WorldWideScience

Sample records for bilateral development co-operation

  1. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  2. Romanian-Danish Environmental Co-operation. Co-operation development 1993-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy has, since 1991, through the Danish Environmental Support Fund, contributed towards protecting the environment and nature in Central and Eastern European countries and has helped to limit regional as well as global pollution. The Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection and the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy initiated the co-operation in 1993 and an official Agreement was signed in 1994. This publication describes the co-operation between the two countries in the field of the environment in the hope that this will give both the general public of Romania and the international community a better understanding of the work being accomplished. It also gives an overview of the 19 projects developed within this framework, which has a total Danish grant of DKK 77.9 million. (au)

  3. SSI's International Development Co-operation (SIUS). Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SSI's International Development Co-operation (SIUS), the Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe, has since its start in 1992 been granted SEK 109 million by the Swedish government. The projects are accessed, planned and performed in close co-operation with partner organisations in Eastern Europe. This report presents the financial status and a summary of the projects, their status and distribution over the countries and project areas. The presentation is updated as of December 1998

  4. Technical Co-operation between developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the plan of activities of the project Int/0/060 Technical Cooperation Between Developing Countries a Workshop on Public Awareness Promotional Literature was included with the purpose of preparing public and professional awareness literature and to develop a strategy which would enable Tissue Banks to present their mission to their public,professional health workers and clinical users.To identify the information to be provided to potential donors about the value of the donation.To prepare instructions to be given to potential users about the various types of grafts available.To develop a strategy wi ch would enable Tissue Banks to present themselves to their public and tissue users

  5. Evaluation of bilateral and multilateral defence co-operation and assistance / Arthur Aghabekyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aghabekyan, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Armeenia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikidega ja osalemisest rahvusvahelistes sõjalistes koostööprogrammides 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  6. Evaluation of bilateral and multilateral defence co-operation and assistance / Najaf Gambarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gambarov, Najaf

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Aserbaidžaani sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõududega ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  7. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    After five years of development, WindShare Co-operative in Toronto, Ontario became the first urban wind turbine in North America and the first co-operatively owned and operated wind turbine in Canada. The development of WindShare Co-operative has spurred the growth of a green energy co-operative sector in Ontario. This study, which included 27 interviews and a focus group with members of WindShare Co-operative, focuses on the roles of community-based green energy co-operatives in advancing sustainable energy development and energy literacy. Sustainable energy development is firmly rooted in the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic success, and green energy co-operatives can be a way to help achieve those successes. Green energy co-operatives are structures for providing renewable energy generation or energy conservation practices, both of which have important environmental impacts regarding climate change and pollution levels. Co-operative structures are supported by processes that include local ownership, democracy, participation, community organizing, learning and social change. These processes have a significant social impact by creating a venue for people to be directly involved in the energy industry, by involving learning through participation in a community-based organization, and by advancing energy literacy within the membership and the general public. In regards to the economic impacts, green energy co-operatives foster a local economy and local investment opportunities, which have repercussions regarding building expertise within Ontario's green energy and co-operative development future, and more generally, captures members' interest because they have a direct stake in the co-operative. This thesis shows that green energy co-operatives, like WindShare, play an important role in advancing sustainable energy development, energy literacy and the triple bottom line. Members of WindShare expressed resounding feelings of pride, efficacy

  8. Co-operation in radioactive waste management: a winning option for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Principles of sustainable development proclaimed in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development enshrine statements about co-operation. The present paper illustrates how the International Atomic Energy Agency has been framing, in the light of the co-operation needs expressed in these principles, its efforts in the area of radioactive waste management. With co-operation in mind the main lines of its efforts are: 1/ promoting the use of sustainable technologies through different mechanisms such as information exchange, consensus building, capacity building, training courses, demonstrations, centers of excellence, networking, and training; 2/ promoting international standards for the safe management of radioactive waste and provide for their application (e.g. through international conventions) and, 3/ encouraging involvement of international stake holders. The paper presents salient and recent activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the area of radioactive waste management that strongly rely on and simultaneously promote international co-operation. (Author)

  9. The use of co-operative work and rubrics to develop competences

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Canto, Miguel Ángel; Fonseca Mora, María Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most important engineering skills required nowadays, such as the ability to co-operate to find appropriate information, to solve problems through critical and creative thinking, to make decisions and to communicate effectively, are dealt with in this study carried out with chemical engineering students. The study investigates how certain competences needed by students may be developed through co-operative learning. Learners were given clear evaluation rubrics to know w...

  10. Structural changes in the development of European co-operative societes

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina FERNÁNDEZ GUADAÑO

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of experience which co-operative societies now have behind them, they have not gained uniform recognition across Europe. Supranational authorities such as the European Commission, the UN and the ILO have highlighted the important contribution made by co-operative societies in the creation of employment and in the mobilization of resources particularly at the local level. For several years now, however, two different tendencies in the development of the European...

  11. The IAEA technical Co-operation a partner in development in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each country was to find means of achieving sustainable development, and for this, technology within a framework of regional and international co-operation are of utmost importance. The IAEA plays a major role in promoting nuclear technologies for development. Highlights of the IAEA's technical cooperation programme are given in this paper

  12. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  13. SSI`s International Development Co-operation (SIUS). Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szendroe, G.; Grapengiesser, S.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1999-04-01

    SSI`s International Development Co-operation (SIUS), the Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe, has since its start in 1992 been granted SEK 109 million by the Swedish government. The projects are accessed, planned and performed in close co-operation with partner organisations in Eastern Europe. This report presents the financial status and a summary of the projects, their status and distribution over the countries and project areas. The presentation is updated as of December 1998

  14. Customer orientation and further development plans for saving and credit co-operatives of Nepal : Case: Real saving and credit co-operative limited

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Bishal

    2013-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is customer orientation and development plans. The first objective of the research is to study the customer orientation of saving and credit co-operatives in Nepal. Secondly, this research aims to develop creative plans and ideas for increasing the number of customers in the case company through promotional activities. Lastly recommendations for the case company are generated for building up trust with the customers and for the company´s financial and organizational suc...

  15. Towards a division of labour in European development co-operation : operational options

    OpenAIRE

    Mürle, Holger

    2007-01-01

    "This study analyses options to improve the division of labour between the various donors of the European Union: the European Commission and the Member States. It was commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development (BMZ). However, it is the responsibility of the German Development Institute (DIE) alone and any conclusions should not be attributed to BMZ. The study is part of a research project on division of labour in EU development co-operati...

  16. Claims Handling Co-operation between Nuclear Insurance Pools in a Case of Transboundary Damage - Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a short progress report on matters concerning the core reason for insurance of nuclear third party liability - registration, handling, organizing and settling of claims in case of a major nuclear incident, underlining claims handling co-operation between national nuclear insurance pools when damage to health or property becomes international. The contents of this paper is in close relation to information provided on this subject during the 6th International Conference in 2006. Commercial insurance companies have gained extensive experience with handling large scale claims (e.g. after floods and other natural disasters) and are capable in gathering and organizing a high number of professional loss surveyors and adjusters in a very short period of time. In case of nuclear insurance pools co-operation between members (commercial insurance companies) is an added value and can be used practically all over the country bringing into action the network of branches and offices of all the pool members. This advantage is also used in case of cross border claims when it is necessary to gather information and claims advises from a large number of subjects and from many countries, sometimes very far apart. The international network of nuclear insurance pools is an ideal tool for this task and can be mobilized practically at once. Operators of nuclear installations, especially nuclear power plants, do not have the possibility to put aside hundreds of workers to handle claims and are also usually not sufficiently equipped with the necessary know-how. The same goes for governments and government agencies which in many countries guarantee the payments of claims to victims. National nuclear insurance pools are on the other hand well equipped for this task which usually has to be in place for many years after a nuclear incident. Multilateral and bilateral agreements between national nuclear insurance pools and other institutions should be prepared and signed before any

  17. Developing Partnership Co-operation in Student Exchange with Italian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Koskelo, Mari

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor Thesis was to obtain different methods to develop international partnership co-operation in student exchange between Kajaani University of Applied Sciences and Italian universities. The thesis was commissioned by the International Office of Kajaani UAS which is responsible for internationality in education provided by Kajaani UAS. Theoretical framework of the thesis consisted of internationality in Finnish higher education institutions in general as well as on...

  18. Co-operation and Competition in Regional Economic Development Associated with Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Competition and co-operation appear in many different social venues. The author gives a variety of examples of co-operative behaviour in economics, politics, research, and everyday life activities such as sports. These four diverse examples illustrate the variety of forms that co-operation may take such as tacit co-operation, incremental co-operation, deep co-operation, etc. The links with the form of democracy (adversary democracy or consensual democracy) are also pointed. However, as with so many other things in life, the key is to the question of co-operation or competition is balance. Co-operation and competition are dialectical opposites. They create and maintain and define each other; they each are incomplete without the other

  19. Strategy-Based Development of Teacher Educators' ICT Competence through a Co-operative Staff Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonen, Jari; Lattu, Matti; Juuti, Kalle; Meisalo, Veijo

    2006-01-01

    An ICT strategy and an implementation plan for teacher education were created in a co-operative process. Visions and expectations of staff members and students were registered by questionnaires and by making notes during sessions in which the strategy was created. Thereafter, an implementation document, where the staff development programme and…

  20. SECURITY CO-OPERATION IN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW INSTITUTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoni Van Nieuwkerk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the institutional dimensions of security cooperationas it manifests in the Southern African Development Community(SADC. As the quotations above suggest, security co-operation, as part of a biggerproject of regional integration, is not obvious. Indeed, should southern Africansbelieve their politicians when the latter claim that SADC is ‘forging ahead’ on theroad to formal integration? Slabbert is not convinced. Not only academics, but civilsociety increasingly question its raison d’ etre. For many, it is unclear whether orhow SADC provides human security to the people of the region. Instead, SADCmembers’ positions on the key regional challenges (trade, growth and development,security and stability are driven by national interest rather than regional interest – asrealists argue, national interests (a must-have are hard and measurable; regional cooperation(often a nice-to-have is hard to measure. Or should we accept a regionalconsciousness shaped by a shared historical experience – a problematic assumption?

  1. PML-RARα co-operates with Sox4 in acute myeloid leukemia development in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Omidvar, Nader; Maunakea, Mei Lin; Jones, Letetia; Sevcikova, Sabina; Yin, Bin; Himmel, Karen L.; Tennant, Thelma R.; Le Beau, Michelle M; Largaespada, David A.; Kogan, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving the retinoic acid receptor alpha gene. To identify co-operating pathways to leukemogenesis, we crossed MRP8-PML/RARA transgenic mice with BXH-2 mice which harbor an endogenous murine leukemia virus that causes acute myeloid leukemia. Approximately half of the leukemias that arose in this cross showed features of acute promyelocytic leukemia. We identified 22 proviral insertion sites in acute promyelocytic-l...

  2. Prospects of Socio-economic Development of Frontier Territories within the Framework of International Co-operation Donbass Euro Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtishina Kseniya A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies potential and prospects of international co-operation within the framework of a special frontier formation – Donbass Euro Region, which includes Rostov oblast of Russian Federation and Donetsk and Lugansk oblasts of Ukraine. The article lists a complex of socio-economic tasks of Donbass Euro Region for the period until 2020, specifies priority economic directions of long-term development of frontier territorial and economic complex and priority zones of Russian-Ukrainian frontier economic co-operation. It also justifies expediency of creation of the Corporation of development of Donbass Euro Region, which could take functions of ensuring mutually beneficial interaction and inter-assistance between Russian and (or foreign (including Ukrainian investors, frontier municipal administrations and branch and departmental structures of regional governments.

  3. Engineering Competencies in International Development Co-operation - the Case of Capacity Development in Environment (CDE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2001-01-01

    of such courses, which give emphasis to local views on institutional development and policy change. engineers from industrialised countries have a long tradition of working in the third world: building infrastructure to facilitate exports of raw materials during colonial times; implementing development aid...... assistance provide a wider perspective on the need for new competencies. Funded by the Danish Agency for Environment and Development (DANCED) of the Ministry of Environment and Energy, a consortium of five Danish universities has conducted a series of field courses in Thailand, Malaysia and South Africa...

  4. Development of renewable energetics needs knowledge, skills and co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    develop tight co-operation with all the interested institutions and people. We hope that for th

  5. Co-operation for weapon technology transfers and technological/economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes the basic philosophy of security export controls and future directions thereof, taking into account global changes in the security environment. We hope that appropriate policies based on the proposals will be implemented expeditiously. When the government implements security export control policy, it is most essential to obtain the understanding and co-operation of the general public, as well as exporters. It is also important to closely co-ordinate efforts within the government, including information sharing among the ministries and agencies concerned. Moreover, the government should make efforts to raise the effectiveness of policy measures by fully explaining Japanese security export control policy to other countries, and taking a leading role in international efforts for co-ordination. The proposals in this report provide an overview of future security export controls. Needless to say, there is the need for further and more detailed consideration of individual policy measures. Especially in introducing new controls to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles, it is necessary to conduct deliberations taking into full consideration the actual situation surrounding transactions, and to provide a sufficient lead-time. Moreover, it is expected that there will be further, major changes in the international security environment, including the countries of concern. It will be necessary to reexamine security export control policy, recognizing that those changes will alter the premises of such policy. Finally, we wish to state the hope that this report, the first attempt, by the Industrial Structure Council, to focus Japanese thinking on security export controls will act as a catalyst in deepening public understanding of security export controls, and enhancing Japanese security export controls

  6. Text of an African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of 1 September 1994, notifications of acceptance of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (see INFCIRC/377), in accordance with Article XIII thereof, had been received by the Director General from the Governments of: Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, Madagascar, Libya, Morocco, Kenya, Sudan, Ghana, Tanzania, Mauritius, Cameroon, South Africa, Zaire, Ethiopia, Zambia, Niger. The Agreement entered into force on 4 April 1990, the date of receipt of the third notification of acceptance

  7. The Text of the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (the 1987 RCA), is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  8. Science serving people. International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure tells the story of how the IAEA is helping to harness knowledge to promote development and deliver real benefits to the poor. It demonstrates how nuclear science and technology applications are being employed to overcome the challenges of water scarcity, food insecurity, malnutrition, malaria, environmental degradation and many other problems. It also shows how the complementary development, safety, and security initiatives of the IAEA are fulfilling the 'Atoms for Peace' mandate of the Agency in the developing world

  9. Recent Trends and Developments: Regional Co-operation in Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an outline of objectives and outcomes specific to curriculum development, materials development, professional training, research and assessment, management and monitoring, and an agenda for future consultative seminars, all formulated at the UNESCO-sponsored regional consultative seminar on population education during May 1990, in…

  10. Institutions and Social Change: implementing co-operative housing and environmentally sustainable development at Christie Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan McClean

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available How can institutions contribute to the building of civil society in the twenty- first century? It is clear that the old laissez-faire approach and the more recent neo-conservative reliance on the market have failed to deliver housing for many people. On the other hand the state-based welfare housing model espoused by the Australian Labor Party over the twentieth century has also been beset by problems. Social alienation, and the crisis in affordable housing make the case that individualist approaches to urban living are not working. More communal solutions are needed - solutions attuned to a complex view of civil society outlined by Michael Edwards' tripartite definition. At the same time the onset of global warming now prompts Australians to create more environmentally sustainable ways of living. Addressing the theme of responsibility, this paper focuses on citizenship in its broader environmental, social and active forms. It analyses interviews and documentary evidence concerning the planning and development of Christie Walk, an innovative, medium density eco-city development in Adelaide. The investigation reveals the effects of some Australian institutions on residents' efforts to live socially and environmentally sustainable lives in an urban environment. The paper offers transdisciplinary research and analysis, linking the fields of history, urban housing, community development and environmental theory.

  11. Safety practices and standards, developments and incentives for international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some main points arising during the safety assessments carried out on a consultative basis by the CEC are explained. The authors stress the importance of studies of depressurization accidents and the appearance of probabilistic analysis methods in safety assessments. They indicate whether these safety evaluations, by the Commission's own experts as well as by external experts, bring up possible pragmatic approaches to improving the harmonization of the safety rules and practices at the European level. Some major safety concerns and activities systematically considered by the CEC are surveyed and how they relate to the initiatives in other international organizations and in industrially developed third countries. Emphasis is placed on the efforts towards a gradual harmonization of the many different techniques and standards applied on a world scale and within the European Community, in particular for reactors of the industrially developed type. Comparative information is provided on some national practices for technico-administrative authorization procedures (with examples) and on national work on the development of regulatory and voluntary standards. Of the technical issues that influence the health and safety aspects of nuclear power, the following are dealt with more specifically in the scope of a more harmonized approach: measures to prevent or mitigate accident conditions of internal or external origin; the application of the regulatory 'strictly radiological' and 'as low as reasonably achievable' population dose limits for normal effluent releases; and the validity of the permissible doses for occupational exposure. Finally, the various possibilities and limitations of probabilistic risk analysis methods in systems design, in regulatory requirements, in operational requirements, and in the definition of safety research programmes are discussed. Some implications of such methods, e.g. in the matter of equipment failure rate data collection, are examined

  12. Danish environmental support fund for Eastern Europe. Co-operation development 1991-1996 and programme priority areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The publication gives an account of environmental co-operation between Denmark and 12 countries in Eastern Europe. The basis of co-operation is a country programme, describing present and future priority areas in the recipient countries, as an expression of common understanding between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment in the recipient countries. The publication also describe the environmental efforts made in 1991-1996 under the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) administered by the DEPA. (au)

  13. Japan-Australia Co-operative Program on research and development of technology for the management of high level radioactive wastes: phase II (1990-1995)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hart, K.P. [eds.

    1996-05-01

    The major activities associated with Japan-Australia Co-operative Program were the preparation, characterization and subsequent testing of both Cm-doped Synroc containing PW-4b simulated waste and Cm-doped single-phase zirconolite and perovskite, and the initiation of studies on naturally-occurring zirconolites to study the long-term durability of this mineral phase over geological time. The preparation of the Cm-doped samples was carried out in JAERI`s WASTEF facility at Tokai, with technical information and assistance provided by ANSTO where necessary. The experiments were designed to induce accelerated radiation damage in Synroc samples that would correspond to periods of Synroc storage of up to 100,000 years. The results are of considerable importance in evaluating the potential of the Synroc process as a means of dealing with HLW waste streams and represent a significant contribution to the understanding of the ability of Synroc to immobilize HLW elements. Overall the Phase II Co-operative Program has continued the excellent co-operative working relationship between the staff at the two institutions, and provided a better understanding of the potential advantages and limitations of Synroc as a second generation waste form. The work has shown the need for additional studies to be carried out on the effect of the levels of Cm-doping on the Cm leach rate, extension of natural analogue studies to define the geological conditions under which zirconolite is stable and development of models to provide long-term predictions of releases of HLW elements from Synroc under a range of repository conditions. It is strongly recommended that the program carried out in Phase II of the Co-operative Agreement be extended for a further three years to allow additional information on the above areas to be collected and reported in a document providing an overview of the Co-operative Program and recommendations on HLW management strategies. (J.P.N.).

  14. The role and limitation of underground research laboratories to foster development of expertise, information exchange, transfer of knowledge, and confidence building through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rationale for constructing and operating underground rock laboratories (URL) is basically the need for carrying out Research and Technical Development (RTD) work under realistic conditions in realistic environments. Full scale experiments and tests are possible. Because of the limited number of existing URLs in each type of considered repository host rock, see Figure 1, and the high costs for large scale experiments international co-operation and networking have become a fruitful as well as traditional way of conducting the work in the URLs. This co-operation and networking have progressively developed into other areas than pure RTD work, and show that added value may be achieved in URLs in also many other areas. The paper gives examples of good experience and points out future ways of enhancing this kind of added. value within four areas: development of expertise; information exchange; transfer of knowledge, and confidence building. (author)

  15. Promoting regional energy co-operation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is a key ingredient of the socio-economic development of any region. South Asia is not only one of the fastest growing regions in the world; it is also one of the poorest, which thus puts energy at the very heart of the development process in the region. This paper looks at the challenges faced by the South Asia sub-region for economic co-operation (SASEC) comprised of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal, and also at the role of greater regional energy co-operation therein. The region is characterized by pressures of growing economies and increasing population. While the per capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world, energy intensity continues to be very high. A large portion of the population lacks access to modern sources of energy and depends on traditional sources that are not only inefficient but also have severe health and environmental problems associated with them. Increasing oil import dependency and huge investment needs for energy market development pose a further challenge. The region has a good resource potential and tremendous scope for energy co-operation, which can play a key role in addressing many of these energy security concerns and in putting it on the path of sustainable development. It is ironic that the record in the area has been so limited and that too in the most basic form of co-operation, i.e. bilateral arrangements between countries. This paper puts forth a multi-pronged strategy for sub-regional energy co-operation encompassing softer options aimed at confidence building to more substantial and larger scale co-operation efforts. Delays in decision making to ensure stronger and mutually beneficial co-operation efforts are associated with high costs not only to the energy sector but also for the entire development agenda. With the precarious energy situation in the region and unprecedented increases in international oil prices seen in recent times, it is high time for policy makers, financing institutions, NGOs

  16. H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development (third from left) with (left to right) Florian Ciolacu (Romanian Mission in Geneva), Cornel Comsa (personal adviser to the Prince), Sorin Ilie (CERN), Calin Alexa (ATLAS), Iosif Legrand (Caltech/CMS), Mihaela Gheata (ALICE), Andrei Gheata (ALICE), and Sorin Zgura (ALICE).

  17. Task 9: deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Sources of financing for PV-based rural electrification in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Syngellakis, K. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Shanker, A. [Innovation Energie Developpement, IED, Francheville (France)

    2004-05-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at how PV-based rural electrification in developing countries can be financed. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the overall rate of successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries through increased co-operation and information exchange. This document provides an introduction to PV project financing, including funding sources available, strategies and planning needed to secure the necessary financial resources for the deployment of PV technologies in developing and transitional economies. Topics discussed include risk analysis and the barriers to financing, sources of financing, considerations and variables that influence financing decisions and the process for securing financing. Various forms of international and national financing are looked at, as are the factors influencing financing decisions.

  18. H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development, is seen here visiting Microcosm, CERN's on-site exhibition centre. Photo 01: H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen (right) with his personal adviser Cornel Comsa inside Microcosm's full-scale model of a six-metre section of the LHC. Photos 04-06: H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen with Emma Sanders from ETT Division.

  19. Co-operation Agreement between the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of the Republic of Cuba (CITMA) and CERN concerning The Further Development of Scientific and Technical Co-operation

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the CERN collaboration with Latin America, co-operation agreements have been established with Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru. They have made possible a growing participation by Latin American particle physicists in the CERN programme, which has important potential for the future. The Cuban particle physics community is highly motivated and relatively advanced, both scientifically and technologically, since many of its members have been trained in installations of the former Soviet Union, many of which now participate in CERN's cooperation with Russia. In addition, Cuba has a good number of experienced computer scientists. A group from the Cuban Institute CEADEN (Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarollo Nuclear) has recently been accepted unanimously into the ALICE collaboration, with agreed contributions to off-line software and Grid middlewave. Additional Cuban contributions to show controls, data acquisition and testing electronics for the Silicon drift decte...

  20. Japan-Australia co-operative program on research and development of technology for the management of high level radioactive wastes. Final report 1985 to 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.; Vance, E.; Lumpkin, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Mitamura, H.; Banba, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The overall aim of the Co-operative Program has been to promote the exchange of information on technology for the management of High-Level Wastes (HLW) and to encourage research and development relevant to such technology. During the 13 years that the Program has been carried out, HLW management strategies have matured and developed internationally, and Japan has commenced construction of a domestic reprocessing and vitrification facility for HLW. The HLW management strategy preferred is a national decision. Many countries are using vitrification, direct disposal of spent fuel or a combination of both to handle their existing wastes whereas others have deferred the decision. The work carried out in the Co-operative Program provides strong scientific evidence that the durability of ceramic waste forms is not significantly affected by radiation damage and that high loadings of actinide elements can be incorporated into specially designed ceramic waste forms. Moreover, natural minerals have been shown to remain as closed systems for U and Th for up to 2.5 b y. All of these results give confidence in the ability of second generation waste forms, such as Synroc, to handle future waste arisings that may not be suitable for vitrification 87 refs., 15 tabs., 22 figs.

  1. Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

  2. The Use of Relationship Marketing in Developing Network and Co-operative links within Tourism Product Marketing Groups (PMG’s

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Catherine, (Thesis)

    2006-01-01

    Co-operative marketing groups are common in tourism, particularly in the case of destination marketing. Destination tourism marketing groups offer a diverse range of tourism products and experiences which complement each other and are delineated by a specific geographical parameter. Tourism product marketing groups offer similar tourism products or services and through a co-operative approach focus on an identified target markets. Co-operative marketing can make greater impact in terms of...

  3. Co-operative agreement for Arab States in Asia for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (ARASIA). Entry into force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Co-operative Agreement for Arab States in Asia for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (ARASIA), pursuant to Article XII, entered into force upon receipt by the Director General of the Agency of notification of acceptance by three Arab Member States of the Agency in Asia, in accordance with Article XI, i.e. on 29 July 2002. The Agreement shall continue to be in force for a period of six years from the date of its entry into force and may be extended for further period(s) if the States Parties so agree. The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States. By 20 November 2002, there were 5 Parties to the above Agreement

  4. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of 31 December 1996, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) (see INFCIRC/377), had been received by the Director General from the Governments of 20 African countries. Niger, Libya and Mali are added at the list of 17 countries reported in the previous addition of the document (INFCIRC/377/Add.7). Pursuant to Article XIV.2 of the original Agreement, the extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  5. Transnational Research Co-operation: Opportunities and Challenges for transnational research co-operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the NGOs have a lot of international experience (mainly in Denmark and Germany) as partners in different co-operation projects. Almost all the NGOs have recognized the important role of the scientific information in their activity. NGOs also feel the need for an easy access to required information...... for transnational co-operation like: an investigation/project concerning the driving forces behind urban development,or a co-operation in the field of wastewater reuse and minimization of wastewater loads and discharge, or a service page (internet) to search for potential partners. The governmental institutions...... in order to improve transnational cooperation are identified to be: • Search for national/international project partners • Access to existent co-operation projects or networks • Develop in common project proposals on themes requested by community groups • Exchange information/good operational practices...

  6. Development of co-operation between a research institute and enterprises in the context of marketing communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Niemczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the article is presentation of results of recent research on the effectiveness of practical solutions used in marketing communication of the Institute of Logistics and Warehousing, leading to development of cooperation with enterprises. Thanks to the management, the appropriate information reaches definite groups of clients through multiple channels. E-marketing of scientific and research organizations is carried out mainly through web sites, web portals, social media. The analytical and research instruments in the marketing of scientific and research organisations used for measuring the effectiveness and efficacy of marketing communication include: Google Analytics, Seo Stat, Salesmanago, Advertising Value Equivalency and a range of reports. Product line and product managers are employees who are highly qualified and often possess unique competences. Ongoing research coupled with direct contact with companies results in a constant improvement in the services rendered and generation of innovative products.

  7. Carl Koberskyi’s economic opinion and his influence on the development of finance-economics and co-operative education in western Ukraine in the second half of ХІХ – beginning of ХХ century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubka Mykhailo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the public-elucidative activity of theorist, co-operator and economist Carl Koberskyi and his influence on the development of financial-economical and co-operative education. This figure occupies an important place in the history of education and economy, due to his zealous public position and research of history of co-operative schooling. As practice testifies, research of Carl Koberskyi’s activity is described mostly either from the point of view of history or pedagogic. Our aim is to characterize the activity of the scientist and his economic ideas from the point of view of economics and to define their value for finance-economics and co-operative education. Carl Koberskyi’s active propagandist and organizational activity influenced the development of rural culture, distribution of co-operative motion, trade, banking and development of enterprise greatly. Weighty stage of economic and public establishment of western Ukraine took place in the after-war time, when the necessity of proceeding in economies and studies of professional specialists appeared in rural districts. Intelligent workers of the region strived to involve the peasantry into economic self-organization. At that time teachers considered trade education as a factor of social development and independence. Co-operative schooling began to be formed in the conditions of hard prohibitions and oppressions. Various public organizations, associations and unions that assisted the formation of national consciousness of population were quite widespread. Carl Koberskyi’s labour activity and his place in the co-operatively-economic sphere require further deep research, which will enable to improve the management of educational establishments and to develop finance-economics and co-operative education more effectively. Today, in the time of market relations development, Carl Koberskyi’s ideas of educationally-economic inheritance acquire special actuality, as they

  8. Co-operatives as heating entrepreneurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of heating entrepreneurship functioning in the form of a co operative is to make the use of the wood chips competitive primarily through district heating of municipal centres. When compared with the conventional heating mode the reliability of chip delivery and the remuneration paid to the co-operative for attending to the running of the heating centres are considered to be the competitive advantages. The system has proven to be a working one; one indication of this is its growing application in the country. In the spring of the year 2000 there were 26 chip-based energy co-operative active in Finland. The first time that the use of bioenergy underwent a powerful rise was in the 1970s as a consequence of the oilcrises. Subsequently the enthusiasm shown to this energy form subsided. Then in the early 1990s, biofuels once again became a subject of interest mainly due to environmental issues, the restructuring of rural areas and silvicultural reasons. With the past decades' experiences forming the basis, the development needs associated with the use of bioenergy were in fresh memory and they were addressed on a wide font. Boiler technology related to solid fuels evolved rapidly and the least successful manufacturers had been eliminated by the recession. In the case of co-operative heating entrepreneurship, the commonest form neither the district heating centre nor the system of heat-transfer pipes belong to co-operative society. The co-operative is responsible only for the delivery of the fuel and for looking after the heating plant. Remuneration is generally based on the amount of energy leaving the district heating plant. Thus the heat dissipated at the heating plant is the co-operative's problem and the heat dissipated during transfer are the energy buyer's problem. The investor in the equipments usually the local municipality or an energy utility. In some cases the co-operative owns the equipments well, in which case it is correct to speak of

  9. Promotion of Bilateral Cooperative Programs in Nuclear Human Resources Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is strengthening of bilateral cooperation with those countries for sharing Korea's technology, and providing of education and training on Korean experience regarding national nuclear policy, technology self reliance, and technology itself, in the field of nuclear power generation and the application of radioisotopes and radiation. This project covers an analysis on the need of nuclear human resource development in countries having interest in the introduction of nuclear power and/or promotion of the use of nuclear energy, and provision of courses on 'nuclear power policy, planning and management' and 'design and operation of nuclear research reactor, and application of radiation technology' along with the country specific needs. Education and training of key members in nuclear energy development from Egypt: It was implemented through bilateral cooperation and support by KOICA program. The first part, which targeted staff members from Egypt Nuclear Commission, was held for 2 months providing a KOICA course on policy, planning and management for nuclear power project, and second part was on the job training in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, KAERI respectively. On the job training of 1 scientist from Vietnam was implemented on the basis of bilateral cooperation in a research laboratory on radioactive waste treatment technology, at KAERI. Education and training for scientists from South East RCA countries were carried out for 11 participants from Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Pakistan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Bangladesh. The course dealt with nuclear research reactor and radiation application technology. Development of nuclear education and training programs for key persons involved in nuclear power projects from countries of Middle East: The developed program consists of 15 courses addressing 3 technical levels, i.e. high level policy makers, middle level project implementers, and beginners

  10. The Origin, Evolution and Development of Bilateral Symmetry in Multicellular Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A computational theory and model of the ontogeny and development of bilateral symmetry in multicellular organisms is presented. Understanding the origin and evolution of bilateral organisms requires an understanding of how bilateral symmetry develops, starting from a single cell. Bilateral symmetric growth of a multicellular organism from a single starter cell is explained as resulting from the opposite handedness and orientation along one axis in two daughter founder cells that are in equiva...

  11. 9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

  12. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review.

  13. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) LOFT experiment LP-SB-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, F. (UKAEA Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith (UK))

    1990-12-01

    An analysis of the OECD-LOFT-LP-SB-2 experiment making use of TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is described in the report. LP-SB2 experiment studies the effect of a delayed pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3 inches equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR operating at full power. The experiment was performed on 14 July 1983 in the LOFT facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This analysis presents an evaluation of the code capability in reproducing the complex phenomena which determined the LP-SB-2 transient evolution. the analysis comprises the results obtained from two different runs. The first run is described in detail analysing the main variables over two time spans: short and longer term. Several conclusions are drawn and then a second run testing some of these conclusions is shown. All of the calculations were preformed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith under the auspices of an agreement between the UKAEA (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear Espanol (CSN). 16 refs., 64 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. FPGA Based Intelligent Co-operative Processor in Memory Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Zaki; Sotudeh, Reza; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar;

    2011-01-01

    benefits of PIM, a concept of Co-operative Intelligent Memory (CIM) was developed by the intelligent system group of University of Hertfordshire, based on the previously developed Co-operative Pseudo Intelligent Memory (CPIM). This paper provides an overview on previous works (CPIM, CIM) and realization...

  15. Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and CERN concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Lithuanian physicists have been active for some years in the RD39 and RD50 experiments at CERN, and have recently established contacts with representatives of the CMS collaboration. The Lithuanian physics community has particular strengths in applied physics, electronics and computing. During a recent visit to Vilnius by CERN representatives, the Institute of Physics and the University of Vilnius expressed their eagerness to expand collaboration with CERN in both, experimental and theoretical physics. Official support for this initiative was expressed by the leadership of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences and by the Minister of Science, within a general policy of integrating Lithuanian scientists with European institutions. This objective was furthered by a recent visit to CERN by the president of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, and contacts are developing well. Following the example of Estonia, Lithuania would now become the second Baltic State having a Cooperation Agreement with CERN.

  16. Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development 2002/2003; an independent publication from the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram; Thommessen, Oeystein B.

    2002-07-01

    The Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development aims to demonstrate the status of collaboration, the main obstacles to effective international solutions, and how to overcome them. The Yearbook assesses the achievements and the shortcomings of international co-operation, and helps the reader to distinguish between rhetoric and reality. The combination of independent, high-quality analysis and updated reference material makes this Yearbook an indispensable guide for decision-makers in government, international organizations, NGOs, and industry, as well as an essential source book for academic institutions, students, and libraries serving the concerned public. Current Issues and Key Themes in this edition focus on: (1) how effective environmental mega-conferences are in global environmental governance; (2) how the climate change regime can achieve its objective by addressing the very real concerns about climate-change impacts on human beings as much as on healthy ecosystems; (3) how the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme has been an effective regional agent for environmental protection and how it should cope with the challenges ahead; (4) how the Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty has contributed to strengthening international cooperation within the Treaty, but nevertheless is hampered by the vagueness of some core requirements and by the unresolved issues of jurisdiction, control, and enforcement in the Antarctic; (5) how the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands-neither rigorous nor extensive in its obligations-has acted as a vehicle for the development of a reasonably detailed policy framework for wetland conservation; (6) how Friends of the Earth International-among the world's largest, most diverse, and most influential environmental NGOs-has such internal diversity, in addition to its geographic spread and lack of agreed political ideology, that it risks its external profile becoming blurred and its internal

  17. Effect of pediatric bilateral cochlear implantation on language development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boons, Tinne; Brokx, Jan; Frijns, Johan; Peeraer, Louis; Philips, Birgit; Vermeulen,; Wouters,; Wieringen, van

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine spoken language outcomes in children undergoing bilateral cochlear implantation compared with matched peers undergoing unilateral implantation. Design: Case-control, frequency-matched, retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study. Setting: Two Belgian and 3 Dutch cochlear im

  18. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to

  19. A European union (EU) co-operation program: Integral, innovative, industrial product design and development, I3PD(2) and project led education (PLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Hvid

    2007-01-01

    Aalborg University's project-organised and problem-oriented studies were introduced Thirty-three years ago. The experience since then has proved this to be an important innovation in higher education. The primary aim is to teach young people, students to become useful members for industry...... and society. Other primary objectives are to ensure high-quality research and education and to enhance technology transfer and to stimulate industry-university partnerships within the EU and stimulate Inter-University co-operation programmes. In this project we are focusing on the importance of curriculum...

  20. The text of the third agreement to extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Pursuant to Article 1 of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement, the 1987 RCA shall continue in force for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 2002, i.e., through 11 June 2007. As of 15 May 2002, notifications of acceptance had been received by the Director General from the Governments of Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam. The latest status list is attached

  1. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Summary of models for the implementation of solar home systems in developing countries - Part 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    This first part of a two-part report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the implementation of Solar Home systems in developing countries. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries. This summary outlines various models for the implementation of small domestic photovoltaic (PV) systems (Solar Home Systems, SHS) in developing countries. Part 1 of this two-part document discusses three generic models. The second, separate part of the document provides a number of examples demonstrating the models described. This report focuses on the implementation of SHS. However, a considerable amount of the PV market in developing countries is stated as consisting of large systems providing electricity for social services, such as light for schools, mosques, churches, communal centres, refrigeration for health centres and drinking water for communities. It is noted that there are considerable differences between the 'social market' and the 'private market' for SHS. The 'social market' generally consists of large systems but fewer in number. The guide does not cover the detailed technical aspects of a Solar Home System or the issue of recycling old batteries.

  2. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. The role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M. C. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Bates, J. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries. The objective of this document is to provide assistance to those project developers that are interested in implementing or improving support programmes for the deployment of PV systems for rural electrification. It is to enable them to address and implement quality assurance measures, with an emphasis on management, technical and training issues and other factors that should be considered for the sustainable implementation of rural electrification programmes. It is considered important that quality also addresses the socio-economic and the socio-technical aspects of a programme concept. The authors summarise that, for a PV programme, there are three important areas of quality control to be implemented: quality management, technical standards and quality of training.

