are responsible for the increase of RG's performed last year. (orig.)

  13. Kidney function in normal man during short-term growth hormone infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Noer, I; Mogensen, C E;

    1978-01-01

    Kidney function was studied in 9 normal males before and during a 2 h growth hormone (GH) infusion of 50 ng/kg/min. The following variables were measured during each 20 min clearance period: glomerular filtration rate, GFR, effective renal plasma flow, RPF (steady state infusion technique...... with urinary collections using [125I]iothalamate and [131I]iodohippurate), and urinary albumin and beta2-microglobulin excretion rates (radioimmunoassays). The GH infusion resulted in a 10-fold increase in plasma GH concentration. All the above mentioned variables remained practically unchanged during...... the infusion except for a small (-5%) but significant decrease in renal plasma flow (P less than 0.01). Our negative results contrast to the findings of increased GFR and RPF during prolonged GH administration and suggest that GH requires several hours or days for its renal effects to become manifest....

  14. Chronic kidney disease: pathological and functional assessment with diffusion tensor imaging at 3T MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiling; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Shifeng; Yuan, Xianshun; Liu, Qingwei [Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Xu, Ying; Wang, Rong [Shandong University, Department of Nephrology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zhen, Junhui [Shandong University, Department of Pathology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2014-10-11

    Our objective was to evaluate pathological and functional changes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T. There were fifty-one patients with CKD who required biopsy and 19 healthy volunteers who were examined using DTI at 3 T. The mean values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were obtained from the renal parenchyma (cortex and medulla). Correlations between imaging results and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as well as pathological damage (glomerular lesion and tubulointerstitial injury), were evaluated. The renal cortical FA was significantly lower than the medullary in both normal and affected kidneys (p < 0.001). The parenchymal FA was significantly lower in patients than healthy controls, regardless of whether eGFR was reduced. There were positive correlations between eGFR and FA (cortex, r = 0.689, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = 0.696, p = 0.000), and between eGFR and ADC (cortex, r = 0.310, p = 0.017; and medulla, r = 0.356, p = 0.010). Negative correlations were found between FA and the glomerular lesion (cortex, r = -0.499, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = -0.530, p = 0.000), and between FA and tubulointerstitial injury (cortex, r = -0.631, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = -0.724, p = 0.000). DTI is valuable for noninvasive assessment of renal function and pathology in patients with CKD. A decrease in FA could identify the glomerular lesions, tubulointerstitial injuries, and eGFR. (orig.)

  15. The relationship between the renal clearance of creatinine and the apparent renal clearance of beta-2-microglobulin in patients with normal and impaired kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vree, T B; Guelen, P J; Jongman-Nix, B; Walenkamp, G H

    1981-07-18

    The renal clearances of creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin of patients with either normal or impaired kidney function were measured. The renal clearance of beta 2-microglobulin depends on the urinary pH and must be considered as an apparent renal clearance because after tubular reabsorption the compound is metabolized in the kidney. Impaired kidney function reduces the percentage of tubular reabsorption of beta 2-microglobulin. PMID:6166414

  16. Acquisition of a Complex Basketball-Dribbling Task in School Children as a Function of Bilateral Practice Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockel, Tino; Weigelt, Matthias; Krug, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate order-of-practice effects for the acquisition of a complex basketball skill in a bilateral transfer paradigm. The task required participants to dribble as fast as possible in slalom-like movements across six javelins and return to the initial position. Fifty-two right-handed school children (M age =…

  17. Kidney, thyroid and other organ functions after 40 years or more of lithium therapy: a case series of five patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permoda-Osip, Agnieszka; Abramowicz, Maria; Kraszewska, Agnieszka; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Chlopocka-Wozniak, Maria; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-08-01

    We present the cases of five patients (two men aged 64 years and 79 years) and three women (aged 64 years, 65 years and 75 years) who have received lithium treatment for 40-45 years, with particular regard to kidney and thyroid functions, hypercalcaemia and cognition, in the context of disease course and overall functioning. Lithium was initiated in the early phase of the illness (in three patients within the first 2 years). In four patients, lithium concentration was between 0.60 and 0.65 mmol/l and in one patient, between 0.7 and 0.8 mmol/l. Four were very good lithium responders. One man had stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and the other stage 2/3 chronic kidney disease. All three women had asymptomatic stage 2 chronic kidney disease. One woman had severe thyroid dysfunction (Hashimoto's disease) with extremely high levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies and was receiving thyroxine. Serum calcium levels were normal or borderline in all five patients, and most cognitive functions were comparable to healthy persons of similar gender, age and years of education. All the patients were professionally active until 55-65 years and their family and social functioning were satisfactory. It was concluded that, in good lithium responders, ultra-long-term treatment with lithium enables good professional and psychosocial functioning, and the possible somatic side effects are manageable. PMID:27536347

  18. Bilateral peri-renal lymphangioma - a case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphangioma are rare benign lesions and it is difficult to state whether they are true neoplasm, hamartomas or lymphangiectasias. They are most commonly seen in children and occur in regions of the neck and axilla. They increase in size both by proliferation and by the collection of fluid, thus forming cysts. The authors report a case of a 70-year-old man, who presented abdominal swelling, a palpable mass in both flanks and polycythemia. Abdominal sonography, kidney arteriograpy, CT scan and MRI have shown multiple cysts bilaterally surrounding the kidneys without either parenchymal or functional involvement. During surgery several intercommunicating cysts were found surrounding both kidneys. Biopsies were taken from the perirenal fat, the wall of the cysts and the kidney. The histologic diagnosis was cystic lymphangioma. (author)

  19. Kidney function and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT); Nierenfunktion und Peptid-Rezeptor-Radionuklid-Therapie (PRRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Vikas [Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-12-15

    The peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using 90-Yttrium or 177-Lutetium labelled somatostatin analog is one of the systemic antitumor therapy options for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. These radiolabeled somatostatin analogues get excreted primarily through the kidneys making it the critical organ for PRRT. Terminal kidney insufficiency has been reported with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC. This manuscript tries to bring together the actual facts related to the PRRT related nephrotoxicity and the methods to reduce the kidney damage. (orig.)

  20. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originati...... with bilateral symptoms. Our management, including successful pre-operative planning, enabled one-step total removal of both tumours and rapid patient recovery....... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... bilateral embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting...

  1. Monitoring the Intracellular Tacrolimus Concentration in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Stable Graft Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Seok; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Min Chang; Cho, Joo-Youn; Min, Sang-Il; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Dong Ki; Ha, Jongwon

    2016-01-01

    Although monitoring the intracellular concentration of immunosuppressive agents may be a promising approach to individualizing the therapy after organ transplantation, additional studies on this issue are needed prior to its clinical approval. We investigated the relationship between intracellular and whole blood concentrations of tacrolimus (IC-TAC and WB-TAC, respectively), the factors affecting this relationship, and the risk of rejection based upon IC-TAC in stable kidney recipients. Both IC-TAC and WB-TAC were measured simultaneously in 213 kidney recipients with stable graft function using LC-MS/MS. The tacrolimus ratio was defined as IC-TAC per WB-TAC. The genetic polymorphism of ABCB1 gene and flow cytometric analyses were conducted to probe the correlation between tacrolimus concentrations and the immunoreactivity status as a potential risk of rejection, respectively. The correlation between IC-TAC and WB-TAC was relatively linear (r = 0.67; Ptransplant duration, as follows: a high tacrolimus ratio was noted in female patients, patients with a low hematocrit, and patients with a short transplant period. However, the tacrolimus ratio did not reflect the prior clinical outcomes (e.g., rejection) or the genetic polymorphism of ABCB1. After stimulation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin, the proportion of T cells producing interferon-gamma or interleukin-2 was higher in the low-IC-TAC group than in the high-IC-TAC group. Further studies are required to evaluate the value of the intracellular tacrolimus concentrations in several clinical settings, such as rejection, infection, and drug toxicity. PMID:27082871

  2. Hypertension and low HDL cholesterol were associated with reduced kidney function across the age spectrum : a collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odden, Michelle C.; Tager, Ira B.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Fried, Linda F.; Newman, Anne B.; Katz, Ronit; Satterfield, Suzanne; Harris, Tamara B.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Siscovick, David; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if the associations among established risk factors and reduced kidney function vary by age. Methods: We pooled cross-sectional data from 14,788 nondiabetics aged 40 to 100 years in 4 studies: Cardiovascular Health Study, Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, Multi-Ethnic S

  3. Identification of the optimal donor quality scoring system and measure of early renal function in kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2009-02-27

    The early identification of kidney allografts at risk of later dysfunction has implications for clinical practice. Donor quality scoring systems (preoperative) and measures of early allograft function (first week postoperative) have previously shown practical utility. This study aimed to determine the optimal parameter(s) (preoperative and postoperative) with greatest predictive power for the development of subsequent allograft dysfunction.

  4. Predictive capacity of pre-donation GFR and renal reserve capacity for donor renal function after living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, M; Hofker, HS; van Son, WJ; van der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Navis, GJ

    2006-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is important to reduce organ shortage. Reliable pre-operative estimation of post-donation renal function is essential. We evaluated the predictive potential of pre-donation glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (iothalamate) and renal reserve capacity for post-do

  5. Infective endocarditis: long-term reversibility of kidney function impairment. A 1-y post-discharge follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T; Hassager, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the long-term reversibility of kidney function decrease occurring during hospitalization and treatment for infective endocarditis (IE). A prospective observational cohort study was performed at a tertiary university hospital in Copenhagen from October 2002...

  6. Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. II. histoenzymatic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, M.M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J. [Dept. of Toxicology, Medical Univ. of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland); Kaminski, M.; Dziki, M. [Dept. of Histology and Embryology, Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice-Ligota (Poland)

    2004-04-01

    Early effects of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the kidney were studied in an experimental model using rats intoxicated with Cd at the levels of 5 and 50 mg Cd/1 drinking water. The effect of Cd was evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. Damage to the cellular structures was assessed on the basis of histoenzymatic analyses of the activity and localization of indicator enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, Mg{sup 2+}-dependent adenosine triphosphatase and acid phosphatase). The histochemical observations indicate that Cd causes damage to the organization and function of the nephron. Several structures, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, lysosome, cellular and intracellular membrane, as well as their biological functions, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic respiration, transport functions and biochemical processes taking place in the endoplasmic reticulum, were affected. The cytotoxic action of Cd occurs mainly in the tubules and partially also in the glomeruli. The results clearly indicate that Cd damages kidney structurally and functionally even at a relatively low level (5 mg/l) corresponding to human environmental exposure, and they confirm our previous hypothesis that the threshold for the kidney effects of Cd is less than 4.08 {+-} 0.33 {mu}g/g kidney wet weight and higher than 2.40 {+-} 0.15 {mu}g/g. The target for Cd action in the kidney is the tubules (proximal convoluted tubules and straight tubules), and disturbance in their function is the main toxic effect of Cd. Renal glomeruli are also injured, but only partially, whereas in other parts of the nephron the damage is slight. The results, together with observations reported in the first paper of the study, incline us to conclude that humans environmentally exposed to Cd are at risk of tubular damage. (orig.)

  7. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body. Causes ... over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some time. The loss of function may be so slow that you ...

  8. HIV and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project ... Disease WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT KIDNEY DISEASE? WHAT IS NORMAL KIDNEY FUNCTION? HOW DO I KNOW IF THERE ARE PROBLEMS ...

  9. Kidney transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions that both kidneys perform in healthy people. Kidney transplant recipients are required to take immunosuppressive medications for the rest of the lives, to prevent immune rejection of the transplanted organ.

  10. A Study on Evaluation of Isolated Rabbit Kidney Function with Computed 99mTc-DTPA Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized scintigraphy using 99mTc-DTPA was performed to 37 isolated rabbit kidneys after preservation for 48 hours in perfusates differing in their compositions, i. e., Group 1 (N 9) in Collins' solution, Group 2 (N 10) in Collins' plus trifluoperazine, Group 3 (N 9) in Collins plus urokinase and Group 4 (N 9) in Collins plus urokinase plus verapamil. Satisfactory images, and statistically analysable quantitative indices such as perfusion score, filtration rate and cortical uptake ratio (CUR) were obtained by the evaluations of first-pass perfusion, equilibration slopes and postequilibration images. Significant improvements in CUR were observed by adding trifluoperazine (Group 2) and urokinase (group 3) as compared to Collins only group (Group 1), p99mTc-DTPA provide valuable quantitative indices for evaluation of preserved kidney functions and suggest its possible clinical applicability in cadaver kidney transplantation considering the safety and easiness of the procedure.

  11. Role of renal scintigraphy in the functional evaluation of ectopic kidneys as compared to intravenous urography and ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Ectopic kidneys are mainly diagnosed by Ultrasonography (US) and/or Intravenous urography (IVU) but a functional study using a radionuclide can provide much useful additional information. The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze and compare the information obtained from anatomical investigations like IVU and US with that obtained from a functional study. Materials and Methods: 44 patients (26 males and 18 females) in the age ranging from 2-53 yr. and involving 53 ectopic kidney units were included in the study. All patients underwent renal dynamic scintigraphy with either Tc-99m EC or Tc-99m DTPA after adequate hydration. US report was available in 35 and IVU in 31 kidney units. All investigations were evaluated independent of each other. Results: Out of 53 units 31 were left ectopic (26 simple and 5 crossed) while 21 were right ectopic (18 simple and 3 crossed). One grossly hydronephrotic was seen on ultrasound but not on scintigraphy.26/53 units showed adequate or normal function and drainage. 19/53 units showed obstructive uropathy. 7 units had negligible function. 28/35 units that underwent both ultrasonography and scintigraphy showed concordant findings as far as localization of the kidney was concerned while 7/35 units showed discordant findings. 20/31 units showed discordant findings in scintigraphy as compared to IVU. Of these 9 units were non-visualized on I.V.U but showed adequate function and clearance in renal scintigraphy. In 11/31 units Nuclear Medicine findings corroborated with those of IVU. Conclusion: Nuclear Medicine studies provide reliable anatomic information comparable to IVU and USS and more reliable pathophysiological information. Thus in conjunction with USS and IVU, renal dynamic scintigraphy can play a very important role in the evaluation of ectopic kidneys

  12. A radionuclide method for evaluation of disease activity and function of the kidneys at patients with mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This method was made as an alternative to the renal biopsy for the evaluation of the state of the kidneys. The purpose of the study was to apply a combine radionuclide method to estimate the disease activity and function of the kidneys with MPGN proven by biopsy. 21 patients and 5 controls underwent consecutively 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy (74 MBq, 72 h p.i., firm Mallinkrodt) and immediately after that 99Tc-DTPA dynamic renal scintigraphy (185 MBq, Bulgarian Firm) without any change in body position of the patient in view to create marked 'zones of interest' of the kidneys and the background. Different qualitative parameters were determined: from 67Ga-scintigraphy-activity index (AI-uptake ratio between left kidney and soft tissue); from 99Tc-DTPA-scintigraphy-Tmax and retention index (RI-activity of the kidney cortex at 20 min p.i. to its activity at Tmax). The results obtained were compared to the biopsy finding, classified in three grades (1 - mild, 2 - moderate and 3 - severe interstitial changes). The AI ranged from 1.14 to 1.92 (average 1.64), Tmax from 3.5 to 7 min (average 5.4), RI - between 0.5 and 0.87 (average 0.71). A very good correlation between AI and biopsy (r = 0.79, p<0.05) and between RI and serum creatinine (r = 0.54, p = 0.05) was found. The comparative evaluation proves that the proposed combine radionuclide method can be useful alternative to renal biopsy for evaluation of disease activity and function of the kidneys in patients with MPGN. (author)

  13. Measurement of single-kidney glomerular filtration function from magnetic resonance perfusion renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MRPR monitors the transit of contrast material through nephron. • MRPR could reveal renal physiological characteristics in quality and quantity. • This review outlines the basics and future challenges of DCE MRPR. - Abstract: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney, and is considered to be the reference standard in the evaluation of renal function. There are many ways to test the GFR clinically, such as serum creatinine concentration, blood urea nitrogen and SPECT renography, however, they’re all not a good standard to evaluate the early damage of renal function. In recent years, the improvement of MRI hardware and software makes it possible to reveal physiological characteristics such as renal blood flow or GFR by dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance perfusion renography (DEC MRPR). MRPR is a method used to monitor the transit of contrast material, typically a gadolinium chelate, through the renal cortex, the medulla, and the collecting system. This review outlines the basics of DCE MRPR included acquisition of dynamic MR perfusion imaging, calculation of the contrast concentration from signal intensity and compartment models, and some challenges of MRPR method faced in prospective clinical application

  14. Semiparametric methods to contrast gap time survival functions: Application to repeat kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xu; Schaubel, Douglas E

    2016-06-01

    Times between successive events (i.e., gap times) are of great importance in survival analysis. Although many methods exist for estimating covariate effects on gap times, very few existing methods allow for comparisons between gap times themselves. Motivated by the comparison of primary and repeat transplantation, our interest is specifically in contrasting the gap time survival functions and their integration (restricted mean gap time). Two major challenges in gap time analysis are non-identifiability of the marginal distributions and the existence of dependent censoring (for all but the first gap time). We use Cox regression to estimate the (conditional) survival distributions of each gap time (given the previous gap times). Combining fitted survival functions based on those models, along with multiple imputation applied to censored gap times, we then contrast the first and second gap times with respect to average survival and restricted mean lifetime. Large-sample properties are derived, with simulation studies carried out to evaluate finite-sample performance. We apply the proposed methods to kidney transplant data obtained from a national organ transplant registry. Mean 10-year graft survival of the primary transplant is significantly greater than that of the repeat transplant, by 3.9 months (p=0.023), a result that may lack clinical importance. PMID:26501480

  15. Measurement of single-kidney glomerular filtration function from magnetic resonance perfusion renography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Meiying; Cheng, Yingsheng [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Zhao, Binghui, E-mail: binghuizhao@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MRPR monitors the transit of contrast material through nephron. • MRPR could reveal renal physiological characteristics in quality and quantity. • This review outlines the basics and future challenges of DCE MRPR. - Abstract: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney, and is considered to be the reference standard in the evaluation of renal function. There are many ways to test the GFR clinically, such as serum creatinine concentration, blood urea nitrogen and SPECT renography, however, they’re all not a good standard to evaluate the early damage of renal function. In recent years, the improvement of MRI hardware and software makes it possible to reveal physiological characteristics such as renal blood flow or GFR by dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance perfusion renography (DEC MRPR). MRPR is a method used to monitor the transit of contrast material, typically a gadolinium chelate, through the renal cortex, the medulla, and the collecting system. This review outlines the basics of DCE MRPR included acquisition of dynamic MR perfusion imaging, calculation of the contrast concentration from signal intensity and compartment models, and some challenges of MRPR method faced in prospective clinical application.

  16. Early renal function recovery and long-term graft survival in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Susan S; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Mucsi, Istvan; Baran, Dana; Paraskevas, Steven; Tchervenkov, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Following kidney transplantation (KTx), renal function improves gradually until a baseline eGFR is achieved. Whether or not a recipient achieves the best-predicted eGFR after KTx may have important implications for immediate patient management, as well as for long-term graft survival. The aim of this cohort study was to calculate the renal function recovery (RFR) based on recipient and donor eGFR and to evaluate the association between RFR and long-term death-censored graft failure (DCGF). We studied 790 KTx recipients between January 1990 and August 2014. The last donor SCr prior to organ procurement was used to estimate donor GFR. Recipient eGFR was calculated using the average of the best three SCr values observed during the first 3 months post-KTx. RFR was defined as the ratio of recipient eGFR to half the donor eGFR. 53% of recipients had an RFR ≥1. There were 127 death-censored graft failures (16%). Recipients with an RFR ≥1 had less DCGF compared with those with an RFR <1 (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.85; P = 0.006). Transplant era, acute rejection, ECD and DGF were also significant determinants of graft failure. Early recovery of predicted eGFR based on donor eGFR is associated with less DCGF after KTx. PMID:26988072

  17. External monitoring of kidney transplant function using Tc-99m(Sn)DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of an external counting technique to provide daily monitoring of kidney transplant function by measuring the renal clearance of Tc-99m(Sn)DTPA. During the first few weeks following transplant, 15 patients had their renal clearance of Tc-99m DTPA measured daily over periods of 5-24 hr. Clearance rates were compared with daily plasma creatinine levels, and the effects of diurnal variation, drug treatment, and physical activity noted. The results show that any significant fall in clearance rate of chelate, indicating a rejection episode, preceded a rise in plasma creatinine levels by at least 24 hr. One episode of transplant failure presented as a sudden deterioration in clearance rate of chelate; in the others the change was more gradual but was still apparent within hours. It is considered that this noninvasive, low-dose, easy-to-perform technique is of considerable value in extended daily monitoring of renal function and is superior to standard daily or twice-weekly renography for the early detection of transplant rejection

  18. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Nehete; Anita Nehete; Sandeep Singla; Harshad Adhav

    2012-01-01

    In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally s...

  19. Bilateral versus unilateral interlaminar approach for bilateral decompression in patients with single-level degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: a multicenter retrospective study of 175 patients on postoperative pain, functional disability, and patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, H.F.; Keers, J.C.; Oterdoom, D.L. Marinus; Kuijlen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT The bilateral and unilateral interlaminar techniques for bilateral decompression both demonstrate good results for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). Although there is some discussion about which approach is more effective, studies that directly compare these two pop

  20. Bilateral versus unilateral interlaminar approach for bilateral decompression in patients with single-level degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis : a multicenter retrospective study of 175 patients on postoperative pain, functional disability, and patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boogert, Hugo F.; Keers, Joost C.; Oterdoom, D. L. Marinus; Kuijlen, Jos M. A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT The bilateral and unilateral interlaminar techniques for bilateral decompression both demonstrate good results for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). Although there is some discussion about which approach is more effective, studies that directly compare these two pop

  1. BILATERAL VESICO-URETERAL REFLUX IN PATIENT WITH CROSSED RENAL ECTOPIA AND FUSION TYPE A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L Bulotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Crossed renal ectopia with fusion is a very rare congenital anomaly and the reported incidence varies between 1:1000 and 1:7000. The kidney is located on the opposite site of the mid- line from where the ureter enters the bladder. Eighty-five percent of crossed renal ectopia kid- neys are fused from below to the normally located kidney. This anomaly is more frequent for left kidney and it’s associated with vesico-ureteral re- flux (VUR in 25-70% of cases. We report the management of a six-years-old patient with Pluri- malformative Syndrome, trisomy p16 and mono- somy q2, crossed renal ectopia with fusion type A and bilateral vesico-ureteral reflux (grade IV in the right kidney and grade III in the left.Materials and Methods. A 6-year-old boy was ammitted to our hospital for UTI in plurimalfor- mative syndrome characterized at birth by cleft palate, macrocephaly, congenital clubfeet, twisted right arm, congenital dysplasia of the hip, balanic hypospadias, bilateral inguinal hernia, right renal agenesis and epilepsy tonic-clonic. MRI revealed a fusion of the ectopic kidney with the left ortho- topic kidney (crossed renal ectopia with fusion type A. Voiding cystography showed a dilatated ureter of the crossed ectopic kidney passing across the midline and of the left ureter, and a bilateral vesico-ureteral reflux ( grade IV VUR in the right kidney and grade III VUR in the left. For this reason bilaterally endoscopic subureteral infiltra- tion was performed with Deflux ( 0.3 cc for side. Results. Patient was discharged in third day and he took antibiotic for one week. There weren’t complications like fever, obstruction or UTI. Fol- low-up after 1 month is normal and there weren’t UTI. Conclusion. Generally the outcome of patients with fused crossed renal ectopia is good. Presence of associated pathology likeVUR, could lead to a progressive deterioration of renal function. There- fore, in patient with uninhabited kidney area and

  2. Bloqueio pleural bilateral: analgesia e funções pulmonares em pós-operatório de laparotomias medianas Bloqueo pleural bilateral: analgesia y funciones pulmonares en pós-operatorio de laparotomias medianas Bilateral pleural block: analgesia and pulmonary functions in postoperative of median laparotomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Geier

    2004-08-01

    TODO: Bloqueo pleural bilateral fue realizado en decúbito dorsal horizontal en 21 pacientes con 20 ml de bupivacaína a 0,375% con adrenalina a 1:400.000 administrados por catéter en cada hemitórax durante el pós-operatorio inmediato. Soluciones aleatorias de bupivacaína y de solución fisiológica fueron administradas por estudiantes en la práctica o enfermeras que desconocían el contenido de las jeringas, y sus resultados analgésicos evaluados de acuerdo con la escala de dolor Prince Henry al comparar los valores pre y pós-bloqueo pleural bilateral. En función del dolor pós-operatorio, ensayos espirométricos de las funciones pulmonares también fueron determinados mediante un espirómetro portátil. RESULTADOS: Analgesia pós-operatoria, con duración media de 247,75 ± 75 minutos fue constatada en todos los pacientes con la bupivacaína, aunque haya persistido dolor residual de menor intensidad en la región suprapúbica en cinco pacientes (8% y en dos pacientes en la apófisis xifóide (3,2%. Ningún efecto analgésico fue obtenido con solución fisiológica. De frente al dolor pós-operatorio, las funciones pulmonares, evaluadas antes y después de los bloqueos, registraron mejoría con la bupivacaína en CVF (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Notwithstanding pleural block having become almost an analgesic panacea, contradictory results have been published. This study aimed at observing analgesic and spirometric behavior of pulmonary function in the immediate postoperative period of 21 patients submitted to urgency median laparotomies under bilateral pleural block. METHODS: Bilateral pleural block was induced in the supine position with 20 mL of 0.375% bupivacaine with 1:400,000 epinephrine administered via catheter in each hemithorax during the immediate postoperative period. Randomized bupivacaine and saline were administered by residents or nurses blind to syringes content, and their analgesic outcomes were evaluated according to Prince Henry's pain score by

  3. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten bilateral agreements are presented. These are: 1) Co-operation agreement relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and EURATOM (1996); 2) Agreement on co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and Greece (1997); 3) Implementing arrangement for technical exchange and co-operation in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and the United States (1997); 4) Agreement concerning co-operation in nuclear science and technology between Australia and Indonesia (1997); 5) Implementation of the 1985 Agreement for co-operation concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between the People's Republic of China and the United States (1998); 6) Protocol of co-operation between France and Lithuania (1997); 7) Agreement on co-operation in energy research, science and technology, and development between Germany and the United States (1998); 8) Agreement on early notification of a nuclear accident and exchange of information on nuclear facilities between Greece and Romania (1997); 9) Agreement on early notification of nuclear accidents and co-operation in the field of nuclear safety between Hungary and the Ukraine (1997); 10) Agreement in the field of radioactive waste management between Switzerland and the United States (1997). (K.A.)

  4. Plasma Levels of Middle Molecules to Estimate Residual Kidney Function in Haemodialysis without Urine Collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Vilar

    Full Text Available Residual Kidney Function (RKF is associated with survival benefits in haemodialysis (HD but is difficult to measure without urine collection. Middle molecules such as Cystatin C and β2-microglobulin accumulate in renal disease and plasma levels have been used to estimate kidney function early in this condition. We investigated their use to estimate RKF in patients on HD.Cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, urea and creatinine levels were studied in patients on incremental high-flux HD or hemodiafiltration(HDF. Over sequential HD sessions, blood was sampled pre- and post-session 1 and pre-session 2, for estimation of these parameters. Urine was collected during the whole interdialytic interval, for estimation of residual GFR (GFRResidual = mean of urea and creatinine clearance. The relationships of plasma Cystatin C and β2-microglobulin levels to GFRResidual and urea clearance were determined.Of the 341 patients studied, 64% had urine output>100 ml/day, 32.6% were on high-flux HD and 67.4% on HDF. Parameters most closely correlated with GFRResidual were 1/β2-micoglobulin (r2 0.67 and 1/Cystatin C (r2 0.50. Both these relationships were weaker at low GFRResidual. The best regression model for GFRResidual, explaining 67% of the variation, was: GFRResidual = 160.3 · (1/β2m - 4.2. Where β2m is the pre-dialysis β2 microglobulin concentration (mg/L. This model was validated in a separate cohort of 50 patients using Bland-Altman analysis. Areas under the curve in Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis aimed at identifying subjects with urea clearance≥2 ml/min/1.73 m2 was 0.91 for β2-microglobulin and 0.86 for Cystatin C. A plasma β2-microglobulin cut-off of ≤19.2 mg/L allowed identification of patients with urea clearance ≥2 ml/min/1.73 m2 with 90% specificity and 65% sensitivity.Plasma pre-dialysis β2-microglobulin levels can provide estimates of RKF which may have clinical utility and appear superior to cystatin C. Use of cut-off levels

  5. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Markers of Kidney Function among Children and Adolescents Living near a Chemical Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Deborah J; Josson, Jyoti; Elston, Beth; Bartell, Scott M; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Veronica M; Savitz, David A.; Fletcher, Tony; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been associated with decreased renal function in cross-sectional analyses, but the direction of the association is unclear. Objectives: We examined the association of measured and model-predicted serum PFOA concentrations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a marker of kidney function, in a highly exposed population (median serum PFOA, 28.3 ng/mL). Methods: We measured serum creatinine, PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonat...

  6. Increased urinary Angiotensinogen/Creatinine (AGT/Cr) ratio may be associated with reduced renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hayne Cho; Kang, Ah-Young; Jang, Joon Young; Kim, Hyunsuk; Han, Miyeun; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Kim, Seung Hyup; Noh, Jung Woo; Cheong, Hae Il; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Ahn, Curie

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common hereditary kidney diseases that frequently result in renal failure. In this cross-sectional observational cohort study, we evaluated urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) as a potential biomarker to assess renal function in ADPKD. Methods Urinary AGT was measured in 233 ADPKD patients and its association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) were evaluat...