  3. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - Programme design, planning and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Wilshaw, A. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the design, planning and implementation of PV programmes. The guide contains details on the preparation for PV programmes, including the assessment of needs, stakeholder consultation, social context analysis, supply options and national policy considerations. The establishment of goals, delivery modes, timelines, logistics and quality assurance are discussed. Further, the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of PV programmes is discussed, as are a number of methodologies that have been developed with the aim of improving programme design and implementation. The guide highlights issues pertinent to rural energy programmes in developing countries and leads programme administrators through the process of planning, implementing and evaluating a PV programme.

  4. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - A guide to capacity building requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Gunning, R. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Stapleton, G. [Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Pty Ltd, GSES, Ulladulla 2539 (Australia)

    2003-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the topic of 'capacity building' in rural electrification projects. Capacity building is defined here as the development of an organisation's or individual's core knowledge, skills and capabilities in order to build and enhance the organisation's effectiveness and sustainability. This document identifies capacity building measures that should be undertaken as an integral component of a PV-based rural electrification implementation programme. Capacity building is to be facilitated through the provision of technical support activities, training, specific technical assistance and resource networking. The assessment of existing knowledge and the identification of training needs are discussed and training needs and their implementation by governmental and commercial players is discussed. Eleven case studies complete the report.

  5. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA). Status of acceptances as of 30 September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of 30 September 1995, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (see INFCIRC/377), has been received by the Director General from the Governments of: Tunisia, Egypt, Madagascar, South Africa, Ethiopia, Algeria, Mauritius, Sudan, Tanzania, Cameroon, Kenya, Zaire, Morocco, Sierra Leone, Namibia, Nigeria, Ghana. Pursuant to Article XIV.2, (of the original Agreement) the extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  6. Co-operation Amongst Polish Research Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dobrzyńska-Lankosz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish research libraries have a long tradition of co-operating with one another, particularly when certain solutions require a collective effort. Co-operation can take place either at local, national or international level. In the past, we were able to observe close co-operation at the national level between libraries in similar disciplines (for instance, co-operation of groups of medical, technical and economics libraries. This form of co-operation has existed until today. Then, at the beginning of the 1990’s a new ‘configuration’ of library co-operation was initiated, that is, co-operation between libraries in various disciplines within one consortium aimed at choosing, purchasing and implementing the same integrated library system. The next step was co-operation undertaken within an inter-system consortium in order to fund a national union catalogue. This was an enormous enterprise, whose aim was to facilitate access to catalogue information on the collections of Polish research libraries and accelerate the process of cataloguing books. The National Union Catalogue NUKAT is based on shared cataloguing. At present, the catalogue is being created by 60 libraries, mainly academic.

  7. The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel

    New regional organisations are always interesting to follow as they will tell us more about the things that make or break this type of co-operation. Originally established as “The Shanghai Five” in 1996, The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) has been successful at reducing tension between ...

  8. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  9. Italian Co-operative Law Reform and Co-operative Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Fici

    2009-01-01

    A reform of Italian co-operative law was passed in 2003 and came into force in 2004. This paper presents the principal characteristics of the new Italian co-operative law and seeks to evaluate the relationship of some of its main provisions to traditional co-operative principles. From this perspective, the paper deals in particular with the definition of the Italian co-operative as a company with a “mutual purpose”; the distinction between “mainly mutual” co-operatives and “other” co-operativ...

  10. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... to other organizations because of the special features of co-operative organizations: use of normative control, democratic decision-making, and decentralized organizational structure. On the other hand, however, there may be strong barriers in co-operatives against creating a sufficient information system....

  11. The Agency's technical co-operation activities in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Co-operation Activities in 1992 contains an overview of the general issues involved, including both in-house and external developments, resources and delivery, and evaluation of programs; an overview by field of activity and by division within the Agency; an overview by geographic area, distinguishing (i) Africa, (ii) Asia and the Pacific, (iii) Latin America, (iv) and the Middle East and Europe; an overview by component (i.e., experts, equipment, fellowships, training courses, sub-contracts and miscellaneous); and an overview by fund technical assistance and co-operation fund, extrabudgetary resources, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), assistance in kind. It also contains a profile on technical co-operation activities in Latin America. Projects concluded during 1992 are listed together with a description of their achievements. It concludes with implementation summaries. 10 figs, 9 tabs

  12. New co-operation agreement between CERN and JINR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer (left) and JINR Director Alexei Sissakian (right). On Thursday 28 January, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer and JINR Director Alexei Sissakian signed a new enlarged co-operation agreement to continue and enhance the scientific and technical co-operation of the two institutes in the field of high-energy physics. CERN and JINR have a long and successful history of collaboration extending back to the earliest days of their existence. The first informal meeting on international co-operation in the field of high-energy accelerators took place at CERN in 1959. It was attended by senior scientists from the United States, the USSR (including JINR) and CERN. Both JINR and CERN have played the role of a bridge between East and West for decades, contributing to the development of international scientific co-operation. In 1992 JINR signed a co-operation agreement with CERN that included an important number of protocols covering JINR’s participation in the construction of th...

  13. China and CERN renew their Co-operation Agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Liu Yanhua, Chinese Vice Minister of Science and Technology, and Dr. Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, sign a new Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the People's Republic of China and CERN. During his visit to CERN on 17 February, Liu Yanhua, Vice Minister of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, signed a new Co-operation Agreement with the Laboratory. The Agreement, which is valid for a period of five years and renewable, lays down the framework for the development of scientific and technological co-operation between CERN and China. This includes China's participation, as a non-Member State, in CERN's research projects as well as its main programmes. Robert Aymar and Liu Yanhua underlined that this Agreement will provide an excellent framework for close co-operation on the LHC Programme and Grid and accelerator technologies. Scientific co-operation between China and CERN is nothing new, as Chinese physicists already took part in the LEP experiments. Today, CERN's C...

  14. Organisational models for agricultural co-operatives

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson Myrelid, Patrik

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to study the effects that different financial solutions may have on the organisational mode of Irish dairy co-operatives. Membership, marketing and management are examined in four different enterprises. These areas are examined using the agency theory and property rights theory. Glanbia Group PLC, Golden Vale PLC and Kerry Group PLC were all former traditional co-operatives transformed into Public Limited Companies (PLCs) in the 1980s. Dairygold remained a traditional...

  15. Impact of Co-Operative Learning Strategies in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The study illuminates the effectiveness of Co-operative Learning Strategies in learning English Grammar for the learners at secondary level. Cooperative Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning as a second language. It promotes peer interaction, which helps the development of language and the learning of concepts with content.…

  16. Natural gas co-operation in the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-operation between the gas companies in the Baltic Region has been in place for several years. The overview given in this paper shows that the co-operation has been developed in trade, investments, privatisation and participation in the restructuring process. Finally, through a broad technical co-operation, significant efforts are made to establish common operational practices, codes and standards and the integrity of gas transmission pipelines. The Baltic Region, from a resource and gas interconnection point of view, enjoys a strategic position in the future development of the gas industry in Europe. The Baltic gas sector represents an interesting and growing gas market with the significant gas storage capacity. The region is also located strategically for planned gas interconnections and could serve as a transit corridor for the future gas supplies from western Siberia or the North Sea. This co-operation in the region is being supported by international regulations and agreements such as the Energy Charter between the European Union and the central and east European countries. However, at present the gas industry in the Baltic Region seems to be ahead of these international agreements. It may well be seen that trade arrangements such as Third Party Access are implemented directly by market forces rather than through international agreements. The regional development may thus be a driving force for the implementation of the Internal Energy Market for the gas industry

  17. IAEA Technical Co-operation activities: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1975 Tanzania became the newest African Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency, bringing the total African membership of the Agency up to 25 countries. The other African Member States are: Algeria; United Republic of Cameroon; Egypt; Ethiopia; Gabon; Ghana; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Liberia; Libyan Arab Republic; Madagascar; Mali; Mauritius; Morocco; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Africa; Sudan; Tunisia; Uganda; Zaire; Zambia. Membership of the Agency entitles these countries to receive assistance both from the Regular Programme of the Agency and from UNDP resources, while non-Member States in the region only receive Agency assistance financed from the latter source. Any attempt to look at the technical co-operation programme in Africa must start by stressing the wide differences between African countries in their level of scientific and technical development ranging from countries with advanced atomic energy programmes to countries just crossing the threshold towards the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Perhaps the most striking and marked difference is in the quality and number of nuclear energy scientists and technologists available. In view of this, the technical assistance programme in the African context has been a selective one, guided by considerations of pragmatism and responsiveness to particular requirements of the different individual countries and not by any doctrinaire or ready-made strategy for assistance. (author)

  18. Co-operative Entities: Specific Accounting Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIGUEL ÁNGEL ZUBIAURRE ARTOLA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The accounting regulation of co-operative societies have been recently reinforced with the approval of the ORDER ECO/3614/2003. The objective of this rule is to adapt the content of the Plan General de Contabilidad to the characteristics of these entities. In this work, I study the economic and accounting consequences of the special characteristics of co-operative societies on concepts like the result, capital, reserves or own equity, among others. The work combines the content of the state regulatory scheme on cooperative with the applicable legislation in the Basque Autonomous Community, as well as the national and international accounting regulation.

  19. A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

  20. A systematic review of cost-sharing strategies used within publicly-funded drug plans in member countries of the organisation for economic co-operation and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Barnieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries, and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status, or with age (in 15 countries. Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. CONCLUSIONS: There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs.

  1. Electrification co-operatives bring new light to rural Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilskog, Elisabeth E-mail: elisabeth.ilskog@af.se; Kjellstroem, B. E-mail: bjorn@kjellstrom.se; Gullberg, Monica E-mail: monica.gullberg@af.se; Katyega, Maneno E-mail: mkatyega@tanesco.co.tz; Chambala, William E-mail: uecco@bushlink.co.tz

    2005-07-01

    One possibility to accelerate the progress of rural electrification in developing countries could be to form independent electrification co-operatives that are allowed to generate and distribute electric power and set their own tariffs. This approach has been successfully tried in the village Urambo, located about 80 km west of Tabora in Tanzania. The co-operative was formed in 1993 and started regular operation in 1994 with 67 consumers. The co-operative received initial financial support for rehabilitation of a diesel power plant and some other investments. The national utility TANESCO has provided technical support and training for operators and an accountant. Despite a tariff more than 15 times higher than in the nearby town Tabora that is served by TANESCO, the number of consumers in Urambo has been growing and reached 241 in October 2002. About 70% of the supplied electricity in 2002 was used by households, 15% in businesses, 12% in institutions and public buildings and approximately 3% for street lighting. The reliability of the supply has improved from 80% in 1994, to 97% during 2002. The experiences must be considered as very promising. Several more electrification co-operatives have been formed in Tanzania and are looking for financing for the necessary initial investments.

  2. Blooming together or wilting alone? Network externalities and Mondragón and La Lega co-operative networks

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Stephen C

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines strategies developed by Mondragón Co-operative Corporation in the Basque Region of Spain, and La Lega co-operative network in Italy, to mitigate disadvantages of the typical co-operative organizational structure and market position but without losing its critical advantages and attractive features. A detailed institutional overview of these most prominent examples of successful co-operative clusters is presented. The paper argues that there are network externalities in co-...

  3. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  4. Enhancing nuclear emergency response through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    perspective however, there are probably substantial resources available for response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The problem is that during an emergency, these resources are not where they are needed. Most resources are under authority control in the respective countries, but if all countries would commit themselves to contribute to such assistance arrangements between countries and invoke all resources available and efficiently co-ordinate and route them to where they are mostly needed, the international community and individual States would achieve a better and more efficient response to emergencies. Resources could in this respect be everything that is needed to respond to an emergency, e.g. equipment, expertise, assessment capabilities or other services. These arrangements should be global arrangements as bi-lateral or regional arrangements are only adequate for some scenarios. The Convention an Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention an Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency established in 1986 are at present acceded by approx. 85 IAEA Member States. These conventions constitute the framework of international co-operation on response to nuclear and radiological emergencies between States and describe the obligations and mechanisms of international notification and assistance. The conventions recognize the need for a co-ordinating and facilitating body in this co-operation and the IAEA has been given this role. The conventions an Assistance and Early Notification provide a good framework for achieving international co-operation an nuclear emergency response. It has however been recognised that the implementation of these conventions needs to be improved. This is the responsibility of acceding states. To efficiently share information between many states, it is necessary to establish a standard international communication platform for information exchange with a communication strategy and standardization

  5. NEA international co-operative projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is consecrated at the international co-operative projects of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of reactor safety (Halden reactor project, Loft project, studies on the damaged Three Mile Island unit-2 reactor, inspection of reactor steel components, incident reporting system) and in the field of radioactive waste management (Stripa project, geochemical data bases, Alligator river project, seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste, decommissioning of nuclear facilities)

  6. Design and Development of a Bilateral Therapeutic Hand Device for Stroke Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Akhlaquor Rahman; Adel Al-Jumaily

    2013-01-01

    The major cause of disability is stroke. It is the second highest cause of death after coronary heart disease in Australia. In this paper, a post stroke therapeutic device has been designed and developed for hand motor function rehabilitation that a stroke survivor can use for bilateral movement practice. A prototype of the device was fabricated that can fully flex and extend metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the fingers, and ...

  7. Developing Bilateral and Spatial Concepts in Primary School-aged Children: An Empirical Evaluation of the Anker Bilateral Spatial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Richmond PhD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual-spatial and visual-motor perceptual difficulties contribute to school-aged learning problems. Hence, a need exists to address children’s visual-spatial and visual-motor perceptual difficulties as early as possible in the child’s school career. Thus, this study reports on the evaluation of the Anker Bilateral Spatial System’s (ABSS effectiveness in remediating primary school children’s perceptual difficulties. Method: Thirty-one children (17 boys and 14 girls aged 6 to 12 years who had been identified by their classroom teacher as having observable visual-spatial and visual-motor perceptual difficulties participated in a 10-week pre/posttest intervention study. The study’s pre/posttest assessments included the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI, the Spatial Awareness Skills Program Test (SASP, and two subscales of the School Function Assessment (SFA. Results: Paired t-test statistics were calculated on the pre/post intervention scores. Paired t-test statistics calculated (p = .05 that significant change had occurred in the writing speed (t = -3.978, p < .001. Conclusion: Given that the study’s Year 1 students made progress in more areas of remediation than did any other year level, it is evident that the ABSS is particularly effective with this year group.

  8. Technical co-operation report for 2000. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers three separate topics. Part one fulfills the Agency's obligation under the General Conference resolution GC(44)/RES/18 to report on the Strengthening of Technical Co-operation. It covers the period from 1 April 2000 to 31 March 2001. The report examines the finalization of the 2001-2002 technical co-operation programme and several key concepts of the Technical Co-operation Strategy such as Partners in Development, Technical Co-operation among Developing Countries, and the continuing evolution of Regional Resource Centres. Reflecting an important trend in the technical co-operation programme, which was mandated by the General Conference, the report describes the results achieved in several programmes in least developed countries. Part two reports on the major achievements of the technical co-operation programme in 2000 in the different regions of the world. Part three presents a summary of the financial and non-financial parameters of the technical co-operation programme. The supplement to the report provides a more detailed review of resources and contributions, disbursements and non-financial indicators

  9. Co-Operation: The Antidote to Isolated Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study demonstrating the impact the co-operative movement has had on one co-operative school in south-west England. Lipson Co-operative Academy in Plymouth was one of the first schools to convert to become a co-operative school in 2009. The article has been co-written by members of the Academy and focuses on three transformational…

  10. Real-Time Co-Operative Decision Making & Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vlacic, Ljubo; Thomas, Daniel; Pérez Rastelli, Joshué

    2011-01-01

    International audience Learning and adaptability (and thus the ability of being co-operative) are important features of decision & control systems. This paper investigates decision making and control concepts that enable human beings and artificial beings to interact and co-operate in real time in a dynamic and reliable way. It examines the aspects of being co-operative and substitutable in the context of: (i) co-operative driving by driverless vehicles; and (ii) computer game play scenari...

  11. FairShares Co-operative - Model Articles of Association

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley-Duff, Rory; Southcombe, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    A new model for self-governing co-operatives and social enterprises operating under Co-operative Law. These Articles of Association implement the FairShares Brand Principles under Industrial and Provident Society Law (Co-operative Law), rather than Company Law.

  12. Development of bilateral coronary artery aneurysms in a child with Noonan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, David M.; Flors, Lucia; Norton, Patrick T.; Hagspiel, Klaus D. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hoyer, Andrew W. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Pediatric Cardiology Center of Oregon, Portland, OR (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Noonan syndrome is a constellation of congenital malformations including heart defects, facial anomalies and short stature. The cardiovascular defects are variable and extensive, with the most common being pulmonary stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Coronary artery anomalies have only been reported in a few cases. We report a child with Noonan syndrome status post pulmonary stenosis and atrial septal defect repair, who developed bilateral coronary artery aneurysms. The aneurysms were diagnosed with both cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and coronary computed tomography angiography. There had been no evidence of them on a cardiac MR exam 5 years previously. (orig.)

  13. Development of bilateral coronary artery aneurysms in a child with Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, David M; Flors, Lucia; Hoyer, Andrew W; Norton, Patrick T; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2016-03-01

    Noonan syndrome is a constellation of congenital malformations including heart defects, facial anomalies and short stature. The cardiovascular defects are variable and extensive, with the most common being pulmonary stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Coronary artery anomalies have only been reported in a few cases. We report a child with Noonan syndrome status post pulmonary stenosis and atrial septal defect repair, who developed bilateral coronary artery aneurysms. The aneurysms were diagnosed with both cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and coronary computed tomography angiography. There had been no evidence of them on a cardiac MR exam 5 years previously. PMID:26515448

  14. New Developments in India–Myanmar Bilateral Relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gottschlich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with bilateral relations between India and Myanmar. It argues that the current transformation processes offer a unique opportunity for a major readjustment of India’s foreign policy towards Myanmar. In taking on India’s perspective, it assesses the history, current state of and prospects for the relationship between New Delhi and Naypyidaw in six policy areas: democratization and stability; security in India’s Northeast region and illegal migration; trade and infrastructure; energy security; development cooperation; and the role of China.

  15. Research framework of integrated simulation on bilateral interaction between water cycle and socio-economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, C. F.; Yang, X. L.; Niu, C. W.; Jia, Y. W.

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of bilateral interaction between natural water cycle evolution and socio-economic development has been obscured in current research due to the complexity of the hydrological process and the socio-economic system. The coupling of economic model CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) and distributed hydrological model WEP (Water and Energy transfer Processes) provides a model-based tool for research on response and feedback of water cycle and social development, as well as economic prospects under the constraint of water resources. On one hand, water policies, such as water use limitation and water price adjustment under different levels of socio-economic development, are to be evaluated by CGE model as assumed conditions and corresponding results of water demand could be put into WEP model to simulate corresponding response during the whole process of water cycle. On the other hand, variation of available water resources quantity under different scenarios simulated by WEP model may provide proper limitation for water demand in CGE model, and corresponding change of economic factors could indicate the influence of water resources constraints on socio-economic development. The research is believed to be helpful for better understanding of bilateral interaction between water and society.

  16. International solar energy research co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Peippo, K.; Konttinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Finland has participated in several IEA activities during 1996-97. HUT coordinates the activities, but practical participation in collaborative actions take place both in industrial companies and research organisations. Neste Ltd has directly participated in several tasks and information of results has been disseminated more widely to Finnish industries and organisations. Co-operation projects covered here are: (1) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 1 `Information dissemination`, (2) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 3 `Use of Photovoltaic systems in Stand Alone and Island Applications`, (3) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 7 `Photovoltaics in built environment`, (4) IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 16 `Photovoltaics in buildings` and (5) IEA Working Group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors`

  17. Outlook for the IAEA's technical co-operation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a slide presentation dealing with the following subjects: - the IAEA's programmes; - the technical co-operation programme; - past trends in the TC programme; - new initiatives in TC; - TC programme profile; - perspectives for the future. The major programmes conducted by IAEA are concerning: - nuclear power and fuel cycle; - nuclear applications; - nuclear, radiation and waste safety, nuclear verification and security material; - management of technical co-operation; - policy making, coordination and support. In relation with the IAEA role in development process the author presents the legal framework for TC, the programme structure, and programme areas, resources, budgets, cycle, approval and implementation. Two plots regarding the recipients with and without NPP's are displayed for the period 1980-1994. Also, according to the status of the member states (without and with nuclear power programme) the programme priorities are presented. For the first case these are: radiation and waste safety, food and agriculture, water resources management human health and nutrition, human resources development, environmental protection and industrial applications. For the second case there are mentioned: radiation and nuclear safety, nuclear power operation and maintenance management, radioactive waste management, environment protection and sustainable energy options. Concerning the regional distribution the following figures are given for 1997: West Asia, 9%; Europe, 18%; Inter-regional, 11%; Africa, 24%; Latin America, 21%; East Asia and Pacific, 17%. In conclusion, the hope is expressed that the value of Technical Co-operation Programme would be seen not only in the successful transfer of technology but also, in the way that the nuclear technologies may satisfy demands for sustainable development by having a lasting impact on the life of the majority in a cost effective and environmentally sound manner

  18. Local and Sustainable Food Supply: The Role of European Retail Consumer Co-operatives

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Hingley; Minna Mikkola; Maurizio Canavari; Daniele Asioli

    2012-01-01

     This paper investigates the rationale for local and sustainable food systems and retailer co-operatives as their entry points within local conditions. Emphasis is on localised food networks and connection between socially as well as environmentally sustainable production, distribution and consumption. Investigated is the premise that co-operative organisational structures, for reasons of their long-term socially responsible origins are at the forefront of development of local and sustai...

  19. CART - report of the Nordic co-operation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the activities in the Nordic co-operation programme CART - computer-aided radiotherapy. The ultimate vision in the CART programme is an integrated information system in a radiotherapy clinic, where all the relevant data are easily transferred between the different functions (steps) in the radiotherapy procedure. Incorporated in this system are also the relevant tools for handling the data, which consist of both image- and non-image data. Especially noteworthy is that the requirements of these computer-aided tools are defined by the users. CART has been running for 2 years only, mid 1985 to mid 1987, and cannot solve all the problems. However, a sound foundation has been built for continued development of functional subsystems (nodes) of an integrated radiotherapy information system. The CART programme was initiated with the goal of enhancing the competence level in hospitals, research institutes and industry by developing functional prototypes for future radiotherapy systems. The CART co-operation model is different from other models, and both this model and the results achieved are evaluated. 18 refs

  20. Local and Sustainable Food Supply: The Role of European Retail Consumer Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hingley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper investigates the rationale for local and sustainable food systems and retailer co-operatives as their entry points within local conditions. Emphasis is on localised food networks and connection between socially as well as environmentally sustainable production, distribution and consumption. Investigated is the premise that co-operative organisational structures, for reasons of their long-term socially responsible origins are at the forefront of development of local and sustainable food systems and are thereby in a position to offer a specific contribution to market development. Two key research questions are proposed: Firstly, is there a pre-determination of co-operatives to issues of sustainable and local food sourcing given the historical and practical context of their ethical/socially responsible and stakeholder-based business model? Secondly, do co-ops express support for re-localising food systems and what contribution do they make concerning sustainable food and their relationships with local food suppliers? The method of investigation is through a two country retailer co-operative sector analysis and comparison (Finland and Italy. The enquiry is qualitative and exploratory in nature in the form of an embedded, multiple case design. The paper makes practical and theoretical contribution to knowledge concerning interpretation of ‘localness’ in food, the role of co-operatives and the co-operative ethos in sustainable food systems and the development of the local food economy. Results of the study show a positive relationship between co-operative ethos and (social sustainability in local food, but the de-centralised nature of retailer co-operation also provides a barrier to replication of good practice.

  1. Bilateral Relationship between Technological Changes and Income Inequality in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirine MNIF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the analysis of the bilateral relationship between technological changes and inequality. First, it focus on the impact of technological innovations on inequality and the theory of Skills Biased Technological Changes (SBTC. Given technology can produce inequality; what is the impact of these inequalities on the distribution and the production technologies? Conversely, it´s interested in, the transmission channels through which inequality affect technological changes. And that being said, let's enrich the interactions between inequality and technological changes. The empirical validation is based on the technique of Panel data for a sample of developing countries. The paper concludes that a positive relationship of technological changes on inequality seems to be confirmed. Increased innovation increases inequality. And a negative effect of inequality on technological changes also seems to be confirmed. Rising inequality hampers technological innovations.

  2. Quality and Learning: Perspectives from Development Co-Operation. A Report from the Meeting of the International Working Group on Education (IWGE) (Florence, Italy, June 13-16, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, Roger

    The International Working Group on Education met in Florence, Italy, in June 2000. Participants came from 28 institutions representing 10 international agencies or institutions, 1 foundation, and 14 bilateral agencies. This publication is a summary of the proceedings of that meeting. Meeting participants reviewed progress on the Education for All…

  3. Co-operative Bank System: The Spanish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Amparo Melian

    2005-01-01

    In practically all European countries, co-operative credit societies have evolved towards a system which is comparable to other financial groups. This paper explores the recent evolution of Spanish credit co-operatives and especially rural savings banks. The creation of "Group Caja Rural" in 1989, has meant the greatest commitment to the integration of Spanish credit co-operatives in the face of the challenges of economic globalisation and the great changes in the national and international f...

  4. Improving livestock production through co-operative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Umaru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the positive role livestock Co-operatives can play in enhancing animal production. Livestock Co-operative Societies such as those for Artificial insemination, Dairy, Beef and Poultry production have been discussed. The paper also dwells on the benefits derivable from such organisations. The practice of Co-operative Societies in livestock production has been applied by different countries in different livestock sub-sectors. This paper concludes that establishing such Co-operatives will significantly improve livestock production in Nigeria.

  5. Development of nuclear technology through International Technical Cooperation programme: Malaysian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the advent of new technologies and knowledge, countries need to rely on one another for progress and development. At the same time, new challenges to development, which are beyond the competence of any country to approach individually, have emerged. These have led to greater need for international co-operation, particularly among the developing countries. In Malaysia, international technical co-operation has contributed significantly towards the development of nuclear technology. Malaysia has received technical assistance through the multilateral, regional and bilateral co-operation. This assistance complements the efforts of the government to meet the primary objectives of science and technology programme, which are; intensification of R and D capacity and applications of technologies, both acquired and developed, in national development. Over the last one and a half decade, more than 70 projects valued almost USD 15 millions, were implemented under the Technical Assistance Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Bilateral Technical Assistance Programme of Japan and Australia. Malaysia also has benefited from the regional technical co-operation programme such Regional Co-operative Agreement for Asia and Pacific Region, United Nation Department Programme, International Nuclear Co-operation in Asia. While receiving assistance, Malaysia continues to assist other developing countries in their development efforts in the fields of nuclear technology, through the various international co-operation programmes. This report reviews the technical assistance received through the international co-operation and its contributions towards the development of nuclear technology in Malaysia for period 1980 - 1996

  6. Success parameters for housing co-operatives in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimoh Richard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The roles of the various governments have been the driving force of the housing co-operatives in those countries due to the tremendous support received. The implication is that the housing co-operatives in any country cannot do it alone without the support of government in areas such as having legislation and policies, providing support services and embarking on regular education and training. The need to explore the housing co-operatives in South Africa with a view to determine the successes recorded over the years becomes imperative in order to advance strategies that will ensure virile and sustainable housing co-operatives. Results revealed that a lack of understanding exists as a result of inadequate information among government officials responsible for housing delivery and the public in the application of co-operative housing as a delivery approach. Also, inadequate training of co-operative members in leadership positions lead to a lack of administrative and management capabilities in the processes and operations of housing co-operatives. A pragmatic approach should be adopted so that legislation and policies that are beneficial to the housing co-operatives be enacted.

  7. New Zealand signs up to co-operate with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    On 4 December 2003 a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN and the government of New Zealand was signed in the presence of Peter Hamilton, New Zealand's ambassador to Switzerland. This MoU concerns the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy particle physics between Ernest Rutherford's birthplace and CERN, which now hosts one of the world's most ambitious scientific endeavours, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).    In anticipation of the MoU, two New Zealand universities (the University of Auckland and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch) have already joined the CMS collaboration to work on pixel detectors, where they can benefit from the expertise of the pixel group at the Paul Scherrer Institute. These detectors are not only valuable in high-energy particle physics, but also serve medical applications.

  8. Combined Effect of Bilateral Ovariectomy and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection With Medial Meniscectomy on the Development of Osteoarthritis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the combined effect of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MM) on the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Twenty female 15-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Five rats in each group underwent bilateral OVX (OVX group), bilateral ACLT with MM (ACLT with MM group), bilateral OVX plus ACLT with MM (OVX plus ACLT with MM group), and sham surgery (SHAM group). All the rats were subjected to treadmill running for 4 weeks. The behavioral evaluation for induction of OA used the number of rears method, and this was conducted at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-surgery. Bone mineral density (BMD) was calculated with micro-computerized tomography images and the modified Mankin's scoring was used for the histological changes. Results The number of rears in the OVX plus ACLT with MM group decreased gradually and more rapidly in the ACLT with MM group. Histologically, the OVX plus ACLT with MM group had a significantly higher modified Mankin's score than the OVX group (p=0.008) and the SHAM group (p=0.008). BMDs of the OVX plus ACLT with MM group were significantly lower than the SHAM group (p=0.002), and the ACLT with MM group (p=0.003). Conclusion We found that bilateral OVX plus ACLT with MM induced definite OA change in terms of histology and BMD compared to bilateral OVX and ACLT with MM alone. Therefore, OVX and ACLT with MM was an appropriate degenerative OA rat model. PMID:27606264

  9. Co-operation in the development of a policy and strategy for the management of spent nuclear fuel (including provisions for its safe interim storage) and radioactive waste in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuloaga, P.; Molina, M.; Barcena, J.; Salas, E.; Sanchez, M.; Codee, H.; Deckers, J.

    2013-10-01

    The European Commission decided in 2010 to finance a project for providing technical support for the definition and establishment of a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management in Mexico. the Project was in the framework of the Nuclear Safety Co-operation Instrument (NSCI), a European mechanism which finances measures to support a higher level of nuclear safety, radiation protection and the application of efficient and effective safeguards of nuclear materials in third countries. Eventually, the Project was a awarded to a Consortium made up by four Spanish companies, ENRESA, Empresarios Agrupados International SA, Iberdrola Ingenieria SAU, Westinghouse Spain SAU, and two foreign ones, COVRA NV and Belgoprocess NV. Both ENRESA and COVRA are waste management agencies, the first responsible of these activities in Spain, the second one in the Netherlands. ENRESA acts as the leader of the Consortium. The project started early in 2013 and will last until March 2015. All along this period, the Mexican system for spent fuel and radioactive waste management will be scrutinized and proposals made for its upgrading according to the best international and European standards of safety and performance. A Policy and Strategy document will be proposed, as well as significant improvements for the different institutional layers, practices and elements of the Mexican system. A total of 40 specialists are involved in the project of which 30 are Spaniards. (Author)

  10. Co-operation in the development of a policy and strategy for the management of spent nuclear fuel (including provisions for its safe interim storage) and radioactive waste in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission decided in 2010 to finance a project for providing technical support for the definition and establishment of a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management in Mexico. the Project was in the framework of the Nuclear Safety Co-operation Instrument (NSCI), a European mechanism which finances measures to support a higher level of nuclear safety, radiation protection and the application of efficient and effective safeguards of nuclear materials in third countries. Eventually, the Project was a awarded to a Consortium made up by four Spanish companies, ENRESA, Empresarios Agrupados International SA, Iberdrola Ingenieria SAU, Westinghouse Spain SAU, and two foreign ones, COVRA NV and Belgoprocess NV. Both ENRESA and COVRA are waste management agencies, the first responsible of these activities in Spain, the second one in the Netherlands. ENRESA acts as the leader of the Consortium. The project started early in 2013 and will last until March 2015. All along this period, the Mexican system for spent fuel and radioactive waste management will be scrutinized and proposals made for its upgrading according to the best international and European standards of safety and performance. A Policy and Strategy document will be proposed, as well as significant improvements for the different institutional layers, practices and elements of the Mexican system. A total of 40 specialists are involved in the project of which 30 are Spaniards. (Author)

  11. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Summary of models for the implementation of solar home systems in developing countries - Part 2: Practical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    This second part of a report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the implementation of Solar Home Systems in developing countries. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries. This summary outlines various models for the implementation of small domestic photovoltaic (PV) systems (Solar Home Systems, SHS) in developing countries. The first part of this two-part document discussed three generic models. Part 2 of the document is based on work prepared for the Renewable Energy Supply Models (RESUM) project. Examples are quoted which describe the operations of a number of companies supplying solar home systems in developing countries. These examples of practical experience provide a description of businesses, highlighting the success and failure factors of the organisations. They are only a sample of the many PV companies operating internationally and are not to be considered as a critical evaluation of the implementation models; they attempt to give the reader an idea of the realities of using the models in practice.

  12. Finnish experience on emergency preparedness co-operation work and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. According to the 'Security Strategy for Society' the responsibilities are shared across society and the normal division of duties shall be maintained unchanged as far as possible in all situations. While the competent authority is always in charge of making decisions other administrative sectors may be cooperation partners. This applies to the representatives of business community and organization as well. The first regional co-operation group for NPP emergency preparedness consisting of the representatives of regional rescue service, NPP licensee and STUK was established in 2008 to develop the external rescue plan, arrange training etc. Today co-operation groups are working for both Finnish emergency planning zones. Examples of the co-operation results are discussed in the presentation. (author)

  13. Development of bilateral chylothorax in a younger female secondary to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Kant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chylothorax is a rare clinical entity characterized by a milky white aspirate with increased triglyceride levels. The commonest etiology is malignancy and trauma, and bilateral chylothorax, secondary to tuberculosis, is an extremely rare cause, as observed in the present case.

  14. Old Wine in New Bottles? Does Climate Policy Determine Bilateral Development Aid for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Michaelowa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSince the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 bilateral and multilateral donors have stressed that development assistance has increasingly been oriented towards climate-friendly interventions. With respect to energy aid, this should lead to a substantial increase in projects related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. Given a new database of hundreds of thousands of bilateral development assistance projects, we can assess whether such a reorientation has indeed taken place. We find that, contrary to expectations, the share of bilaterally-funded renewable energy and energy efficiency projects did not increase over the period from 1980 to 2008. This share fluctuated greatly, following the price of oil, peaking with the second oil crisis of the early 1980s. The impacts of global climate policy treaties are minor or inexistent. ‘Traditional’ renewable energies such as hydro and geothermal declined, while “new” renewables showed two peaks in the early 1980s and late 1990s. Differences between donor countries are huge. Several countries, including climate sceptics such as the US and Australia, but also the UK and Switzerland, saw a consistent decline. The self-proclaimed climate pioneers such as Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden show peaks related to both the oil crises and international climate policy. Only in Austria, Denmark, Finland and Spain can ‘new’ climate mitigation development assistance be found.

  15. Quality, Coherence and Co-operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an analytical framework to examine how qualities are mediated between producers and consumers, and how this is linked to the way the food chain is constructed, who is involved, and the way the market is developed. The framework is a reorientation to see food ...

  16. Leadership and co-operation in orchestras

    OpenAIRE

    Boerner, Sabine; Krause, Diana E.; Gebert, Diether

    2004-01-01

    The leadership of musicians by the conductor of an orchestra is a combination of authority and charisma. It is a special case of directive-charismatic leadership that needs to be explained because it involves substantive restriction of freedom for the led, whereas in other creative fields (e.g. research and development) a non-directive style of leadership is considered functional to success. Current theory on leadership (e.g. contingency theory) is not able to explain this phenomenon. We deve...

  17. UN MARCO PARA LA PROMOCIÓN DE COOPERATIVAS EN EL CONTEXTO DE PLANES DE DESARROLLO TERRITORIAL DE REGIONES DESFAVORECIDAS/A FRAME FOR THE PROMOTION OF CO-OPERATIVES IN THE CONTEXT OF PLANS OF TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge COQUE MARTÍNEZ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone un marco para orientar programas de promoción de cooperativas en regiones desfavorecidas, con base en la concepción de estas empresas como esencialmente participativas. Para ello, se han combinado elementos de Dirección Estratégica y de Investigación-Acción Participativa que permiten estructurar procesos de intervención según cuatro ámbitos fundamentales de análisis, decisión y actuación: (1 elección de las barreras limitantes del desarrollo empresarial cooperativo sobre las que se quiere incidir, tras diagnosticar la situación de las cooperativas objetivo de un determinado programa y la del entorno de éstas; (2 determinación de los instrumentos más adecuados de intervención, vinculados a la disminución de las barreras determinadas en el punto anterior; (3 selección de los actores de promoción y reparto de papeles, en función de sus capacidades y otros rasgos que determinan quiénes son más adecuados para aplicar determinados instrumentos; (4 adecuación continua del programa a medida que las cooperativas promovidas van recorriendo las diferentes etapas de su ciclo de vida./This article proposes a framework in order to guide co-operative promotion programs in disadvantaged regions, based on understanding these enterprises as essentially participatory. Strategic Management and Participatory Research-Action elements have been combined so that they allow to structure intervention processes according to four basic spheres of analysis, decision and action: (1 selecting the barriers that limit the co-operative entrepreneurial development to have a bearing on, after diagnosing the situation of co-operatives which are the object of a certain program and its environment; (2 determining the most adequate tools of intervention in order to reduce the barriers that had been determined in the former point; (3 selecting the agents of promotion, and sharing roles among them according to their capabilities and other

  18. Co-operation - the key to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Romanian nuclear power industry is still a young one. Less than six years elapsed since the Unit 1 of Cernavoda NPP started its commercial operation. Nevertheless, the performance indicators recorded by the Unit 1 during this period are very good what is doubtless the combined effect of a good design, high quality main equipment, correct installation and a very qualified, skilled operation. The cooperation established during the construction between the station's personnel, designers, equipment manufacturers and other organizations is going on and should be developed in the future during the work of Unit 2 completion which is planned to be connected to the national electricity grid by the year 2005. Preparation of that event includes recruitment of new personnel and training of the existing personnel. This process is a task of the station's Training Center which have projects in cooperation with University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest. The events in 1989 blocked for a while the activities related to Unit 2 which has been although restarted after a delay of several years. In the new circumstances, new policy concerning the profile and size of the infrastructure, particularly, the contribution of the Romanian nuclear power industry have been defined. Although, the international cooperation in this field remains a 'must', the benefits of which should be used by Romania as much as possible. This is particularly important having in view that Romania has operated only a single nuclear unit with a history of only six years of operation. Hence, the need of developing international cooperation not only with AECL - Canada and ANSALDO - Italy but also with organizations like General Electric - USA, Siemens - Germany, NEXANS -France, Furmanite - UK, etc. We have also various connections with organizations of abroad operating nuclear power stations similar with Cernavoda NPP, from Canada, Korea, Argentina, India and China. As IAEA and WANO member we hosted in Cernavoda

  19. Progress Toward Development of a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis for Treatment of Bilateral Vestibular Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fridman, Gene Y.; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews vestibular pathology and the requirements and progress made in the design and construction of a vestibular prosthesis. Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation is disabling. When vestibular hair cells are injured by ototoxic medications or other insults to the labyrinth, the resulting loss of sensory input disrupts vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that normally stabilize the eyes and body. Affected individuals suffer poor vision during head mov...

  20. The effects of bilateral electric and bimodal electric--acoustic stimulation on language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Chapman, Christopher

    2009-09-01

    There is no doubt that cochlear implants have improved the spoken language abilities of children with hearing loss, but delays persist. Consequently, it is imperative that new treatment options be explored. This study evaluated one aspect of treatment that might be modified, that having to do with bilateral implants and bimodal stimulation. A total of 58 children with at least one implant were tested at 42 months of age on four language measures spanning a continuum from basic to generative in nature. When children were grouped by the kind of stimulation they had at 42 months (one implant, bilateral implants, or bimodal stimulation), no differences across groups were observed. This was true even when groups were constrained to only children who had at least 12 months to acclimatize to their stimulation configuration. However, when children were grouped according to whether or not they had spent any time with bimodal stimulation (either consistently since their first implant or as an interlude to receiving a second) advantages were found for children who had some bimodal experience, but those advantages were restricted to language abilities that are generative in nature. Thus, previously reported benefits of simultaneous bilateral implantation early in a child's life may not extend to generative language. In fact, children may benefit from a period of bimodal stimulation early in childhood because low-frequency speech signals provide prosody and serve as an aid in learning how to perceptually organize the signal that is received through a cochlear implant. PMID:19713210

  1. Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation Through Multilateral Co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    New technologies will be critical in addressing current global energy challenges such as energy security. More must be done, however, to push forward the development and deployment of the technologies we need today and will need in the future. Government leaders have repeatedly underlined the crucial role of industry and businesses in advancing energy technologies and the importance of strong collaboration among all stakeholders to accelerate technology advances. To attain these goals, increased co-operation between industries, businesses and government energy technology research is indispensable. The public and private sectors must work together, share burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes. The 42 multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements) supported by the IEA are a flexible and effective framework for IEA member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-government organisations to research breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants, to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes -- in short to encourage technology-related activities that support energy security, economic growth and environmental protection. This publication highlights the significant accomplishments of the IEA Implementing Agreements.

  2. A review of IAEA's technical co-operation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Technical Co-operation (TC) Programme is part of the Agency's mandate 'to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' The IAEA's role under this Programme is that of a scientific and technical agency making a discrete but significant contribution to sustainable development goals through the transfer of nuclear science and technology. TC is a high impact programme focusing on development needs with about 800 active projects annually with a budget of over $70M, 30% of which is targeted on training and capacity building in over 100 Member States. Since 1970, over 80,000 scientists and specialists from developing countries have been trained in nuclear science and technology and in nuclear power and safety. A number of trends in the world at large will be likely to influence the Agency's TC programme in the next several years: The use of nuclear technologies in developing countries is growing as local infrastructures improve and technology transfer increases, especially among developing countries; Some countries and institutions are becoming more self-reliant as viable markets develop for nuclear technology, based on an increased awareness of their benefits; As facilities age, safe strategies for life extension and for decommissioning are assuming increasing importance, while there is some renewed positive attention to nuclear power in several parts of the world. Concern is increasing related to the potential for malicious acts involving nuclear facilities or unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material. As the nuclear workforce ages, the management of nuclear knowledge is gaining increasing importance, including the need to maintain the safety and security of nuclear installations and their continued reliable operation. It is difficult to forecast precisely how these trends will influence the assistance requested by Member States, but it is already clear that there will be increased

  3. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L; Smith, Jeremy G; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials' transformations.

  4. Cyberethics and co-operation in the information society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Christian; Bichler, Robert M; Raffl, Celina

    2009-12-01

    The task of this paper is to ground the notion of cyberethics of co-operation. The evolution of modern society has resulted in a shift from industrial society towards informational capitalism. This transformation is a multidimensional shift that affects all aspects of society. Hence also the ethical system of society is penetrated by the emergence of the knowledge society and ethical guidelines for the information age are needed. Ethical issues and conflicts in the knowledge society are connected to topics of ecological and social sustainability. For information ethics and cyberethics, the sustainable design of society, social, and socio-technological systems is important. In this context the notions of sustainability and co-operation are discussed. Based on these categories, the approach of cyberethics of co-operation can be theoretically grounded. PMID:19440854

  5. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L.; Smith, Jeremy G.; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K.

    2013-12-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials’ transformations.

  6. SMEs and their co-operation with academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Jean Michel; Strömqvist, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation between SMEs and Academia can be a win-win situation when each partner understands the constraints of the other. SMEs are often leaders in innovation; therefore more ready to share interest in research. They are flexible and dynamic. They need a short feed-back to sustain their co-operation. Academia is often more long-term oriented and more question- than answer-oriented. A code of conduct can ease the relationship because it can anticipate the potential problems.

  7. SMEs and their co-operation with academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Jean Michel; Strömqvist, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation between SMEs and Academia can be a win-win situation when each partner understands the constraints of the other. SMEs are often leaders in innovation; therefore more ready to share interest in research. They are flexible and dynamic. They need a short feed-back to sustain their co-operation. Academia is often more long-term oriented and more question- than answer-oriented. A code of conduct can ease the relationship because it can anticipate the potential problems. PMID:16137116

  8. The Features of the New-type Co-operatives and its Legal Regulation in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoletta Fáró

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture, a changing in the structure of ownership also appeared in parallel with the changing of the political system. As a result, this process led to the liquidation and reorganisation of the socialist type co-operatives. However, in many cases the cooperatives managed in the traditional way, could not keep up with the changing of the economic regulators, the reorganisation of the market relations and with the more and more oppressive agricultural gap. At the same time, individual farmers - mainly because of their poor material conditions - could not meet the market requirements either in the quantity or the quality of their products. As a consequence of all these factors, a different kind of co-operation was needed. The Ministry of Agriculture and Regional Development passed a decree on the support of new-type co-operatives, too, in 1999. The statement of costs supported the establishment of companies dealing with product purchasing, processing, marketing and service. In the following years the support of these co-operatives was sometimes terminated, sometimes preferred.

  9. Twenty Years of Co-operation between Spain and France: Friends, Partners or Allies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Mestres i Camps

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in the relations between France and Spain at the 18th Spanish- French Summit, held in Paris on 10 November 2005, demonstrate that relations between France and Spain are passing through a good moment, and at the same time it allows us to go deeper into the analysis of the co-operation between these two neighbours over the past twenty years. This article aims to examine the evolution of relations between Spain and France, which must administer a dense bilateral agenda as neighbours and anothermultilateral agenda as European partners. In other words, it will analyse the extent to which French-Spanish relations can become a balanced, stable alliance.

  10. Technical co-operation report for 2002. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Conference resolution GC(46)/RES/10 reiterated the need to strengthen the technical co- operation programme and requested the Director General to report to the Board of Governors periodically and to the General Conference at its forty-seventh (2003) session on the implementation of resolution GC(46)/RES/10. Part A of this report responds to the General Conference resolution by providing an overview of the progress achieved in technical co-operation policies, strategies, working relations, and internal management during the period 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2003, as well as the major new challenges facing the technical co-operation programme. Part B reports on operational activities and programme performance at the country and regional levels during the calendar year 2002, and Part C reviews the use of financial and human resources in the programme at an aggregate level. As part of its efforts to refine policies for improving programme development, the Agency reviewed the Technical Co-operation Strategy in 2002. The resulting document, The Technical Co-operation Strategy: the 2002 Review (document GOV/INF/2002/8/Mod.1), states that the strategic goal originally identified in the Strategy in 1997 remains valid, and defines four objectives to guide the technical co-operation programme: applying the central criterion (strong government commitment), developing strategic partnerships, increasing the level of funding for technical co-operation, and promoting greater sustainability and self-reliance of nuclear institutions. In line with the Technical Co-operation Strategy, one of the key features of the Agency.s work in 2002 was continuing consultations with Member States at both the policy and operational levels on the management of the ongoing technical co-operation programme and on planning for future activities. The dialogue with Member States aimed at clarifying the strategic objectives and key tools for the utilization of resources to achieve maximum

  11. The SADC Groundwater Data and Information Archive, Knowledge Sharing and Co-operation Project. Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J.; Cobbing, J; Robins, N.S.; Talbot, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) Groundwater Data and Information Archive, Knowledge Sharing and Co-operation Project, funded by the German Development Cooperation (GIZ) and Department for International Development, UK (DFID), was initiated in September 2009 to identify, catalogue and subsequently promote access to the large collection of reports held in the UK by the British Geological Survey (BGS). The work has focused on a wealth of unpublished so-called “gr...

  12. Repowering electricity? The political economy of co-operatives in a neoliberal Canada

    OpenAIRE

    MacArthur, Julie L.

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberal governance is setting the context for a revitalization of co-operative development in Canada as provinces retreat from services provided and developed in the welfare-state era. Governments are opening provincial electricity markets to private actors, particularly for new generation from renewable sources: wind, solar and run-of-river hydro. This power sector restructuring has implications for democratic control, economic development, and environmental sustainability in Canada. Some...

  13. Military co-operation with South Caucasus countries / Rafal Seniuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seniuch, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Poola ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia vabariikide vahelisest sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  14. Strategic Stakeholder Communication and Co-operation in Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2002-01-01

    in this process is strategic stakeholder relationships like communication and co-operation. The paper addresses this topic based on a proposed approach for identifying and evaluating the influence from various groups of stakeholders as well as the findings from recent surveys of environmental management...

  15. The Agency's Technical Co-operation activities in 1984. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 1984 can be described as one during which efforts were made to increase momentum in the development co-operation between the Agency and its Member States while continuing to improve the quality of the technical assistance rendered. For the first time, the adjusted programme exceeded $50 million. During the year, changes were introduced in the administration of the programme in line with recommendations endorsed by the Board in 1983 at the end of its first technical co-operation policy review. In 1984, when the new technical co-operation policies were applied, there were three principal aims. First, the flow of Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund resources was to be improved; by decreasing accumulated unobligated balances, an optimum level of resource utilization was to be attained by 1986. Second, procedures for the procurement of goods and services were to be streamlined in order to permit substantial increases in programme delivery. Third, systematic project evaluation was to lead to a number of specific actions that would increase the effectiveness of the Agency's development assistance. With regard to the first aim, implementation increased by 44% over the 1983 level, passing the $30 million mark in October and reaching $36.6 million by the end of the year. Of this amount, $31.8 million related to the implementation of activities programmed for 1984. Therefore, an increase in total resources of only 4% was accompanied by an increase in current-year implementation of 34%. As a result, the upward trend in the unobligated balance was checked, and earmarkings against the TACF actually decreased. The implementation rate against the TACF rose from 58% in 1983 to 65% in 1984, reaching the level that had been set as a target. If this performance can be maintained in 1985, it will be possible to reach the optimum level of TACF resource utilization one year earlier than originally expected. As regards the second aim, streamlined procedures introduced in

  16. Case Report of Neurological Sequelae and Bilateral Optic Atrophy Developed Due to Tuberculosis Meningitis Treatment - A Rare Clinical Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasamse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM is common CNS infection associated with neurologic sequelae and mortality if untreated. Recommended treatment regimen consists; two months of daily Isoniazide (INH, Rifampin (RIF, Pyrazinamide (PZA and either Streptomycin (SM or Ethambutol (EMB followed by 7–10 months of INH and RIF. Optic atrophy as neurologic complication may develop in TBM patients with anti TB therapy. Infection and/or drugs can be an etiologic factor also. In this case patient was diagnosed with TBM at the age of three years and was on anti TB drugs. At the age of four years he was completely cured from TBM but developed seizure as neurologic sequelae. Provisionally, child was diagnosed as known case of TBM with seizures and visual defect. Ophthalmologist revealed; bilateral optic atrophy and Neurophysician confirmed as Neurological sequelae and bilateral optic atrophy developed due to TBM treatment. A thorough patient history including past medication history is a clinical pearl to identify such rare clinical complication. In this case optic atrophy and neurological sequelae was confirmed only after thorough history and evaluation by various specialists. Not only confirmation of rare clinical syndrome is important, also identification of possible etiology and appropriate management is required for better management. Clinical pharmacists play a crucial role even in identification and reporting of such rare clinical condition as a part of health care system to create awareness among others.

  17. FUNCIÓN DE LAS COOPERATIVAS EN LA NORMATIVA DE FOMENTO DEL DESARROLLO RURAL/FUNCTION OF THE CO-OPERATIVES IN THE REGULATION OF THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis GALLEGO SEVILLA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Las sociedades cooperativas son agentes económicos con gran implantación en el ámbito agrario y constituyen uno de los instrumentos más eficaces para ejecutar los objetivos de la política comunitaria de desarrollo rural. El marco jurídico del desarrollo rural se halla fundamentalmente en la legislación de la Unión Europea, que establece un complejo sistema de medidas y que actualmente gira entorno al Reglamento (CE nº 1698/2005, relativo a la ayuda al desarrollo rural a través del Fondo Europeo Agrícola de Desarrollo Rural (FEADER. El Derecho interno de los Estados miembros aplica e implementa la normativa comunitaria, pero además contiene una regulación propia sobre cooperativas y desarrollo rural. En el caso español, hay que tener en cuenta las normas estatales y autonómicas tanto en materia de cooperativas como de desarrollo rural. El presente trabajo, partiendo de la legislación sustantiva española, analiza el papel que desempeñan las cooperativas agrarias en el actual marco jurídico comunitario, estatal y autonómico en materia de desarrollo rural. Las cooperativas agrarias pueden ser agentes promotores del desarrollo local cuando actúan como interlocutores de la administración pública y como miembros de los “grupos de acción local” constituidos mediante la metodología LEADER. Igualmente, las cooperativas agrarias pueden ser beneficiarias de las ayudas suplementarias que algunas Comunidades Autónomas establecen para llevar a cabo acciones de fomento del desarrollo local./Cooperatives are economic agents widely established in the agrarian sector and constitute one of the most effective tools to attain the objectives of the European Union policies for rural development. The legal framework for rural development is mainly found in the European Union’s legislation which implements a complex system of measures and that nowadays revolves around the (CE Regulation no. 1698/2005, on support for rural development by

  18. Incentives for international environmental co-operation : the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Eirik

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis I have taken a broad view on international environmental co-operation; What are the incentives, obstacles and ways to enhance participation and compliance with international environmental agreements. I have also looked at a more specific issue; The implementation of the “flexible mechanisms” of the Kyoto Protocol, and particularly joint implementation projects between an investor in a developed country and a host in an economy in transition or developing country.

  19. The Text of the Agreement of 8 July Extending the Asian Regional Co-Operative Project on Food Irradiation. Extension Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement to Extend the Agreement of 23 May 1980 Establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation within the framework of the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972, as extended in 1977 and in 1982, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  20. Entrepreneurship and innovation: the co-operative society as a commercial option to development Empreendedorismo e inovação: a cooperativa como alternativa empresarial para o desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Ribeiro Rodrigues Alves

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The crisis of the traditional capitalism urges innovation. The cooperative is an alternative way of usual commercial organization, and it does this without compromising the institutes of free enterprises and private property. Cooperativism promotes ethics and democracy as an environment of entrepreneurship. The profits are shared according to the participation in the activities and not according to how much the person have paid before. The experience of cooperativism in developed countries shows how much it is profitable and good to economics and society.A crise da forma tradicional de capitalismo clama por inovações. A cooperativa é uma forma alternativa à organização empresarial tradicional, sem deixar de assegurar a livre iniciativa e a propriedade privada. O cooperativismo preza a ética e a democracia num ambiente propício ao empreendimento. Pressupõe uma cultura de desapego ao poder estabelecido com base no capital investido, e a participação nos resultados proporcional à conduta proativa do empreendedor. A experiência das cooperativas em países de alto grau de desenvolvimento corrobora o acerto desta forma de organização e se mostra útil para o desenvolvimento econômico e social do empreendedor.

  1. IAEA technical co-operation activities in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desire to extend the many benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology to all countries led as long ago as 1957 to the establishment of the IAEA and to immediate introduction of a technical co-operation programme. In the more than thirty years that have passed since that time, the potential applications of nuclear techniques have greatly expanded. Over the period, many of the applications have moved from research laboratories into hospitals, farms and industrial enterprises. The direct resources made available to the IAEA by its Member States to support technology transfer processes have grown rapidly since the late 1950s. The current trends in the technical co-operation activities of the IAEA and some examples of projects supported by the IAEA are briefly presented in this document

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy: An interdisciplinary co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international (European) undertaking in BNCT in the Netherlands has required close scrutiny of the organisational structure required to establish BNCT facilities. The multidisciplinary co-operation and the tasks of the participants in the hospital (Radiation Oncologist, Medical Physicist, Pharmacist and other medical and paramedical staff) and those attached to the reactor) are described. The organisational structure and regulatory aspects required for the international functioning of the Petten treatment facility are provided for guidance to new projects in this field. (author)

  3. Economic co-operation of African countries and China: the case of Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Vintar Mally

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the main characteristics and the latest trends in China’s economic co-operation with Africa, especially regarding the geographical implications of trade volume and structure, foreign direct investment, and development assistance. The second part of the paper presents key findings of empirical research in Angola, highlighting Angolan perception of economic ties to China as well as attitudes towards Chinese immigrants and their role in African society and economy.

  4. Entrepreneurs as Co-Operative Capitalists: High Tech CEOs in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh Whittaker

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a survey of CEOs in the UK high tech SME sector. Based on 510 responses, it builds up a picture of personal backgrounds, careers, reasons for starting or acquiring the business(es) and business objectives. A typology is developed, based on business objectives, of 'co-operative capitalists', 'capitalists', 'co-operatists' and 'coasters'. Participants' own comments show the importance of lessons learned in past employment, a cautious approach to business deve...

  5. NATO, Libya operations and intelligence co-operation – a step forward?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    2011-01-01

    "With the ‘fall’ of Tripoli towards the end of August 2011, it has become increasingly apparent that the intelligence co-operation witnessed in Libya during the NATO campaign performed an increasingly important role in realizing operational and strategic ‘successes’. These recent intelligence...... developments can be opened up for some further analysis, forming the main focus of this article. Ultimately, this article concludes that, over time and albeit while gradual, we have seen what can be regarded as ‘a step forward’ in co-operative intelligence activities in Libya. Although several pressing...... difficulties have been present, and have had various impacts at different junctures of interactivity, the ‘problems’ encountered have not completely overwhelmed either operationally or strategically all of the diverse participants involved in Libya." - Abstract from journal....

  6. A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DE BOER Sirp J.; QIU Ji-zhen(邱济真)

    2004-01-01

    In September 1994 the University of Twente, the Netherlands, and Zhejiang University, China, decided to cooperate in the field of science, education and management. After several visits of delegations from both sides it was considered worthwhile to explore further opportunities for mutual cooperation. The directors of international cooperation on each side jointly commissioned a project to investigate the potential in a systematic way and to establish further contacts where appropriate. This paper reports on the results of the research cum matching project.To reveal promising matches between multiple departments of both academic institutions a matching model for universities was designed. The study was carried out along two parallel lines. In the research line the theoretical framework was developed into a model for international university co-operation. Moreover, an analysis was carried out on internal, external and cultural aspects resulting in a set of thirty four influencing factors.In the matching line a total of seventy interviews were held in order to identify promising matches between units at both universities. This line resulted in eleven promising matches for further co-operation.The novel model appeared useful in analyzing the variety of factors and in developing matches between both universities. In the further implementation of the model the issues of "level of co-operation" and "top-down versus bottom-up" need to be addressed in more detail.

  7. CO2 for refrigeration. Co-operation with Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NTNU and SINTEF Energy Research, Norway, have co-operated closely with universities in Indonesia on the use of CO2 as a working fluid in refrigeration systems. The Asian market is the largest in the world and so it is very important to use environmentally friendly working fluids. In Indonesia, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) plays a leading role in the efforts to meet the national emission goals. For economical reasons, Indonesia considers natural working fluids such as CO2 rather than the new expensive synthetic ones

  8. A co-operative mechanism of subthreshold pion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a statistical model to study the pion production at subthreshold beam energies (< 290 MeV/A). This model involves the co-operative action of several of the target and projectile nucleons in the pion production process. We also consider the formation of the fragments in the final channel along side the produced pion. Calculations performed within the model provide a good overall description of the experimental data over a wide range of beam energies and masses of the participating nuclei. Fragment formation in the final channel is seen to be vital to understand the experimental data. (orig.)

  9. Technical co-operation report for 2001. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using nuclear technology as an effective tool for development is the challenge faced by the Agency's technical co-operation programme. This was the subject of the 4th IAEA Scientific Forum, entitled 'Nuclear technology for sustainable development: serving human needs,' which was held in conjunction with the 45th General Conference in September 2001. Opening the Forum, Professor Jeffrey Sachs of Harvard University emphasized the importance of developing mechanisms to mobilize science and technology to meet the growing challenge of serving human needs in a sustainable manner and commended the Agency for its achievements in this regard. This report provides information on how the technical co-operation programme has responded to that challenge over the past year. One of the highlights of the technical co-operation programme in 2001 was the launching of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in October. This represented the culmination of years of effort by African Member States, working in partnership with the Agency and the Organization for African Unity (OAU), and was an important milestone in the progress of applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) to the area-wide eradication of the tsetse fly in Africa. It is a good example of how science and technology can contribute to socio-economic development with a direct impact at the community level. The level of Member States' pledges to the Technical Co-operation Fund (TCF) for 2001, more than $59 million, was the second highest ever. This represented a rate of attainment of 80.01% (as of 31 March 2002), thus achieving the target set by the General Conference for that year. The extra budgetary contributions, more than $7 million, were the highest in ten years. These contributions, together with payments of assessed programme costs and other income, meant that total new resources for the year reached $71.1 million. In December 2000, the Board approved an

  10. Rhadinovirus host entry by co-operative infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lawler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhadinoviruses establish chronic infections of clinical and economic importance. Several show respiratory transmission and cause lung pathologies. We used Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 to understand how rhadinovirus lung infection might work. A primary epithelial or B cell infection often is assumed. MuHV-4 targeted instead alveolar macrophages, and their depletion reduced markedly host entry. While host entry was efficient, alveolar macrophages lacked heparan - an important rhadinovirus binding target - and were infected poorly ex vivo. In situ analysis revealed that virions bound initially not to macrophages but to heparan⁺ type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs. Although epithelial cell lines endocytose MuHV-4 readily in vitro, AECs did not. Rather bound virions were acquired by macrophages; epithelial infection occurred only later. Thus, host entry was co-operative - virion binding to epithelial cells licensed macrophage infection, and this in turn licensed AEC infection. An antibody block of epithelial cell binding failed to block host entry: opsonization provided merely another route to macrophages. By contrast an antibody block of membrane fusion was effective. Therefore co-operative infection extended viral tropism beyond the normal paradigm of a target cell infected readily in vitro; and macrophage involvement in host entry required neutralization to act down-stream of cell binding.

  11. International co-operation on decommissioning - Achievements of the NEA Co-operative programme 1985-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is attracting a growing interest in all countries where an increasing number of plants are reaching the end of their operational life and will have to be decommissioned in the next few years. In response to this interest, the NEA set up in 1985 an international programme of technical co-operation between decommissioning projects in eight OECD countries. This report describes the programme and the participating projects, reviews the experiences accumulated during the first five-year term of this international undertaking, and discusses what remains to be done

  12. ITER and IAEA to enhance co-operation on fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Organization today signed an agreement that will enhance the research of fusion, a form of nuclear energy created by the merging of light atoms. The Co-operation Agreement is aimed at strengthening the working relationship between both organizations 'with a view to facilitating the effective attainment of the objectives set forth in the IAEA Statute and the ITER Agreement.' Yury Sokolov, Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Director General of the ITER Organization, Kaname Ikeda, signed the agreement on the opening day of the 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, being held in Geneva, Switzerland, from 13 to 18 October. The IAEA has been closely involved with ITER since its inception, as the previous ITER co-operation phases and the ITER negotiations were held under its auspices. The IAEA Director-General is also the Depository of the ITER Agreement. 'The IAEA has played a crucial role in the evolution of the ITER project,' said Mr. Ikeda. 'We look forward to continued, dynamic collaboration.' Mr. Sokolov added that the IAEA has helped the international fusion community to focus its plasma physics research on the ITER design. This has made fusion research more results-oriented and has encouraged greater global investment in fusion. 'ITER is a clear example of how a large international project can be successfully organized. We are proud of the IAEA's role in ITER's development,' he said. According to the Co-operation Agreement, both organizations will exchange information regarding the study and potential application of fusion energy and will participate in each other's meeting. These will include ITER Council meetings and Annual Conferences of the IAEA, as well as its scientific and technical committees. The IAEA and the ITER Organization will also co-operate on training, publications, organization of scientific conferences, plasma physics and

  13. Responsible management in the Co-operative Movement : a report by Sheffield Business School

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley-Duff, Rory; Hurst, Janette

    2014-01-01

    This video report was prepared by Rory Ridley-Duff and Janette Hurst of Sheffield Business School following their attendance at the International Co-operative Summit, Quebec, 5th - 9th October 2014. Of particular interest is changes in the co-operative movement between 2008 and 2013, and information from new global mapping studies of the co-operative movement undertaken since the UN International Year of Co-operatives in 2012. The video was created primarily for staff / students a...

  14. Managing technical-institutional design processes: some strategic lessons from environmental co-operatives in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Roep, D.; Ploeg, van der, J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the case of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA is reviewed in terms of coevolving technical and institutional change and the strategic lessons to be learned for a pro-active management of such complex technical-institutional design processes. Facing the many-sided crisis in agriculture the two co-operatives developed a radically different approach. The aim is to re-ground agriculture in local agro-ecological processes following the approach of lowering external inputs...

  15. Cross-border mergers between agricultural co-operatives -a governance perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jerker; Madsen, Ole Øhlenschlæger

    A merger between agricultural co-operatives involves two merger processes - one concerningthe two co-operative business firms and the other concerning the two co-operative societies,i.e., the ownership organisations. These two merger processes are mutually dependent. If amerger involves co-operat...

  16. The Architecture of Co-operation: A Project for organizing collective creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Architecture of Co-operation investigates the relationship between the collective subject and urban form through co-operation as means of production. The point is how individuals can organize co-operation today for the city as a project and what could be the role of architects into this process.

  17. Co-operative Principle of Conversation and Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付岚

    2012-01-01

    Language humor is a usual phenomenon in human communication. It is an interdisciplinary subject connected with a wide range of learning. Up to now, a great deal of research has been done from the viewpoint of psychology and sociology. In the field of linguistics, some explorations have already been made in regard to its semantic and rhetorical aspects, but due attention has not been paid to it in pragmatics in that in everyday verbal communication, humorous utterances are easy to enjoy but hard to define. Apart from its capability of laughter-making, language humor is more often than not, produced to implicitly perform some communicative functions, not achievable by explicit expressions. This the - sis, based on the fruitful studies of humor, attempts to investigate the mechanisms of English humor from the perspective of a new theory 一 Co- operative Principle.

  18. Determinants and barriers to bilateral trade A study on developing economies

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms. Amber; Khokhar, Rabbia

    2010-01-01

    World trade has grown rapidly. Several factors are highlighted by literature as a driving force behind the growth of world trade. Reduction in barriers to trade is one of them. A comprehensive empirical investigation is carried to ascertain the trade reducing and increasing effect of barriers to trade which are also known determinants of trade. The modified gravity model developed in this study analyses the effect of GDP, distance,remittances, FDI, transportation cost, exchange rate, inflatio...

  19. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology - Kinematic analysis of bilateral arms for abnormal spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyu Won; Yoo, Ju Sang; Kim, Jong Yoon [Chungbuk National University, Chongju (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    In the project of 'Development of Spent Fuel Remote Handling Technology', Preprocessing technique, mechanism and teleoperation technique are being developed. One of the mechanisms is a device for disassembling of the spent fuel bundle. However, there may be abnormal fuel bar among the fuel bundle, In this case the unpacking task will be difficult and dangerous. So, in that case, a force reflected teleoperation manipulator is desirable. The system is composed of a anthropomorphic input device at control site, power manipulator at remote site and control system. In this research, the forward and inverse kinematic equations of input device and manipulators has been solved, respectively. In addition, the mapping algorithm is proposed and shown using computer simulation. The reaction force of the telemanipulator with the environmental object is reflected through control system. The reaction force is decomposed into joint torque of the input device based on the jacobian equation. The obtained theoretical relations are verified through computer simulation and they will be used effectively in the spent fuel remote handling technology. 6 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  20. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme in Chile, 1981-1991. Country programme evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agency support for nuclear activities in Chile dates back to the early 1960s. During the last ten years, the period covered by this evaluation, this support has considerably expanded. In the period 1981-1991, 62 Agency projects with allotments amounting to over $7 million were completed or are under implementation. Through this co-operation Chile has received 360 man-months of expert services, $3.4 million worth of equipment, and 105 fellowships for some 390 man-months of training. In addition, 262 Chileans attended 219 Agency regional and interregional training courses, and Chilean institutions were awarded 40 research contracts worth over $325,000. This evaluation covers ten years of Agency technical co-operation with Chile, during which 35 projects were completed and 27 are still being implemented. Eight major sectors received assistance: general atomic energy development; nuclear physics; nuclear raw materials; nuclear engineering and technology; nuclear techniques in agriculture; nuclear medicine; hydrology; and nuclear safety. The evaluation concluded that, overall, the Agency's technical co-operation activities have, in keeping with the national priorities concerning peaceful nuclear applications, contributed substantially to the establishment of Chile's nuclear scientific and technical infrastructure, and played a major role in Chile's efforts to introduce nuclear applications in a number of sectors of the economy, with many benefits for broader national development objectives. Another strength of the Agency's programme with Chile is the high level of commitment and dedication that was noted in the great majority of recipient institutions, and in particular at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CChEN. Mention should also be made of the fact that bureaucracy appears to be less severe than in some other developing countries, and that constraints that frequently affect other countries, such as insufficient counterpart commitment and lack of continuity of

  1. Status Quo and Measures for the Development of Bilateral Trade Between China and France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hao

    2011-01-01

    @@ In today's world economy, France is one of the major developed countries, the sixth-largest economy, the fifth trading nation, the fourth foreign aid-giving country and the first tourist destination in the world.Meanwhile, France is the fourth largest trading partner, the third investment source and the second 1 technology supplier in Europe.In global political situation, France is one of the five permanent members of UN Security Council, an important player in promoting world peace and stability, while France also has an important role and rights of speak in the European Union.Therefore, it is of great meaning and necessary for China to strengthen economic and trade cooperation with France, especially when facing the financial crisis and weak global economy.

  2. Co-operative Banking Groups in Europe: Comparative Analysis of the Structure and Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Palomo Zurdo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the situation of the main European co-operative banking groups (or systems) through the analysis of particular aspects of their structure and the activities and services they offer, in order to compare these groups with the Spanish case to check if the different ways of dealing with these aspects agree, and under what circumstances or how they are developed. This analysis is also intended to identify the decision-making and economic linking relations set up be...

  3. Celebrating Co-operation among Saskatchewan’s Libraries: The Multitype Library Board, 1996-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Shires

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saskatchewan’s Multitype Library Board (MLB celebrates its 20th anniversary in 2016. It was established under the passage of the provincial government’s The Libraries Co- operation Act in 1996 to facilitate the co-operative development of the multitype library system in Saskatchewan. This legislation is unique in Canada. The MLB is a Minister of Education Advisory Board and it provides a forum to promote and facilitate co-operation among over 320 public libraries in 10 provincial systems, 25 post-secondary libraries, 755 school libraries, several special libraries, and other information providers. Major milestones of the MLB include helping to eliminate the Provincial Sales Tax on library subscriptions, establishing a provincial digitization plan, and creating a cross-sector database licensing program that has resulted in a projected value of 14.8 million dollars to Saskatchewan users in 2014. The development of the MLB and the impact of the programs it has initiated will be discussed, and recommendations for developing a collaborative initiative will be provided. Le Multitype Library Board (MLB de Saskatchewan fête son 20e anniversaire en 2016. Il était établi sous l’Acte The Libraries Co-operation du parti Libéral en 1996 pour faciliter le développement coopératif du système de bibliothèque Multitype en Saskatchewan. Cette législation est unique au Canada. Le MLB est un comité consultatif du ministère de l’Éducation et il fournit un forum pour promouvoir et faciliter la coopération entre plus de 320 bibliothèques publiques dans dix systèmes provinciaux, 25 bibliothèques postsecondaires, 755 bibliothèques scolaires, plusieurs bibliothèques spéciales, et d’autres fournisseurs d’informations. Les étapes importantes du MLB comprennent, à aider à éliminer les taxes de vente provinciale sur les abonnements aux bibliothèques, à établir un plan provincial de numérisation, et à créer un programme de licence

  4. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  5. The Agency's Technical Co-operation activities in 1986. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    major role in Agency training activities. Close to one fifth of these activities depended on this type of assistance in 1986. From 1980 to 1986, the total volume of the technical assistance delivered by the Agency increased by 112.3%; during the same period, the staff of the Department of Technical Co-operation engaged in technical co-operation activities grew by 12.2%. The views of Member States expressed during the 1986 Policy Review Seminar and subsequent discussions will guide the future programme. Major emphasis will be placed on project quality. In its efforts to ensure that technical co-operation projects are consonant with Member States' development priorities, the Agency will seek to strengthen its co-operation with UNDP and other organizations of the United Nations system, particularly as regards programming and project formulation

  6. Growth hormone abuse and bodybuilding as aetiological factors in the development of bilateral internal laryngocoeles. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, James W; Khan, M Iqbal J

    2005-07-01

    A 36-year-old man presented with hoarseness and stridor. He was an elite professional bodybuilder and admitted to having abusing anabolic steroids and growth hormone in the recent past. A CT scan showed bilateral laryngocoeles. The patient was initially managed with intravenous corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, and the stridor resolved sufficiently to permit discharge from the hospital. He proceeded to undergo endoscopic marsupialisation of his laryngocoeles and to date has made a full recovery. This is the first reported case where anabolic steroid and growth hormone abuse combined with an elite bodybuilder's exercise regime has been implicated in the aetiology of bilateral laryngocoeles.

  7. The emergence of the network supply-chain: a study of co-operation and performance in supply-chain relationships in the UK fibre-optics industry

    OpenAIRE

    Spedale, S.

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the emergence of a new governance form, the network supplychain, in the UK optical communications systems industry. In doing so, it pursues two objectives. The first is to investigate the extent of the shift from market-oriented to co-operation oriented mechanisms in governing supply relationships. The focus is on the contingencies of this change and, in particular, on the impact of technology on the development of co-operative forms of governance. The second objective o...

  8. Bilateral Polydactyly in a foal

    OpenAIRE

    Carstanjen, Bianca; Abitbol, Marie; Desbois, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The following case report describes the diagnosis and surgery of bilateral polydactyly of unknown origin in a colt. A 7-month-old Berber colt was referred for cosmetic and curative excision of supernumerary digits. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral polydactyly and well-developed first carpal bones. Surgery consisted of an osteotomy of both second metacarpal bones combined with an amputation of the supernumerary digits. The follow-up at 18 months after surgery revealed a sound horse ...

  9. Performance Measurement Using Balanced Scorecard Concept On Co-Operatives Implication In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to apply the concept of balanced scorecards in measurement of co-operatives performance based on vision and mission. So far the assessment of co-operative performance in Indonesia is not take into account the social hold co-operative while co-operatives carrying a dual mission. Research conducted in in North Sumatera Province in Indonesia. The sample consisting of one hundred co-operatives that are still active run annual members meeting. Co-operative performance was assessed based on its fourth perspective i.e. membership financial internal process and learning amp growth. The indicator key of cooperative performance was determined by taking into account the performance assessment on co-operatives as articulated of State Minister for Co-operatives and SMEs No.129KEPMKUMKMXI2002 and the regulations of the State Minister for Co-operatives and SME No.06PerM.KUKMV2006. Therefore this research were contributed a method in assessing co-operative performance using Balanced Scorecard concept with the four perspective namely membership perspective financial perspective internal process perspective and learning amp growth perspective.