  7. Effects of exercise on kidney function among non-diabetic patients with hypertension and renal disease: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcellos Franklin C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease is an important public health threat. Such patients present high morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, with low quality of life and survival, and also high expenditure resulting from the treatment. Arterial hypertension is both a cause and a complication of kidney disease; also, arterial hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease among patients with kidney diseases. There is some evidence that exercise interventions may be beneficial to chronic kidney disease patients, but previous studies included only end-stage patients, i.e. those undergoing dialysis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of exercise on kidney function, quality of life and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease among non-diabetic chronic hypertensive kidney disease patients who are not undergoing dialysis. Methods The participants will be located through screening hypertensive patients attended within the public healthcare network in Pelotas, a city in south of Brazil. Eligible individuals will be those with glomerular filtration rate between 15 and 59 ml/min x 1.73 m2. The randomization will be done in fixed-size blocks of six individuals such that 75 participants will be allocated to each group. At baseline, information on demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, anthropometric, blood pressure and quality-of-life variables will be collected, and laboratory tests will be performed. The intervention will consist of three weekly physical exercise sessions lasting 60–75 minutes each, with a total duration of 16 weeks. The outcomes will be the kidney function progression rate, quality of life, blood pressure, lipid profile, hemoglobin level, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein level, and ankle-arm index. The patients in both groups (intervention and control will be reassessed and compared partway through the study (8th week, at the end of the intervention (16th week and in the 8th week after

  8. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana ePundik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stoke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors. Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test (AMAT, collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was an linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke. Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e. increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases or different strategies of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery.

  9. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maintenance of extracellular Na+ and Cl- concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na+ and Cl- reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg-1·day-1, sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg-1·day-1, sc). We assessed Na+ and Cl- fractional excretion (FENa+ and FECl-, respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FENa+, FECl-, water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FENa+, FECl-, water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function

  10. Preservation of residual kidney function in hemodialysis patients: reviving an old concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Anna T; Fishbane, Steven; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-08-01

    Residual kidney function (RKF) may confer a variety of benefits to patients on maintenance dialysis. RKF provides continuous clearance of middle molecules and protein-bound solutes. Whereas the definition of RKF varies across studies, interdialytic urine volume may emerge as a pragmatic alternative to more cumbersome calculations. RKF preservation is associated with better patient outcomes including survival and quality of life and is a clinical parameter and research focus in peritoneal dialysis. We propose the following practical considerations to preserve RKF, especially in newly transitioned (incident) hemodialysis patients: (1) periodic monitoring of RKF in hemodialysis patients through urine volume and including residual urea clearance with dialysis adequacy and outcome markers such as anemia, fluid gains, minerals and electrolytes, nutritional, status and quality of life; (2) avoidance of nephrotoxic agents such as radiocontrast dye, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and aminoglycosides; (3) more rigorous hypertension control and minimizing intradialytic hypotensive episodes; (4) individualizing the initial dialysis prescription with consideration of an incremental/infrequent approach to hemodialysis initiation (e.g., twice weekly) or peritoneal dialysis; and (5) considering a lower protein diet, especially on nondialysis days. Because RKF appears to be associated with better patient outcomes, it requires more clinical and research focus in the care of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:27182000

  11. Effects of fasting during Ramadan on renal function of patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Mbarki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting during Ramadan is prohibited when an individual′s health is endangered. Little work has been published in this direction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We aimed to evaluate the impact of fasting during Ramadan on the renal function of patients with CKD, adjusting for the initial degree of renal impairment. We prospectively studied 60 patients with CKD (35 females; mean age 45.6 ± 15.8 years. All study patients were older than 15 years, being followed-up at the nephrology clinic for more than six months, having a stable CKD during the preceding six months and who had fasted during Ramadan the previous year. Patients who had a medical contra-indication for fasting were excluded from the study [severe or resistant arterial hypertension, insulin-requiring diabetes, acute renal failure (ARF, active renal disease, repetitive urolithiasis or terminal chronic renal failure]. Statistical analysis was performed in collaboration with the epidemiology lab at the Fez Medical School using the SPSS software version 17. Three of the study patients developed ARF in the first week and four of them at the end of the month of the study period. The risk of developing ARF was significantly higher for patients with baseline creatinine clearance of <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . However, the small sample size does not allow us to draw any firm conclusions on fasting during Ramadan in stable CKD patients. Studies on larger numbers of patients are recommended.

  12. Effects of fasting during Ramadan on renal function of patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, Houda; Tazi, Nada; Najdi, Adil; Tachfouti, Nabil; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Sqalli, Tarik

    2015-03-01

    Fasting during Ramadan is prohibited when an individual's health is endangered. Little work has been published in this direction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to evaluate the impact of fasting during Ramadan on the renal function of patients with CKD, adjusting for the initial degree of renal impairment. We prospectively studied 60 patients with CKD (35 females; mean age 45.6 ± 15.8 years). All study patients were older than 15 years, being followed-up at the nephrology clinic for more than six months, having a stable CKD during the preceding six months and who had fasted during Ramadan the previous year. Patients who had a medical contra-indication for fasting were excluded from the study [severe or resistant arterial hypertension, insulin-requiring diabetes, acute renal failure (ARF), active renal disease, repetitive urolithiasis or terminal chronic renal failure]. Statistical analysis was performed in collaboration with the epidemiology lab at the Fez Medical School using the SPSS software version 17. Three of the study patients developed ARF in the first week and four of them at the end of the month of the study period. The risk of developing ARF was significantly higher for patients with baseline creatinine clearance of fasting during Ramadan in stable CKD patients. Studies on larger numbers of patients are recommended. PMID:25758882

  13. Impairment of liver and kidney functions in gamma irradiation rats suffering pesticide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of exposure to single whole body gamma irradiation dose at 6.5 Gy and/or either oral administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane/kg kelthane/kg body weight/day for successively 3 days, or daily feeding with 200 mg kelthane/kg body weight for 3, 6, and 12 weeks has been studied on relative liver and kidney weights, certain serum and liver enzymes creatinine and inorganic phosphorous clearance, as well as percentage of tubular phosphorous reabsorption in male animals. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation alone or combined with kelthane treatment caused significant increase in the relative spleen weight besides significant decrease in serum and liver alkaline phosphatase and serum cholinesterase. Exposure to gamma irradiation after orally administration of 100 mg or feeding dietary kelthane caused significant decrease in liver glucose-6-phosphatase. Non significant changes in aspartic and alanine transaminases could be recorded due to gamma-irradiation and/or kelthane treatment. Endogenous clearance of creatinine and phosphorous as well as tubular phosphorous reabsorption were determined to assess the glomerular filtration and tubular function. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation either alone or after treatment with kelthane caused significant decrease in creatinine and phosphorous clearance while phosphorous reabsorption was not appreciably affected. 4 tabs

  14. Prevalence of low trauma fractures in long-term kidney transplant patients with preserved renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W.R. Braga Júnior

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporotic fractures in kidney transplantation (KT patients and determined risk factors associated with osteoporotic fractures. The study was conducted on 191 patients (94 men and 97 women with first KT for 3 years or more presenting stable and preserved renal function (serum creatinine levels lower than 2.5 mg/dl. KT patients were on immunosuppressive therapy and the cumulative doses of these drugs were also evaluated. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at multiple sites (spine, femur and total body. Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus (broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound, and stiffness index, SI was also performed. Twenty-four percent (46 of all patients had either vertebral (29/46 or appendicular (17/46 fractures. We found osteoporosis and osteopenia in 8.5-13.4 and 30.9-35.1% of KT patients, respectively. Women had more fractures than men. In women, prevalent fractures were associated with diabetes mellitus [OR = 11.5, 95% CI (2.4-55.7], time since menopause [OR = 3.7, 95% CI (1.2-11.9], femoral neck BMD [OR = 1.99, 95% CI (1.4-2.8], cumulative dose of steroids [OR = 1.1, 95% CI (1.02-1.12] and low SI [OR = 1.1, 95% CI (1.0-1.2]. In men, fractures were associated with lower lumbar spine BMD [OR = 1.75, 95% CI (1.1-2.7], lower SI [OR = 1.1, 95% CI (1.03-1.13], duration of dialysis [OR = 1.3, 95% CI (1.13-2.7], and lower body mass index [OR = 1.24, 95% CI (1.1-1.4. Our results demonstrate high prevalence of low BMD and osteoporotic fractures in patients receiving a successful kidney transplant and indicate the need for specific intervention to prevent osteoporosis in this population.

  15. Human kidney amiloride-binding protein: cDNA structure and functional expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenamil, an analog of amiloride, is a potent blocker of the epithelial Naplus channel. It has been used to purify the porcine kidney amiloride-binding protein. Synthetic oligonucleotides derived from partial sequences have been used to screen a human kidney cDNA library and to isolate the cDNA encoding the human amiloride-binding protein. The primary structure was deduced from the DNA sequence analysis. The protein is 713 residues long, with a 19-amino acid signal peptide. The mRNA was expressed in 293-S and NIH 3T3 cells, yielding a glycoprotein (i) that binds amiloride and amiloride analogs with affinities similar to the amiloride receptor associated with the apical Naplus channel in pig kidney membranes and (ii) that is immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies raised against pig kidney amiloride-binding protein

  16. Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Chu, Audrey Y; Li, Man; Mijatovic, Vladan; Garnaas, Maija; Tin, Adrienne; Sorice, Rossella; Li, Yong; Taliun, Daniel; Olden, Matthias; Foster, Meredith; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ming-Huei; Pers, Tune H; Johnson, Andrew D; Ko, Yi-An; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tayo, Bamidele; Nalls, Michael; Feitosa, Mary F; Isaacs, Aaron; Dehghan, Abbas; d'Adamo, Pio; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Zonderman, Alan B; Nolte, Ilja M; van der Most, Peter J; Wright, Alan F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Morrison, Alanna C; Hofman, Albert; Smith, Albert V; Dreisbach, Albert W; Franke, Andre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Metspalu, Andres; Tonjes, Anke; Lupo, Antonio; Robino, Antonietta; Johansson, Åsa; Demirkan, Ayse; Kollerits, Barbara; Freedman, Barry I; Ponte, Belen; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K; Mitchell, Braxton D; Buckley, Brendan M; Peralta, Carmen A; Hayward, Caroline; Helmer, Catherine; Rotimi, Charles N; Shaffer, Christian M; Müller, Christian; Sala, Cinzia; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Ackermann, Daniel; Shriner, Daniel; Ruggiero, Daniela; Toniolo, Daniela; Lu, Yingchang; Cusi, Daniele; Czamara, Darina; Ellinghaus, David; Siscovick, David S; Ruderfer, Douglas; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Rochtchina, Elena; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Boerwinkle, Eric; Salvi, Erika; Bottinger, Erwin P; Murgia, Federico; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ernst, Florian; Kronenberg, Florian; Hu, Frank B; Navis, Gerjan J; Curhan, Gary C; Ehret, George B; Homuth, Georg; Coassin, Stefan; Thun, Gian-Andri; Pistis, Giorgio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Malerba, Giovanni; Montgomery, Grant W; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jacobs, Gunnar; Li, Guo; Wichmann, H-Erich; Campbell, Harry; Schmidt, Helena; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Brenner, Hermann; Kroemer, Heyo K; Kramer, Holly; Lin, Honghuang; Leach, I Mateo; Ford, Ian; Guessous, Idris; Rudan, Igor; Prokopenko, Inga; Borecki, Ingrid; Heid, Iris M; Kolcic, Ivana; Persico, Ivana; Jukema, J Wouter; Wilson, James F; Felix, Janine F; Divers, Jasmin; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Stafford, Jeanette M; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Smith, Jennifer A; Faul, Jessica D; Wang, Jie Jin; Ding, Jingzhong; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Attia, John; Whitfield, John B; Chalmers, John; Viikari, Jorma; Coresh, Josef; Denny, Joshua C; Karjalainen, Juha; Fernandes, Jyotika K; Endlich, Karlhans; Butterbach, Katja; Keene, Keith L; Lohman, Kurt; Portas, Laura; Launer, Lenore J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Yengo, Loic; Franke, Lude; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rose, Lynda M; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Rao, Madhumathi; Struchalin, Maksim; Kleber, Marcus E; Cavalieri, Margherita; Haun, Margot; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Ciullo, Marina; Pirastu, Mario; de Andrade, Mariza; McEvoy, Mark A; Woodward, Mark; Adam, Martin; Cocca, Massimiliano; Nauck, Matthias; Imboden, Medea; Waldenberger, Melanie; Pruijm, Menno; Metzger, Marie; Stumvoll, Michael; Evans, Michele K; Sale, Michele M; Kähönen, Mika; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Rheinberger, Myriam; Verweij, Niek; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Martin, Nicholas G; Hastie, Nick; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Soranzo, Nicole; Devuyst, Olivier; Raitakari, Olli; Gottesman, Omri; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Gasparini, Paolo; Munroe, Patricia B; Ridker, Paul M; Mitchell, Paul; Muntner, Paul; Meisinger, Christa; Smit, Johannes H; Kovacs, Peter; Wild, Philipp S; Froguel, Philippe; Rettig, Rainer; Mägi, Reedik; Biffar, Reiner; Schmidt, Reinhold; Middelberg, Rita P S; Carroll, Robert J; Penninx, Brenda W; Scott, Rodney J; Katz, Ronit; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Wild, Sarah H; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ulivi, Sheila; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Enroth, Stefan; Kloiber, Stefan; Trompet, Stella; Stengel, Benedicte; Hancock, Stephen J; Turner, Stephen T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Stracke, Sylvia; Harris, Tamara B; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Lehtimäki, Terho; Illig, Thomas; Aspelund, Thor; Nikopensius, Tiit; Esko, Tonu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Gyllensten, Ulf; Völker, Uwe; Emilsson, Valur; Vitart, Veronique; Aalto, Ville; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chouraki, Vincent; Chen, Wei-Min; Igl, Wilmar; März, Winfried; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loos, Ruth J F; Liu, Yongmei; Snieder, Harold; Pramstaller, Peter P; Parsa, Afshin; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Susztak, Katalin; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; de Boer, Ian H; Böger, Carsten A; Goessling, Wolfram; Chasman, Daniel I; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, W H Linda; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biological pathways. PMID:26831199

  17. Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Chu, Audrey Y.; Li, Man; Mijatovic, Vladan; Garnaas, Maija; Tin, Adrienne; Sorice, Rossella; Li, Yong; Taliun, Daniel; Olden, Matthias; Foster, Meredith; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ming-Huei; Pers, Tune H.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Ko, Yi-An; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tayo, Bamidele; Nalls, Michael; Feitosa, Mary F.; Isaacs, Aaron; Dehghan, Abbas; d'Adamo, Pio; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Zonderman, Alan B.; Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Most, Peter J.; Wright, Alan F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hofman, Albert; Smith, Albert V.; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Franke, Andre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Metspalu, Andres; Tonjes, Anke; Lupo, Antonio; Robino, Antonietta; Johansson, Åsa; Demirkan, Ayse; Kollerits, Barbara; Freedman, Barry I.; Ponte, Belen; Oostra, Ben A.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Hayward, Caroline; Helmer, Catherine; Rotimi, Charles N.; Shaffer, Christian M.; Müller, Christian; Sala, Cinzia; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Ackermann, Daniel; Shriner, Daniel; Ruggiero, Daniela; Toniolo, Daniela; Lu, Yingchang; Cusi, Daniele; Czamara, Darina; Ellinghaus, David; Siscovick, David S.; Ruderfer, Douglas; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Rochtchina, Elena; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Salvi, Erika; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Murgia, Federico; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ernst, Florian; Kronenberg, Florian; Hu, Frank B.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Curhan, Gary C.; Ehret, George B.; Homuth, Georg; Coassin, Stefan; Thun, Gian-Andri; Pistis, Giorgio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Malerba, Giovanni; Montgomery, Grant W.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jacobs, Gunnar; Li, Guo; Wichmann, H-Erich; Campbell, Harry; Schmidt, Helena; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Brenner, Hermann; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Kramer, Holly; Lin, Honghuang; Leach, I. Mateo; Ford, Ian; Guessous, Idris; Rudan, Igor; Prokopenko, Inga; Borecki, Ingrid; Heid, Iris M.; Kolcic, Ivana; Persico, Ivana; Jukema, J. Wouter; Wilson, James F.; Felix, Janine F.; Divers, Jasmin; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Wang, Jie Jin; Ding, Jingzhong; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Attia, John; Whitfield, John B.; Chalmers, John; Viikari, Jorma; Coresh, Josef; Denny, Joshua C.; Karjalainen, Juha; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Endlich, Karlhans; Butterbach, Katja; Keene, Keith L.; Lohman, Kurt; Portas, Laura; Launer, Lenore J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Yengo, Loic; Franke, Lude; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rose, Lynda M.; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Rao, Madhumathi; Struchalin, Maksim; Kleber, Marcus E.; Cavalieri, Margherita; Haun, Margot; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Ciullo, Marina; Pirastu, Mario; de Andrade, Mariza; McEvoy, Mark A.; Woodward, Mark; Adam, Martin; Cocca, Massimiliano; Nauck, Matthias; Imboden, Medea; Waldenberger, Melanie; Pruijm, Menno; Metzger, Marie; Stumvoll, Michael; Evans, Michele K.; Sale, Michele M.; Kähönen, Mika; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Rheinberger, Myriam; Verweij, Niek; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hastie, Nick; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Soranzo, Nicole; Devuyst, Olivier; Raitakari, Olli; Gottesman, Omri; Franco, Oscar H.; Polasek, Ozren; Gasparini, Paolo; Munroe, Patricia B.; Ridker, Paul M.; Mitchell, Paul; Muntner, Paul; Meisinger, Christa; Smit, Johannes H.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adair, Linda S.; Alexander, Myriam; Altshuler, David; Amin, Najaf; Arking, Dan E.; Arora, Pankaj; Aulchenko, Yurii; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barroso, Ines; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John P.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Bis, Joshua C.; Boehnke, Michael; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bots, Michiel L.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva; Braund, Peter S.; Brown, Morris J.; Burton, Paul R.; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Chaturvedi, Nish; Shin Cho, Yoon; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Francis S.; Collins, Rory; Connell, John M.; Cooper, Jackie A.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Dörr, Marcus; Dahgam, Santosh; Danesh, John; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian N. M.; Deloukas, Panos; Denniff, Matthew; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Dong, Yanbin; Doumatey, Ayo; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eyheramendy, Susana; Farrall, Martin; Fava, Cristiano; Forrester, Terrence; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Fox, Ervin R.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Galan, Pilar; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Garcia, Melissa; Gaunt, Tom R.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Go, Min Jin; Goel, Anuj; Grässler, Jürgen; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Groop, Leif; Guarrera, Simonetta; Guo, Xiuqing; Hadley, David; Hamsten, Anders; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hardy, Rebecca; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heath, Simon; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hedblad, Bo; Hercberg, Serge; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hilton, Gina; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Howard, Philip; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Ikram, M. Arfan; Islam, Muhammad; Iwai, Naoharu; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jackson, Anne U.; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Johnson, Toby; Kathiresan, Sekar; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kinra, Sanjay; Kita, Yoshikuni; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kumar, M. J. Kranthi; Kuh, Diana; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Laakso, Markku; Laan, Maris; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Larson, Martin G.; Lathrop, Mark; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Nanette R.; Levy, Daniel; Li, Yali; Longstreth, Will T.; Luan, Jian'an; Lucas, Gavin; Ludwig, Barbara; Mangino, Massimo; Mani, K. Radha; Marmot, Michael G.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Matullo, Giuseppe; McArdle, Wendy L.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Meneton, Pierre; Meschia, James F.; Miki, Tetsuro; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohlke, Karen L.; Mooser, Vincent; Morken, Mario A.; Morris, Richard W.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Najjar, Samer; Narisu, Narisu; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Nilsson, Peter; Nyberg, Fredrik; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ong, RickTwee-Hee; Ongen, Halit; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Org, Elin; Orru, Marco; Palmas, Walter; Palmen, Jutta; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Parker, Alex N.; Peden, John F.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Pihur, Vasyl; Platou, Carl G. P.; Plump, Andrew; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Psaty, Bruce M.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Rasheed, Asif; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rosengren, Annika; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudock, Megan E.; Sõber, Siim; Salako, Tunde; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schwartz, Steven M.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Scott, Laura J.; Scott, James; Scuteri, Angelo; Sehmi, Joban S.; Seielstad, Mark; Seshadri, Sudha; Sharma, Pankaj; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Shi, Gang; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Sim, Xueling; Singleton, Andrew; Sjögren, Marketa; Smith, Nicholas L.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stancakova, Alena; Steinle, Nanette I.; Strachan, David P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Sun, Yan V.; Swift, Amy J.; Tabara, Yasuharu; Tai, E-Shyong; Talmud, Philippa J.; Taylor, Andrew; Terzic, Janos; Thelle, Dag S.; Tobin, Martin D.; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tripathy, Vikal; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Uda, Manuela; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Umemura, Satoshi; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Veldre, Gudrun; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Viigimaa, Margus; Vinay, D. G.; Vineis, Paolo; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wain, Louise V.; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Thomas J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weder, Alan B.; Whincup, Peter H.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Yao, Jie; Young, J. H.; Zelenika, Diana; Zhai, Guangju; Zhang, Weihua; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Haidong; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zitting, Paavo; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Okada, Yukinori; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Gu, Dongfeng; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Maeda, Shiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Chen, Peng; Lim, Su-Chi; Wong, Tien-Yin; Liu, Jianjun; Young, Terri L.; Aung, Tin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kim, Young Jin; Kang, Daehee; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Li-Ching; Fann, S. -J. Cathy; Mei, Hao; Hixson, James E.; Chen, Shufeng; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Isono, Masato; Albrecht, Eva; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kato, Norihiro; He, Jiang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Reilly, Muredach P; Schunkert, Heribert; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Hall, Alistair; Hengstenberg, Christian; König, Inke R.; Laaksonen, Reijo; McPherson, Ruth; Thompson, John R.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Ziegler, Andreas; Absher, Devin; Chen, Li; Cupples13, L. Adrienne; Halperin, Eran; Li, Mingyao; Musunuru, Kiran; Preuss, Michael; Schillert, Arne; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wells, George A.; Holm, Hilma; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Fortmann, Stephen; Go, Alan; Hlatky, Mark; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua; Myers, Richard; Quertermous, Thomas; Sidney, Steven; Risch, Neil; Tang, Hua; Blankenberg, Stefan; Schnabel, Renate; Sinning, Christoph; Lackner, Karl J.; Tiret, Laurence; Nicaud, Viviane; Cambien, Francois; Bickel, Christoph; Rupprecht, Hans J.; Perret, Claire; Proust, Carole; Münzel, Thomas F.; Barbalic, Maja; Chen, Ida Yii-Der; Demissie-Banjaw, Serkalem; Folsom, Aaron; Lumley, Thomas; Marciante, Kristin; Taylor, Kent D.; Volcik, Kelly; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Andersen, Karl; Fischer, Marcus; Grosshennig, Anika; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Stark, Klaus; Schreiber, Stefan; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Bruse, Petra; Doering, Angela; Klopp, Norman; Diemert, Patrick; Loley, Christina; Medack, Anja; Nahrstedt, Janja; Peters, Annette; Wagner, Arnika K.; Willenborg, Christina; Böhm, Bernhard O.; Dobnig, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Meinitzer, Andreas; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Pilz, Stefan; Renner, Wilfried; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Winkler, Karl; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Dandona, Sonny; Jarinova, Olga; Qu, Liming; Wilensky, Robert; Matthai, William; Hakonarson, Hakon H.; Devaney, Joe; Burnett, Mary Susan; Pichard, Augusto D.; Kent, Kenneth M.; Satler, Lowell; Lindsay, Joseph M.; Waksman, Ron; Knouff, Christopher W.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Walker, Max C.; Epstein, Stephen E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Wright, Benjamin J.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Ball, Stephen G.; Loehr, Laura R.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Benjamin, Emelia; Haritunians, Talin; Couper, David; Murabito, Joanne; Wang, Ying A.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Chang, Patricia P.; Willerson, James T.; Felix, Stephan B.; Watzinger, Norbert; Aragam, Jayashri; Zweiker, Robert; Lind, Lars; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Greiser, Karin Halina; Deckers, Jaap W.; Stritzke, Jan; Ingelsson, Erik; Kullo, Iftikhar; Haerting, Johannes; Reffelmann, Thorsten; Redfield, Margaret M.; Werdan, Karl; Mitchell, Gary F.; Arnett, Donna K.; Gottdiener, John S.; Blettner, Maria; Friedrich, Nele; Kovacs, Peter; Wild, Philipp S.; Froguel, Philippe; Rettig, Rainer; Mägi, Reedik; Biffar, Reiner; Schmidt, Reinhold; Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Carroll, Robert J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Scott, Rodney J.; Katz, Ronit; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Wild, Sarah H.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Ulivi, Sheila; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Enroth, Stefan; Kloiber, Stefan; Trompet, Stella; Stengel, Benedicte; Hancock, Stephen J.; Turner, Stephen T.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Stracke, Sylvia; Harris, Tamara B.; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Lehtimäki, Terho; Illig, Thomas; Aspelund, Thor; Nikopensius, Tiit; Esko, Tonu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Gyllensten, Ulf; Völker, Uwe; Emilsson, Valur; Vitart, Veronique; Aalto, Ville; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chouraki, Vincent; Chen, Wei-Min; Igl, Wilmar; März, Winfried; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Liu, Yongmei; Snieder, Harold; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Parsa, Afshin; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Susztak, Katalin; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; de Boer, Ian H.; Böger, Carsten A.; Goessling, Wolfram; Chasman, Daniel I.; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, W. H. Linda; Fox, Caroline S.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biological pathways. PMID:26831199

  18. Bilateral hand transplantation: Functional benefits assessment in five patients with a mean follow-up of 7.6 years (range 4-13 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardon, Laurence; Gazarian, Aram; Petruzzo, Palmina; Packham, Tara; Guillot, Michel; Guigal, Vincent; Morelon, Emmanuel; Pan, Hua; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Rizzo, Christophe; Feugier, Patrick; Streichenberger, Thibault; Bincaz, Ludovic; Urien, Jean-Pierre; Mezzadri, Guillaume; Rousselon, Thibault; Plotard, Franck; Seulin, Christian; Braye, Fabienne; Mojallal, Ali; Herzberg, Guillaume; Kanitakis, Jean; Abrahamyan, Davit; Kay, Simon; Badet, Lionel

    2015-09-01

    Between January 2000 and July 2009, five adults who had suffered bilateral traumatic below-elbow amputations, received bilateral hand-forearm allografts performed by the Lyon team. We report the functional benefits achieved over a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years (range 4-13 years), up to December 31st, 2013. Clinical measurement is hampered by the lack of specific validated assessment tools, obliging us to use non-specific standardized evaluation means. Our assessment shows that the restoration of motion, strength, and sensibility are fair. Functional results (Carroll upper extremity function test, 400-point test, Activities of daily living) are good, as well as quality of life evaluation (RAND-36). Subjective and overall results explored with questionnaires - Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Hand Transplantation Score System (HTSS), are very good. Improvement was seen to continue during the first three years, and then tend to become stable. Continued efforts should be directed at designing comprehensive, condition-specific, reliable outcome measurement tools. Continuous monitoring and evaluation of patients is required to assess the long-term risk-benefit balance. PMID:26297387

  19. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  20. Recompensation of heart and kidney function after treatment with peritoneal dialysis in a case of congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, Lars P; Hankel, Vinzent; Zugck, Christian; Remppis, Andrew; Schwenger, Vedat

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 57-year-old woman suffering from congestive heart failure. Due to refractory congestions despite optimised medical treatment, the patient was listed for heart transplantation and peritoneal dialysis was initiated. Peritoneal dialysis led to a significant weight loss, reduction of hyperhydration and extracellular water obtained by bioimpedance measurement, and a significant improvement in clinical and echocardiographic examination. Furthermore, residual kidney function increased during the long-term followup, and subsequently peritoneal dialysis was ceased. Pulmonary artery pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction remained stable and the patient did well. This case demonstrates the possibility of treating hyperhydration due to congestive heart failure with peritoneal dialysis resulting in recompensation of both heart and kidney functions. PMID:22162698

  1. Recompensation of Heart and Kidney Function after Treatment with Peritoneal Dialysis in a Case of Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars P. Kihm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 57-year-old woman suffering from congestive heart failure. Due to refractory congestions despite optimised medical treatment, the patient was listed for heart transplantation and peritoneal dialysis was initiated. Peritoneal dialysis led to a significant weight loss, reduction of hyperhydration and extracellular water obtained by bioimpedance measurement, and a significant improvement in clinical and echocardiographic examination. Furthermore, residual kidney function increased during the long-term followup, and subsequently peritoneal dialysis was ceased. Pulmonary artery pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction remained stable and the patient did well. This case demonstrates the possibility of treating hyperhydration due to congestive heart failure with peritoneal dialysis resulting in recompensation of both heart and kidney functions.

  2. Recompensation of Heart and Kidney Function after Treatment with Peritoneal Dialysis in a Case of Congestive Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Remppis; Christian Zugck; Vinzent Hankel; Kihm, Lars P; Vedat Schwenger

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 57-year-old woman suffering from congestive heart failure. Due to refractory congestions despite optimised medical treatment, the patient was listed for heart transplantation and peritoneal dialysis was initiated. Peritoneal dialysis led to a significant weight loss, reduction of hyperhydration and extracellular water obtained by bioimpedance measurement, and a significant improvement in clinical and echocardiographic examination. Furthermore, residual kidney function ...

  3. Copeptin Is Associated with Kidney Length, Renal Function, and Prevalence of Simple Cysts in a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Guessous, Idris; Ehret, Georg; Alwan, Heba; Youhanna, Sonia; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Devuyst, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has a key role in osmoregulation by facilitating water transport in the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that AVP may have additional effects on renal function and favor cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Whether AVP also affects kidney structure in the general population is unknown. We analyzed the association of copeptin, an established surrogate for AVP, with parameters of renal function and morphology in a multicentric population-based cohort. Participants from families of European ancestry were randomly selected in three Swiss cities. We used linear multilevel regression analysis to explore the association of copeptin with renal function parameters as well as kidney length and the presence of simple renal cysts assessed by ultrasound examination. Copeptin levels were log-transformed. The 529 women and 481 men had median copeptin levels of 3.0 and 5.2 pmol/L, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, the copeptin level was associated inversely with eGFR (β=−2.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], −3.3 to −0.8; P=0.002) and kidney length (β=−1.2; 95% CI, −1.9 to −0.4; P=0.003) but positively with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (β=0.11; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.20; P=0.03) and urine osmolality (β=0.08; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.10; P<0.001). A positive association was found between the copeptin level and the presence of renal cysts (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.4; P=0.02). These results suggest that AVP has a pleiotropic role in renal function and may favor the development of simple renal cysts. PMID:25270071

  4. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products) of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G.E. Helal * Samir A.M. Zaahkouk

    2000-01-01

    Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...

  5. Kidney function and mortality post-liver transplant in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease era

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi A; Estrella MM; Ugarte R; Atta MG

    2011-01-01

    Aastha Sethi1, Michelle M Estrella1, Richard Ugarte2, Mohamed G Atta1 1Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2University of Maryland Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score incorporates serum creatinine and was introduced to facilitate allocation of orthotopic liver transplantation (LT). The objective is to determine the impact of MELD and kidney function on all-...

  6. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  7. ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teli Parashuram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.

  8. Impact of Iodinated Contrast on Renal Function and Hemodynamics in Rats with Chronic Hyperglycemia and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sheila Marques; Martins, Daniel Malisani; da Fonseca, Cassiane Dezoti; Watanabe, Mirian; Vattimo, Maria de Fátima Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated contrast (IC) is clinically used in diagnostic and interventional procedures, but its use can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic hyperglycemia (CH) are important predisposing factors to CI-AKI. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of iodinated contrast on the renal function and hemodynamics in rats with chronic hyperglycemia and chronic kidney disease. A total of 30 rats were divided into six groups; Sham: control of chronic renal disease; Citrate: control of chronic hyperglycemia (CH); Nx5/6: rats with 5/6 nephrectomy; Chronic Hyperglycemia: rats receiving Streptozotocin 65 mg/kg; Nx5/6 + IC: rats Nx5/6 received 6 mL/kg of IC; CH + IC: Chronic hyperglycemia rats receiving 6 mL/kg of IC. Renal function (inulin clearance; urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL) and hemodynamics (arterial blood pressure; renal blood flow; renal vascular resistance) were evaluated. Iodinated contrast significantly increased urinary NGAL and reduced inulin clearance, while the hemodynamics parameters showed changes in arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance in both CKD and CH groups. The results suggest that the iodinated contrast in risk factors models has important impact on renal function and hemodynamics. NGAL was confirmed to play a role of highlight in diagnosis of CI-AKI. PMID:27034930

  9. Parathyroid Gland Function in Kidney Transplanted Patient: A single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar BARADARAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Information on the time course of serum parathormone levels after renal transplantation is scanty. Both the abrupt cessation of calcium-containing phosphorus binders and vitamin D (analogs at the time of surgery and the recovery of renal function may be hypothesized to affect parathyroid gland. This study firstly examined frequency distribution of various biochemical parameters such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP, phosphorus (P, intact parathormone (iPTH and calcium (Ca in renal transplanted patients and secondly examined the relationship between these parameters and various demographic data of renal transplanted recipients. Material and Methods: we studied 72 renal transplanted patients (47 men and 25 women with mean ages of 44 ± 12 years and mean body mass index of 24.2 ± 3.9. Serum Ca, P, ALP and serum iPTH were measured. Results: In this study, mean serum Ca and iPTH were 9.5 ± 0.7mg/dL and18.4 ± 8.2 Pg/mL (median=16.5. Mean serum ALP was 169 ± 133 IU/L (median=131. In this study, there was a negative relationship between serum iPTH and creatinine clearance (r=-0.44 P 0.05. There were inverse correlations of serum ALP with age (r=-0.35 P= 0.02 and duration of kidney transplantation (r=-0.29 P= 0.01. Conclusions: In contrast to previous findings, in this group of patients, there was not secondary hyperparathyroism or significantly increased bone activity. The results showed suppressed parathormone secretion. The reason may be due to excessive intake of calcium and Vitamin D analogues, which suppress the parathyroid gland, and may prone these patients to adynamic bone disease.

  10. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase single nucleotide polymorphism and left ventricular function in early chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Chand

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with accelerated cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS Glu298Asp single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotype has been associated with a worse phenotype amongst patients with established heart failure and in patients with progression of their renal disease. The association of a cardiac functional difference in non-dialysis CKD patients with no known previous heart failure, and eNOS gene variant is investigated.140 non-dialysis CKD patients, who had cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging and tissue doppler echocardiography as part of two clinical trials, were genotyped for eNOS Glu298Asp SNP retrospectively.The median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was 50 mls/min and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 74% with no overt diastolic dysfunction in this cohort. There were significant differences in LVEF across eNOS genotypes with GG genotype being associated with a worse LVEF compared to other genotypes (LVEF: GG 71%, TG 76%, TT 73%, p = 0.006. After multivariate analysis, (adjusting for age, eGFR, baseline mean arterial pressure, contemporary CMR heart rate, total cholesterol, high sensitive C-reactive protein, body mass index and gender GG genotype was associated with a worse LVEF, and increased LV end-diastolic and systolic index (p = 0.004, 0.049 and 0.009 respectively.eNOS Glu298Asp rs1799983 polymorphism in CKD patients is associated with relevant sub-clinical cardiac remodelling as detected by CMR. This gene variant may therefore represent an important genetic biomarker, and possibly highlight pathways for intervention, in these patients who are at particular risk of worsening cardiac disease as their renal dysfunction progresses.

  11. Long-term follow-up of patients after acute kidney injury: patterns of renal functional recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Macedo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients who survive acute kidney injury (AKI, especially those with partial renal recovery, present a higher long-term mortality risk. However, there is no consensus on the best time to assess renal function after an episode of acute kidney injury or agreement on the definition of renal recovery. In addition, only limited data regarding predictors of recovery are available. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: From 1984 to 2009, 84 adult survivors of acute kidney injury were followed by the same nephrologist (RCRMA for a median time of 4.1 years. Patients were seen at least once each year after discharge until end stage renal disease (ESRD or death. In each consultation serum creatinine was measured and glomerular filtration rate estimated. Renal recovery was defined as a glomerular filtration rate value ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. A multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate factors independently associated with renal recovery. RESULTS: The median length of follow-up was 50 months (30-90 months. All patients had stabilized their glomerular filtration rates by 18 months and 83% of them stabilized earlier: up to 12 months. Renal recovery occurred in 16 patients (19% at discharge and in 54 (64% by 18 months. Six patients died and four patients progressed to ESRD during the follow up period. Age (OR 1.09, p<0.0001 and serum creatinine at hospital discharge (OR 2.48, p = 0.007 were independent factors associated with non renal recovery. The acute kidney injury severity, evaluated by peak serum creatinine and need for dialysis, was not associated with non renal recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Renal recovery must be evaluated no earlier than one year after an acute kidney injury episode. Nephrology referral should be considered mainly for older patients and those with elevated serum creatinine at hospital discharge.

  12. Slow graft function and related risk factors in living donor kidney transplantation

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    Lesan Pezeshki M.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While excellent organ quality and ideal transplant conditions eliminate many of the known factors that compromise initial graft function (IGF, slow graft function (SGF, still occurs after living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT. The aim of our current study is determination SGF frequency and its risk factors in LDKT Methods: In this prospective study, between April 2004 and March 2006, data were collected on 340 LDKT, in Baghiyattallah Hospital, Tehran. Recipients were analyzed in two groups based on initial graft function (IGF: Creatinine <3 mg/dl 5 day after transplantation, SGF: Creatinine ≥ 3 mg/dl 5 day after transplantation with out dialysis in the first week. Donors' and recipients' characteristics and recipient lab. data were compared in two groups by chi-square, Mann-whitney & independent samples T-test.Results: The incidence of SGF was 22 (6.2% and IGF 318 (89.8%, Recipients' BMI in IGF were 22.1±3.9 and in SGF were 25.3±3.8 (P=0.001 95% Cl 1.097-1.401 OR= 1.24. SGF relative frequency in female donors is more than male donors. A multivariate analysis model confirms this significant difference. (P=0.044 95% Cl 1.028-7.971 OR= 2.862. SGF relative frequency in PRA (Panel Reactive Antibody positive recipients are more than negative ones. A multivariate analysis model confirms this significant difference. (P=0.007 95%Cl 1.755-35.280 OR= 7.849. Recipients' age and donors' BMI are significant in univariate analysis (P=0.002 & P=0.029 respectively but multivariate analysis model dose not confirm those significance. Serum ca & P & PTH levels don't have significant difference between IGF & SGF. Using calcium channels blockers have not a protective effect. Conclusions: We conclude that negative PRA and lower recipient BMI have protective effects on SGF. Recipients with female donors have higher chance to develop SGF. We recommend recipients reduce their BMI before transplantation. The male donors

  13. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceli, J.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-07-02

    The maintenance of extracellular Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc). We assessed Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} fractional excretion (FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}} and FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen

  14. Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction after radical cystectomy in patients with a solitary functioning kidney: Clinical outcome and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate, in a prospective study, the clinical outcome of orthotopic neobladder reconstruction after radical cystectomy in patients with a solitary functioning kidney at the time of surgery. Patients and methods: This study included a total of 28 patients (25 males and three females) with muscle invasive bladder cancer and a solitary functioning kidney at the time of surgery who underwent radical cystectomy (anterior pelvic excentration for females) and urinary reconstruction using orthotopic neobladder at The National Cancer Institute, Cairo University between February 2004 and April 2009. The surgical procedures included ileocaecal neobladder in 19 patients, ileal neobladder (Studer) in five and sigmoid neobladder in four. All perioperative and long-term complications were recorded. The renal functions were evaluated using mainly serum creatinine level, abdominal ultrasonography and intravenous urography (IVU). Results: The mean age of patients was 51.4 years (range of 38-62 years) while the mean follow-up period was 41.4 months (range 18-62 months). Early complications included wound infections in five patients, urine leakage in six, abdominal dehiscence with deep venous thrombosis in two, intestinal obstruction and prolonged ileus in three. During the follow-up period, 21 renal units (75%) remained stable with normal serum creatinine level and normal radiological configuration of the kidney. The remaining seven patients (25%) developed varying degrees of renal deterioration either due to uretero-intestinal stricture in three patients (10.7%), who were all treated by open surgical revision of the anastomotic sites or due to stricture at the vesico-urethral anastomosis in four patients (14.3%) that had been successfully managed by endoscopic dilatation and internal ure-throtomy with stabilization of renal function. Severe metabolic acidosis occurred in one patient while mild forms occurred in three. These four patients required sodium bicarbonate therapy and

  15. [Cardiovascular risk in polycystic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Adelaide; Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Schena, Francesco Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension is common and occurs in the majority of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients prior to loss of kidney function. Hypertension relates to progressive kidney enlargement, and is a significant independent risk factor for progression to end-stage renal disease. The pathogenesis of hypertension in ADPKD is complex and depends on many factors that influence each other. High expression of PKD1 and PKD2 genes is present in the cilia of tubular epithelial cells, in endothelial cells and in vascular smooth muscle cells. Decreased or absent polycystin-1 or -2 expression is associated with abnormal vascular structure and function. PKD1/PKD2 deficiency results in reduced nitric oxide levels, altered endothelial response to shear stress with attenuation in vascular relaxation. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs in ADPKD due to decreased nitric oxide production as well as bilateral cyst expansion and intra-renal ischemia. With increasing cyst size, further activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs, blood pressure increases and a vicious cycle ensues with enhanced cyst growth and hypertension ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease. Inhibition of the angiotensin-aldosterone system is possible with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and seems to be the first-line treatment for hypertension in these subjects. As suggested by the HALT-PKD study, an aggressive blood pressure control is safe and recommended and is associated with preservation of kidney function and a reduction in total kidney volume over time. A collaborative multidisciplinary approach between nephrologists and cardiologists is necessary for the monitoring of kidney and heart complications. PMID:26418387

  16. Renal Function in Diabetic Disease Models: The Tubular System in the Pathophysiology of the Diabetic Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallon, Volker; Thomson, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects the kidney in stages. At the onset of diabetes mellitus, in a subset of diabetic patients the kidneys grow large, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) becomes supranormal, which are risk factors for developing diabetic nephropathy later in life. This review outlines a pathophysiological concept that focuses on the tubular system to explain these changes. The concept includes the tubular hypothesis of glomerular filtration, which states that early tubular growth and sodium-glucose cotransport enhance proximal tubule reabsorption and make the GFR supranormal through the physiology of tubuloglomerular feedback. The diabetic milieu triggers early tubular cell proliferation, but the induction of TGF-β and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors causes a cell cycle arrest and a switch to tubular hypertrophy and a senescence-like phenotype. Although this growth phenotype explains unusual responses like the salt paradox of the early diabetic kidney, the activated molecular pathways may set the stage for tubulointerstitial injury and diabetic nephropathy. PMID:22335797

  17. Effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on kidney function and size in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Christiansen, J S; Schmitz, A;

    1987-01-01

    insulin infusion (CSII) (n = 12) or unchanged conventional insulin treatment (CIT) (n = 12). GFR, RPF, and kidney volume were identical but significantly increased above normal values in the two groups at the start of the study. After 24 months of CSII treatment, significant reduction in GFR was seen......Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), kidney volume, and urinary albumin excretion rate were measured in 24 insulin-dependent diabetics, aged 29 +/- 7 years (mean +/- SD) with diabetes duration of 8 +/- 4 years who were randomly allocated to either continuous subcutaneous...... compared to pretreatment values (145 +/- 21 ml/min vs 139 +/- 21 ml/min, 2p less than 5.0%). However, RPF was not reduced after 24 months of CSII treatment (608 +/- 104 ml/min vs 601 +/- 106 ml/min). In the CIT group no changes in GFR or RPF was seen, and kidney volume remained unchanged in both groups...

  18. Functional imaging of acute kidney injury at 3 Tesla. Investigating multiple parameters using DCE-MRI and a two-compartment filtration model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate how MR-based parameters reflect functional changes in kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and a two-compartment renal filtration model. MRI data of eight male Lewis rats were analyzed retrospectively. Five animals were subjected to AKI, three native rats served as control. All animals underwent perfusion imaging by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Renal blood volume, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as well as plasma and tubular mean transit times were estimated from regions-of-interest drawn in the renal cortex. Differences between healthy kidneys and kidneys subjected to AKI were analyzed using a paired t-test. Significant differences between ischemic and healthy kidneys could only be detected for the glomerular filtration rate. For all other calculated parameters, differences were present, however not significant. In rats with AKI, average single kidney GFR was 0.66 ± 0.37 ml/min for contralateral and 0.26 ± 0.12 ml/ min for diseased kidneys (P = 0.0254). For the healthy control group, the average GFR was 0.39 ± 0.06 ml/min and 0.41 ± 0.11 ml/min, respectively. Differences between diseased kidneys of AKI rats and ipsilateral kidneys of the healthy control group were significant (P=0.0381). Significant differences of functional parameters reflecting damage of the renal tissue of kidneys with AKI compared to the contralateral, healthy kidneys could only be detected by GFR. GFR might be a useful parameter that allows for a spatially resolved detection of abnormal changes of renal tissue by AKI.

  19. Functional imaging of acute kidney injury at 3 Tesla. Investigating multiple parameters using DCE-MRI and a two-compartment filtration model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, Frank G.; Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Klotz, Sarah; Hoeger, Simone [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Medicine V

    2015-05-01

    To investigate how MR-based parameters reflect functional changes in kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and a two-compartment renal filtration model. MRI data of eight male Lewis rats were analyzed retrospectively. Five animals were subjected to AKI, three native rats served as control. All animals underwent perfusion imaging by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Renal blood volume, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as well as plasma and tubular mean transit times were estimated from regions-of-interest drawn in the renal cortex. Differences between healthy kidneys and kidneys subjected to AKI were analyzed using a paired t-test. Significant differences between ischemic and healthy kidneys could only be detected for the glomerular filtration rate. For all other calculated parameters, differences were present, however not significant. In rats with AKI, average single kidney GFR was 0.66 ± 0.37 ml/min for contralateral and 0.26 ± 0.12 ml/ min for diseased kidneys (P = 0.0254). For the healthy control group, the average GFR was 0.39 ± 0.06 ml/min and 0.41 ± 0.11 ml/min, respectively. Differences between diseased kidneys of AKI rats and ipsilateral kidneys of the healthy control group were significant (P=0.0381). Significant differences of functional parameters reflecting damage of the renal tissue of kidneys with AKI compared to the contralateral, healthy kidneys could only be detected by GFR. GFR might be a useful parameter that allows for a spatially resolved detection of abnormal changes of renal tissue by AKI.

  20. Evaluation of kidney function in children%儿童肾功能评估方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷婷

    2012-01-01

    儿童慢性肾功能不全的严重后果不仅是进展为终末期肾衰竭需要肾脏替代治疗,而且也明显增加心血管疾病、代谢综合征等并发症的危险性,因此对慢性肾功能不全的早期诊断尤为重要.临床医师常通过血肌酐、尿素氮等传统监测指标评估患儿肾功能,但传统的评估指标具有一定滞后性,目前国际上常用胱抑素C、血尿β2微球蛋白等指标评价儿童肾功能.由于不同性别、不同年龄儿童肾小球滤过率不是恒定值,用化验指标很难准确估计儿童肾功能,因此需要与肾小球滤过率评估公式相结合,才能准确评估肾脏损害程度,并为防止肾功能进展到终末期提供干预治疗最好的时机.该文对几种常用的儿童肾功能评估方法进行概述,以寻求出适用于我国儿童的肾功能评估方法及标准.%Pediatric kidney disease prevalence has increased over the past decades.The key result of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who needs renal replacement therapy with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome.It is essential to diagnose CKD in the early phase by assessment of kidney function.We assess the kidney function by detecting serum creatinine(SCr) and blood urea nitrogen(BUN),which are traditional biomarkers and not sensitive to diagnose AKI.We also use cystatin C and β2-microglobulin to evaluate kidney function,which are controversial in clinic.It is difficult to evaluate kidney function exactly for children because glomerular filtration rate(GFR) is different in children with different age and gender.It should be more sensitive and specific to assess pediatric kidney function by applying blood and urine biomarkers and GFR equation together.Nowadays,we should find a more precise equation to evaluate GFR for children in order to monitor the kidney disease progression.It may provide the exact timing for the treatment to

  1. Appreciation of renal function by OIH with the scintillation camera after kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of computer-assisted camera renography (123I or 131I-Hippuran) in the diagnostic approach to complications occurring in the early post-transplantation period is analysed. The evaluation of accumulation (kidney activity over injected activity) and elimination (kidney activity 3min over 20min after injection) indices together with the sequential images makes it possible in most of the cases to differentiate between rejection, acute tubular necrosis and uropathy (obstruction or leak). The diagnostic accuracy (192 studies) was 94% for rejection, 98% for acute tubular necrosis and 92% for uropathies. (author)

  2. Calcium citrate without aluminum antacids does not cause aluminum retention in patients with functioning kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Wabner, C. L.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Copley, J. B.; Pak, L.; Poindexter, J. R.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that calcium citrate might enhance aluminum absorption from food, posing a threat of aluminum toxicity even in patients with normal renal function. We therefore measured serum and urinary aluminum before and following calcium citrate therapy in patients with moderate renal failure and in normal subjects maintained on constant metabolic diets with known aluminum content (967-1034 mumol/day, or 26.1-27.9 mg/day, in patients and either 834 or 1579 mumol/day, or 22.5 and 42.6 mg/day, in normal subjects). Seven patients with moderate renal failure (endogenous creatinine clearance of 43 ml/min) took 50 mmol (2 g) calcium/day as effervescent calcium citrate with meals for 17 days. Eight normal women received 25 mmol (1 g) calcium/day as tricalcium dicitrate tablets with meals for 7 days. In patients with moderate renal failure, serum and urinary aluminum were normal before treatment at 489 +/- 293 SD nmol/l (13.2 +/- 7.9 micrograms/l) and 767 +/- 497 nmol/day (20.7 +/- 13.4 micrograms/day), respectively. They remained within normal limits and did not change significantly during calcium citrate treatment (400 +/- 148 nmol/l and 600 +/- 441 nmol/day, respectively). Similarly, no significant change in serum and urinary aluminum was detected in normal women during calcium citrate administration (271 +/- 59 vs 293 +/- 85 nmol/l and 515 +/- 138 vs 615 +/- 170 nmol/day, respectively). In addition, skeletal bone aluminum content did not change significantly in 14 osteoporotic patients (endogenous creatinine clearance of 68.5 ml/min) treated for 24 months with calcium citrate, 10 mmol calcium twice/day separately from meals (29.3 +/- 13.9 ng/mg ash bone to 27.9 +/0- 10.4, P = 0.727). In them, histomorphometric examination did not show any evidence of mineralization defect. Thus, calcium citrate given alone without aluminum-containing drugs does not pose a risk of aluminum toxicity in subjects with normal or functioning kidneys, when it is administered on an

  3. Hypomagnesemia is a risk factor for nonrecovery of renal function and mortality in AIDS patients with acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Biagioni Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of electrolyte disturbances in AIDS patients developing acute kidney injury in the hospital setting, as well as to determine whether such disturbances constitute a risk factor for nephrotoxic and ischemic injury. A prospective, observational cohort study was carried out. Hospitalized AIDS patients were evaluated for age; gender; coinfection with hepatitis; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; time since HIV seroconversion; CD4 count; HIV viral load; proteinuria; serum levels of creatinine, urea, sodium, potassium and magnesium; antiretroviral use; nephrotoxic drug use; sepsis; intensive care unit (ICU admission, and the need for dialysis. Each of these characteristics was correlated with the development of acute kidney injury, with recovery of renal function and with survival. Fifty-four patients developed acute kidney injury: 72% were males, 59% had been HIV-infected for >5 years, 72% had CD4 counts <200 cells/mm³, 87% developed electrolyte disturbances, 33% recovered renal function, and 56% survived. ICU admission, dialysis, sepsis and hypomagnesemia were all significantly associated with nonrecovery of renal function and with mortality. Nonrecovery of renal function was significantly associated with hypomagnesemia, as was mortality in the multivariate analysis. The risks for nonrecovery of renal function and for death were 6.94 and 6.92 times greater, respectively, for patients with hypomagnesemia. In hospitalized AIDS patients, hypomagnesemia is a risk factor for nonrecovery of renal function and for in-hospital mortality. To determine whether hypomagnesemia is a determinant or simply a marker of critical illness, further studies involving magnesium supplementation in AIDS patients are warranted.

  4. Functionally induced changes in water transport in the proximal tubule segment of rat kidneys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, Poul; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Nørgaard, Tove; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Bastholm, Lone; Thatt, Lisbeth; Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hegedüs, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    To eliminate freezing artifacts in the proximal tubule cells, two cryotechniques were applied to normal rat kidneys, ie, freeze substitution and special freeze drying. In addition, salt depletion and salt loading were applied to groups of rats to evaluate whether the segmental structure of the...

  5. Prevention of acute kidney injury and protection of renal function in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joannidis, Michael; Druml, Wilfred; Forni, Lui G.; Groeneveld, A. B. Johan; Honore, Patrick; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Ronco, Claudio; Schetz, Marie R. C.; Woittiez, Arend Jan

    2010-01-01

    Acute renal failure on the intensive care unit is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. To determine recommendations for the prevention of acute kidney injury (AKI), focusing on the role of potential preventative maneuvers including volume expansion, diuretics, use of inotropes, vasop

  6. Functional Models for Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Hoek, Glenn; Nicolaou, Nayia; Giles, Rachel H.; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Renkema, Kirsten Y.; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute one of the most common developmental diseases in humans; however, the cause for most patients remains unknown. Efforts to identify novel genetic causes for CAKUT through next-generation sequencing techniques have led to the disc

  7. Copy number variation analysis identifies novel CAKUT candidate genes in children with a solitary functioning kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westland, R.; Verbitsky, M.; Vukojevic, K.; Perry, B.J.; Fasel, D.A.; Zwijnenburg, P.J.; Bokenkamp, A.; Gille, J.J.P.; Saraga-Babic, M.; Ghiggeri, G.M.; D'Agati, V.D.; Schreuder, M.F.; Gharavi, A.G.; Wijk, J.A. van; Sanna-Cherchi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variations associate with different developmental phenotypes and represent a major cause of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Because rare pathogenic copy number variations are often large and contain multiple genes, identification of the underlying genetic dr

  8. Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Chu, Audrey Y; Li, Man; Mijatovic, Vladan; Garnaas, Maija; Tin, Adrienne; Sorice, Rossella; Li, Yong; Taliun, Daniel; Olden, Matthias; Foster, Meredith; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ming-Huei; Pers, Tune H; Johnson, Andrew D; Ko, Yi-An; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tayo, Bamidele; Nalls, Michael; Feitosa, Mary F; Isaacs, Aaron; Dehghan, Abbas; d'Adamo, Pio; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Zonderman, Alan B; Nolte, Ilja M; van der Most, Peter J; Wright, Alan F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Morrison, Alanna C; Hofman, Albert; Smith, Albert V; Dreisbach, Albert W; Franke, Andre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Metspalu, Andres; Tonjes, Anke; Lupo, Antonio; Robino, Antonietta; Johansson, Åsa; Demirkan, Ayse; Kollerits, Barbara; Freedman, Barry I; Ponte, Belen; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K; Mitchell, Braxton D; Buckley, Brendan M; Peralta, Carmen A; Hayward, Caroline; Helmer, Catherine; Rotimi, Charles N; Shaffer, Christian M; Müller, Christian; Sala, Cinzia; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Ackermann, Daniel; Shriner, Daniel; Ruggiero, Daniela; Toniolo, Daniela; Lu, Yingchang; Cusi, Daniele; Czamara, Darina; Ellinghaus, David; Siscovick, David S; Ruderfer, Douglas; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Rochtchina, Elena; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Boerwinkle, Eric; Salvi, Erika; Bottinger, Erwin P; Murgia, Federico; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ernst, Florian; Kronenberg, Florian; Hu, Frank B; Navis, Gerjan J; Curhan, Gary C; Ehret, George B; Homuth, Georg; Coassin, Stefan; Thun, Gian-Andri; Pistis, Giorgio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Malerba, Giovanni; Montgomery, Grant W; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jacobs, Gunnar; Li, Guo; Wichmann, H-Erich; Campbell, Harry; Schmidt, Helena; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Brenner, Hermann; Kroemer, Heyo K; Kramer, Holly; Lin, Honghuang; Mateo Leach, I; Ford, Ian; Guessous, Idris; Rudan, Igor; Prokopenko, Inga; Borecki, Ingrid; Heid, Iris M; Kolcic, Ivana; Persico, Ivana; Jukema, J Wouter; Wilson, James F; Felix, Janine F; Divers, Jasmin; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Stafford, Jeanette M; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Smith, Jennifer A; Faul, Jessica D; Wang, Jie Jin; Ding, Jingzhong; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Attia, John; Whitfield, John B; Chalmers, John; Viikari, Jorma; Coresh, Josef; Denny, Joshua C; Karjalainen, Juha; Fernandes, Jyotika K; Endlich, Karlhans; Butterbach, Katja; Keene, Keith L; Lohman, Kurt; Portas, Laura; Launer, Lenore J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Yengo, Loic; Franke, Lude; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rose, Lynda M; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Rao, Madhumathi; Struchalin, Maksim; Kleber, Marcus E; Cavalieri, Margherita; Haun, Margot; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Ciullo, Marina; Pirastu, Mario; de Andrade, Mariza; McEvoy, Mark A; Woodward, Mark; Adam, Martin; Cocca, Massimiliano; Nauck, Matthias; Imboden, Medea; Waldenberger, Melanie; Pruijm, Menno; Metzger, Marie; Stumvoll, Michael; Evans, Michele K; Sale, Michele M; Kähönen, Mika; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Rheinberger, Myriam; Verweij, Niek; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Martin, Nicholas G; Hastie, Nick; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Soranzo, Nicole; Devuyst, Olivier; Raitakari, Olli; Gottesman, Omri; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Gasparini, Paolo; Munroe, Patricia B; Ridker, Paul M; Mitchell, Paul; Muntner, Paul; Meisinger, Christa; Smit, Johannes H; Kovacs, Peter; Wild, Philipp S; Froguel, Philippe; Rettig, Rainer; Mägi, Reedik; Biffar, Reiner; Schmidt, Reinhold; Middelberg, Rita P S; Carroll, Robert J; Penninx, Brenda W; Scott, Rodney J; Katz, Ronit; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Wild, Sarah H; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ulivi, Sheila; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Enroth, Stefan; Kloiber, Stefan; Trompet, Stella; Stengel, Benedicte; Hancock, Stephen J; Turner, Stephen T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Stracke, Sylvia; Harris, Tamara B; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Lehtimäki, Terho; Illig, Thomas; Aspelund, Thor; Nikopensius, Tiit; Esko, Tonu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Gyllensten, Ulf; Völker, Uwe; Emilsson, Valur; Vitart, Veronique; Aalto, Ville; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chouraki, Vincent; Chen, Wei-Min; Igl, Wilmar; März, Winfried; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loos, Ruth J F; Liu, Yongmei; Snieder, Harold; Pramstaller, Peter P; Parsa, Afshin; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Susztak, Katalin; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; de Boer, Ian H; Böger, Carsten A; Goessling, Wolfram; Chasman, Daniel I; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, W H Linda; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication

  9. Laparoscopic nephrectomy for giant staghorn calculus with non-functioning kidneys: Is associated unsuspected urothelial carcinoma responsible for conversion? Report of 2 cases

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Background- Neglected renal stones remain a major cause of morbidity in developing countries. They not only result in functional impairment of affected kidney, but also act as an important predisposing factor for development of urothelial neoplasms. It is not uncommon to miss an associated urothelial tumor in a patient of nephrolithiasis preoperatively. Case presentation- In last 3 years, we came across two patients with giant staghorn calculus and poorly functioning kidneys who underwent lap...