  10. Sustainable electricity policies. The role of international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis is an integral part of the policy process. The European Commission has prepared a 'green paper': Options on the Future Orientation of European Energy Policy, and has sent to the Council of Ministers its communication and work programme. Analysis, undertaken in co-operation with the Member States of the European Union (EU), the energy industry (particularly the electricity sector), users, other interested groups and international organizations, was part of this review. The scenario approach has been chosen in the economic analysis, which will be published soon. The principal findings of this analysis are as follows: (a) Energy consumption in the EU is expected to continue to grow moderately, at a rate of somewhat below 1% p.a., through the year 2020; (b) Electricity consumption is expected to grow strongly, increasingly its share in the final energy consumption; (c) Fuels with zero carbon content such as nuclear and renewables face certain difficulties regarding extended deployment, for reasons of public acceptance and on economic grounds. Certain renewables (e.g. biomass) are, however, moving towards mainstream acceptance and there appears to be scope for larger scale deployment; (d) There is room for more application of nuclear and renewables in case of a shift in the policy paradigm, i.e. if we move to a 'Forum' type world where globalization, a unity of purpose and restructuring of institutions foster a consensus on effective curbing of carbon. (author). 3 tabs

  11. IMPACT OF CO-OPERATION AND COMPETENCES ON THE INNOVATING BEHAVIOR: A MICRO-ECONOMETRIC STUDY OF THE FRENCH FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Karim Kefi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of innovative behavior is suited to several ways of comments. The economic literature emphasizes, in many cases, different effects of innovation in products and processes on international trade, growth, employment and the firms performance. However, little knowledge about the impacts of competence and inter-firms co-operation on the innovative behavior (products or/and processes. According to a more empirical approach, incorporating both the “cooperation’s effect” and “competence’s effect”, we have tried to explain such innovative behavior. The results which led this article can qualify some gains with regard to incentives for innovation on the one hand, and put into perspective a new approach to innovative behavior (cooperation / competence, which by joint analysis of co-operation agreements and skills can explain the development of these innovative behaviours, on the other. Based on our results and on limits and extensions associated with them, it appears that the innovative behavior of the firm (products, processes, or products & processes is not only a reflection of motivation strategic businesses, but also their types of skills underlying any engagement in a co-operation agreement. Thus, innovation policy unveils partly the interest shown by business groups (government, university with respect to the co-operation agreements in R & D.

  12. A voice from the high wire: Public involvement in a co-operative siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author is a public consultation and communications consultant to the Siting Task Force (STF), Low level Radioactive Waste Management. The STF is a Canadian government-appointed yet independent body implementing a voluntary, co-operative siting process for a long term storage or disposal facility for 1 million cubic metres of LLRW. The presentation will document the experiences of and lessons learned by the author during her role developing and implementing a public involvement program for the process. The Co-operative Siting Process is a new approach to siting controversial facilities. It is based on the belief that communities should accept such a facility in their backyard and not be forced against their will on technical or political grounds. A formal 'ground rules-up-front' process was developed and is now being carried out, with completion slated for April, 1995. Putting these rules and theories into practice has resulted in significant changes being made to the work plan for technical activities, and in a sober second look at the intricacies involved in planning and carrying out a thorough and efficient public involvement program that remain practical and cost-effective. There is a delicate balancing act between meaningful public participation that lays the foundation for trust, confidence and consensus, and public involvement that can result in the process being side-tracked and legitimate solutions and technical activities becoming mired in political and personal agendas

  13. Military Training and Education: an Opportunity for V4 Co-Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan ŠUPLATA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visegrad Group needs success stories if its defence co-operation is to develop. The recent differences between Poland and the rest of the region, as well as the closing window of opportunity to improve interoperability through the ISAF mission, make the hunger for concrete examples of co-operation even more urgent. Education and training projects are not only comparatively easily to implement in terms of time and money, but also represent a way of bringing the region’s civilian and military leaders closer together in terms of strategic thinking. Regional defence collaboration is also one of the ways to materialize NATO’s Smart Defence agenda. For the whole region, the way to keep Visegrad defence cooperation alive is not straightforward and certain, but it is likely to prove rewarding in the long term. It presents not only a chance to keep the whole region better prepared militarily, but also to build a more cohesive strategic awareness, thanks to intensive communication at all levels.

  14. National system of accounting and control and co-operation with international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a description of the National System of Accounting and Control applied in Argentina. Besides, the importance of having a National System is also highlighted as a way of supplying effective and efficiency to assure reasonably that the nuclear materials, materials, equipment and installations of nuclear interest are used according to the stated in the licenses and authorisations emitted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA), complying with the international compromises assumed by the country. The role of the National System referring to the co-operation with the International Agencies of safeguards applications, ABACC and IAEA, is also explained. This co-operation must be understood as the one tending to strengthen and improve safeguards. The existence of a National System of Accounting and Control contributes to widen guarantees on the compliment of compromises of non proliferation, facilitates the application of international safeguards by the agencies and improves the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards through the development of new techniques and methods. (author)

  15. Bilateral Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendstrup, Bjarne; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Paarsch, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    We employ a simple two-person bargaining model to interpret wage data-demands(offers) by workers (firms) and acceptances by firms (workers). Under two polarextremebargaining solutions, we develop a strategy to recover estimates of themarginal-productivity and the opportunity-cost distributions. W...

  16. The governance of co-operatives and mutual associations: a paradox perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cornforth, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new theoretical framework for understanding the governance of co-operative and mutual organisations. The theoretical literature on the governance of co-operatives is relatively undeveloped in comparison with that on corporate governance. The paper briefly reviews some of the main theoretical perspectives on corporate governance and discusses how they can be usefully extended to throw light on the governance of co-operatives and mutuals. However, taken individually these ...

  17. Transnational pipelines: Chances and risks of the energy co-operation in East Asian; Transnationale Pipelines: Chancen und Grenzen der Energiekooperation in Ostasien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, D. [Cologne Business School, Koeln (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The dispute of the energy security in the countries China, Japan and Korea is not only determined by the rivalry on energy resources, but also by the factors access, transport, distribution and price of energy resources. These factors determine the desire for an international co-operation and development of strategic relations. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the question whether trans-national pipelines are a chance or risk in the co-operation in East Asia. The main topics of this contribution are: (a) Increasing energy demand in East Asia: Imperative for a supra-national energy co-operation?; (b) Russian projects of gas pipeline toward East Asia: many options, few attempts of co-operation; (c) The trans-siberian oil pipeline project: Japan and China in competition with the Russian supply of crude oil; (d) Central Asia, Iran, India and Burma: China's plans for the construction of an own trans-national pipeline shows initial achievements. All pipeline projects described in this contribution show that there does not exist a real energy-political co-operation between the governments of China, Japan and the Republic of Korea on the one side and Central Asia on the other side regarding to the supply of fossil energy sources via trans-national pipelines from Russia. Concrete agreements with respect to co-operation between these governments with the common construction and operation of such pipelines do not exist in the near future.

  18. Danish Exports and Danish Bilateral Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    Danish bilateral development assistance is aimed at reducing poverty in the partner countries. Even so, bilateral assistance may have secondary, or knock-on, effects, which are beneficial for Denmark. An important secondary effect is the prospect of increased export from Denmark to the partner...... countries. This Evaluation Study presents an econometric analysis of Danish exports to 144 countries over the period from 1981 to 2010. The analysis is based on the gravity model of bilateral trade; a structural model developed over decades and now the central model in analyses of bilateral trade flows...... and trade policies. The main result of the study is that Danish bilateral aid has a positive and statistically significant impact on Danish exports to the recipient countries. Bilateral development assistance may affect exports through several channels. Three of the main channels are direct aid tying...

  19. Ahead of snap elections, Greenland’s independence ambitions could open a window for closer co-operation with the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2014-01-01

    Greenland will hold elections on 28 November following an expenses scandal involving Prime Minister Aleqa Hammond, which led to the collapse of the government. Ulrik Pram Gad writes that while there is strong support within Greenland for establishing independence from Denmark, the recent politica...... and renewable energy potential....... turmoil has undermined plans to use investment in extractive industries such as mining as the basis for an independent economy. He argues that the situation could present an opportunity for the EU to engage in closer bilateral co-operation with the country, particularly given Greenland’s natural resources...

  20. Using Critical Problem Solving to Plan Inter-Organisational Co-operation in e-Customs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, M.L.; Eck, van P.A.T.; Riemens, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic approach to plan assessment of electronic co-operation between customs organisations of different countries (e-Customs). Thorough assessment is of paramount importance, as co-operation in electronic networks usually requires considerable up-front

  1. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative…

  2. Comparative study on membership legislation in Canadian and Chinese agricultural co-operative laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhihong; GUO Xiangyu

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, groups of people desiring to supply themselves with goods, to market their products, or to obtain services of various kinds on a co-operative basis, have made increasing use of co-operative associations to achieve these purposes. During the period, legislation designed especially for the incorporation and conduct of such associations has been enacted by different counties.Since a co-operative is established and carried on by and for the use of its members, this essay makes a comparison between Canadian and Chinese co-operative laws in terms of membership in the aspects of qualifications, rights and obligations and withdrawal of membership, so as to probe the function of co-operative legislation and find some enlightment from it.

  3. Co-operation with Eastern Europe countries taking ENAC as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the European Community launched an ambitious programme of nuclear safety assistance. The purpose of this programme is to improve the safety of the Nuclear Power stations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union plants. It was felt in the Western European nuclear industry that the emphasis should be on finding practical solutions to improve the most urgent problems. To achieve this objective, the nuclear industry in Western Europe founded a consortium called ENAC (European Nuclear Assistance Consortium) comprising companies form seven European countries ( Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands). The co-operation between theses companies and the Russian designers would ensure that the solutions developed meet the approval of all interested parties. This presentation outlines the overall objectives of ENAC. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Guatemala, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $3 million of Agency support received, Guatemala ranks 46th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. Almost three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (72%), followed by training (15%) and expert services (13%). Seventy-eight per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (21%) and assistance in kind (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (37%), agriculture (28%), nuclear medicine (16%) and hydrology (8%). The remaining 11% were shared by general atomic energy development, nuclear raw materials, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear safety

  5. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  6. Sweden's Co-operation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented co-operation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania and Moldova, based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security, waste management, nonproliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host countries and the international community as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2011. The project managers from SSM are the cornerstones of our successful work, but all the efforts and dedication by staff members of the facilities and authorities in the mentioned countries are indispensable for the long-term positive outcomes. This report is meant to serve as a detailed account regarding SSM's efforts as part of the Swedish international activities, on which Sweden will report to the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul. The parties to the G-8 Global Partnership have in June 2011 extended the Global Partnership for ten more years, till 2022. Other international frameworks, such as the UNSC Resolution 1540, remain a vibrant instrument by which UN Member States can exchange information on security concerns and request assistance from each other. The projects that SSM implements in Moldova and Georgia have a reference to the aims and purposes of the UNSC Resolution 1540. Much work has been done in the fields of nuclear security and safety, but there are still lots of issues that need to be taken care of. As such, SSM will continue to do its part for nuclear safety and security at the international level, along the lines and priorities set by our Government

  7. Sweden's Co-operation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Chirman, Inessa; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Karlberg, Olof; Klasen, Haakan; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Wickman, Barbro

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented co-operation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania and Moldova, based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security, waste management, nonproliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host countries and the international community as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2011. The project managers from SSM are the cornerstones of our successful work, but all the efforts and dedication by staff members of the facilities and authorities in the mentioned countries are indispensable for the long-term positive outcomes. This report is meant to serve as a detailed account regarding SSM's efforts as part of the Swedish international activities, on which Sweden will report to the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul. The parties to the G-8 Global Partnership have in June 2011 extended the Global Partnership for ten more years, till 2022. Other international frameworks, such as the UNSC Resolution 1540, remain a vibrant instrument by which UN Member States can exchange information on security concerns and request assistance from each other. The projects that SSM implements in Moldova and Georgia have a reference to the aims and purposes of the UNSC Resolution 1540. Much work has been done in the fields of nuclear security and safety, but there are still lots of issues that need to be taken care of. As such, SSM will continue to do its part for nuclear safety and security at the international level, along the lines and priorities set by our Government.

  8. Proceedings of International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This proceedings are for the International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North-East Asia, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, held on June 2001 at Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel in Seoul, Korea. The major themes discussed are following: 1.Energy Profile, Outlook and Perspectives on Regional Co-operation in Northeast Asia 2.Future Challenges in the Energy Sector in Northeast Asia 3.Perspectives of Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia.

  9. Secondary polycythaemia associated with bilateral renal lymphocoeles.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, I E; Sambrook, P.; McWilliam, L J

    1994-01-01

    A patient with a 15 year history of secondary polycythaemia due to renal erythropoietin hypersecretion is presented. Subsequent spontaneous development of bilateral renal lymphocoeles, which contained high erythropoietin levels, was shown by computerized tomography. The lymphocoeles were successfully treated by bilateral peritoneal marsupialization. No cause for the persistent polycythaemia or lymphocoeles was found at laparotomy or on renal biopsy.

  10. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

  11. Bilateral acute corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, T F; Leibowitz, H M

    1985-04-01

    A 38-year-old man with brittle, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral severe dry eyes with recurrent corneal ulcers developed atypical band-shaped calcifications of both corneas during a 24-hour period. Serum calcium, phosphate, and carbon dioxide levels all were within normal limits. The patient was mildly uremic but was not in renal failure. When EDTA chelation failed to clear the deposits, partial keratectomies were performed in both eyes and the specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy, including energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Microscopic studies revealed an atypical calcific keratopathy which involved neither Bowman's layer nor the most superficial stromal lamellae. The deposits were confined to deeper lamellae in the anterior stroma and by electron microscopy were composed of extracellular crystalline aggregates. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis of these aggregates confirmed the presence of calcium and phosphate. Corneal dessication appeared to be a major contributing factor in the rapid formation of these deposits.

  12. When a business isn’t a business: law and the political in the history of the United Kingdom’s co-operative movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Mulqueen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary efforts to develop and promote co-operatives and the social economy confront a tension in the competing and often conflicting aims to achieve commercial sustainability in a capitalist market while also promoting social transformation. Through a review of the historical experience of institutionalization in the Co-operative Movement in the United Kingdom, this article attempts to generate insights into these tensions. Despite being seen as unpolitical, co-operatives can be understood as political at the level of re-shaping sociality through co-operative practice. Although the similarity between co-operatives and joint-stock companies produces ambiguities within the movement, this does not in itself detract from the co-operative project. It is argued that the codification of co-operatives in law as bodies corporate constitutes the closure of the political aspect of co-operation and reinforces and gives consequence to the misconception of co-operatives as primarily commercial entities. Los esfuerzos por desarrollar y promover las cooperativas y la economía social se enfrentan a un conflicto entre los objetivos contrapuestos de lograr la sostenibilidad comercial en un mercado capitalista, a la vez que se promueve una transformación de la sociedad. Realizando una revisión de la experiencia histórica de la institucionalización del movimiento cooperativista en el Reino Unido, este artículo pretende analizar estas tensiones. A pesar de ser apolíticas, las cooperativas se pueden entender como un elemento político por su intento de reformular la sociedad. Aunque la similitud entre cooperativas y sociedades anónimas produce ambigüedades dentro del movimiento cooperativista, esto no va, por sí mismo, en detrimento del proyecto de cooperación. Se argumenta que, al contemplar en la legislación a las cooperativas como personas jurídicas, se acaba con el aspecto político de las cooperativas. A su vez, esto refuerza y termina con la

  13. Local climate activities in co-operation between municipality, civil society and science shop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    The Science Shop at DTU co-operates with the local municipal administration and the local branch of an environmental NGO about climate change. The co-operation was initiated by a proposal to the Science Shop from the municipal administration. Since the Science Shop requests civil society involvem......The Science Shop at DTU co-operates with the local municipal administration and the local branch of an environmental NGO about climate change. The co-operation was initiated by a proposal to the Science Shop from the municipal administration. Since the Science Shop requests civil society...... in canteens and to elderly citizens, municipal employees’ transportation habits, a municipal energy saving campaign, local businesses’ climate impact, and energy refurbishment of private houses. The knowledge production has in some projects mainly been academic, but joint knowledge production with civil...

  14. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  15. The contradictory character of human beings; predation and co-operation

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan.

    2004-01-01

    Against the backdrop of an Australian forest, Alan Macfarlane describes the two contradictory drives which motivate humans, namely their predatory hunting instinct and their co-operative and social nature.

  16. Team Learning: Through the Relational Dynamics of Co-operation and Rivalry in Team Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lotz, Maja

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore the constructive links between co-operation, rivalry, and learning within the structure of team communities. Drawing upon social learning theory, the main purpose of this paper is to argue that both co-operation and rivalry are important triggers for mobilizing learning processes within and between teams. However, social learning theory tends to disregard the positive aspects of rivalry. Consequently, this paper will argue for the need to extend social learning theory ...

  17. Competition and Co-operation between Stock Exchanges in Europe - Legal Aspects and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Clausen, Nis Jul

    2002-01-01

    The article analysis why and how European Stock Exchanges enters into alliances. On the background of alliances as Norex, Euronext and the planned iX the different areas and types of co-operation is discussed.......The article analysis why and how European Stock Exchanges enters into alliances. On the background of alliances as Norex, Euronext and the planned iX the different areas and types of co-operation is discussed....

  18. The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning. A Decade of Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning (CPD) is a joint undertaking according to Article 5 of the Statute of the NEA. Concluded in 1985, the Agreement of the 23 participating organisations constituting the CPD has been continuously extended with the current programme period lasting until 2009. This report provides information about the participants, structure and achievements of the Co-operative Programme. The objective of the CPD is to acquire information and share operational experience from the conduct of 42 current decommissioning projects, such as project description and design, data resulting from the execution of decommissioning projects, and associated research and development results. The information generated in the project is protected by confidentiality provisions, which allow for a frank and open exchange of experiences, on a 'give and take' basis. The information exchange also ensures that the best internationally available experience is available and that safe, environmentally friendly and cost effective methods are employed in all decommissioning projects. The Co-operative Programme is implemented by a Management Board (MB) representing the participating organisations and a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) for the information exchange between the individual decommissioning projects. The latter benefits from the support of a Programme Co-ordinator financed by the Programme. The projects in the Programme have a broad range of characteristics and cover various types of reactors and fuel facilities. The Programme now covers 26 reactors, 8 reprocessing plants and 8 fuel facility projects, representing a wide selection of facility types in each category. Also, all three stages of decommissioning - from active dismantling to safe-store and to completed decommissioning back to 'green field conditions' - are represented. Over the 20 years of experience of the Co-operative

  19. Public private co-operation in urban regeneration investment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    . Previous research shows that area-based urban regeneration generates immense private investments, primarily from local property owners, but also from external developers. For the latter, external private investments can enable large and strategic investments that contributes positively to the urban...... involved, to negotiate with private as well as public parts, and - most importantly - to 'sell' the project to the right investors. Hence, there are several reasons for the public planners to increase the engagements with private developers in the urban regeneration. Compared to international research...... on private investments in the urban re-generation (Adair et al, 2007; Nappi-Choulet, 2006; Guy & Henneberry, 2004), we argue for more focus on the institutional context's role for attracting small-scale investors to the urban renewal. We propose that a lack of institutionalised information channels, boundary...

  20. Competition and Co-operation in the Corrugated Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Carl-Henric; Axelson, Johan; Emanuelsson, Martin

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes how the five Swedish corrugated box manufacturers, while still in fierce competition, got together in 1999 to fight a new logistic system, plastic crates, which threatened to overtake a substantial part of the Swedish market for transport packaging. It explains the background of SWIF 2000, the competitive response by the five Swedish corrugated box manufacturers, how the strategy was developed, and what made the competitors work together. Many driving forces influence com...

  1. Co-operative Workplaces – Workspaces of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Reinema, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    There currently exists a fairly well developed awareness that today's organizations are subject to increasingly rapid and significant processes of metamorphosis. The world today is in a transition phase whereby the models underlying business, communication, education, working, and everyday life are changing. Many organizations are no longer strictly hierarchically structured, but go more for vertical integration, networked clusters, project groups, and flattened hierarchies. Dramatic changes ...

  2. CO-OPERATIVE LEARNING: THEORETICAL BASES AND ITS TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    SUSHEEL JOSHI; SUNITA MAGRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper discuss the importance of theoretical bases of the cooperative learning strategy, and the importance of different types of cooperative learning which are used in the teaching learning process. The theoretical base helps us to understand the importance of cooperative learning strategy in developing different social skills in the students. The different types of cooperative learning types help to understand the effective of strategy on academic achievement of the students in differen...

  3. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy...... was unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  4. Japanese lunar robotics exploration by co-operation with lander and rover

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Takashi Kubota; Yasuharu Kunii; Yoji Kuroda

    2005-12-01

    Unmanned mobile robots for surface exploration of the Moon or planets have been extensively studied and developed.A lunar rover is expected to travel safely in a wide area and explore in detail. Japanese lunar robotics exploration is under study to conduct an unmanned geological survey in the vicinity of central peaks of impact craters for investigation of the sub-surface materials.This will give us the key information to study the lunar inner structure and understand the Moon ’s origin and evolution as well as to investigate the evolution of magma ocean and later igneous processes.To carry out the geological exploration in the central peak,lander and rover co-operative exploration is proposed.The working group has been conducting feasibility study of advance technologies.This paper addresses an overview of lunar exploration with lander and rover and also enumerates future technologies to be established. The rover R&D group has developed an innovative science micro rover with a new mobility system and a lightweight manipulator.The design and implementation of a science rover for the near future lunar missions requiring long traverses and scientific observations are described and some experimental results are presented.

  5. International co-operation for safe radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a specialised inter-governmental body, NEA pursues three main objectives for its radioactive waste management programme: - The promotion of studies to improve the data base available in support of national programmes. - The support of Research and Development through co-ordination of national activities and promotion of international projects. - An improvement in the general level of understanding of waste management issues and options, particularly in the field of waste disposal. The management of radioactive waste from nuclear activities covers several sequences of complex technical operations. However, as the ultimate objective of radioactive waste management is the disposal of the waste, the largest part of the work programme is directed towards the analysis of disposal options. In addition, NEA is active in various other areas of waste management, such as the treatment and conditioning of waste, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the institutional aspects of the long term management of radioactive waste

  6. International co-operation in the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, the Directors General of FAO, IAEA and WHO took the initiative in forming the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation, as an independent body composed of government-designated experts (currently 37 member states). It is the successor of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (IFIP), Karlsruhe which terminated in 1983 after successful complation of its tasks. The major functions of ICGFI, as stated in Declaration, are: - To evaluate global developments; - to provide advice to Member States and the three organizations; - to furnish information through the organizations to the JECFI and CAC. ICGFI addresses matters such as safety assurance, legislation, public information, technical and economical feasibility, training and international trade. Under the Auspices of ICGFI Codes of Food Irradiation Practice for eight different food groups were published. ICGFI organizes workshops on different topics, harmonize legislation and regulation in the field of food irradiation, provides information to the general public, records the files on clearances of radiated food and market testing. (orig.)

  7. International Co-Operation on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants within the Framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received from three Member States the following communications regarding international co-operation on the safety of nuclear power plants within the framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency: (i) Letter dated 17 May 1979 from the Federal Minister for Research and Development of the Federal Republic of Germany, together with the explanation of the proposal made by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany; (ii) Letter dated 21 May 1979 from the Resident Representative of Brazil to the Agency; (iii) Letter dated 31 May 1979 from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Sweden.

  8. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper draws on B.N.F.L.'s wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as managmenet, financial, R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by B.N.F.L. in co-operation with other organisations over several years in operating both major and much smaller agreements illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the current status of these organisations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for internation co-operation to succeed

  9. Evolution of co-operation among mobile agents with different influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Xingpu; Jin, Jiuwu; Li, Mingchu

    2013-10-01

    Co-operation is a key factor in understanding the evolution of our society. Inspired by this issue, the individual mobility in game theory has been proved to be a very useful scenario. However, it is not realistic, as described in previous studies, that each agent has the same influence on its neighbour’s movement trait. In this work, we mainly focus on the weighted influence on the mobility of agents in the prisoner’s dilemma game. Here the weight is proportional to its degree with power exponent of λ, where λ is the adjustable parameter to control the level of heterogeneity among individuals in the network. Through numerous simulations we find that co-operation level is promoted when the heterogeneous influence factor is considered. In particular, there is an intermediate value λopt≈10 to guarantee the optimal evolution of co-operation. Moreover, we also prove that the effect of influence weight on the enhancement of co-operation is only valid when the agent’s interaction radius is within a threshold value. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous co-operative behaviour in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  10. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Karimi; Masoud Soheilian; Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lympho...

  11. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Brazil, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $17 million of Agency support received, Brazil ranks 2nd among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958 through 1991. Over half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (51%), complemented by expert services (34%) and training (15%). Almost two-thirds of the funds were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (63%), the rest was provided through extrabudgetary contributions (30%), assistance in kind (4%) and UNDP (3%). With regard to total disbursements - by sector - under those projects that were operational during the period 1982 through November 1992, the three major areas have been: general atomic energy development (47%), nuclear safety (22%) and agriculture (13%). During the same period, the country has provided experts and training course lectures for a total of 405 assignments, and has hosted 178 fellowships and scientific visits as well as 46 regional and interregional training events with a total of 603 participants

  12. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Cuba, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $8.2 million of Agency support received, Cuba ranks 19th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991, whereby it ranked as high as 3rd in 1982 and 4th in 1984. Over three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (81%), followed by expert services (10%) and training (9%). Seventy-one per cent of the resources were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 28% of the resources were provided by UNDP. The remaining 1% was made available through extrabudgetary and in-kind contributions. With regard to project disbursements by sector, the largest areas have been general atomic energy development (36%), agriculture (20%), nuclear physics and chemistry (10%) and nuclear safety (10%). Industry and hydrology, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear medicine have each received less than ten per cent of the assistance provided

  13. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Peru, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $12.6 million of Agency support received, Peru ranks 4th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991, whereby it ranked as high as 2nd in each of the four years 1982 through 1985. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (59%), followed by expert services (29%) and training (12%). Forty-five per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 29% of the resources were made available through extrabudgetary contributions, and 21% by UNDP. The remaining 5% were provided in kind. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (27%), general atomic energy development (17%), nuclear raw materials (14%), nuclear medicine (12%) and industry and hydrology (11%). Nuclear safety, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear physics and chemistry have each received less than ten per cent of the assistance provided

  14. O espaço da cooperativa "amigos do meio ambiente": cooperativa de trabalho ou cooperfraude? "Friends of the environment" co-operative: work co-operative or fraud co-operative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirla Patrícia Weber Sterchile

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é resultado de pesquisa acadêmica que tem como objeto de estudo-pesquisa "A forma de existir e de ser da Cooperativa dos Agentes Ambientais de Santa Helena 'Amigos do Meio Ambiente' e sua imbricação na Usina de Beneficiamento de Resíduos Sólidos do município de Santa Helena-PR". Verificando o cotidiano profissional, o descontentamento de trabalhadores catadores de matérias recicláveis, o incentivo do gestor municipal para a instalação da usina e a formação da cooperativa, aliado aos postulados do capitalismo, em sua fase tardia, propusemos desconstruir e reconstruir o movimento do objeto em questão a partir da pesquisa teórica e empírica. Para coletar os dados utilizando a técnica de gravação, recorremos à análise documental e à observação. Após esse processo descrevemos e analisamos os conteúdos presentes. Concluímos em nosso estudo-pesquisa, que a Cooperativa - "Amigos do Meio Ambiente", é uma "cooperfraude", legitimada pelo Estado, que suprime os princípios do cooperativismo e exime o capital da raiz da exploração da força de trabalhoThis article resulted from a research aiming at "The form of existence and being of the Co-operative of Environmental Agents from St. Helena - 'Friends of the Environment' - and its imbrication in the Processing Plant of Solid Waste in the city of Santa Helena-PR". Checking the professional practice, the dissatisfaction of workers who collect recycling materials and the City Hall's encouragement to install the plant and to form the Co-operative, together with the tenets of capitalism in its late stage, we proposed to deconstruct and reconstruct the motion of the object studied from the empirical research. After analyzing our data we concluded that the "Friends of the Environment" Co-operative is a "fraud co-operative" legitimized by the State, that suppressed the principles of co-operativism and exempted the capital from the root of exploitation of the workforce

  15. Regional co-operation in the nuclear field: The Nordic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience from 25 years of co-operation in the nuclear field between the Nordic countries is described. A pragmatic approach with a minimum of formalism is used. The co-operation takes place mainly through ''horizontal'' channels between corresponding bodies in the different countries - safety authorities, research institutions, electricity producers, etc. In addition, a ''vertical'' co-ordination between these different circles is accomplished through a Nordic Liaison Committee. The experience shows that valuable results can be obtained, mainly through rationalization and improved use of resources. Difficulties, which are inherent in international co-operation, can be reduced, provided that there is a strong political will, an efficient system to promote contacts, and a flexible financing scheme. Apart from the benefits obtained in each of the countries - whether or not it has its own nuclear power - particular advantages accrue when a ''Nordic group'' can present co-ordinated viewpoints on the international scene. (author)

  16. Co-operation among like-minded sates in multilateral negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Like-minded co-operation has received relatively little attention in the literature of negotiation which traditionally has centered its focus on the study of coalition formation. Nevertheless, this concept of like-minded states is still referred to in various UN settings and often associated with the Nordic countries plus the Netherlands and in some cases Canada. Informal by nature and relatively small in size, this type of group may be defined as a subgroup of actors co-operating to achieve ...

  17. Revitalisert regionalisering : en analyse av det nye East African Co- operation (EAC)

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Revitalisert regionalisering; en analyse av det nye East African Co-operation. Temaet i denne oppgaven er regionalisering og East African Co-operation (EAC). Regionalisering er blitt fremmet som 90-årenes strategi, og vi har sett regionale samrbeidsarrangementer i nær sagt alle verdenshjørner. EU, NAFTA, og ASEAN er kanskje de mest kjente, men også i Afrika har regionalisering blitt fremmet som en politisk-økonomisk strategi. EAC, formelt dannet november 1993, er et slikt regionalt samarbe...

  18. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  19. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Viet Nam 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Viet Nam carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  20. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Colombia 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Colombia carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  1. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bolivia 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bolivia carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Greece 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Greece carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Hungary 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Hungary carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  4. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Malaysia 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Malaysia carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  5. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Nicaragua 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Nicaragua carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  6. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bolivia 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bolivia carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  7. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Guatemala 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Guatemala carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  8. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  9. Analysis on the Load Carrying Mechanism Integrated as Heterogeneous Co-operative Manipulator in a Walking Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajay Vedaraj, I. S.; Jain, Ritika; Rao, B. V. A.

    2014-07-01

    After industrial robots came into existence during 1960, the technology of robotics with the design and analysis of robots in various forms in industries as well as in domestic applications were developed. Nowadays, along with the automotive sector the robots are producing a great impact in the form of quality and production rate to register their existence reliable in various other sectors also. Robotic technology has undergone various phase translations from being tortured as humanoids to the present day manipulators. Depending upon the various forms of its existence, robot manipulators are designed as serial manipulators and parallel manipulators. Individually both types can be proved effective though both have various drawbacks in design and the kinematic analysis. The versatility of robots can be increased by making them work in an environment where the same work volume is shared by more than one manipulator. This work volume can be identified as co-operative work volume of those manipulators. Here the interference of manipulators in the work volume of other manipulators is possible and is made obstacle free. The main advantage of co-operative manipulators is that when a number of independent manipulators are put together in a cooperative work envelope the efficiency and ability to perform tasks is greatly enhanced. The main disadvantage of the co-operative manipulators lies in the complication of its design even for a simple application, in almost all fields. In this paper, a cooperative design of robot manipulators to work in co-operative work environment is done and analysed for its efficacy. In the industrial applications when robotic manipulators are put together in more numbers, the trajectory planning becomes the tough task in the work cell. Proper design can remove the design defects of the cooperative manipulators and can be utilized in a more efficient way. In the proposed research paper an analysis is made on such a type of cooperative manipulator

  10. International co-operation in radiation protection practices in the mining and milling of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining industry has been associated with the history of excess lung cancer. Because of such epidemiological evidence, the subject of radiation protection in the nuclear mining industry has received increased attention in recent years both at national and international levels. The radiation hazards encountered in the uranium mining industry result primarily from the exposure to radon daughters. The exposure to external radiation in most mines is low; however, in the mining of high grade uranium ores external radiation exposure can be substantially higher. By adopting proper control measures, namely, regulatory control, appropriate safety standards, monitoring, engineering and other measures, medical surveillance, environmental protection and radioactive waste management, it is possible to minimize the health risk to a level deemed to be acceptable in the light of the benefit derived from the uranium mining industry. Recognizing the history of excess lung cancer among uranium miners and the nature of the associated radiation protection problems there have been considerable national and international efforts to develop safety standards, codes of practice and guides to improve the radiation protection practices for the protection of the workers and the general public. At the international level the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) has been to develop and provide guidance for improved radiation protection in the uranium mining industry. In the paper the radiological problems in this industry, the types of control measures and the international efforts in harmonizing radiation protection measures are discussed. (author). 27 refs

  11. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S BILATERAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The EU is a world economic power and a major trading partner for most countries. All the time, this region has been interested and has acted towards a free and fair trade. The decrease and even the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers in the world trade are among the main objectives of the EU strategy for international trade. At the moment, the elusive outcome of the WTO Doha Round has led to the proliferation of bilateral trade agreements worldwide. Although the EU remains committed to further development of the multilateral trading system, however, the EU still has appealed also to the development of bilateral trade relations. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the current bilateral dimension of the common commercial policy of the EU. In conclusion, to describe this bilateral approach of the EU we are using one word, namely “diversity”.

  12. Escleritis posterior bilateral Bilateral posterior scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zurutuza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática.Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

  13. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  14. Radiation protection activities under a Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of a Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) project on 'strengthening of radiation protection' is described. All the RCA Member States, i.e. Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam are participating in the project and providing the financial and human resources necessary for its implementation. The objective of the project is to strengthen radiation protection capabilities in the RCA region with emphasis on the establishment and development of the infrastructure, in particular, manpower development in dosimetry, dose and risk assessment, protection practices, emergency countermeasures, regulatory provisions, and educational and training systems. The activities include practical training, the acquisition of fundamental knowledge and techniques; workshop and study tours at an advanced level; a co-ordinated research programme to obtain data essential for radiation protection measures in the region; assignment of experts to address specific problems; provision of long term fellowships to supplement short term training; provision of instruments and equipment; participation in the radiation protection advisory team (RAPAT) programme of the IAEA; and periodic evaluation of the project. These activities are applied in a concerted way to industrial applications, including nuclear energy and medical and biological applications. In the field of industrial applications, two training courses and two workshops including study tours were implemented in 1988 and 1989, and one training course and two workshops are envisaged for 1990. In the medical and biological field, efforts have been concentrated on the co-ordinated research programme which aims at compiling essential data of the region for setting Reference Asian Man. 1 tab

  15. Bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahemey, R.; Warfield, A.T.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas are the most common benign osteoclastic tumours of the paranasal sinuses. However, nasal cavity and turbinate osteomas are extremely rare. Only nine middle turbinate, three inferior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported to date. The present case report describes the management and follow-up of symptomatic bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. A 60-year-old female presented with symptoms of bilateral nasal obstruction and right-sided epiphora. Radiological investigation found hypertrophic bony changes involving both inferior turbinates. The patient was managed successfully by endoscopic inferior turbinectomies in order to achieve a patent airway, with no further recurrence of tumour after 3 months postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. We describe a safe and minimally invasive method of tumour resection, which has a better cosmetic outcome compared with other approaches. PMID:27534890

  16. Evaluation of Georgian military co-operation with partner countries and institutions / George Manjgaladze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manjgaladze, George

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Gruusia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõudude ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega, sh NATO-ga 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  17. A mixture of "cheats" and "co-operators" can enable maximal group benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Craig MaClean

    Full Text Available Is a group best off if everyone co-operates? Theory often considers this to be so (e.g. the "conspiracy of doves", this understanding underpinning social and economic policy. We observe, however, that after competition between "cheat" and "co-operator" strains of yeast, population fitness is maximized under co-existence. To address whether this might just be a peculiarity of our experimental system or a result with broader applicability, we assemble, benchmark, dissect, and test a systems model. This reveals the conditions necessary to recover the unexpected result. These are 3-fold: (a that resources are used inefficiently when they are abundant, (b that the amount of co-operation needed cannot be accurately assessed, and (c the population is structured, such that co-operators receive more of the resource than the cheats. Relaxing any of the assumptions can lead to population fitness being maximized when cheats are absent, which we experimentally demonstrate. These three conditions will often be relevant, and hence in order to understand the trajectory of social interactions, understanding the dynamics of the efficiency of resource utilization and accuracy of information will be necessary.