  10. Two Distinct Isoforms of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Are Associated with Human Delayed Kidney Graft Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaynah Wanga

    Full Text Available Delayed graft function (DGF is a frequent complication of renal transplantation, particularly in the setting of transplantation of kidneys derived from deceased donors and expanded-criteria donors. DGF results from tubular epithelial cell injury and has immediate and long term consequences. These include requirement for post-transplantation dialysis, increased incidence of acute rejection, and poorer long-term outcomes. DGF represents one of the clearest clinical examples of renal acute ischemia/reperfusion injury. Experimental studies have demonstrated that ischemia/reperfusion injury induces the synthesis of the full length secreted isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (FL-MMP-2, as well as an intracellular N-terminal truncated MMP-2 isoform (NTT-MMP-2 that initiates an innate immune response. We hypothesized that the two MMP-2 isoforms mediate tubular epithelial cell injury in DGF. Archival renal biopsy sections from 10 protocol biopsy controls and 41 cases with a clinical diagnosis of DGF were analyzed for the extent of tubular injury, expression of the FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 isoforms by immunohistochemistry (IHC, in situ hybridization, and qPCR to determine isoform abundance. Differences in transcript abundance were related to tubular injury score. Markers of MMP-2-mediated injury included TUNEL staining and assessment of peritubular capillary density. There was a clear relationship between tubular epithelial cell expression of both FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 IHC with the extent of tubular injury. The MMP-2 isoforms were detected in the same tubular segments and were present at sites of tubular injury. qPCR demonstrated highly significant increases in both the FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 transcripts. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant associations between FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 transcript abundance and the extent of tubular injury, with NTT-MMP-2 having the strongest association. We conclude that two distinct MMP-2 isoforms are

  11. Serum erythropoietin level in anemic and non-anemic nephrotic children with normal kidney functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is associated with a significant alteration in protein metabolism. While lowering the concentration of certain proteins, the disease often raises the level of certain other proteins. The current study aimed to investigate the serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels in children with NS either anemic or non-anemic and to compare them to children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy controls with normal hemoglobin level (NHB). Sixteen nephrotic children with anemia (NS-A) and 15 nephrotic children with normal hemoglobin level (NS-NHB) were examined and compared with 10 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 10 healthy controls (NHB). Circulating serum EPO levels, blood indices and iron status were measured in nephrotic patients with anemia (NS-A) and compared to those nephrotic patients with normal HE (NS-NHB). Most NS-A children were steroid resistant. The NS-A children showed greater EPO levels than those without anemia (21.01 ±4.02 mlU/ml versus 9.18 ± 0.79 mlU/ml; P < 0.001) but their response to treatment of anemia was inappropriately low when compared to IDA (EPO 96.9 ±4.9 mlU/ml) despite similar HB concentration. A significant positive correlation was observed between serum EPO and serum albumin in NS-A (r = 0.84, P < 0.001) and in NS-NHB group (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between serum EPO and HB in the nephrotic groups indicating a blunted EPO response to anemia in NS-A (r 0.63, P < 0.05) and in NS-NHB group (r = 0.80, P < 0.001). In conclusion, anemia is a common feature of NS and is present even before the worsening of kidney function. Depletion of the iron stores due to loss of iron and transferrin in urine due to massive proteinurea may contribute to the development of anemia, but it was found that iron replacement was ineffective alone

  12. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skröder, Helena [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hawkesworth, Sophie [Medical Research Council (MRC), International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. (United Kingdom); Kippler, Maria [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Arifeen, Shams [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Wagatsuma, Yukiko [Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. (Japan); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  13. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m2, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  14. Analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic profiles demonstrates improved Madin-Darby canine kidney cell function in a renal microfluidic biochip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snouber, Leila Choucha; Letourneur, Franck; Chafey, Philippe; Broussard, Cedric; Monge, Matthieu; Legallais, Cécile; Leclerc, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the influence of the microfluidic environment on renal cell functionality. For that purpose, we performed a time lapse transcriptomic and proteomic analysis in which we compared gene and protein expressions of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells after 24 h and 96 h of culture in both microfluidic biochips and plates. The transcriptomic and proteomic integration revealed that the ion transporters involved in calcium, phosphate, and sodium homoeostasis and several genes involved in H(+) transporters and pH regulation were up-regulated in microfluidic biochips. Concerning drug metabolism, we found Phase I (CYP P450), Phase II enzymes (GST), various multidrug resistance genes (MRP), and Phase III transporters (SLC) were also up-regulated in the biochips. Furthermore, the study shows that those inductions were correlated with the induction of the Ahr and Nrf-2 dependent pathways, which results in a global cytoprotective response induced by the microenvironment. However, there was no apoptosis situation or cell death in the biochips. Microfluidic biochips may thus provide an important insight into exploring xenobiotic injury and transport modifications in this type of bioartificial microfluidic kidney. Finally, the investigation demonstrated that combining the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses obtained from a cell "on chip" culture would provide a pertinent new tool in the mechanistic interpretation of cellular mechanisms for predicting kidney cell toxicity and renal clearance in vitro. PMID:22095740

  15. Quantitative and semi-quantitative histopathological examination of renal biopsies in healthy individuals, and associations with kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Yael; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Wallin, Maria; Mölne, Johan

    2016-05-01

    This study assesed the prevalence of histopathological changes in renal biopsies from healthy individuals, and the association with age, sex and smoking. Donor biopsies from 109 subjects were obtained from living kidney donors, and blood and urine samples were collected together with medical history. All biopsies were scored according to the Banff '97 classification with some modifications. The parameters included in this study were tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, arteriolohyalinosis and a sclerosis score. An alternative scoring system for tubular atrophy was examined (using ≤5% rather than EDTA) clearance. Age was a significant predictor for tubular atrophy, fibrosis and sclerosis. Pack-years of smoking increased the risk of tubular atrophy, fibrosis and arteriolohyalinosis. The alternative scoring of tubular atrophy showed a stronger association with smoking, but a weaker association with age, compared with the original one. Limited histopathological changes are common in healthy kidney donors around 50 years of age with normal kidney function. We propose that a cut-off of ≤5% yields a better definition of grade 0 tubular atrophy compared with the established cut-off of >0%. PMID:26848794

  16. Renal ultrasonographic and computed tomographic appearance, volume, and function of cats with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Jean K; DiBartola, Stephen P; Léveillé, Renée

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic (US) and computed tomographic (CT) appearance of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in cats; to compare renal volume in cats with ADPKD (n = 5; mean age 59 +/- 10 months)) and normal cats (n = 5; mean age 66 +/- 10 months) using 2 imaging modalities, US and CT; and to calculate cyst volume using CT. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by 2 methods: 99mTc-diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DPTA) scintigraphic uptake and 99-Tc-DTPA plasma clearance. Sonographically, ADPKD affected kidneys were characterized by multiple anechoic to hypoechoic, round to irregularly shaped structures with variation in size. Affected kidneys had indistinct corticomedullary junctions and foci of mineralization. Intravenous (IV) contrast medium administration allowed more definitive identification of cysts with CT, and identification of distortion of renal pelves by cysts. A significant difference (Welch ANOVA, P = 0.05) was detected between the US-estimated renal volumes of normal and affected cats. No statistically significant differences were detected in CT volume (between the normal and affected cats, or between US and CT volume measurements) or the 2 GFR methods. In this group of clinically normal, middle-aged ADPKD cats, renal function was within normal limits and not significantly different than normal. PMID:12175002

  17. Simultaneous Bilateral Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Bilateral Retinoblastoma (Tandem Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David H.; Marr, Brian P.; Francis, Jasmine H.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Fabius, Armida W. M.; Brodie, Scott E.; Mondesire-Crump, Ijah; Gobin, Y. Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective Report on the 7-year experience with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC-Tandem therapy) for bilateral retinoblastoma. Design Retrospective, single institution study. Subjects 120 eyes of 60 children with bilateral retinoblastoma treated since March 2008. Methods Retrospective review of all children treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (Melphalan, Carboplatin, Topotecan, Methotrexate) delivered in the same initial session to both naïve and previously treated eyes. Main Outcome Measures Ocular survival, metastatic disease, patient survival from metastases, second cancers, systemic adverse effects, need for transfusion of blood products, electroretinogram before and after treatment. Results 116 eyes were salvaged (4 eyes were enucleated: 3 because of progressive disease, 1 family choice). Kaplan Meier ocular survival was 99.2% at one year, 96.9% at 2 and 3 years and 94.9% for years 4 through 7. There were no cases of metastatic disease or metastatic deaths with a mean follow-up of 3.01 years. Two children developed second cancers (both pineoblastoma) and one of them died. Transfusion of blood products was required in 3 cases (4 transfusions), 1.9%. Two children developed fever/neutropenia requiring hospitalization (0.95%). ERGs were improved in 21.6% and unchanged after treatment in 52.5% of cases (increase or decrease of less than 25μV). Conclusions Bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery is a safe and effective technique for managing bilateral retinoblastoma-even when eyes are advanced bilaterally, and if both eyes have progressed after systemic chemotherapy. Ocular survival was excellent (94.9% at 8 years), there were no cases of of metastatic disease and no deaths from metastatic disease, but children remain at risk for second cancers. In 21.6% of cases ERG function improved. Despite using chemotherapy in both eyes in the same session, systemic toxicity was low. PMID:27258771

  18. Measurement of renal function in a kidney donor: a comparison of creatinine-based and volume-based GFRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Don Kyoung; Choi, See Min; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han-Yong; Jeon, Hwang Gyun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong Hee [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Department of Urology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    We aimed to evaluate the performance of various GFR estimates compared with direct measurement of GFR (dGFR). We also sought to create a new formula for volume-based GFR (new-vGFR) using kidney volume determined by CT. GFR was measured using creatinine-based methods (MDRD, the Cockcroft-Gault equation, CKD-EPI formula, and the Mayo clinic formula) and the Herts method, which is volume-based (vGFR). We compared performance between GFR estimates and created a new vGFR model by multiple linear regression analysis. Among the creatinine-based GFR estimates, the MDRD and C-G equations were similarly associated with dGFR (correlation and concordance coefficients of 0.359 and 0.369 and 0.354 and 0.318, respectively). We developed the following new kidney volume-based GFR formula: 217.48-0.39XA + 0.25XW-0.46XH-54.01XsCr + 0.02XV-19.89 (if female) (A = age, W = weight, H = height, sCr = serum creatinine level, V = total kidney volume). The MDRD and CKD-EPI had relatively better accuracy than the other creatinine-based methods (30.7 % vs. 32.3 % within 10 % and 78.0 % vs. 73.0 % within 30 %, respectively). However, the new-vGFR formula had the most accurate results among all of the analyzed methods (37.4 % within 10 % and 84.6 % within 30 %). The new-vGFR can replace dGFR or creatinine-based GFR for assessing kidney function in donors and healthy individuals. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of renal function in a kidney donor: a comparison of creatinine-based and volume-based GFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to evaluate the performance of various GFR estimates compared with direct measurement of GFR (dGFR). We also sought to create a new formula for volume-based GFR (new-vGFR) using kidney volume determined by CT. GFR was measured using creatinine-based methods (MDRD, the Cockcroft-Gault equation, CKD-EPI formula, and the Mayo clinic formula) and the Herts method, which is volume-based (vGFR). We compared performance between GFR estimates and created a new vGFR model by multiple linear regression analysis. Among the creatinine-based GFR estimates, the MDRD and C-G equations were similarly associated with dGFR (correlation and concordance coefficients of 0.359 and 0.369 and 0.354 and 0.318, respectively). We developed the following new kidney volume-based GFR formula: 217.48-0.39XA + 0.25XW-0.46XH-54.01XsCr + 0.02XV-19.89 (if female) (A = age, W = weight, H = height, sCr = serum creatinine level, V = total kidney volume). The MDRD and CKD-EPI had relatively better accuracy than the other creatinine-based methods (30.7 % vs. 32.3 % within 10 % and 78.0 % vs. 73.0 % within 30 %, respectively). However, the new-vGFR formula had the most accurate results among all of the analyzed methods (37.4 % within 10 % and 84.6 % within 30 %). The new-vGFR can replace dGFR or creatinine-based GFR for assessing kidney function in donors and healthy individuals. (orig.)

  20. Open Partial Nephrectomy in Solitary Kidney with Multiple Renal Cell Carcinoma: a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-rui Niu; Quan-zong Mao; Zhi-gang Ji

    2011-01-01

    RENAL cell carcinoma (RCC) in a solitary kidney presents a unique clinical challenge to urological surgeons.Partial nephrectomy (PN) or nephron-sparing surgery in this condition provides good oncological and renal fuctional outcomes with an acceptable complication rate.1,2 Long-term renal function remains stable in most patients with solitary kidneys after a reduction of more than 50% in renal mass.3 PN is a surgical procedure reserved for patients with a tumor in a solitary kidney,bilateral renal tumors,or renal function impairment.4 The challenge of preserving renal parenchyma is significantly complicated with the discovery of multiple masses in a solitary kidney because any subsequent complications may result in a significant decline in quality of life.Particularly in the case of postoperative renal failure,dialysis becomes necessary.

  1. Effect of potassium oxalate on liver function and kidney tissue of dogs (beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamaden Walaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate crystalluria is a problem of growing concern in dogs. A few reports have discussed acute kidney injury by oxalates in dogs, describing ultrastructural findings in particular. We evaluated the possibility of deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tissue and its probable consequences. Six dogs were intravenously injected with 0.5 M potassium oxalate (KOx for seven consecutive days. By the end of the experiment, ultrasonography revealed a significant increase in the renal mass and renal parenchymal echogenicity. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were gradually increased. The histopathological features of the kidneys were assessed by both light and electron microscopy, which showed CaOx crystal deposition accompanied by morphological changes in the renal tissue of KOx injected dogs. Canine renal oxalosis provides a good model to study the biological and pathological changes induced upon damage of renal tissue by KOx injection.

  2. Microarray-based approach identifies microRNAs and their target functional patterns in polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehn Susanne NE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play key roles in mammalian gene expression and several cellular processes, including differentiation, development, apoptosis and cancer pathomechanisms. Recently the biological importance of primary cilia has been recognized in a number of human genetic diseases. Numerous disorders are related to cilia dysfunction, including polycystic kidney disease (PKD. Although involvement of certain genes and transcriptional networks in PKD development has been shown, not much is known how they are regulated molecularly. Results Given the emerging role of miRNAs in gene expression, we explored the possibilities of miRNA-based regulations in PKD. Here, we analyzed the simultaneous expression changes of miRNAs and mRNAs by microarrays. 935 genes, classified into 24 functional categories, were differentially regulated between PKD and control animals. In parallel, 30 miRNAs were differentially regulated in PKD rats: our results suggest that several miRNAs might be involved in regulating genetic switches in PKD. Furthermore, we describe some newly detected miRNAs, miR-31 and miR-217, in the kidney which have not been reported previously. We determine functionally related gene sets, or pathways to reveal the functional correlation between differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs. Conclusion We find that the functional patterns of predicted miRNA targets and differentially expressed mRNAs are similar. Our results suggest an important role of miRNAs in specific pathways underlying PKD.

  3. Early cardiovascular risk markers and cardiac function in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tranæus Lindblad, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    Children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of premature death, foremost due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular (CV) morbidity starts early in the disease process and renal transplanted children (CKD-T) are also at risk. Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to study CV morbidity and potential risk factors in pediatric CKD and CKD-T patients. The prevalence of various known biomarkers associated with increased risk of CVD was assessed ...

  4. Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function

    OpenAIRE

    Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Audrey Y Chu; Li, Man; Mijatovic, Vladan; Garnaas, Maija; Tin, Adrienne; Sorice, Rossella; Li, Yong; Taliun, Daniel; Olden, Matthias; Foster, Meredith; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ming-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show t...

  5. The FOXD1 lineage of kidney perivascular cells and myofibroblasts: functions and responses to injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Ivan G.; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a poorly appreciated yet extensive population of perivascular mesenchymal cells in the kidney, which are derived from metanephric mesenchyme progenitor cells during nephrogenesis at which time they express the transcription factor FOXD1. Some studies have called these resident fibroblasts, whereas others have called them pericytes. Regardless of nomenclature, many are partially integrated into the capillary basement membrane and contribute in important ways to t...

  6. Giant ureteral stone in a patient with a single functioning kidney: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y B; Park, J K; Kim, H J; Kim, Y G; Kim, M K

    2011-06-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with long-standing left flank pain. A plain abdominal radiograph and intravenous urography (IVU) revealed a giant ureteral stone measuring 6.2 × 2.2 cm causing ureteral obstruction. A non-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan showed a significantly atrophied right kidney and left hydronephroureterosis with a giant stone. A left transperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy was performed with excellent results. PMID:21612759

  7. Role of Vitamin D in Cognitive Function in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Cheng; Jing Lin; Qi Qian

    2016-01-01

    Both vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin D exerts neuroprotective and regulatory roles in the central nervous system. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with muscle weakness and bone loss, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia), inflammation, oxidative stress, immune suppression and neurocognitive impairment. The combination of hypovitaminosis D and CKD can be even more debilitating, as...

  8. Effects of prolonged endotoxemia on liver, skeletal muscle and kidney mitochondrial function

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Francesca; Takala, Jukka; Weikert, Christian; Bracht, Hendrik; Kolarova, Anna; Lauterburg, Bernhard H.; Borotto, Erika; Jakob, Stephan M

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis may impair mitochondrial utilization of oxygen. Since hepatic dysfunction is a hallmark of sepsis, we hypothesized that the liver is more susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction than the peripheral tissues, such as the skeletal muscle. We studied the effect of prolonged endotoxin infusion on liver, muscle and kidney mitochondrial respiration and on hepatosplanchnic oxygen transport and microcirculation in pigs. Methods Twenty anesthetized pigs were randomized to receive e...

  9. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  10. Dynamics of mercury, cadmium and vanadium in cultured bovine kidney cells: an examination of relationships to cytotoxicity and cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to partially define the in vitro cellular response to mercury, cadmium and vanadium insult. A bovine kidney cell line served as the model system for examining the relationship of the cellular dynamics of metal accumulation and distribution to cytotoxicity. Additionally, biochemical marker functions were monitored in surviving cells to determine the importance of metal uptake and distribution to cell functionality. Each metal (HgCl2, CdCl2, and Na3VO4) elicited a concentration-related cytotoxicity which was correlated to the cellular metal burden. Multiphasic accumulation kinetics were established for mercury and vanadium; cadmium was accumulated in a linear fashion. Subcellular metal distribution was independent of both the extra-cellular metal concentration and the degree of cytotoxicity. Biochemical marker functions indicated a toxicity-related decrease in cell functionality in surviving cells for all metals

  11. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nehete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.

  12. Histopathological analysis of pre-implantation donor kidney biopsies: association with graft survival and function in one year post-transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lais Pêgas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-implantation kidney biopsy is a decision-making tool when considering the use of grafts from deceased donors with expanded criteria, implanting one or two kidneys and comparing this to post-transplantation biopsies. The role of histopathological alterations in kidney compartments as a prognostic factor in graft survival and function has had conflicting results. Objective: This study evaluated the prevalence of chronic alterations in pre-implant biopsies of kidney grafts and the association of findings with graft function and survival in one year post-transplant. Methods: 110 biopsies were analyzed between 2006 and 2009 at Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, including live donors, ideal deceased donors and those with expanded criteria. The score was computed according to criteria suggested by Remuzzi. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was calculated using the abbreviated MDRD formula. Results: No statistical difference was found in the survival of donors stratified according to Remuzzi criteria. The GFR was significantly associated with the total scores in the groups with mild and moderate alterations, and in the kidney compartments alone, by univariate analysis. The multivariate model found an association with the presence of arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, acute rejection and delayed graft function. Conclusion: Pre-transplant chronic kidney alterations did not influence the post-transplantation one-year graft survival, but arteriosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis is predictive of a worse GFR. Delayed graft function and acute rejection are independent prognostic factors.

  13. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-03-01

    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  14. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cochlospermum Planchonii Rhizome on Some Kidney and Liver Functional Indicies of Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nafiu, MO; M.A. Akanji; M T Yakubu

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. Ef. x Planch rhizome was investigated for its toxic effects in albino rats using some liver and kidney functional indices as ‘markers’. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21 were randomly assinged into six groups (A–F) of six animals each. Animals in groups A–E were orally administered on daily basis with 1 ml of the extract corresponding to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days while those in the control gro...

  15. [VESICOURETERAL REFLUX INTO SMALL KIDNEY DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC PARADIGM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol'kova, I A; Kolobova, L M; Dutov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The causes of renal size reductionin children by 20 percent or more from the age norm include abnormalities of urodynamics of upper (UUT) and lower (LUT) urinary tract, combined with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and infra-vesical obstruction (IVO). Several issues regarding diagnosis and choice of treatment in children with small kidneys depending on the severity of functional abnormalities and the presence of comorbidities still remain controversial. 101 children with small kidneys accounting for 3.1% of the entire number of urologic patients admitted to the clinic were followed for 25 years. 78 (77.2%) patients were simultaneously diagnosed as having ipsilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) (2.4% of the total number of hospitalized children). Moreover, contralateral VUR was found in 63% of patients. In 5.1% of children, anomalies of the contralateral kidney were identified: lumbar dystopia (3.8%), duplication of the renal pelvis and ureter (1.3%). Combination with IVO was found in 25.5% of cases. 75 (96%) children with vesicoureteral reflux into the small kidney were operated on. Reconstructive plastic surgery was made in 72 (92%) those patients. Indications for conservative management were identified in patients with intermittent VUR of I-II degree into small kidney or both kidneys. In case of detection of IVO, initial surgery was carried out to eliminate the obstruction. Conservative therapy was aimed at getting rid of the inflammatory process, restoring the function of kidney and bladder, and at the treatment of concomitant vulvovaginitis. In the absence of positive results of 6-8 months of conservative treatment or in case of the negative clinical course, the operation was considered justified. Indications for antireflux surgery were the failure of conservative therapy for intermittent VUR into small kidney or both kidneys, the presence of VUR of III-V degree into one or both kidneys. In cases of bilateral VUR antireflux surgery was performed simultaneously

  16. The association of adiposity with kidney function decline among HIV-infected adults: Findings from the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Changes in HIV Infection (FRAM) study

    OpenAIRE

    Malkina, A; Scherzer, R.; Shlipak, MG; Bacchetti, P; Tien, PC; Grunfeld, C; Kosmiski, L; Peralta, CA

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 British HIV Association. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of adiposity with longitudinal kidney function change in 544 HIV-infected persons in the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection (FRAM) cohort over 5 years of follow-up. Methods: The regional distribution of muscle and adipose tissue was quantified by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and total adiponectin and leptin levels were measured in serum. Kidney fun...

  17. Assessment of metabolomic and proteomic biomarkers in detection and prognosis of progression of renal function in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Nkuipou-Kenfack

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is part of a number of systemic and renal diseases and may reach epidemic proportions over the next decade. Efforts have been made to improve diagnosis and management of CKD. We hypothesised that combining metabolomic and proteomic approaches could generate a more systemic and complete view of the disease mechanisms. To test this approach, we examined samples from a cohort of 49 patients representing different stages of CKD. Urine samples were analysed for proteomic changes using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry and urine and plasma samples for metabolomic changes using different mass spectrometry-based techniques. The training set included 20 CKD patients selected according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at mild (59.9±16.5 mL/min/1.73 m2; n = 10 or advanced (8.9±4.5 mL/min/1.73 m2; n = 10 CKD and the remaining 29 patients left for the test set. We identified a panel of 76 statistically significant metabolites and peptides that correlated with CKD in the training set. We combined these biomarkers in different classifiers and then performed correlation analyses with eGFR at baseline and follow-up after 2.8±0.8 years in the test set. A solely plasma metabolite biomarker-based classifier significantly correlated with the loss of kidney function in the test set at baseline and follow-up (ρ = -0.8031; p<0.0001 and ρ = -0.6009; p = 0.0019, respectively. Similarly, a urinary metabolite biomarker-based classifier did reveal significant association to kidney function (ρ = -0.6557; p = 0.0001 and ρ = -0.6574; p = 0.0005. A classifier utilising 46 identified urinary peptide biomarkers performed statistically equivalent to the urinary and plasma metabolite classifier (ρ = -0.7752; p<0.0001 and ρ = -0.8400; p<0.0001. The combination of both urinary proteomic and urinary and plasma metabolic biomarkers did not improve the correlation with eGFR. In

  18. Morphometric and functional abnormalities of kidneys in the progeny of mice fed chocolate during pregnancy and lactation.

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    Ewa Skopińska-Rózewska

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Even most commonly consumed beverages like tea, coffee, chocolate and cocoa contain methylxanthines, biogenic amines and polyphenols, among them catechins, that exhibit significant biological activity and might profoundly affect the organism homeostasis. We have previously shown that 400 mg of bitter chocolate or 6 mg of theobromine added to the daily diet of pregnant and afterwards lactating mice affected embryonic angiogenesis and caused bone mineralization disturbances as well as limb shortening in 4-weeks old offspring. The aim of the present study was the morphometric and functional evaluation of kidneys in the 4-weeks old progeny mice fed according to the protocol mentioned above. Progeny from the mice fed chocolate presented considerable morphometric abnormalities in the kidney structure, with the lower number of glomeruli per mm2 and their increased diameter. Moreover, higher serum creatinine concentration was observed in that group of offspring. No morphometric or functional irregularities were found in the progeny of mice fed theobromine. Abnormalities demonstrated in the offspring of mice fed chocolate are not related to its theobromine content. Consequently, identification of active compound(s responsible for the observed effects is of vital importance.

  19. Effect of aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome on some kidney and liver functional indicies of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Mo; Akanji, M A; Yakubu, M T

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. Ef. x Planch rhizome was investigated for its toxic effects in albino rats using some liver and kidney functional indices as 'markers'. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21 were randomly assinged into six groups (A-F) of six animals each. Animals in groups A-E were orally administered on daily basis with 1 ml of the extract corresponding to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days while those in the control group received orally 1 ml of distilled water. Rats in all the groups were sacrificed 24 hours after the completion of their respective doses. The extract significantly (P0.05) with the control value. There was no effect (P>0.05) on the acid phosphatase activity of the tissues and serum of the animals. The extract also reduced the urea, albumin and creatinine content in the serum of the animals. The alterations in the biochemical parameters by the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. Therefore, the 50 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni rhizome may not be completley safe as an oral remedy. PMID:22238479

  20. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of non-steroidal medications like ibuprofen, which can affect kidney function. And then about four weeks after ... for you? “How does having only one kidney affect a patient’s life? Is kidney function still normal?” ...

  1. Effects of short-term rosuvastatin therapy on heart and kidney function in patients with acute coronary syndrome combining diabetes mellitus and concomitant chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng WU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects and safety of rosuvastatin therapy on protecting the renal and heart function in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS combining diabetes mellitus (DM and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD undergoing contrast media injection. Methods Concurrent parallel control and before-after self-control method were employed in present study. From Dec. 2008 to Oct. 2011, 2998 patients from 53 central hospitals in China were enrolled in a TRACK-D project. Out of 2998, 2309 patients with ACS combining DM and concomitant CKD were randomly assigned to rosuvastatin group (n=1183 or control group (n=1126. Patients in rosuvastatin group were given rosuvastatin 10mg/d for five days (two days before and three days post-procedure, while those in control group received no treatment. Isotonic non-ionic contrast medium (iodixanol was used in both groups when angiography, left ventriculography and percutaneous vascular intervention were started. Serum creatinine (Scr, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR were measured before and 48h, 72h after exposure to contrast medium. A 30-day clinical follow-up was conducted including the evaluation of aggravated heart failure, acute renal failure, dialysis/hemofiltration and all-cause mortality. Results No significant difference existed between the two groups at the preoperative levels of Scr (95.11±23.79μmol/L vs 94.88±20.31μmol/L, P=0.80 and eGFR [73.98±14.52ml/(min.1.73m2 vs 74.10±13.80ml/(min.1.73m2, P=0.85]. The postoperative Scr level showed no significant difference between the two groups (94.87±25.15μmol/L vs 95.74±30.50μmol/L, P=0.45, however, the postoperative Scr value presented a decline tendency in rosuvastatin group, while an upward trend in control group. The 30-day clinical follow-up found that the incidence of aggravated heart failure was significantly lower in rosuvastatin group than in control group (2.4% vs

  2. α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone treatment in pigs does not improve early graft function in kidney transplants from brain dead donors.

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    Willem G van Rijt

    Full Text Available Delayed graft function and primary non-function are serious complications following transplantation of kidneys derived from deceased brain dead (DBD donors. α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH is a pleiotropic neuropeptide and its renoprotective effects have been demonstrated in models of acute kidney injury. We hypothesized that α-MSH treatment of the recipient improves early graft function and reduces inflammation following DBD kidney transplantation. Eight Danish landrace pigs served as DBD donors. After four hours of brain death both kidneys were removed and stored for 18 hours at 4°C in Custodiol preservation solution. Sixteen recipients were randomized in a paired design into two treatment groups, transplanted simultaneously. α-MSH or a vehicle was administered at start of surgery, during reperfusion and two hours post-reperfusion. The recipients were observed for ten hours following reperfusion. Blood, urine and kidney tissue samples were collected during and at the end of follow-up. α-MSH treatment reduced urine flow and impaired recovery of glomerular filtration rate (GFR compared to controls. After each dose of α-MSH, a trend towards reduced mean arterial blood pressure and increased heart rate was observed. α-MSH did not affect expression of inflammatory markers. Surprisingly, α-MSH impaired recovery of renal function in the first ten hours following DBD kidney transplantation possibly due to hemodynamic changes. Thus, in a porcine experimental model α-MSH did not reduce renal inflammation and did not improve short-term graft function following DBD kidney transplantation.

  3. The Physiological Effects on Hormones levels and Kidneys Functions Induced by The Anabolic Androgenic Drug (Sustanon in Male Guinea Pigs

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    Ameen S.A.B. Bisher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years, the intentional abuse of anabolic androgenic drugs by athletes has increased rapidly in many countries to become a serious negative phenomenon. Athletes, specially in power sports, abuse these drugs such as Sustanon in high doses to obtain a rapid and huge increasing in the muscles mass and to improve their performance during the sport competitions. This abuse causes severe adverse effects among the abusers. Approach: The present physiological study was performed to answer the following question: could Sustanon abuse induce marked abnormal alterations in some hormones levels and in the kidneys functions?. The current study was needed due to the lack of sufficient information about the hormonal and nephritic adverse effects caused by Sustanon abuse in particular. This study on male Guinea pigs aimed to investigate the potential abnormal alterations in the levels of some hormones and in the kidney functions induced by repeated administration of two Sustanon doses. The treated animals were injected intramuscularly (i.m. once a week with Sustanon doses as follow (15 mg Kg-1 in group G II and 30 mg Kg-1 in group G III for a continuous treatment period of 6 weeks. Results: The results of the blood biochemical measurements showed statistical significant decreases in means of the serum levels of: Triiodothyronine (TT3, Thyroxine (TT4 and Insulin specially in the treated group (G III (0.42±0.38 ng mL-1, 3.79±0.15 µg dL-1, 0.62±0.43 µl.U mL-1, respectively compared to the control group according to (t-test. This was accompanied by significant increase in mean of cortisol serum levels in the treated group (G III (63.44±4.90 µg L-1. At the same time, marked significant increases were recorded in the means of the serum levels of the blood compounds related to the kidney functions (Blood urea, Uric acid, Creatinine, Albumin and Na+ and K+ in the treated group (G III (53.9±2.70, 4.76±0.62, 1.63±0.24 µg dL-1, 3.38

  4. Total ureterectomy and ileal ureteric replacement for TCC ureter in a solitary kidney

    OpenAIRE

    John S Banerji; George, Arun J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional treatment of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is nephroureterectomy with a bladder cuff. This is in keeping with the nature of the disease, in that TCC is a panurothelial disease. However, there are a few rare occasions when this would mean making a subject anephric, as in a TCC in a solitary kidney or bilateral synchronous/metachronous disease. We present a case of a patient with a dysplastic, poorly functioning left kidney and with a TCC of the ureter on the right s...

  5. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without e...

  6. Effects of Single and Combined Losartan and Tempol Treatments on Oxidative Stress, Kidney Structure and Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Early Course of Proteinuric Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanovic, Danijela; Grujic-Milanovic, Jelica; Miloradovic, Zoran; Ivanov, Milan; Jovovic, Djurdjica; Vajic, Una-Jovana; Zivotic, Maja; Markovic-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Mihailovic-Stanojevic, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been widely implicated in both hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is a major risk factor for CKD progression. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic single tempol (membrane-permeable radical scavenger) or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker) treatment, and their combination on systemic oxidative status (plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (pTBARS) production, plasma antioxidant capacity (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, pABTS), erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities) and kidney oxidative stress (kTBARS, kABTS, kidney antioxidant enzymes activities), kidney function and structure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with the early course of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Adult SHR were divided into five groups. The control group received vehicle, while the other groups received adriamycin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) twice in a 21-day interval, followed by vehicle, losartan (L,10 mg/kg/day), tempol (T,100 mg/kg/day) or combined T+L treatment (by gavage) during a six-week period. Adriamycin significantly increased proteinuria, plasma lipid peroxidation, kidney protein oxidation, nitrite excretion, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) protein expression and nestin immunostaining in the kidney. Also, it decreased kidney antioxidant defense, kidney NADPH oxidase 4 (kNox4) protein expression and abolished anti-inflammatory response due to significant reduction of kidney NADPH oxidase 2 (kNox2) protein expression in SHR. All treatments reduced protein-to-creatinine ratio (marker of proteinuria), pTBARS production, kidney protein carbonylation, nitrite excretion, increased antioxidant capacity and restored kidney nestin expression similar to control. Both single treatments significantly improved systemic and kidney antioxidant defense, bioavailability of renal nitric oxide, reduced kMMP-1 protein expression and renal injury, thus retarded CKD progression

  7. Impairment of liver and kidney functions in gamma irradiated rats suffering from pesticide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of exposure to a single whole body gamma irradiation dose at 6.5 Gy and/or either oral administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane/kg body weight/day for 3 consecutive days, or daily feeding with 200 mg kelthane/kg body weight for 3, 6, and 12 weeks has been studied on relative liver and kidney weights, serum and liver enzymes, creatinine and inorganic phosphorous clearance, as well as percentage tubular phosphorous reabsorption in male animals. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma irradiation alone or combined with kelthane treatment caused significant increase in the relative liver weight besides significant decrease in serum and liver alkaline phosphatase and serum cholinesterase. Exposure to gamma irradiation after oral administration of 100 mg or feeding dietary kelthane kelthane caused significant decrease in liver glucose-6- phosphatase. Non-significant changes in aspartic and alanine transaminases could be recorded due to gamma irradiation and/or kelthane treatment

  8. Renal functional recovery of the hydronephrotic kidney predicted before relief of the obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing technetium labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid, we predicted the inulin and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) clearances after recovery of an obstructed kidney before relief of the obstruction. Sixteen rabbits had one renal unit obstructed for varying period of time. The animals were scanned immediately before relief of the obstruction. After 4 to 6 months recovery, inulin and PAH clearances were measured in all animals. The scans were mathematically analyzed, and accurately predicted the inulin and PAH clearances obtained after complete recovery (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.001, respectively). Six rabbits were scanned at the time of the clearance measurements. By a different mathematical analysis, inulin and PAH clearance measured concurrently correlated with the scan

  9. Role of Vitamin D in Cognitive Function in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Both vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Vitamin D exerts neuroprotective and regulatory roles in the central nervous system. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with muscle weakness and bone loss, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia, inflammation, oxidative stress, immune suppression and neurocognitive impairment. The combination of hypovitaminosis D and CKD can be even more debilitating, as cognitive impairment can develop and progress through vitamin D-associated and CKD-dependent/independent processes, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Although an increasingly recognized comorbidity in CKD, cognitive impairment remains underdiagnosed and often undermanaged. Given the association of cognitive decline and hypovitaminosis D and their deleterious effects in CKD patients, determination of vitamin D status and when appropriate, supplementation, in conjunction with neuropsychological screening, should be considered integral to the clinical care of the CKD population.

  10. Role of Vitamin D in Cognitive Function in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Lin, Jing; Qian, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Both vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin D exerts neuroprotective and regulatory roles in the central nervous system. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with muscle weakness and bone loss, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia), inflammation, oxidative stress, immune suppression and neurocognitive impairment. The combination of hypovitaminosis D and CKD can be even more debilitating, as cognitive impairment can develop and progress through vitamin D-associated and CKD-dependent/independent processes, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Although an increasingly recognized comorbidity in CKD, cognitive impairment remains underdiagnosed and often undermanaged. Given the association of cognitive decline and hypovitaminosis D and their deleterious effects in CKD patients, determination of vitamin D status and when appropriate, supplementation, in conjunction with neuropsychological screening, should be considered integral to the clinical care of the CKD population. PMID:27187460

  11. Objective sleep, a novel risk factor for alterations in kidney function: the CARDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Megan E.; Kim, Yongin; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Lewis, Cora E.; Reis, Jared P.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knutson, Kristen L.; Glasser, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between objectively measured sleep and 10-year changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Methods From 2003 to 2005, an ancillary sleep study was conducted at the Chicago site of the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Community-based black and white adults (aged 32–51 years) wore a wrist actigraph up to six nights to record sleep duration and fragmentation. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Participants without history of cardiovascular or chronic kidney diseases, proteinuria, or hypertension at the 2000–2001 CARDIA examination were followed over 10 years (n = 463). eGFR was estimated from serum creatinine (eGFRCr) at the 2000–2001, 2005–2006, and 2010–2011 CARDIA examinations, whereas cystatin-C-estimated eGFR (eGFRCys) was measured at the 2000–2001 and 2005–2006 examinations. Generalized estimating equation regression and linear models estimated the associations of each sleep parameter with changes in eGFRCr and eGFRCys, controlling for cardiovascular and renal risk. Results Sleep parameters were not related to 5-year change in eGFRCys. However, each 1 h decrease in sleep duration was significantly associated with a 1.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher eGFRCr [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2–2.7], and each one-point increase in PSQI was significantly associated with a 0.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher eGFRCr (95% CI, 0.04–0.9) over 10 years. Conclusion In this community-based sample, shorter sleep and poorer sleep quality were related to higher kidney filtration rates over 10 years. PMID:25037841

  12. Variation in APOL1 Contributes to Ancestry-Level Differences in HDLc-Kidney Function Association

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    Amy Rebecca Bentley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of high-density cholesterol (HDLc accompany chronic kidney disease, but the association between HDLc and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in the general population is unclear. We investigated the HDLc-eGFR association in nondiabetic Han Chinese (HC, n=1100, West Africans (WA, n=1497, and African Americans (AA, n=1539. There were significant differences by ancestry: HDLc was positively associated with eGFR in HC (β=0.13, P<0.0001, but negatively associated among African ancestry populations (WA: −0.19, P<0.0001; AA: −0.09, P=0.02. These differences were also seen in nationally-representative NHANES data (among European Americans: 0.09, P=0.005; among African Americans −0.14, P=0.03. To further explore the findings in African ancestry populations, we investigated the role of an African ancestry-specific nephropathy risk variant, rs73885319, in the gene encoding HDL-associated APOL1. Among AA, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed only with the risk genotype (−0.38 versus 0.001; P=0.03. This interaction was not seen in WA. In summary, counter to expectation, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed among those of African ancestry. Given the APOL1 × HDLc interaction among AA, genetic factors may contribute to this paradoxical association. Notably, these findings suggest that the unexplained mechanism by which APOL1 affects kidney-disease risk may involve HDLc.

  13. Clinical Epidemiology of Reduced Kidney Function among Elderly Male Fishing and Agricultural Population in Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Mei; Chien, Wu-Hsiung; Shen, Hsi-Che; Hu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yu-Fen; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the prevalence of and associated factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) among male elderly fishing and agricultural population in Taipei, Taiwan. Methods. Subjects (n = 2,766) aged 65 years and over voluntarily admitted to a teaching hospital for a physical checkup were collected in 2010. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results. Among these subjects, the over prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 13.6% (95% CI: 12.3–14.9%). The age-specific prevalence of CKD in 65–74 years, 75–84 years, and ≥85 years was 8.2%, 19.1%, and 27.0%, respectively. From the multiple logistic regression, age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.09), hyperuricemia (OR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.90–3.78), central obesity (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02–1.56), hyperglycemia (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11–1.67), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.08–1.66), and lower HDL-C (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.23–1.92) were statistically significantly related to CKD. The presence of metabolic components (one or two versus none, OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04–1.25; three or more versus none, OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.86–2.78) also appeared to be statistically significantly related to CKD after adjustment for other independent factors. Conclusion. Several clinical factors independently affect the development of CKD in the elderly male fishing and agricultural population. PMID:24324957

  14. Pre- and Post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex. (author)

  15. Pre- and post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Juichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex.

  16. Biochemical studies on the effect of different water resources in Hail region on liver and kidney functions of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkhan, Ola F A; Abd Elwahab, Safaa A E; Shalapy, Ebtessam M

    2016-08-01

    Low concentration of a heavy metal is toxic and can be classified as one of the pollution sources. Industrial and human waste can pollute water with heavy metals and soils breaking down under the effect of acidic rain, which release heavy metals into river, streams, lakes, and ground water. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vital organs of the human body damages these organs, including the liver and kidney, which are the main organs for metabolism, detoxification, and excretion. The present study aims to investigate into concentrations of such heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in both ground and tap water samples collected from different areas in Hail region, KSA. Then, this study moves forward to examine the effects of such concentrations on the biochemistry of serum in rats. In this regard, the results demonstrate the presence of significant differences (p alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, and globulin between all the studied groups that were exposed to heavy-metals-polluted water, when compared with the control group. In addition, there were significant differences (p metals-polluted water can cause disturbance in the liver and kidney function parameters, which highlights health risks of the water polluted with heavy metals. In this sense, the concerned authorities should regularly carry out survey and should monitor underground water, and people have to be aware of such risks. PMID:27461423

  17. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    11.1.Kidney function2005391 Increased levels of advanced oxidationproducts are associated with atherosclerosis in chron-ic kidney disease.YANG Xiaobing(杨小兵),et al.Dept Nephrol,Nanfang Hops,1st Milit Med Univ,Guangzhou.Chin J Intern Med 2005;44(5):342-346.Objective:Accumulation of advanced oxidation protein

  18.  Is serum cystatin C a better marker of kidney function than serum creatinine in septic newborns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Maruniak-Chudek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [sub][/sub] Introduction:Several studies have claimed that the estimation of serum cystatin C could be a better marker of kidney excretory function than serum creatinine. However, its role in the diagnosis of reduced kidney function was not unquestionably confirmed. The aim of this study was to analyze the concentrations of serum cystatin C in neonates with sepsis.Material/Methods:Thirty-two neonates (gestational age from 34 to 40 weeks admitted to the NICU during the first 14 days of life were enrolled. Serum cystatin C concentrations were estimated by ELISA during three successive days in neonates treated for infection. The study group consisted of 9 newborns with sepsis, 14 with severe sepsis and 9 with septic shock.Results/Discussion:At the beginning of the observational period the mean serum concentration of cystatin C in the study group was 1.35 mg/L (95�0CI 1.20–1.49. Surprisingly, the lowest concentration of cystatin was observed in patients with septic shock (1.23 mg/L; 95 0.92–1.54 within the observation period. Higher concentrations were found in neonates with sepsis (1.47 mg/L; 95 1.04–1.90 and severe sepsis (1.50; 1.12–1.87. There was no correlation between serum cystatin C concentration and serum creatinine or gestational age.A significant correlation was discovered between chronological age and cystatin C (R=–0.439, p=0.01. There was a tendency for cystatin C to decline during the second observational day in patients with sepsis (to 1.53 mg/L; 95: 1.19–1.86 and severe sepsis (to 1.32 mg/L; 95: 1.07–1.57, while a slight insignificant increase in patient with septic shock (to 1.28 mg/L; 95: 0.88–1.68 was revealed. The interrelation between age and cystatin C concentration disappeared in the following days of stay in the NICU. Even in patients who died in the course of septic shock the observed changes in cystatin C levels were small and did not exceed those of serum creatinine.Conclusions:Cystatin C is not a

  19. Effect of renal function and hemodialysis on the serum tumor markers in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiaofang; XU Xialian; YE Zhibin

    2007-01-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure,whether they have had hemodialysis or not,the specificity of some of the serum tumor markers for the diagnosis of the corresponding tumors is decreased while others remain as valuable as they are in patients with norrnal kidney function.The detection of tumor markers is extensively used for the diagnosis of corresponding tumors.It has been recently shown that some tumor markers are higher in patients with chronic kidney disease(END)than in the normal population.The effects of renal function and hemodialysis were examined on serum levels of some of the tumor markers including CEA,CA199,CA125,AFP,CA153,CA724,CYFRA21-1,NSE,SCC-Ag,PSA,and fPSA.The 232 non-dialysis patients with CKD and 37 chronic uremic patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled in this study.The 232 non-dialysis patients were divided into three groups according to their Ccr.In group 1,Ccr was≤25 mL/min.In group 2,Ccr was between 25 and 50 mL/min.In group 3,Ccr was≥50 mL/min.The male patients were also divided into three groups to compare the serum levels of PSA and fPSA among the three groups.Nine tumor markers in 37 uremic patients were tested.For comparison.37 non-dialysis patients with similar Ccr of the same age and gender served as controls.There existed significant difierences in serum levels of CEA,CA199,CYFRA21.1,NSE,and SCC-Ag among different Ccr groups and the markers bore a negative correlation with Ccr.There were no significant differences among the three groups in the serum concentrations of CA125,AFP,CA153,CA724,PSA and fPSA.The serum levels of CA125 and NSE were significantly higher(P<0.01)in hemodialysis patients than in the nondialysis control patients.In patients with chronic renal failure,who were or were not on hemodialysis,the specificity of serum CEA,CA199,CYFRA21-1,NSE,CA125 and SCC-Ag for the diagnosis of the corresponding tumors was decreased while serum AFP,CA153,CA724,PSA and fPSA were as valuable as they were in

  20. An unusual cause of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, A; Kalra, S.; Woodcock, A

    1992-01-01

    In a patient who had a sudden onset of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after forceful neck manipulation complete, though gradual, recovery in lung function and transdiaphragmatic pressures was seen over three years. This is a previously unrecognised risk of neck osteopathy.

  1. Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Presented With Bilateral Hydronephrosis and Urinary Infection: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kewen; Xie, Yi; Li, Hanzhong

    2016-05-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a condition resulting from the kidney's impaired response to circulating antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to polydipsia and polyuria. Urinary tract dilatation caused by NDI is a rare situation. Here, we report a case of congenital NDI presented with bilateral hydronephrosis.A 15-year-old boy complaining a history of intermittent fever was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital. He voided 10 to 15 L of urine daily. Radiographic examination revealed severe dilatation of bilateral renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder. Urinalysis shows hyposthenuria.He was diagnosed NDI since born. Transient insertion of a urethral catheter helped to relieve fever. Medical therapy of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride was prescribed and effective.Dilatation of urinary tract caused by diabetes insipidus is rare, but may be present in severe condition. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to perform early treatment to avoid impairment of renal function. PMID:27258490

  2. A Case Report of Bilateral Mirror Clubfeet and Bilateral Hand Polydactyly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mai P; Lawler, Ericka A; Morcuende, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a patient with bilateral mirror clubfeet and bilateral hand polydactyly. The patient presented to our orthopaedic clinic with bilateral mirror clubfeet, each with eight toes, and bilateral hands with six fingers and a hypoplastic thumb. The pattern does not fit any described syndrome such as Martin or Laurin-Sandrow syndrome. Treatments by an orthopaedic pediatric surgeon and an orthopaedic pediatric hand surgeon are described. The patient achieved excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes at four year follow-up. PMID:25328478

  3. Analysis of complications of percutaneous X-Ray endoscopic surgical operations of patients with urolithiasis and nephrolithiasis with a single functioning kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented article focuses on the important matters of development of intraoperative and postoperative complications in patients with urolithiasis undergoing percutaneous operative treatment for coral calculus of a solitary or sole functioning kidney. Complications of percutaneous X-ray-endoscopic operations in these patients always require careful medical and diagnostic approach, as they can lead to oppression of an already impaired solitary kidney function and, as a consequence, can have life-threatening nature. They are divided into two groups: intraoperative and postoperative complications. Intraoperative complications include: bleeding, damage of the renal pelvis in the course of creating of puncture access, perforation of internal organs, loss of stroke. Postoperative complications include: development of acute inflammation in a single kidney, bleeding, urinoma or hematoma development, progression of renal failure, leave of residual concretions, organ loss. There is a sufficient amount of data on the development of complications after percutaneous endoscopic surgeries in the literature, but very few works are devoted to a solitary kidney matter. The object of this study was the group of patients with urolithiasis, coral nephrolithiasis by a solitary or a single functioning kidney, who were on treatment in the urology department of the N.I. Pirogov City Clinical Hospital No. 1 from January 2007 to July 2014. All patients underwent percutaneous operative treatment for the removal of coral calculi. 

  4. Analysis of complications of percutaneous X-Ray endoscopic surgical operations of patients with urolithiasis and nephrolithiasis with a single functioning kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zenkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented article focuses on the important matters of development of intraoperative and postoperative complications in patients with urolithiasis undergoing percutaneous operative treatment for coral calculus of a solitary or sole functioning kidney. Complications of percutaneous X-ray-endoscopic operations in these patients always require careful medical and diagnostic approach, as they can lead to oppression of an already impaired solitary kidney function and, as a consequence, can have life-threatening nature. They are divided into two groups: intraoperative and postoperative complications. Intraoperative complications include: bleeding, damage of the renal pelvis in the course of creating of puncture access, perforation of internal organs, loss of stroke. Postoperative complications include: development of acute inflammation in a single kidney, bleeding, urinoma or hematoma development, progression of renal failure, leave of residual concretions, organ loss. There is a sufficient amount of data on the development of complications after percutaneous endoscopic surgeries in the literature, but very few works are devoted to a solitary kidney matter. The object of this study was the group of patients with urolithiasis, coral nephrolithiasis by a solitary or a single functioning kidney, who were on treatment in the urology department of the N.I. Pirogov City Clinical Hospital No. 1 from January 2007 to July 2014. All patients underwent percutaneous operative treatment for the removal of coral calculi. 

  5. Middle calyx ureterocalicostomy in ectopic pelvic kidney with ureteropelvic junction obstruction: Only alternative for renal salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaisukh Kalathia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous kidneys are mostly asymptomatic and are often found incidentally during physical or radiological investigations for urological or other medical complaints. The associated genital anomalies ranges from 15% to 45%. Females are associated with bicornuate or unicornuate uterus, rudimentary or absent uterus while males have undescended testes, duplication of the urethra, and hypospadias. A 21 year old married female presented with on and off lower abdomen pain for the past one year with history of primary amenorrhea. On examination an ill defined tender lump palpated in the lower abdomen. USG showed left ectopic pelvic kidney with gross hydronephrosis. The computed tomography confirmed hydronephrotic left ectopic pelvic kidney in front of the sacrum with anteriorly directed renal pelvis with ureter located posteriorly. There was delayed excretion from the ectopic kidney but right kidney was in normal position and function. The diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA scan showed 33% function of the ectopic kidney. On diagnostic laparoscopy, the uterus was small hypoplastic with bilateral ovaries appearing normal. The patient was taken for open pyeloplasty where the ureter was transected below PUJ but for a dependent drainage, the middle calyx as was the most dependent calyx as seen on the CT-scan. So a middle calyx ureterocalicostomy was performed calyx with excellent outcome. The ectopic kidney always remains a challenge because of complex neurovascular anatomy, presence of viscera and associated UPJO, but for a dependent drainage, middle calyx ureterocalicostomy is a feasible option with excellent outcome as was in our case.

  6. Renal function affects absorbed dose to the kidneys and haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Johanna; Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Waengberg, Bo [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Goeteborg (Sweden); Larsson, Maria [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Forssell-Aronsson, Eva; Bernhardt, Peter [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Bioengineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2015-05-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has become an important treatment option in the management of advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Long-lasting responses are reported for a majority of treated patients, with good tolerability and a favourable impact on quality of life. The treatment is usually limited by the cumulative absorbed dose to the kidneys, where the radiopharmaceutical is reabsorbed and retained, or by evident haematological toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate how renal function affects (1) absorbed dose to the kidneys, and (2) the development of haematological toxicity during PRRT treatment. The study included 51 patients with an advanced neuroendocrine tumour who received {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment during 2006 - 2011 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg. An average activity of 7.5 GBq (3.5 - 8.2 GBq) was given at intervals of 6 - 8 weeks on one to five occasions. Patient baseline characteristics according to renal and bone marrow function, tumour burden and medical history including prior treatment were recorded. Renal and bone marrow function were then monitored during treatment. Renal dosimetry was performed according to the conjugate view method, and the residence time for the radiopharmaceutical in the whole body was calculated. A significant correlation between inferior renal function before treatment and higher received renal absorbed dose per administered activity was found (p < 0.01). Patients with inferior renal function also experienced a higher grade of haematological toxicity during treatment (p = 0.01). The residence time of {sup 177}Lu in the whole body (range 0.89 - 3.0 days) was correlated with grade of haematological toxicity (p = 0.04) but not with renal absorbed dose (p = 0.53). Patients with inferior renal function were exposed to higher renal absorbed dose per administered activity and developed a higher grade of haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment. The study confirms the

  7. Bilateral Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Dhua, Anjan K; Aggarwal, Satish K; NB Mathur; GR Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare birth defect, with a poor prognosis. We describe a case of bilateral CDH discovered while repairing the right sided CDH. Diaphragmatic defect was repaired and a silo was applied on the abdominal wound to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome. The patient however died postoperatively due to severe pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Recovery of kidney function following delayed use of Theralite™ dialyzer in a patient with myeloma cast nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Khagendra; Shastri, Shani; Narayanasami, Uma; Bijol, Vanesa; Rider, Karen; Strom, James A; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2013-04-01

    We report the case of a 60- year- old man who presented with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma complicated by biopsy-proven acute cast nephropathy, requiring hemodialysis, plasmapheresis and chemotherapy. After remaining dialysis dependent for 5 weeks, a high cut-off (HCO) dialyzer, intended to use for the removal of plasma substances with a molecular weight of up to 45 kDa such as free light chains, was introduced to his outpatient 4-hour hemodialysis regimen with an increase in treatment frequency to 4 sessions per week. Following 6 weeks of dialysis with the HCO dialyzer, serum levels of free κ light chains declined by more than 75%. Concurrently, he recovered kidney function and discontinued dialysis. He subsequently received a successful autologous stem-cell transplant. We discuss the potential merit of using the HCO dialyzer late in the course of the care of patients with myeloma cast nephropathy who are dialysis dependent. PMID:22541683

  9. The effect of glucagon infusion on kidney function in short-term insulin-dependent juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Christiansen, J S; Noer, I;

    1980-01-01

    Kidney function was studied in nine, metabolically well controlled, short-term insulin-dependent male diabetics before and during glucagon infusion of 4 to 5 and 8 to 10 ng/kg/min. Glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow (steady-state infusion technique, with urinary collections......, using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-iodohippurate), and urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were measured. The mean plasma glucagon concentration increased during infusion from 254 +/- 19 pg/ml to 440 +/- 31 pg/ml (low dose) and 730 +/- 52 pg/ml (high dose). Glomerular filtration rate...... increased in all subjects from 133 +/- 5 before the glucagon infusion to 141 +/- 4 with the low dose, and 148 +/- 7 ml/min/1.73 m2 with the high dose (p

  10. Kidney function and mortality post-liver transplant in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aastha Sethi1, Michelle M Estrella1, Richard Ugarte2, Mohamed G Atta1 1Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2University of Maryland Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score incorporates serum creatinine and was introduced to facilitate allocation of orthotopic liver transplantation (LT. The objective is to determine the impact of MELD and kidney function on all-cause mortality. Among LTs performed in a tertiary referral hospital between 1995 and 2009, 419 cases were studied. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for death. Over mean follow-ups of 8.4 and 3.1 years during the pre-MELD and MELD era, 57 and 63 deaths were observed, respectively. Those transplanted during the MELD era had a higher likelihood of hepatorenal syndrome (8% vs 2%, P < 0.01, lower kidney function (median estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 77.8 vs 92.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, P < 0.01, and more pretransplantation renal replacement therapy (RRT (5% vs 1%; P < 0.01. All-cause mortality risk was similar in the MELD vs the pre-MELD era (HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.58–1.65. The risk of death, however, was nearly 3-fold greater (95% CI: 1.14–6.60 among those requiring pre-transplant RRT. Similarly, eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 post-transplant was associated with a 2.5-fold higher mortality (95% CI: 1.48–4.11. The study suggests that MELD implementation had no impact on all-cause mortality post-LT. However, the need for pre-transplant RRT and post-transplant kidney dysfunction was associated with a more than 2-fold greater risk of subsequent death. Keywords: eGFR, mortality, MELD, liver transplant

  11. Na+-H+ exchanger in proximal cells isolated from rabbit kidney. I. Functional characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the Na+-H+ exchange in isolated proximal cells from rabbit kidney cortex. The cells were prepared by mechanical dissociation and sequential passages through nylon meshes. The intracellular pH (pHi) was measured in a bicarbonate-free medium using the fluorescent dye 2,7-biscarboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Resting pHi was 7.13 ± 0.04. Cells were acid loaded with nigericin in choline solution and H+ efflux, induced by extracellular Na+ (Nae), was calculated using a buffering power of 23.6 ± 0.6 mmol · l-1 · pH unit-1 estimated by NH4Cl exposure. The intracellular H+ concentration dependence did not follow simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Of the different cations tested on pHi recovery, such as Li+, choline+, K+, and tetramethylammonium, only Li+ induced an alkalinization of acidified cells similar to that of Na+. 22Na influx measurements indicated that cellular depletion of Na+ stimulated Na+-H+ exchange. The results permit the conclusion that the isolation procedures did not impair the main features of the Na+-H+ antiporter, at least as compared with those previously described in renal brush-border membrane vesicles or in other cellular systems. The integrity of the transporter in isolated proximal cells would permit the direct study of its hormonal and metabolic control

  12. Life Style Education and Counseling Improved Quality of Life and Renal Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Ugurlu Yildiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM The purpose of this study was to describe of life-style modifiying education and counseling to examine their effect on renal function and quality of life. METHODS Eighty four patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD were enrolled in the study. Quality of life (QoL was measured by means of Short Form-36 (SF-36 and subscale scores were calculated prior to the education and counseling . The education and counseling program focuses on behaviour style including excersize and diet issues and also cessation of smoking and alcohol consumption. These programs has been conducted by a nurse twice a week, throughout eight weeks. After this program, the patients have been evaluated by means of SF-36 and a questionary for CKD patients. Data were analysed by SPSS pocket program. RESULTS All dimensions of QoL of patients were signicicantly better after the education and counseling, as compared with that of prior to the intervention. The mean of exercize duration and percent of patients who adjusted diet programme were increased and serum albumin means were increased, serum urea and serum creatinine means were decreased after the education and counseling compared with that of prior to the education and counseling. Systolic tension arteriel means were lower after the education and counseling compared with that of prior to the education and counseling. However, the number of cigarette in a day, the glass of alcohol in a week and the diastolic tension arteriel means were not different after the education and counseling compared with that of prior to the intervention. CONCLUSION The patients with chronic kidney disease positevely improved their health-related quality of life and some renal functions after the education and counseling. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 667-672

  13. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can arise including hematuria (bloody urine) and nephrolithiasis (kidney stones). Often the best drugs to use to lower the blood pressure in this situation are either angiotensin converting enzyme ... the loss of kidney function when the kidneys are filled with cysts. ...