  18. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  19. [SUPPORT, CO-OPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES, PRAGMATIC CODE OF ETHICS: A CLINICAL APPROACH OF EXECUTIVE TRAINING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaret, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    This article aims at introducing an educational sequence completed at l'Institut de Formation des Cadres de Santé (IFCS) at the CHRU in Lille in France, entitled "training project and educational project" present in the "training duties" module whose goal is to generate students'knowledge through co-operative education programmes. By creating this innovative sequence, the educational aim is to use the Institut ground as a ground of learning, associated with the various internship grounds, in order to get the most of co-operative education programmes. Besides, in a pragmatic code of ethics in training, the teaching staff draw their inspiration from a clinical approach of executive training: they regard students as true protagonists in a co-operative plan created for them, wishing to design it with them using their words. Thus, students are brought to criticize the IFCS educational project and debate it with the trainers who have built it. Each partner tries to understand the Other, being aware of their being different. By contributing every year to rewriting the educational project which directly concerns them, students build their professional positions as health executives. They play an active role in co-operative education programmes just like IFCS outside partners. PMID:27305794

  20. [SUPPORT, CO-OPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES, PRAGMATIC CODE OF ETHICS: A CLINICAL APPROACH OF EXECUTIVE TRAINING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaret, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    This article aims at introducing an educational sequence completed at l'Institut de Formation des Cadres de Santé (IFCS) at the CHRU in Lille in France, entitled "training project and educational project" present in the "training duties" module whose goal is to generate students'knowledge through co-operative education programmes. By creating this innovative sequence, the educational aim is to use the Institut ground as a ground of learning, associated with the various internship grounds, in order to get the most of co-operative education programmes. Besides, in a pragmatic code of ethics in training, the teaching staff draw their inspiration from a clinical approach of executive training: they regard students as true protagonists in a co-operative plan created for them, wishing to design it with them using their words. Thus, students are brought to criticize the IFCS educational project and debate it with the trainers who have built it. Each partner tries to understand the Other, being aware of their being different. By contributing every year to rewriting the educational project which directly concerns them, students build their professional positions as health executives. They play an active role in co-operative education programmes just like IFCS outside partners.

  1. Incentives to strengthen international co-operation in R and D for advanced nuclear power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the need for International Co-operation in R and D for Advanced Reactors in order to maintain options for the future deployment of nuclear power against the current background of declining R and D capability in Europe

  2. Using Peer Teaching to Support Co-Operative Learning in Undergraduate Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaz, Iris; Moni, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from the second phase of a study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students (n = 285) enrolled in the 2006 Bachelor of Science degree program completed a group-based assessment task (weighted 10% of their course). Blended teaching…

  3. Architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernier, F.; Ploennigs, J.; Pesch, D.; Lesecq, S.; Basten, T.; Boubekeur, M.; Denteneer, D.; Oltmanns, F.; Bonnard, F.; Lehmann, M.; Mai, T.L.; McGibney, A.; Rea, S.; Pacull, F.; Guyon-Gardeux, C.; Ducreux, L.F.; Thior, S.; Hendriks, M.; Verriet, J.; Fedor, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems (BAS) proposed by the EC funded FP7 SCUBA1 project. We describe the current situation in monitoring and control systems and outline the typical stakeholders involved in the ca

  4. The Case of the Missing Organizations: Co-operatives and the Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Roderick

    2000-01-01

    States that co-operative (co-op) economics organizations are ignored in economic introductory textbooks in North America and provides evidence for this assertion. Addresses how to deal with this form of economic organization. Argues that asking who makes the decisions in firms and why, using co-ops as an example, raises important questions. (CMK)

  5. Socialité et co-operation dans l'oeuvre de Charles Goodwin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    2016-01-01

    As a linguistic anthropologist, Goodwin elaborates a conceptual and methodological framework to describe the organization of human activities and conducts. The central notion of « co-operation » accounts for what is at stake in ordinary conversation as well as in professional practices, cultural ...

  6. Success and failure of firms' innovation co-operations: The role of intermediaries and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, U.; Meder, A.; Wolf, T.

    2011-01-01

    importance, rather than on the perceived quality, of intermediate actors. Hence, the major problem for intermediating suitable partners is more related to communication than it is a programmatic issue. Trust and reciprocity in co-operation between firms is found to be relevant ex-post in the sense of being...

  7. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency

  8. Financial Instruments and Conflicts of Interest: Application to French Agricultural Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Declerck

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural co-operatives' governance and economic projects are often misunderstood by external financial investors. The risk of conflicts of interest plays a role in these misunderstandings in the way retained earnings, returns to agricultural products brought by co-op member and returns to equity capital. Such risks are identified and answers are proposed.

  9. Members' Preferences for Co-operative Structures: An Experimental Conjoint Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Lans, van der I.A.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Dijk, van G.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract As market conditions change rapidly in the 21st century, questions arise concerning how the organizational structures of co-operatives (co-ops) can meet the challenges that these new conditions pose. This paper introduces a framework to structure marketing co-ops (MCs) based on members¿ pre

  10. Co-Operative Phenomena as a Physical Paradigm for Special Relativity, Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Buonomano, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    We take Co-Operative Phenomena as a common physical conceptual base to speculate on the existence of a medium and the properties that it must have to physically understand some of the problems in Special Relativity, Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.

  11. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  12. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay; Aditya Pratap; Chetan; Ramesh; Rajlaxmi Jaysing

    2014-01-01

    : Immature teratoma (IMT) is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fac...

  13. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : Immature teratoma (IMT is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fact that the patient age is below the average for the occurrence of these tumors.

  14. Benefits and detriments of unilateral cochlear implant use on bilateral auditory development in children who are deaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Gordon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have explored both the benefits and detriments of providing electrical input through a cochlear implant in one ear to the auditory system of young children. A cochlear implant delivers electrical pulses to stimulate the auditory nerve, providing children who are deaf with access to sound. The goals of implantation are to restrict reorganization of the deprived immature auditory brain and promote development of hearing and spoken language. It is clear that limiting the duration of deprivation is a key factor. Additional considerations are the onset, etiology, and use of residual hearing as each of these can have unique effects on auditory development in the pre-implant period. New findings show that many children receiving unilateral cochlear implants are developing mature-like brainstem and thalamo-cortical responses to sound with long term use despite these sources of variability; however, there remain considerable abnormalities in cortical function. The most apparent, determined by implanting the other ear and measuring responses to acute stimulation, is a loss of normal cortical response from the deprived ear. Recent data reveal that this can be avoided in children by early implantation of both ears simultaneously or with limited delay. We conclude that auditory development requires input early in development and from both ears.

  15. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR NODE CO-OPERATION BASED CLUSTERING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sathiyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is termed as a set of wireless nodes which could be built with infrastructure less environment where network services are afforded by the nodes themselves. In such a situation, if a node refuses to co-operate with other nodes, then it will lead to a considerable diminution in throughput and the network operation decreases to low optimum value. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the collaboration of nodes for packet routing ahead. Nevertheless, much of the existing work in MANETs imagines that mobile nodes (probably possessed by selfish users will pursue prearranged protocols without variation. Therefore, implementing the co-operation between the nodes turn out to be an significant issue. The previous work described a secured key model for ad hoc network with efficient node clustering based on reputation and ranking model. But the downside is that the co-operation with the nodes is less results in a communication error. To enhance the security in MANET, in this work, we present a hybrid approach, build a node co-operation among the nodes in MANET by evaluating the weightage of cooperativeness of each node in MANET. With the estimation of normal co-operative nodes, nodes are restructured on its own (self. Then clustering is made with the reorganized nodes to form a secured communication among the nodes in the MANET environment. The Simulation of the proposed Hybrid Approach for Node Cooperation based Clustering (HANCC work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model. Compared to an existing secured key model, the proposed HANCC performance is 80-90% high.

  16. Introductory statement at the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Committee of the Board of Governors. Vienna, 17 November 2003 [As delivered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's technical co-operation (TC) programme is focused on putting advanced science to work to meet the economic and social needs of developing countries. The TC planning process is briefly discussed, including recent evaluation results; highlighting of a number of key activities; and reviewing the current status of TC implementation and funding. The areas of activity include: The use of radiotherapy in cancer treatment; isotope hydrology; monitoring coastal and marine environment; plant breeding applications. Program implementation as well as program funding is discussed. The Agency is also working to reinforce technical co-operation among developing countries (TCDC), that is, the pooling of resources and expertise in areas of mutual benefit. It is stated that the TC programme has become a powerful tool for transferring nuclear science and technology to developing countries. But only if we work together in partnership can we ensure the success of the programme. I look forward to the continuation and further development of that partnership

  17. Bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B.

  18. Bilateral akillesseneruptur hos nyretransplanterede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Nimb, L;

    1996-01-01

    Increased incidence of tendinitis and tendon ruptures is reported in recipients of a kidney transplant. Two cases of bilateral achilles tendon rupture after minimal trauma are described. Tendon ruptures are more frequent in individuals with kidney disease in dialysis or after transplantation comp...

  19. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Bergholt, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    ) surgery. The overall retreatment rate was 21.6% (57 of 264 patients). Cases treated with unilateral surgery had twice the risk of retreatment compared with cases undergoing bilateral surgery (28.7% vs 14.1%, respectively, p = 0.002). In accordance with previous studies, the data also showed...

  20. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  1. Political Economy of Tradeable Permits. Competitiveness, Co-operation and Market Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of our workshop series with publication of these proposals was fortuitous, and provided a continuing deliberative thread to our workshops as they unfolded. The formal withdrawal from the Kyoto Process by the US added another dimension which was incorporated into the research agenda. Our brief did not confine us to climate change or indeed to Europe, but inevitably much of our focus was shaped by these developments. In Venice, Egenhofer (2001) provided a very comprehensive 'state of the art' as regards the theory and (especially) the practise of emissions trading, and its links with other policy instruments, notably taxation. As regards the latter, he notes that 'On a practical level, taxation increasingly is used as a stick to convince industry to accept cap and trade emissions trading programmes'. Typically, firms accepting an absolute cap and participation in cap-and-trade programmes are exempted from environmental or carbon taxes as evidenced in the UK where companies accepting to participate in the ET scheme are exempted up to 80% of the UK climate change levy. The criteria applied in the evaluation of emissions trading are typified by the paper by Boemare and Quirion (2001). They assess the Commission's proposal in some detail, and touch on 10 other schemes from a variety of perspectives, including number of participants and spatial coverage and permit allocation. For each theme, they set out the relevant theoretical framework and its implications, and then assess practise. The parts of their template which address competitiveness, co- operation and market power provides a convenient framework into which to incorporate some of the relevant political economy issues that were addressed in the research literature presented at the workshops

  2. The Agency's Technical Co-operation activities in 1987. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is part of a wide range of documentation which the Agency provides to Member States on its technical co-operation activities at various times during the year. It is, in particular, complemented by the achievement reporting submitted to the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Committee of the Board in the annual implementation reports that give the status of the technical co-operation programmes as at 30 September in each year. Following the 1986 Technical Co-operation Seminar and based on continuing consultations with Member States various steps to improve the quality of the programme were taken in 1987: for example, new project request forms and management plans were introduced and preparatory assistance was expanded. Office automation was intensified and the computerized data base covering technical co-operation was enhanced further. Work continues on the adaptation of data provided by the new Financial Information and Control System (FIGS) to the needs of the technical co-operation programmes and vice-versa. While several problems have still to be overcome, it has on the whole, been possible in this report to re-establish data comparability with previous years. Evaluation has become an integral part of the Agency's technical cooperation activities. In addition to on-going mid-project and end-of-project evaluations, expert services and fellowships were evaluated in 1987 and the first country programme evaluation was also undertaken. During 1987, a total of 962 projects were operational and 64 training courses were held. These activities involved 1808 expert assignments while 1975 persons received training abroad. Of the provisions in the 1987 total adjusted programme, one half was earmarked for equipment, while the other half was equally divided between ear markings for experts and for training. Of the Agency's technical co-operation resources in 1987, 72.5% came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, 13.7% from extra budgetary

  3. The contribution of nuclear energy co-operation to a new global age, OECD Headquarters, Paris, 30 September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Special Session to mark the Fortieth Anniversary of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris, on 30 September 1998. The conference emphasizes the role of the IAEA in enlarging the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and development, and ensuring that atomic energy is used at a high level of security and exclusively for peaceful purposes. The Agency was never intended to 'promote' nuclear energy in any commercial sense. Its role is to be an objective institution that serves as a centre for international norm development, standard setting, independent analysis, expert advice, technology transfer, and impartial oversight and verification. From this perspective, the Director General offers some views on why the international nuclear co-operation, complemented by regional and national activities, is an indispensable part of way forward, highlighting the following areas: energy, safety, verification, and technology transfer

  4. Renewable energy for Eritrea: North-South co-operation by SMEs; Nord-Sued-Kooperation von KMUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitzmann, B.

    2005-07-01

    This article takes a look at how the Swiss Eco-Centre in Langenbruck helps national and international partners in the development and implementation of schemes for the use of renewable forms of energy in the African country of Eritrea. The setting-up of a stable network of partners is described. After the successful opening of a facility for the production of solar water heaters, a solar dryer for fruit is soon to go into production. Facts and figures on Eritrea and possibilities for international co-operation within the framework of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are examined. Both private and government-supported projects are looked at, as is the necessary education and training.

  5. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders' targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates.

  6. Technical co-operation report for 1999. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) activities in 1999 and covers three separate topics. Part I reports on the Strengthening of TC and looks at the elements of the TC Strategy and how they contributed to the TC Programme. Part II reports on the major achievements of the TC Programme in 1999 in different regions of the world. In addition to reviewing some of the results of national and regional activities in each region - including activities under Regional Co-operation Agreements - this section looks at three interregional projects, and provides highlights of selected projects that were closed in 1999. Part III presents a technical discussion of the financial parameters of the TC Programme. A more detailed review of resources and contributions, disbursements, and non-financial indicators is provided in a Supplement to this report

  7. Fermi motion versus co-operative effects in subthreshold pion and energetic gamma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various reaction mechanisms proposed to explain the production of pions at 'sub-threshold' energies and of energetic gammas are examined. They range from the nucleon-nucleon single collision mechanism to a co-operative multi-nucleon process. With a shell model prescription for the initial state energies the single collision picture cannot explain the data. The participation of many nucleons in the pion production process appears to be necessary. We present a statistical model which demands the co-operative action of several of the target and projectile nucleons in the pion production process. The formation of composite fragments alongside with the produced pion is seen to be vital to understand the experimental data within this model. (orig.)

  8. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1]...

  9. Some like to join, others to deliver. An econometric analysis of farmers’ relationships with agricultural co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    In many European countries, farmers are a member of a processing or marketing co-operative, and most of these farmers also deliver their products to that co-operative. However, an extensive dataset of Italian farmers shows that not all members deliver to their co-op, and that there are also non-memb

  10. Joint declaration on the fundamental aspects of UK-German co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Declaration records the intention of both Governments to increase their existing co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. This co-operation covers, inter alia, spent fuel reprocessing, nuclear safety technology, radiation production monitoring systems, waste management, etc

  11. EVALUATION OF THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTING OF THE CO-OPERATIVE GROUP FOOD RETAIL DIVISION

    OpenAIRE

    Rizo Patron Pinto, Cecilia Ursula

    2005-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reporting is now a critical element in communicating a company's social and environmental policies to the investment community and other stakeholder populations. CSR reporting refers to what is also known as triple bottom line reporting, by which companies report social, economic an environmental performance. This dissertation focuses on the evaluation of the CSR reporting of the Co-operative Group Food Retail division; through the analysis of...

  12. Asian regional co-operative project on food irradiation: Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings include the final reports of work performed by different institutions under the scope of Phase II of the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation. The topics covered include the disinfestation and decontamination of stored products; improvements in the hygiene of processed seafood; insect disinfestation of fruits; and sprout inhibition of root crops. The individual presentations are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. The VEL and VANLA environmental co-operatives as field laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    STUIVER, M.; Ploeg, van der, A.J.; Leeuwis, C.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Nutrient Management Project of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA as a field laboratory. A field laboratory is defined as a heterogeneous collection of inter-linked scientific studies performed by several actors within a specific field, but – as in normal laboratories – with some protection against outside interference and disturbance. The Nutrient Management Project of VEL and VANLA demonstrates several characteristics of field laboratories. Firstly, in ...

  14. Co-operative governance and management control systems: an agency costs theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sigismundo Bialoskorski Neto; Marcelo Francini Girão Barroso; Amaury José Rezende

    2012-01-01

    Co-operative organizations have a unique property and decision rights distribution system that involve management problems and transaction costs. Such structure creates equity rights and risk transfers that directly affect these organizations' self-management efficiency. This paper analyses those costs and sources of inefficiency to explain their problems in two complementary and different ways. First it discusses main governance aspects that generate agency conflicts; second it analyses the ...

  15. E-education: implications for knowledge transfer via global co-operative education

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Elaine; Szewcow, Ury; Navarro, Karla Felix

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on a radical and ongoing learning and teaching experiment in which a private multinational organization (Cisco) and traditional learning institutions (schools, colleges and universities) have combined to deliver a form of global co-operative education. From 1998, the Cisco Network Academy Program (CNAP) has been integrated into both undergraduate and postgraduate Internetworking courses in the Faculty of Information Technology at the University of Technology Syd...

  16. The Management Contract As A Mode Of Industrial Co-operation

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, F N; Hammoutene, A

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores the notion, commonly expressed in the literature, that the management contract is, or is likely to become, an increasingly predominant form of industrial co-operation. It is argued that the emphasis which has been placed on the management function per se, and on the operational aspects of the 'pure' management contract, has distracted attention away from their primary purpose as a technology transfer mode.

  17. Cross-Border Governance: Balancing Formalized and Less Formalized Co-Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Zumbusch; Roland Scherer

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses cross-border co-operation with regard to its degree of formalization. Herewith, the focus is not on single cross-border organizations, but on the encompassing governance systems in the respective regions. That means that the specific combination of differently organized cross-border arrangements is analyzed. Cross-border governance systems are facing multiple governance challenges which ask either for a certain degree of institutionalization or for more informal solutions....

  18. Euro-Asian co-operation in rail education and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy TSYKHMISTRO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rail education and research – focused initiatives, approaches, policies and practices are presented. Needs for integrating rail education and research in EU and Asia are identified and discussed. The SWOT-analysis conducted suggested that it would be of interest to set up a Euro-Asia cluster, which shall be focused on rail education and research to promote rail transport between both continents through co-operations, training and knowledge exchange.

  19. Co-operative inhibitory effects of hydrogen peroxide and iodine against bacterial and yeast species

    OpenAIRE

    Zubko, Elena I; Zubko, Mikhajlo K

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrogen peroxide and iodine are powerful antimicrobials widely used as antiseptics and disinfectants. Their antimicrobial properties are known to be enhanced by combining them with other compounds. We studied co-operative inhibitory activities (synergism, additive effects and modes of growth inhibition) of hydrogen peroxide and iodine used concurrently against 3 bacterial and 16 yeast species. Results Synergistic or additive inhibitory effects were shown for hydrogen peroxide and ...

  20. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  1. [Spontaneous bilateral Petit hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, Rodrigo Dias; Araújo, Emerson Silveira de; Oliveira, Gustavo Alves de; Sarmenghi Filho, Deolindo; Kalil, Mitre

    2011-01-01

    Petit's lumbar hernia is an uncommon defect of the posterior abdominal wall that represents less than 1% of all abdominal wall hernias. It is more often unilateral and founded in young females, rarely containing a real herniated sac. There are two different approaches to repair: laparoscopy and open surgery. The goal of this article is to report one case of spontaneous bilateral lumbar Petit's hernia treated with open surgery.

  2. Bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular dirofilariasis mostly presents as a subconjunctival or eyelid lesion. [1] Intraocular dirofilarial infestation is rare. [2],[3] We report a case of a young woman who was accidentally detected to have a live motile worm in the anterior segment in one eye and a cystic lesion on the optic disc in the other eye. To our knowledge, bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis has never been reported.

  3. Co-operative versus independent transport of different cargoes by Kinesin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jennetta W; Griffin, Kelly; Jih, Gloria T; Stuckey, Jeanne; Verhey, Kristen J

    2008-05-01

    Kinesin motors drive the intracellular transport of multiple cargoes along microtubule tracks; yet, how kinesins discriminate among their many potential cargoes is unknown. We tested whether Kinesin-1 cargoes compete, co-operate or are transported independently of each other. We focused on Kinesin-1 cargoes that bind directly to the kinesin light chain (KLC) subunit, namely the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-interacting proteins (JIPs) 1 and 3, Kidins220/ARMS and PAT1. Overexpression of individual cargo proteins in differentiated CAD cells resulted in mislocalization of the endogenous protein but had no effect on localization of other cargo proteins to neurite tips. Thus, while transport of distinct cargoes is saturable, they do not compete with each other. Interestingly, we found that low expression of JIP1 or JIP3 enhanced the transport of the other JIP to neurite tips. Moreover, JIP1 and JIP3 require each other for transport. Co-operative transport is due to an interaction between JIP1 and JIP3 as well as distinct binding sites on the KLC tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) bundle: the TPR groove binds to C-terminal residues of JIP1, whereas the TPR surface binds to internal residues in JIP3. Formation of a JIP1/JIP3/KLC complex is necessary for efficient JIP1 or JIP3 transport in neuronal cells. Thus, JIP scaffolding proteins are transported in a co-operative manner, despite the independent transport of other Kinesin-1 cargoes.

  4. Recent advances in nuclear forensic science - The identification of unknown nuclear materials and co-operation with the legal authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Forensic Science is a new branch of forensic science, which has arisen out of necessity following the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and East Block countries. One result of this break up was the emergence of a new form of smuggling nuclear materials, radioactive sources and scrap metal contaminated with radioactive substances. Since 1994 the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission Joint Research Centre has played a major role in combating the illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and contaminated scrap metals. The Institute has the advantages of extensive experience in handling these materials, which require sophisticated instruments mounted in glove boxes. Some twenty-five cases of illicit trafficking have been examined so far. Some of the latest cases will be described and the methods developed at the Institute for isotopic and microstructural fingerprinting of nuclear materials will be illustrated. The microstructural fingerprint is a new technique developed here, which complements the isotopic analysis of the samples, and is highly characteristic of the production process and subsequent history of the materials involved. Furthermore, the microstructural fingerprint cannot be disguised by, for example, the addition of other substances or isotopes to the sample. An extensive database on commercial nuclear materials is maintained by the Institute, and this is being enlarged to include microstructural information such as porosity, grain size, precipitation, dislocation structures, pellet surface roughness, etc. The database can be used for comparison when samples of unknown provenance are seized. The Institute places emphasis on developing close co-operation with the legal authorities to optimize the side-by-side working of law enforcement officers and nuclear scientists, and the effective preservation of conventional forensic information (such as fingerprints, for example,) on seized radioactive samples. Examples will be

  5. The Text of the Agreement of 20 August 1984 extending the Asian Regional Co-Operative Project on Food Irradiation. Second Extension Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Second Agreement to Extend the Agreement of 23 May 1980 Establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation within the framework of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972, as extended in 1977 and in 1982, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The First Extension Agreement of 8 July 1983 was due to expire on 27 August 1984

  6. Compressive Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kenjiro; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient constant-time bilateral filter that produces a near-optimal performance tradeoff between approximate accuracy and computational complexity without any complicated parameter adjustment, called a compressive bilateral filter (CBLF). The constant-time means that the computational complexity is independent of its filter window size. Although many existing constant-time bilateral filters have been proposed step-by-step to pursue a more efficient performance tradeoff, they have less focused on the optimal tradeoff for their own frameworks. It is important to discuss this question, because it can reveal whether or not a constant-time algorithm still has plenty room for improvements of performance tradeoff. This paper tackles the question from a viewpoint of compressibility and highlights the fact that state-of-the-art algorithms have not yet touched the optimal tradeoff. The CBLF achieves a near-optimal performance tradeoff by two key ideas: 1) an approximate Gaussian range kernel through Fourier analysis and 2) a period length optimization. Experiments demonstrate that the CBLF significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of approximate accuracy, computational complexity, and usability. PMID:26068315

  7. The Relationship between journalists and PR practitioners in Romania – Somewhere in between co-operation and conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina COMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One constant idea emerges from all of the studies regarding the relationship between journalists and PR practitioners: this relationship is a complex and ambiguous one. It is quite obvious that both participants aim at holding control over the production and distribution of information; despite this aim, it is certain that none of the two can develop a monopoly over such a process. The inter-dependency between the actors involved in this game is based on the interest in mutual co-operation showed by each of the participants. This very study stands for the fact that by means of the values they referred to, the Romanian journalists and PR professionals express attitudes that are similar to those of their colleagues from other countries where these two professions have a longer tradition behind.

  8. The NEA co-operative programme on decommissioning decontamination and demolition of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to growing interest in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency set up the Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning in 1985. Its basic scope is to facilitate the exchange of scientific and technical information between major decommissioning projects. Participation in the Programme has expanded significantly over the years to include organisations from 13 countries. Currently, about 60 projects participate in the Programme. The Programme is executed under an agreement between the participating organisations and companies. A progress report is issued every five years on the CPD and includes a brief description of each project. The most recent report is entitled A Decade of Progress. The projects are divided into two groups: reactor projects (60%) and fuel facility projects (40%). A complete list of the different projects and their country of residence can be found in Annex 1. Many of the early projects in the Programme focused on experimental or prototype plants, however, a number of projects for the decommissioning of commercial facilities (power generation, fuel and reprocessing plants) have recently joined the Programme. Limited feedback on concrete clean-up operations has been available until now due to the lengthy time frame of decommissioning projects and the fact that building demolition occurs in the very late stages of the project. Some of the early projects in the Programme are now complete or nearing completion, making available significant data and experience. This experience and lessons learnt can be applied to the further development of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) clean-up processes. This report aims to supplement the previous NEA report dedicated to decontamination techniques and to provide project engineers and/or project leaders involved in concrete infrastructure clean-up with: - Guidelines for setting up appropriate and adequate strategies, taking into consideration the international

  9. Bilateral pneumothoraces complicating reduction mammoplasty: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Stylianos; Gnauk, Hans Georg; Schumacher, Martina; Wagner, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Background Bilateral pneumothoraces after cosmetic breast surgery are rare and sporadically reported in the literature. Case presentation A 65-year-old female patient developed bilateral pneumothoraces after bilateral breast reduction surgery. Emergent chest tube thoracostomy was performed on both sides. The chest drains were removed on the fourth day (left side) and sixth day (right side), and the patient was discharged after 7 days of hospitalization without any further complications. Concl...

  10. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Prendes, Miguel; Zerquera, Juan Tomas

    2004-02-01

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation.

  11. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation

  12. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Şevik Eliçora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral facial paralysis caused by bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, with seven cases reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 40-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis and hearing loss that developed after an occupational accident. On physical examination, House-Brackmann (HB facial paralysis of grade 6 was observed on the right side and HB grade 5 paralysis on the left. Upon temporal bone computed tomography (CT examination, a fracture line exhibiting transverse progression was observed in both petrous temporal bones. Our patient underwent transmastoid facial decompression surgery of the right ear. The patient refused a left-side operation. Such patients require extensive monitoring in intensive care units because the presence of multiple injuries means that facial functions are often very difficult to evaluate. Therefore, delays may ensue in both diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial paralysis.

  13. Bilateral electric energy contracts: return and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, Laura K.; Silva, Elisa B.; Correia, Paulo B. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). College of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil electricity is traded through three segments: the spot market that balances offer and demand, with prices calculated by a cost-based computational model; the regulated market , where prices are settled in public auctions, and the free market for bilateral contracts. As spot and regulated market prices are public information, a seller is able to calculate his opportunity price to trade a bilateral contract in the free market by using the non-arbitrage principle. Thus, the seller searches the price of a bilateral contract in the free market that balances his/her revenues with the value expected in case it were negotiated in the regulated and the spot market. Besides the expected revenue, the seller may also consider the CVaR to measure the risk of her/his bilateral contract in the free market. So this paper develops a binomial lattice approach to price bilateral contracts in the free market, considering the seller's opportunity of negotiations in both regulated and spot markets, and measuring the contract risk directly. (author)

  14. Co-operative or coyote? Producers' choice between intermediary purchasers and Fairtrade and organic cooperatives in Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Milford, Anna Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    This study of organic and Fairtrade co-operatives in Mexico aims to find out why many coffee producers prefer not to join the certified co-operatives, despite their higher price offer. A study of costs of production of organic coffee concludes that it implies more work, but not necessarily higher yields. A main conclusion of the investigation is that the compulsory organic production methods deters many producers from entering the co-operatives, and that it is more attractive for producers wi...

  15. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  16. Čezmejno sodelovanje med Koroško in Slovenijo na podeželskem prostoru = Crossborder co-operation between Carinthian and Slovenian rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Roblek

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995 Austria has been a member of the European Union (EU. By theaccession to the EU the regional policy and the regional development werechanged. The Government strongly supported the establishment ofregions, which have had a duty to implement the projects that serve to a certain region better development. In the 80s they introduced in Austria adecentralised planning and development system, especially of the ruraland peripheral regions.Today, the Austrian regions, and among them also CARNICA Rosental,develop and realise various projects, e.g. in agriculture, forestry andtourism, whereby the cross-border co-operation and common programmesdevelopment in this field are of particular importance.

  17. Technical co-operation report for 1998. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) activities during 1998 and highlights most significant accomplishments. Part I of this report reviews the strengthening of TC, both in financial aspects and through implementation of the TC strategy. Part II reviews extensively the actual output of the TC programme; it looks at each geographic region, and reports on the results of national, regional and, where applicable, interregional activities in those regions. Part III presents a technical discussion of the financial parameters of the TC programme and ends with financial implementation summaries

  18. Regulatory and industry co-operation on nuclear safety research. Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulator-industry co-operation in nuclear safety research has potential advantages as well as disadvantages. This report provides research managers in industry, regulatory organisations and research centres with information on current practices in collaborative safety research in OECD member countries. It identifies means of establishing effective industry-regulator collaboration and provides indications on how to overcome difficulties that can arise. It also advises on possible areas of concern. The report addresses in particular the issue of regulator independence, means to preserve it and ways to demonstrate it to the public while undertaking collaboration with industry. (author)

  19. Negative and Positive Integration in EU Criminal Law Co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Wagner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between negative and positive integration that has played a pivotal role in understanding the dynamics of the common market is also instrumental in explaining the dynamics of criminal law co-operation in the EU. Despite manifold differences between common market governance and criminal law cooperation, the introduction of mutual recognition as the lead principle has privileged the abolition of obstacles to cross-border law enforcement (negative integration over the adoption of common standards (positive integration. As an analysis of the measures taken thus far demonstrates, criminal law cooperation has been biased towards law enforcement at the expense of individual rights.

  20. Technical co-operation report for 1997. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) activities during 1997, gives examples of the most significant accomplishments during the year and sets out the status of resources and delivery of the TC programme. The document outlines the steps taken to strengthen planning, design, monitoring and evaluation of TC projects. It also describes how the programme's operational base is being broadened to form new partnerships, using Country Programme Frameworks and Thematic Planning to meet the Member States' priority needs and expand project impact

  1. Site selection and exploration in other countries. German-Russian co-operation for developing a methodology for site investigation and selection in hard rock formations; Standortsuche und Standorterundung - Wie machen es die Anderen? Deutsch-russische Zusammenarbeit zur Entwicklung eines methodischen Ansatzes fuer die Standortsuche und Standortauswahl in Hartgesteinsformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krone, J.; Jobmann, M. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH (Germany); Gupalo, T. [VNIPI Promtechnologii (VNIPI PT) (Germany); Fahrenholz, C.; Brewitz, W.; Fein, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Hammer, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    German and Russian scientists cooperate in two exemplary site selection programmes in the southern Ural mountains (Mayak) and central Sibiria (Nishnekans) in order to develop a methodological approach for detailed characterisation of ultimate storage sites in crystalline rock for high-activity, heat generating radioactive waste. Based on the results of earlier investigations, it will be shown how a programme for site analysis can be established on the basis of earlier site-specific safety analyses. Already in an early phase of site exploration, a selective combination of the development of a geological site model with ultimate storage planning and design and with a safety analysis will provide information on the actual extent of information required and enable appropriate site selection. (orig.) [German] An Hand von zwei Beispielen russischer Standortauswahlprogramme im Suedural (Mayak) und Zentralsibirien (Nishnekansker Granitoidmassiv) erarbeiten russische und deutsche Wissenschaftler gegenwaertig gemeinsam einen methodischen Ansatz fuer die detaillierte Standortcharakterisierung und -auswahl zur Endlagerung hochradioaktiver waermeerzeugender Abfaelle im Kristallingestein. Aufbauend auf Ergebnisse frueher Erkundungsstadien soll gezeigt werden, wie ein mittels standortspezifischer Sicherheitsanalysen begruendetes und auf daraus abgeleiteten ergaenzenden Erkundungsmassnahmen ausgerichtetes Programm zur weiteren Standorterkundung erarbeitet werden kann, um letztlich den Nachweis der Standorteignung fuehren zu koennen. Bereits in einer fruehen Phase der Standorterkundung fuehrt die zielgerichtete Verknuepfung der Earbeitung eines geologischen Standortmodells sowie der Endlageplanung und -auslegung mit der Durchfuehrung einer Sicherheitsanalyse zur Ermittung des realen Erkundungsbedarfs und zu einer begruendeten Standortauswahl. (orig.)

  2. [Bilateral choroidal osteoma--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrychowska-Jamborska, Justyna; Kulig-Stochmal, Agnieszka; Markiewicz, Anna; Jakubowska, Barbara; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a an extremely rare (especially located bilaterally), benign, intraocular tumor, the type of choristoma. It occurs between 2-3 decades of life, women are particularly vulnerable. The main complication in 1/3 cases is a subretinal neovascularization which may cause bleeding. The gradually progressive decalcification develops within the tumour over time, which causes atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane deformity. The article presents a case of a 26-year-old woman with bilateral choroidal osteoma complicated by subretinal hemorrhage; the diagnosis was based on clinical examination (biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy) as well as specialised tests including: ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography.

  3. Kyrgyz Libraries Community – Co-Operation for Development: New Challenges and New Approaches = Kırgız Kütüphane Topluluğu – Gelişim İçin İşbirliği: Yeni Fırsatlar ve Uygulamalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battalova, Sania

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “Kyrgyz Libraries Information Consortium”, one of the largest library associations in the country, celebrates its 10th anniversary. The Consortium was established in 2002 and through membership, it comprises more than 400 libraries within Kyrgyzstan, including the National Library, the State Patent and Technical Library, the Library of the Academy of Science, and many other academic and regional libraries. The Consortium’s creation was an answer to the challenges the country faced: lack of information, very low level of technological development, no budget for collection development, lack of cooperation and collaboration between libraries in the country as well as with the international library community. The history and development of the Consortium, the Consortium mission, its goals, its main initiatives and the strategic directions to be taken are presented in the article. The importance of library development and how libraries in developed countries established strong and effective organizations are reviewed and analyzed here. This paper also presents the challenges and approaches that must be taken for future development of libraries in Kyrgyzstan. / “Kırgız Kütüphaneleri Bilgi Konsorsiyumu” ülkedeki en büyük kütüphanecilik derneklerinden biridir ve kuruluşunun onuncu yıl dönümünü kutlamaktadır. Bu Konsorsiyum 2000 yılında kurulmuş olup, üyelik sayısı sonucu Kırgızistan içinde toplam 400'den fazla kütüphaneyi kapsamaktadır. Konsorsiyum içinde Milli Kütüphane (The National Library, Devlet Patent ve Teknik Kütüphanesi (State Patent and Technical Library, Bilim Akademisi Kütüphanesi (Library of the Academy ofScience, ile bunların yanısıra çok sayıda akademik ve bölgesel kütüphaneler de yer almaktadır. Konsorsiyum’un kuruluşu ülkede karşılaşılan güçlüklere bir karşı çıkış olmuştur: yetersiz bilgi, çok düşük düzeyli teknik gelişmeler, koleksiyon geliştirmek için b

  4. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Bulgaria Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCORE stands for Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use. It aims at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries by creating self-supporting structures that are able to stimulate the efficient use of energy in end-user sectors. This document aims at presenting an in-depth institutional analysis of the energy efficiency situation in Bulgaria, including the current situation with regard to energy supply, consumption and environmental aspects, as well as an analysis of energy efficiency policies, instruments and organisations. Also, the document identifies problems related to energy efficiency in Bulgaria and indicates the areas of actions for an integrated SCORE programme in Bulgaria. The input for this process was provided by a survey among the main actors in the field, consisting of a questionnaire and interviews and a review of available information. The results were discussed in a workshop attended by the main stakeholders. The main characteristics of the Bulgarian energy sector are summarised in chapter 2. They indicate a high dependency on imported resources, a low quality of domestic fuels, a relatively high energy intensity of production and a low efficiency at supply and demand side with consider able potential for improvement. The restructuring of the sector has started but the process is far from completed. In the main towns heat is mainly supplied by district heating generated partly in co-generation plants. Gas distribution for public and residential buildings is quickly developing. In Chapter 3 the existing policies and actors are described and a 'roadmap' for energy efficiency actors is given. This provides the basis for defining the priorities for energy efficiency improvements presented in Chapter 4, by analysing the tools, policy instruments and organisations. Barriers and priority actions were defined in relation to the national policy level, the institutional structure, financial and

  5. Bilateral Diabetic Papillopathy and Metabolic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit;

    2010-01-01

    patient-years of observation, bilateral diabetic papillopathy developed in 5 patients. During the year preceding this incident, all 5 patients had experienced a decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1C)) at a maximum rate of -2.5 (mean) percentage points per quarter year, which was significantly...

  6. Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, P; Pavesi, G; Salaffi, F

    1987-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may be associated with endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism and acromegaly. A direct relationship between CTS and hyperthyroidism has recently been suggested. We now report a case in which bilateral CTS developed after treatment of Graves' disease, thus, questioning the possibility of a relationship between these two disease processes.

  7. Hansen′s disease with bilateral tarsal disorganisation

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Pradeep; Vijayadharan M; Yogirajan K; Suprakasan S; Rajasree P

    1999-01-01

    A 37-year old male patient with Hansen′s disease midborderline spectrum, presented with bilateral pedal edema. X-ray examination of the feet showed disorganisation and disintegration of the tarsal bones. Bilateral tarsal disorganisation which can develop in Hansen′s disease is usually not recognised by the clinician.

  8. Co-operation and conflict in a hospital: interprofessional differences in perception and management of conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjørshammer, M

    2001-02-01

    This article presents a case study of a Norwegian hospital, analysing how health professionals manage conflicts related to work co-operation. Altogether, 29 health professionals working in the hospital were interviewed, and data was analysed according to a grounded theory approach. When in conflict, health professionals seem to use three major approaches to handling the situation: avoidance, forcing and negotiation, and usually in that order. Avoidance behaviour or suppression is the most common reaction to an emerging conflict. If the use of power does not re-establish a balance between the participants, one negotiates. These conflict styles seem to be determined by two major factors: the perceived interdependence between parties and the perceived urgency of doing something about the situation. Nurses and physicians in particular seem to differ considerably in their perception of what is a conflict and when to do something about it. Such differences in perceptions and the extensive use of avoidance represent important challenges to managers and clinical leaders when it comes to advancing interprofessional co-operation.

  9. The role of clothing manufacturing co-operatives in job creation and poverty alleviation in Sharpeville / Mmapula Brendah Sekatane

    OpenAIRE

    Sekatane, Mmapula Brendah

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation studies the role of clothing manufacturing co-operatives in job creation and poverty alleviation in Sharpeville. Ttie study focuses on three areas, namely, the theories of unemployment, poverty and clothing manufacturing, the state of unemployment and poverty in Sharpeville and clothing manufacturing co-operatives as one of the contributors to the solution to unemployment and poverty. Unemployment is identified, among others, as a major determinant of poverty; therefore, the...

  10. The effect of interviewer personality, skills and attitudes on respondent co-operation with face-to-face surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Jäckle, Annette; Lynn, Peter; Sinibaldi, Jennifer; Tipping, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of interviewers' experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills in determining survey co-operation. We take the perspective that these characteristics influence interviewers‟ behaviour and hence influence the doorstep interaction between interviewer and sample member. We use a large sample of 842 face-to-face interviewers working for a major survey institute and analyse co-operation outcomes for over 100,000 cases contacted by those intervie...

  11. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Alibeigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

  12. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon.

  13. Isolated bilateral ectopic microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Godefroy Koki2, Emilienne Epée2, Didier Owono2, Lucienne Bella Asumpta2, Côme Ebana Mvogo21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Douala Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé CameroonSummary: An eight-year-old school girl presented to us with a bilateral ectopic microspherophakia. She was surgically managed in the ophthalmology unit of the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaoundé in Cameroon. The postoperative follow up was uneventful, and the patient returned to school with a best corrected visual acuity of 4/10 in both eyes to the great satisfaction of her parents.Keywords: ectopic, microspherophakia, surgery

  14. Inter-Firm Co-Operative Strategies In The Context Of Discontinuous Technological Change. The Case Of The Uk Optical Communications Systems Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Spedale-Latimer, Simona

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAt times of discontinuous technological change co-operation represents a viable strategy for both incumbents and new-entrants, provided that the choice of co-operation is consistent with the firm's business strategy (market-pull vs. technology-push) and with its degree of organizational and technological flexibility. Evidence from the UK fibre-optics industry identifies two ideal-types of co-operation, namely structured co-operation - associated with market-pull strategies and low...

  15. Institutions and Social Change: implementing co-operative housing and environmentally sustainable development at Christie Walk

    OpenAIRE

    Susan McClean; Jenny Onyx

    2009-01-01

    How can institutions contribute to the building of civil society in the twenty- first century? It is clear that the old laissez-faire approach and the more recent neo-conservative reliance on the market have failed to deliver housing for many people. On the other hand the state-based welfare housing model espoused by the Australian Labor Party over the twentieth century has also been beset by problems. Social alienation, and the crisis in affordable housing make the case that individualist ap...

  16. Analyzing and Developing Corporate Social Responsibility practices of Kingshuk Co-operative Society Ltd. in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Aminul; Mazumder, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility is gaining importance for all companies. Corporate Social Responsibly consists of social, economic, and environmental responsibilities. Green marketing, sustainability and ethics are added under Corporate Social Responsibility. The first objective of this research is to acquire an understanding of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility with a focus on the diverse dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility and understanding its effects in the context ...

  17. IAEA Technical co-operation. A partner in development. Nuclear science serving people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue contains descriptions of IAEA technical cooperation programs in a variety of disciplines and locations. It includes articles on the eradication of Tsetse flies in Africa, biofertilizers for agriculture, new strains of rice, water resource management, pollution control for a sustainable environment, nuclear medicine, and ensuring nuclear reactor safety

  18. Developing Graduate Sales Professionals through Co-operative Education and Work Placements: A Relationship Marketing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick

    2000-01-01

    A literature review and data from 346 British business studies students identified the importance of relationship marketing approaches in business and highlighted the need for students to gain experience in work placements. Careful management of work placements by universities is required. (SK)

  19. Asian regional co-operative project on food irradiation: Research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of food irradiation to reduce post-harvest food losses, improve the hygienic quality of foods and facilitate trade promotion has been recognized by the region of Asia and the Pacific. Several of the regional countries have initiated national programmes on food irradiation in the 50s and 60s. The first coordination programme sponsored by the Agency under RCA in 1974-1979 was the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Radiation Preservation of Fish and Fishery Products. The Asian Regional Cooperative Project on Food Irradiation (RPFI) was implemented by the Agency in 1980 under the sponsorship of the Government of Japan. Bangladesh, People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Japan, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam participated in this Programme. Under the scope of this regional project R and D work was carried out on: (i) insect disinfestation and improving hygienic quality of dried and cured fishery products, (ii) insect disinfestation and shelf-life extension of mangoes; (iii) control of sprouting of onions, and (iv) improving hygienic quality of spices. In addition some work related to economic feasibility of food irradiation was also carried out. This publication contains the results of R and D conducted under the RPFI. Under the RPFI, it was demonstrated that the food irradiation technology could play an important role in reducing food losses and facilitating wider distribution of certain food products. The RPFI provided a strong impetus for Asian countries to coordinate their research programmes effectively towards the practical application of the technology to combat food losses and to make more food available to the population in the region. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts.

  1. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Fotedar Sanjay; Chaudhary Dhruva; Singhla Vikas; Narang Rajat

    2010-01-01

    Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  2. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation activities in 1985. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although total resources and disbursements were higher in 1985 than in previous years, the growth rates for both declined somewhat. New resources for the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (TACF) increased by 13%, the TACF accounting for over 66% of all technical co-operation resources in 1985. Pledges made towards the 1985 target for voluntary contributions to the TACF came close to 90% of the target. Although a significant loss on exchange had to be absorbed by the Fund, 96.9% of the target was covered thanks to additional income. Although extrabudgetary resources declined in 1985, they still accounted for one fifth of all technical assistance resources. There was a significant increase in in-kind contributions; this was attributable to the support for non-destructive testing training in Latin America given by Canada, which was the second largest donor of in-kind assistance after the United States. UNDP resources rose very slightly. With UNDP's new five-year programming cycle beginning in 1987, there may be further increases if new projects are identified and timely action taken. New information on implementation expressed as net expenditure and net expenditure rates has been introduced in the form of Expenditure Summaries I, II and III, which provide a more precise picture of performance by fund, geographic area, programme component, field of activity and technical Division. Net expenditure against all funds stood at 57.9%. Net expenditure against the TACF was 66.3%. As UNDP resources and funds in trust account for relatively small shares of the programme, their utilization does not influence the overall net expenditure rate significantly. However, the slow utilization of extrabudgetary resources did have an adverse effect on programme performance as a whole. Net expenditures from the TACF continued to increase at a higher rate than resources, so that the unobligated balance declined for the second consecutive year. In the past, the growing unobligated

  4. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  5. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Ethiopia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With some $2.5 million of Agency support received, Ethiopia ranks 54th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (55%), complemented by expert services (16%) and training (29%). The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (88%), the remainder was made available through assistance in kind (6%), UNDP and extrabudgetary contributions (3% each). During the past ten years, project disbursements went to four major areas: agriculture (45%), nuclear medicine (35%), nuclear safety (14%) and nuclear engineering and technology (6%)

  6. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Costa Rica, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $2.8 million of Agency support received, Costa Rica ranks 49th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958-1991. Over half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (52%), followed by expert services (37%) and training (11%). Sixty-two per cent of the resources were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 37% of the resources were provided by UNDP. The rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (5%) and through in-kind assistance (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear raw materials (36%), nuclear physics and chemistry (24%) and agriculture (20%). Smaller shares have gone to hydrology (11%) and nuclear medicine (8%)

  7. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax. PMID:24862410

  8. GENERATION OF COMPLEMENTARY CODES AND DOUBLY CO-OPERATIVE TERNARY SEQUENCES AND THEIR COMPARITIVE STUDY IN AMBIGUITY DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SRIHARI RAO,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulse coding and linear frequency modulation in analog or discrete form are widely used in radar systems for pulse compression to achieve high range resolution. Such coded waveforms are detected by a threshold detector after matched filtering. Complementary codes, which use multiple binary sequences exhibit the most desirable characteristics, so that they achieve perfect side lobe cancellation.Here generation of complementary codes is presented whose sum of autocorrelation functions is double the length of the sequence for zero shift and zero for other shifts and pairs of doubly co-operative ternary sequences which are co-operative not only in the utocorrelation domain but also in the signal domain is presented. Theenergy efficiency of the sequences is found as unity or 100%. The hoice of the selection of the sequence in the case of complementary sequences is restricted to a few number of sequences where as in doubly co-operative sequences, the choice is broader. This is due to the property of the co-operative sequence is slightly relaxedfrom complementary codes as side lobe is relaxed to ±1 from zero in the case of complementary codes. The radar ambiguity function epresents the output of the matched filter used by the radar esigners which provides information about how different waveforms may be suitable for various radar applications. The behaviour of complementary sequences and doubly co-operative sequences is studied in ambiguity domain.

  9. Co-operation between Large Enterprises (LE’s and SME’s: an Approach to Overcome the Stage Internationalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Brilhante Dias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many companies are using their networks in order to overcome psychic distance – liability of foreignness – and liability of outsidership; and networks at domestic markets can be a base in which SMEs can find a lever to get a rapid internationalization process. Regarding this topic has been developed a case study in the Polish market, where a local retailer (“Biedronka” owned by a Portuguese group (“Jerónimo Martins” is offering Portuguese products. In order to apply a constructivist methodology, using the case study method, five SMEs where selected in order to understand if co-operation between these companies and a LE (Large Enterprise would be a way in order to overcome the liability of foreignness and the liability of outsidership. It was also our purpose the understanding of which are the main issues that promote insidership and also the promotion of a rapid internationalization. Our conclusions have shown a LE as a source of institutional and market-specific knowledge, and regarding this last type of knowledge, as source of opportunities, and also how a SME with internationalization knowledge, an international focus and adaptation skills (in order to adapt products and prices can introduce in a co-operative international venture, in far psychic markets, the ingredients needed to get a successful and rapid entry in a foreign market. Trust as a resource, accumulated during lasting relationships in the domestic market, has been shown as a basic requirement to develop these co-operative approaches in international markets.

  10. Co-operative Bmp- and Fgf-signaling inputs convert skin wound healing to limb formation in urodele amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanae, Aki; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Satoh, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Urodele amphibians have remarkable organ regeneration capability, and their limb regeneration capability has been investigated as a representative phenomenon. In the early 19th century, nerves were reported to be an essential tissue for the successful induction of limb regeneration. Nerve substances that function in the induction of limb regeneration responses have long been sought. A new experimental system called the accessory limb model (ALM) has been established to identify the nerve factors. Skin wounding in urodele amphibians results in skin wound healing but never in limb induction. However, nerve deviation to the wounded skin induces limb formation in ALM. Thus, nerves can be considered to have the ability to transform skin wound healing to limb formation. In the present study, co-operative Bmp and Fgf application, instead of nerve deviation, to wounded skin transformed skin wound healing to limb formation in two urodele amphibians, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and newt (Pleurodeles waltl). Our findings demonstrate that defined factors can induce homeotic transformation in postembryonic bodies of urodele amphibians. The combination of Bmp and Fgf(s) may contribute to the development of novel treatments for organ regeneration. PMID:25286122

  11. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  12. Effect of co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering on estimates of three parameters AVA inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh R Nair; Suresh Ch Kandpal

    2010-04-01

    We determine the degree of variation of model fitness,to a true model based on amplitude variation with angle (AVA)methodology for a synthetic gas hydrate model,using co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering,constrained to a rock physics model.When a homogeneous starting model is used,with only traditional least squares optimization scheme for inversion,the variance of the parameters is found to be comparatively high.In this co-operative methodology,the output from the least squares inversion is fed as an input to the fuzzy scheme.Tests with co-operative inversion using fuzzy c-means with damped least squares technique and constraints derived from empirical relationship based on rock properties model show improved stability,model fitness and variance for all the three parameters in comparison with the standard inversion alone.

  13. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Arun; Nandini R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the li...

  14. Bilateral hematoma of sternocleidomastoid muscles. A case presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Quintero Delgado

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the case of an infant with bilateral congenital torticollis which development was followed by ultrasound. Homeopathy and physiotherapy were used for its treatment. This is an infrequent disease scarcely reported in medical literature.

  15. [True hermaphroditism with bilateral ovotestis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güitrón, A; Forsbach, G; González, J M; Garza, J G; Vázquez, J; Espinoza, G

    1998-01-01

    A nineteen years old woman with ambiguous external genitalia was studied. This condition had been previously identified as a newborn, but her parents refused medical attention and it was reared as a girl. At 12-years, she began spontaneous mammary development, appearing pubic and axillary hair, and clitoral enlargement. The menarche occurred at 15-years and it was followed by irregular periods. Physical examination, showed absence of hirsutism and acne, normal mammary development equivalent to grade V of Tanner. The external genitalia showed fused labio-scrotal folds with an small introitus. The urethral meatus was absent and was later located inside the introitus. There was a big phallus similar to an adult penis with a normal glans, flexed by a chordee. Hormonal determinations discarded congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The karyotype was 46,XX and testosterone levels were in adult male range. Pelvic ultrasonography disclosed a normal uterus and both gonads in confirmed by laparoscopy identifying bilateral ovotestis. Testicular tissue was removed and plastic reconstruction of female genitals was done. PMID:9528217

  16. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Islamic Republic of Iran 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Islamic Republic of Iran carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  17. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Islamic Republic of Iran 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Islamic Republic of Iran carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  18. Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata Chakrabarti; Koushik Pan

    2014-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features...

  19. China-Pakistan Strengthen Bilateral Custom Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mr.Abdullah Yusuf,Secretary General/Chairman,Central Board Of Revenue of Pakistan,arrived Shenzhen on April 22 to meet with Mr.Sheng Guangzu,the Chinese Minister for Customs Administration for discussing the bilateral customs issues.During his two-day visit,China's Foreign Trade Magazine interviewed to Mr.Abdullah Yusuf in Beijing,he gave the high evaluation on this visit and China's great development in the recent years.

  20. A Distributed and Co-Operative Approach To Botnet Detection Using Gossip Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Rameshchandra Thakur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bots, in recent times, have posed a major threat to enterprise networks. With the distributed nature of the way in which botnets operate, the problems faced by enterprises have become acute. A bot is a programme that operates as an agent for a user and runs automated tasks over the internet, at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human alone. A collection of bots in a network, used for malicious purposes, is referred to as a botnet. In this paper we suggested a distributed, co-operative approach towards detecting botnets is a given network which is inspired by the gossip protocol. Each node in a given network runs a standalone agent that computes a suspicion value for that node after regular intervals. Each node in the network exchanges its suspicion values with every other node in the network at regular intervals. The use of gossip protocol ensures that if a node in the network is compromised, all other nodes in the network are informed about it as soon as possible. Each node also ensures that at any instance, by means of the gossip protocol, it maintains the latest suspicion values of all the other nodes in the network.

  1. Co-operative Wireless Intrusion Detection System Using MIBs From SNMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Vyavhare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In emerging technology of Internet, security issues are becoming more challenging. In case of wired LAN it is somewhat in control, but in case of wireless networks due to exponential growth in attacks, it has made difficult to detect such security loopholes. Wireless network security is being addressed using firewalls, encryption techniques and wired IDS (Intrusion Detection System methods. But the approaches which were used in wired network were not successful in producing effective results for wireless networks. It is so because of features of wireless network such as open medium, dynamic changing topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring and management point, and lack of a clear line of defense etc. So, there is need for new approach which will efficiently detect intrusion in wireless network. Efficiency can be achieved by implementing distributive, co-operative based, multi-agent IDS. The proposed system supports all these three features. It includes mobile agents for intrusion detection which uses SNMP (Simple network Management Protocol and MIB (Management Information Base variables for mobile wireless networks

  2. Prevention of Co-operative Black Hole attack in Manet on DSR protocol using Cryptographic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Vennila

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile node in which each node can communicate with other node without use of predefined infrastructure. Currently, a lot of efficient protocols have been proposed for MANET. All of these efficient Routing protocols are depends only conviction and supportive environment. Conversely, the networks are more vulnerable to various kinds of routing attacks with the presence of malicious nodes. Black hole attack is one of network layer attack. In this attack, A malicious node make use of routing protocol to advertise itself that has a shortest path to reach destination, drops at the cost of original routing packets. In our work, the proposed algorithm is used to secure the DSR protocol. This will help to improve the performance of Mobile Ad hoc network due to the attack. There are several prevention mechanisms to eliminate the Black Hole attack in MANET. The aim of the paper is to provide better prevention of Co-operative Black hole attack in MANET and how it affects the performance metrics in terms of throughput and delay of the network by comparing the network performance with and without black hole nodes.

  3. 38 CFR 4.26 - Bilateral factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bilateral factor. 4.26... DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.26 Bilateral factor. When a partial disability results from disease... disability. The bilateral factor will be applied to such bilateral disabilities before other combinations...

  4. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for

  5. Bilateral Nocardia Keratitis after Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Faramarzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical, confocal scan, and histopathologic features of Nocardia keratitis in a patient who developed bilateral infection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. Case Report: A 23-year-old woman underwent bilateral PRK for low myopia. On postoperative day 3, dense central stromal infiltrates were noticed in both eyes. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated which was converted into specific therapy after a definite diagnosis was made based on clinical features and confirmed by confocal scan and histopathologic findings. Clinical and confocal scan features were consistent with the diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis, and topical 2% amikacin eye drops were started. Because of poor response to medical therapy, lamellar keratectomy was performed in both eyes which shortened the treatment course. Histopathologic examination reconfirmed the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: Familiarity with clinical and confocal scan features facilitates early diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis leading to proper management and hence a rapid therapeutic response.

  6. Bilateral Nocardia Keratitis after Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Amir; Feizi, Sepehr; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Yazdizadeh, Forouzan; Moein, Hamid-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical, confocal scan, and histopathologic features of nocardia keratitis in a patient who developed bilateral infection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Case Report A 23-year-old woman underwent bilateral PRK for low myopia. On postoperative day 3, dense central stromal infiltrates were noticed in both eyes. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated which was converted into specific therapy after a definite diagnosis was made based on clinical features and confirmed by confocal scan and histopathologic findings. Clinical and confocal scan features were consistent with the diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis, and topical 2% amikacin eye drops were started. Because of poor response to medical therapy, lamellar keratectomy was performed in both eyes which shortened the treatment course. Histopathologic examination reconfirmed the initial diagnosis. Conclusion Familiarity with clinical and confocal scan features facilitates early diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis leading to proper management and hence a rapid therapeutic response. PMID:23275825

  7. Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

  8. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  9. Spring migration of the Siberian Knots Calidris canutus canutus : results of a co-operative Wader Study Group project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dick, William J.A.; Piersma, Theunis; Prokosch, Peter

    1987-01-01

    In spring 1979 the Wader Study Group organised a co-operative project to study the spring migration of Siberian Knots Calidris c. canutus from their west and south African wintering grounds to the breeding grounds in central Siberia. S. African wintering birds migrate via the western seaboards of Af

  10. Student Perceptions of Social Learning Space: Designing and Implementing a Co-Operative Assessment Task in Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Roger W.; Depaz, Iris; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from a case study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students enrolled in the 2005 Bachelor of Science and 2006 Bachelor of Pharmacy degree programs, were early users of the university's new Collaborative Teaching and Learning Centre…

  11. Is the Ownership Structure Model a Decisive Determinant of Co-Operatives' Financial Success? A Financial Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Kuikman, J.; Doumpos, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper, the financial/ownership structures of agribusiness co-operatives (co-ops) are analyzed in order to examine whether new co-op models perform better than the more traditional ones. The assessment procedure introduces a new financial decision-aid approach, which is based on dat

  12. Managing technical-institutional design processes: some strategic lessons from environmental co-operatives in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roep, D.; Ploeg, van der J.D.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the case of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA is reviewed in terms of coevolving technical and institutional change and the strategic lessons to be learned for a pro-active management of such complex technical-institutional design processes. Facing the many-sided crisis in

  13. Co-operative Learning for Students with Difficulties in Learning: A Description of Models and Guidelines for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ellen; Grey, Ian M.; Honan, Rita

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger study regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classroom settings, Ellen Murphy, of the D Clin Psych programme at NUI Galway, with Ian Grey and Rita Honan, from Trinity College, Dublin, reviewed existing literature on co-operative learning in the classroom. In this article, they identify four models…

  14. Snorre time-lapse feasibility study: increased repeatability through close co-operation between processing reservoir geophysicists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.G.; Smith, P.; Eidsvig, S.; Magnus, I.; Berg, J.I.; Helgesen, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses how an increased repeatability was obtained through a close co-operation between processing and reservoir geophysicists during the Snorre time-lapse feasibility study. Since the SG9701 dataset was not specifically designed for time-lapse purposes, the main aim of the "Full 4D" r

  15. Environmental Co-Operatives as Instruments for Delivering Across-Farm Environmental and Rural Policy Objectives: Lessons for the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, J. R.; Mc Gloin, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential of environmental co-operatives (EC) to deliver environmental benefits and an integrated and strengthened rural economy in the UK. It is based on research into Dutch EC, which have about 10,000 members, of which a quarter are non-farmers. The paper details the benefits EC have delivered to their members, the Dutch…

  16. Choice of the Models for the Co-operative Innovation of Industries, Universities and Research Institutes by Game Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyang Fan; Youhua Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper builds game model to analyze selection issues of IUR co-operation model through Nash bargaining theory. The result shows that, the stronger innovative capability, more economic benefits expected, less technical content of scientific research, companies more inclined to choose a higher degree of close model; otherwise, companies tend to choose more closely integrated degree lower mode.

  17. Australia and China: A Joint Report on the Bilateral Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junhong; Guo Chunmei; Richard Rigby; Sang Ye

    2012-01-01

    After China and Australia established diplomatic ties in 1972, bilateral relations developed rapidly. People-to-people links, politicalexchanges and trade and economic cooperation played an increasingly larger part in the foreign policies of the two countries. In the post global financial crisis era, bilateral relations have remained positive and played an imPortant role in ensuring the stability and prosperity of the Pacific region. There have been several unavoidable misunderstandings and even disagreements between the two countries, which has influenced mutual trust and policies. This article will aim to analyze the history and current situation of the Sino-Australian relationship in an objective and comprehensive way; to look ahead to future bilateral relations, and make policy recommendations for the further development of bilateral ties to increase mutual understanding and promote a more positive future for Sino-Australian relations.

  18. Stage 4S Bilateral Adrenal Neuroblastoma in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stage 4S bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma presenting in the neonatal period is extremely rare. A 1-day-old male with 4S bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma complicated by marked hepatomegaly managed by chemotherapy is being reported. The provisional diagnosis of neuroblastoma was made in the fetal life during the last trimester of pregnancy. Cardiomyopathy due to doxorubicin cytotoxicity developed over ensuing years, which is being treated.

  19. Bilateral fracture dislocation of the shoulder (Presentation of a Case)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzgun, Unal; Baskir, Orhan; Temelli, Yener; Yazicioglu, Onder; Temocin, Bahattin O.; Kokino, Misel

    2004-01-01

    The largest portion of the dislocations encountered in the adults comprises shoulder dislocations and 2.16% of these dislocations constitute posterior dislocations. It is possible to detect that a dislocation develops secondary to convulsions due to immediate loss of consciousness in the history of most of the posterior dislocations of the shoulder. Approximately 20 cases have been so far reported in literature regurding bilateral dislocations of the shoulder. Bilateral dislocation associated...

  20. IAEA Technical Co-operation activities: Asia and the Pacific. Workshop on training nuclear laboratory technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop was held to exchange information on existing facilities and programmes in Asia and the Pacific for training nuclear laboratory technicians, to identify future training needs and to assess the need for IAEA's involvement in this field. As the participants outlined the requirements for nuclear laboratory technician training and the facilities available in their respective countries, it became evident that, in addition to the training of radioisotope laboratory technicians, they also wished to review the need for technician training for the operation of nuclear power plants and industrial application of atomic energy. The terms of reference of the workshop were extended accordingly. The opening address by Chang Suk Lee, the Korean Vice Minister of Science and Technology, noted the valuable contribution to quality control and other industrial uses that nuclear techniques have made in his country. He also reviewed the application of nuclear techniques in Korean agriculture and medicine. The participants explored various forms of co-operation that could be established between countries of the region. Exchange programmes, not only for students but also for expert teachers, and the exchange or loan of equipment were suggested. It was felt that some generalized training courses could be organized on a regional basis, and two countries advocated the setting up of a regional training centre. One suggestion was to arrange regional training courses in special fields that would move from one country to another. The need was felt for periodic regional meetings on training methods, course content and other questions relating to training of laboratory technicians. The IAEA was requested to act as a clearinghouse for information on available training facilities in the region and to advise on the curricula for technician training courses. The Agency was also asked to organize short courses for the training of instructors of technicians in the various fields of atomic

  1. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, G. N.; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of...

  2. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Tok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results: Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion: Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia.

  3. A Bilateral Slam Dunk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    New Zealand became the first developed country to sign a free trade agreement with China The three years of hard work on nego- tiating a free trade agreement finally paid off for China and New Zealand. Chinese Commerce Minister Chen Deming and Trade Minister of New Zealand Phil Goff formally signed a free trade agree- ment (FTA) on April 7 in Beijing.It was the first FTA that the Chinese Government signed with a developed country.

  4. Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer (PSBBC is a rare clinical entity. The reported incidence ranges between 0.3% and 12%. There are several controversial issues regarding PSBBC pertaining to the diagnostic criteria, nomenclature, and management policies. Materials and Methods: Fourteen cases of PSBBC treated between 2001 to 2010 at our institute were retrospectively analysed in regards to demographic data, management and follow up. Results: PSBBC constituted 0.19% of total breast cancer patients at our institute. Age ranged from 28 to 78 years. PSBBC were detected by clinical examination in eight cases and by mammography in six cases. Twelve patients underwent bilateral modified radical mastectomy, one had unilateral mastectomy on one side and breast conservation on the other side and one patient has bilateral breast conservation. Majority of patients belonged to stage 2 and stage 3. All patients were found to have invasive ductal carcinoma. Five cases were ER/PR positive and 8 patients were triple hormone receptor negative. Eight patients received unilateral and six received bilateral adjuvant radiotherapy. Nine patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Median follow up of patients was 15.4 months. Conclusion: PSBBC is a rare event warranting awareness and screening of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral breast cancer. These patients require individualized treatment planning based on the tumor factors of the index lesion. Further multi institutional prospective studies are needed for adequate understanding of management of PSBBC.

  5. Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, N; Lee, K; Yegappan, M

    2007-11-01

    Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 30-year-old man with end-stage renal failure, who sustained this injury, and subsequently had surgical repair of both tendons on separate occasions. He has since regained full range of movement of both knees.

  6. Bilateral familial nevus of Ota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sunali; Uwaydat, Sami H; Phillips, Paul H; Schaefer, G Bradley

    2014-12-01

    Nevus of Ota is a benign congenital melanocytic lesion found most commonly in people of Asian ancestry. It is associated with an increased risk of glaucoma and uveal melanomas. Most cases are sporadic and unilateral. We present the first reported case of a brother and sister with familial, bilateral nevus of Ota.

  7. Inter-Firm Co-Operative Strategies In The Context Of Discontinuous Technological Change. The Case Of The Uk Optical Communications Systems Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Spedale-Latimer (Simona)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAt times of discontinuous technological change co-operation represents a viable strategy for both incumbents and new-entrants, provided that the choice of co-operation is consistent with the firm's business strategy (market-pull vs. technology-push) and with its degree of organizational

  8. Long-term Financing in US and European Agricultural Co-operatives: Emerging Methods for Ameliorating Investment Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Iliopoulos, Constantine

    2003-01-01

    During recent years, dramatic changes in the world food system have led to unprecedented competition between agribusiness firms. To compete in this environment, agricultural cooperatives should invest substantially in long-term activities such as R&D and advertisement. Co-operatives have a difficult problem in acquiring equity capital because the residual claimant (benefactor) is the patron of the firm, not the investor. This organizational design poses to cooperatives three investment constr...

  9. An evaluation of the co-operative business model within the context of the global reporting initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Marné; 10127100 - Buys, Pieter Willem

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability reporting, renowned as an instrument for businesses to communicate how they function more efficiently and responsibly within the social and physical environment, while simultaneously remaining profitable, has evolved in an up-and-coming trend by businesses. In addition, this leads to integrated reporting, which implies that a business’ strategy, performance, risk and sustainability are inseparable from one another. The International Year of Co-operatives (2012), ...

  10. Optimal number of users in Co-operative spectrum sensing in WRAN using Cyclo-Stationary Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, Manish B

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio allows unlicensed users to access licensed frequency bands through dynamic spectrum access so as to reduce spectrum scarcity. This requires intelligent spectrum sensing techniques. This paper investigates the use of cyclo-stationary detector and performance evaluation for Digital Video Broadcast-Terrestrial (DVB-T) signals. Generally, DVB-T is specified in IEEE 802.22 standard in VHF and UHF TV broadcasting spectrum. Simulations results show that implementing co-operative spec...

  11. Summary Record of the Twenty-Sixth Meeting of the Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA's nuclear data evaluation co-operation activities involve the following evaluation projects: ENDF (United States), JENDL (Japan), ROSFOND/BROND (Russia), JEFF (other Data Bank member countries) and CENDL (China) in close co-operation with the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The working party was established to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations, validation, and related topics, and to provide a framework for co-operative activities between the participating projects. The working party assesses nuclear data improvement needs and addresses these needs by initiating joint evaluation and/or measurement efforts. This document is the executive summary of WPEC's 26. meeting held in 2014. It presents a brief review of the 2 days meeting in particular the Reports on experimental activities in Europe, Japan, USA and China, the Brief progress reports from the evaluation projects (ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, ROSFOND, CENDL, IAEA, TENDL) with the discussion of future plans, the Review of final or near-final subgroup reports, the Status of ongoing subgroups, the Proposals for new subgroups and some information about Conferences and meetings of interest to the nuclear data community. A list of participants and a list of reports presented at this meeting are attached in appendix

  12. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C. Suárez; Mabel C. Ospina; Sandra A. Arias; González, María E

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT) o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicen...

  13. Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Metachronous Aldosteronomas

    OpenAIRE

    Rizek, Philippe; Gorecki, Piotr; Lindenmayer, Aristid; Moktan, Sabita

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Primary aldosteronism affects 5% to 13% of patients with hypertension. Idiopathic bilateral hyperplasia (IHA) and unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) are the most common types of primary aldosteronism. Bilateral APA is a very rare entity with only a few reports in the literature. We present the case of a patient with metachronous bilateral APA treated with metachronous bilateral total and near total adrenalectomy. Case Report: A 66-year-old female was evaluated for hy...

  14. Simultaneous and staged bilateral total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Joergensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral total hip arthroplasty (BTHA) and bilateral simultaneous total hip arthroplasty (BSTHA) are done increasingly. Previous studies evaluating outcomes after bilateral procedures have found different results. The aim of this study was to investigate length of hospital stay (LOS), 30 days...

  15. The French experience of twenty-five years of co-operative research programs in the field of two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-liquid or liquid-vapour two-phase flows are encountered in many industrial systems and processes, such as nuclear reactors, cryogenic engines for space rockets, chemical engineering contactors, oil wells, pipelines and conventional components in use in the thermal industry (e.g. evaporators or condensers). Research and Development projects undertaken by French laboratories are reviewed and illustrated in this paper. Co-operative research programs on two-phase flows have been carried out in France for more than twenty-five years and have led to a network of French laboratories which are now internationally recognised. They have also made possible the transfer of technology resources from from basic research to industrial applications. (author)

  16. Love at first sight. Co-operation between the Netherlands and Norway on the peaceful use of atomic energy, 1950-1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the co-operation during the fifties and sixties between the Netherlands and Norway in the sphere of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. It is the story about the establishment, development and abolishment of the Joint Establishment for Nuclear Energy Research (JENER) at Kjeller, Norway. The start of operation of the Norwegian-Dutch reactor JEEP at Kjeller in July 1951 heralded the first phase of JENER. This rector became the first reactor in the world to be built outside the big-power states. The present study explains how it was possible for to two small states to go ahead with a reactor project at the outset of the post-war period. 13 refs

  17. Nuclear Site Remediation and Restoration during Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations. A Report by the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and related remedial actions are currently being undertaken around the world to enable sites or parts of sites to be reused for other purposes. Remediation has generally been considered as the last step in a sequence of decommissioning steps, but the values of prevention, long-term planning and parallel remediation are increasingly being recognised as important steps in the process. This report, prepared by the Task Group on Nuclear Site Restoration of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, highlights lessons learnt from remediation experiences of NEA member countries that may be particularly helpful to practitioners of nuclear site remediation, regulators and site operators. It provides observations and recommendations to consider in the development of strategies and plans for efficient nuclear site remediation that ensures protection of workers and the environment. (authors)

  18. 中国与伊朗石油合作探析%Analysis on China - Iran Petroleum Co - operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏欣; 李福泉

    2015-01-01

    中国经济持续快速发展,能源需求急剧增加,石油对外依存度逐年升高,保障石油来源的安全日益重要。伊朗拥有丰富的石油资源,石油收入是其经济命脉,确保稳定的石油出口极为关键。21世纪以来,中国和伊朗石油贸易额持续上升,跨国合资经营项目大规模展开,双方能源合作取得长足进展。国际政治变动、中东局势不稳定、石油运输通道的安全隐患、中伊能源政策等不确定因素直接影响中伊石油合作进程。中国在加大从伊朗进口石油量的同时,仍需坚持石油进口渠道的多元化,以此来维护本国能源的安全与稳定。%With a sustainable and rapid economic development in China,energy demands increase sharp-ly,followed by the annual increase of dependence on foreign oil,so it is increasingly important to seek a stable and secure oil supply. Because Iran has rich oil resources and oil revenues are the lifeblood of its economy,it is very crucial for Iran to ensure the stable export of petroleum. Since the beginning of the 21st century,China and Iran have made great progress in the bilateral energy cooperation with the continuous rise of bilateral oil trade and the large - scale development of multinational cooperation management projects. However,with the political change and the upheaval of Middle East Situation,some factors like the potential safety hazard in the oil transport channels,and the uncertainty of China - Iran energy policy can directly affect the oil cooperation process between China and Iran. Therefore,while enlarging the import of petroleum from Iran,China should persist in the diversification of petroleum import sources in order to guarantee the security and stability of our energy.

  19. Bilateral pallidotomy for generalized dystonia Palidotomia bilateral para distonias generalizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bilateral pallidotomies in five patients with generalized dystonia. BACKGROUND: Generalized dystonias are frequently a therapeutic challenge, with poor responses to pharmacological treatment. GPi (globus pallidus internus pallidotomies for Parkinson's disease ameliorate all kinds of dyskinesias/dystonia, and recent studies reported a marked improvement of refractory dystonias with this procedure. METHODS: Five patients with generalized dystonias refractory to medical treatment were selected; one posttraumatic and four idiopathic. The decision to perform bilateral procedures was based on the predominant axial involvement in these patients. Dystonia severity was assessed with the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Scale (BFM. Simultaneous procedures were performed in all but one patient, who had a staged procedure. They were reevaluated with the same scale (BFM by an unblinded rater at 1, 2, 3, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days post-operatively. RESULTS: The four patients with idiopathic dystonia showed a progressive improvement up to three months; the patient with posttraumatic dystonia relapsed at three months. One patient had a marked improvement, being able to discontinue all the medications. A mean decrease in the BFM scores of 52,58% was noted. One patient had a trans-operative motor seizure followed by a transient hemiparesis secondary to rack hemorrhage; other was lethargic up to three days after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that bilateral GPi pallidotomies may be a safe and effective approach to medically refractory generalized dystonias; it can also be speculated that the posttraumatic subgroup may not benefit with this procedure.As distonias generalizadas são freqüentemente um desafio terapêutico, com pobres respostas aos tratamentos farmacológicos. As cirurgias estereotáxicas, como a palidotomia, têm sido utilizadas com êxito no tratamento da doença de Parkinson e estudos

  20. Bilateral Lhermitte-Duclos disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozbuga Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD is a pathologic entity with progrediating, diffuse hypertrophy chiefly of the stratum granulosum of the cerebellum. Typically LDD is a unilateral lesion of the cerebellum or in vermis. Here we report a case of LDD with bilateral lesions of cerebellar hemispheres managed surgically. A 28-year-old woman presented with one-year history of progressive headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision. Neurologic examination revealed a bilateral mild papilledema, mild dysmetria, and dysdiadochokinesia. The cerebellar lesions caused moderate mass effect in posterior fossa with hydrocephalus, and Chiari type I malformation. We performed the suboccipital-retrosigmoid approach, and removed completely the left intracerebellar mass. Symptoms related to elevated intracranial pressure disappeared in a short period postoperatively.

  1. The Contribution Of Co-Operative Education In The Growing Of Talent In South Africa: A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisational talent is internationally regarded a key success factor in a competitive world and is continuously challenged. In South Africa, the Apartheid heritage further presents major challenges regarding developmental opportunities of talented people. Co-operative education presents, as structured educational strategy that progressively integrates academic study with learning through productive work experiences, itself as a means to grow the talent of the South African people. As result of the inadequate practice of co-operative education and a fair amount of associated resistance, ‘classical’ literature is reviewed. The literature review further identifies the core properties of co-operative education and the study has attempted to distil the core principles of a phenomenological research design. The specific ‘phenomena’ which the research focused on are existing joint ventures between Higher Education institutions and business enterprises aimed at educating people and growing talent. Selections of the voices of the research participants are presented in this article. Although the present study identifies several shortcomings regarding the practice of co-operative education, it pioneers the notion that the growing of talent can be enhanced through a co-operative education strategy. OpsommingOrganisatoriese talent word internasionaal beskou as ’n sleutelfaktor in ’n kompeterende wêreld en word dus voortdurend aan uitdagings onderwerp. In Suid Afrika stel die nagevolge van Apartheid grootskaalse uitdagings ten opsigte van die ontwikkelings moontlikhede van talentvolle mense. Koöperatiewe onderwys bied, as gestruktureerde opvoedkundige strategie wat progressief akademiese leer met produktiewe werkservaring integreer, ’n geleentheid om die talent van Suid-Afrikaners op te bou. ‘Klasieke’ literatuur word weegegee ten einde die ontoereikende beoefening van koöperatiewe onderwys en ’n gepaartgaande redelike mate van

  2. Bilateral Molariform Mandibular Second Premolars

    OpenAIRE

    Sonu Acharya; Pradip Kumar Mandal; Chiranjit Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side ...

  3. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  4. Empirical Analysis of Xinjiang's Bilateral Trade: Gravity Model Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xuegang; YANG Zhaoping; LIU Xuling

    2008-01-01

    Based on the basic trade gravity model and Xinjiang's practical situation, new explanatory variables (GDP,GDPpc and SCO) are introduced to build an extended trade gravity model fitting for Xinjiang's bilateral trade. Fromthe empirical analysis of this model, it is proposed that those three variables affect the Xinjiang's bilateral trade posi-tively. Whereas, geographic distance is found to be a significant factor influencing Xinjiang's bilateral trade negatively.Then, by the extended trade gravity model, this article analyzes the present trade situation between Xinjiang and itsmain trade partners quantitatively in 2004. The results indicate that Xinjiang cooperates with its most trade partnerssuccessfully in terms of present economic scale and developing revel. Xinjiang has established successfully trade part-nership with Central Asia, Central Europe and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, East Asia and South Asia. However,the foreign trade development with West Asia is much slower. Finally, some suggestions on developing Xinjiang's for-eign trade are put forward.

  5. Substantial generalization of sensorimotor learning from bilateral to unilateral movement conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsung Wang

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding whether bimanual skill learning can generalize to unimanual performance. For example, some investigators showed that dynamic adaptation could only partially generalize between bilateral and unilateral movement conditions, while others demonstrated complete generalization of visuomotor adaptation. Here, we identified three potential factors that might have contributed to the discrepancy between the two sets of findings. In our first experiment, subjects performed reaching movements toward eight targets bilaterally with a novel force field applied to both arms, then unilaterally with the force field applied to one arm. Results showed that the dynamic adaptation generalized completely from bilateral to unilateral movements. In our second experiment, the same force field was only applied to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. Results indicated complete transfer again. Finally, our subjects performed reaching movements toward a single target with the force field or a novel visuomotor rotation applied only to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. The reduced breadth of experience obtained during bilateral movements resulted in incomplete transfer, which explains previous findings of limited generalization. These findings collectively suggest a substantial overlap between the neural processes underlying bilateral and unilateral movements, supporting the idea that bilateral training, often employed in stroke rehabilitation, is a valid method for improving unilateral performance. However, our findings also suggest that while the neural representations developed during bilateral training can generalize to facilitate unilateral performance, the extent of generalization may depend on the breadth of experience obtained during bilateral training.

  6. Association of Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia in Bilateral Anterior Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Fujimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Two female patients with histories of cancer who showed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP complications and bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon were examined. Both patients had suffered from COP and received intermitted systemic corticosteroid administration (SCA. The first patient, a 65-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer, showed bilateral uveitis with hypopyon. The topical corticosteroid treatment was ineffective. After SCA for the treatment of COP was started, the hypopyon gradually dissipated. Upon termination of SCA, uveitis relapses were controlled by renewed SCA. The other patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of ovarian cancer, showed bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon. Her intraocular outcome did not improve by the topical corticosteroid administration, but SCA that was applied to treat COP led to remission of uveitis. Imaging examinations, biochemical analysis, symptoms or HLA-B27 antigen screenings in either patient did not explain the development of uveitis. Bilateral anterior uveitis is commonly related to autoimmune disease or systemic syndrome. We report two cases with COP that developed bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon resistant to topical administration but responsive to systemic administration of corticosteroid. These findings suggest that COP can be associated with the etiology of anterior uveitis.

  7. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  8. North-South FDI and Bilateral Investment Treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falvey, R.; Foster-McGregor, N.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) have become increasingly popular as a means of encouraging FDI from developed to developing countries. We adopt a matched difference-in-difference estimation to deal with the problem of endogeneity when estimating the effects of BITs on inward FDI. Our results in

  9. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran 1982-1995 country programme evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This evaluation of the country programme in Iran was requested by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The main reasons for the evaluation were the desire to determine the results of the Agency's TC programme in Iran since 1982 (the post-revolution period) and how they are being utilized, and to identify specific areas for future co-operation. The evaluation included a two-week field mission during November/December 1995, integrated by three outside experts and one Agency staff member. Figs, tabs

  11. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbach, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The `ITS Directive' will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  12. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajkta A Thete

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm and conservative or radical renal surgery

  13. Bilateral molariform mandibular second premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sonu; Kumar Mandal, Pradip; Ghosh, Chiranjit

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side and erupted macrodontic premolar on the other side and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, and molariform crowns and tapering, single roots. PMID:25685564

  14. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  15. Post Traumatic Delayed Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy (FNP): Diagnostic Dilemma of Expressionless Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2015-04-01

    Bilateral facial nerve palsy [FNP] is a rare condition. Mostly it is idiopathic. Post traumatic bilateral FNP is even more rare and having unique neurosurgical considerations. Post traumatic delayed presentation of bilateral FNP is socially debilitating and also having diagnostic challenge. Due to lack of facial asymmetry as present in unilateral facial paralysis, it is difficult to recognize. We are presenting a case of delayed onset bilateral FNP who developed FNP after 12 days of head injury with a brief discussion of its diagnostic dilemma and management along with literature review.

  16. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Canada and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Canada and Japan relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  17. Incentives to strengthen international co-operation in R and D for advanced nuclear power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper identifies the main areas which need strong international collaboration: development of innovative safety features; improvement of fuel characteristics and efficiency; dose reduction techniques; use of technology developed for other purposes; common assessments of design proposals. (orig./HP)

  18. Potential electricity co-operatives in Kenya: could social capital be a barrier?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdallah, Said; Bressers, Hans; Clancy, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Providing development inputs like electrical energy is a formidable task in many parts of the developing world. The generally rural nature of developing countries makes it necessary to devise innovative ways of getting electricity to the non-urban majority. It is also imperative that adequate and pr

  19. Do patients with incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal nodules represent an early form of ARMC5-mediated bilateral macronodular hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emms, Holly; Tsirou, Ioanna; Cranston, Treena; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Grossman, Ashley B

    2016-09-01

    Bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia (BMAH) is a rare form of Cushing's syndrome characterised by the presence of bilateral secretory adrenal nodules and hypercortisolism. Familial studies support a genetic basis for BMAH, and the disease has been linked to mutations in ARMC5, a gene shown to have a tumour suppressor-like action in the development of adrenal nodules. This study aimed to investigate whether ARMC5 mutations play a role in the development of incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal nodules. We investigated 39 patients with incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal nodules >0.8 cm in diameter who underwent extensive biochemical testing to look for signs of subclinical hypercortisolism. Genomic DNA was analysed by Sanger sequencing, using primers targeted to ARMC5 transcripts. Of the 39 patients included in our study, three were identified as having variants in ARMC5. Two of these are unlikely to be clinically significant, but there is evidence that the third mutation, Chr16:g.31476122;c.1778G>C (p.Arg593Pro), may be pathogenic. Another variant, affecting the same amino-acid residue c.1777C>T (p.Arg593Trp), has been identified previously in two studies of BMAH patients, where it has been shown to segregate with disease in one BMAH family. This patient had biochemical evidence of hypercortisolism in the absence of overt Cushing's syndrome, and underwent bilateral adrenalectomy separated in time. The presence of a probably clinically significant mutation in ARMC5 in one patient with bilateral adrenal incidentalomas adds to the growing body of evidence in support of ARMC5 as a critical mediator of adrenal nodule development. In addition, the absence of significant ARMC5 mutations in 38 of our patients represents an important negative finding, demonstrating the degree of variability within the pathogenesis of adrenal nodule development. PMID:27306888

  20. Bilateral Monteggia fracture in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 1814 Giovanni Monteggia first described two cases of fractures of the proximal third of ulna with dislocation of the radial head. These fractures are more common in children than in adults, and mutual Monteggia fracture is a rare complication. This study presents a treatment course of a patient with bilateral Monteggia fracture. Case report. A 55- year-old patient was injured by falling in the yard. Radiography showed bilateral Monteggia fracture type II (by the Badon classification. Operative treatment of fracture was done by a compression plate on the right side and by the zuggurtung technique on the left one. Closed repositioning of the radial head was done on both sides. The patient was wearing a plaster splint for the upper arm for 21 days. After removing the fixation, the function of the elbow was determined by the Broberg Morrey score (BM which was on the right side 45.5 and on the left side 47.5. After the proper physical therapy, four months after the surgery, BM score was 100 on the right side, and 93 on the left one. Conclusion. Surgical treatment and early rehabilitation is the key for the return of good function of both elbows.

  1. [Simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, A; Caminiti, F; Tosato, F; Ruggieri, M; Paolini, G; Carnevale, L; Corsini, F; Marano, S; Monsellato, I

    2001-04-01

    A case report of a 44 year-old white man admitted to the surgical unit for a bilateral simultaneous pneumothorax is presented. The pneumothorax occurred on day one after a surgical operation for discal hernia; in the past the patient already presented a right spontaneous pneumothorax at 32 years of age and a left pneumothorax at 37 years of age, both treated with a pleural drainage. A thoracic drain was bilaterally positioned with a good result only in the right side. The persistence of the left pneumothorax induced the authors to perform a postero-lateral thoracotomy bullae excision and pleurectomy with a good postoperative course. After a few months a new right pneumothorax occurred and the patient was treated with a right postero-lateral thoracotomy, bullae resection and pleurectomy. On the basis of the case reported, the authors consider the different opportunities in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to the present knowledges and technologies. Surgical procedure is to be preferred in case of persistence of pneumothorax despite a pleural drain and in case of pneumothorax in high risk subjects. Even if thoracoscopy seems to give better results regarding postoperative pain, it is not always possible with such a method to perform a careful pleurectomy neither to obtain it in all cases (above all in secondary pneumothorax). Every case must then be carefully studied to choose the best treatment at present available. PMID:11353349

  2. Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Chakrabarti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features of Marfan syndrome and was stamped as a case of Marfan syndrome by Ghent criteria . The point to stress upon is that a young male developing spontaneous retinal detachment, a diagnosis of underlying Marfan syndrome should be kept in mind if appropriate clinical stigmata are present. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 104-105

  3. Bilateral Scapulohumeral Ankylosis after Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lotten, Manon L; Schreinemakers, J Rieneke; van Noort, Arthur; Rademakers, Maarten V

    2016-09-01

    This case demonstrates a rarely reported bilateral scapulohumeral bony ankylosis. A young woman developed extensive heterotopic ossifications (HOs) in both shoulder joints after being mechanically ventilated for several months at the intensive care unit in a comatose status. She presented with a severe movement restriction of both shoulder joints. Surgical resection of the bony bridges was performed in 2 separate sessions with a significant improvement of shoulder function afterwards. No postoperative complications, pain, or recurrence of HOs were noted at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockage, and prolonged sedation are known risk factors for the development of HOs in the shoulder joints. Relatively early surgical resection of the HOs can be performed safely in contrary to earlier belief. Afterwards, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or radiation therapy can be possible treatment modalities to prevent recurrence of HOs. PMID:27583120

  4. Information transfer to out-of-hours co-operatives: a survey of general practitioners' views in relation to palliative patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, Fiona

    2013-12-01

    In Ireland, weekend and night medical cover for community based patients is largely provided by general practice co-operatives. Doctors working in this service do not have direct access to patients\\' medical records which challenges continuity of care.

  5. CASE STUDIES OF CROSS-BORDER CO-OPERATION IN EUROPEAN TOURISM – PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE CROSS-BORDER REGION BUCOVINA/OBLAST TSCHERNIWZI

    OpenAIRE

    HEIKE BÄHRE

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on success factors and management models in destination management for cross-border co-operation in tourism. The method is based on literature research, case-studies in European cross-border-regions and descriptive.

  6. Novel JAZ co-operativity and unexpected JA dynamics underpin Arabidopsis defence responses to Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Zhai, Bing; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Eleftheriadou, Garoufalia; Winsbury, Rebecca; Yang, Ron; Truman, William; Tang, Saijung; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Grant, Murray

    2016-02-01

    Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection. PMID:26428397

  7. New Curious Bilateral q-Series Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Jouhet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By applying a classical method, already employed by Cauchy, to a terminating curious summation by one of the authors, a new curious bilateral q-series identity is derived. We also apply the same method to a quadratic summation by Gessel and Stanton, and to a cubic summation by Gasper, respectively, to derive a bilateral quadratic and a bilateral cubic summation formula.

  8. An analysis of educators' views on their effectiveness to use group work as a co-operative learning strategy / Mary M. Seshabela

    OpenAIRE

    Seshabela, Mary M

    2004-01-01

    The study was undertaken to analyse educator's views on their effectiveness in using group work as a co-operative learning strategy. Specifically the study aims to: To determine through literature the nature of group work as a co-operative learning strategy. To find out views of educators in their effectiveness of using group work as a teaching strategy. The investigation involved 208 educators from middle and secondary schools in Themba District. Close and open ended que...

  9. Environmental co-operatives as a new mode of rural governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiskerke, J.S.C.; Bock, B.B.; Stuiver, M.; Renting, H.

    2003-01-01

    The modernization paradigm, which for many decades dominated agricultural practices, policies and science, is gradually being replaced by a rural development paradigm. The emerging rural development paradigm calls, amongst other things, for a new approach to policy-making, steering and control, in o

  10. Remote handling techniques in decommissioning - A report of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning (CPD) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD) is a joint undertaking of a limited number of organisations actively executing on planning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The objective of the CPD is to acquire information from operational experience in decommissioning nuclear installations that is useful for future projects. Although part of the information exchanged within CPD is confidential in nature and is restricted to programme participants, experience of general interest gained under the programme's auspices is released for broader use. Such information is brought to the attention of all NEA members through regular reports to the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), as well as through published studies. This report describes generic results obtained by a CPD Task Group analysing the needs for remote technologies. The existing technologies able to meet these needs, the lessons learned and showing where improvements or further developments should be made in this domain. During the D and D process, the handling of highly radioactive materials, the deployment of tools and sensors and the dismantling of components built from many different materials can be a long, labor-intensive process that has the potential for high exposure rates, heat stress and injury to personnel. Mobile robotics systems provide solutions to these hazards. Such remote handling systems are required to perform tasks within budget and on schedule while justifying the expense by a saving in cumulative doses received by project personnel. To reach this goal, the following are additional factors that need to be evaluated when preparing a project: - System and peripherals must be operator-friendly. Ideally, the system must be designed to allow personnel currently available for the D and D project to become trained as operators within a reasonable time frame. - The

  11. 1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

  12. Bilateral Clavicle Fracture in Two Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Arun Ozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fracture of clavicle is the most frequently observed bone fracture as birth trauma and it is usually unilateral. It is seen following shoulder dystocia deliveries or breech presentation of macrosomic newborns.Case Presentation: We report two macrosomic newborns with bilateral clavicle fracture and brachial plexus palsy due to birth trauma. Chest X-rays confirmed bilateral fracture of clavicles. Both patients were recovered without any sequel.Conclusion: Bilateral clavicular fracture should be considered in any neonate with bilateral absent Moro reflexes.

  13. Synchronous bilateral testicular seminoma. Presentation of a clinical case and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGT) present in the contralateral tumor development in approximately 3% of the cases. A small subset presenting with synchronous bilateral tumors (TBS). Case report: Patient is a 41-year study of infertility in who have performed bilateral testicular biopsies. Using ultrasound bilateral testicular nodules were diagnosed predominantly right. It performs a bilateral orchiectomy evidencing bilateral pure classic seminoma (T1 and T4). Staging the regional nodal involvement and distance rule and visceral with normal tumor markers. Receive adjuvant radiotherapy (3060 cGy) including inguinal lymph node chains, and pelvic and lumbo-aortic remaining free of disease at 33 months after surgery. Discussion: 85% of all bilateral TGT metachronous are presented as 15% synchronously. TBS represent less than 1% of the most representative series. In most cases they are seminomas and have been associated with infertility and history Family suggestive of genetic predisposition. Bilateral orchiectomy is local treatment of choice and subsequent planned strategy is according the loco-regional extension stressing the importance of hormone replacement and psychological support. Conclusions: In patients with a family history suggestive or infertile should be evaluated for TBS, especially if it carries a seminoma. the bilateral orchiectomy is local treatment of choice. We found no evidence seminomatous TBS have a worse prognosis compared with patients with unilateral or bilateral metachronous tumors of similar size lesional

  14. Advancing the Agenda. IAEA Technical Co-operation in support of the Earth Summit's Agenda 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Earth Summit took place in September 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa to discuss the far-reaching goals of Agenda 21 - an ambitious and comprehensive plan of action covering all spheres of social, economic, and human development affecting our environment. The Summit - officially named the World Summit on Sustainable Development - was expected to attract more than 60,000 national and international delegates, including heads of State and leaders of major organizations and institutes. Agenda 21 was among the documents that governments adopted at the first Earth Summit in 1992, officially known as the UN Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  15. Bilateral metachronous breast cancer with bilateral recurrences: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The incidence of bilateral breast cancer has been reported to range from 0.4% to 14%, and it increases gradually as a result of improved early detection capabilities and longer survival times. We report a rare case where the bilateral breast cancers occurred as a metachronous bilateral breast cancer with bilateral recurrences, detected by mammography, and the rapid growth of tumor that manifested as microcalcification and skin thickening within 3 months.

  16. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin Gulbahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  17. Bilateral fracture in atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana SIGNORINI

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the elderly population in Brazil has brought a higher number of patients of this age level for dental treatment in several areas of dentistry.Elderly patients are exposed to many kinds of aggressor agents, such as falling down and accidents that cause maxillofacial fractures, which require the specialized assistance of a maxillofacial surgeon. The elderly present a differentiated condition involving systemic changes and use of several drugs that must be taken into consideration when planning the therapeutics ofeach case. The treatment of facial trauma must aim fast recovery along with minimal morbidity. The authors present a case of mandible bilateral fracture in edentulous elderly patient with severe atrophy, treated with titanium plate and screws osteosynthesis. The healing period was satisfactory, without postoperative complications in 18 months follow up.

  18. Point Climat no. 11 'Japan's Bilateral Offset Crediting Mechanism: A Bilateral Solution to a Global Issue?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: In order to achieve its long-term emission reduction target following the Fukushima incident, Japan would rely more heavily on international offsetting activities. Concurrent to vigorous proposals to reform the CDM, Japan is also promoting an offset crediting scheme through bilateral agreements with developing countries as a post-2012 market mechanism. Despite potential benefits, issues relating to the accounting rules, environmental integrity and implications to carbon markets warrant further consideration prior to international recognition

  19. Integration Strategies and Barriers to Co-Operation in Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze strategies for cross-border integration in the Øresund Region. The point of departure is that the development of strategies for cross-border integration is dependent on the development on both the general level in the EU and deregulation of economy...... and business on the global level. In this respect, the article points out the importance of market forces and their influence on institutional change. Recent economic crises have put growth center stage at both the national and regional level, and have called for regional development programs on both...... the Swedish and Danish sides of the Sound. The strengths and weaknesses of the Øresund Region’s ‘traditional’ and new institutions as instruments for change are examined. The article identifies and discusses the structures, institutions, and players which are the driving forces in the field between markets...

  20. Regional Co-operation for Literacy in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaoka, Taichi

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO's copublication program producing follow-up reading materials for expanding literacy. Includes lists of materials produces, information of the development of materials, and personnel training. Describes how the regional literacy programs workshops, and activities ar managed. Suggests that regional…

  1. Mobility 2.0: co-operative ITS systems for enhanced personal electromobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solar, Alma; Bolovinou, Anastasia; Heijenk, Geert; Lasgouttes, Jean-Marc; Giménez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Mobility2.0 is an ITS project aiming at developing and testing an in-vehicle commuting assistant for FEV mobility, resulting in more reliable and energy-efficient electro-mobility. In order to achieve a maximum impact, Mobility2.0 takes an integrated approach of addressing the main bottlenecks of ur

  2. Mobility2.0: co-operative ITS systems for enhanced electric vehicle mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, G.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Brogle, M.; Braun, T.; Heijenk, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mobility2.0 will develop and test an in-vehicle commuting assistant for FEV mobility, resulting in more reliable and energy-efficient electro-mobility. In order to achieve a maximum impact, Mobility2.0 takes an integrated approach of ad- dressing the main bottlenecks of urban FEV mobility: range anx

  3. Co-operative projects with AECL in the fields of hydrogeology and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers collaborative study with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited on geological aspects of waste disposal in crystalline rocks. A field test of the sinusoidal hydraulic pressure pulse method was carried out at the URL site to try to define hydraulic properties of major horizontal fractures. The trials were generally successful and observable sine and square wave signals were transmitted. Owing to the limited scale of the programme, and some equipment problems, the results proved difficult to interpret, although the speed and flexibility of the method was demonstrated. A second aspect of collaboration was to be the field comparison of the AECL and NERC/BGS borehole geochemical probes. In the event, the AECL probe development programme was curtailed and a Swedish design selected for purchase. Effort thus switched to technical comparison of the SGAB probe with the NERC/BGS design. Since both are still at various development points the collaboration was limited to technical exchange. The results are presented. (author)

  4. Russia-EU S&T Co-operation: a Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Knyazeva; Nataliya Slasheva

    2008-01-01

    The expansion of international S&T cooperation is one of the prerequisites for achieving the ambitious goals of innovation development facing the Russian Federation. The significance of international cooperation in science and technology has increased in the context of globalization of science and the integration processes taking place within the European Union. Bibliometric analysis of joint publications of scientists from Russia and EU countries allows to assess current state and trends of ...

  5. Changing the way we learn: towards agile learning and co-operation

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, P. K.; Fradinho, M.; Andersen, B; Lefrere, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for learning and competence development in industrial organizations. The people that enter professional organizations today are part of a gamer generation that have some or much experience with on-line games. Therefore they are more open to e-learning and in general more open to access anything on-line. At the same time industrial organizations experience a pressure on their ability to train employees faster due to the increase in complexity. We argue that games ...

  6. Press and Pulpit: Competition, Co-operation and the Growth of Religious Magazines in Antebellum America

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Adam; Haveman, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Sociologists have long been interested in how interactions among the diverse groups that constitute modern societies shape group mobilization efforts, including the use of group media. We advance research on this topic by analyzing the growth of magazines affiliated with religious groups in antebellum America, when the nation was becoming a modern society. We draw on the sociology of religion, organizations, and media to develop hypotheses linking the growth of denominational magazines to i...

  7. Marfan's syndrome presenting as bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax.

    OpenAIRE

    Gawkrodger, D J

    1981-01-01

    A case of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in a 14-year-old girl with previously undiagnosed Marfan's syndrome is described. The pulmonary abnormalities of Marfan's syndrome are not commonly encountered and bilateral pneumothorax is itself a rare event which, in most instances, has been reported following invasive procedures.

  8. Bilateral failure of adduction following orbital decompression.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsella, F; Kyle, P.; Stansfield, A

    1990-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral complete failure of adduction following bilateral translid antralethmoidal orbital decompression. We believe the probable mechanism is neuropraxia (temporary dysfunction) of the third cranial nerves' supply to the medial recti, owing to these nerves' occupying an anatomically abnormal position. Partial recovery of adduction occurred over the ensuing six months.

  9. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin.

  10. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  11. Bilateral breast involvement in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakeem A, Mandakini BT, Asif K, Firdaus, Shagufta RC

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast involvement by leukemic infiltration is usually bilateral, but may be unilateral. Clinically patients can present with either single or multiple masses, or with diffuse breast engorgement, with or without nodularity. The affected patients are predominantly young adults. We present a case of an adolescent girl with acute myeloid leukemia having bilateral breast infiltration by leukemic cells.

  12. Concurrent bilateral ectopic pregnancy: a rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhleen Kaur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare twin gestation with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report a 30 year old woman without any high risk factor for ectopic pregnancy, who had concurrent bilateral ectopic pregnancy. A 30 year old female presented to the Gynecology emergency department complaining of vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. The presumptive diagnosis of ruptured left sided ectopic pregnancy was made on basis of clinical findings and ultrasound finings. An emergency laparotomy was done revealed a hemoperitoneum of 1.5 liters, a ruptured left tubal pregnancy with active bleeding and right tubal un-ruptured ectopic was found. A bilateral salpingectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed presence of chorionic villi in both tubes. In theory, laparoscopic salpingostomy is the best surgical approach in bilateral tubal pregnancy. However, bilateral salpingectomy may be necessary when both tubes are extensively damaged or are actively bleeding. Successful pregnancies have been reported after conservative surgical treatment of bilateral ectopic, but the risk of recurrence is high. Our decision for an emergency laparotomy followed by bilateral salpingectomy was based on the fact that the patient presented with acute abdomen and was haemodynamically unstable and there was extensive bilateral tubal damage. As the incidence of ectopic pregnancies is increasing concurrently with the incidences of pelvic inflammatory disease and use of assisted fertility techniques; it may be that these and ldquo;rare ectopics and rdquo; will become less uncommon. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1197-1199

  13. Acral osteolysis in bilateral compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Saeed

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common neurological condition with rare yet potentially serious cutaneous and skeletal complications. We present a case of mutilating/ulcerating bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a 63 year old female. Radiographs showed symmetrical acral osteolysis in the index and middle fingers distal phalanges bilaterally. Carpal tunnel decompressions provided symptomatic relief.

  14. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin. PMID:22561379

  15. Cerebral potentials preceding unilateral and simultaneous bilateral finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, R; Keller, E; Deecke, L; Kornhuber, H H

    1979-08-01

    Cerebral potentials preceding voluntary bilateral simultaneous finger movements were investigated in 19 right-handed young adult subjects, and were compared with unilateral right-sided finger m n the same experiment. With bilateral movements, the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) was not symmetrical or larger over the dominant hemisphere, but surprisingly, it was larger over the minor hemisphere. The BP averaged -3.66 microV (S.D. 1.96) over the left precentral region and -4.82 microV (S.D. 3.73) over the right precentral region in this condition. The difference was significant at 2P less than 0.01. This difference was pronounced in precentral leads but very small and almost missing in parietal leads. The pre-motion positivity (PMP) was well developed and even larger with bilateral than with unilateral (right-sides) movements. At the vertex it averaged +1.33 microV (S.D.4.16) with bilateral movements and only +0.15 microV (S.D. 1.42) with right-sided unilateral movements (2P less than 0.05). With bilateral movements the PMP could be observed in any record, but with unilateral movements it was missing at the left precentral lead, in accordance with previous publications (Deecke et al. 1969, 1976). The motor potential (MP), measured in a bipolar record from left and right precentral leads, was larger with unilateral (-1.25 microV, S.D. 1.33) than with bilateral movements (-0.36 microV, S.D. 0.92). Onset time differences of the BP preceding unilateral and bilateral movements were very small. However, there was a tendency towards earlier onset with unilateral than with bilateral movements (1031 msec, S.D. 358, as compared with 951 msec, S.D. 305). The averaged EMG revealed differences in movement onset. Muscular contraction tended to be earlier in the right than in the left m. flexor indicis in our right-handed subjects, on the average by 16 msec (S.D. 15). With unilateral right-sided movements, the left m. flexor indicis was not silent but showed an abortive mirror activity

  16. Investigation of the Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-operation by the Use of Knowledge-based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Szeghegyi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Each problem always originates from constraints. The decision is a response tothe challenges by the environment. In order to chose appropriate decision supporttechniques the structural complexity of the problem has to be determined. The aim of theapplication of knowledge based systems is to obtain decision support. In this paper theapplication of the system ‘Doctus’ is illustrated and exemplified in connection withprocessing the problem of the potential co-operation between the industrial companies andinstitutes of higher education. The analysis was carried out by the application of inductiveand deductive inference procedures taking into account the requirements of the companiesand the abilities and skills of the higher educational institutions. The assessment of theresults obtained may generate further dilemmas for the solution of which appropriateknowledge bases can be brought about or the already existing ones have to be refined.

  17. Microprocessor, Setx, Xrn2, and Rrp6 co-operate to induce premature termination of transcription by RNAPII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagschal, Alexandre; Rousset, Emilie; Basavarajaiah, Poornima; Contreras, Xavier; Harwig, Alex; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Nakamura, Mirai; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke; Meziane, Oussama; Boyer, Frédéric; Parrinello, Hugues; Berkhout, Ben; Terzian, Christophe; Benkirane, Monsef; Kiernan, Rosemary

    2012-09-14

    Transcription elongation is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we show that microprocessor controls gene expression in an RNAi-independent manner. Microprocessor orchestrates the recruitment of termination factors Setx and Xrn2, and the 3'-5' exoribonuclease, Rrp6, to initiate RNAPII pausing and premature termination at the HIV-1 promoter through cleavage of the stem-loop RNA, TAR. Rrp6 further processes the cleavage product, which generates a small RNA that is required to mediate potent transcriptional repression and chromatin remodeling at the HIV-1 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified cellular gene targets whose transcription is modulated by microprocessor. Our study reveals RNAPII pausing and premature termination mediated by the co-operative activity of ribonucleases, Drosha/Dgcr8, Xrn2, and Rrp6, as a regulatory mechanism of RNAPII-dependent transcription elongation.

  18. Divergence and Co-operation between China and the U.S. on the Cyberspace Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wenli

    2012-01-01

    "Cyberspace" refers to interdependent infrastructures of information technology. This includes the Internet, telecommunication networks, computer systems, embedded processors and controllers.~ Due to rapid development and the popularization of information and cyber technology, cyberspace and people's real lives are becoming interconnected, infiltrating and influencing one another. As such a new space consisting of economical, social, cultural, political and military information networks has been created. As a "man-made arena" with strong transnational and virtual characteristics, cyberspace is inevitably influenced by international politics. Recent years have seen an obvious divergence between China and the U.S. on the "freedom of the Internet", the governance of the Internet,

  19. The Guided Bilateral Filter: When the Joint/Cross Bilateral Filter Becomes Robust

    OpenAIRE

    Caraffa, Laurent; Tarel, Jean Philippe; Charbonnier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The bilateral filter and its variants such as the Joint/Cross bilateral filter are well known edge-preserving image smoothing tools used in many applications. The reason of this success is its simple definition and the possibility of many adaptations. The bilateral filter is known to be related to robust estimation. This link is lost by the ad hoc introduction of the guide image in the Joint/Cross bilateral filter. We here propose a new way to derive the Joint/Cross bilateral filter as a part...

  20. From an inflicted dependency to a positive co-operation in the domain of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Host, Jean-Paul; Darras, Marc [Gaz de France (France)

    2007-07-01

    The 20th World Energy Congress entitled, ''Energy Future in an Interdependent World'', is aimed at highlighting the main challenges and opportunities that the energy industry should face to contribute to sustainable development across the world. For we are very much in the face of a challenge: with the demand for energy likely to increase, the energy industry will have to get by with limited resources: as concerns energy, the gradual rarefaction of fossil fuels resources, combined with the lack of any convincing substitution options in the medium term; as concerns natural resources, or more accurately, the harm that the natural environment can bear sustainably; and as concerns capital, insofar as the huge investments needed in the field of energy will be competing with other types of investments that may appear more profitable or safer. Given this situation, two types of political and economic response can be envisioned. The first is to simply let the market run its course and relations between States play out as they normally would. This would, admittedly, make it possible to solve some of the issues raised but no one can guarantee that this will not heighten political tension and lead to dangerous dawdling with regard to the climate issue. Another option is to mobilise the international community so that the interdependency leads to some sort of positive cooperation. This would require that, building on the reflections carried out virtually everywhere, international consensus would emerge and make it possible to create and champion a shared vision, leading to the institution of an enabling environment for action for states and operators altogether. Above and beyond the trade relationship that binds the latter, they have an important part to play insofar as they can significantly contribute to sustainable development across the world through the investments they make abroad and the results of their 'research' when shared through

  1. Environmental Empowerment - the role of Co-operation between Civil Society, Universities and Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    2006-01-01

    The University based Science Shops were established in the 1970s in the Netherlands, and in Denmark and other countries in the 1980s and 1990s. The aim was to give civil society organisations access to scientific knowledge and to empower citizen participation regarding environmental and social...... important for empowering citizen through access to scientific knowledge by raising and documenting environmental issues, by assisting citizens with knowledge supporting environmental sustainable activities, and by potentially raising alternative scientific agendas and develop alternative technological...... solutions. Thus, the article by underlining the role of science and Science Shops, address the debate on public understanding and participation in two ways: on the one hand by dissociating from the ‘deficit thinking’, in which citizens are regarded as lacking knowledge, and on the other hand by drawing...

  2. Operating within the legal and ethical framework to gain co-operation when imaging paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by radiographers when imaging children. Using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a framework it presents a logical exploration of the complex issues associated with imaging children and considers the legal and ethical framework alongside the nature of motivation and importance of gaining cooperation of the child and their carer(s). It is evident that a good knowledge of child development, child psychology and distraction techniques would enhance the family experience when attending for imaging examinations. Radiographers must continually familiarise themselves with current legislation affecting their practice and ensure that they continue to provide an optimum service for children and their carer(s). It may be advisable for post-registration courses to be offered to existing practitioners and for the Society and College of Radiographers to consider appointing a professional officer with expertise in paediatric imaging to offer legal advice and to support safe practice

  3. Improvement of the technical co-operation system through the IAEA advisory committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates seventeen(17) Standing Advisory Groups (SAG) and nine(9) International Working Groups (IWG). Korean experts are currently participating in most of these advisory groups, but there is something yet to improve especially in faithfull reflection of Korean nuclear policy as well as a systematic and effective utilization of technical information received in the committee meetings. Therefore, it is necessary firstly to analyze results and systematic follow-up of technology developments for each IAEA committee group to solidate activities of Korean members. Based on these analyses, we can hence support adminstratively Korean members to do faithfull reflection of Korean nuclear policy. In addition, a scheme for systematic management of the information should be drawn up for use of these information effectively for nuclear power projects, R and D, safety regulation, and establishment of nuclear policy in Korea

  4. Employing Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Co-Operative Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdana Habib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we work to develop a path planning solution for a group of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs using a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP approach. Co‐operation among team members not only helps reduce mission time, it makes the execution more robust in dynamic environments. However, the problem becomes more challenging as it requires optimal resource allocation and is NP‐hard. Since UAVs may be lost or may suffer significant damage during the course of the mission, plans may need to be modified in real‐time as the mission proceeds. Therefore, multiple UAVs have a better chance of completing a mission in the face of failures. Such military operations can be treated as a variant of the Multiple Depot Vehicle Routing Problem (MDVRP. The proposed solution must be such that m UAVs start from multiple source locations to visit n targets and return to a set of destination locations such that (1 each target is visited exactly by one of the chosen UAVs (2 the total distance travelled by the group is minimized and (3 the number of targets that each UAV visits may not be less than K or greater than L.

  5. Requirements and international co-operation in nuclear safety for evolutionary light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of safety are now well known and implemented world-wide, leading to a situation of harmonisation in accordance with the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Future reactors are expected not only to meet current requirements but to go beyond the safety level presently accepted. To this end, technical safety requirements, as defined by the IAEA document Safety Fundamentals, need be duly considered in the design, the risks to workers and population must be decreased, a stable, transparent and objective regulatory process, including an international harmonisation with respect to licensing of new reactors, must be developed, and the issue of public acceptance must be addressed. Well-performing existing installations are seen as a prerequisite for an improved public acceptability; there should be no major accidents, the results from safety performance indicators must be unquestionable, and compliance with internationally harmonised criteria is essential. Economical competitiveness is another factor that influences the acceptability; the costs for constructing the plant, for its operation and maintenance, for the fuel cycle, and for the final decommissioning are of paramount importance. Plant simplification, longer fuel cycles, life extension are appealing options, but safety will have first priority. The IAEA can play an important role in this field, by providing peer reviews by teams of international experts and assistance to Member States on the use of its safety standards. (author)

  6. MULTI-STAGES CO-OPERATIVE/NONCOOPERATIVE SCHEMES OF SPECTRUM SENSING FOR COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Mousa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Searching for spectrum holes in practical wireless channels where primary users experience multipath fading and shadowing, with noise uncertainty, limits the detection performance significantly. Moreover, the detection challenge will be tougher when different band types have to be sensed, with different signal and spectral characteristics, and probably overlapping spectra. Besides, primary user waveforms can be known (completely or partially or unknown to allow or forbid cognitive radios to use specific kinds of detection schemes! Hidden primary user’s problem, and doubly selective channel oblige the use of cooperative sensing to exploit the spatial diversity in the observations of spatially located cognitive radio users. Incorporated all the aforementioned practical challenges as a whole, this paper developed a new multistage detection scheme that intelligently decides the detection algorithm based on power, noise, bandwidth and knowledge of the signal of interest. The proposed scheme switches between individual and cooperative sensing and among featured based sensing techniques (cyclo-stationary detection and matched filter and sub-band energy detection according to the characteristics of signal and band of interest.Compared to the existing schemes, performance evaluations show reliable results in terms of probabilities of detection and mean sensing times under the aforementioned conditions.

  7. Proceedings of Conference of Ministers of Energy on co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference of the Ministers of Energy on Cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region held in Helsinki on 24-25 October has been regarded as a success. The European Commission and eleven countries adopted a communique that outlined goals for the regional energy sector, defined tasks for the cooperation for the next few years and decided how to organise the cooperation. In December 1999, the Energy Council discussed the Northern Dimension (ND) policy and the energy sector cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. The work in the energy sector was stated to be important for the whole EU, and the Commission was charged with the task of following the developments and reporting to the Council on the progress. The Foreign Ministers' Conference on the Northern Dimension, held in Helsinki on 11-12 November 1999, identified - in addition to the energy sector - also many other prioritised ND policy action fields, such as the forest sector, transportation systems, environmental challenges, the cooperation for new solutions of many social, health-related and administrative problems and research work, just to mention some sectors. The European Commission is preparing an action plan for the ND policy on the basis of the results of the Foreign Ministers' Conference and the Commission Communications on the ND policy activities. Energy cooperation will certainly have a central role in this action programme provided that the international political atmosphere gives the framework and support for further integration and cooperation in the region

  8. Fairness-Aware Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for AF Co-Operative OFDMA Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim

    2015-09-23

    In this paper, we adopt an energy-efficiency (EE) metric, named worst-EE, that is suitable for EE fairness optimization in the uplink transmission of amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. More specifically, we assign subcarriers and allocate powers for mobile and relay stations in order to maximize the worst-EE, i.e., to maximize the EE of the mobile station (MS) with the lowest EE value, subject to MSs transmit power, relay station (RS) transmit power, and MSs quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The formulated primal max-min optimization problem is nonconvex fractional mixed integer nonlinear program, i.e., NP-hard to solve. We provide a novel optimization framework that studies the structure of the primal problem and prove that the dual min-max optimization problem attains the same optimal solution of the primal problem. Additionally, we propose a modified Dinkelbach algorithm, named dual Dinkelbach, to achieve the optimal solution of the dual problem in a polynomial time complexity. We further exploit the structure of the obtained optimal solution and develop a low complexity suboptimal heuristic. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to improve the network performance in terms of fairness between MSs, worst-EE, and average network transmission rate when compared to traditional schemes that maximize the EE of the whole network. Presented results also show that the suboptimal heuristic balances the achieved performance and the computational complexity.

  9. The quality assurance topical report - International co-operation for manufacturing of nuclear packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper addresses the manufacturing quality assurance (QA) concerns associated with fabrication of radioactive material packaging in one country for use in another. A case study is discussed which shows a method of implementation that has been successfully practised for casks fabricated in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) for use in the USA. The casks utilized are the Castor series, which are fabricated in the FRG from ductile cast iron. Although international efforts have helped to standardize QA measures, detailed implementation can vary from country to country. A means of co-ordinating requirements between countries was required. The vehicle used to accomplish this was the Quality Assurance Topical Report (QATR), which is an administrative QA document that clearly defines the roles and responsibilities of all affected organizations. The close correlation of requirements is documented in the QATR. In addition, a programme is described which permits the USA competent authority to depend on the FRG authority for inspection and enforcement procedures. It is of great importance that the fabrication and inspection of any component important to safety be properly controlled and documented. The USA requirements for these QA measures are enforced by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Enforcement of applicable regulations in the FRG is the responsibility of the competent authority, Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung (BAM). As a part of the development of this QATR, NRC and BAM representatives met to establish a mutual understanding of QA. As a result, the QATR concept has been approved by both BAM and the NRC. A problem with manufacturing equipment in a foreign country is the need to periodically send company representatives to witness hold points and to review manufacturing records. The methods described in the QATR provide a practical and workable alternative by permitting the BAM to serve as the purchaser (or utility) agent. The utility is only required

  10. Baltic 21 - an exiting and concrete co-operation for sustainable development / Anna Carin Thomer, Sven Sjögren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thomer, Anna Carin

    2002-01-01

    Läänemere Agenda 21 koostööga on seotud 11 riiki, 30 aasta perspektiivis pürgitakse säästva arengu poole, hõlmates kaheksat valdkonda: põllumajandust, energeetikat, kalandust, metsandust, tööstust, turismi, transporti ja haridust

  11. Data for the Future: the German Project "Co-operative Development of a Long-term Digital Information Archive" (kopal)

    OpenAIRE

    Altenhöner, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    One of the open problems of the global information society is to ensure the long-term accessibility of digital documents. kopal tackles this problem head-on: In a three-year project, financially supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, kopal's objective is the practical testing and implementation of a cooperatively created and run long-term archival system for digital resources. The solution is based on DIAS (Digital Information and Archiving System), jointly devised by IB...

  12. Decision making and co-operation between stakeholders within the process of sick leave. A case study in a Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd;

    2011-01-01

    The study addresses how recent reforms of the Sickness Benefit Act in Denmark are put into practice. A single case study embedded with five subunits of analysis based on "real life" cases has been conducted in a Danish municipality. Five "sick-listed" citizens and their respective municipal case ...... by legal constraints and conflicting paradigms of key stakeholders. Rather than forcing co-operation, policymakers should increase the stakeholders' abilities and improve the conditions that create the low level of trust and hamper the willingness to co-operate....... manager and general practitioner (GP) were interviewed. Two key persons within the municipality were interviewed as background informants. The GPs and case managers ability to co-operate was hampered by lack of time, frequent staff turnover, lack of financial resources, and low accessibility....... The motivation for co-operation was low due to low status of social medical issues, lack of feedback and lack of trust. The co-operation was characterized by sequential task integration. The stakeholders encountered difficulties when reciprocal task integration was needed. The decision making was affected...

  13. Bilateral panophthalmitis in dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral panophthalmitis as the initial ocular manifestation of dengue fever. The diagnosis was a little confusing as he initially presented with features suggestive of retrobulbar hemorrhage secondary to his very low platelet count, which is a common feature of dengue fever. Ophthalmic complications are usually seen in young adults who often present at the nadir of thrombocytopenia. Ocular findings may include anterior uveitis, vitritis, retinal hemorrhages, retinal vascular sheathing, yellow subretinal dots, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling, foveolitis that is clinically seen as a round subretinal yellowish lesion at the fovea, retinochoroiditis, choroidal effusion, optic disc swelling, optic neuritis, neuroretinitis, and oculomotor nerve palsy. [1] There is only one reported case of unilateral endogenous panophthalmitis due to dengue fever. Hence, clinicians and ophthalmologists have to be aware of this vision-threatening complication of dengue for early recognition and prompt treatment to save the vision of these young patients and prevent morbidity.

  14. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  15. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  16. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Zampetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70% makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres.

  17. Opportunities and Threats of Ukrainian Membership in WTO for Engineering under Conditions of Co-operation with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers consequences of the membership of Ukraine in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for the engineering industry when co-operating with the EU and CU (Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia countries. It shows that, after Ukraine joined WTO, tariff rates for Ukrainian products reduced in general and liberalisation of access to the world market took place. Along with it, the internal market of Ukraine became more open for imported products. The article analyses the structure of export from Ukraine after joining WTO in the context of individual types of products. The article identifies changes that took place in the market of engineering products after Ukraine joined WTO. The article shows that by main indicators of economic security the engineering industry of Ukraine cannot be considered as stable and also that, after joining WTO, main indicators of economic security of the engineering industry of Ukraine have not improved. It analyses the structure of export and import of Ukrainian engineering products to EU, CU and other countries. It proves that the most topical for the Ukrainian engineering industry is the issue of realisation of the import-replacement potential and increase of competitiveness of domestic products. It considers the state and changes, which took place after Ukraine joined WTO, in car building. It identifies main problems of domestic car building. It analyses measures of the state programme of Ukraine on economic development.

  18. Bilateral Diabetic Knee Neuroarthropathy in a Forty-Year-Old Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallusser, Nicolas; Borens, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic osteoarthropathy is a rare cause of neuropathic joint disease of the knee; bilateral involvement is even more exceptional. Diagnosis is often made late due to its unspecific symptoms and appropriate surgical management still needs to be defined, due to lack of evidence because of the disease's low incidence. We report the case of a forty-year-old woman with history of diabetes type I who developed bilateral destructive Charcot knee arthropathy. Bilateral total knee arthroplasty was performed in order to achieve maximal functional outcome. Follow-up was marked by bilateral tibial periprosthetic fractures treated by osteosynthesis with a satisfactory outcome. The diagnosis of Charcot arthropathy should always be in mind when dealing with atraumatic joint destruction in diabetic patients. Arthroplasty should be considered as an alternative to arthrodesis in bilateral involvement in young patients. PMID:27668112

  19. Bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: Pros and cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Prajapati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the outcome of patients undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS. Methods: All patients who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for CS at the Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences hospital between 1991 and 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed to obtain patient characteristics and follow-up data. Results: Twenty-seven patients were studied. Mean age was 28.74 ± 12.95 years (range 9–60, male:female ratio was 1.7:1. About half that is, 48.19% were of Cushing's disease (failed trans-sphenoidal surgery [TSS], 37.04% were of ectopic CS (ECS, and 14.81% were of CS due to bilateral adrenal pathology. Median follow-up period was 80.5 months. Before surgery, 74.1% patients had body mass index > which after surgery declined to <25 in 75% of them. Hypertension was present in 85.2% and after surgery resolved in 40%. Diabetes mellitus was present in 44.4% and after surgery resolved in 33% of them. Hirsutism and proximal muscle weakness were present in 55.6% and 70.4% patients, respectively, and after surgery improved markedly in all patients. Adrenal crisis developed in 36.3% and Nelson's syndrome in 41.7% patients during follow-up. Three patients died in perioperative period while three succumbed to the disease during follow-up. Two patients developed recurrence of endogenous cortisol production during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Bilateral adrenalectomy is a valid treatment option for palliating severe symptoms in Pituitary Cushing's with failed TSS and unlocalized ECS but the procedure is curative for CS due to bilateral adrenal disease. Overall morbidity and mortality is higher than other endocrine operations. Co-morbidities tend to be more severe and are a risk factor for mortality during the time patient survives.

  20. Note: Unshielded bilateral magnetoencephalography system using two-dimensional gradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yusuke; Kandori, Akihiko; Ogata, Kuniomi; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Yukio; Ohnuma, Mitsuru; Konaka, Kuni; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2010-09-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) noninvasively measures neuronal activity with high temporal resolution. The aim of this study was to develop a new type of MEG system that can measure bilateral MEG waveforms without a magnetically shielded room, which is an obstacle to reducing both the cost and size of an MEG system. An unshielded bilateral MEG system was developed using four two-dimensional (2D) gradiometers and two symmetric cryostats. The 2D gradiometer, which is based on a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device and wire-wound pickup coil detects a magnetic-field gradient in two orthogonal directions, or ∂/∂x(∂2Bz/∂z2), and reduces environmental magnetic-field noise by more than 50 dB. The cryostats can be symmetrically positioned in three directions: vertical, horizontal, and rotational. This makes it possible to detect bilateral neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex simultaneously. Bilateral auditory-evoked fields (AEF) of 18 elderly subjects were measured in an unshielded hospital environment using the MEG system. As a result, both the ipsilateral and the contralateral AEF component N100m, which is the magnetic counterpart of electric N100 in electroencephalography and appears about 100 ms after the onset of an auditory stimulus, were successfully detected for all the subjects. Moreover, the ipsilateral P50m and the contralateral P50m were also detected for 12 (67%) and 16 (89%) subjects, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the unshielded bilateral MEG system can detect MEG waveforms, which are associated with brain dysfunction such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Down syndrome.

  1. Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma and on exploration it turned out to be rarest extra peritoneal bilateral Petit’s trianglehernia, fat as contents.

  2. Metachronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metachronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors is a rare known problem. However, no report of metachronus bilateralism was identified in the PubMed database published from India so far, where testicular cancer is relatively rare. We report the cases of two gentlemen. One had stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT at the age of 32 in 1990 and developed marker relapse on surveillance and had chemotherapy using cisplatin and etoposide for four cycles. He developed contralateral seminoma in the testis 13 years later. Another patient had left orchidectomy in 2003 for NSGCT, had adjuvant BEP for two cycles, and developed a contralateral testicular tumor 5 years later, which was also seminoma. As more patients with germ cell tumors are cured with chemotherapy, long-term problems become important. Contralateral testicular tumor is one of them. As it can be very late, many years of continued follow-up examination and patients′ awareness are necessary.

  3. Bilateral areolar and periareolar pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárdy, Miklós; Korting, Hans Christian; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolff, Hans

    2010-08-01

    An adolescent boy presented with isolated, symmetrical, bilateral areolar and periareolar pityriasis versicolor. This extremely rare condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of light brown patches on the areolae.

  4. FLOWING BILATERAL FILTER: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Moreaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral filter plays a key role in image processing applications due to its intuitive parameterization and its high quality filter result, smoothing homogeneous regions while preserving the edges of the objects. Considering the image as a topological relief, seeing pixel intensities as peaks and valleys, we introduce a way to control the tonal weighting coefficients, the flowing bilateral filter, reducing "halo" artifacts typically produced by the regular bilateral filter around a large peak surrounded by two valleys of lower values. In this paper we propose to investigate exact and approximated versions of CPU and parallel GPU (Graphical Processing Unit based implementations of the regular and flowing bilateral filter using the NVidia CUDA API. Fast implementations of these filters are important for the processing of large 3D volumes up to several GB acquired by x-ray or electron tomography.

  5. An unusual cause of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, A; Kalra, S.; Woodcock, A

    1992-01-01

    In a patient who had a sudden onset of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after forceful neck manipulation complete, though gradual, recovery in lung function and transdiaphragmatic pressures was seen over three years. This is a previously unrecognised risk of neck osteopathy.

  6. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Geetha; Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V

    2016-04-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  7. Bilateral anophthalmia with septo-optic dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral anophthalmia is a rare entity and association with septo-optic dysplasia is an even rare condition. The condition is characterized by absent eyeballs in the presence of eyelids, conjunctiva or lacrimal apparatus. Though anophthalmia can be diagnosed clinically, imaging plays a crucial role in delineating the associated anomalies. In addition, often clinical anophthalmia may prove to be severe microphthalmia on imaging. We describe the imaging findings in an infant with bilateral anophthalmia and septo-optic dysplasia.

  8. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  9. Bilateral Keratectasia 34 Years after Corneal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Valldeperas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 µm in the right eye and of 710 µm in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 µm in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus.

  10. A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between Energy Deprivation and Glutamate Release From System xc- Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Trista L; He, Yan; Jackman, Nicole A; Lobner, Doug; Hewett, James A; Hewett, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc(-)) contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc(-) expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes--either cultured alone or with neurons--to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between energy deprivation and glutamate release from astrocyte system xc(-) mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death.

  11. A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between Energy Deprivation and Glutamate Release From System xc− Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trista L. Thorn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc− contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc− expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes—either cultured alone or with neurons—to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between energy deprivation and glutamate release from astrocyte system xc− mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death.

  12. Bilateral Keratoconus and Corneal Hydrops Associated with Eye Rubbing in a 7-year-old Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud-Reza Panahi-Bazaz; Farideh Sharifipour; Alireza Moghaddasi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report a young child with bilateral keratoconus in the context of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) who developed bilateral corneal hydrops associated with eye rubbing, and to discuss the pathogenesis and review the pertinent literature. Case Report: A seven-year-old girl with VKC and asymmetric keratoconus developed corneal hydrops due to habitual eye rubbing. Corneal edema subsided within 16 weeks in her right eye and 9 weeks in the left eye with subsequent corneal scarring....

  13. Systemic Weber-Christian disease with reversible bilateral ureteric obstruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Brawn, L. A.; Ramsay, L E; Shortland, J R; Williams, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    It has been proposed that idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis may be a consequence of 'healed' retroperitoneal lesions of systemic Weber-Christian disease. However ureteric obstruction which is the hallmark of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, has not been described in systemic Weber-Christian disease. We report a patient with systemic Weber-Christian disease who, during a relapse, developed bilateral ureteric obstruction which resolved when the Weber-Christian disease remitted. The radiol...

  14. Bilateral Coats' Disease Combined with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Gursoy; Nazmiye Erol; Mustafa Deger Bilgec; Hikmet Basmak; Ozden Kutlay; Huseyin Aslan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of bilateral Coats’ disease combined with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Case. Retinal vascularization was complete in the right eye, whereas zone III, stage 3 ROP and preplus disease were observed in the left eye at 43 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) in a 31-week premature, 1200-g neonate. Intraretinal exudates developed and retinal hemorrhages increased in the left eye at 51 weeks of PMA. Diode laser photocoagulation (LP) was applied to the left eye. Exudates i...

  15. Bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma after dexfenfluramine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, P; Charpentier, D; Berros, P; Touameur, S

    1995-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with narrow angles who had an attack of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma precipitated by dexfenfluramine, a serotoninergic drug developed for appetite suppression. Although the exact mechanism remains uncertain, the pupillary block observed in our case may be the result of the serotoninergic or indirect parasympatholytic properties of the drug on the iris sphincter muscle. Serotonergic psychoactive drugs should be prescribed cautiously in patients with known narrow angles and should be monitored by an ophthalmologist.

  16. Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome associated with interleukin 2 therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Heys, S. D.; Mills, K. L.; Eremin, O.

    1992-01-01

    We report the development of synchronous bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a woman with metastatic colorectal cancer, undergoing treatment with recombinant interleukin 2. A carpal tunnel decompression was carried out on the hand which was more severely affected, with a gradual recovery in median nerve function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of carpal tunnel syndrome in association with recombinant interleukin 2.

  17. Primary bilateral adrenal intravascular large B-cell lymphoma associated with adrenal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Ayumi; Okada, Yosuke; Tanikawa, Takahisa; Onaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Aya; Higashi, Takehiro; Tsukada, Junichi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2003-07-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with adrenal failure. A 66-year-old woman developed symptoms of adrenal failure. The cause of adrenal failure was suspected to be malignant lymphoma based on the high levels of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor and LDH. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed and pathological examination showed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Although complete remission was achieved, recurrence occurred three months later with brain metastases. IVL should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal tumors who present with rapidly progressive adrenal failure.

  18. Advanced research workshop "South Caucasus : making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Leedu Kaitseministeeriumi poolt 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses korraldatud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" arutati, kas ja kuidas on Lõuna-Kaukaasia regioonis võimalik rakendada Balti riikide julgeolekualase koostöö kogemusi

  19. The Text of the Agreement of 20 August 1984 Extending the Asian Regional Co-Operative Project on Food Irradiation. Additional acceptance of the Second Extension Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A notification of acceptance of the Second Agreement to Extend the Agreement Establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation by the Governments of Sri Lanka was received by the Agency on 28 October 1985. Pursuant to Article II, paragraph 2, the Second Extension Agreement consequently entered into force on that date with respect to the Government of Sri Lanka

  20. The Text of the Agreement of 20 August 1984 Extending the Asian Regional Co-Operative Project on Food Irradiation. Additional acceptance of the Second Extension Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A notification of acceptance of the Second Agreement to Extend the Agreement Establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation by the Governments of the Philippines was received by the Agency on 25 September 1985. Pursuant to Article II, paragraph 2, the Second Extension Agreement consequently entered into force on that date with respect to the Government of the Philippines

  1. Managing the Co-operation-Competition Dilemma in R&D Alliances : A Multiple Case Study in the Advanced Materials Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, Dries; Janssens, Maddy; Van Looy, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Generating value in R&D alliances requires intensive and fine-grained interaction between collaborating partners. At the same time, more intensive co-operation increases the risk of competitive abuse of the R&D alliance by one or more partners. In this study, we explore how managers address the fund

  2. Experience with WASP among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains the proceedings and the 15 papers presented during the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) Workshop on the WASP Computer Program held in Jakarta, Indonesia, 7-11 December 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. 中小企业联合采购机制的经济分析%The Economic Analysis of SMEs’ Co-operative Purchase System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓蕾

    2012-01-01

      联合采购机制的推行能够有效降低中小企业的采购成本。研究表明,无论是对企业的利润水平,还是对社会总福利水平而言,联合采购都有着积极的促进意义。松散型联合采购方式(LCP)更能在企业充分竞争与合作的基础上获得利润与社会福利水平的提高,而协调成本构成了制约企业联合采购的重要因素。%  Co-operative purchase system could lower the cost for SMEs. The result showed that co-operative purchase would make a positive promotion to the profit of enterprises and the social welfare;Loose Co-operative Purchase (LCP) could make great profits and welfares based on the sufficient competition and cooperative;and the coordinative cost was the important restricting factor for co-operative purchase.

  4. ARCAL. Regional co-operative arrangements for the promotion of nuclear science and technology in Latin America, Phase I (1985-1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regional Co-operative Arrangement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America, ARCAL, has completed its first five-year phase (1985-1989). This booklet summarizes the first phase of the ARCAL programme and contains descriptions of projects in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry and energy

  5. Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament: MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoya, Maria A.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McGraw, Michael H. [Hospitalof theUniversityof Pennsylvania, Divisionof Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare. We describe a 13-year-old girl who presented with bilateral knee pain without history of trauma; she has two family members with knee instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral absence of the ACL, and medial posterior horn meniscal tears. Bilateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed. (orig.)

  6. Bilateral Psoas Haematomata Complicating Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Akoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The challenge in managing patients undergoing renal transplantation is how to achieve optimum levels of anticoagulation to avoid both clotting and postoperative bleeding. We report a rare case of severe postoperative retroperitoneal bleeding including psoas haematomata complicating renal transplantation. Case Report. SM, a 55-year-old female, had a past history of aortic valve replacement, cerebrovascular event, and thoracic aortic aneurysm and was on long-term warfarin that was switched to enoxaparin 60 mg daily a week prior to her living donor transplantation. Postoperatively, she was started on a heparin infusion, but this was complicated by a large retroperitoneal bleed requiring surgical evacuation on the first postoperative day. Four weeks later, she developed features compatible with acute femoral neuropathy and a CT scan revealed bilateral psoas haematomata. Following conservative management, she made steady progress and was discharged home via a community hospital 94 days after transplantation. At her last visit 18 months after transplantation, she had returned to full fitness with excellent transplant function. Conclusion. Patients in established renal failure who require significant anticoagulation are at increased risk of bleeding that may involve prolonged hospitalisation and more protracted recovery and patients should be carefully counselled about this.

  7. Status report: Los Alamos-EIR co-operative work in the field of 'Nucleonics and Particle Transport in Fusion Reactors' for the period 1.7.1984 - 30.6.1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second Status Report under a co-operation agreement between Los Alamos National Laboratory and EIR in the field of 'Nucleonics and Particle Transport in Fusion Reactors', covering the period 1 July 1984 to 30 June 1986. Reported is research and development progress in several areas, including deterministic transport methods (TRISM code), stochastic transport methods (MCNP code), and cross-section processing technology (NJOY and TRANSX-CTR codes). Also, capabilities for the analysis of the lithium breeding module (LBM) experiments at the LOTUS facility are discussed. Most effort during this reporting period was devoted to the development of a compatible production version of TRISM at both institutes (including a code users' workshop), to analysis of LBM experiments, to the development of an unresolved resonance treatment in MCNP, to the development of new modules for NJOY, and to the generation of new neutron and photon cross-section libraries. (author)

  8. Bilaterally impacted mandibular supernumerary premolars associated with unusual clinical complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameer Pasha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are extra teeth in comparison to the normal dentition. Their prevalence varies between 0.1% and 3.8%. Supernumeraries are more common in permanent dentition and its incidence is higher in maxillary incisor region, followed by maxillary third molar and mandibular molar, premolar, canine, and lateral incisor. The prevalence of supernumerary premolars is between 0.075-0.26%, and they may occur in single or multiple numbers Bilateral occurrence is uncommon and large percentage of supernumerary premolars remains impacted, unerupted, and usually asymptomatic; radiograph plays an important role in diagnosis of these. The present paper reports a case of bilaterally impacted completely developed supernumerary premolars associated with common clinical complication in unusual manner along with taurodontism of the upper and lower molars.

  9. Bilaterally impacted mandibular supernumerary premolars associated with unusual clinical complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Zameer; Choudhari, Sameer; Rathod, Azhar; Sulabha, A N

    2013-04-01

    Supernumerary teeth are extra teeth in comparison to the normal dentition. Their prevalence varies between 0.1% and 3.8%. Supernumeraries are more common in permanent dentition and its incidence is higher in maxillary incisor region, followed by maxillary third molar and mandibular molar, premolar, canine, and lateral incisor. The prevalence of supernumerary premolars is between 0.075-0.26%, and they may occur in single or multiple numbers Bilateral occurrence is uncommon and large percentage of supernumerary premolars remains impacted, unerupted, and usually asymptomatic; radiograph plays an important role in diagnosis of these. The present paper reports a case of bilaterally impacted completely developed supernumerary premolars associated with common clinical complication in unusual manner along with taurodontism of the upper and lower molars. PMID:23833524

  10. Bilateral dystonia in type 1 diabetes: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhara Akihiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diabetic hemichorea-hemiballismus is a rare complication of type 2 diabetes. Here, we report a case with type 1 diabetes, with hemichorea and bilateral dystonia manifested as hyperglycemia-induced involuntary movement. Case presentation A 62-year-old Japanese women with body weight loss of 30 kg during the past year developed symptoms of thirst, polydipsia and polyuria. She also presented with hemichorea and bilateral dystonia for 5 days and extremely high plasma glucose (774 mg/dl, hemoglobin A1c (21.2% and glycated albumin (100% with ketosis. Based on the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (18,000 U/ml; normal Conclusion Hyperglycemia-induced involuntary movement is one of the manifestations of dystonia and hemichorea-hemiballism.

  11. Water balance and fertigation for crop improvement in West Asia. Results of a technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean countries have a severe shortage of water resources for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes. This situation is aggravated daily due to the rapidly increasing population in the area. Agriculture is the biggest consumer of water with about 80% of the renewable resource used for irrigation. Traditional irrigation methods are highly inefficient: only about one-third of the applied water is actually transpired by the crops. Clearly, there is great scope for improved irrigation management. Intensification of agricultural production to meet growing market demand requires the simultaneous application of irrigation water and fertilizers. Application of fertilizer in drip irrigation (fertigation) is an effective way to promote efficient use of these scarce and expensive resources. There is widespread interest in Mediterranean countries in fertigation. Nevertheless, information on the form and concentration of the nutrients required for different crops is presently inadequate. Moreover, the low fertilizer recoveries due to extensive fertilization practiced during the last few decades have created serious agricultural and environmental problems. High nitrate concentrations in groundwater and deterioration of some important quality parameters of agricultural products are the main concerns. Recognizing the potential role of nuclear techniques in identifying improved water and fertilizer management practices, the IAEA implemented two regional technical co-operation projects during the period 1995-2000 with eight participating countries from the West Asia region: The Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, the Syria Arab Republic, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The main objective was to establish water balance and fertigation practices using nuclear techniques, with a view to improving crop production in arid and semi-arid zones. The projects aimed to compare the following parameters under conventional fertilizer and water

  12. Directed evolution of Tau class glutathione transferases reveals a site that regulates catalytic efficiency and masks co-operativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axarli, Irine; Muleta, Abdi W; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia; Kotzia, Georgia; Maltezos, Anastasios; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2016-03-01

    A library of Tau class GSTs (glutathione transferases) was constructed by DNA shuffling using the DNA encoding the Glycine max GSTs GmGSTU2-2, GmGSTU4-4 and GmGSTU10-10. The parental GSTs are >88% identical at the sequence level; however, their specificity varies towards different substrates. The DNA library contained chimaeric structures of alternated segments of the parental sequences and point mutations. Chimaeric GST sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli and their enzymatic activities towards CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and the herbicide fluorodifen (4-nitrophenyl α,α,α-trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tolyl ether) were determined. A chimaeric clone (Sh14) with enhanced CDNB- and fluorodifen-detoxifying activities, and unusual co-operative kinetics towards CDNB and fluorodifen, but not towards GSH, was identified. The structure of Sh14 was determined at 1.75 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution in complex with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione. Analysis of the Sh14 structure showed that a W114C point mutation is responsible for the altered kinetic properties. This was confirmed by the kinetic properties of the Sh14 C114W mutant. It is suggested that the replacement of the bulky tryptophan residue by a smaller amino acid (cysteine) results in conformational changes of the active-site cavity, leading to enhanced catalytic activity of Sh14. Moreover, the structural changes allow the strengthening of the two salt bridges between Glu(66) and Lys(104) at the dimer interface that triggers an allosteric effect and the communication between the hydrophobic sites.

  13. Pastures, calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Kumpula

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climatic and density-dependent factors on calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves were studied between the years 1965-87 in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland (67°50´N. The Oraniemi area is divided into five pasture regions, in which the annual home range of the reindeer varied from 300 to 600 km2. The more than trebled reindeer density over the period 1965-87 in Oraniemi had no detrimental effect on calf production (range 15-74 calves/100 females, nor on the mean carcass weight of the calves in 1974-87 (range 16.8-23.2 kg. The annual variations in calf% were explained best by snow conditions during the previous winter and spring and their effects on the nutritional status of the females. The carcass weights of the calves were greater following a warm, rainy May and lower following a warm, rainy June and July. The weather in spring affects the emergence of green vegetation, which is reflected in the condition of females and their milk production, while the weather in early and mid-supper probably affects the quantities of blood-sucking insects and their activity. Carcass weights upon slaughtering rose from September to the beginning of December but then fell quickly. The differences in reindeer densities between the five pasture regions was not reflected in the calf% over the period 1984-87, but the carcass weights of calves were lower following high densities in the pasture regions, especially in the winter pastures.

  14. Effect of Oral Midazolam Premedication on Children’s Co-operation Before General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Kaviani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Premedication is expedient in reducing the psychological trauma from recalling the unpleasant pre-anesthetic phases, hence, inducing a trouble-free anesthesia. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral midazolam in co-operation of the subjects before general anesthesia and in recalling the pre-anesthetic phases, performed on children candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia. Materials and Method: In this prospective clinical trial study, 62 healthy non-cooperative children, candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into study and control groups. The children received 20ml orange juice, 20 minutes before starting the anesthesia. The juice of the test group contained 0.5mg/kg of midazolam and that of the control group included no medication. The induction and the maintenance process of anesthesia were similar in both groups. The manner of subjects when separated from parents, their cooperation during intravenous catheterization, and recalling the pre-anesthetic events were recorded. Data were analyzed by adopting chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Most of the children in the test group had a comfortable separation from parents, restful IV catheterization and 90% of the subjects did not recall the pre-anesthetic events. Conclusion: Under the circumstances of this study, it could be concluded that 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam premedication is effective for comfortable separation of children from parents and restful IV catheterization and also forgetting the pre-anesthetic events.

  15. Bilateral ovarian cystic teratomata mimicking bilateral pure ovarian hemangiomata: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, I M; Aronson, B L; McCarthy, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral, benign cystic ovarian teratomata which were composed predominantly of cavernous hemangiomatous elements. The right-sided lesion, in particular, mimicked a pure ovarian hemangioma. The clinical presentation, bilaterality of the lesions, the sizes of the hemangiomata, and the subsequent hemangioma of the leg are all of interest in this very rare lesion. PMID:6511164

  16. Co-operativity among defect sites in AnO2+ and An4O9 (An = U, Np or Pu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Anders David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lezama Pacheco, Juan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conradson, Steven D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Actinide dioxides derived from the AnO{sub 2} fluorite lattice are of high technological relevance due to their application in nuclear reactor fuels. Oxidation of AnO{sub 2} compounds emerges as a central theme in fuel fabrication, reactor operation, long-term storage forms for both spent fuels and surplus weapons materials, and environmental actinide migration. In this paper, we use density functional theory calculations to study the oxidation of uranium, neptunium and plutonium dioxides, AnO{sub 2} (An = U, Np or Pu), in O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environments. We pay particular attention to the formation of oxygen clusters (co-operativity) in AnO{sub 2+x} and how this phenomenon govern oxidation thermodynamics and the development of ordered An{sub 4}O{sub 9} compounds. The so-called split di-interstitial, which is composed of two nearest neighbor octahedral oxygen interstitials that are distorted in such a way that they dislocate one regular fluorite lattice oxygen ion to form a cluster of triangular geometry, is predicted to be the fundamental building block of the most stable cluster configurations. We also identify how the formation of oxygen defect clusters and the degree of oxidation in AnO{sub 2+x} are both governed by the characer of the An-5f to excess O-2p charger transfer, i.e. the charge transfer to the O-2p orbitals of the interstitial-like (+x) ions, and the ability of the excess O-2p orbitals to hybridize with regular fluorite lattice ions.

  17. Chronic Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures with Valgus Treated with Bilateral Intramedullary Nailing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K Dailey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress fractures are overuse injuries most commonly seen in athletes, military recruits, and individuals with endocrine abnormalities. It has been demonstrated that chronic cases of anterior tibial stress fractures refractory to conservative management respond well to intramedullary nailing. To our knowledge, only one report has been published concerning patients with bilateral tibial stress fractures treated with bilateral intramedullary nailing. All patients in the series were high-level athletes. We present the case of a non-athletic patient with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures and associated deformity successfully treated with bilateral intramedullary nails. Case Report: A 23-year-old Caucasian female full-time student presented with chronic bilateral shin pain for approximately five years. She had failed an extensive regimen of conservative management. She was diagnosed with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures based on history, physical examination, and radiologic findings. She subsequently underwent sequential intramedullary nailing of her tibiae. Both tibiae were in valgus alignment; however, this did not preclude nail placement. The nails deformed upon insertion into the sclerotic canals to conform to the deformation. Post operatively the tibiae united and patient was relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion: Bilateral intramedullary nailing of chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures should be considered as a treatment option for all patients, not just high-level athletes, who fail a trial of conservative management. Additionally, mild to moderate tibial malalignment does not necessarily preclude tibial nailing as the smaller nails placed in sclerotic canals will likely deform on insertion and conform to the canal. Keywords: Bilateral intramedullary nailing, bilateral tibial stress fractures, valgus

  18. Bilateral Versus Unilateral Cochlear Implants in Children: A Study of Spoken Language Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sarant, Julia; Harris, David; Bennet, Lisa; Bant, Sharyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Although it has been established that bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) offer additional speech perception and localization benefits to many children with severe to profound hearing loss, whether these improved perceptual abilities facilitate significantly better language development has not yet been clearly established. The aims of this study were to compare language abilities of children having unilateral and bilateral CIs to quantify the rate of any improvement in language attr...

  19. A case report of bilateral post irradiation femoral neck fractures with complicated clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 65-year-old female patient had bilateral femoral neck fractures 2 years after radiotherapy with 6,000 rad of 60Co following radical surgery for cancer of the uterine cervix. She had replacement of bilateral artificial femoral necks. Since she developed infection in the deep site complicated by central dislocation one year and a half after replacement, the artificial necks were removed. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Minocycline-induced pneumonitis with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Bando, Takuma; Fujimura, Masaki; Noda, Yatsugi; Hirose, Jinichiro; Ohta, Goroku; Matsuda, Tamotsu

    1994-01-01

    A 65-year-old man developed respiratory failure with diffuse interstitial shadow, bilateral pleural effusion, and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray and CT, after intravenous administration of minocycline. Corticosteroid therapy was effective. The findings from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAE) and transbronchial lung biopsy were compatible with eosinophilic pneumonia. Provocation test supported this diagnosis, but the lymphocyte stimulation test was negative. A review of the literatur...