  14. Morphologic,mechanical and functional sonographic parameters of arteries in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎殳

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the risk factors of cardiovascular disease exist in early stage of ADPKD patients with normal renal function. Methods Morphologic , mechanical and functional sonographic parameters of arteries were examined by high-frequency ultrasonography in 32 hypertensive and 28 normotensive ADPKD patients with preserved renal function, 25 patients with es-

  15. Camera functional scintiscanning of the kidneys - its significance and value for nuclear-medical renal diagnostics especially in comparison with isotope nephrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis aimed at demonstrating the significance of functional scintiscanning in comparison with radioisotope nephrography and its informative value in individual kidney disease cases. To this end, 248 functional scintigrams of patients taken from various disease groups and 96 functional scintigrams of non-kidney-diseased persons were evaluated. As against nephrography, functional scintigraphic imaging has the advantage of displaying simultaneously both functional graphs and sequential scintigrams. This allows to asses the morphology, location and function of the non-functioning renal parenchyma and to localize and differentiate dysfunctions which are globally detectable in RIN, at a low patient exposure and within one single examination. ''Region-of-Interest'' selection in functional scintiscanning allows an exact demonstration of the kidneys which results in new normal values for the functional parameters. Owing to its case in handling and very low level of patient exposure, functional scintiscanning lends itself to an orientational examination of large patient groups, to an examination of severely ill patients without putting too much strain of them and to follow-up of all nephropathies. It even provides some information in renal insufficiency where other methods fail. However, functional scintiscanning appears to be inappropriate as a diagnostic method in inflammatory processes, hypertension and renal artery stenoses. (orig./MG)

  16. A review of bilateral training for upper extremity hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Upper extremity hemiparesis is the most common post-stroke disability. Longitudinal studies have indicated that 30-66% of stroke survivors do not have full arm function 6 months post-stroke. The current gold standard for treatment of mild post-stroke upper limb impairment is constraint-induced therapy but, because of the inclusion criteria, alternative treatments are needed which target more impaired subjects. Bilateral arm training has been investigated as a potential rehabilitation intervention. Bilateral arm training encompasses a number of methods including: (1) bilateral isokinematic training; (2) mirror therapy using bilateral training; (3) device-driven bilateral training; and (4) bilateral motor priming. Neural mechanisms mediating bilateral training are first reviewed. The key bilateral training studies that have demonstrated evidence of efficacy will then be discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning clinical implications based on the reviewed literature. PMID:19517519

  17. Magnetisation transfer MR imaging of the kidney: evaluation at 3.0 T in association with renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Katsuyoshi [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Kurashiki Daiichi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Hayashida, Minoru; Izumitani, Shogo; Fujimine, Tomoko; Onishi, Takeo; Genba, Katsuhiro [Kurashiki Daiichi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of using magnetisation transfer (MT) MRI of the kidney at 3.0 T to assess renal function. Forty-four patients who underwent abdominal MRI on a 3.0-T system including gradient-echo (GRE) sequences with and without MT pulse were included. In each patient, MT ratio (MTR) of the renal cortex and medulla was measured by using regions of interest (ROIs) placed on the MTR map image. Regression analysis showed good correlation between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and MTR of the renal cortex (r = -0.645, P < 0.0001). Among 44 patients, 22 were categorised as the normal renal function group and 22 were classified as the decreased eGFR group. The mean MTR of the renal cortex in patients with decreased eGFR (mean MTR, 30.7 {+-} 3.2 %) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that in patients with normal renal function (mean MTR, 25.3 {+-} 2.2 %), although the mean MTRs of the renal medulla in the two groups were not significantly different. There was good correlation between eGFR and MTR of the renal cortex derived from MT MRI at 3.0 T. This technique may have the potential to evaluate the degree of renal function non-invasively in patients with renal impairment. (orig.)

  18. 99mTc-DTPA dynamic SPECT and CT volumetry for measuring split renal function in live kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Split renal function (SRF) estimated from the posterior view of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid planar scintigraphy (DTPA/P) is not sufficiently accurate even after correction for kidney depth by computed tomography (CT). To obtain more accurate SRF using 99mTc-DTPA dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) method was carried out for the initial 5 min after bolus injection of 99mTc-DTPA (DTPA/SPECT). Also SRF was evaluated from the renal volume measured by CT. We compared the results with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid SPECT (DMSA/SPECT). In 60 consecutive live kidney donors, 30 DTPA/P, 30 DTPA/SPECT, 60 99mTc-DMSA/SPECT, and 60 CT studies were performed. In the DTPA/P studies, SRF was calculated from the posterior image recorded during 2-3-min postinjection with attenuation correction for kidney depth measured by CT. In the DTPA/SPECT studies, SPECT images were acquired continuously for 5 min with a dual-headed gamma camera. In 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, DMSA/SPECT images were acquired 3-h postinjection. The SRF on both SPECT studies was calculated from the total counts of each kidney. In the DTPA/SPECT study, SRF was evaluated on the three images summed for 1 min: 1-2 min (DTPA/SPECT1-2), 2-3 min (DTPA/SPECT2-3), and 1-3 min (DTPA/SPECT1-3). In the CT examination, to assess the global renal volume, the axial images in the excretory phase were chosen. Renal contours were identified on each image, and the areas (cm2) of these regions were summed and multiplied by the slice thickness (10 mm) to yield global renal volume (ml). Right renal function from DTPA/P, DTPA/SPECT, and CT were compared with that from DMSA/SPECT as a reference. Correlation coefficients of the right renal function between DMSA/SPECT and DTPA/P, DTPA/SPECT2-3, and CT were 0.663, 0.849 and 0.907, respectively (P<0.0001). The differences between DMSA/SPECT and DTPA/P, DTPA/SPECT2-3 and CT were 2.42±3.878, 0.867±1.672, and -0.421±1.077% (mean±standard deviation (SD

  19. Impact of chronic exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on some bio-markers affecting the hormonal sexual function, the kidney function and blood parameters, in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automotive exhaust gases constitute an important source of urban pollution. The objective of this study is to explore, in the rat, the effects of repetitive exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on the level variations of serum testosterone, blood lead, bone lead, blood carbon monoxide, on the kidney function and blood parameters. 200 rats inhaling a mixture of air and automotive exhaust gas (10/1, v/v), are distributed in 4 groups treated during 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. They are compared to non treated controls. Our results show a decrease of serum testosterone level. This result is the origin of a masculine sterility already demonstrated in our laboratory. This sterility seems to be reversible because polluted rats regain their sexual activity, 2 months after stopping of the pollutant treatment. An increase of the blood carbon monoxide level with a lead accumulation in blood and in the tail is noticed. Biochemical analyses show that glycaemia, urea, and creatininaemia increase in treated animals. The urinary rate of creatinine decreases. These results indicate kidney deficiency. Our results show also in treated animals an increase of the number of red blood corpuscles, of hematocrit, of the blood level of haemoglobin and of the VGM, and a decrease of the CGMH. The carbon monoxide and the lead detected in blood of the treated animals are the origin of these perturbations. In conclusion, our results show that gasoline automotive exhaust gas induces, in the rat, a decrease of serum testosterone level. The carbon monoxide and the lead present in the exhaust gas, and detected in blood and in the tail of the treated animals, are the origin of sexual, kidney and blood parameters perturbations. (author)

  20. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York Golf Classic The 11th Annual New York Golf Classic Each August, supporters in our Northeast Region hit the links in support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health screenings ...

  1. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other mineral levels. Common Kidney Conditions in Teens Sometimes, the kidneys aren't able to do ... conditions is a renal ultrasound . Like the ultrasound pictures that pregnant women get of their fetuses, a ...

  2. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensing agreement Kidneys: How They Work, How They Fail, What You Can Do For people at any ... Kidney School is a program of the Medical Education Institute, Inc. , a 501(c)(3) organization, © 2002– ...

  3. Effects of exercise on kidney function among non-diabetic patients with hypertension and renal disease: randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos Franklin C; Santos Iná S.; Mielke Grégore; del Vecchio Fabrício B; Hallal Pedro C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease is an important public health threat. Such patients present high morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, with low quality of life and survival, and also high expenditure resulting from the treatment. Arterial hypertension is both a cause and a complication of kidney disease; also, arterial hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease among patients with kidney diseases. There is some evidence that exercise interventions may...

  4. Effects of gentamicin on the recovery of renal function after unilateral hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary tract infection is one of complications in hydronephrosis, and antibiotics such as gentamicin are indicated for the treatment. However, gentamicin is known to cause drug-induced nephropathy. Using a rat kidney model, we investigated the effects of gentamicin treatment on the functional recovery from unilateral hydronephrosis. Quantitative separate renal function study by means of Technetium-99m DMSA renoscintigraphy revealed that contralateral kidney was affected by the treatment right after the release of complete ureteral obstruction. Moreover, in the case of incomplete ureteral obstruction, bilateral kidneys were affected by the treatment. Morphological studies using in situ DNA3' -end labeling and immunohistochemical methods showed that regeneration in the bilateral kidney followed gentamicin treatment right after the release. These results suggest that we should take account of separate renal function failure after gentamicin administration in the perihydronephrotic periods. (author)

  5. Effects of gentamicin on the recovery of renal function after unilateral hydronephrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Nobumitsu [Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of complications in hydronephrosis, and antibiotics such as gentamicin are indicated for the treatment. However, gentamicin is known to cause drug-induced nephropathy. Using a rat kidney model, we investigated the effects of gentamicin treatment on the functional recovery from unilateral hydronephrosis. Quantitative separate renal function study by means of Technetium-99m DMSA renoscintigraphy revealed that contralateral kidney was affected by the treatment right after the release of complete ureteral obstruction. Moreover, in the case of incomplete ureteral obstruction, bilateral kidneys were affected by the treatment. Morphological studies using in situ DNA3' -end labeling and immunohistochemical methods showed that regeneration in the bilateral kidney followed gentamicin treatment right after the release. These results suggest that we should take account of separate renal function failure after gentamicin administration in the perihydronephrotic periods. (author)

  6. Distinct injury markers for the early detection and prognosis of incident acute kidney injury in critically ill adults with preserved kidney function

    OpenAIRE

    Siew, Edward D.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Eden, Svetlana; Wickersham, Nancy; Cripps, Ben; Ikizler, T. Alp

    2013-01-01

    The use of novel biomarkers to detect incident acute kidney injury (AKI) in the critically ill is hindered by heterogeneity of injury and the potentially confounding effects of prevalent AKI. Here we examined the ability of urine NGAL (NGAL), L-type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (L-FABP), and Cystatin C to predict AKI development, death, and dialysis in a nested case-control study of 380 critically ill adults with an eGFR over 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. One-hundred thirty AKI cases were identified follo...

  7. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Kidney Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & ... The kidneys also help maintain body fluids at normal levels. In addition, the kidneys play important roles in controlling blood pressure and ...

  8. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Kidney Transplant Click to watch a video on this topic Click to watch a video on Hemodialysis When kidneys fail, there ... 05/2016 - 10:00am Philadelphia, PA Kidney Camp Sun, 07/17/2016 - 6:00pm Ingleside, IL Register ...

  9. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this special diet to limit the buildup of waste products in the body. Limiting fluids between dialysis ... up when the kidneys no longer function well. Dangerous heart rhythms may result, which can lead to ...

  10. Aortic Arch Calcification Predicts the Renal Function Progression in Patients with Stage 3 to 5 Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chih Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The presence of aortic arch calcification (AoAC and cardiomegaly on chest radiography has been demonstrated as important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, the interrelationship among AoAC, cardiomegaly, and renal function progression remains unclear. The aim of this study is to assess whether AoAC and cardiomegaly are independently associated with the renal function progression in patients with stages 3–5 CKD. Methods. We retrospectively determined AoAC and cardiomegaly by chest X-ray in 237 patients, followed up for at least three years without entering dialysis and classified into 4 groups according to the presence or absence of AoAC and cardiomegaly. The change in renal function was measured by the slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Results. Of the 237 patients, the rate of eGFR decline was significantly higher in the group with coexistence of AoAC and cardiomegaly than any other groups. Baseline AoAC and proteinuria were independently associated with eGFR decline. AoAC were independently determined by age, eGFR slope, and cardiomegaly. Conclusions. The coexistence of AoAC and cardiomegaly is associated with faster eGFR decline. AoAC is an independent determinant of renal outcomes in patients with CKD stages 3–5.

  11. Anaesthesia for laparoscopic kidney transplantation: Influence of Trendelenburg position and CO 2 pneumoperitoneum on cardiovascular, respiratory and renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Kandarp Parikh

    2013-01-01

    homeostasis; however, measured parameters remained within clinically acceptable range without affecting early function of the transplanted kidney.

  12. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy was...... unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  13. Preimplantation biopsy predicts delayed graft function, glomerular filtration rate and long-term graft survival of transplanted kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Pedroso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The predictive value of preimplantation biopsies for long-term graft function is often limited by conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of time-zero graft biopsy histological scores on early and late graft function, graft survival and patient survival, at different time points. We retrospectively analyzed 284 preimplantation biopsies at a single center, in a cohort of recipients with grafts from live and deceased donors (standard and nonstandard, and their impact in posttransplant renal function after a mean follow-up of 7 years (range 1-16. Implantation biopsy score (IBS, a combination score derived from 4 histopathological aspects, was determined from each sample. The correlation with incidence of delayed graft function (DGF, creatinine clearance (1st, 3rd and 5th posttransplant year and graft and patient survival at 1 and 5 years were evaluated. Preimplantation biopsies provided somewhat of a prognostic index of early function and outcome of the transplanted kidney in the short and long term. In the immediate posttransplantation period, the degree of arteriolosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis correlated better with the presence of DGF. IBS values between 4 and 6 were predictive of worst renal function at 1st and 3rd years posttransplant and 5-year graft survival. The most important histological finding, in effectively transplanted grafts, was the grade of interstitial fibrosis. Patient survival was not influenced by IBS. Higher preimplantation biopsy scores predicted an increased risk of early graft losses, especially primary nonfunction. Graft survival (at 1st and 5th years after transplant but not patient survival was predicted by IBS.

  14. Study On The Effect Of Cooking Of Some Food Proteins By Short-Term Radiation (Microwave) On The Functions Of The Liver And Kidney In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five groups of albino male rats, every group consist of seven rats, were used to study the effect of microwave proteins on liver, kidney functions and blood parameters. Control group was fed on 10% casein. The 2nd one was fed on 10% protein from microwave chicken. The 3rd one was fed on 10% protein from boiled chicken. The 4th one was fed on 10% protein from microwave kidney beans. The 5th one was fed on 10% protein from boiled kidney beans. The time of experiment was seven weeks. The biochemical parameters included (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, total lipids, triglyceride, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, creatinin, uric acid and amino acids). The group of rats fed on microwave chicken showed more increase in cholesterol level than the group fed on boiled chicken. The group fed on microwave kidney beans showed decrease in cholesterol level. The group fed on microwave chicken showed decrease in HDL and increase in LDL. The highest activity of SGOT was shown in group fed on microwave kidney beans followed by the group fed on microwave chicken. The groups fed on boiled kidney beans and boiled chicken proteins showed significant increase in SGPT activity. The group fed on boiled kidney beans have the highest activity of ALP enzyme; but the group fed on microwave chicken showed increase in the activity of ALP enzyme compared to the control group. The feeding of microwave chicken leads to increase in creatinine and uric acid levels in comparison to the control group. Microwave cooking leads to little increase in all amino acids in comparison to the control group

  15. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Su; Hwang, Geol; Han, Sanghoon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Young Don; Kang, Ki-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Guk Myung; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2016-07-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders. PMID:27366007

  16. CT of acquired cystic kidney disease and renal tumors in long-term dialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, E.; Grantham, J.J.; Slusher, S.L.; Greathouse, J.L.; Krohn, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    The kidneys of long term dialysis patients frequently demonstrate multiple small acquired cysts and renal cell tumors on pathologic examination. The original kidneys of 30 long-term dialysis patients and six renal transplant patients were evaluated by computed tomography to determine the incidence of these abnormalities. Among dialysis patients, 43.3% had diffuse bilateral cysts, while 16.7% had occasional cysts (fewer than five per kidney), and 40% showed no renal cysts. Seven solid renal tumors were detected in four dialysis patients with renal cysts. Acquired cystic kidney disease tends to result in renal enlargement, is more common in patients who have been maintained on dialysis for prolonged periods, and may lead to spontaneous renal hemorrhage. The six transplant patients showed no evidence of renal cysts, and all had markedly shrunken kidneys. Acquired cystic disease and renal cell tumors in the original kidneys of dialysis patients may be due to biologically active substances that are not cleared effectively by dialysis but that are removed by normally functioning transplant kidneys.

  17. CT of acquired cystic kidney disease and renal tumors in long-term dialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidneys of long term dialysis patients frequently demonstrate multiple small acquired cysts and renal cell tumors on pathologic examination. The original kidneys of 30 long-term dialysis patients and six renal transplant patients were evaluated by computed tomography to determine the incidence of these abnormalities. Among dialysis patients, 43.3% had diffuse bilateral cysts, while 16.7% had occasional cysts (fewer than five per kidney), and 40% showed no renal cysts. Seven solid renal tumors were detected in four dialysis patients with renal cysts. Acquired cystic kidney disease tends to result in renal enlargement, is more common in patients who have been maintained on dialysis for prolonged periods, and may lead to spontaneous renal hemorrhage. The six transplant patients showed no evidence of renal cysts, and all had markedly shrunken kidneys. Acquired cystic disease and renal cell tumors in the original kidneys of dialysis patients may be due to biologically active substances that are not cleared effectively by dialysis but that are removed by normally functioning transplant kidneys

  18. Kidney transplantation improves arterial function measured by pulse wave analysis and endothelium-independent dilatation in uraemic patients despite deterioration of glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Clausen, Peter; Idorn, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of kidney transplantation on arterial function in relation to changes in glucose metabolism. METHODS: Included were 40 kidney recipients (Tx group, age 38 ± 13 years) and 40 patients without known diabetes remaining on the waiting list...... (endothelium dependent) and after nitroglycerin administration (endothelium independent). The insulin resistance was estimated by the insulin sensitivity index (ISI). RESULTS: AIX was reduced from 27% (17-33) to 14% (7-25) (P = 0.01) after 1 year in the Tx group and remained stable in uraemic controls (P = 0...

  19. Effect of cisplatin on renal haemodynamics and tubular function in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1987-01-01

    Administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) to dogs results in polyuric renal failure due initially to a proximal tubular functional impairment. 48-72 h after the cisplatin administration the depressed renal function can be attributed to impairment of proximal as well as distal tubular reabsorptive...... capacities associated with increased renal vascular resistance. The polyuria seems to be due to the impaired reabsorption rate in the distal nephron segments....

  20. Kidney function and size in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients before and during growth hormone administration for one week

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, JS; Gammelgaard, J; Frandsen, M;

    1982-01-01

    Kidney function and size were studied in seven well-controlled male Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients before and after administration of highly purified human growth hormone for one week. Glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow (steady state infusion technique with urinary...... collections using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran), kidney size (ultrasonic scanning) and urinary excretion rates of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin were measured. Highly purified growth hormone was injected subcutaneously, 2 IU in the morning and 4 IU in the evening. The growth hormone dosage applied...... maintained unchanged by increasing the insulin dose by 79 +/- 9% (mean +/- SEM). Glomerular filtration rate increased from 122 +/- 3 to 131 +/- 3 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (p less than 0.05) and renal plasma flow increased from 535 +/- 10 to 569 +/- 22 ml/min x 1.73 m2 (p less than 0.05). Kidney size changed from 128...

  1. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Karimi; Masoud Soheilian; Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lympho...

  2. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni Borghese, María F; Ortiz, María C; Balonga, Sabrina; Moreira Szokalo, Rocío; Majowicz, Mónica P

    2016-01-01

    Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA). The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth. PMID:26872270

  3. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal(1 Samir A.M.Zaahkouk

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow, food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect might explain hyperactivity of children that was claimed associated with consumption of food colorants. The study revealed that administration of both natural and synthetic food colorants (permitted dose significantly increases serum AST and serum urea. All colorants with the exception of sun-set yellow significantly increase serum total bilirubin. While, chlorophyll, fast-green and sun-set yellow were significantly increase serum ALT. Some of the colorants used have a retard destructive effect on some vital organ functions, which extends even after the recovery period. Therefore, large quantities and /or long periods of colorants administration should not be used as additive in man's diet or as a drink. Hence, these colorants should restrictly be used in nutritional therapy. And more caring must be done prevent our children to eat or drink these colorants with much amounts or for long period.

  4. Prohibitin-2 Depletion Unravels Extra-Mitochondrial Functions at the Kidney Filtration Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ising, Christina; Bharill, Puneet; Brinkkoetter, Sibylle; Brähler, Sebastian; Schroeter, Christina; Koehler, Sybille; Hagmann, Henning; Merkwirth, Carsten; Höhne, Martin; Müller, Roman U; Fabretti, Francesca; Schermer, Bernhard; Bloch, Wilhelm; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Kurschat, Christine E; Benzing, Thomas; Brinkkoetter, Paul T

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial fusion is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial function and requires the prohibitin ring complex subunit prohibitin-2 (PHB2) at the mitochondrial inner membrane. Loss of the stomatin/PHB/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain containing protein PHB2 causes mitochondrial dysfunction and defective mitochondria-mediated signaling, which is implicated in a variety of human diseases, including progressive renal disease. Here, we provide evidence of additional, extra-mitochondrial functions of this membrane-anchored protein. Immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling detected PHB2 at mitochondrial membranes and at the slit diaphragm, a specialized cell junction at the filtration slit of glomerular podocytes. PHB2 coprecipitated with podocin, another SPFH domain-containing protein, essential for the assembly of the slit diaphragm protein-lipid supercomplex. Consistent with an evolutionarily conserved extra-mitochondrial function, the ortholog of PHB2 in Caenorhabditis elegans was also not restricted to mitochondria but colocalized with the mechanosensory complex that requires the podocin ortholog MEC2 for assembly. Knockdown of phb-2 partially phenocopied loss of mec-2 in touch neurons of the nematode, resulting in impaired gentle touch sensitivity. Collectively, these data indicate that, besides its established role in mitochondria, PHB2 may have an additional function in conserved protein-lipid complexes at the plasma membrane. PMID:27105734

  5. RENAL-FUNCTION AND KIDNEY SIZE IN GLYCOGEN-STORAGE-DISEASE TYPE-I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    REITSMABIERENS, WCC; SMIT, GPA; TROELSTRA, JA

    1992-01-01

    Renal failure has been reported recently as a late complication of glycogen storage disease type I (GSD I). We studied the renal function of 23 patients, mean age 10.9 years (range 2.2-21.6 years). The mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were 188 +/- 50 and 9

  6. Renal function and incidence of chronic kidney disease in HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Magnus G; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Impaired renal function is of major concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Methods: We used a mixed effects linear regression model to determine estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) in a population-based cohort of incident Danish HIV patient...

  7. MR velocity mapping measurement of renal artery blood flow in patients with impaired kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, M; Petersen, L.J.; Stahlberg, F;

    1996-01-01

    . MR velocity mapping was performed in both renal arteries using an ECG-triggered gradient echo pulse sequence previously validated in normal volunteers. Effective renal plasma flow was calculated from the clearance rate of PAH during constant infusion and the split of renal function was evaluated by...

  8. Impact of training at ventilatory threshold on cardiopulmonary and functional capacity in overweight patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Takashi Aoike

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD and obesity are both associated with reduced physical capacity. The potential benefit of aerobic training on physical capacity has been recognized. The exercise intensity can be established using different methods mostly subjective or indirect. Ventilatory threshold (VT is a direct and objective method that allows prescribing exercise intensity according to individual capacity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of aerobic training at VT intensity on cardiopulmonary and functional capacities in CKD patients with excess of body weight. METHODS: Ten CKD patients (eight men, 49.7 ± 10.1 years; BMI 30.4 ± 3.5 kg/m², creatinine clearance 39.4 ± 9.8 mL/min/1.73 m² underwent training on a treadmill three times per week during 12 weeks. Cardiopulmonary capacity (ergoespirometry, functional capacity and clinical parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: At the end of 12 weeks, VO2PEAK increased by 20%, and the speed at VO2PEAK increased by 16%. The training resulted in improvement in functional capacity tests, such as six-minute walk test (9.2%, two-minute step test (20.3%, arm curl test (16.3%, sit and stand test (35.7%, and time up and go test (15.3%. In addition, a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures was observed despite no change in body weight, sodium intake and antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise performed at VT intensity improved cardipulmonary and functional capacities of overweight CKD patients. Additional benefit on blood pressure was observed. These results suggest that VT can be effectively applied for prescribing exercise intensity in this particular group of patients.

  9. 99mTc-MAG3 scintigraphy for the longitudinal follow-up of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Herrler, Tanja; Wang, Hao; Tischer, Anne; Bartenstein, Peter; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Guba, Markus; Diemling, Markus; Nimmon, Cyril; Hacker, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental models are essential tools in the development and evaluation of novel treatment options, but the preclinical model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is limited to the retrieval of (very) early functional data, leaving the pivotal long-term outcome unknown. The present study applies technetium-99m-mercapto-acetyl-tri-glycine [99mTc-MAG3] scintigraphy for the longitudinal follow-up examination of long-term kidney function after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Metho...

  10. Semiparametric Methods to Contrast Gap Time Survival Functions: Application to Repeat Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Xu; Schaubel, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Times between successive events (i.e., gap times) are of great importance in survival analysis. Although many methods exist for estimating covariate effects on gap times, very few existing methods allow for comparisons between gap times themselves. Motivated by the comparison of primary and repeat transplantation, our interest is specifically in contrasting the gap time survival functions and their integration (restricted mean gap time). Two major challenges in gap time analysis are non-ident...

  11. Functional and histopathological changes in dog kidneys after administration of cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Abildgaard, U; Larsen, S;

    1987-01-01

    significantly. The histological changes are in agreement with the physiological data which point to the proximal tubules as the more severely damaged segment. In conclusion, the depressed renal function 48-72 h after administration of cisplatin can be attributed to impairment of proximal as well as distal...... tubular reabsorptive capacities associated with increased renal vascular resistance. The polyuria seems to be due to impaired reabsorption rates in the distal nephron segments, which will affect the concentration mechanism....

  12. MR imaging of kidneys: functional evaluation using F-15 perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children with hydronephrosis are typically investigated by a combination of diuretic renal scintigraphy, ultrasound, and voiding cystourethrography. Unfortunately, there is no gold standard to assess obstruction. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced MR urography in the investigation of children with hydronephrosis to define urinary tract anatomy, to calculate differential renal function and to assess urinary tract obstruction. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed in 40 children with unilateral hydronephrosis. There were 14 girls and 26 boys with an age range of 1 month to 14 years (mean 1.4 years). The information from traditional imaging modalities was compared to the information obtained from the single MR study. The anatomic imaging with MR urography was superior to other modalities. The split renal function was estimated with MR urography by calculating the volume of enhancing renal parenchyma and was comparable to renal scintigraphy (r=0.98). By using surgery versus non-surgery as the decision point, with MR urography the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 71%, positive predictive value 86%, negative predictive value 100%, and diagnostic efficiency 90%. For renal scintigraphy the sensitivity was 96%, the specificity 56%, positive predictive value 76%, negative predictive value 90%, and diagnostic efficiency 79%. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR urography provides superior anatomic and functional information when compared with ultrasound and diuretic renal scintigraphy. The information is gathered in a single study that does not use ionizing radiation. It is likely that MR urography will replace renal scintigraphy in the evaluation of hydronephrosis in children. (orig.)

  13. Biological markers for kidney injury and renal function in the intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, M.J.; Spronk, P.E.; Royakkers, A.A.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations described in this thesis was to seek for answers to two relevant questions in ICUs in resource-rich settings, i.e., can new biological markers play a role in early recognition of AKI, and can new biological markers predict recovery of renal function in patients who receive CVVH? A second aim was to answer a relevant question in ICUs in resource-poor settings, i.e., can novel biological markers predict development of AKI and need for RRT in patients with sever...

  14. Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for dysexecutive function in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Andrea R; Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol; Bitzer, Markus; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the metabolic syndrome and its components on dysexecutive function (DF) in individuals with and without CKD. Among 588 participants aged over 70 from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), we defined DF as performance of 2SDs below the mean on any one test or 1.5SDs below the mean on any two of the following: Block Design, Digit Symbol Coding and the Trail-making Tests A and B. We defined CKD as an eGFR below 60 mL/min/m(2). MetS was defined according to recent guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Program. 149 participants had CKD at cross-section, 16.1% of which also showed DF. Of the 439 participants without CKD, 12.3% displayed DF. Abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference, was an independent risk factor for dysexecutive function in CKD (OR = 14.3, 95%CI = 2.21-91.93, p = 0.005) but not in non-CKD. None of the other MetS components were associated with DF. Results suggested that abdominal obesity, recognized as an integral part of the MetS, is a strong risk factor for DF in individuals with CKD. PMID:27413673

  15. Post re-anastomosis demonstration of regain in function in non-visualized upper half of kidney in a dual arterial allogenic renal graft on renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young male patient with end stage renal disease underwent renal allograft having dual arterial supply. Immediate post-operative urine output dropped, an urgent Technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) renogram revealed non-visualized upper-half and the preserved perfusion and parenchymal function of the small transplant kidney. Patient was re-explored and re-anastomosis was performed. A renogram at 24h post re-anastomosis revealed increase in the size of renal allograft, with preserved perfusion to the upper-half of transplant. Transplant kidney biopsy of the Upper-half showed acute tubular necrosis. 99mTc-MAG3renogram at 10 days post re-vascularization remains unchanged with persistent improvement at 2 months follow-up. We conclude that early recognition of renal functional loss allows early management and the high probability of salvaging the renal function

  16. Reversal of Dabigatran Using Idarucizumab in a Septic Patient with Impaired Kidney Function in Real-Life Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Sina; Nagler, Michael; Schlittler, Fabian L.; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Immediate reversal of anticoagulation is essential when facing severe bleeding or emergency surgery. Although idarucizumab is approved for the reversal of dabigatran in many countries, clinical experiences are lacking, particularly in special patient-populations such as sepsis and impaired renal function. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 67-year-old male septic patient with a multilocular facial abscess and chronic kidney disease (GFR 36.5 mL/min). Thrombin time (TT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) 15 hours after the last intake of 150 mg dabigatran were both prolonged (>120 sec, resp., 61 sec), as well as unbound dabigatran concentration (119.05 ng/mL). Before immediate emergency surgery dabigatran was antagonised using idarucizumab 2 × 2.5 g. Dabigatran concentration was not detectable 10 min after idarucizumab administration (life practice in a patient with sepsis and renal impairment and allowed emergency surgery with normal haemostasis. Efficacy and safety in real-life practice will nevertheless require prospective registries monitoring.

  17. Association of Serum Ferritin and Kidney Function with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Il Hwan; Choi, Eun Young; Park, Joon-Sung; Lee, Chang Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Ferritin is considered to be a marker of the body’s iron stores and has a potential relationship with the systemic manifestations of inflammatory reactions. Data on the association between increased levels of serum ferritin and ocular problems are limited, particularly in relation to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Serum ferritin levels, as a possible clinical parameter for predicting AMD, were analyzed in anthropometric, biochemical, and ophthalmologic data from a nation-wide, population-based, case-control study (KNHNES IV and V). All native Koreans aged ≥ 20 years and who had no medical illness were eligible to participate. Among them, 2.9% had AMD, and its prevalence was found to increase in the higher ferritin quintile groups (Ptrend AMD. Comparison of early AMD with a control group showed that serum ferritin levels were closely associated with AMD (OR = 1.004, 95% CI = 1.002–1.006), and further adjustment for age, gender, serum iron, and kidney function did not reduce this association (OR = 1.003, 95% CI = 1.001–1.006). Furthermore, the relationship between ferritin quintile and early AMD was dose-dependent. Thus, an increased level of serum ferritin in a healthy person may be a useful indicator of neurodegenerative change in the macula. A large population-based prospective clinical study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27096155

  18. EVALUATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS TREATMENT ON KIDNEY FUNCTION AND LIPID PEROXIDATION STATUS IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED WITH L-NAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypertension, the disease known as the silent killer, is a common problem facing peoples today with million new cases being diagnosed each year. Although a great amount of money is spent annually for the treatment and detection of this disease and its complications, current conventional treatment have done little to reduce the number of patients with hypertension. Research has found a variety of alternative therapies to be successful in reducing high blood pressure including diet, exercise, stress management, supplements and herbs.In this study, the changes in some selected biochemical blood variables, which are thought to represent risk factors coincident with hypertension and kidney function, were compared between a group of normotensive male albino rats and other group suffered from hypertension induced artificially by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Also, this study investigated the effects of daily administration of some antioxidants nutrients for two weeks namely carnitine, coenzyme Q10 , garlic oil and their mixture on the same variables in order to show to what extent these nutrients are valid to control the levels of these variables without any deleterious effects after treatment. Fifty mg of coenzyme Q10 and 50 mg of carnitine were daily injected intraperitoneally for two weeks in two groups of hypertensive rats while 200 mg/kg b.wt was given to another group of hypertensive rats by oral intubation. A combination of all the above mentioned nutrients was given to the fourth group. Another hypertensive group was left without any treatment and served as a recovery group. Fasting blood samples were drawn and kidney tissues were taken at the terminal of treatments.The obtained results revealed that induced hypertension caused significant (P<0.05) increase of thiobarbeturic acid reactive substances (TBARs), malondialdehyde (MAD), parathormone (PTH), renin, blood urea, creatinine, phosphorus, sodium and potassium while glutathione (GSH), calcium and

  19. [Bilateral caudate head infarcts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, N; Yamamoto, Y; Akiguchi, I; Oiwa, K; Nakajima, K

    1997-11-01

    We reported a 67-year-old woman with bilateral caudate head infarcts. She developed sudden mutism followed by abulia. She was admitted to our hospital 2 months after ictus for further examination. She showed prominent abulia and was inactive, slow and apathetic. Spontaneous activity and speech, immediate response to queries, spontaneous word recall and attention and persistence to complex programs were disturbed. Apparent motor disturbance, gait disturbance, motor aphasia, apraxia and remote memory disturbance were not identified. She seemed to be depressed but not sad. Brain CT and MRI revealed bilateral caudate head hemorrhagic infarcts including bilateral anterior internal capsules, in which the left lesion was more extensive than right one and involved the part of the left putamen. These infarct locations were thought to be supplied by the area around the medial striate artery including Heubner's arteries and the A1 perforator. Digital subtraction angiography showed asymptomatic right internal carotid artery occlusion. She bad had hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation and also had a left atrium with a large diameter. The infarcts were thought to be caused by cardioembolic occlusion to the distal portion of the left internal carotid artery. Although some variations of vasculature at the anterior communicating artery might contribute to bilateral medial striate artery infarcts, we could not demonstrate such abnormalities by angiography. Bilateral caudate head infarcts involving the anterior internal capsule may cause prominent abulia. The patient did not improve by drug and rehabilitation therapy and died suddenly a year after discharge. PMID:9503974

  20. Bilateral popliteal arterial dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Liang; Ko, Shih-Yu; Tan, Ken-Hing

    2012-01-01

    A clinical feature of bilateral popliteal arterial dissection without involving the descending aorta, bilateral iliac, as well as femoral arteries has never been reported in the past literature. We report a 56-year-old man with hypertension and coronary artery disease who presented to our emergency department with complaints of bilateral knee pain after long-distance walking. Physical examination was notable for elevated blood pressure, but there was no palpable pulsation over dorsalis pedis arteries on his feet. Laboratory evaluation revealed a d-dimer level of 35.2 mg/L (FEU) on the day of the test and 1.2 mg/L one and a half months ago (normal level, <0.55). These findings were suggestive of a recent-onset peripheral arterial occlusive disorder. Computed tomography of the aorta showed bilateral popliteal arterial dissection with arterial intimal flap. Abdominal aorta, bilateral iliac, and femoral arteries remained intact with only arteriosclerotic change. Minimally invasive endovascular stent grafting was then performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:21106320

  1. Initial effect of enalapril on kidney function in patients with moderate to severe chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Thomsen, H S; Nielsen, S L; Strandgaard, S

    1990-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors has been suggested to halt the progression of chronic renal failure. As the initial step of a controlled trial of this hypothesis, it was investigated whether start of enalapril in patients with severe chronic nephropathy might cause a critical fall in...... their renal function. Thirty-one patients were studied, 26 on chronic antihypertensive treatment with drugs other than ACE inhibitors and 5 untreated normotensive. 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance and renal technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) scintigraphy were made before and 24 h after start...... scintigrams showed no intrarenal activity defects. In conclusion, enalapril caused a fall in GFR, which was clinically acceptable in most of the patients....

  2. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goodpasture syndrome IgA nephropathy Interstitial nephritis Lupus nephritis Medullary cystic kidney disease Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Membranous nephropathy Minimal change disease Nephrotic ...

  3. Diagnosis and management of diabetes and the relationship of dglucose to kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Anil K; Hiebert, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews different glycemic parameters and is aimed to clarify the most dependable glycemic parameter that predicts renal preservation. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) are the most commonly ordered tests for the diagnosis of diabetes and are also used to indicate prevention of microvascular complications associated with diabetes. Some experts have concluded that HbA1c remains the only test that can predict microvascular complications but HbA1c is misleading with anemia. Other experts have reported that elevation of 2 hour postprandial glucose (2hPPG) or postprandial hyperglycemia is critical for the development of diabetic complications Measurement of parameters under fasting conditions is convenient in both clinical and research settings and are used to establish clinical guidelines for diabetes management and for rating efficacy of management. Despite the use of these diagnostic markers and a plethora of oral antidiabetic agents to treat diabetes, diabetic complications namely; cardiovascular disorders (CVD), end stage renal disease (ESRD) and amputation are on the rise. Although affirmative data on many of the complications are not available, the United States Renal Data System on ESRD is a testimonial to poor diabetes care. We have innovated dglucose (2hPPG-FBG) and found that dglucose relates significantly to renal function change measured by serum creatinine levels or estimated glomerular filtration rate. Our current study on dglucose confirms our previous finding and validates the importance of dglucose to aid in the management of diabetes and prevents diabetic complications. In conclusion, the new finding in this study is dglucose (2h-postprandial glucose-Fasting glucose) which convincingly relates to renal function changes. Since dglucose is a product of 2hPP glucose, keeping 2hPPG under tight control with intensive insulin therapy is fundamentally important. Further blood pressure control avoiding the use of

  4. Escleritis posterior bilateral Bilateral posterior scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zurutuza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática.Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

  5. Spiral CT in kidney: assumption of renal function by objective evaluation of renal cortical enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate the degree of renal cortical enhancement, objectively evaluated by means of spiral CT with the serum level of creatinine, and to determine the extent to which this degree of enhancement may be used to detect renal parenchymal disease. Eighty patients (M:F = 50:30; age + 25-19, (mean 53) years) with available serum level of creatinine who underwent spiral CT between September and October 1999 were included in this study. In fifty patients the findings suggested hepatic or biliary diseases such as hepatoma, biliary cancer, or stone, while in thirty, renal diseases such as cyst, hematoma, or stone appeared to be present. Spiral CT imaging of the cortical phase was obtained at 30-40 seconds after the injection of 120 ml of non-ionic media at a rate of 3 ml/sec. The degree of renal cortical enhancement was calculated by dividing the CT attenuation number of renal cortex at the level of the renal hilum by the CT attenuation number of aorta at the same level. The degree of renal cortical enhancement was compared with the serum level of creatinine, and the degree of renal cortical enhancement in renal parenchymal disease with that of the normal group. Among eighty patients there were five with renal parenchymal disease and 75 with normal renal function. The ratio of the CT attenuation number of renal cortex to that of aorta at the level of the renal hilum ranged between 0.49 and 0.99 (mean, 0.79; standard deviation, 0.15). while the serum level of creatinine ranged between 0.6 and 3.2 mg/dl. There was significant correlation (coefficient of -0.346) and a statistically significant probability of 0.002 between the ratio of the CT attenuation numbers and the serum level of creatinine. There was a significant difference (statistically significant probability of less than 0.01) between those with renal parenchymal disease and the normal group. The use of spiral CT to measure the degree of renal cortical enhancement provides not only an effective index for

  6. Bilaterally Incarcerated Morgagni Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Demirhan Yananli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a rare congenital diaphragmatic hernia. It is seen rarely bilaterally. Patients are usually asymptomatic. Therefore, diagnosis may be delayed until adulthood. Significant morbidity can occur in case complications arise and diagnosis is delayed. The patient, a 74 year-old female, presented in this article, was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain, vomiting, and shortness of breath. The plain abdominal radiograph of the patient revealed bowel obstruction and suspicious appearence in favor of the diaphragmatic hernia on both sides of the sternum. Computed tomography revealed bilaterally incarcerated Morgagni hernia with strangulated omentum in the right side of the sternum and a part of colon in the left side of sternum. Incarcerated organs were withdrawn to peritoneal cavity and defects of hernia were sutured primarily on laparatomy. Because bilateral incarcerated Morgagni hernia can be seen rarely, this case was reported.

  7. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni Borghese, María F.; Ortiz, María C.; Balonga, Sabrina; Moreira Szokalo, Rocío; Majowicz, Mónica P.

    2016-01-01

    Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA). The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth. PMID:26872270

  8. Protein-induced changes in kidney function depend on the time of administration but not on the dietary source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzio, C; Mutti, A; Perazzoli, F; Alinovi, R; Arisi, L; Negro, A

    1990-01-01

    Two separate experiments were carried out to study the effects of the same acute protein load given at different hours of the day and to assess the ability of proteins from different sources to induce hyperfiltration. In the first experiment, 9 healthy volunteers were kept at strict bedrest for 48 h, during which both a meat high-protein meal (protein load, PL) and a vegetable low-protein meal (control load, CL) were given either at lunch or at suppertime. As compared to a CL, PL determined a significant increase in GFR, total proteinuria (uTP), albuminuria (uA), and urinary retinol-binding protein (uRBP). These effects were much more significant after lunch PL than after supper PL, thus indicating an interaction between the PL and the time of the day. The existence of a circadian rhythm for GFR, uTP, uA, and uRBP was corroborated by spontaneous changes over baseline levels, which also were prominent after lunch CL as compared to those following supper CL. In the second experiment, 7 healthy volunteers ingested at lunch three protein-rich meals at 1-week intervals. The three protein loads consisted of about 80 g protein in the form of cooked red meat, cheese, and soya, respectively. The only significant differences between groups were urea appearance and urea clearance, lower and higher, respectively after soya load. These findings suggest that when evaluating the renal functional reserve after acute protein load both the spontaneous changes and the time-dependent sensitivity of kidney functions to acute challenges should be considered. Finally, the amount rather than quality of dietary proteins seems to be the determinant factor for protein-induced glomerular hyperfiltration. PMID:2077404

  9. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Albertoni Borghese

    Full Text Available Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA. The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth.

  10. Hepcidin-25 in chronic hemodialysis patients is related to residual kidney function and not to treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelke C van der Weerd

    Full Text Available Hepcidin-25, the bioactive form of hepcidin, is a key regulator of iron homeostasis as it induces internalization and degradation of ferroportin, a cellular iron exporter on enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes. Hepcidin levels are increased in chronic hemodialysis (HD patients, but as of yet, limited information on factors associated with hepcidin-25 in these patients is available. In the current cross-sectional study, potential patient-, laboratory- and treatment-related determinants of serum hepcidin-20 and -25, were assessed in a large cohort of stable, prevalent HD patients. Baseline data from 405 patients (62% male; age 63.7 ± 13.9 [mean SD] enrolled in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556 were studied. Predialysis hepcidin concentrations were measured centrally with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Patient-, laboratory- and treatment related characteristics were entered in a backward multivariable linear regression model. Hepcidin-25 levels were independently and positively associated with ferritin (p<0.001, hsCRP (p<0.001 and the presence of diabetes (p = 0.02 and inversely with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01, absolute reticulocyte count (p = 0.02 and soluble transferrin receptor (p<0.001. Men had lower hepcidin-25 levels as compared to women (p = 0.03. Hepcidin-25 was not associated with the maintenance dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA or iron therapy. In conclusion, in the currently studied cohort of chronic HD patients, hepcidin-25 was a marker for iron stores and erythropoiesis and was associated with inflammation. Furthermore, hepcidin-25 levels were influenced by residual kidney function. Hepcidin-25 did not reflect ESA or iron dose in chronic stable HD patients on maintenance therapy. These results suggest that hepcidin is involved in the pathophysiological pathway of renal anemia and iron availability in these patients, but

  11. Renal imaging in children with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Rahmawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic kidney failure is a cause of death in children. Diagnosing chronic kidney disease is often made by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and ultrasonography or other imaging tests. Early detection of chronic kidney disease is needed for education and management of the disease. Objective To describe renal imaging findings and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on children with kidney diseases who were inpatients at Dr. Kariadi Hospital from January 2008 to June 2011. Data were taken from medical records. Chronic kidney disease was confirmed by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and radiologic imaging. Renal ultrasound findings were determined by the radiologist responsible at that time. Results were presented as frequency distributions. Results Of 37 chronic kidney disease cases, 27 were males and 10 were females. Subjects’ most common complaints were dyspnea (7 out of 37 and edema (30 out of 37. Renal ultrasound imaging of subjects with chronic kidney disease yielded the following findings: reduced cortico-medullary differentiation (30 out of 37, bilateral echogenic kidneys (21 out of 37, reduced renal cortex thickness (4 out of 37 and small-sized kidneys (4 out of 37. Eight of the 37 children died. These 8 subjects had the following radiologic imaging findings: both kidneys appeared small in size (4 out of 8, reduced ‘renal cortex’ thickness (4 out of 8, echogenic kidneys (6 out of 8, and reduced cortico-medullary differentiation (8 out of 8. Conclusion Renal ultrasound imaging of pediatric subjects with chronic kidney disease revealed findings of reduced cortico-medullary differentiation, bilateral echogenic kidneys, reduced renal cortex thickness, and small kidneys bilaterally. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:193-9.].

  12. Efficacy of bilateral pallidotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, R; Alterman, R; Kelly, P J; Fazzini, E; Eidelberg, D; Beric, A; Sterio, D

    1997-03-15

    Unilateral pallidotomy is a safe and effective treatment for medically refractory bradykinetic Parkinson's disease, especially in those patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia and severe on-off fluctuations. The efficacy of bilateral pallidotomy is less certain. The authors completed 11 of 12 attempted bilateral pallidotomies among 150 patients undergoing pallidotomy at New York University. In all but one patient, the pallidotomies were separated by at least 9 months. Patients were selected for bilateral pallidotomy if they exhibited bilateral rigidity, bradykinesia, or levodopa-induced dyskinesia prior to treatment or if they exhibited disease progression contralateral to their previously treated side. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and timed upper-extremity tasks of the Core Assessment Protocol for Intracerebral Transplantation (CAPIT) were administered to all 12 patients in the "off" state (12 hours without receiving medications) preoperatively and again at 6 and 12 months after each procedure. The median UPDRS and contralateral CAPIT scores improved 60% following the initial procedure (p = 0.008, Wilcoxon rank sums test). The second pallidotomy generated only an additional 10% improvement in the UPDRS and CAPIT scores ipsilateral to the original procedure (p = 0.05). Worsened speech was observed in two cases. In the 12th case, total speech arrest was noted during test stimulation. Speech returned within minutes after stimulation was halted. Lesioning was not performed. These results indicate that bilateral pallidotomy has a narrow therapeutic window. Motor improvement ipsilateral to the first lesion leaves little room for further improvement from the second lesion and the risk of speech deficit is greatly enhanced. Chronic pallidal stimulation contralateral to a previously successful pallidotomy may prove to be a safer alternative for the subset of patients who require bilateral procedures. PMID:15096015

  13. Anorexia nervosa and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquegneau, Antoine; Dubois, Bernard E; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Delanaye, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a common psychiatric disorder that disproportionately affects adolescents and young adults and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Anorexia nervosa can affect the kidney in numerous ways, including increased rates of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease, electrolyte abnormalities, and nephrolithiasis. Additionally, the diagnosis and treatment of anorexia nervosa-associated kidney diseases are challenging, reflecting complications such as refeeding syndrome, as well as the limitations of serum creatinine level in this population to estimate kidney function and the psychosocial challenges inherent with treating systemic manifestations of psychiatric conditions. In this review, we discuss kidney diseases and kidney-associated conditions that occur in individuals with anorexia nervosa, summarizing many of the challenges in treating patients with this disease. PMID:22609034

  14. Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin Is an Early and Accurate Biomarker of Graft Function and Tissue Regeneration in Kidney Transplantation from Extended Criteria Donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Cantaluppi

    Full Text Available Delayed graft function (DGF is an early complication of kidney transplantation (KT associated with increased risk of early loss of graft function. DGF increases using kidneys from extended criteria donors (ECD. NGAL is a 25KDa protein proposed as biomarker of acute kidney injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NGAL as an early and accurate indicator of DGF and Tacrolimus (Tac toxicity and as a mediator of tissue regeneration in KT from ECD.We evaluated plasma levels of NGAL in 50 KT patients from ECD in the first 4 days after surgery or after Tac introduction.Plasma levels of NGAL at day 1 were significantly higher in DGF group. In the non DGF group, NGAL discriminated between slow or immediate graft function and decreased more rapidly than serum creatinine. NGAL increased after Tac introduction, suggesting a role as marker of drug toxicity. In vitro, hypoxia and Tac induced NGAL release from tubular epithelial cells (TEC favoring an autocrine loop that sustains proliferation and inhibits apoptosis (decrease of caspases and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.NGAL is an early and accurate biomarker of graft function in KT from ECD favoring TEC regeneration after ischemic and nephrotoxic injury.

  15. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  16. Bilateral neck paragangliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumoli, N; Cei, M; Pauletti, M; Ferrito, G; Scazzeri, F

    2009-10-01

    Paragangliomas of the head and neck are rare neoplasms presented as cervical mass, generally bilateral, that arise from chemoreceptors located at the carotid bifurcation (carotid body tumors), along the vagus nerve (vagal paragangliomas), and in the jugular fossa and tympanic cavity (jugulotympanic paragangliomas). They are typically asymptomatic at the beginning, highly vascular, slow-growing and compressing the surrounding anatomic structures. Only radical surgery is the curative treatment for paragangliomas. We present a case of a 62- year-old woman with a diagnosis of bilateral neck paragangliomas where surgical removal was judged burdened by excessive risk because of the size of the tumor. PMID:19622673

  17. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay; Aditya Pratap; Chetan; Ramesh; Rajlaxmi Jaysing

    2014-01-01

    : Immature teratoma (IMT) is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fac...

  18. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : Immature teratoma (IMT is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fact that the patient age is below the average for the occurrence of these tumors.

  19. Glomerular filtration rate and segmental tubular function in the early phase after transplantation/uninephrectomy in recipients and their living-related kidney donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Strandgaard, S;

    1994-01-01

    1. Glomerular filtration rate and sequential tubular function were investigated in 18 adult renal transplant recipients and in their matched, adult living-related kidney donors before and 5 days after transplantation/uninephrectomy. At day 54, 13 donors and 11 recipients were re-investigated. Six......1. Glomerular filtration rate and sequential tubular function were investigated in 18 adult renal transplant recipients and in their matched, adult living-related kidney donors before and 5 days after transplantation/uninephrectomy. At day 54, 13 donors and 11 recipients were re......-investigated. Sixteen of these constituted eight matched pairs. This reduction in the study population was caused by the application of two withdrawal criteria. 2. In the recipients glomerular filtration rate was unchanged at day 5 and had increased to 61 ml/min at day 54 (P < 0.05). In the donors glomerular filtration...

  20. Robot-assisted "Santosh-Post Graduate Institute tubularized flap pyelovesicostomy" in a solitary functioning kidney with giant hydronephrosis: A minimally invasive salvage procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Shivanshu; Kumar, Navneet

    2016-03-01

    We describe a case of a solitary functioning kidney with giant hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction in a young girl who underwent successful robot-assisted tubularized flap pyelovesicostomy. The aim of this report was to highlight the feasibility and efficacy of this technique in salvaging such renal moieties and to present a brief review of the surgical options available for the management of giant hydronephrosis. PMID:26981597

  1. Prokineticin Receptor‐1 Is a New Regulator of Endothelial Insulin Uptake and Capillary Formation to Control Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular and Kidney Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Dormishian, Mojdeh; Turkeri, Gulen; Urayama, Kyoji; Nguyen, Thu Lan; Boulberdaa, Mounia; Messaddeq, Nadia; Renault, Gilles; Henrion, Daniel; Nebigil, Canan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Reciprocal relationships between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance result in a vicious cycle of cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic disorders. The mechanisms underlying these impairments are unclear. The peptide hormones prokineticins exert their angiogenic function via prokineticin receptor‐1 (PKR1). We explored the extent to which endothelial PKR1 contributes to expansion of capillary network and the transcapillary passage of insulin into the heart, kidney, and adip...

  2. Short- and long-term follow-up of glomerular and tubular renal markers of kidney function in hyperthyroid cats after treatment with radioiodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, I; Lefebvre, H P; Peremans, K; Meyer, E; Croubels, S; Vandermeulen, E; Kooistra, H; Saunders, J H; Binst, D; Daminet, S

    2009-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism can mask co-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previous studies showed that post-treatment renal azotemia can be predicted by pre-treatment assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We hypothesized that treatment of hyperthyroidism may have different effects on glomerular and tubular function and these changes might be predicted by additional pre-treatment variables than GFR. Serum total T4 (TT4), creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood pressure (BP), body weight (BW), GFR, urine specific gravity (USG), urinary protein/creatinine ratio (UPC) and retinol binding protein/creatinine ratio (uRBP/c) were evaluated before and 1, 4, 12 and 24 weeks post-treatment with radioiodine ((131)I) in 21 non-azotemic hyperthyroid cats. Cats were divided 24 weeks post-treatment into group A (normal kidney function, n=16) and group B (impaired kidney function, n=5). Serum TT4, GFR, UPC and uRBP/c decreased significantly after treatment for the complete group and group A (P<0.05), although GFR and uRBP/c did not change in group B. Serum creatinine and BW increased significantly from 1 week after treatment (P<0.05). There was no change in BUN, USG or BP. Pre-treatment serum TT4, GFR and USG differed significantly between group A and B (P<0.05). GFR at 4 weeks after treatment and maximum decrease in GFR could be partially predicted by a formula using pre-treatment GFR, serum TT4, serum creatinine, BUN and/or USG. Significant changes in kidney function occur within 4 weeks post-treatment and none thereafter. Pre-treatment measurement of GFR, USG and serum TT4 can have possible predictive value regarding the development of post-treatment renal azotemia. PMID:19010632

  3. Bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B.

  4. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Bergholt, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    ) surgery. The overall retreatment rate was 21.6% (57 of 264 patients). Cases treated with unilateral surgery had twice the risk of retreatment compared with cases undergoing bilateral surgery (28.7% vs 14.1%, respectively, p = 0.002). In accordance with previous studies, the data also showed that a...

  5. Bilateral lunate intraosseous ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intraosseous ganglion is a relatively uncommon, benign, cyst-like lesion that occurs in young and middle-aged adults. Most commonly seen adjacent to the hip, ankle, knee, or wrist, they are histologically identical to their soft tissue counterparts. A review of the literature revealed only two previously reported examples of bilateral symmetrical ganglia of the lunate bones. (orig.)

  6. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  7. Cilium, centrosome and cell cycle regulation in polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung; Battini, Lorenzo; Gusella, G Luca

    2011-10-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is the defining condition of a group of common life-threatening genetic disorders characterized by the bilateral formation and progressive expansion of renal cysts that lead to end stage kidney disease. Although a large body of information has been acquired in the past years about the cellular functions that characterize the cystic cells, the mechanisms triggering the cystogenic conversion are just starting to emerge. Recent findings link defects in ciliary functions, planar cell polarity pathway, and centrosome integrity in early cystic development. Many of the signals dysregulated during cystogenesis may converge on the centrosome for its central function as a structural support for cilia formation and a coordinator of protein trafficking, polarity, and cell division. Here, we will discuss the contribution of proliferation, cilium and planar cell polarity to the cystic signal and will analyze in particular the possible role that the basal bodies/centrosome may play in the cystogenetic mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Polycystic Kidney Disease. PMID:21376807

  8. Preoperative and postoperative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by /sup 99m/technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    /sup 99m/Technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy, consisting of the cortical image and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake rate, was used to assess preoperative and postoperative renal function in 55 patients with staghorn calculi. In 14 of 20 patients who had undergone extended pyelolithotomy and in 4 of 22 who had undergone nephrolithotomy there was an increase or no change in the postoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake in the surgically treated kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake in the patients who had undergone pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight per cent of the preoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake rate in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting the postoperative recovery of renal function. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal images provide evidence of morphological changes in the cortex of the kidney with stones and the dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake rate is a useful adjunct for quantitative assessments of preoperative and postoperative residual cortical function

  9. Laparoscopic nephrectomy for giant staghorn calculus with non-functioning kidneys: Is associated unsuspected urothelial carcinoma responsible for conversion? Report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Pritesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Neglected renal stones remain a major cause of morbidity in developing countries. They not only result in functional impairment of affected kidney, but also act as an important predisposing factor for development of urothelial neoplasms. It is not uncommon to miss an associated urothelial tumor in a patient of nephrolithiasis preoperatively. Case presentation- In last 3 years, we came across two patients with giant staghorn calculus and poorly functioning kidneys who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy. In view of significant perirenal adhesions & loss of normal tissue planes both these patients were electively converted to open surgery. The pathological examination of specimen revealed an unsuspected urothelial carcinoma in both these patients. The summary of our cases and review of literature is presented. Conclusion- It is important to keep a differential diagnosis of associated urothelial malignancy in mind in patient presenting with long standing renal calculi. The exact role of a computerized tomography and cytology in preoperative workup for detection of possible associated malignancy in such condition is yet to be defined. Similarly if laparoscopic dissection appears difficult during nephrectomy for a renal calculus with non-functional kidney, keeping a possibility of associated urothelial malignancy in mind it is advisable to dissect in a plane outside gerotas fascia as for radical nephrectomy.

  10. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Marijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex refers to the genetic heterogeneous group of inherited tubulointerstital nephritis. Nephronophthisis comprises at last 3 clinical manifestations, has the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, appears early in life and is the most frequent inherited kidney disease that causes terminal renal failure in childhood, while medullary cystic kidney disease has the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, is less frequent, and terminal renal failure appears later in life. These two forms have similar clinical and morphological findings but extrarenal manifestations, the median ages of occurrence of terminal renal failure, and siblings presence help us distinguish these diseases. Case report. In this article we illustrated the case of a 20- years old patient with the suspicion of having complex nephornophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease based upon mild renal failure, seen in routinely taken laboratory findings and bilateral cysts in corticomedullary region of the kidneys verified on abdominal ultrasound examination. Conclusion. This disease should rise suspicion in children or adolescents with progressive renal failure, a typical clinical manifestation, blood and urine samples results, bilateral cysts in the corticomedullary region of the kidneys seen during ultrasound examination of the kidneys and family inheritance.

  11. Genetic spectrum of Saudi Arabian patients with antenatal cystic kidney disease and ciliopathy phenotypes using a targeted renal gene panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamed, Mohamed H; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsahan, Nada; Alabdullah, Zainab; Abudraz, Rania; Tulbah, Maha; Alnemer, Maha; Khan, Rubina; Al-Jurayb, Haya; Alahmed, Ahmed; Tahir, Asma I; Khalil, Dania; Edwards, Noel; Al Abdulaziz, Basma; Binhumaid, Faisal S; Majid, Salma; Faquih, Tariq; El-Kalioby, Mohamed; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Altassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Meyer, Brian; Sayer, John A; Albaqumi, Mamdouh

    2016-01-01

    Background Inherited cystic kidney disorders are a common cause of end-stage renal disease. Over 50 ciliopathy genes, which encode proteins that influence the structure and function of the primary cilia, are implicated in cystic kidney disease. Methods To define the phenotype and genotype of cystic kidney disease in fetuses and neonates, we correlated antenatal ultrasound examination and postnatal renal ultrasound examination with targeted exon sequencing, using a renal gene panel. A cohort of 44 families in whom antenatal renal ultrasound scanning findings in affected cases included bilateral cystic kidney disease, echogenic kidneys or enlarged kidneys was investigated. Results In this cohort, disease phenotypes were severe with 36 cases of stillbirth or perinatal death. Extra renal malformations, including encephalocele, polydactyly and heart malformations, consistent with ciliopathy phenotypes, were frequently detected. Renal gene panel testing identified causative mutations in 21 out of 34 families (62%), where patient and parental DNA was available. In the remaining 10 families, where only parental DNA was available, 7 inferred causative mutations were found. Together, mutations were found in 12 different genes with a total of 13 novel pathogenic variants, including an inferred novel variant in NEK8. Mutations in CC2D2A were the most common cause of an antenatal cystic kidney disease and a suspected ciliopathy in our cohort. Conclusions In families with ciliopathy phenotypes, mutational analysis using a targeted renal gene panel allows a rapid molecular diagnosis and provides important information for patients, parents and their physicians. PMID:26862157

  12. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  13. Do We Know What Causes Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can kidney cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes kidney cancer? Although many risk ... genes − the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  14. Clinical study concerning upper urinary tract obstruction, 2. Relationship between sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake in obstructed kidneys and their renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Tetsuo; Yamada, Tetsuo; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Yukio; Tasei, Yukimitsu (Sagamihara National Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    To establish a method of detecting divided renal function of the obstructed kidneys non-invasively, comparative studies on sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake (60 minutes after injection), I/sup 131/-hippuran renal uptake (1-2 minutes after injection) and divided creatinine clearance immediately after relief of urinary obstruction were made on 24 cases of obstructive uropathy. A close significant correlation was obtained between sup(99m)Tc-DMSA and I/sup 131/-hippuran renal uptakes ..gamma..=0.8809, P < 0.001). Also, a significant correlation was noted between sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake and divided creatinine clearance ..gamma..=0.7876, P < 0.001), but the latter constantly gave lower values than the former. These observations led us to conclude that sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake is a reliable indicator of the renal plasma flow in the obstructed kidneys. Quantitative divided renal function of the obstructed kidneys can be estimated by the sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake method.

  15. Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to go to the bathroom. When you pee, the urine goes from the bladder down another tube called the urethra (say: yu-REE-thruh) and out of your body. The kidneys, the bladder, and their tubes ...

  16. In infectious endocarditis patients mortality is highly related to kidney function at time of diagnosis: a prospective observational cohort study of 231 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T; Hassager, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    function at the time of admittance. METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study data from 235 consecutive IE patients were collected at 2 tertiary heart centres in Copenhagen. Kidney function was evaluated as Estimated Endogenous Creatinine Clearance (EECC) calculated at the time of admission....... Patients were divided into 4 groups according to their EECC: 1) >90 ml/min, 2) 60-90 ml/min, 3) 30-60 ml/min and 4) <30 ml/min. Mortality statistical analysis was then applied. RESULTS: >Gender: 70.2% male, mean age: 61.3+/-SD 15.0. The most common pathogens were streptococcus species (32.9%) and...

  17. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay;

    2015-01-01

    chronic kidney disease cohort. Methods: Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6-18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10-60 ml...

  18. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Şevik Eliçora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral facial paralysis caused by bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, with seven cases reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 40-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis and hearing loss that developed after an occupational accident. On physical examination, House-Brackmann (HB facial paralysis of grade 6 was observed on the right side and HB grade 5 paralysis on the left. Upon temporal bone computed tomography (CT examination, a fracture line exhibiting transverse progression was observed in both petrous temporal bones. Our patient underwent transmastoid facial decompression surgery of the right ear. The patient refused a left-side operation. Such patients require extensive monitoring in intensive care units because the presence of multiple injuries means that facial functions are often very difficult to evaluate. Therefore, delays may ensue in both diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial paralysis.

  19. Bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular dirofilariasis mostly presents as a subconjunctival or eyelid lesion. [1] Intraocular dirofilarial infestation is rare. [2],[3] We report a case of a young woman who was accidentally detected to have a live motile worm in the anterior segment in one eye and a cystic lesion on the optic disc in the other eye. To our knowledge, bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis has never been reported.

  20. Bilateral ocular osseous choristomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeung Hee; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Eun Joo; Park, Sang Joon; Seo, Young Lan [Hallym University, Department of Radiology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Byoung Jin [Hallym University, Department of Ophthalmology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-11-01

    Choristoma is a benign tumour defined as normal tissue in an ectopic location. Osseous choristoma, one subtype of this entity, occurring within the orbit has rarely been reported in the world literature. We report a 6-year-old girl with bilateral ocular osseous choristomas who presented with palpable nodules protruding from both upper lids. The radiological and clinical findings are described and previous reports are reviewed. (orig.)

  1. Bilateral Integrative Medicine, Obviously

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Simon J.; Stumpf, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Unstated and unacknowledged bias has a profound impact on the nature and implementation of integrative education models. Integrative education is the process of training conventional biomedical and traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in each tradition such that patient care may be effectively coordinated. A bilateral education model ensures that students in each tradition are cross-taught by experts from the ‘other’ tradition, imparting knowledge and values in unison. Acculturation is ...

  2. Bilateral lunate intraosseous ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablos, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Seville (Spain); Valdes, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Cemedi, Seville (Spain); Gavilan, F. [Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Seville (Spain)

    1998-12-01

    An intraosseous ganglion is a relatively uncommon, benign, cyst-like lesion that occurs in young and middle-aged adults. Most commonly seen adjacent to the hip, ankle, knee, or wrist, they are histologically identical to their soft tissue counterparts. A review of the literature revealed only two previously reported examples of bilateral symmetrical ganglia of the lunate bones. (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  3. Compressive Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kenjiro; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient constant-time bilateral filter that produces a near-optimal performance tradeoff between approximate accuracy and computational complexity without any complicated parameter adjustment, called a compressive bilateral filter (CBLF). The constant-time means that the computational complexity is independent of its filter window size. Although many existing constant-time bilateral filters have been proposed step-by-step to pursue a more efficient performance tradeoff, they have less focused on the optimal tradeoff for their own frameworks. It is important to discuss this question, because it can reveal whether or not a constant-time algorithm still has plenty room for improvements of performance tradeoff. This paper tackles the question from a viewpoint of compressibility and highlights the fact that state-of-the-art algorithms have not yet touched the optimal tradeoff. The CBLF achieves a near-optimal performance tradeoff by two key ideas: 1) an approximate Gaussian range kernel through Fourier analysis and 2) a period length optimization. Experiments demonstrate that the CBLF significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of approximate accuracy, computational complexity, and usability. PMID:26068315

  4. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and remote kidney preconditioning ameliorate brain damage through kidney-to-brain cross-talk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis N Silachev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many ischemia-induced neurological pathologies including stroke are associated with high oxidative stress. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants could rescue the ischemic organ by providing specific delivery of antioxidant molecules to the mitochondrion, which potentially suffers from oxidative stress more than non-mitochondrial cellular compartments. Besides direct antioxidative activity, these compounds are believed to activate numerous protective pathways. Endogenous anti-ischemic defense may involve the very powerful neuroprotective agent erythropoietin, which is mainly produced by the kidney in a redox-dependent manner, indicating an important role of the kidney in regulation of brain ischemic damage. The goal of this study is to track the relations between the kidney and the brain in terms of the amplification of defense mechanisms during SkQR1 treatment and remote renal preconditioning and provide evidence that the kidney can generate signals inducing a tolerance to oxidative stress-associated brain pathologies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the cationic plastoquinone derivative, SkQR1, as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant to alleviate the deleterious consequences of stroke. A single injection of SkQR1 before cerebral ischemia in a dose-dependent manner reduces infarction and improves functional recovery. Concomitantly, an increase in the levels of erythropoietin in urine and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β in the brain was detected 24 h after SkQR1 injection. However, protective effects of SkQR1 were not observed in rats with bilateral nephrectomy and in those treated with the nephrotoxic antibiotic gentamicin, indicating the protective role of humoral factor(s which are released from functional kidneys. Renal preconditioning also induced brain protection in rats accompanied by an increased erythropoietin level in urine and kidney tissue and P-GSK-3β in brain. Co-cultivation of SkQR1-treated

  5. Effect of chronic lead exposure on kidney function in male and female rats: determination of a lead exposure biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbe, F; Boujelbene, M; Makni-Ayadi, F; Guermazi, F; Kammoun, A; Murat, J; Croute, F; Soleilhavoup, J P; El-Feki, A

    2001-12-01

    Several cytotoxic chemical pollutants inducing peroxidative damages are liable to induce kidney failure. Among these pollutants we find heavy metals such as: lead, nickel, cadmium, vanadium and mercury. Lead is one of the most dangerous metals because it is widely spread in the environment, and because it may be a source of several nervous diseases. The aim of this study is to provide evidence concerning the effect of this metal on the renal function and to try to determine a storage corner in the organism which serves as an indicator of a lead intoxication. Lead acetate was administered by oral route in the drinking water to adult rats aged three months at the rate of 0.3% (P1) and 0.6% (P2). Reference rats received distilled water to drink under the same conditions. The treatment continued for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The creatinemia, uremia, glycemia and creatinuria are determined by colorimetric techniques. Lead concentration in blood as well as the lead content of the tail are determined by atomic absorption after nitroperchloric mineralization at the liquid stage. The results showed an increase of creatinemia on the 30th day of the experiment for both sexes in (P1 and P2). The same happened for ureamia. The increase of these two parameters would indicate a renal deficiency which is confirmed by a decrease of creatinuria and urinary pH observed mainly on and after the 45th day of the experiment. An increase of the renal relative weight was noticed in P1 and P2 on the 30th day of the treatment. The determination of the concentration of lead in the blood shows that this factor increases among treated subjects in a constant way, independently of the dose and the duration of the treatment. Nevertheless, the rate increase of lead in the tail seems to be dose-dependent. In conclusion, lead administered by oral route causes a renal deficiency to the rat without distinction between males and females. In addition, the tail seems to be a reliable exposure biomarker

  6. Bilateral hydronephrosis caused by vaginal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begliomini Helio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Even though it is uncommon, uterine prolapse can cause compression of ureters and bilateral hydronephrosis, predisposing to arterial hypertension and renal failure. Hydronephrosis consequent to cystocele and to vaginal prolapse is even rarer. CASE REPORT: This paper reports on a 59 year-old patient, Caucasian, obese and hysterectomized who presented complete vaginal prolapse with bilateral hydronephrosis and slight alteration in serum urea and creatinine. Patient underwent correction of vaginal prolapse by endoscopic suspension technique with improvement of hydronephrosis and normalization of renal function. This work emphasizes the rarity of such case and the requirement of surgical approach.

  7. Thrombolytic therapy in bilateral embolism of renal arteries branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassini Marcelo F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral renal artery embolism is rare, but it is a significant cause of arterial hypertension and renal failure, and most often is associated with cardiac arrhythmias. We report a case of bilateral renal artery embolism with a satisfactory outcome following use of thrombolytic therapy. A 42 year-old Caucasian man presented a sudden complaint of intense abdominal pain, in mesogastrium and left flank with dorsal irradiation, 3 days after electrical cardioversion due to cardiac arrhythmia. Laboratory tests revealed slight leukocytosis, hematuria, and creatinine of 1.8 mg/dL. Chest radiography was normal and computerized tomography showed an area of massive ischemia in left kidney, and focal ischemia in right kidney and spleen. The patient was then submitted to systemic venous therapy with 1.5 million units of streptokinase, with an excellent outcome.

  8. Osr1 Interacts Synergistically with Wt1 to Regulate Kidney Organogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyue Xu

    Full Text Available Renal hypoplasia is a common cause of pediatric renal failure and several adult-onset diseases. Recent studies have associated a variant of the OSR1 gene with reduction of newborn kidney size and function in heterozygotes and neonatal lethality with kidney defects in homozygotes. How OSR1 regulates kidney development and nephron endowment is not well understood, however. In this study, by using the recently developed CRISPR genome editing technology, we genetically labeled the endogenous Osr1 protein and show that Osr1 interacts with Wt1 in the developing kidney. Whereas mice heterozygous for either an Osr1 or Wt1 null allele have normal kidneys at birth, most mice heterozygous for both Osr1 and Wt1 exhibit defects in metanephric kidney development, including unilateral or bilateral kidney agenesis or hypoplasia. The developmental defects in the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- mouse embryos were detected as early as E10.5, during specification of the metanephric mesenchyme, with the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- mouse embryos exhibiting significantly reduced Pax2-positive and Six2-positive nephron progenitor cells. Moreover, expression of Gdnf, the major nephrogenic signal for inducing ureteric bud outgrowth, was significantly reduced in the metanephric mesenchyme in Osr1+/-Wt1+/- embryos in comparison with the Osr1+/- or Wt1+/- littermates. By E11.5, as the ureteric buds invade the metanephric mesenchyme and initiate branching morphogenesis, kidney morphogenesis was significantly impaired in the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- embryos in comparison with the Osr1+/- or Wt1+/- embryos. These results indicate that Osr1 and Wt1 act synergistically to regulate nephron endowment by controlling metanephric mesenchyme specification during early nephrogenesis.

  9. Osr1 Interacts Synergistically with Wt1 to Regulate Kidney Organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyue; Liu, Han; Chai, Ok Hee; Lan, Yu; Jiang, Rulang

    2016-01-01

    Renal hypoplasia is a common cause of pediatric renal failure and several adult-onset diseases. Recent studies have associated a variant of the OSR1 gene with reduction of newborn kidney size and function in heterozygotes and neonatal lethality with kidney defects in homozygotes. How OSR1 regulates kidney development and nephron endowment is not well understood, however. In this study, by using the recently developed CRISPR genome editing technology, we genetically labeled the endogenous Osr1 protein and show that Osr1 interacts with Wt1 in the developing kidney. Whereas mice heterozygous for either an Osr1 or Wt1 null allele have normal kidneys at birth, most mice heterozygous for both Osr1 and Wt1 exhibit defects in metanephric kidney development, including unilateral or bilateral kidney agenesis or hypoplasia. The developmental defects in the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- mouse embryos were detected as early as E10.5, during specification of the metanephric mesenchyme, with the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- mouse embryos exhibiting significantly reduced Pax2-positive and Six2-positive nephron progenitor cells. Moreover, expression of Gdnf, the major nephrogenic signal for inducing ureteric bud outgrowth, was significantly reduced in the metanephric mesenchyme in Osr1+/-Wt1+/- embryos in comparison with the Osr1+/- or Wt1+/- littermates. By E11.5, as the ureteric buds invade the metanephric mesenchyme and initiate branching morphogenesis, kidney morphogenesis was significantly impaired in the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- embryos in comparison with the Osr1+/- or Wt1+/- embryos. These results indicate that Osr1 and Wt1 act synergistically to regulate nephron endowment by controlling metanephric mesenchyme specification during early nephrogenesis. PMID:27442016

  10. [Present situation and question and prospect of study on kidney-supplementing and blood-activating method in treating ovaries functional disorders (infertility with dysfunctional ovulation) for stimulating ovaries reactive mechanism to gonadotropic hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun

    2011-09-01

    To summarize present situation of a study on kidney-supplementing and blood-activating method in treating ovaries functional disorders (infertility with dysfunctional ovulation) for stimulating ovaries reactive mechanism to gonadotropic hormones. Refer to correlative articles and combine clinical experience to report. Kidney-supplementing and blood-activating method have obvious therapeutic effect and no side effect and no adverse reaction. More attention are paid on influence factors and contribution about kidney-supplementing and blood-activating method in treating ovaries functional disorders especially on sex hormones, ovulating, corpora luteuman and implantation factors. Indicate the necessarity to develop polycentric kidney-supplementing and blood-activating method in treating ovaries functional disorders (infertility with dysfunctional ovulation) evaluation research. PMID:22121820

  11. Testing the ability of non-methylamine osmolytes present in kidney cells to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on structure, stability and function of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeza Khan

    Full Text Available Human kidney cells are under constant urea stress due to its urine concentrating mechanism. It is believed that the deleterious effect of urea is counteracted by methylamine osmolytes (glycine betaine and glycerophosphocholine present in kidney cells. A question arises: Do the stabilizing osmolytes, non-methylamines (myo-inositol, sorbitol and taurine present in the kidney cells also counteract the deleterious effects of urea? To answer this question, we have measured structure, thermodynamic stability (ΔG D (o and functional activity parameters (K m and k cat of different model proteins in the presence of various concentrations of urea and each non-methylamine osmolyte alone and in combination. We observed that (i for each protein myo-inositol provides perfect counteraction at 1∶2 ([myo-inositol]:[urea] ratio, (ii any concentration of sorbitol fails to refold urea denatured proteins if it is six times less than that of urea, and (iii taurine regulates perfect counteraction in a protein specific manner; 1.5∶2.0, 1.2∶2.0 and 1.0∶2.0 ([taurine]:[urea] ratios for RNase-A, lysozyme and α-lactalbumin, respectively.

  12. Epidermal growth factor enhances renal tubule cell regeneration and repair and accelerates the recovery of renal function in postischemic acute renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Humes, H D; Cieslinski, D A; T.M. Coimbra; Messana, J M; Galvao, C.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the timing and location of renal cell regeneration after ischemic injury to the kidney and to assess whether exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances this regenerative repair process to accelerate recovery of renal function, experiments were undertaken in rats undergoing 30 min of bilateral renal artery clamp ischemia followed by reperfusion for varying time intervals. Renal cell regeneration, as reflected by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine within the kidney, bega...

  13. Current Bioengineering Methods for Whole Kidney Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Yamanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney regeneration is likely to provide an inexhaustible source of tissues and organs for immunosuppression-free transplantation. It is currently garnering considerable attention and might replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, anatomical complications make kidney regeneration difficult. Here, we review recent advances in the field of kidney regeneration, including (i the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells/embryonic stem cells into kidney cells; (ii blastocyst decomplementation; (iii use of a decellularized cadaveric scaffold; (iv embryonic organ transplantation; and (v use of a nephrogenic niche for growing xenoembryos for de novo kidney regeneration from stem cells. All these approaches represent potentially promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Although many obstacles to kidney regeneration remain, we hope that innovative strategies and reliable research will ultimately allow the restoration of renal function in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

  14. Uncomplicated duplex kidney and DMSA scintigraphy in children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal duplication is the most common malformation of the urinary tract and is frequently seen among children with urinary tract infection (UTI). To evaluate problems in the interpretation of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and to establish the range of relative function in uncomplicated unilateral duplication. Retrospective analysis of 303 children less than 2 years of age with first time non-obstructive urinary tract infection investigated by both urography and DMSA scintigraphy. At DMSA scintigraphy, renal lesions and/or relative function below 45% was considered abnormal. Urography was used as reference for the diagnosis of duplication. Duplex kidneys were found in 22 of 303 patients (7%). Of the 16 children with unilateral duplication, 10 had bilaterally undamaged kidneys with a range of relative function varying between 51% and 57% in the duplex kidney. In two of the children with unilateral duplication the imaging results were discordant. There was risk of underdiagnosis as well as overdiagnosis of renal damage at scintigraphy. Although it is important to be aware of this risk, the rate of misinterpretation was low. A range of 51% to 57% can be used as the limit for normality of the relative function of a unilateral duplex kidney. (orig.)

  15. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  16. Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Kidneys Clear Keep Your Kidneys Clear Kicking Kidney Stones Some say that passing a kidney stone is like delivering a baby made of razor ... is that, although they can be excruciatingly painful, kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage, and you may be ...

  17. Assessment of metabolomic and proteomic biomarkers in detection and prognosis of progression of renal function in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nkuipou-Kenfack, Esther; Duranton, Flore; Gayrard, Nathalie; Argilés, Àngel; Lundin, Ulrika; Weinberger, Klaus M.; Dakna, Mohammed; Delles, Christian; Mullen, William; Husi, Holger; Klein, Julie; Koeck, Thomas; Zürbig, Petra; Mischak, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is part of a number of systemic and renal diseases and may reach epidemic proportions over the next decade. Efforts have been made to improve diagnosis and management of CKD. We hypothesised that combining metabolomic and proteomic approaches could generate a more systemic and complete view of the disease mechanisms. To test this approach, we examined samples from a cohort of 49 patients representing different stages of CKD. Urine samples were analysed for proteom...

  18. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor ...

  19. Impact of training at ventilatory threshold on cardiopulmonary and functional capacity in overweight patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Takashi Aoike; Flavia Baria; Mariana Leister Rocha; Maria Ayako Kamimura; Marco Túlio de Mello; Sergio Tufik; Adriano Ammirati; Lilian Cuppari

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity are both associated with reduced physical capacity. The potential benefit of aerobic training on physical capacity has been recognized. The exercise intensity can be established using different methods mostly subjective or indirect. Ventilatory threshold (VT) is a direct and objective method that allows prescribing exercise intensity according to individual capacity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of aerobic training at VT intensity o...

  20. Open Surgical Repair for a Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with a Horseshoe Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Akihiko; Tsukada, Toru; Konishi, Taisuke; Matsuzaki, Kanji; Jikuya, Tomoaki; HIRAMATSU, YUJI

    2015-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is a congenital anomaly characterized by medial fusion of the bilateral kidneys. Treatment for an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with a horseshoe kidney is a technical challenge because of the complex anatomy. We report a successful open surgical repair for a ruptured AAA with a horseshoe kidney. An aortic grafting was performed with division of the renal isthmus through a transperitoneal approach. In the case of a ruptured AAA, quick open surgery is the most reliable treatm...

  1. Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalla S. O. Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn’t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect

  2. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  3. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    11.1 Kidney function2003454 Effects of protein kinase C on type 1 inosi-tol 1,4, 5-triphosphate receptor expression in smooth muscle cells of rat glomerular afferent arterioles.WANG Jingyan(王静艳), et al. Dept Infect DLs, 2nd Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110004. China World J Digestol 2003; (11)6:705-707.

  4. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    11.1 Kidney function2004416 The role of adhesion molecules and dendritic cells in hepatic/renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and the effect of antiadhesive treatment in rats.ZHOU Tong(周同), et al. Dept Nephrol, Ruijing Hosp Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Emerg Med 2004; 13(5):315 -318.

  5. Bilateral Testicular Epidermoid Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Loberant; Shweta Bhatt; Edward Messing; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Testicular epidermoid cysts are the most common benign tumors of the testes, but account for only 1-2% of all testicular tumors. In a young man presenting with a testicular mass, a high index of suspicion must be maintained for the malignant testicular germ cell tumor, which is 50-times more common than testicular epidermoid cyst. Bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts are a very rare condition, with only a few reports in the literature. It is extremely important in this condition to make a co...

  6. Effect of 4 years subcutaneous insulin infusion treatment on albuminuria, kidney function and HbA1c compared with multiple daily injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Rosenlund, Signe; Hansen, T W; Andersen, Steen; Rossing, P

    2015-01-01

    on diabetes duration, gender, HbA1c and normo-, micro- or macroalbuminuria at baseline. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) was measured yearly and annual change assessed from linear regression. RESULTS: CSII- vs. MDI-treated patients were comparable at baseline. After 4 years, HbA1c was 62 ± 11......AIM: The effect of insulin pump [continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)] treatment on diabetes complications in a modern clinical setting is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of 4 years CSII treatment on HbA1c, albuminuria and kidney function compared with multiple daily...

  7. Effect of erythropoietin hormone supplementation on renal functions and the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in rat kidneys with experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa El Din Hassan; Shaat, Eman A.; Maha M. Deif; El Azhary, Nesrine M; Eman M. Omar

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hematopoietic factor with multiple protective effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of EPO administration on renal functions and hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) in diabetic rat kidneys. The current study was carried out on 40 male albino rats divided into four groups (n = 10 in each). Group I served as normal control, group II was the diabetic control, group III rats received EPO on the same day of diagnosis of diabet...

  8. The preventive effect of vitamin C on the cellular and functional integrity of kidney cells in rats following repeated exposure to paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo; Edna Ogechi Nwachuku; Pascal Chuka Ene; Chukwubuike Udoka Okeke

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a bipyridylium herbicide that is applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the cellular integrity of kidney function in rats following repeated exposure to PQ. Ninety-six male rats, grouped twelve rats per subgroup (A, Avit.c, B, Bvit.c, C, Cvit.c, D and Dvi...

  9. Tissue-specific expression of transgenic secreted ACE in vasculature can restore normal kidney functions, but not blood pressure, of Ace-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chattopadhyay

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE regulates normal blood pressure and fluid homeostasis through its action in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS. Ace-/- mice are smaller in size, have low blood pressure and defective kidney structure and functions. All of these defects are cured by transgenic expression of somatic ACE (sACE in vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice. sACE is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and undergoes a natural cleavage secretion process to generate a soluble form in the body fluids. Both the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE are enzymatically active, and generate the vasoactive octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II with equal efficiency. To assess the relative physiological roles of the secreted and the cell-bound forms of ACE, we expressed, in the vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice, the ectodomain of sACE, which corresponded to only the secreted form of ACE. Our results demonstrated that the secreted form of ACE could normalize kidney functions and RAS integrity, growth and development of Ace-/- mice, but not their blood pressure. This study clearly demonstrates that the secreted form of ACE cannot replace the tissue-bound ACE for maintaining normal blood pressure; a suitable balance between the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE is essential for maintaining all physiological functions of ACE.

  10. Kidney Research National Dialogue Overview and Commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E.; Ketchum, Christian J.; Star, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives to improve understanding of kidney function and disease. The Kidney Research National Dialogue welcomed all interested parties to submit, discuss, and prioritize ideas via an interactive website. More than 1600 participants posted approximately 300 ideas and assigned them to 12 topic areas (AKI, CKD, diabetic nephropathy, National Kidney D...

  11. Bilateral Filter Evaluation Based on Exponential Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ismaeil, Kassem; Aouada, Djamila; Mirbach, Bruno; Ottersten, Björn

    2012-01-01

    The well-known bilateral filter is used to smooth noisy images while keeping their edges. This filter is commonly used with Gaussian kernel functions without real justification. The choice of the kernel functions has a major effect on the filter behavior. We propose to use exponential kernels with L1 distances instead of Gaussian ones. We derive Stein's Unbiased Risk Estimate to find the optimal parameters of the new filter and compare its performance with the conventional one. We show that t...

  12. Achondroplasia Associated with Bilateral Keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Samar A. Al-Swailem; Al Bin Ali, Ghada Y.; Al Katan, Hind M.; Al Mahmood, Ammar M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral keratoconus in association with achondroplasia. A 26-year-old male, with a known case of achondroplasia, complained of bilateral gradual deterioration in vision for the past few years. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed bilateral central corneal protrusion and stromal thinning at the apex consistent with keratoconus. a trial of hard contact lens fitting failed to improve VA in the left eye (LE). Right eye (RE) improved to 20/25. The patient underwent penetrating...

  13. Characterizing the relationship between health utility and renal function after kidney transplantation in UK and US: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Luca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN occurs in a large share of transplant recipients and it is the leading cause of graft loss despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressants. The reduction in renal function secondary to immunologic and non-immunologic CAN leads to several complications, including anemia and calcium-phosphorus metabolism imbalance and may be associated to worsening Health-Related Quality of Life. We sought to evaluate the relationship between kidney function and Euro-Qol 5 Dimension Index (EQ-5Dindex scores after kidney transplantation and evaluate whether cross-cultural differences exist between UK and US. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of existing data gathered from two cross-sectional studies. We enrolled 233 and 209 subjects aged 18–74 years who received a kidney transplant in US and UK respectively. For the present analysis we excluded recipients with multiple or multi-organ transplantation, creatinine kinase ≥200 U/L, acute renal failure, and without creatinine assessments in 3 months pre-enrollment leaving 281 subjects overall. The questionnaires were administered independently in the two centers. Both packets included the EQ-5Dindex and socio-demographic items. We augmented the analytical dataset with information abstracted from clinical charts and administrative records including selected comorbidities and biochemistry test results. We used ordinary least squares and quantile regression adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics to assess the association between EQ-5Dindex and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Results CKD severity was negatively associated with EQ-5Dindex in both samples (UK: ρ= −0.20, p=0.02; US: ρ= −0.21, p=0.02. The mean adjusted disutility associated to CKD stage 5 compared to CKD stage 1–2 was Δ= −0.38 in the UK sample, Δ= −0.11 in the US sample and Δ= −0.22 in the whole sample. The adjusted median

  14. Effects of Weight Loss Speed on Kidney Function Differ Depending on Body Mass Index in Nondiabetic Healthy People: A Prospective Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Kanda

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, it has been reported that weight loss is associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD in healthy males. The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of weight loss on kidney function in healthy people in terms of body mass index (BMI and gender.A total of 8447 nondiabetic healthy people were enrolled in the Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Relationships between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR change, BMI, and BMI change were evaluated using 3D-scatter plots with spline and generalized additive models (GAMs adjusted for baseline characteristics.The subjects were stratified into four groups according to BMI. The mean±standard deviations for males and females were, respectively, 40.11±9.49, and 40.3±9.71 years for age and 76.39±17.72 and 71.49±18.4 ml/min/1.73m2 for eGFR. GAMs showed that a decreasing BMI change (<-1 kg/m2/year was associated with a decreasing eGFR change in males with high normal BMIs (22 kg/m2≤BMI<25 kg/m2. A decreasing BMI change (<-2 kg/m2/year was associated with an increasing eGFR change in overweight males (25 kg/m2≤BMI. Among underweight females (BMI<18.5 kg/m2, decreasing BMI was observed with decreasing eGFR.These findings suggest that the benefit and risk of weight loss in relation to kidney function differs depending on BMI and weight loss speed, especially in males.

  15. Short communication: timeline of radiation-induced kidney function loss after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy of renal cell carcinoma as evaluated by serial 99mTc-DMSA SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) has been proposed as a definitive treatment for patients with inoperable primary renal cell carcinoma. However, there is little documentation detailing the radiobiological effects of hypofractionated radiation on healthy renal tissue. In this study we describe a methodology for assessment of regional change in renal function in response to single fraction SABR of 26 Gy. In a patient with a solitary kidney, detailed follow-up of kidney function post-treatment was determined through 3-dimensional SPECT/CT imaging and 51Cr-EDTA measurements. Based on measurements of glomerular filtration rate, renal function declined rapidly by 34% at 3 months, plateaued at 43% loss at 12 months, with minimal further decrease to 49% of baseline by 18 months. The pattern of renal functional change in 99mTc-DMSA uptake on SPECT/CT imaging correlates with dose delivered. This study demonstrates a dose effect relationship of SABR with loss of kidney function

  16. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urinary tract defects. 2 1 Swiatecka-Urban A. Multicystic renal dysplasia. Medscape website. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/982560- ... 27, 2013. Accessed July 14, 2014. 2 Fetal multicystic dysplastic kidney. Anne & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago ...

  17. Effects of Intensified Vasodilatory Antihypertensive Treatment on Renal Function, Blood supply and Oxygenation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatir, Dinah Sherzad; Pedersen, Michael; Ivarsen, Per;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Progression of Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may result from tissue hypoxia induced by small artery structural narrowing, with increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) and impaired blood supply. We investigated whether vasodilating therapy (VT) is superior to non-vasodilating therapy...... increased by 39% (P<0.01) while RVR remained unchanged. Cortical and medullary R2* values were not affected by VT and nonVT. After 18 months GFR decline was similar in the two groups (3.0 vs. 3.3 ml/min/1.73 m2). Conclusions: In CKD, long-term VT reduced both peripheral and RVR, but was not associated with...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some basic medical tests ... steroidal medications like ibuprofen, which can affect kidney function. And then about four weeks after surgery, I’ ...

  19. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The radioligand 11C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of 11C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [11C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent phase of the ID

  20. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A.; Gulaldi, Nedim C. M.; Szabo, Zsolt, E-mail: zszabo@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The radioligand {sup 11}C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of {sup 11}C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent