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Sample records for bikini

  1. Bikini Atoll groundwater development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear weapons testing during the 1950's has left the soil and ground water on Bikini Atoll contaminated with cesium-137, and to a lesser extent, strontium-90. Plans currently are underway for the clean-up and resettlement of the atoll by removal of approximately the upper 30 cm of soil. Any large-scale resettlement program must include provisions for water supply. This will be achieved principally by catchment and storage of rain water, however, since rainfall in Bikini is highly seasonal and droughts occur frequently, ground water development must also be considered. The quantity of potable ground water that can be developed is limited by its salinity and radiological quality. The few ground water samples available from Bikini, which have been collected from only about the top meter of the groundwater body, indicate that small bodies of potable ground water exist on Bikini and Eneu, the two principal living islands, but that cesium and strontium in the Bikioni ground water exceed drinking water standards. In order to make a reasonable estimate of the ground water development potential for the atoll, some 40 test boreholes will be drilled during July/August 1985, and a program of water quality monitoring initiated. This paper will describe preliminary results of the drilling and monitoring work

  2. Dose assessment at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Phillips, W.A.; Colsher, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    Bikini Atoll is one of two sites in the northern Marshall Islands that was used by the United States as testing grounds for the nuclear weapons program from 1946 to 1958. In 1969 a general cleanup began at Bikini Atoll. Subsistence crops, coconut and Pandanus fruit, were planted on Bikini and Eneu Islands, and housing was constructed on Bikini Island. A second phase of housing was planned for the interior of Bikini Island. Preliminary data indicated that external gamma doses in the interior of the island might be higher than in other parts of the island. Therefore, to select a second site for housing on the island with minimum external exposure, a survey of Bikini Atoll was conducted in June 1975. External gamma measurements were made on Bikini and Eneu Islands, and soil and vegetations samples collected to evaluate the potential doses via terrestrial food chains and inhalation. Estimates of potential dose via the marine food chain were based upon data collected on previous trips to the atoll. The terrestrial pathway contributes the greater percentage, external gamma exposure contributes the next highest, and inhalation and marine pathways contribute minor fractions of the total whole body and bone marrow doses. The radionuclides contributing the major fraction of the dose are 90 Sr and 137 Cs. All living patterns involving Bikini Island exceed federal guidelines for 30-yr population doses. The Eneu Island living pattern leads to doses that are slightly less than federal guidelines. All patterns evaluated for Bikini Atoll lead to higher doses than those on the southern islands at Enewetak Atoll

  3. Resuspension studies at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.; Robison, W.L.

    1980-02-01

    The following experiments were conducted on Bikini Atoll to provide key parameters for an assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: (1) a characterization of background (plutonium activity, dust, plutonium, sea spray, and organic aerosol concentrations); (2) a study of plutonium resuspension from a bare field; (3) a study of plutonium resuspension by traffic; and (4) a study of personal inhalation exposure. Dust concentrations of 21 μg m -3 and sea spray of 34 μg m -3 were the background throughout the Bikini Island except within 50 m of the windward beach. Background concentrations of 239+240 Pu were 60 aCi m -3 in the coconut grove and 264 aCi m -3 over rain-stabilized bare soil. The ratio of plutonium activity in aerosols relative to the activity in underlying soil, defined as the enhancement factor, EF, was typically less than one. Enhancement factors increased about 3.8 as a result of tilling. Plutonium resuspension flux was estimated at 0.49 pCi m -2 year -1 over most of Bikini Island. Aerosol size distributions associated with mass and with plutonium activity were typically log-normal with median aerodynamic diameter 2.44 μm, which decreased to 2.0 μm above freshly tilled soil. The Pu concentration in aerosols collected over disturbed soil increased by a factor of 19.1. Vehicular traffic produced dust pulses typically of 10 s duration, 28 μg m -3 average concentration, and plutonium enhancement factor 2.5. Personal dosimetry showed that enhancement of dust by a worker was a factor of 2.64 for heavy work outdoors and 1.86 for light work in and around houses. Pulmonary deposition of plutonium was calculated for various exposure conditions. The pulmonary deposition ranged from 1476 aCi h -1 to 12 aCi h -1

  4. External exposure measurements at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Lessard, E.T.

    1979-01-01

    External exposure rate surveys from 1975 to 1977 on the islands Nam, Eneu and Bikini of Bikini Atoll gave average external exposure rates of 24, 5.7, and 32 μR/hr respectively. The exposure rate on Eneu Island is uniform, whereas those on Bikini and Nam range from 7.0 to 80. μR/hr. Based on an assumed living pattern at Bikini Island, the adult male Bikinian is estimated to be in the presence of an external radiation field corresponding to 16 μR/hr due to debris and fallout from the 1954 BRAVO incident. This corresponds to a 30 year dose equivalent of 2.8 rem

  5. I on sozdal bikini / Irina Kuzina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuzina, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Bikiinide ajaloost aastast 1946 kuni tänapäevani. 5. juulil 1946 demonstreeris disainer Louis Reard uut supelkostüümi Pariisis. Kostüüm sai nime Bikini atolli järgi, kus USA oli nädal varem katsetanud tuumapommi

  6. Radiochemical analysis of the Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, M; Shigematsu, T; Ishida, T

    1954-01-01

    The following nuclides were detected in the Bikini ashes by radiochemical procedures: /sup 45/Ca, /sup 89/Sr, /sup 91/Y, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 144/Pr, and /sup 237/U. The ion-exchange method was used for analysis of contaminated rain water which fell on the Kyoto area on May 16, 1954 from which the presence of /sup 89/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 140/Ba, was detected. Rare earths seemed also to be present.

  7. Analytical program: 1975 Bikini radiological survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.E.; Robison, W.L.; Thompson, S.E.; Hamby, K.O.; Prindle, A.L.; Levy, H.B.

    1976-01-01

    The analytical program for samples of soil, vegetation, and animal tissue collected during the June 1975 field survey of Bikini and Eneu islands is described. The phases of this program are discussed in chronological order: initial processing of samples, gamma spectrometry, and wet chemistry. Included are discussions of quality control programs, reproducibility of measurements, and comparisons of gamma spectrometry with wet chemistry determinations of 241 Am. Wet chemistry results are used to examine differences in Pu:Am ratios and Pu-isotope ratios as a function of the type of sample and the location where samples were collected

  8. Updated radiological dose assessment of Bikini and Eneu Islands at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Mount, M.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Stuart, M.L.; Thompson, S.E.; Conrado, C.L.; Stoker, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report is part of a continuing effort to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Radionuclide concentration data developed at Bikini Atoll since 1977 have been used in conjunction with recent dietary information and current dose models to develop the annual dose rate and 30- and 50-y integral doses presented here for Bikini and Eneu Island living patterns. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant exposure pathway--it contributes more than 50% of the total dose--and external gamma exposure is the second most significant pathway. Other pathways evaluated are the marine food chain, drinking water, and inhalation. Cesium-137 produces more than 85% of the predicted dose; 90 Sr is the second most significant radionuclide; 60 Co contributes to the external gamma exposure in varying degrees, but is a small part of the total predicted dose; the transuranic radionuclides contribute a small portion of the total predicted lung and bone doses but do present a long-term source of exposure. Maximum annual dose rates for Bikini Island are about 1 rem/y for the whole body and bone marrow when imported foods are available and about 1.9 rem/y when imports are unavailable. Maximum annual dose rates for Eneu Island when imports are available are 130 mrem/y for the whole body and 136 mrem/y for bone marrow. Similar doses when imported foods are unavailable are 245 and 263 mrem/y, respectively. The 30-y integral doses for Bikini Island are about 23 rem for whole body and bone marrow when imported foods are available and more than 40 rem when imports are unavailable. The Eneu Island 30-y integral doses for whole body and bone marrow are about 3 rem when imports are available and 5.5 and 6.1 rem, respectively, when imports are unavailable. Doses from living patterns involving some combination of Bikini and Eneu Islands fall between the doses listed above for each island separately

  9. Geochemistry of transuranic elements at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Lowman, F.G.; Marshall, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of transuranic and other radionuclides in the marine environment at Bikini Atoll was studied to better understand the geochemical cycling of radionuclides produced by nuclear testing between 1946 and 1958. The reef areas, which are washed continually by clean ocean water, have low levels of radionuclide concentrations. Radionuclides are contained in fallout particles of pulverized coral. In the water these particles may dissolve, be transported by currents within the Atoll, or enter the North Equatorial Current by tidal exchange of water in the lagoon. The transuranic elements are distributed widely in sediments over the northwest quadrant of the Atoll, which suggests that this area serves as a settling basin for particles. The distribution of plutonium in the water column indicates that plutonium in the sediments is released to the bottom waters and then is transported and diluted by the prevailing currents. Upon interaction with the lagoon environment, plutonium occurs in several physicochemical states. Laboratory tests and field studies at Bikini show that approximately 15% of the plutonium is associated with the colloidal fraction

  10. Review at Bikini Atoll. Assessing radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll and the prospects for resettlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.

    1998-01-01

    Some testing during the development of the atomic bomb was done in countries that do not have the infrastructure and expertise for evaluating any associated radiation risks. In such cases, outside expertise is needed to obtain independent advice about the radiological situation caused by residual radioactive material from nuclear testing. The IAEA has been requested by the governments of a number of its Member States to provide assistance in this context. Among the former nuclear test sites which the IAEA has reviewed is the Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. Based on its review, the IAEA Advisory Group determined that no further corroboration of the measurements and assessments of the radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll is necessary. The data that have been collected are of sufficient quality to allow an appropriate evaluation to be performed. The limited IAEA monitoring of the area provided a good quality assurance verification of the previously collected data. It was recommended that Bikini Island should not be permanently resettled under the present radiological conditions. This recommendation was based on the assumption that persons resettling on the island would consume a diet of entirely locally produced food. The radiological data support that if a diet of this type were permitted, it could lead to an annual effective dose of about 15 mSv. This level was judged to require intervention of some type for radiation protection purposes

  11. Resettlement of Bikini Atoll U.S. Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Stuart, M.L.; Stoker, A.C.; Hamilton, T.F.

    1999-01-01

    The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. Several atolls, including Bikini, were contaminated as a result of the nuclear detonations. Since 1974 the authors have conducted an extensive research and monitoring program to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls, identify the critical radionuclides and pathways, estimate the radiological dose to current or resettling populations, and develop remedial measures to reduce the dose to atoll populations. This paper describes exposure pathways and radionuclides; composition of atoll soils; radionuclide transport and dose estimates; remedial measures; and reduction in dose from a combined option

  12. Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Zoe T.; Beger, Maria; Pinca, Silvia; Wallace, Carden C.

    2008-01-01

    Five decades after a series of nuclear tests began, we provide evidence that 70% of the Bikini Atoll zooxanthellate coral assemblage is resilient to large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Species composition in 2002 was assessed and compared to that seen prior to nuclear testing. A total of 183 scleractinian coral species was recorded, compared to 126 species recorded in the previous study (excluding synonomies, 148 including synonomies). We found that 42 coral species may be locally extinct at Bikini. Fourteen of these losses may be pseudo-losses due to inconsistent taxonomy between the two studies or insufficient sampling in the second study, however 28 species appear to represent genuine losses. Of these losses, 16 species are obligate lagoonal specialists and 12 have wider habitat compatibility. Twelve species are recorded from Bikini for the first time. We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats

  13. A tale of two islands: Bikini and Enewetak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcalay, G.

    1981-01-01

    An account is given of (a) the transfer of the inhabitants of Bikini and Enewetok so that the US could use the islands for atomic bomb tests, and (b) the subsequent arrangements made for the return of the islanders. The effects of contamination of the islands and of fallout from the tests are described. Radiological and other problems are discussed. (U.K.)

  14. External dose estimates for future Bikini Atoll inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Crites, T.R.; Robison, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    To evaluate the potential radiation doses that may be received by the returning Bikinians, we surveyed the residual radioactivity on Bikini and Eneu Islands in June of 1975. An integral part of the survey included measurements of gamma-ray exposure rates which are used to estimate external gamma-ray doses. The survey showed that on Bikini Island the rates are highly variable: values near the shores are generally of the order of 10 to 20 μR/h, while those within the interior average about 40 μR/h with a range of roughly 30 to 100 μR/h. Eneu Island, however, is characterized by more or less uniformly distributed gamma radiation levels of less than 10 μR/h over the entire island. These data, in conjunction with population statistics and expected life styles, allowed us to estimate the potential external gamma-ray doses associated with proposed housing locations along the lagoon road and within the interior portions of Bikini Island as well as along the lagoon side of Eneu Island. As expected, living on Eneu Island results in the lowest doses: 0.12 rem during the first year and 2.9 rem during 30 years. The highest values, 0.28 rem during the first year and 5.9 rem over 30 years, may potentially be received by inhabitants living within the interior of Bikini Island. Other options under consideration produce intermediate values

  15. Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Zoe T. [Museum of Tropical Queensland, Flinders St, Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia) and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia) and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia); NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia)], E-mail: zoe.richards@jcu.edu.au; Beger, Maria [Ecology Centre and Commonwealth Research Facility for Applied Environmental Decision Analysis, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia); Pinca, Silvia [College of the Marshall Islands, Majuro, Marshall Islands, NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia); Wallace, Carden C. [Museum of Tropical Queensland, Flinders St, Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2008-03-15

    Five decades after a series of nuclear tests began, we provide evidence that 70% of the Bikini Atoll zooxanthellate coral assemblage is resilient to large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Species composition in 2002 was assessed and compared to that seen prior to nuclear testing. A total of 183 scleractinian coral species was recorded, compared to 126 species recorded in the previous study (excluding synonomies, 148 including synonomies). We found that 42 coral species may be locally extinct at Bikini. Fourteen of these losses may be pseudo-losses due to inconsistent taxonomy between the two studies or insufficient sampling in the second study, however 28 species appear to represent genuine losses. Of these losses, 16 species are obligate lagoonal specialists and 12 have wider habitat compatibility. Twelve species are recorded from Bikini for the first time. We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats.

  16. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll: Prospects for resettlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    An international Advisory Group met at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna on 11-15 December 1995 for the purpose of reviewing the current radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and advising on the prospects for rehabilitation of the atoll and resettlement of its indigenous population. The Advisory Group was convened by the IAEA in response to a request for technical assistance from the Government of the Marshall Islands within the framework of IAEA technical co-operation project MHL/9/003, 'Radiological Monitoring in Bikini Atoll'. The primary aim of this review was to assist the Bikinian people to form their own judgement on the radiological conditions at their atoll and on the prospects for resettling there, should they so desire. At the meeting, the Advisory Group benefited greatly from the participation of a delegation from the Marshall Islands. At the request of the Government of the Marshall Islands, the international review was limited to Bikini Atoll and did not extend to other atolls, islands and isles affected by radioactive fallout from the testing. Moreover, within Bikini Atoll, it was concentrated on Bikini Island, where the Bikinian population formerly resided. The review relates to the prevailing radiological circumstances and their implications for the future habitability of the atoll. It is not intended to include the retrospective assessment of the past radiological impact of nuclear testing. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has routinely estimated, and reported to the United Nations General Assembly, radiation levels and effects attributable to nuclear weapon testing, including the tests carried out in the territory of the Marshall Islands. Some of the UNSCEAR estimates have been included in the report, but only for the sake of completeness

  17. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragos, J.E.; Agegian, Catherine

    1986-01-01

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  18. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maragos, J E [Environmental Resources Section, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division, HI (United States); Agegian, Catherine [University of Hawaii, Department of Oceanography, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1986-07-01

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  19. Resettlement of Bikini Atoll: US nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.; Conrado, C.; Stuart, M.; Stoker, A.; Hamilton, T.

    1999-01-01

    Bikini Atoll was one of two sites in the Marshall Islands that were used in the 1950's by the United States for testing nuclear weapons. The testing produced widespread radioactive contamination in Bikini and much of the Northern Marshall Islands. The Bikini people, relocated in 1946 before the test program began, have long desired to return to their homeland. Coral soil on Bikini Island makes cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) much more available for plant uptake than do soils of North America and Europe. Hence, when locally grown crops mature and become available for consumption, the resulting body burden of 137 Cs and the associated doses to humans exceeds federal guidelines. The dose from the terrestrial food ingestion pathway dominates all other pathways and contributes about 90% of the total dose to returning residents. We are, therefore, involved in cost-effective efforts to reduce the dose associated with resettlement. We have evaluated several measures, in addition to soil removal, to eliminate 137 Cs from the soil and to reduce its uptake into food crops. The most effective, and the easiest to implement, is the application of potassium to the atoll soils. A dramatic reduction in 137 Cs occurs in tropical fruits after applications of potassium-rich fertilizer to experimental soil plots. This treatment reduces the associated ingestion dose to about 5% of the pre-treatment levels, and this option avoids removal of the organic-rich surface soils. In addition, the added potassium increases plant productivity. We are now focusing on determining the duration of the effects of potassium treatment on 137 Cs uptake into plants, and the rate of environmental loss of 137 Cs in the atoll ecosystem. (author)

  20. Clinical observations over 20 years period of Bikini victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumatori, Toshiyuki

    1976-01-01

    The author outlined the results of medical examinations performed in a period of 20 years on the Japanese fishermen who were exposed at Bikini in 1954. Exposure doses were estimated, and the progress of medical examinations for skin injury, hematological changes, cytogenetic changes, and spermatogenetic disturbance was described. In view of internal exposure, none of the long half-life nuclides was retained in the body. The victims were compared with the victims exposed in Marshall Islands. (Serizawa, K.)

  1. Workshop on Bikini soil chemistry, Berkeley, CA, February 28, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Earl L.

    1987-01-01

    The soil treatments being tested on Bikini Atoll fall into three categories: (a) removal and disposal of the surface soil which contains most of the radionuclides; (b) addition of materials that absorb cesium-137 so firmly that it is no longer available for root uptake; 3 addition of the chemically related elements, potassium and/or sodium in relatively large amounts to suppress or 'blockade' cesium uptake by roots. Potassium has further value as a fertilizer since its natural concentration is too low for the high productivity of many crops. Sodium, of course, is present in infinite quantities in seawater and no point on Bikini is further than a quarter of a mile from the source. The problems involved in removing surface soil and growing satisfactory crops on the residual subsoil are now fairly well recognized by BARC. Likewise, the theory underlying cesium immobilization by clay, ground mica, or zeolites is straightforward, although actual performance in Bikini soils is still under test. The effectiveness of the third category (ionic treatment) has now been demonstrated in a series of ongoing field trials. Despite the success of the latter, however, the soil chemistry involved when large amounts of potassium, sodium, or seawater are added to these calcium-dominated soils is poorly understood in quantitative terms. Extension of field trial results to soils of the entire atoll, choice of efficient amounts and treatment combinations, and ability to predict intensity and duration of the suppressive effects will depend on more thoroughgoing knowledge of the mechanisms and rates involved. Accordingly, this workshop was convened to examine present information and concepts pertinent to soil treatments designed to reduce cesium-137 and strontium-90 in Bikini foods. It also considered additional experiments and analyses needed for better understanding and extensibility of the results achieved thus far. The principal topics discussed and the recommendations or suggestions

  2. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  3. Lingering radioactivity at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesseler, Ken O; Charette, Matthew A; Pike, Steven M; Henderson, Paul B; Kipp, Lauren E

    2018-04-15

    We made an assessment of the levels of radionuclides in the ocean waters, seafloor and groundwater at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls where the US conducted nuclear weapons tests in the 1940's and 50's. This included the first estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) derived from radium isotopes that can be used here to calculate radionuclide fluxes in to the lagoon waters. While there is significant variability between sites and sample types, levels of plutonium ( 239,240 Pu) remain several orders of magnitude higher in lagoon seawater and sediments than what is found in rest of the world's oceans. In contrast, levels of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) while relatively elevated in brackish groundwater are only slightly higher in the lagoon water relative to North Pacific surface waters. Of special interest was the Runit dome, a nuclear waste repository created in the 1970's within the Enewetak Atoll. Low seawater ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu suggest that this area is the source of about half of the Pu in the Enewetak lagoon water column, yet radium isotopes suggest that SGD from below the dome is not a significant Pu source. SGD fluxes of Pu and Cs at Bikini were also relatively low. Thus radioactivity associated with seafloor sediments remains the largest source and long term repository for radioactive contamination. Overall, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls are an ongoing source of Pu and Cs to the North Pacific, but at annual rates that are orders of magnitude smaller than delivered via close-in fallout to the same area. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the radiological quality of the water on Bikini and Eneu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brown, G.

    1975-01-01

    In June of 1975 a survey was conducted to determine the residual radioactivity in the terrestrial environment on the two main islands (Eneu and Bikini) of Bikini Atoll. The objective was to evaluate the potential radiation doses that could be received by the Bikinians scheduled to return to their atoll. This report describes the radiological quality of the groundwater during June 1975 (from data obtained from water samples collected at old and new well sites on both islets) and the cistern water on Bikini island. Based on the analyses of these samples, the cistern water from Bikini Island is both chemically and radiologically acceptable as drinking water in accordance with standard limits established by the U. S. Public Health Service. On both islands the quality of the ground water varies from one site to another. At some wells both chemical and radiological quality are acceptable; at others one or both is unacceptable according to U. S. Public Health Standards

  6. Bikini Atoll ionizing radiation survey - May 1985 - May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingleton, K.L.; Cate, J.L.; Trent, M.G.; Robison, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 23 nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. The single largest detonation was the Bravo test, which resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of a number of islands and prevented the timely resettlement of the native population. Since 1958, many studies have been conducted to assess clean up options and the internal and external radiation doses the Bikinians would likely receive, should they resettle the islands. Although the external dose rates from β and γ radiation have been previously determined by aerial and ground measurement techniques, technical constraints limited the assessment of external β dose rates from the Cs-137 and Sr-90/Y-90 contamination on the islands. Now, because of the recent development of very thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), these external β dose rates can be measured

  7. A history of the people of Bikini following nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: with recollections and views of elders of Bikini Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenthal, J

    1997-07-01

    The people of Bikini Atoll were moved from their homeland in 1946 to make way for the testing of 23 nuclear weapons by the United States government, beginning with the world's fourth atomic detonation. The subsequent half-century exodus of the Bikini people included a 2-y stay on Rongerik Atoll, where near starvation resulted, and a 6-mo sojourn on Kwajalein Atoll, where they lived in tents beside a runway used by the U.S. military. In 1948, they were finally relocated to Kili, a small, isolated, 200-acre island owned by the U.S. Trust Territory government. Numerous hardships have been faced there, not the least of which was the loss of skills required for self-sustenance. Located 425 miles south of Bikini, Kili Island is without a sheltered lagoon. Thus for six months of the year, fishing and sailing become futile endeavors. Because of the residual radioactive contamination from the nuclear testing, the majority of the Bikinian population still resides on Kili today. One attempt was made to resettle Bikini in the late 1960's when President Lyndon B. Johnson, on recommendations from the Atomic Energy Commission, declared Bikini Atoll safe for habitation. In 1978, however, it was discovered by the U.S. Department of Energy that in the span of only one year, some of the returned islanders were showing a 75% increase in their body burdens of 137Cs. In 1978, the people residing on Bikini were moved again, this time to a small island in Majuro Atoll. In the early 1980's, the Bikinians filed a class action lawsuit against the U.S. government for damages arising out of the nuclear testing program. Although the claim was dismissed, eventually a $90 million trust fund was established for their local government. Since then the leaders of the people of Bikini residing on Kili Island and Majuro Atoll have been confronted with the immense responsibility of determining how to clean their atoll while at the same time maintaining the health and welfare of their displaced

  8. Detection of rhodium-103m in the Bikini Ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K; Ikeda, N; Yoshihara, K

    1956-01-01

    The radiochemical analysis of the so-called Bikini ashes which fell on a Japanese fishing boat, the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru on March 1, 1954, are described as of some 25 days after detonation of the bomb. The collected sample 10/sup 7/ counts/min.) was ignited and dissolved in 6N HC1, insolubles were filtered off, and the activity of small aliquots of the filtrate was measured. Total activity was estimated about 10/sup 6/ counts/min. Ru (10mg.) was added to the filtrate as a carrier, the acidity of solution was adjusted to 2N, H/sub 2/S was passed through to precipitate Ru as sulfide, and the precipitate was dissolved with HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/O, KMnO/sub 4/, and concentrated H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The appropriate aliquot portion of the distillate was taken up in a counting dish and evaporated to dryness, the activity was measured and found to be 1.5 x 10/sup 5/ counts/min.

  9. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    . Originality/value - Many different Solar Combisystem designs have been commercialized over the years. In the IEA-SHC Task 26, twenty one solar combisystems have been described and analyzed. Maybe the mantle tank approach also for solar combisystems can be used with advantage? This might be possible...... if the solar heating system is based on a so called bikini tank. Therefore the new developed solar combisystems based on bikini tanks is compared to the tank-in-tank solar combisystems to elucidate which one is suitable for three different houses with low energy heating demand, medium and high heating demand.......Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...

  10. Uncertainty analysis for an updated dose assessment for a US nuclear test site: Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.; Robison, W.L.

    1995-11-01

    A detailed analysis of uncertainty and interindividual variability in estimated doses was conducted for a rehabilitation scenario for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, in which the top 40 cm of soil would be removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer, prior to an assumed resettlement date of 1999. Predicted doses were considered for the following fallout-related exposure pathways: ingested Cesium-137 and Strontium-90, external gamma exposure, and inhalation and ingestion of Americium-241 + Plutonium-239+240. Two dietary scenarios were considered: (1) imported foods are available (IA), and (2) imported foods are unavailable (only local foods are consumed) (IUA). Corresponding calculations of uncertainty in estimated population-average dose showed that after ∼5 y of residence on Bikini, the upper and lower 95% confidence limits with respect to uncertainty in this dose are estimated to be approximately 2-fold higher and lower than its population-average value, respectively (under both IA and IUA assumptions). Corresponding calculations of interindividual variability in the expected value of dose with respect to uncertainty showed that after ∼5 y of residence on Bikini, the upper and lower 95% confidence limits with respect to interindividual variability in this dose are estimated to be approximately 2-fold higher and lower than its expected value, respectively (under both IA and IUA assumptions). For reference, the expected values of population-average dose at age 70 were estimated to be 1.6 and 5.2 cSv under the IA and IUA dietary assumptions, respectively. Assuming that 200 Bikini resettlers would be exposed to local foods (under both IA and IUA assumptions), the maximum 1-y dose received by any Bikini resident is most likely to be approximately 2 and 8 mSv under the IA and IUA assumptions, respectively

  11. Estimates of the radiological dose to people living on Bikini Island for two weeks while diving in and around the sunken ships in Bikini Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.

    1990-09-01

    Bikini Island and Bikini Lagoon were contaminated by fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted at the atoll by the United States from 1946 to 1958. The second test, Baker, of the Crossroads series was an underwater detonation in 1946 that sank several ships in the lagoon, including the USS Saratoga and the Japanese battleship Nagato. The ships received high-intensity gamma-ray and neutron bombardment from the Baker test, which induced radioactivity in the metal structures. Some of the tests conducted after the Baker shot (there were 21 tests in all) injected contaminated carbonate particles into the air, some of which were deposited across the lagoon surface. Most of this contaminated soil then settled onto the ships' decks and other structures and on the lagoon bottom. These sunken ships provide an interesting location for divers. Recreational diving and swimming in and around the ships raises the question of the potential radiological dose from the radionuclides present in or on the ships and in the lagoon sediments. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present an analysis of the potential radiological dose to persons who would dive near the sunken ships and live on Bikini Island for a short period of time

  12. Dosimetry methods and results for the former residents of Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    The US Government utilized Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands of Micronesia for atomspheric tests of nuclear explosives in the 1940's and 1950's. The original inhabitants of these atolls were relocated prior to the tests. During the early 1970's, a small but growing population of Marshallese people reinhabited Bikini. Environmental and personnel radiological monitoring programs were begun in 1974 to ensure that doses and dose commitments received by Bikini residents remained within US Federal Radiation Council guidelines. Dramatic increases in 137 Cs body burdens among the inhabitants between April 1977 and 1978 may have played a significant role in the government decision to move the 140 Bikinians in residence off of the atoll in August 1978. The average 137 Cs body burden for the population was 2.3 μCi in April 1978. Several individuals, however, exceeded the maximum permissible body burden of 3 μCi, and some approached 6 μCi. The resultant total dose commitment was less than 200 mrem for the average resident. The average total dose for the mean residence interval of approx. 4.5 years was about 1 rem. The sources of exposure, the probable cause of the unexpected increase in 137 Cs body burdens, and the methods for calculating radionuclide intake and resultant doses are discussed. Suggestions are offered as to the implications of the most significant exposure pathways for the future inhabitation of Bikini and Enewetak

  13. Evaluation of the radionuclide concentrations in soil and plants from the 1975 terrestrial survey of Bikini and Eneu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colsher, C.S.; Robison, W.L.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    In June 1975 a radiological survey was conducted of the terrestrial environment of Bikini and Eneu islands (Bikini Atoll) to evaluate the potential radiation dose to the returning Bikini population. In this report, we present measurements of the radionuclide concentration in soil profiles and in dominant species of edible and nonedible, indicator plants. The use of these data to derive relationships to predict the plant uptake of radionuclides from soil is described. Approximately 620 soil and vegetation samples from Bikini and Eneu Islands were analyzed by Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry. The predominant radionuclides in these samples were 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, 241 Pu, and 241 Am

  14. An updated dose assessment for a U.S. Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1975. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The corresponding 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.1 cSv, 13 cSv, and 15 cSv, respectively. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be ±35% of its expected value. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce 137 Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of 137 Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences

  15. A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1993-07-01

    On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. Here the authors provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 and strontium-90 to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The estimated maximum annual effective dose is 4.4 mSv y -1 when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 10 cSv, 14 cSv, and 16 cSv, respectively. An analysis of interindividual variability in 0- to 30-y expected integral dose indicates that 95% of Bikini residents would have expected doses within a factor of 3.4 above and 4.8 below the population-average value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be ±35% of its expected value. The authors have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce 137 Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of 137 Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to less than 10% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences

  16. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands an...

  17. Comparison of gamma-ray exposure rate measurements at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Crites, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radiological survey of Bikini and Eneu Islands of the Bikini Atoll was conducted during June 1975 to assess the potential radiation doses that may be received by the returning Bikinians. Bikini Atoll was one of the U.S. nuclear weapons testing sites in the Pacific. An integral part of the survey included measurements of the gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground with portable NaI instruments at nearly 2700 locations on the two islands. For comparison purposes, similar measurements were made with a pressurized ion chamber at approximately 200 locations, and with LiF and CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) at 80 locations. The results indicate that the NaI scintillators overresponded because of their nonlinear energy characteristics. The responses of the LiF dosimeters and the pressurized ion chamber agreed to within 13 percent. Attenuation studies with LiF TLDs indicated that roughly 25 percent of the total free air exposure rate at 1 m was due to beta radiation

  18. Radiation-induced risk of resettling Bikini atoll. Final report, November 7, 1981-May 28, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, H.I.; Dreyer, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has concluded that the Bikini atoll is unsafe for resettlement. In response to the Bikinians' request for an independent review, we have examined the following DOE findings: (a) radionuclide contamination of Eneu and Bikini Islands, (b) radiation dosage to those who might resettle the islands, and (c) risks to the health of such settlers. We are in practical agreement with the DOE estimates. Resettlement of either island in 1983 would lead to a range of annual or 30-year cumulative doses that exceed the Federal Radiation Council (FRC) guides for the general population, but not those for occupation exposure. By 2013 resettlement of Eneu probably would be permissible. The principal source of radiation dose is local food, especially coconut, owing to contamination of the soil by cesium-137. A precise estimate of dose is impossible. The availability of imported foods would lessen local food consumption, but not sufficiently to meet the FRC guides for the general population. The 30-year cumulative index dose is 61 (25-122) rem for Bikini, and about 8 (3-16) rem for Eneu

  19. Derivation of plant-soil relationships for dose assessment on Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colsher, C.S.

    1976-11-01

    A radiological survey of the terrestrial environment of Bikini and Eneu Islands (Bikini Atoll) was conducted in June 1975 to evaluate the potential radiation dose to the returning Bikini population. This report presents measurements of the radionuclide concentration in soil profiles and in dominant species of edible and nonedible indicator plants and describes the use of these data to derive relationships to predict the plant uptake of radionuclides from soil. Soil-plant concentration factors together with leaf-leaf and fruit-leaf concentration ratios for indicator and edible plant species from the same area are calculated to quantitatively assess and compare the uptake of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239 ' 240 Pu. In general, the concentration factors for 137 Cs in terrestrial vegetation are greater than those for 90 Sr and the concentration factors for both these nuclides exceed those for 239 ' 240 Pu by ten to one hundred-fold. Uptake of 90 Sr and 239 ' 240 Pu by fruit is less than that by mature leaves; however, the opposite is true for 137 Cs. The relative contribution of the individual plant species to the internal dose to man varies with the nuclide. The use of concentration factors and concentration ratios to predict nuclide concentrations in fruit from those in soil or leaves is prescribed

  20. Past and present levels of some radionuclides in fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshkin, V E; Robison, W L; Wong, K M; Brunk, J L; Eagle, R J; Jones, H E

    1997-07-01

    Bikini and Enewetak were the sites in the Northern Marshall Islands that were used by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear devices between 1946 and 1958. The testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with different radionuclides and which entered the aquatic environment. The contaminated lagoon sediments became a reservoir and source term of manmade radionuclides for the resident marine organisms. This report contains a summary of all the available data on the concentrations of 137Cs, 60Co and 207Bi in flesh samples of reef and pelagic fish collected from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls between 1964 and 1995. The selection of these three radionuclides for discussion is based on the fact that these are the only radionuclides that have been routinely detected by gamma spectrometry in flesh samples from all fish for the last 20 y. Flesh from fish is an important source of food in the Marshallese diet. These radionuclides along with the transuranic radionuclides and 90Sr contribute most of the small radiological dose from ingesting marine foods. Some basic relationships among concentrations in different tissues and organs are discussed. The reef fish can be used as indicator species because their body burden is derived from feeding, over a lifetime, within a relatively small contaminated area of the lagoon. Therefore, the emphasis of this report is to use this extensive and unique concentration data base to describe the effective half lives and cycling for the radionuclides in the marine environments during the 31-y period between 1964 and 1995. The results from an analysis of the radionuclide concentrations in the flesh samples indicate the removal rates for the 3 radionuclides are significantly different. 137Cs is removed from the lagoons with an effective half life of 9-12 y. Little 60Co is mobilized to the water column so that it is depleted in both environments, primarily through radioactive decay. The properties of 207Bi are different

  1. Radiochemical analysis of radio-nuclides in sea water collected near Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y; Sugiura, Y

    1955-01-01

    A radiochemical analysis of sea water containing fission materials collected near Bikini Atoll in June, 1954, was performed. The sea water was boiled with hydrochloric acid, iron and lanthanum salts each 5 mg as Fe and La were added to it. They were precipitated as hydroxide, which was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride was extracted with ethyl ether. The remaining solution was evaporated to dryness and the residue was dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Using the latter solution the group separation was done with cation exchanger resins.

  2. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor

  3. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  4. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of 137 Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff

  5. Bikini: Disposal of contaminated soil in Berm construction; Design and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Since the levels of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in Bikini Island soil fall off exponentially (on average) with depth, the bulk of soil contamination can be removed directly by excavating the top 30 cm. Radiologically, the spoil is of low specific activity, and it can be handled without special precautions. However, the disposal of the spoil, totalling some 940,000 cubic yards plus vegetation, would pose something of a problem. Dumping into the lagoon (Bravo Crater) or ocean, presumably simple and effective measures, would not be legally permissible. A more practical alternative would employ the spoil to build a berm on the ocean-side of the island, or possibly a causeway between Bikini and Eneu Islands. The design of the proposed structures was reviewed at a conference held at the U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station, August 19, 1985. It was concluded that further study was required (BARC 2). This has been done by Coastal Engineering Research center and the complete report is presented

  6. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 2. inventories of transuranium elements in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-10-01

    This is the second of three reports on Bikini sediment studies, which discusses the concentrations and inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in sediments from the lagoon. Surface sediment samples were collected from 87 locations over the entire lagoon at Bikini Atoll during 1979. The collections were made to map the distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred in the composition of the sediment as a result of the testing program. Present inventories for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in the surface 2 cm of sediment are estimated to be 14 and 17 TBq, respectively. These values are estimated to represent only 14% of the total inventory in the sediment column. Sediment inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are changing only slowly with time through chemical- physical processes that continuously mobilize small amounts of the transuranics to the water column. The lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with deposits logoonward of the eastern reef.

  7. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  8. Uncertainty and variability in updated estimates of potential dose and risk at a US Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Uncertainty and interindividual variability were assessed in estimated doses for a rehabilitation scenario for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, in which the top 40 cm of soil would be removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island would be treated with potassium fertilizer, prior to an assumed resettlement date of 1999. Doses were estimated for ingested 137 Cs and 90 Sr, external gamma-exposure, and inhalation+ingestion of 241 Am + 239+240 Pu. Two dietary scenarios were considered: imported foods are available (IA); imported foods are unavailable with only local foods consumed (IUA). After ∼5 y of Bikini residence under either IA or IUA assumptions, upper and lower 95% confidence limits on interindividual variability in calculated dose were estimated to lie within a ∼threefold factor of its in population-average value; upper and lower 95% confidence limits on uncertainty in calculated dose were estimated to lie within a ∼twofold factor of its expected value. For reference, the expected values of population-average dose at age 70 y were estimated to be 16 and 52 mSv under IA and IUA dietary assumptions, respectively. Assuming that 200 Bikini resettlers would be exposed to local foods (under both IA and IUA assumptions), the maximum 1-y dose received by any Bikini resident is most likely to be approximately 2 and 8 mSv under the IA and IUA assumptions, respectively. Under the most likely dietary scenario, involving access to imported foods, this analysis indicates that it is most likely that no additional cancer fatalities (above those normally expected) would arise from the increased radiation exposures considered. 33 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. An updated dose assesment for resettlement options at Bikini atoll - A US nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radio nuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1978. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, 137 Cs produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 91 mSv, 130 mSv, and 150 mSv, respectively. A detailed uncertainty analysis for these dose estimates is presented in a companion paper in this issue. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce 137 Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of 137 Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5 % of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences. We have calculated the dose for the rehabilitation scenario where the top 40 cm of soil is removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer; the maximum annual effective dose is 0.41 mSv and the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.8 mSv, 14 mSv, and 16 mSv, respectively. 44 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Evaluation of the radiological quality of the water on Bikini and Eneu Islands in 1975: dose assessment based on initial sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the radiological quality of the groundwater on the two main islands (Eneu and Bikini) of Bikini Atoll during June 1975 (from data obtained from water samples collected at old and new well sites on both islands) and the cistern water on Bikini Island. Based on analyses of these samples, we found that the cistern water from Bikini Island is both chemically and radiologically acceptable as drinking water in accordance with standard limits established by the U.S. Public Health Service. However, on both islands the quality of the groundwater varied from one site to another. At some wells both chemical and radiological quality are acceptable; at others one or both are unacceptable according to U.S. Public Health Standards. The doses we predict from consumption of both cistern and groundwater are acceptable under federal guidelines. However, doses predicted from consumption of groundwater are high enough to warrant careful evaluation of other potential exposure pathways

  11. Pathological findings in the fatal case (the late Mr. Kuboyama) of the radiation sickness caused by Bikini ashes. [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, S; Hashimoto, K; Fukushima, N; Tashiro, K; Sugano, H; Mori, W

    1955-01-01

    Autopsy findings and the case history are summarized from a case diagnosed as radiation sickness caused by exposure to fall-out from a thermonuclear explosion. The patient died 207 days following exposure while on a fishing boat said to be located about 100 mi east of Bikini at the time of the explosion. Evidence was also found of a secondary virus hepatitis and aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia.

  12. Survey of ciguatera at Enewetak and Bikini, Marshall Islands, with notes on the systematics and food habits of ciguatoxic fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, J.E.

    1980-04-01

    A total of 551 specimens of 48 species of potentially ciguatoxic fishes from Enewetak and 256 specimens of 23 species from Bikini, Marshall Islands, were tested for ciguatoxin by feeding liver or liver and viscera from these fishes to mongooses at 10% body weight (except for sharks, when only muscle tissue was used). The fishes are representatives of the following families: Orectolobidae, Carcharhinidae, Dasyatidae, Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Carangidae, Scombridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Acanthuridae, and Balistidae. The species selected were all ones for which toxicity can be expected, including the worst offenders from reports of ciguatera throughout Oceania; only moderate to large-sized adults were tested. In all, 37.3% of the fishes from Enewetak and 19.7% from Bikini gave a positive reaction for ciguatoxin. Because liver and other viscera are more toxic than muscle, the percentage of positive reactions at the level which might cause illness in humans eating only the flesh of these fishes collectively would drop to 16.2 for Enewetak and 1.4 for Bikini. This level of toxicity is not regarded as high for Pacific islands, in general. Because ciguatoxin is acquired through feeding, the food habits of these fishes were investigated. Most of the highly toxic species, including seven of the eight causing severe illness or death in the test animals (Lycodontis javanicus, Cephalopholis argus, Epinephelus hoedtii, E. microdon, Plectropomus leopardus, Aprion virescens, and Lutjanus bohar) are primarily piscivorous.

  13. Preliminary design of a landfill and revetment on Bikini Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. February 1987. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Orson P; Yenhsi, Chu [Coastal Engineering Research Center, Department of the Army, Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Topsoil on Bikini Island, which is located 2500 miles southwest of Hawaii at 110351 N, 1650251 E, was contaminated by radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the late 1940's and early 1950's. The uptake of this radioactive fallout, primarily cesium-137 in plants, has prevented resettlement of the island by the native population. One alternative solution proposed by the congressionally appointed Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee involves removal of the contaminated topsoil and placement of the excavated material as a landfill on the 2,500-ft-wide reef flat adjacent to the eastern (windward) shore of the island. This paper explores that alternative by first developing an extremal wave climatology offshore of Bikini Island from 21 years 1959-1979) of typhoon data published by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center on Guam. Deepwater wave conditions just offshore of the reef are estimated and transformed to the point of breaking at the edge of the reef. Storm surge Is estimated based on these same parameters. Wave setup on the reef flat is estimated based on the simulated breaking conditions. Given an estimate of the elevated water level across the reef caused by storm surge and wave setup, depth limitations and fractional decay are estimated to define wave conditions at the toe of the proposed revetment. A rubble-mound revetment design stable in these conditions, armored by coral limestone quarried from the reef flat, is then formulated and corresponding material quantities estimated. (author)

  14. Preliminary design of a landfill and revetment on Bikini Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. February 1987. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Orson P.; Chu Yenhsi

    1987-01-01

    Topsoil on Bikini Island, which is located 2500 miles southwest of Hawaii at 110351 N, 1650251 E, was contaminated by radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the late 1940's and early 1950's. The uptake of this radioactive fallout, primarily cesium-137 in plants, has prevented resettlement of the island by the native population. One alternative solution proposed by the congressionally appointed Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee involves removal of the contaminated topsoil and placement of the excavated material as a landfill on the 2,500-ft-wide reef flat adjacent to the eastern (windward) shore of the island. This paper explores that alternative by first developing an extremal wave climatology offshore of Bikini Island from 21 years 1959-1979) of typhoon data published by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center on Guam. Deepwater wave conditions just offshore of the reef are estimated and transformed to the point of breaking at the edge of the reef. Storm surge Is estimated based on these same parameters. Wave setup on the reef flat is estimated based on the simulated breaking conditions. Given an estimate of the elevated water level across the reef caused by storm surge and wave setup, depth limitations and fractional decay are estimated to define wave conditions at the toe of the proposed revetment. A rubble-mound revetment design stable in these conditions, armored by coral limestone quarried from the reef flat, is then formulated and corresponding material quantities estimated. (author)

  15. Doses from external irradiation to Marshall Islanders from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, André; Beck, Harold L; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Annual doses from external irradiation resulting from exposure to fallout from the 65 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands at Bikini and Enewetak between 1946 and 1958 have been estimated for the first time for Marshallese living on all inhabited atolls. All tests that deposited fallout on any of the 23 inhabited atolls or separate reef islands have been considered. The methodology used to estimate the radiation doses at the inhabited atolls is based on test- and location-specific radiation survey data, deposition density estimates of 137Cs, and fallout times-of-arrival provided in a companion paper (Beck et al.), combined with information on the radionuclide composition of the fallout at various times after each test. These estimates of doses from external irradiation have been combined with corresponding estimates of doses from internal irradiation, given in a companion paper (Simon et al.), to assess the cancer risks among the Marshallese population (Land et al.) resulting from exposure to radiation from the nuclear weapons tests.

  16. Absorption by plants of unseparated fission products derived from the hydrogen bomb detonated in the spring of 1954 at Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatazawa, M; Ishihara, T

    1955-01-01

    In a radiochemical survey on the contamination of white clover grown in a field, sample plants were obtained from the same grass land at 3 different times. The ash of each sample was analyzed. It was concluded that radioactive alkaline earths, especially /sup 89/Sr and /sup 90/Sr were selectively accumulated in plants. The selective absorption of Bikini ash by rice plants was also studied. Noncontaminated rice plants were cultivated in the radioactive solution produced from Bikini ash for 20 days. Then the absorption by plants of radioactive elements was examined by chromatographic exchange. From the elution curve and ratio of radioactivity of each separation group, it has become clear that rice plants accumulated larger parts of fission products in their roots and selectively absorbed and translocated radioactive alkaline earths in their shoots even if the absorption ratio of Bikini fission products was comparatively small.

  17. An updated dose assessment for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll--a U.S. nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, W L; Bogen, K T; Conrado, C L

    1997-07-01

    On 1 March 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1978. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of 137Cs and 90Sr to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, 137Cs produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 91 mSv, 130 mSv, and 150 mSv, respectively. A detailed uncertainty analysis for these dose estimates is presented in a companion paper in this issue. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce 137Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of 137Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences. We have calculated the dose for the rehabilitation scenario where the top 40 cm of soil is removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer; the maximum annual effective dose is 0.41 mSv and the 30-, 50-, and 70-y

  18. Studies of the analytical chemistry on filter paper. XVI. Paper chromatography of radioactive substance. Radiochemical studies on ''Bikini ashes''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S

    1956-01-01

    Radioactivity from ''Bikini ashes'' and /sup 235/U fission is divided into 3 major groups by ion-exchange methods and then subdivided by paper chromatography. In the first group, TeO/sub 4/--, SO/sub 4/--, PO/sub 4//sup 3/-, and I-, as well as two /sup 106/Ru spots, are resolved in filter paper by iso-AmOH. /sup 137/Cs and /sup 144/Ce from the second and /sup 90/Y and /sup 90/Sr from the third group are separated also. It is shown that the presence of carrier or foreign elements alters the chromatographic behavior of the tracers.

  19. Colloid morphological and crystalline studies in Bikini dust from the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru by electron microscopy and diffraction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suito, E; Takiyama, K; Uyeda, N

    1954-01-01

    Dust was collected from the deck, fishes, and other parts of the ship. The dust was white granules, approximately 0.3 mm. in size and sp. gr. 2.42. These granules were composed of unit particles which were cubic or spindle of 0.1 to 3. ..mu.. in size. The Bikini dust was calcite as determined by electron microdiffraction and x-ray diffraction studies. The coral reef is aragonite. It is suggested that coral reef was evapd. by the H-bomb explosion.

  20. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, 137 Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of 137 Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. 90 Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of 60 Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of 60 Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of 207 Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of 207 Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, 207 Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of 207 Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither 239+240 Pu nor 241 Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, 238 Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than 239+240 Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines

  1. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, /sup 137/Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. /sup 90/Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sup 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sup 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sup 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines.

  2. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers.

  3. Spatial distribution of organochlorine contaminants in soil, sediment, and fish in Bikini and Enewetak Atolls of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Caccamise, Sarah A L; Wu, Liejun; Woodward, Lee Ann; Li, Qing X

    2011-08-01

    Several nuclear tests were performed at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls in the Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. The events at Bikini Atoll involved several ships that were tested for durability during nuclear explosions, and 24 vessels now rest on the bottom of the Bikini lagoon. Nine soil samples were collected from different areas on the two islands of the atoll, and eighteen sediment, nine fish, and one lobster were collected in the vicinity of the sunken ships. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in these samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS). The average recoveries ranged from 78% to 104% for the different PCB congeners. The limits of detection (LOD) for PCBs, PCTs, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin ranged 10-50 pg g(-1). Some fish from Enewetak contained PCBs at a concentration range of 37-137 ng g(-1), dry weight (dw), and most of the soils from Enewetak showed evidence of PCBs (22-392 ng g(-1)dw). Most of the Bikini lagoon sediment samples contained PCBs, and the highest was the one collected from around the Saratoga, an aircraft carrier (1555 ng g(-1)dw). Some of the fish samples, most of the soil samples, and only one of the sediment samples contained 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) and PCBs. In addition to PCBs, the soils from Enewetak Atoll contained PCTs. PCTs were not detected in the sediment samples from Bikini Atoll. The results suggest local pollution sources of PCBs, PCTs, and OCPs. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M. K.; van Beek, P.; Carvalho, F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified...... radionuclides include: 40K, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 234U, 238U, 239Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am for IAEA-410 and 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 239+240Pu for IAEA-412. The CRMs can be used for quality assurance and quality control purposes...

  5. Uncertainties under emergency conditions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and Bikini accident in 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Shono, N.; Fujita, S.; Matsuoka, H.; Fujiwara, S.; Hosoda, T.

    2000-01-01

    who were trained at Narashino Chemical School were assigned, at least one, to each unit (brigade and higher) of the Japanese Army. Chemical Weapons Control unit was organised at the headquarters in the centre of Hiroshima. After atomic bombing some vessels of mustard gas stored underground were found cracked and leaked. Judging from these findings it may be possible that some chemical weapons were released to the environment from the military facilities on ground at the time they were destroyed by the atomic bombing and the survivors were exposed to poison gases to a smaller or larger extent. There was no drinking water and they had to drink rain water which fell heavily soon after the atomic bombing. It is highly possible that the rainwater was also contaminated by various toxic substances including chemical weapons. These effects combined with the irradiation by atomic radiation are difficult to quantify accurately at present, many years after atomic bombings. But if all these adverse effects were ascribed solely to the ionizing radiation, the effects of radiation may be overestimated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In using the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data for establishing radiation safety standard in peaceful uses of atomic energy, we should keep these possibilities of overestimation in mind. At the Bikini accident, where Japanese fishing boat was showered by strongly radioactive ash due to thermonuclear test on March 1, 1954 in the Pacific, some crew tested the ash to see what it is. The amount of intake is uncertain. Depending on the assumption, a widely different result would be obtained. (author)

  6. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations I. Studies on the Radioactive dust due to nuclear detonation in Bikini on March 1, 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    A study has been made, from the health physics standpoint, of the radioactivity emitted from the dust collected from No. 5 Fukuryu Maru, which was showered by the strong radioactive ash at about 0-90 miles east of Bikini on March 1, 1954. The probable dose of external gamma radiation the crew might have received during their two weeks voyage may be estimated roughly about 500-800 rad. However,, judging from the strong radioactive contamination of the boat, it may be inferred that the crew might have received a considerable-degree of internal irradiation besides the external whole body gamma irradiation and the local beta irradiation on the skin where the radioactive dust directly contacted, The specific activity of the dust when it fell on the boat a few hours after the nuclear detonation may be estimated to be roughly about one curie per gram. From the radiochemical analysis and the beta-ray analysis, the major part of the radioactivity included in-the dust was found to be due to a mixture of various fission products, while the main chemical component of the dust (Bikini ash) itself consisted of a calcium compound. The alpha-ray was also detected by the use of an ionization chamber in that portion where transuranium elements, if present, were collected. The tuna fish and the shark fins which were brought back to Japan by No.5 Fukuryu Maru in the middle of March, 1954 were most strongly contaminated on the skin, but the fish caught later in the South Pacific were found to be contaminated more strongly in the internal organs rather than on the skin. The area in the Pacific where the radioactive contaminated fish were caught seemed to expand gradually with time. In the latter half of 1954, besides the ordinary fission products, the radioactive Zn{sup 65} which was not found in appreciable amount in the original Bikini ash has been detected from the internal organs of the contaminated fish. A possible production of Zn{sup 65} by the neutron activation of some metallic

  7. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations I. Studies on the Radioactive dust due to nuclear detonation in Bikini on March 1, 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    A study has been made, from the health physics standpoint, of the radioactivity emitted from the dust collected from No. 5 Fukuryu Maru, which was showered by the strong radioactive ash at about 0-90 miles east of Bikini on March 1, 1954. The probable dose of external gamma radiation the crew might have received during their two weeks voyage may be estimated roughly about 500-800 rad. However,, judging from the strong radioactive contamination of the boat, it may be inferred that the crew might have received a considerable-degree of internal irradiation besides the external whole body gamma irradiation and the local beta irradiation on the skin where the radioactive dust directly contacted, The specific activity of the dust when it fell on the boat a few hours after the nuclear detonation may be estimated to be roughly about one curie per gram. From the radiochemical analysis and the beta-ray analysis, the major part of the radioactivity included in-the dust was found to be due to a mixture of various fission products, while the main chemical component of the dust (Bikini ash) itself consisted of a calcium compound. The alpha-ray was also detected by the use of an ionization chamber in that portion where transuranium elements, if present, were collected. The tuna fish and the shark fins which were brought back to Japan by No.5 Fukuryu Maru in the middle of March, 1954 were most strongly contaminated on the skin, but the fish caught later in the South Pacific were found to be contaminated more strongly in the internal organs rather than on the skin. The area in the Pacific where the radioactive contaminated fish were caught seemed to expand gradually with time. In the latter half of 1954, besides the ordinary fission products, the radioactive Zn 65 which was not found in appreciable amount in the original Bikini ash has been detected from the internal organs of the contaminated fish. A possible production of Zn 65 by the neutron activation of some metallic part of

  8. Fission- and alpha-track study of biogeochemistry of plutonium and uranium in carbonates of Bikini and Enewetak atolls. Progress report, January 1, 1976--December 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Y.; Miller, D.S.; Friedman, G.M.

    1976-09-01

    Alpha emitters have been detected with a resolution of a few tens of micrometers using a solid state track detector (cellulose nitrate) to map the activity in a coral sample from Bikini. Calibration methods used include: a Pu source of 0.15 μCi in conjunction with polycarbonate and CaCO 3 absorbers of different thicknesses (2 to 30 micrometers), and a powdered coral sample which had been analyzed previously for alpha emitters by chemical methods in conjunction with an alpha spectrometer. 0.04 mm 3 can be measured routinely; smaller concentrations can be determined but with a lower resolution. CaCO 3 of the coral Favites virens from Bikini lagoon was analyzed by placing the detector directly on the sample for thirty days. Sections and thin sections cut perpendicular to one another, but parallel to the direction of coral growth, give very different concentrations and distributions of alpha emitters. Maximum concentrations of 800 pCi/g were measured in a volume of 0.004 mm 3 in void-filling cement separated from the coral and in an area in which coral skeleton and cement could not be distinguished. Areas of high alpha emitter concentrations coincide with areas of coral growth interruption where non coral material exists that is composed of a mixture of encrusting bryozoan like carbonate material and skeletal debris

  9. Providing an authorization for an ex gratia payment to the people of Bikini Atoll, in the Marshall Islands of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session, June 2, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Proposed legislation for payment of dollars 3 million ex gratia to the people of Bikini Atoll due to their relocation resulting from nuclear-weapons testing and successive contamination of their homeland is presented. The Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs recommends passage

  10. Investigations on the radioactive contamination of crop plants as a result of hydrogen-bomb detonation. Part II. Root and foliage uptake of Bikini ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, S; Aso, S; Tensho, K; Kumazawa, K

    1955-01-01

    Bikini ash (I) was prepared by igniting the heavily contaminated substances on board No. 5 Fukuryu Maru at 650/sup 0/. The I was extracted with H/sub 2/O, concentrated HCl, and 2% citric acid. The acid extracts were neutralized to pH 5.0 to 5.5 with NaOH. Squash-plant leaves were painted with these extracts, after 6 days the plant parts were assayed for radioactivity. Uptake and translocation of radioactive fission products to all plant parts was found, but with the major portion in above ground parts. Wheat seeds grown in natural and synthetic soil mixtures showed a much depressed uptake of fission materials. Most of the radioactivity was found in the roots. About 10% was translocated to aerial portions of plants.

  11. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the US as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 million t (million t TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for tens of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently approximately 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is

  12. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Robison, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the United States as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 Mt (Mt TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for 10's of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently about 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is dominated by

  13. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1997-12-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected during 1979 from 87 locations in the lagoon at Bikini Atoll. The collections were made to better define the concentrations and distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred to the composition of the surface sediment from the nuclear testing program conducted by the United States at the Atoll between 1946 and 1958. This is the last of three reports on Bikini sediment studies. In this report, we discuss the concentrations and inventories of the residual long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in sediments from the lagoon. The gamma-emitting radionuclides detected most frequently in sediments collected in 1979, in addition to Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) (discussed in the second report of this series), included Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Bismuth-207 ({sup 207}Bi), Europium-155 ({sup 155}Eu), and Cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co). Other man-made, gamma-emitting radionuclides such as Europium-152,154 ({sup 152,154}Eu), Antimony-125 ({sup 125}Sb), and Rhodium-101,102m ({sup 101,102m}Rh) were occasionally measured above detection limits in sediments near test site locations. The mean inventories for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 207}Ei, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 60}Co in the surface 4 cm of the lagoon sediment to be 1.7, 0.56, 7.76, and 0.74 TBq, respectively. By June 1997, radioactive decay would reduce these values to 1.1, 0.38, 0.62, and 0.07 TBq, respectively. Some additional loss results from a combination of different processes that continuously mobilize and return some amount of the radionuclides to the water column. The water and dissolved constituents are removed from the lagoon through channels and exchange with the surface waters of the north equatorial Pacific Ocean. Highest levels of these radionuclides are found in surface deposits lagoonward of the Bravo Crater. Lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with sediment lagoonward of the eastern reef. The quantities in

  14. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  15. Distribution and Ratios of 137Cs and K in Control and K-treated Coconut Trees at Bikini Island where Nuclear Test Fallout Occurred: Effects and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Brown, P H; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2008-05-19

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally, low concentrations, however, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 or 2.2 kg. Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they age

  16. Distribution and ratios of 137Cs and K in control and K-treated coconut trees at Bikini Island where nuclear test fallout occurred: effects and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Brown, Patrick H.; Stone, Earl L.; Hamilton, Terry F.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low, ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg -1 . When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of 137 Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, 137 Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while 137 Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K-treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally low concentrations. However, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while 137 Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 (2.2 kg). Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K-fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). The 137 Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K-treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and 137 Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and 137 Cs in fronds as they age is logarithmic, but K

  17. Distribution and ratios of {sup 137}Cs and K in control and K-treated coconut trees at Bikini Island where nuclear test fallout occurred: effects and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, William L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)], E-mail: robison1@llnl.gov; Brown, Patrick H. [University of California, Department of Plant Sciences, Davis, CA 95819 (United States); Stone, Earl L. [University of Florida (United States); Hamilton, Terry F.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low, ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K-treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally low concentrations. However, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 (2.2 kg). Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K-fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). The {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K-treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they

  18. Radiochemical studies on Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, T

    1954-01-01

    Decay characteristics of the ashes which were brought back by the crew of the Fukuryu Maru No. 5 were: untreated ash I = ct/sup -1/ /sup 81/, water soluble part t/sup -2/ /sup 71/, insoluble part t/sup -1/ /sup 68/. Radioactive species separated by chemical method with carrier or collector were: nuclide, activity of nuclide (counts/min)/activity of original sample (counts/min), and the date of separation, /sup 89/Sr 6000/80 X 10/sup 4/, April 24; /sup 95/Zr, 280/80 x 10/sup 4/, -; /sup 111/Ag, 200/200 x 10/sup 4/, April 14; /sup 103/Ru, 2.300/25 x 10/sup 4/, etc.

  19. Field trials at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Stone, Earl L.

    1987-01-01

    Last year's report summarized the status of both the long on-going soil and plant sampling programs (initiated by LLNL in 1978) and the field experiments aimed at reducing radionuclide levels in food plants to acceptable levels. In the current report the two are combined into a single summary table, indicating for each field trial or survey the results to date, information expected by the spring of 1988, and projection, if any, for continuation beyond FY1988. This table is therefore a comprehensive survey of the program and accordingly the individual items in it have been coded to facilitate reference to them. Analytical results from field studies installed in 1985 and 1986 are now providing much new information, briefly described below. In part, these results bear out or enlarge the hypotheses that prompted the studies. They also suggest how some treatments may be modified or combined for greater effectiveness. We shall discuss here certain groups of studies of immediate interest that deal with the blocking effects of potassium and other ions on cesium-137 uptake by plants, the effect of removing topsoil (excavation), cultural studies which involve the manipulation of the subsoil, plus some others

  20. Field trials at Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, William L [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Livermore, CA (United States); Stone, Earl L [University of Florida, Soil Science Department, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Last year's report summarized the status of both the long on-going soil and plant sampling programs (initiated by LLNL in 1978) and the field experiments aimed at reducing radionuclide levels in food plants to acceptable levels. In the current report the two are combined into a single summary table, indicating for each field trial or survey the results to date, information expected by the spring of 1988, and projection, if any, for continuation beyond FY1988. This table is therefore a comprehensive survey of the program and accordingly the individual items in it have been coded to facilitate reference to them. Analytical results from field studies installed in 1985 and 1986 are now providing much new information, briefly described below. In part, these results bear out or enlarge the hypotheses that prompted the studies. They also suggest how some treatments may be modified or combined for greater effectiveness. We shall discuss here certain groups of studies of immediate interest that deal with the blocking effects of potassium and other ions on cesium-137 uptake by plants, the effect of removing topsoil (excavation), cultural studies which involve the manipulation of the subsoil, plus some others.

  1. Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee Report no. 4 Status March 31, 1986. Submitted to the U.S. Congress, House and Senate Committees on Interior Appropriations, pursuant to House Report 99-450, Department of Interior Account no. TT-1580X08, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The principal findings of Report No. 4, Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee (March 31, 1986) are as follows: (1) On the basis of the Federal protective action guide (ionizing radiation) and an Environmental Assessment, Eneu may be resettled now. The calculation of the planning dose for the estimation of radiation risk is given in detail. (2) Three principal methods for decontamination control are being studied in field trials at Bikini Atoll -- removal of top soil, treatment with potassium salt, and irrigation with sea water. The latter two, still in an early experimental stage, give promise of being cheaper and ecologically superior to excavation, but the details and limits of their practical application remain to be established. (3) The important socio-economic factors that affect resettlement planning for the Bikinians are reviewed. Prominent among them is a population growth rate of 5% per annum. Sketch plans to serve as models for the resettlement community are discussed. (author)

  2. Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee Report no. 4 Status March 31, 1986. Submitted to the U.S. Congress, House and Senate Committees on Interior Appropriations, pursuant to House Report 99-450, Department of Interior Account no. TT-1580X08, Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The principal findings of Report No. 4, Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee (March 31, 1986) are as follows: (1) On the basis of the Federal protective action guide (ionizing radiation) and an Environmental Assessment, Eneu may be resettled now. The calculation of the planning dose for the estimation of radiation risk is given in detail. (2) Three principal methods for decontamination control are being studied in field trials at Bikini Atoll -- removal of top soil, treatment with potassium salt, and irrigation with sea water. The latter two, still in an early experimental stage, give promise of being cheaper and ecologically superior to excavation, but the details and limits of their practical application remain to be established. (3) The important socio-economic factors that affect resettlement planning for the Bikinians are reviewed. Prominent among them is a population growth rate of 5% per annum. Sketch plans to serve as models for the resettlement community are discussed. (author)

  3. Radiation doses and cancer risks in the Marshall Islands associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests: summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear weapons testing conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during 1946-1958 resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that population, by year, age at exposure, and atoll of residence, and the related cancer risks. Detailed methods and results are presented in a series of companion papers in this volume. From our analysis, we concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall Islands. In this work, we estimated deposition densities (kBq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides at each of the 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Quantitative deposition estimates were made for 63 radionuclides from each test at each atoll. Those estimates along with reported measurements of exposure rates at various times after fallout were used to estimate radiation absorbed doses to the red bone marrow, thyroid gland, stomach wall, and colon wall of atoll residents from both external and internal exposure. Annual doses were estimated for six age groups ranging from newborns to adults. We found that the total deposition of 137Cs, external dose, internal organ doses, and cancer risks followed the same geographic pattern with the large population of the southern atolls receiving the lowest doses. Permanent residents of the southern atolls who were of adult age at the beginning of the testing period received external doses ranging from 5 to 12 mGy on average; the external doses to adults at the mid-latitude atolls ranged from 22 to 59 mGy on average, while the residents of the northern atolls received external doses in the hundreds to over 1,000 mGy. Internal doses varied significantly by age at exposure, location, and organ. Except

  4. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2016-08-01

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the "Bravo" detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the "5th Fukuryu-maru" did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed.

  5. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kimio [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima (Japan); Institute for Environmental Sciences, Kakimita, Aomori (Japan); Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the ''Bravo'' detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the ''5th Fukuryu-maru'' did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed. (orig.)

  6. Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee Report no. 5 Status March 31, 1987. Submitted to the U.S. Congress, House and Senate Committees on Interior Appropriations, pursuant to House Report 99-1002 and Public Law 99-500. Department of Interior Account no. 14X0414/TT-1580X08, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    The principal findings of Report No. 5, Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, March 31, 1987, are as follows: (1) Three principal methods for contamination control are under study at Bikini Atoll: removal of top soil, treatment of soil with potassium salt, and treatment by irrigation with sea water. The latter two should be cheaper and ecologically superior to excavation. All three methods have reduced the uptake of cesium-137 by coconuts and vegetables. (2) It is encouraging to report that in one sea water trial the beneficial effect has lasted for at least 1.6 years after treatment. Third-year results from the experiment should become available this year. (3) Various trials are under way to determine optimum treatment schedules (amount of agent per treatment, frequency of treatments) and the duration of the effects thereby engendered. Some schedules include more than one type of treatment. Initial results from these trials are becoming available during the present year. Until such detailed information is available and securely established, specific recommendations for a rehabilitation program should not be made. (4) It is now thought that the active agent in sea water is the sodium ion. Cation equivalency tests which take into account potassium, sodium and magnesium are under way. (5) As reported previously, Eneu may be settled now. BARC recommends that after Governmental review and possible modification, the conceptual designs now available be developed for engineering purposes to permit rehabilitation logistics and construction to get under way. (6) On the basis of the findings thus far, and making 'reasonable' assumptions about the construction costs of community facilities, BARC estimates that the total rehabilitation costs will lie in the range of $55 to $90 million. Most of the range is due to uncertainty regarding the decontamination program. (author)

  7. Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee Report no. 5 Status March 31, 1987. Submitted to the U.S. Congress, House and Senate Committees on Interior Appropriations, pursuant to House Report 99-1002 and Public Law 99-500. Department of Interior Account no. 14X0414/TT-1580X08, Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The principal findings of Report No. 5, Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, March 31, 1987, are as follows: (1) Three principal methods for contamination control are under study at Bikini Atoll: removal of top soil, treatment of soil with potassium salt, and treatment by irrigation with sea water. The latter two should be cheaper and ecologically superior to excavation. All three methods have reduced the uptake of cesium-137 by coconuts and vegetables. (2) It is encouraging to report that in one sea water trial the beneficial effect has lasted for at least 1.6 years after treatment. Third-year results from the experiment should become available this year. (3) Various trials are under way to determine optimum treatment schedules (amount of agent per treatment, frequency of treatments) and the duration of the effects thereby engendered. Some schedules include more than one type of treatment. Initial results from these trials are becoming available during the present year. Until such detailed information is available and securely established, specific recommendations for a rehabilitation program should not be made. (4) It is now thought that the active agent in sea water is the sodium ion. Cation equivalency tests which take into account potassium, sodium and magnesium are under way. (5) As reported previously, Eneu may be settled now. BARC recommends that after Governmental review and possible modification, the conceptual designs now available be developed for engineering purposes to permit rehabilitation logistics and construction to get under way. (6) On the basis of the findings thus far, and making 'reasonable' assumptions about the construction costs of community facilities, BARC estimates that the total rehabilitation costs will lie in the range of $55 to $90 million. Most of the range is due to uncertainty regarding the decontamination program. (author)

  8. Damping of radioactivity of the Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, K

    1955-01-01

    The radioactivity (..beta..- and ..gamma..-radiation) of the H-bomb ashes was measured over a period of 600 days by means of an electroscope and a Geiger-Mueller counter. Absorption by Al foils shows that the half-life is shorter for radiation of lower energy.

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in fish and invertebrates from Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    As in other global studies, 137 Cs was found in the highest concentrations in edible flesh of all species of fish and in the lowest concentrations in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of 137 Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global-fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, IL, USA, in 1982. Strontium-90 is associated generally with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of 60 Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of 60 Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of 207 Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of 207 Bi were consistently detected in the muscle and other tissues of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, 207 Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of 207 Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither 239+240 Pu nor 241 Am is accumulated significantly in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, 238 Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than 239+240 Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 g of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines. 24 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs

  10. Sun, Sand, Sea & Bikini. Arquitectura e turismo: Portugal anos 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Lobo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available “Anos de Ruptura”, a década de 1960 marca, em Portugal, um importante ponto de viragem na transição para a democracia. A “derrota” de Humberto Delgado nas eleições presidenciais de 1958, o deflagrar da Guerra Colonial, o crescente êxodo rural e a emigração económica e política, as lutas estudantis, o Marcelismo e a abertura ao investimento exterior, assim como a generalização de importantes benefícios sociais, como o direito a férias pagas, testemunham profundas transformações na sociedade portuguesa, com inevitáveis repercussões na organização do território. A par da suburbanização dos principais centros populacionais do país, o advento de um turismo de massas será o principal motor dessa nova ordem espacial, assistindo‑se ao ensaio de novos modelos urbanísticos e arquitectónicos que iriam revolucionar o panorama disciplinar nacional. É sobre o impacto do fenómeno turístico na actividade dos arquitectos portugueses e, consequentemente, na sua relação com a sociedade e os mecanismos de produção capitalista dos anos sessenta que o presente artigo se propõe reflectir, na perspectiva de relançar o debate, então adiado, acerca das implicações físicas e culturais do lazer na colonização da paisagem.

  11. Analysis of radioactive fallout of the atomic bomb explosion on Bikini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K

    1954-01-01

    The radioactive fallout was found to contain 55.2, 7.0, 11.8, and 26.0% of CaO, MgO, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O, respectively, the chief constituent being Ca(OH)/sub 2/. The electric-spark method of analysis showed the presence of Al, Fe, and Si in addition to Ca and Mg. Its decay curve followed I = ct/sup -1/ /sup 37/, where I represents radioactivity, t, time since the explosion took place, March 1, 1954, and c, const. Its specific activity measured on April 23, 1954, was 0.37 mc./g. Radioactive nuclei identified by March 26 were /sup 89/Sr, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 91/Y, /sup 95/Sr, /sup 95m/Nb, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 106/Rh, /sup 129m/Te, /sup 129/Te, /sup 132/Te, /sup 131/I, /sup 132/I, /sup 140/Ba, /sup 141/Ce, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 143/Pr, /sup 144/Pr, /sup 147/Nd, /sup 147/Pm, /sup 35/S, /sup 45/Ca, /sup 237/U, and /sup 239/Pu.

  12. Analysis of Windscale and Bikini atoll sediments for Am-242m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    Bowen and Livingston have recently reported the existence of 242 Am in both 1962 nuclear test debris and in a marine algae sample (kelp) contaminated by nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes. The presence of 242m Am (T 1/2 = 152y) was deduced by measuring its daughter product, 242C m. In the case of the fallout debris, the long decay time (25 years) between collection and analysis was argued to preclude the possibility of unsupported 242 Cm being present in the sample. The non-adherence to simple radiometric decay of the 242 Cm measured in two aliquots of the algae sample suggested that a small percentage of the isotope (≈ 3%) was in fact supported by its longer lived parent

  13. Electron microscopy of the Bikini ash which covered the fishing boat, fifth Fukuryu Maru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suito, E; Takiyama, K

    1955-01-01

    The electron microscopy diffraction study of the ash produced by the H-bomb experiment revealed that the fine white powder had a nearly uniform diameter of particles (about 0.3 mm) and was identified as calcite crystals. A coral reef of aragonite might have been decomposed into CaO or into an atonic state owing to the bomb explosion and then recrystallized into calcite by the action of H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ in the air occluding radioactive elements.

  14. Ash of Bikini and its effects on human body. [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakehi, H

    1954-01-01

    The physical and chemical composition of radioactive ashes which fell on the fishermen of the Fukuryu Maru are discussed and a clinical study of its effects is presented. Many measurements of activity are made on ship board at various times. Estimated radiation received by the fishermen in a two-week stay on ship as 200 r. The hazards of contaminated tuna are discussed.

  15. Radiochemical analysis of Bikini ashes fallen on board the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru on March 1, 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K

    1954-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis was done in order to find the proper method of medical treatment for the victim fishermen on board. Analysis was started on March 18, and ash was found to consist mostly of Ca(OH)/sub 2/, activity of which was 0.37 mc/g on April 23. Cations of the 3rd group (especially rare-earth metals) and 5th group were found to have strong activity by chemical separation. Fractions of each group, anions, Zr and Nb fraction, and U fraction were separated by an ion-exchange method.

  16. Radioactive contamination of plants in Japan covered with rainout from H-bomb detonations in March-May 1954 at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Island. Part II. Radioactive elements of contaminated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatazawa, M

    1955-01-01

    Following a fallout estimated at 0.2 microcurie/l, Trifolium repens, Astragalus sinicus, and Rumex japonicus were harvested and analyzed for radioactivity. Most of the radioactivity (2300 to 4700 counts/min/50 g plant ash) was associated with oxalate precipitate. A small amount of activity in the Zn group is attributed to /sup 65/Zn produced by reaction /sup 64/Zn (n,..gamma..) from Zn employed in the mechanical parts of the bomb. Sr-Ba radioactivity was 0.1 that of the rare earth group. Distribution of the radioactive elements was nearly the same as that found on the No. 5 Fukuryu-Maru.

  17. Radioactive contamination of plants in Japan covered with fallout from H-bomb detonations in March-May 1954 at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. I. Distribution of deposited radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatazawa, M; Ishihara, T

    1955-01-01

    In May 1954 rains contained radioactivity up to 0.2 muc./liter. The provisional permissible level of unknown radioisotopes in H/sub 2/O is given as 10/sup -7/ muc./ml for ..beta..- or ..gamma..-emitters. The safety factor for these values is at least 100. From these values the permissible level for foods was calculated as 0.22 muc./day. Food plants tested ranged 0 to 1.25 muc./10g dry matter. It is concluded that serious radioactive contamination of plants was probable.

  18. “Oh! I’m buying this bikini, it’ll fit perfectly when I’ve lost 2 kilos” : a study on how lingerie and swimwear companies influence consumers to buy their products

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ngan; Belul, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 50% of girls and young women are not satisfied with their bodies. A huge reason for this is the thin body ideal dominating today’s social media. Lingerie and swimwear companies like Victoria’s Secret, Hunkemöller and Triangl uses the thin body ideal in their social media marketing but do not get any consequences for it. Today’s generation Z have been affected a lot from this kind of marketing. The purpose of the study was to understand how it is possible that young women from ge...

  19. Why fishing boats were contaminated by radiation. [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, E

    1954-12-01

    Many Japanese fishing boats were examined with a G-M counter following the Bikini test of 1954. Decks and other washable parts were weakly irradiated. Directional relationships of contaminants on individual ships coincided with those of the prevailing winds. Ships to the west of Bikini averaged 123 cpm; those to the east 1800 cpm.

  20. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137 Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  1. Investigation of radioactivities on the wood samples taken from a fishing boat, the 5th Sumiyoshimaru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity survey has been performed on samples taken from a fishing boat, the 5th Sumiyoshimaru. This boat has been presumed to be exposed to the fallout of Bikini hydrogen bomb test. Gamma-ray measurements have been carried out for six wood samples and two soil samples. Since the 137 Cs concentration estimated for all samples were comparable to the fallout of the nuclear test, it was hard to judge whether the boat was definitely exposed to the Bikini fallout. (author)

  2. Radiating paradise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuseler, H.

    1981-05-06

    Decades after the a-bomb experiments in the desert of Nevada, cases of illness occur more frequently: many former soldiers who had to observe the tests as spectators suffer from leukemia, skin and thyroid ulcers. Even worse are the late results of the nuclear weapon tests in the Pacific: on Bikini and Eniwetok, once paradise-like atolls, the death from radiation is waiting, an attempt to recultivate the bombed Bikini Atoll failed.

  3. Investigation of radioactivities on the wood samples taken from a fishing boat, the 5th Sumiyoshimaru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi (Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    Radioactivity survey has been performed on samples taken from a fishing boat, the 5th Sumiyoshimaru. This boat has been presumed to be exposed to the fallout of Bikini hydrogen bomb test. Gamma-ray measurements have been carried out for six wood samples and two soil samples. Since the {sup 137}Cs concentration estimated for all samples were comparable to the fallout of the nuclear test, it was hard to judge whether the boat was definitely exposed to the Bikini fallout. (author).

  4. Příprava závodníka na soutěž v kulturistice

    OpenAIRE

    Nosková, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Title: The Preparation of an Athlete for Bodybuilding Competition Goal: This Thesis aims to describe in detail how to prepare an athlete for a competition in bodybuilding in bikini fitness category. The effect of a training was assessed on the basis of body composition, performance and placing in national competitions. The emphasis was placed on the reduction of body fat while maintaining muscle mass. A partial goal was a participation of a competitor in body building competition in bikini fi...

  5. Preliminary socioeconomic and community planning studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, Goldie W; Rivkin, Malcolm D [Rivkin Associates, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The timing of resettlement on Bikini Atoll and the nature of a master plan to guide construction of a new community depend on four critical determinants which are not yet definitively known. The Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee (BARC) and its consultants have been addressing three of these: a. How long it will take to restore Bikini Island, which will be the main settlement area, to a habitable state. The methods under investigation by BARC for decontaminating the island might be considered as alternatives or, possibly in combination. They vary considerably, not only with respect to cost, but also with respect to important factors such as: - how long it will take to decontaminate the island (i.e. to reduce radiation to levels acceptable within Federal standards), - the necessity of removing existing vegetation and the time and effort needed to restore environment and vegetation to a state sufficient to support a new community at a reasonable standard of amenity, - requirements for repeated or continual application of decontamination procedures (and associated risks), and - implications for potential constraints on the lifestyle of the people who resettle on Bikini Island. b. Adequacy of water resources (groundwater and rainwater catchment potential) on Bikini and Eneu Islands to support both revegetation as necessary, and a new community. c. The likely state of the Bikini people (size of the population, location(s), living conditions, financial commitments, etc.) at the time their atoll is ready for resettlement. d. The judgment and wishes of the Bikini people regarding a community plan in light of all the foregoing factors, once they become known.

  6. Preliminary socioeconomic and community planning studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivkin, Goldie W.; Rivkin, Malcolm D.

    1986-01-01

    The timing of resettlement on Bikini Atoll and the nature of a master plan to guide construction of a new community depend on four critical determinants which are not yet definitively known. The Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee (BARC) and its consultants have been addressing three of these: a. How long it will take to restore Bikini Island, which will be the main settlement area, to a habitable state. The methods under investigation by BARC for decontaminating the island might be considered as alternatives or, possibly in combination. They vary considerably, not only with respect to cost, but also with respect to important factors such as: - how long it will take to decontaminate the island (i.e. to reduce radiation to levels acceptable within Federal standards), - the necessity of removing existing vegetation and the time and effort needed to restore environment and vegetation to a state sufficient to support a new community at a reasonable standard of amenity, - requirements for repeated or continual application of decontamination procedures (and associated risks), and - implications for potential constraints on the lifestyle of the people who resettle on Bikini Island. b. Adequacy of water resources (groundwater and rainwater catchment potential) on Bikini and Eneu Islands to support both revegetation as necessary, and a new community. c. The likely state of the Bikini people (size of the population, location(s), living conditions, financial commitments, etc.) at the time their atoll is ready for resettlement. d. The judgment and wishes of the Bikini people regarding a community plan in light of all the foregoing factors, once they become known

  7. Marca exportada é melhor do que uma apenas local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Strehlau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian bikini brands have a good image either in Europe and United States of America, but little is known about its influence in Brazilian consumers. This study tried to identify what are the main factors that influence the choice of major exported bikini brands by young women. It is also intended to verify if there is a better perceived value concerning to the exported brand. This article is supported by a quantitative exploratory research. A structured questionnaire was developed to obtain data. 179 women between 18 and 35 years old (considered as heavy users belonging to AB social economic level were surveyed. Women were selected using a non-probabilistic, per convenience method was used. A quantitative analysis using SPSS was done. Main findings include the identification that exported bikini brands influence positively the decision process. The most relevant factors founded were fashion (the most important followed by design, model and comfort.

  8. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  9. Aerial radiological and photographic survey of eleven atolls and two islands within the Northern Marshall Islands. Dates of surveys, July-November 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over eleven atolls and two islands within the northern Marshall Islands between September and November 1978. This survey was part of a comprehensive radiological survey, which included extensive terrestrial and marine sampling, to determine possible residual contamination which might remain as a result of the United States nuclear testing program conducted at Bikini Enewetak Atolls between 1946 and 1958. A similar survey was conducted at Enewetak Atoll in 1972. The present survey covered those atolls known to have received direct fallout from the Bravo event, conducted in March 1954 at Bikini Atoll. These included Bikini, Rongelap, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Bikar, Taka, and Utirik Atolls. In addition, several atolls and islands which might have been at the fringes of the Bravo fallout were also surveyed, including Likiep and Ailuk Atolls, Jemo and Mejit Islands, and Wotho Atoll. Ujelang Atoll, which lies approximately 200 km southwest of Enewetak, was also surveyed. Island-averaged terrestrial exposure rates in the range of 30 to 50 μR/h were observed over parts of Bikini Atoll, including Bikini Island, and over the northern part of Rongelap Atoll. Levels over southern Rongelap and over Rongerik Atoll ranged from 4 to 7 μR/h. Levels were somewhat lower at Ailinginae Atoll (approximately 2 μR/h) and at Utirik Atoll (approximately 0.7 μR/h). The variations observed were consistent with what might be expected from the fallout pattern of the Bravo event. Levels at Ailuk, Likiep, Wotho and Ujelang Atolls and at Mejit and Jemo Islands were consistent with 137 Cs activity, due to worldwide fallout, observed within the United States and at other locations in the central Pacific. These four atolls and the two islands, therefore, do not appear to have recieved any significant direct contamination from the Bravo event or the other tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls

  10. Rain from South and snow from North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y

    1954-12-01

    Detection of nuclear explosions by various methods including observations of fission product activity in the atmosphere is discussed. Deposition of 750 cpm on a vase-line coated paper (30 x 30 cm) on May 13 to 16, 1954 was recorded. Eighty-six thousand cpm/1 was observed in rain at Kyoto on May 14, apparently from the May 5 test at Bikini.

  11. Rehabilitation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Arthur S [BDM Corp., VA (United States); [Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates.

  12. Radiological survey of plants, animals, and soil at five atolls in the Marshall Islands; September--October 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Division of Operational Safety's portion of the Pacific Radioecology Program began in 1974 and it is a continuing program to determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides distributed in the foods, plants, animals, and soils of the Central Pacific, especially the Marshall Islands. As part of this program, Wotje, Ailuk, Utirik, Rongelap, and Bikini tolls were visited in 1976 and samples collected. Results of the radiometric analyses of the samples are presented. Results of these analyses indicate that 90 Sr and 137 Cs are predominant in the terrestrial environment and, in addition, 241 Am and 239 240 Pu are also important in the soil from Rongelap and Bikini Atols. Naturally occurring 40 K is the predominant radionuclide in marine organisms, while 60 Co is significant in the tridacnid clams. Amounts of radioactivity vary with distance from the Bikini test site and in relation to the fallout pattern from the March 1954 Bravo test. Thus, samples from Bikini Atol had the greatest amounts of radioactivity while the northern islands of Rongelap had slightly lower amounts. The southern islands of Rongelap Atoll and Utirik Atoll had intermediate amounts of radioactivity while Ailuk and Wotje atolls had the least radioactivity of the atolls visited

  13. Rinnahoidja ja kaks nööriga riidelappi / Sergo Selder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selder, Sergo

    2004-01-01

    5. juulil 1946. aastal tutvustas prantsuse disainer Louis Reard maailmale esmakordselt bikiine. Bikiine esitles striptiisitar Micheline Bernardini moeshow'l Pariisi basseini Piscine Molitor ääres. Reard'i kostüüm sai nime Bikini atolli järgi, kus USA oli nädal varem katsetanud tuumapommi

  14. Book reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1951-01-01

    Survey of the flora of Bikini and other atolls before the atomic-bomb tests were made. The phytoplancton is excluded from the present carefully written and extensive analysis, which is most instructive to every student of tropical coral island floras. A general introduction furnishes an excellent

  15. Rehabilitation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Arthur S.

    1986-01-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates

  16. Contamination control and revegetation (Field trials)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Stone, Earl L.

    1986-01-01

    The LLNL/DOE field program at Bikini Atoll began in 1977. The first few years were devoted to developing an adequate data base from which to do an updated dose assessment of Bikini and Eneu Islands. The results indicated that 137 Cs was the most significant radionuclide, actually accounting for more than 90% of the total estimated wholebody and bone marrow dose, and that the terrestrial food chain (especially coconut) was the most significant potential exposure pathway. Strontium-90 accounts for only about 507% of the total bone marrow dose and the transuranics, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am, less than 1%. Thus, if the intake of 137 Cs can be reduced to 10% or less of its current concentration in food crops the radiological dose for Bikini Island would be within federal guidelines. However, samples of vegetation and soil will be analyzed for Sr and the transuranics to ensure an adequate data for evaluation of these radionuclide. In 1980, prior to the formation of the BARC, the goals of our Marshall Island program were extended to include an initial evaluation of methods to reduce the uptake of 137 Cs by food crops and/or reduce the 137 Cs soil inventory. We expanded one of our experiments and added two more when the BARC was formed and additional funding became available for evaluating the rehabilitation of Bikini Atoll

  17. Radioactivity in rain water and the air observed in Japan 1954-1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y

    1955-01-01

    Radioactivity was detected in the rain in southern Japan beginning May 14, 1954, reaching a maximum of 1 c/1 on May 16 at Kyoto University. Trajectories indicate air came from Bikini via the Philippines and Formosa. Activity from May to Sep 1954, was always stronger on the Pacific side of Japan than on Japan sea side, maximum concentrated at the beginning of rain.

  18. 75 FR 71737 - Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Facilities Pacific Proving Ground Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (now 1946-1962. Republic of the Marshall Islands... Facilities Exclusively Facility name Location Dates Alaska DOE Facilities Amchitka Nuclear Explosion Site... Nuclear Explosion Site.. Rifle 1973-1976. Project Rulison Nuclear Explosion Site..... Grand Valley 1969...

  19. Chernobyl radioactivity impacts and remediation of forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennie, C.D.; Baweja, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the results of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the impacts of strontium, cesium, and plutonium on forestry ecosystems, the toxicity of the radionuclides, remediation techniques such as upgrading the soils with the addition of potassium and calcium, and other possible measures for remediation, based primarily on the Bikini Atoll model.

  20. Bibliography on Chernobyl radioactivity impacts and remediation of forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennie, C.D.; Baweja, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bibliography on the Chernobyl nuclear accident pertaining to radiological sources, distribution of radioactivity, transport of radionuclides in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and biological impacts/indicators. The second section lists references on remediation technologies at Bikini Atoll Islands. References include books and periodicals from Canada, the United States, and European sources.

  1. Fall-out of military nuclear explosions: Marshall Islands, Utah and Nevada states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the author presents 1954 Bikini atoll accident and early and delayed effects on population: non thyroid and thyroid effects (hypothyroidism, nodules) in according to age, radiation doses. In conclusion, the most of late complications are induced by iodine radioisotopes. (5 tabs)

  2. The radioactive paradise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussler, H.

    1980-01-01

    Most of us will still remember with horror: In March 1954, a US H-bomb exploded directly over Bikini atoll. What has become of this island that used to be so romantic. And what has become of Eniwetok and all the small Robinson islands which are radioactive today. Can people live there again. A scientific investigation now destroys all illusions. (orig.) [de

  3. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

  4. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known

  5. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Concentrations of sup(239+240)Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of sup(239+240)Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analysed. A progressive discrimination against sup(239+240)Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for sup(239+240)Pu among all fish, which include bottom-feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom-feeding carnivores and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of sup(239+240)Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known. (author)

  6. The decision-making process in returning relocated populations to the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted a nuclear weapons testing program in the northern Marshall Islands, detonating 66 nuclear weapons at Bikini and Enewetak. The indigenous populations at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls were evacuated prior to the initiation of testing at these respective atolls. Fallout in these cases were typically distributed within a few miles of the detonation. The 15-megaton thermonuclear Bravo device at Bikini resulted in the inadvertent deposition of radioactive fallout on the 253 inhabitants of Rongelap and Utirik atolls. The Rongelap and Utirik populations had not been evacuated prior to this test designed to detonate at about 5 megatons. 65 Rongelap individuals received whole body fallout doses of about 1.8 sievert (180 rem), 18 Ailinginae individuals received whole body doses of about 0.7 sievert (70 rem), and 157 Marshallese individuals at Utirik received a whole body fallout doses of about 0.14 sievert (14 rem.) The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have provided special medical surveillance and treatment of radiation-related injury and illness for the surviving members of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik exposed during the 'Bravo' test. In addition, DOE conducts environmental and radiological monitoring and performs agricultural research studies to characterize the radioactivity remaining at the four atolls of Bikini in the aftermath of the 1946-58 U.S. nuclear testing program. (R.P.)

  7. Late medical consequences of exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Data collected by the Brookhaven Medical Program on the late medical consequences of the exposure to radioactive fallout originated from the detonation of a thermonuclear device on Bikini atoll in Marshall Islands are discussed. (author) 23 refs.; 6 figs.; 9 tabs

  8. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  9. Marshall Islands radiological followup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; McGraw, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    In August, 1968, President Johnson announced that the people of Bikini Atoll would be able to return to their homeland. Thereafter, similar approval was given for the return of the peoples of Enewetak. These two regions, which comprised the Pacific Nuclear Testing Areas from 1946 to 1958, will probably be repopulated by the original inhabitants and their families within the next year. As part of its continuing responsibility to insure the pulbic health and safety in connection with the nuclear program under its sponsorship, ERDA (formerly AEC) has contracted Brookhaven National Laboratory to establish radiological safety and environmental monitoring programs for the returning Bikini and Enewetak peoples. These programs are designed to define the external radiation environment, assess radiation doses from internal emitters in the human food chain, make long range predictions of total doses and dose commitments to individuals an to each population group, and to suggest actions which will minimize doses via the more significant pathways

  10. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in aquatic environments. Annual progress report, 1975--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    The present work is a combination of studies on natural radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb in aquatic environments and on the biogeochemistry of the transuranium elements 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am, in the Bikini Lagoon. The objectives of the biogeochemical studies are to evaluate the cycling of the radionuclides in the aquatic environment from their sources, their distribution within ecosystems, their uptake by biota, and their sinks. Detailed studies of the conditions which now exist some 17 years since the last nuclear detonations at Bikini should give a basis for predicting the effects of large-scale or low-level continuous releases of nuclear waste products in the marine environment

  11. Clean-up of a radioactive spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, W.

    1987-01-01

    Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands of the South Pacific was extensively contaminated with radionuclides deposited by thermonuclear weapons testing in the 1940s and 1950s. In recent years, the U.S. government has attempted to restore the habitability of the islands by cleaning up the remaining radioactive material. Although the island no longer presents an acute radiation risk to inhabitants, plants growing on the island concentrate cesium-137 from the soil, presenting an unacceptable risk to the future population. The behavior of Cs-137 has proved to be an intractable problem that has major implications for the risks associated with transporting and processing high-level nuclear wastes in the U.S. Various proposed soil treatment strategies for Bikini are discussed, including ion-exchange treatments and competing-ion strategies. No fully satisfactory treatment currently exists and the problems and prospects of cleaning up after a major nuclear waste spill are presented

  12. Contamination of the fishes caught by the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru and the foods manufactured from these fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Goto, H; Kono, T; Fujioka, S; Sano, T; Matsuki, T; Watanabe, M; Fujio, M; Akagi, H; Wakisaka, G

    1954-01-01

    The radio-contaminated tunas and other fish caught by the ship in the vicinity of Bikini Atoll were studied. The contamination was caused directly by the radioactive ashes and was limited to the surface of the fish. No radioactivity was detected in muscles and bones. The contamination of tuna expressed as /sup 60/Co was 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -3/ microcurie per sq. cm. of skin and 10/sup -1/ microcurie per g. scales.

  13. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  14. For the Record - A History of the Nuclear Test Personnel Review Program, 1978-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    expanding umbrella overhead ... For minutes the cloud stood solid and impressive, like some gigantic monument, over Bikini. Then finally the shearing of the...from all parts of the target fleet at once. A gigantic flash -- then it was gone. And where it had been now stood a white chimney of water * reaching...the bone/ joints, soft tissue, endocrine system, or multiple myeloma were found. With regard to mortality, the cohort had considerably fewer total

  15. Radiological Situation at the Bomb Test Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of radiological situation at the selected bomb test sites is presented. The report is based on the reports and measurements performed by IAEA while the author was a head of its Physics-Chemistry-Instrumentation Laboratory. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll (USA testing ground), Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls (French testing ground) and Semipalatinsk (SSSR testing ground) have been discussed in some details. (author)

  16. Radiological analyses of Marshall Islands environmental samples, 1974--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Cua, F.T.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported from the radiological analysis of environmental samples collected in the Marshall Islands during 1974 through 1976. Most of the samples were collected on or near the Bikini Atoll and included plants, soil, fish, catchment water, and sediments, with emphasis on local marine and terrestrial food items. Data are presented from γ spectral analysis and the content of 90 Sr and transuranic elements in the samples

  17. Brain activation upon ideal-body media exposure and peer feedback in late adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meulen, Mara; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Braams, Barbara R.; Peters, Sabine; Konijn, Elly A.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Media?s prevailing thin-body ideal plays a vital role in adolescent girls? body image development, but the co-occurring impact of peer feedback is understudied. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test media imagery and peer feedback combinations on neural activity related to thin-body ideals. Twenty-four healthy female late adolescents rated precategorized body sizes of bikini models (too thin or normal), directly followed by ostensible peer feedback (too t...

  18. Annual report of Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Kinki University. Vol 1. (1961). Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations I-VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    An unusually large amount of strong radioactive ash was produced by the thermonuclear test conducted on March 1954 at the Bikini Atoll in the South Pacific by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Under such circumstances, to meet the urgent needs of public health, the studies on the radioactivity of Bikini ash and the radioactive contamination of environment have been started, from the health physics standpoint, with the initiative of the author under close cooperation with the public health officers of local governments in Osaka district since the middle of March 4 1954, when the author was the head of the Department of Biophysics, Osaka City University, School of Medicine. The estimation of the probable dose of radiation the might have been received during their dosage and the accurate estimation of beta-ray energies and the detection of alpha-ray activity as well as the identification of various radioactive nuclides included in the Bikini ash were considered to be urgently needed items of information in estimating the possible hazard due to the internal as well as the external irradiation from the health physics point of view.

  19. Radiological survey of plants, animals, and soil at Christmas Island and seven atolls in the Marshall Islands. Progress report for 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Division of Operational Safety or DOS (now Safety Standards and Compliance) portion of the Laboratory of Radiation Ecology (LRE) Pacific Radiocology Program (formerly Johnston Atoll Program) began on 1 July 1974 and is continuing. The purpose of this program is to determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides distributed in the foods, plants, animals, and soil of the Central Pacific, especially the Marshall Islands. Five field trips were conducted for this program between April 1974 and August 1975, and about 600 samples were collected. Results of the analyses indicate that 90 Sr and 137 Cs are dominant in the terrestrial environment and, in addition, 241 Am and /sup 239,240/Pu are also important in the soil from Bikini and Rongelap atolls. Cobalt-60 and 55 Fe are predominant in the marine environment together with naturally occurring 40 K. Amounts of radioactivity vary between atolls and between islands within an atoll in relation to the distance from the nuclear weapons test sites. Bikini atoll has the highest amounts of radioactivity, but the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll have only slightly lower amounts. Rongerik and Ailinginae atolls and the southern islands of Rongelap Atoll have similar amounts of radioactivity which are lower than Bikini by factors of 5 to 10 or more. Values at Utirik Atoll are lower still, but are higher than amounts at Wotho and Kwajalein atolls. Christmas Island in the Line Islands has the least amount of radioactivity of the areas surveyed for this report

  20. Annual report of Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Kinki University. Vol 1. (1961). Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations I-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    An unusually large amount of strong radioactive ash was produced by the thermonuclear test conducted on March 1954 at the Bikini Atoll in the South Pacific by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Under such circumstances, to meet the urgent needs of public health, the studies on the radioactivity of Bikini ash and the radioactive contamination of environment have been started, from the health physics standpoint, with the initiative of the author under close cooperation with the public health officers of local governments in Osaka district since the middle of March 4 1954, when the author was the head of the Department of Biophysics, Osaka City University, School of Medicine. The estimation of the probable dose of radiation the might have been received during their dosage and the accurate estimation of beta-ray energies and the detection of alpha-ray activity as well as the identification of various radioactive nuclides included in the Bikini ash were considered to be urgently needed items of information in estimating the possible hazard due to the internal as well as the external irradiation from the health physics point of view

  1. Dose assessment in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.

    1978-01-01

    Bikini Atoll and Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands were the sites of major U.S. weapons testing from 1948 through 1958. Both the Bikini and Knewetak people have expressed a desire to return to their native Atolls. In 1968 clean-up and resettlement of Bikini was begun. In 1972-73 the initial survey of Enewetak Atoll was conducted and clean-up began in 1977. Surveys have been conducted at both Atolls to establish the concentrations of radionuclides in the biota and to determine the external exposure rates. Subsequent to the surveys dose assessments have been made to determine the potential dose to returning (100) populations at both Atolls. This talk will include discussions of the relative importance of the critical exposure pathways (i.e., external exposure, inhalation, marine, terrestrial and drinking water), the predominant radionuclides contributing to the predicted doses for each pathway, the doses predicted for alternate living patterns, comparison to Federal Guidelines, the comparison between Atolls, some of the social problems created by adherence to Federal Guidelines and the follow-up research identified and initiated to help refine the dose assessments and better predict the long term use of the Atolls (86). (author)

  2. Dose assessment, radioecology, and community interaction at former nuclear test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.

    1994-11-01

    The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. A total of 66 nuclear devices were tested--23 at Bikini Atoll (total yield of 77 megatons) and 43 at Enewetak Atoll (total yield of 33 megatons). This resulted in contamination of many of the islands at each atoll. The BRAVO test (yield 15 megatons) on March 1, 1954 contaminated several atolls to the east of Bikini Atoll some of which were inhabited. The author has conducted an experimental, monitoring, and dose assessment program at atolls in the northern Marshall Islands for the past 20 years. The goals have been to: (1) determine the radiological conditions at the atolls; (2) provide dose assessments for resettlement options and alternate living patterns; (3) develop and evaluate remedial measures to reduce the dose to people reinhabiting the atolls; and (4) discuss the results with each of the communities and the Republic of the Marshall Islands government officials to help them understand the data as a basis for resettlement decisions. The remaining radionuclides at the atolls that contribute any significant dose are 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, and 241 Am

  3. Comparative incidences of decompression illness in repetitive, staged, mixed-gas decompression diving: is 'dive fitness' an influencing factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Martin Dj; Akroyd, Jim; Williams, Guy D

    2008-06-01

    Wreck diving at Bikini Atoll consists of a relatively standard series of decompression dives with maximum depths in the region of 45-55 metres' sea water (msw). In a typical week of diving at Bikini, divers can perform up to 12 decompression dives to these depths over seven days; on five of those days, divers can perform two decompression dives per day. All the dives employ multi-level, staged decompression schedules using air and surface-supplied nitrox containing 80% oxygen. Bikini is serviced by a single diving operator and so a relatively precise record exists both of the actual number of dives undertaken and of the decompression illness incidents both for customer divers and the dive guides. The dive guides follow exactly the dive profiles and decompression schedules of the customers. Each dive guide will perform nearly 400 decompression dives a year, with maximum depths mostly around 50 msw, compared with an average of 10 (maximum of 12) undertaken typically by each customer diver in a week. The incidence of decompression illness for the customer population (presumed in the absence of medical records) is over ten times higher than that for the dive guides. The physiological reasons for such a marked difference are discussed in terms of customer demographics and dive-guide acclimatization to repetitive decompression stress. The rates of decompression illness for a range of diving populations are reviewed.

  4. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls affected by U.S. nuclear testing: all exposure pathways, remedial measures, and environmental loss of (137)Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F

    2010-01-01

    Radiation doses calculated for people resettling Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll, Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll, and Utrōk Island at Utrōk Atoll are presented. Residence is assumed to begin in 2010. In previous dose assessments it was shown that (137)Cs accounts for about 98% of the total dose for returning residents. About 85 to 90% (depending on the atoll) is via consumption of locally grown foods containing (137)Cs, and about 10 to 15% is due to external exposure from (137)Cs in the soil. These assessments were made using only the radiological half-life of (137)Cs (30.1 y). We have shown since that there is an environmental loss of (137)Cs from soil to groundwater that results in a more rapid loss of (137)Cs from the atoll ecosystem. The mean effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls is 8.5 y. Moreover, treatment of coconut trees with potassium (K) reduces (137)Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat at Bikini Atoll to about 5% of pretreatment concentrations. The magnitude of reduction is dependent on the concentration of (137)Cs in soil, and thereby in food crops, and is less for Enjebi and Rongelap Islands than for Bikini Island. Treatment of food crops and fruit trees with K and removal of the top 15 cm of soil around houses and community buildings prior to construction to reduce external exposure where people spend most of their time has been presented to the communities as a "Combined Option" remediation strategy. Doses presented here are calculated using the Combined Option, effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls, and a diet of both imported and local foods. The average natural background dose in the Marshall Islands, plus the anthropogenic nuclear test-related dose at Bikini, Enjebi, and Rongelap Islands, is less for each of the islands than the average background dose in the U.S. and Europe.

  5. The effective and environmental half-life of 137Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Stoker, A. Carol

    2003-01-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of 137 Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of 137 Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of 137 Cs and 90 Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of 137 Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the 137 Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the 137 Cs/ 90 Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the 137 Cs/ 90 Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the 137 Cs/ 90 Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less than 17 years. The magnitude of the decrease below 17 years depends on

  6. Terrestrial radiation measurements in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    With the prospect of habitation in the near future, radiological surveys were undertaken of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls to provide a basis for determining whether or not the atolls can be safely reinhabited. The surveys included all of the forty islands within Enewetak Atoll, but only the two principal islands, Bikini and Eneu Islands, of Bikini Atoll. These atolls were former U.S. nuclear weapons test sites in the Pacific. Integral parts of the surveys were the measurements of the distributions of radioactivity in the soil and the resulting gamma ray exposure rates for external dose estimation. Numerous soil samples were collected from both atolls for analysis by Ge (Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry techniques. At Enewetak Atoll the gamma exposure rates were measured by TLDs and a helicopter-borne array of Nal detectors, while at Bikini Atoll portable Nal detectors, pressurized ion-chambers, and TLDs were utilized. The predominant species measured in the soil samples collected from both atolls were 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu, 137 Cs and 60 Co with the latter two nuclides being the primary contributors to the gamma-ray exposure rates. The geographical distribution of the exposure rates measured on both atolls, was highly variable ranging from less than 1 μR/h on islands that had not been impacted radiologically by the testing program, to over 100 μR/h near weapon detonation sites. Thus, within Enewetak Atoll, the highest soil activities and gamma-ray exposure rates were measured on the northern islands, where the weapons testing had been most intense. Bikini Island exhibited contamination levels that were considerably higher than those on Eneu Island. Generally, the highest activity levels were observed within the island interiors or in proximity to ground zero sites, and could usually be related to the surrounding vegetation density. The island of Yvonne, within Enewetak Atoll, is the most severely contaminated land area. Particles containing as much as several

  7. The effective and environmental half-life of 137Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, William L; Conrado, Cynthia L; Bogen, Kenneth T; Stoker, A Carol

    2003-01-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 (137Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of 137Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of 137Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of 137Cs and 90Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of 137Cs and 90Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of 137Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the 137Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the 137Cs/90Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less than 17 years. The magnitude of the decrease below 17 years depends on the ELH for 90Sr

  8. Distribution of cesium-137 in tree crop products collected from residence islands impacted by the U.S. nuclear test program in the northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, S.K.G.; Kehl, S.R.; Martinelli, R.E.; Tamblin, M.W.; Hamilton, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Marshall Islands Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has completed a series of radiological surveys at Bikini, Rongelap, Utroek, and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands designed to take a representative sample of food supplies with emphasis on determining 137 Cs activity concentrations in common food plants. Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are the most common and abundant food plant, and provided a common sample type to characterize the level and variability of activity concentrations of 137 Cs in plant foods collected from different islands and atolls. Other dominant food types included Pandanus (Pandanus spp.) and breadfruit (Actocarpus spp.). In general, the activity concentration of 137 Cs in food plants was found to decrease significantly between the main residence islands on Bikini, Rongelap, Utrōk, and Enewetak Atolls. The mean activity concentration of 137 Cs measured in drinking coconut meat and juice was 0.72 (95 % CI 0.68-0.77) and 0.34 (95 % CI 0.30-0.38) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Bikini Island; 0.019 (95 % CI 0.017-0.021) and 0.027 (95 % CI 0.023-0.031) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Rongelap Island; 0.010 (95 % CI 0.007-0.013) and 0.007 (95 % CI 0.004-0.009) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Utroek Island; and 0.002 (95 % CI 0.0013-0.0024) and 0.002 (95 % CI 0.001-0.0025) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Enewetak Island. High levels of variability are reported across all islands. These results will be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of predictive dose assessments, help characterize levels of uncertainty and variability in activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides in plant foods, and allow atoll communities to make informed decisions about resettlement and possible options for cleanup and rehabilitation of islands and atolls. (author)

  9. Follow-up radiological surveillance, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    The political approvals have been given for the return of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls to their original inhabitants. These two regions, which comprised the Pacific Nuclear Testing Areas from 1946 to 1958, are now being repopulated by their original inhabitants and their families. Recent assessments of internal and external exposure pathways at Bikini and Enewetak have indicated that doses and dose commitments in excess of current radiation protection guidelines are possible or even likely for persons living in these areas. Rongelap and Utirik Atolls, which were downwind of the 1954 Bravo event, also received significant fallout; potential radiological problems exist in these areas as well. In view of this prospect, follow-up environmental monitoring and personnel monitoring programs are being established to maintain our cognizance of radiological conditions, and to make corrective action where necessary. The unexpected finding of detectable amounts (above background) of plutonium in the urine of individuals at Bikini and Rongelap Atolls also raises the possibility of radiological problems in the long term from environmentally-derived plutonium via pathways which are not completely understood. This finding adds further impetus to the surveillance programs for an area where real radiological concerns for the general public are already known to exist. The continuing environmental and personnel monitoring programs which this paper describes are a necessary part of the BNL radiological safety program in the Marshall Islands, which is designed to do the following: (1) elucidate the internal exposure pathways; (2) define the external radiation environment; (3) assess the doses and dose commitments from radioactivity in the environment; (4) provide the feedback necessary to improve existing predictive modelling of radiological trends; and (5) suggest actions which will minimize doses via the more significant pathways. (author)

  10. Safety and Environmental Protection Division. Progress report, January 1, 1974--December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the analysis of food chain samples collected during 1974 and 1975 at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am remaining in the environment from the 1946-1958 nuclear tests. Data on levels of radioactivity in environmental samples and SO 2 and NO/sub x/ in air samples collected in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory during 1975 are reported. Samples of surface air, surface waters, ground water, sediments and biota from streams, soils, grass, and milk were analyzed. Abstracts of papers published during 1974 and 1975 are included

  11. Kiss my asterisk a feisty guide to punctuation and grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Baranick, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Grammar has finally let its hair down! Unlike uptight grammar books that overwhelm us with every single grammar rule, Kiss My Asterisk is like a bikini: it's fun, flirty, and covers only the most important bits. Its lessons, which are 100 percent free of complicated grammar jargon, have been carefully selected to include today's most common, noticeable errors—the ones that confuse our readers or make them wonder if we are, in fact, smarter than a fifth grader. What is the proper use of an apostrophe? When should an ellipsis be used instead of an em dash? Why do we capitalize President Obama bu

  12. IAEA Newsbriefs. V. 13, no. 1(78). Jan-Feb 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This issue gives brief information on the following topics: IAEA Board Meets in March, Director General ElBaradei Initiates Reviews, Nuclear Energy and Climate Change, States Honour Dr. Hans Blix, Radiological Conditions on Bikini Atoll Reassessed, Radiological Study of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls Nears Completion, Nuclear Inspections in Iraq, New Laboratory Set for Seibersdorf, Vienna Library Receives IAEA Collection, Developing Africa's Agricultural Economies, Marine Scientific Expedition to Northwest Pacific, Experts Target Radioactive Waste Management Needs in Russia, States Move to Accept Safeguards Protocol, In Memoriam, More States Sign Safety Convention, 1998 IAEA Scientific Meetings, New IAEA books, and other short information

  13. Notorious: Hitchcock’s good neighbor film

    OpenAIRE

    Arlindo Castro

    2000-01-01

    The New York release of Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious occurred in August 1946, one month after the Bikini atomic explosions, and one year after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. “Is mankind dying of curiosity?” asked a double page Time magazine ad, in the same issue that published a review of the film. “Time’s Science department noted recently,” readers were told, “that people everywhere have one great Fear: will the curiosity of nuclear physicists someday set off a giant chain reactio...

  14. Notorious: Hitchcock’s good neighbor film Notorious: Hitchcock’s good neighbor film

    OpenAIRE

    Arlindo Castro

    2008-01-01

    The New York release of Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious occurred in August 1946, one month after the Bikini atomic explosions, and one year after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. “Is mankind dying of curiosity?” asked a double page Time magazine ad, in the same issue that published a review of the film. “Time’s Science department noted recently,” readers were told, “that people everywhere have one great Fear: will the curiosity of nuclear physicists someday set off a giant chain react...

  15. On the radioactivity of the atmosphere. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigue, H

    1949-01-01

    An unknown radioactive substance, of a 25- hr half life period, was recorded in July-August, 1946, by an ionization chamber at 6000 m altitude (from an airplane), the content measured being about 2 x 10/sup -18/ curie. In July to August, 1948, at altitudes 7300 to 8700 m, the content found was much lower (0.005 to 0.02 curie). It is surmised that the phenomenon might be traced to the atomic bomb explosion at Bikini on July 1, 1946. Other hypotheses are meteoric origin or a nuclear reaction due to cosmic rays.

  16. Investigation of the atomic cloud. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigue, H

    1949-01-01

    In three out of twenty-three flights at 6000 meters over France in July 1946, an unknown radioactive material with a half-life of 25 +- 5 h was detected. The average concentration was 0.013 x 10/sup -16/ curies/cm/sup 3/ radio equivalent. The first detection was on July 20, 1946, twenty days after the first explosion at Bikini. Similar material was detected in six out of fifteen flights in July 1948, the first on July 2, seventy-five days after the Eniwetok test.

  17. Invisible Nuclear Catastrophe Consequences of the U.S. Atomic and Hydrogen Bomb Testings in the Marshall Islands: Focusing on the “Overlooked” Ailuk Atoll

    OpenAIRE

    Takemine, Seiichiro

    2018-01-01

    The United States conducted sixty-seven nuclear tests in total at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. T his article discusses the U.S. nuclear test issues in the Marshall Islands, focusing on the local people who have not been able t o apply for the U.S. compensation, especially those on Ailuk Atoll. Until today, little attention has been given to these areas.Interviews with survivors as well as declassified U.S. documents make it clear that the nuclear te...

  18. Determination of /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/Pu ratio in the environmental samples based on the measurement of Lx/. cap alpha. -ray activity ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K.; Sakanoue, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1984-06-01

    The determination of the /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/Pu isotopic ratio in environmental samples has been attempted by the measurement of the Lx/..cap alpha..-ray activity ratio using a Ge-LEPS (low-energy photon spectrometer) and a surface-barrier Si detector. By this method, interesting data were obtained for various samples collected from Thule, Greenland, Bikini Atoll and Nagasaki, as well as for some soils collected from near and off-site locations of atomic power stations.

  19. Message of Hiroshima. The memories and comments of a nuclear scientist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, S. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    A review of the research conducted during the Second World War by Japanese scientists and their in-situ experiences on the Hiroshima atomic bomb effects a week after the explosion is given. Details are presented on the activity data of samples from the site, on the results of half-life measurements and of chemical analyses. From these data the site of explosion and the neutron flux on the surface were computed. The damages caused by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs were compared. Further, an account on the powder from the Bikini H-bomb explosion is given. Finally, the author protests against the military uses of nuclear energy.

  20. Radioactivity in the pelagic fish. I. Distribution of radioactivity in various tissues of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, K; Yamada, K; Bito, M; Takase, A; Tanaka, S

    1955-01-01

    Pelagic fishes caught after an atomic explosion experiment at Bikini Atolls in the Pacific were examined by radiochemical techniques. Generally the radioactivity was large in liver, kidney, gall bladder and heart, and then in pyloric ceca, stomach, intestine, and gonad; there was little activity in skin, bone, and muscles. This order varied with species. Large radioactivity of the stomach contents did not necessarily mean large activity in the tissues, indicating considerable participation of diffusion of sea water into the fish body. Muscles from various sites showed slight difference in the activity. The dark muscle, however, showed several times as large activity as ordinary muscle.

  1. Radioactivity of fish II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Hiwatashi, Y; Tamari, T; Yoshitake, N; Tajima, D

    1955-01-01

    Various tissues of fish captured east of Formosa after the Bikini H-Bomb experiment had radioactivities (detected on May 27, 1954) in counts/min/ash from 5 g. fresh tissues: blood 2414, eyeball 49, heart muscle 111, white muscle 11, red muscle (chiai) 123, bone 46, skin 28, pancreas 131, liver 522, stomach muscle 106, stomach contents 52, spermatozoa 47, and spleen 504. High radioactivities in blood and blood synthesizing organs (liver and spleen) were emphasized. The radioactivity in the blood had a half-life of 34 to 35 days and the maximum energy of ..beta..-ray of approximate 0.4 m.e.v.

  2. Mortality of veteran participants in the crossroads nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.C.; Thaul, S.; Page, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Operation CROSSROADS, conducted at Bikini Atoll in 1946, was the first post World War II test of nuclear weapons. Mortality experience of 40,000 military veteran participants in CROSSROADS was compared to that of a similar cohort of nonparticipating veterans. All-cause mortality of the participants was slightly increased over nonparticipants by 5% (p < .001). Smaller increases in participant mortality for all malignancies (1.4%, p = 0.26) or leukemia (2.0%, p = 0.9) were not statistically significant. These results do not support a hypothesis that radiation had increased participant cancer mortality over that of nonparticipants. 8 refs

  3. The message of Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, S.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the research conducted during the Second World War by Japanese scientists and their in-situ experiences on the Hiroshima atomic bomb effects a week after the explosion is given. Details are presented on the activity data of samples from the site, on the results of half-life measurements and of chemical analyses. From these data the site of explosion and the neutron flux on the surface were computed. The damages caused by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs were compared. Further, an account on the powder from the Bikini H-bomb explosion is given. Finally, the author protests against the military uses of nuclear energy. (R.P.)

  4. Evaluation of critical pathways, radionuclides, and remedial measures for reducing the radiological dose to returning populations at a former nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W. L., LLNL

    1997-11-01

    Bikini Island, the major residence island at Bikini Atoll, was contaminated with radioactive fallout as a result of the BRAVO test conducted on March 1, 1954. We have identified the critical radionuclides and supplied radiological data needed to develop dose estimates for all possible exposure pathways. These estimates show that the major dose to returning populations would result from ingestion of cesium-137 (137 Cs) in locally grown terrestrial foods where the predicted population average effective dose exceeds current federal guidelines. Consequently, we designed several long-term field experiments to develop and evaluate methods to reduce the 137 Cs content in locally grown foods.This paper gives a general outline of the remediation experiments with a more detailed description of a preferred combined option. Our comparative evaluation on various remedial methods show that the combined option--potassium treatment of the entire islands with limited excavation of soil in village an d housing areas--will be effective in reducing the dose to about 10% of pretreatment levels, and offers very significant benefits with respect to adverse environmental impacts as well as savings in overall costs, time, and required expert resources.

  5. Marshall Islands radiological followup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; McCraw, T.F.

    In August, 1968, President Johnson announced that the people of Bikini Atoll would be able to return to their homeland. Thereafter, similar approval was given for the return of the peoples of Enewetak. These two regions, which comprised the Pacific Nuclear Testing Areas from 1946 to 1958, will probably be repopulated by the original inhabitants and their families within the next year. As part of its continuing responsibility to insure the public health and safety in connection with the nuclear programs under its sponsorship, ERDA (formerly AEC) has contracted Brookhaven National Laboratory to establish radiological safety and environmental monitoring programs for the returning Bikini and Enewetak peoples. These programs are described in the following paper. They are designed to define the external radiation environment, assess radiation doses from internal emitters in the human food chain, make long range predictions of total doses and dose commitments to individuals and to each population group, and to suggest actions which will minimize doses via the more significant pathways

  6. Possible differences in biological availability of isotopes of plutonium: Report of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercher, J.R.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a workshop conducted on the apparent different bioavailability of isotopes 238 Pu and 239 Pu. There is a substantial body of evidence that 238 Pu as commonly found in the environment is more biologically available than 239 Pu. Studies of the Trinity Site, Nevada Test Site from nonnuclear and nuclear events, Rocky Flats, Enewetak and Bikini, and the arctic tundra support this conclusion and indicate that the bioavailability of 238 Pu is more than an order of magnitude greater than that of 239 Pu. Plant and soil studies from controlled environments and from Savannah River indicate no isotopic difference in availability of Pu to plants; whereas studies at the Trinity Site do suggest a difference. While it is possible that these observations can be explained by problems in the experimental procedure and analytical techniques, this possibility is remote given the ubiquitous nature of the observations. Studies of solubility of Pu in the stomach contents of cattle grazing at the Nevada Test Site and from fish from Bikini Atoll both found that 238 Pu was more soluble than 239 Pu. Studies of the Los Alamos effluent stream indicate that as particle size decreases, the content of 238 Pu relative to 239 Pu increases

  7. Possible differences in biological availability of isotopes of plutonium: Report of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercher, J.R.; Gallegos, G.M. [eds.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a workshop conducted on the apparent different bioavailability of isotopes {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu. There is a substantial body of evidence that {sup 238}Pu as commonly found in the environment is more biologically available than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Trinity Site, Nevada Test Site from nonnuclear and nuclear events, Rocky Flats, Enewetak and Bikini, and the arctic tundra support this conclusion and indicate that the bioavailability of {sup 238}Pu is more than an order of magnitude greater than that of {sup 239}Pu. Plant and soil studies from controlled environments and from Savannah River indicate no isotopic difference in availability of Pu to plants; whereas studies at the Trinity Site do suggest a difference. While it is possible that these observations can be explained by problems in the experimental procedure and analytical techniques, this possibility is remote given the ubiquitous nature of the observations. Studies of solubility of Pu in the stomach contents of cattle grazing at the Nevada Test Site and from fish from Bikini Atoll both found that {sup 238}Pu was more soluble than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Los Alamos effluent stream indicate that as particle size decreases, the content of {sup 238}Pu relative to {sup 239}Pu increases.

  8. Influence of bodybuilding classes on physical qualities of the qualified sportswomen in different phases of the specific biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Mulik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to conduct researches of influence of classes of the sportswomen who are going in for bodybuilding and fitness-bikini on manifestation of physical qualities in different phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. Material & Methods: researches were conducted in sports fitness-clubs of Kharkov "Feromon", "Gorod", “King” with the qualified sportswomen who are going in for bodybuilding and fitness-bikini within 3 months of the preparatory period in number of 14 people. We used as methods of the research: the analysis of references and testing of level of motive qualities in separate phases of OMC. Results: the theoretical analysis of features of the accounting of phases of OMC at sportswomen is submitted and the testing of the level of development of physical qualities in different phases of the specific biological cycle at the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding, is held. Conclusions: the received results demonstrate that physical efficiency of the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding, is not identical in phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. It is revealed that the best conditions for performance of considerable exercise stresses in post-ovulatory and post-menstrual phases of OMC, therefore it is expedient to plan them in the preparatory periods of the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding.

  9. Costs of berm and causeway alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Arthur S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments initiated in February 1985 and still in progress have demonstrated that removal of 30 cm of topsoil brings the specific activity of Bikini Island soil down to the level of that on Eneu and reduces the external exposure rate to gamma rays from an average of 68 pr/h to 5 pr/h. The analytical data completed thus far for food crops grown in the experimental and control areas indicate a parallel response. During 1986 results became available showing that removal of topsoil would also limit productivity. However, it is now known that with adequate care the excavated plot can be as productive as the unexcavated (natural) one. The removal of 30 cm (1 foot) of topsoil at Bikini Island would produce large amounts of waste vegetable matter and approximately 719,000 cubic meters of contaminated topsoil. Three principal alternatives have been considered for the disposal of the spoil. The cost estimates for these and other rehabilitation alternatives were developed in detail by a panel of engineers, chaired by BARC member Arthur S. Kubo, which met in January 1986. The panel's report constitutes Appendix C of BARC Report No. 4

  10. Resuspension studies in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, J H; Homan, D N; Robison, W L

    1997-07-01

    The contribution of inhalation exposure to the total dose for residents of the Marshall Islands was monitored at occasions of opportunity on several islands in the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. To determine the long-term potential for inhalation exposure, and to understand the mechanisms of redistribution and personal exposure, additional investigations were undertaken on Bikini Island under modified and controlled conditions. Experiments were conducted to provide key parameters for the assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: characterization of the contribution of plutonium in soil-borne aerosols as compared to sea spray and organic aerosols, determination of plutonium resuspension rates as measured by the meteorological flux-gradient method during extreme conditions of a bare-soil vs. a stabilized surface, determination of the approximate individual exposures to resuspended plutonium by traffic, and studies of exposures to individuals in different occupational environments simulated by personal air sampling of workers assigned to a variety of tasks. Enhancement factors (defined as ratios of the plutonium-activity of suspended aerosols relative to the plutonium-activity of the soil) were determined to be less than 1 (typically 0.4 to 0.7) in the undisturbed, vegetated areas, but greater than 1 (as high as 3) for the case studies of disturbed bare soil, roadside travel, and for occupational duties in fields and in and around houses.

  11. Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Inventories of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of 239+240 Pu and lesser amounts of 241 Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of 239+240 Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized 239+240 Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of 239+240 Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of 241 Am to 239+240 Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of 239+240 Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  12. Exposure to thin-ideal media affect most, but not all, women: Results from the Perceived Effects of Media Exposure Scale and open-ended responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Daniels, Elizabeth A; Bates, Morgan E; Tylka, Tracy L

    2017-12-01

    Findings conflict as to whether thin-ideal media affect women's body satisfaction. Meta-analyses of experimental studies reveal small or null effects, but many women endorse appearance-related media pressure in surveys. Using a novel approach, two samples of women (Ns=656, 770) were exposed to bikini models, fashion models, or control conditions and reported the effects of the images their body image. Many women reported the fashion/bikini models made them feel worse about their stomachs (57%, 64%), weight (50%, 56%), waist (50%, 56%), overall appearance (50%, 56%), muscle tone (46%, 52%), legs (45%, 48%), thighs (40%, 49%), buttocks (40%, 43%), and hips (40%, 46%). In contrast, few women (1-6%) reported negative effects of control images. In open-ended responses, approximately one-third of women explicitly described negative media effects on their body image. Findings revealed that many women perceive negative effects of thin-ideal media in the immediate aftermath of exposures in experimental settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radionuclides in sediments and seawater at Rongelap Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    The present concentrations and distributions of long-lived, man-made radionuclides in Rongelap Atoll lagoon surface sediments, based on samples collected and analyzed in this report. The radionuclides were associated with debris generated with the 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll. Presently, only {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic radionuclides are found associated with the surface sediments in any quantity. Other radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs, are virtually absent and have either decayed or migrated from the deposits to the overlying seawater. Present inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 249+240}Pu in the surface layer at Rongelap are estimated to be 3% of the respective inventories in surface sediments from Bikini Atoll. There is a continuous slow release of the transuranics from the sediments back to the water column. The inventories will only slowly change with time unless the chemical-physical processes that now regulate this release to the water column are changed or altered.

  14. Costs of berm and causeway alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Arthur S [Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, Berkeley, CA (United States); [BDM Corporation, McLean, VA (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Experiments initiated in February 1985 and still in progress have demonstrated that removal of 30 cm of topsoil brings the specific activity of Bikini Island soil down to the level of that on Eneu and reduces the external exposure rate to gamma rays from an average of 68 pr/h to 5 pr/h. The analytical data completed thus far for food crops grown in the experimental and control areas indicate a parallel response. During 1986 results became available showing that removal of topsoil would also limit productivity. However, it is now known that with adequate care the excavated plot can be as productive as the unexcavated (natural) one. The removal of 30 cm (1 foot) of topsoil at Bikini Island would produce large amounts of waste vegetable matter and approximately 719,000 cubic meters of contaminated topsoil. Three principal alternatives have been considered for the disposal of the spoil. The cost estimates for these and other rehabilitation alternatives were developed in detail by a panel of engineers, chaired by BARC member Arthur S. Kubo, which met in January 1986. The panel's report constitutes Appendix C of BARC Report No. 4.

  15. The effective and environmental half-life of {sup 137}Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, William L. E-mail: robison1@llnl.gov; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Stoker, A. Carol

    2003-07-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of {sup 137}Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of {sup 137}Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the{sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less

  16. Findings of the Marshall Islands nationwide radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Marshall Islands were affected by nuclear weapon tests carried out over the period 1946-1958, and particularly from the Bravo detonation on 1 March 1954, which deposited heavy fallout on the islands of Rongelap atoll about 100 miles to the east of Bikini. Surveys of residual radioactivity of the northern atolls of the Marshalls group had been carried out by the US Department of Energy, but continuing concerns about health effects of exposure to fallout, particularly thyroid disease, led the Marshall Islands government in 1989 to set up a study of residual radioactivity across the entire country. A study of residual radioactivity on all significant atolls and islands was carried out by ground surveys during 1990-94. The study was supervised by an international panel of 5 non US scientists. The measurements included portable gamma spectrometer measurements at points on a grid pattern, with associated soil samples and periodic soil profile and vegetation samples. From these measurements external exposure rates from deposited fallout have been calculated, and estimates made of the ingestion doses which might be received by resident populations consuming diets made up of differing amounts of locally produced foodstuffs. On the basis of a survey of dietary intake by a Rongelap community a current diet (containing 18% of foods from local sources) and a more traditional diet (75% from local sources) were used for comparison purposes. Measurements were made on 432 islands of the 29 atolls and 5 islands that make up the Marshalls group. Atolls in the latitude range 9-12 degrees north have Cs-137 soil concentrations which are elevated above levels expected from global fallout. Over 90% of the radiation dose from residual fallout is attributable to Cs-137, and arises primarily from dietary intake. Doses to actual or hypothetical residents are about 4 times greater for traditional as compared with current diets. For four atolls there are some islands where

  17. Reassessment of the potential radiological doses for residents resettling Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Phillips, W.A.; Mount, M.E.; Clegg, B.R.; Conrado, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to refine the dose predictions, subsequent to the cleanup effort, for alternate living patterns proposed for resettlement of Enewetak Atoll. The most recent data developed from projects at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls for concentration and uptake of Cs, Sr, Pu, and Am were used in conjunction with recent dietary information and current dose models to predict annual dose rates and 30- and 50-y integral doses (dose commitments). The terrestrial food chain in the most significant exposure pathway - it contributes more than 50% of the total dose - and external gamma exposure is the second most significant pathway. Other pathways evaluated are the marine food chain, drinking water, and inhalation

  18. Artificial radioactivity in the sea near Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y; Sugiura, Y; Kameda, K

    1955-01-01

    Sea water collected around the Bikini Atoll from July to September 1954, was analyzed for total radioactivity by adding 2 g solid NH/sub 4/Cl, 1 ml of an aqueous solution of Ferric alum (86.3 g/l), and 1 ml of BaCl/sub 2/ solution (17.8 g/l) to 1 l of H/sub 2/O heated to 60 to 70 while being stirred. NH/sub 4/OH was added until the solution was faintly pink to phenolphthalein. After 2-min boiling the precipitate settled on standing for several hours at room temperature before being filtered on a filter disk lain above a glass filter. Counting rates of 2.1 +- 1.6 to 140.8 +- 6.8 counts/min/l were obtained.

  19. Social contention about safety of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kazuyasu

    1978-01-01

    In Japan, the contentions and arguments on the safety of nuclear power generation have been active since its first introduction, and these are greatly influenced by the nation's experiences of atomic bombs in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Bikini. As the result, the attitude of peoples toward the acceptance of nuclear power plants is significantly different from that in other countries. The situation in Japan of social contentions about nuclear power safety is explained in two aspects: acceptance of the safety, by peoples and Japanese pattern of safety contentions. In both upstream and downstream of nuclear power generation, not only the safety but also the right or wrong for nuclear power generation itself is discussed. The problem of nuclear power safety has gone into the region beyond the technological viewpoint. The pattern of safety contentions in Japan is the entanglement of three sectors; i.e. local people, labor unions and political parties, enterprises and administration, and intellectuals. (Mori, K.)

  20. Plutonium mobilization from sedimentary sources to solution in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Inventories of plutonium radionuclides greatly in excess of global fallout levels persists in the benthic environments of Bikini and Eniwetok Atolls. It now appears that the atolls have reached a chemical steadystate condition with respect to the partitioning of 239+240 Pu between solution and solid phases of the environment. The mobilized 239+240 Pu has solute-like characteristics, passes rapidly and readily through dialysis membranes, has adsorption characteristics similar to those of fallout plutonium in the open ocean, and exists in solution primarily as some oxidized +5 or +6 chemical species. Water-column profiles of 239+240 Pu taken outside the atolls show a plutonium excess in the deep water mass. This remobilized 239+240 Pu possibly originates from the contaminated sediments previously deposited on the outer slopes of the atolls and surrounding basins

  1. Radioecological studies in early period of NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Ryushi

    2004-01-01

    Japanese tuna-fishing boat Fukuryumaru No.5 was exposed to heavy radioactive fallout due to the nuclear test explosion carried out by U.S.A. at Bikini Atoll of Marshal Islands in the central part of Pacific Ocean on March 1, 1954. Following this accident, radioactivity was detected in various environmental samples including rain, marine fishes and agricultural crops. Science Council of Japan organized the new research group of many scientists in the field of fisheries, agricultural, medical and biological studies and radiation protection studies. Government of Japan established National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in 1957. In this Institute various radioecological studies have been carried out. In this paper, some of these radioecological studies carried out in early period of NIRS are described. (author)

  2. Anthropogenic 236U recorded in annually banded coral skeleton at Majuro atoll, the equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Eto, Asuka; Takahashi, Yoshio; Steier, Peter; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Historical 236 U/ 238 U atom ratio and concentration of 236 U were determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) in skeletons of dated modern coral core sample collected from Majuro atoll, equatorial Pacific, to reconstruct anthropogenic 236 U inputs to the Equatorial Pacific. The maximum hydrogen bomb-pulses of 236 U/ 238 U and 236 U concentration, 2.83x10 -9 and 1.85x10 7 atom/g, in an annually resolved coral core were captured in 1954 (Operation Castle at Bikini and Enewetok atolls). The values were abruptly decreased in a few years, and they have been gradually decreased over time. Our results allow studies of not only the present distribution pattern, but gives access to the temporal evolution of 236 U in surface seawater of North Equatorial Current which is introduced to the Japan Sea and the North West Pacific Ocean as Kuroshio and Tsushima currents over the past decades. (author)

  3. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

    2009-04-20

    The United States conducted 24 nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll with a total yield of 76.8 Megatons (MT). The Castle series produced about 60% of this total and included the Bravo test that was the primary source of contamination of Bikini Island and Rongelap and Utrok Atolls. One of three aerial drops missed the atoll and the second test of the Crossroads series, the Baker test, was an underwater detonation. Of the rest, 17 were on barges on water and 3 were on platforms on an island; they produced most of the contamination of islands at the atoll. There were 42 tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll with a total yield of 31.7 MT (Simon and Robison, 1997; UNSCEAR, 2000). Of these tests, 18 were on a barge over wateror reef, 7 were surface shots, 2 aerial drops, 2 under water detonations, and 13 tower shots on either land or reef. All produced some contamination of various atoll islands. Rongelap Atoll received radioactive fallout as a result of the Bravo test on March 1, 1954 that was part of the Castle series of tests. This deposition was the result of the Bravo test producing a yield of 15 MT, about a factor of three to four greater than the predicted yield that resulted in vaporization of more coral reef and island than expected and in the debris-cloud reaching a much higher altitude than anticipated. High-altitude winds were to the east at the time of detonation and carried the debris-cloud toward Rongelap Atoll. Utrok Atoll also received fallout from the Bravo test but at much lower air and ground-level concentrations than at Rongelap atoll. Other atolls received Bravo fallout at levels below that of Utrok [other common spellings of this island and atoll (Simon, et al., 2009)]. To avoid confusion in reading other literature, this atoll and island are spelled in a variety of ways (Utrik, Utirik, Uterik or Utrok). Dose assessments for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll (Robison et al., 1997), Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll (Robison et al., 1987), Rongelap Island at

  4. Atomic energy in its repercussions on life and health. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-01-01

    The papers given at the July 1955 conference in Paris on the dangers of atomic energy and radiation are presented. The topics discussed include the dangers inherent in atomic equipment, the radioactive effects of atomic explosions, a review of the analyses made in Japan of the radioactive ash from the March 1954 Bikini explosions, long distance propagation and characteristics of the radioactive particles emitted in atomic explosions, eventual influences of atomic explosions on evolution, radioactivity in air and rain, radioactive clouds, meteorological effects of atomic explosions, a general review of the biological effects of ionizing radiation, medical problems posed by the immediate effects of atomic explosions, cataracts received from explosions or research in atomic energy, atomic radiation and aquatic life, biological danger from powders emitting ..beta.. rays, effect of weak doses of radiation, ionizing radiation and the gases in atomic industry, and therapy for radiolesions.

  5. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-01-01

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant 137 Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose

  6. Concentrations of radionuclides in reef and lagoon pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Marsh, K.V.

    1981-07-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent man-made radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands of the Northern Marshall Islands. The atolls and islands include Rongelap, Utirik, Taka, Bikar, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Likiep, Jemo, Ailuk, Mejet, Wotho, Ujelang and Bikini. Over 4000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef fish, pelagic species, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. A report is given of all available concentration data for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, /sup 239+240/Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am as well as naturally occurring 40 K and other gamma emitting radionuclides in tissues and organs of different species of fish collected from the atolls

  7. Radiochemical analysis of the body of the late Mr. Kuboyama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K; Ikedo, N; Kimura, K; Kawanishi, H; Kimura, M

    1956-01-01

    Analyses were carried out of various organs of Mr. Kuboyama 200 days after he had exposed himself to radiation of the atomic bomb explosion on Bikini Atoll, March, 1954. By ion-exchange chromatography, the presence of the following nuclides was indicated: /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 144/Pr in the bone (I) (20 x 10/sup -12/ counts/g. fresh wt.). Liver (II), and Kidneys (III); /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb in II and III; /sup 106/Rh, /sup 129m/Te, and /sup 129/Te in I, III, and muscles; and /sup 89/Sr, /sup 90/Sr, and /sup 90/Y in I, II, and III. Activities found in these organs were decidedly higher than those found in the control samples obtained from individuals who died of other than the so-called radiation sickness. Radiation dose received by the bones of Mr. Kuboyama was calculated to be approximately 8 r.e.p.

  8. Ionizing radiation and the importance for the environmental medicine practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, D.

    1992-01-01

    Results of radiation exposed persons from the population are presented and the consequences are valuated. The radioecological burden and the consequences of events for the environmental medicine are debatted (e.g. Hiroshima/Nagasaki 1945, Bikini H-bomb experiment 1954, container explosion in the MAJAK nuclear weapons centre 1957 and inadmissible waste removal in south Ural 1950/51, accident at the Chernobyl power plant and their consequences particulary for Germany 1986 till now, theft of sources used for radiotherapy and the contamination of the environment after the Goiana accident 1987). Further the risk of radon cure, transatlantic flights, vagabondized sources, uranium mining and some cases of probable stochastic radiation effects (e.g. leukemia clusters at Sellafield, Elbmarsch and Sittensen) is discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Radiological dose assessments in the Northern Marshall Islands (1989-1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Radiological Science Div., Dept. of Nuclear Energy, Upton, New York (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3,500 km southwest of Hawaii and 4,500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral islands, having a total land area of about 180 km{sup 2} distributed over more then 2.5 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United States conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planning to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. (author)

  10. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Y; Hamilton, T; Uchida, S; Tagami, K; Yoshida, S; Robison, W

    2001-10-20

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes.

  11. Radiological-dose assessments of atolls in the northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.

    1983-04-01

    The Marshall Islands in the Equatorial Pacific, specifically Enewetak and Bikini Atolls, were the site of US nuclear testing from 1946 through 1958. In 1978, the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey was conducted to evaluate the radiological conditions of two islands and ten atolls downwind of the proving grounds. The survey included aerial external gamma measurements and collection of soil, terrestrial, and marine samples for radionuclide analysis to determine the radiological dose from all exposure pathways. The methods and models used to estimate doses to a population in an environment where natural processes have acted on the source-term radionuclides for nearly 30 y, data bases developed for the models, and results of the radiological dose analyses are described

  12. Radioactive material in the radiologically contaminated fishes caught in the Pacific Ocean in 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, M; Okano, S; Mori, T

    1955-01-01

    The radioactivity of several samples of Coryphaena Hippyrus caught in the southern Pacific in May, 1954, after the atomic explosion at Bikini, was found, in decreasing order, in spleen, kidney, liver, pyloric ceca, heart, gill, intestine, gastric wall, ovary, testis, gastric content, red muscle, skin, vertebrae, and muscle. The red muscle of Neothunnus Macropterus showed 54.8 counts/min./0.20 g. activity on dry basis, the activity was decreased to 27.6 by soaking 25 g. muscle in 25 cc. water, and to 14.1 by soaking in 0.5% Na ethylenediaminetetraacetate solution. The radioactive substances in these fish tissues were found, upon analysis, to belong to the III group, particularly to III-B group. Examination of synchroscope patterns by scintillation counter indicated the presence of /sup 65/Zn among the radioactive substances. /sup 90/Sr was suggested to be present in very small amount.

  13. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Yoshida, S. [Environmental and Toxicological Researches Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, 263-8555 Chiba (Japan); Hamilton, T.; Robison, W. [Health and Ecological Assessment Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-453, 94551-0808 Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-10-20

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes.

  14. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes

  15. Radiological dose assessments in the Northern Marshall Islands (1989-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3,500 km southwest of Hawaii and 4,500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral islands, having a total land area of about 180 km 2 distributed over more then 2.5 x 10 6 km 2 of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United States conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planning to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. (author)

  16. Gamma spectroscopy analysis of archived Marshall Island soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, S.; Hoffman, K.; Lavelle, K.; Trauth, A.; Glover, S.E.; Connick, W.; Spitz, H.; LaMont, S.P.; Hamilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    Four samples of archival Marshall Islands soil were subjected to non-destructive, broad energy (17 keV-2.61 MeV) gamma-ray spectrometry analysis using a series of different high-resolution germanium detectors. These archival samples were collected in 1967 from different locations on Bikini Atoll and were contaminated with a range of fission and activation products, and other nuclear material from multiple weapons tests. Unlike samples collected recently, these samples have been stored in sealed containers and have been unaffected by approximately 50 years of weathering. Initial results show that the samples contained measurable but proportionally different concentrations of plutonium, 241 Am, and 137 Cs, and 60 Co. (author)

  17. Comparative behavior of plutonium and americium in the equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inventories of 239 + 240 Pu and 241 Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The amount of 239 + 240 Pu mobilized to solution at the atolls can be predicted from a distribution coefficient K/sub d/ of 2.3 x 10 5 and the mean sediment concentrations. The mobilized 239 + 240 Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Characteristics of 239 + 240 Pu described at one location may not necessarily describe its behavior elsewhere. The relative amounts of 241 Am to 239 + 240 Pu may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay

  18. Radiological survey of plants, animals, and soil in micronesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, V.A.

    1975-11-01

    In 1974 the Laboratory of Radiation Ecology began a program to determine the radionuclides found in foods, plants, animals, and soils of the Central Pacific. As part of this program the present study was undertaken to determine radionuclides found in the common foods and soils in areas of Micronesia other than those areas receiving local fallout from the test sites at Bikini or Enewetak atolls. Areas sampled in 1975 were Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands, Truk and Ponape in the Caroline Islands, Guam in the Marianas Islands, and Koror and Babelthaup in the Palau Islands. All samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides while some were also analyzed for 90 Sr of 239 240 Pu. Results of the analyses indicate that naturally occurring 40 K is the predominant radionuclide in the biological samples. Cesium-137 in amounts less than 1 pCi/g (dry) was the only fallout radionuclide detected in most of the biological samples. Soil samples usually contained 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 U, and 239 Pu, while soil from Truk, Palau, and Ponape also contained isotopes of radium and thorium. Soil from Guam also contained 210 Pb and 235 U in addition to the above radionuclides. Considering only the fallout radionuclides, the values for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239 240 Pu in samples from Guam, Palau, Truk, Ponape, and Majuro are less than the values for these radionuclides in similar samples from atolls such as Utirik, Rongerik, and Ailinginae in the northern Marshall Islands, and are much less than values of these radionuclides in samples from Bikini and Rongelap atolls

  19. Radionuclide concentrations and dose assessment of cistern water and groundwater at the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Robison, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. More than 70 cistern and groundwater samples were collected at the atolls; the volume of each sample was between 55 and 100 l. The concentration of 90 Sr in cistern water at most atolls is that expected from world-wide fallout in wet deposition. Except for Bikini and Rongelap, 137 Cs concentrations in cistern water are in agreement with the average predicted concentrations from wet deposition. The 239+240 Pu concentrations are everywhere less than the predicted fallout concentrations except at Rongelap, Ailinginae, and Bikini where the measured and predicted concentrations are in general agreement. During the period sampled, most groundwater concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were everywhere higher than the concentrations in cistern water. Concentrations of the transurancies in filtered groundwater solution were everywhere comparable to or less than the concentrations in cistern water. It is concluded that the concentrations of radionuclides detected during any single period may not necessarily reflect the long-term average concentrations or the concentrations that might be observed if a lined well were extended above the surface. In any case, at all atolls the 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in groundwater are below the concentration guidelines for drinking water recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. The maximum annual dose rates and the 30- and 50-y integral doses are calculated for the intake of both cistern water and groundwater for each of the atolls

  20. An investigation into the prevalence of thyroid disease on Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Trott, K R; Fujimori, K; Simon, S L; Ohtomo, H; Nakashima, N; Takaya, K; Kimura, N; Satomi, S; Schoemaker, M J

    1997-07-01

    The prevalence of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer was studied in the indigenous population residing on Ebeye Island, Kwajalein Atoll, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This island, centrally located in the nation, is home to about 25% of the nation's population, many who have migrated there from other atolls. The objective of the study was to obtain thyroid disease rate statistics on as much of the population as possible that was alive during the years of nuclear testing and to test the hypothesis that described a linearly decreasing prevalence of palpable nodules with increasing distance from the Bikini test site. 1,322 Marshallese born before 1965 were given a thyroid examination using neck palpation, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and high resolution ultrasound imaging. Approximately 40% of the total population living on this island who are at risk from exposure to radioactive fallout during the years 1946-1958 were screened. Of that group, 815 were alive at the time of the BRAVO test on 1 March 1954. Two hundred sixty-six people with thyroid nodules were found (32.6%): 132 were palpable nodules (16.2%), and 134 were nodules that could be diagnosed with ultrasound only (15.7%). Prevalence of palpable nodules was particularly high in men and women older than 60 y, in men who were 6 to 15 y of age at the time of the BRAVO test, and in women 1 to 10 y of age at the time of the BRAVO test. In 22 people, the clinical diagnosis was most likely cancer though histopathological evidence was only available from 11 operated cases. Of the 11 operated cases, 10 were cancer. Cancer prevalence was particularly high in those women born between 1944 and 1953 (7/220 = 3.2%), i.e., who were children during the early years of nuclear testing. The Ebeye data showed a marginally significant correlation between palpable nodule prevalence among women and distance to Bikini (r = -0.44, p = 0.06). This report summarizes the clinical findings of the thyroid examinations, the age

  1. Radiation dosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finston, Roland [Health Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative.

  2. Radiation dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finston, Roland

    1986-01-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative

  3. Toward the abolition of nuclear arms, part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of various survey and relief groups in the period immediately after the atomic bombings are reported. The researches on atomic bombing casualties and the publication of the results by Japanese scientists were greatly restricted during the occupation period, but the conditions improved in 1951, when the San Francisco Peace Treaty was signed. In 1954, a Japanese fishing boat was exposed to the fallout from the hydrogen bomb test carried out by the U.S. in Bikini atoll. Thereafter, many national and international works concerning the use of radiation have been carried out in Japan. The status of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is reported. Especially the medical care soon after the bombings, and keloid treatment and A-bomb disease treatment thereafter are described. The guidelines for medical treatment of A-bomb aftereffects was drafted, and the A-bomb victims medical care law was enacted. The policies of the government and local governments for A-bomb victims, and the movements of citizens against atomic weapons, especially peace education, are described. The tests of the Peace Declaration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1980, respectively, are reprinted as the appendix. Also the chronology from 1945 to 1978 on the events related to atomic bombing damages is given. (Kako, I.)

  4. Assessment of plutonium exposures in Rongelap and Utirik populations by fission track analysis of urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Moorthy, A.R.; Kaplan, E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear device, code-named Bravo, detonated at Bikini Atoll at 6:45 a.m. on 1 March 1954, unexpectedly released a large amount of radioactivity. Over 40 years after this incident, the study of its impact on the radiological health and environmental safety of the residents of Rongelap and Utirik Atolls continues. In 1987, researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory established a fission track analysis (FTA) method for low-level 239 Pu urinalysis. Two years later, a new shipboard protocol was developed for collecting 24-h radiologically clean urine samples. The purpose of this paper is to update information on the FTA method for measuring low-levels of plutonium, and to summarize results on the distribution of 239 Pu in the populations of Rongelap and Utirik between 1981--1991. Plutonium detection levels (99% confidence level) in these samples were 2--3 μBq, which is equivalent to 0.2--0.3 mSv effective dose equivalent (EDE) to age 70 for Marshallese. The latest 1991 FTA data indicate average EDE of 0.62 mSv and 1.6 mSv for the people of Rongelap and Utirik, respectively, which both are the highest values since 1988

  5. Fission track analysis method of urine plutonium and estimation of plutonium-239 internal dose to Marshallese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shixuan

    1995-01-01

    Bravo detonated at Bikini Atoll on the morning of March 1, 1954, unexpectedly released a large amount of radioactive fallout on the areas. Impact studies on the radiological health and safety of the residents living in the contaminated environments are still undergoing. For plutonium dose assessment, researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory established a fission track analysis (FTA) method for low-level 239 Pu measurement. Furthermore, a new shipboard protocol was developed for collecting 24-h radiologically clean urine samples. The purposes of this paper are to update information on the FTA processes and to present a set of results on the 239 Pu measurements in the Marshallese populations (Rongelap and Utirik) between 1981-1991. The detection sensitivity of FTA method (99% confidence level) in these samples was 2-3 μBq which is equivalent to 0.2-0.3 mSv effective dose equivalent (EDE) to age 70 for the Marshallese. The latest 1991 FTA data indicate average EDE of 0.62 mSv and 1.6 mSv for the people of Rongelap and Utirik, respectively, which both are the highest values since 1988

  6. Assessment of plutonium exposures in Rongelap and Utirik populations by fission track analysis of urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Moorthy, A.R.; Kaplan, E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    A nuclear device, code-named Bravo, detonated at Bikini Atoll at 6.45 a.m. on 1 March 1954, unexpectedly released a large amount of radioactivity. Over 40 years after this incident, the study of its impact on the radiological health and environmental safety of the residents of Rongelap and Utirik Atolls continues. In 1987, researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory established a fission track analysis (FTA) method for low-level 239 Pu urinalysis. Two years later, a new shipboard protocol was developed for collecting 24-h radiologically clean urine samples. The purpose of this paper is to update information on the FTA method for measuring low-levels of plutonium, and to summarize results on the distribution of 239 Pu in the populations of Rongelap and Utirik between 1981-1991. Plutonium detection levels (99% confidence level) in these samples were 2-3 μBq, which is equivalent to 0.2-0.3 mSv effective dose equivalent (EDE) to age 70 for Marshallese. The latest 1991 FTA data indicate average EDE of 0.62 mSv and 1.6 mSv for the people of Rongelap and Utirik, respectively, which both are the highest values since 1988. (author)

  7. Equatorial hydrology studies by satellite telemetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robison, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-01-01

    We are using a geostationary satellite functioning as a transponder to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Enewetak and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely measure net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water-flux model predicted wet season plant-transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6- to 7-mm/d evaporation-pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. From the microclimate data we estimated a 1:3 and 1:20 137 Cs dry-matter concentration ratio, which was later confirmed by radioisotopic analysis. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose

  8. Annual report of National Institute of Radiological Sciences of the fiscal year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan in the fiscal year 1990. The activities are divided into research, technical aids, training, medical services, management affairs at the Nakaminato Laboratory Branch Office, library or editing, international cooperation, and general affairs. Research activities are described under the following sections: (1) special researches covering 'biological risk evaluation in public exposure' and 'exposure assessment in the environment and the public involved in food chain', 'medical use of accelerated heavy ions', and 'survey for the demonstration of dose-response relationships in low dose irradiation'; (2) five assigned researches; (3) ordinary researches concerning physics, pharmacochemistry, biology, genetics, pathology and physiology, cell biology, internal exposure, envionmental science, clinical research, clinical research for radiation injuries, medical use of heavy particles, environmental radiation ecology, and aquatic radiation ecology; (4) risk estimation of radiation; (5) survey for radiation response phenomena in fish and in immunity associated with low dose irradiation; (6) actual surveys for Bikini victims, population doses of medical and occupational exposure, and thorotrast exposure; (7) project research; (8) integrated atomic energy-based technological research; (9) radioactivity survey; (10) research supported by Science and Technology Agency aids; (11) International research cooperation; (12) government-private joint cooperative study. Appendices include the personnel list and the bibliography of articles reported by the staff. (N.K.) 870 refs

  9. Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish 137 Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. 137 Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. 137 Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average 137 Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22±4 μSv. For Utirik, the dose was 33± 3 μSv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2±2 μSv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 μSv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab

  10. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years

  11. Bomb tests attack the food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, T. (Monash Medical School, Melbourne (Australia))

    1990-03-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, the most common type of fish poisoning in the world, has become a major public health problem in some parts of the South Pacific. This area has always been the site of periodic outbreaks, especially after severe storms or natural disasters that damage core reefs. But since World War II it has become evident that military activities and major construction projects that wreak havoc on corals also lead to ciguatera outbreaks. Extraordinarily high rates of ciguatera poisoning have occurred on the small Pacific islands that have been used for nuclear tests and on the islands that host the military infrastructures and activities that accompany the tests. This is true for both the Marshall Islands near Bikini and Eniwetok, where U.S. tests took place, and in French Polynesia, in the area around Moruroa Atoll where the French government continues to test. Ciguatera poisoning has a disastrous effect on people who depend on fishing as a way of life and on fish as the major source of protein. 10 refs.

  12. Bomb-test 90Sr in Pacific and Indian Ocean surface water as recorded by banded corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toggweiler, J.R.; Trumbore, S.

    1985-01-01

    We report here measurements of bomb-test 90 Sr activity in the CaCO 3 skeletons of banded head forming corals collected from nine locations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. Density variations in skeletal carbonate demarcate annual growth bands and allow one to section individual years. Measurements of 90 Sr activity in the annual bands reconstruct the activity of the water in which the coral grew. Our oldest records date to the early years of the nuclear era and record not only fallout deposition from the major U.S. and Soviet tests of 1958-1962, but also the huge, and largely unappreciated, localized inputs from the U.S. tests at Eniwetok and Bikini atolls during 1952-1958. In the 1960's the 90 Sr activity in Indian Ocean surface water was twice as high as activity levels in the South Pacific at comparable latitudes. We suggest that substantial amounts of northern hemisphere fallout moved west and south into the Indian Ocean via passages through the Indonesian archipelago. Equatorial Pacific 90 Sr levels have remained relatively constant from the mid 1960's through the end of 1970's in spite of 90 Sr decay, reflecting a large-scale transfer of water between the temperate and tropical North Pacific. Activity levels at Fanning Is. (4 0 N, 160 0 W) appear to vary in conjunction with the 3-4 year El Nino cycle. (orig.)

  13. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations III. On the method of estimating the probable time of nuclear detonation from the measurements of gross-activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    Since it has been observed in Spring of 1954 that a considerable amount of fission products mixture fell with the rain following a large scale nuclear detonation conducted in Bikini area in the South Pacific by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, it has become important, especially from the health physics standpoint, to estimate the effective average age of the fission products mixture after the nuclear detonation. If the energy transferred to the atmospheric air at the time of nuclear detonation is large enough (order of megaton at the distance of about 4000 km), the probable time and test site of nuclear detonation may be estimated with considerable accuracy, from the records of the pressure wave caused by the detonation in the microbarographs at different meteorological stations. Even in this case, in order to estimate the possible correlation between the artificial radioactivity observed in the rain and the probable detonation, it is often times desirable to estimate the effective age of the fission products mixture in the rain from the decay measurement of the radioactivity.

  14. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations III. On the method of estimating the probable time of nuclear detonation from the measurements of gross-activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    Since it has been observed in Spring of 1954 that a considerable amount of fission products mixture fell with the rain following a large scale nuclear detonation conducted in Bikini area in the South Pacific by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, it has become important, especially from the health physics standpoint, to estimate the effective average age of the fission products mixture after the nuclear detonation. If the energy transferred to the atmospheric air at the time of nuclear detonation is large enough (order of megaton at the distance of about 4000 km), the probable time and test site of nuclear detonation may be estimated with considerable accuracy, from the records of the pressure wave caused by the detonation in the microbarographs at different meteorological stations. Even in this case, in order to estimate the possible correlation between the artificial radioactivity observed in the rain and the probable detonation, it is often times desirable to estimate the effective age of the fission products mixture in the rain from the decay measurement of the radioactivity

  15. Annual report of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The annual report for the activities of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan in the fiscal year 1990 is presented. The activities are divided into research, technical aids, training, medical services, management affairs at the Nakaminato Laboratory Branch Office, library or editing, international cooperation, and general affairs. Research activities are described under the following sections: (1) special researches covering biological risk evaluation in public exposure and exposure assessment in the environment and the public involved in food chain, medical use of accelerated heavy ions, and survey for the demonstration of dose-response relationships in low dose irradiation; (2) five assigned researches; (3) ordinary researches concerning physics, pharmacochemistry, biology, genetics, pathology and physiology, cell biology, internal exposure, environmental science, clinical research, clinical research for radiation injuries, medical use of heavy particles, environmental radiation ecology, and aquatic radiation ecology; (4) risk estimation of radiation; (5) survey for radiation response phenomena in fish and in immunity associated with low dose irradiation; (6) actual surveys for Bikini victims, population doses of medical and occupational exposure, and thorotrast exposure; (7) project research; (8) integrated atomic energy-based technological research; (9) radioactivity survey; (10) research supported by Science and Technology Agency aids; (11) International research cooperation; and (12) government-private joint cooperative study. Appendices include the personnel list and the bibliography of articles reported by the staff.

  16. Nuclear energy in postwar Japan and anti-nuclear movements in the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2009-01-01

    The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 revealed the most destructive power to-date of man-made weapons. Their impact was so great that Japanese scientists thought that a bigger disaster could be prevented only if war was abolished. Thus they welcomed the international control of atomic energy. It was, however, only after the occupation that the Japanese general public began to learn about the horror of these atomic disasters due to the censorship imposed by the occupational forces. The hydrogen bomb test by the US in the Bikini atoll on March 1, 1954 renewed fears of nuclear weapons. The crew of a Japanese fishing vessel, the "Daigo Fukuryu Maru" (Lucky Dragon No. 5) suffered from exposure to radiation from the test. Even after the incident the US did not stop nuclear tests which continued to radioactively contaminate fish and rains in Japan. As a result, the petition movement for the ban of nuclear trials suddenly spread all over the country. By the summer of 1955 the number of the signatures grew to more than one third of Japan's population at the time. Under the strong influence of anti-nuclear Japanese public opinion the Science Council of Japan announced the so-called three principles of atomic energy: "openness," "democracy," and "independence" to ensure atomic energy was used for peaceful uses only. These principles were included in the Atomic Energy Basic Law established in December 1955. With this law, military uses of nuclear energy were strictly forbidden.

  17. Determination of plutonium in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1978-01-01

    Past and present methods of determining the amount of plutonium in the environment are summarized. Determination of the amount of plutonium in uranium ore began in 1941. Plutonium present in polluted environments due to nuclear explosions, nuclear power stations, etc. was measured in soil and sand in Nagasaki in 1951 and in ash in Bikini in 1954. Analytical methods of measuring the least amount of plutonium in the environment were developed twenty years later. Many studies on and reviews of these methods have been reported all over the world, and a standard analytical procedure has been adopted. A basic analytical method of measurement was drafted in Japan in 1976. The yield, treatment of samples, dissolution, separation, control of measurable ray sources determination by α spectrometry, cross-check determination, and treatment of samples containing hardly soluble plutonium were examined. At present, the amount of plutonium can be determined by all of these methods. The presence of plutonium was studied further, and the usefulness of determination of the plutonium isotope ratio is discussed. (Kumagai, S.)

  18. Brain activation upon ideal-body media exposure and peer feedback in late adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Mara; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Braams, Barbara R; Peters, Sabine; Konijn, Elly A; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-08-01

    Media's prevailing thin-body ideal plays a vital role in adolescent girls' body image development, but the co-occurring impact of peer feedback is understudied. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test media imagery and peer feedback combinations on neural activity related to thin-body ideals. Twenty-four healthy female late adolescents rated precategorized body sizes of bikini models (too thin or normal), directly followed by ostensible peer feedback (too thin or normal). Consistent with prior studies on social feedback processing, results showed increased brain activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral insula in incongruent situations: when participants rated media models' body size as normal while peer feedback indicated the models as too thin (or vice versa). This effect was stronger for girls with lower self-esteem. A subsequent behavioral study (N = 34 female late adolescents, separate sample) demonstrated that participants changed behavior in the direction of the peer feedback: precategorized normal sized models were rated as too thin more often after receiving too thin peer feedback. This suggests that the neural responses upon peer feedback may influence subsequent choice. Our results show that media-by-peer interactions have pronounced effects on girls' body ideals.

  19. Punk Women and Riot Grrls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Braidotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with feminist cultural politics, nomadic thought and media activism. It combines theoretical insights from Gilles Deleuze’s philosophy with Riot Grrrl bands and women’s punk music. The paper explores two central aspects of the Pussy Riot’s performances: the visual and the musical. The visual includes an analysis of “the face” as a landscape of both power and resistance and discusses also the function of the mask as a cultural and political device. It then highlights the role of iconic images like Queen Beatrix, Angela Davies, the Guerrilla Girls and others in popular culture. The musical component includes Janis Joplin, the ultimate Riot Grrrl band Bikini Kill, Nina Hagen and, of course, Pussy Riot. Embodying the slogan “If I can’t dance, I don’t want to be part of your revolution” the paper argues for an affirmative and  creative approach to feminist theory and practice and to contemporary cultural politics.

  20. Annual report of National Institute of Radiological Sciences of the fiscal year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan in the fiscal year 1989. The activities are divided into research, technical aids, training, medical services, management, library or editing, and international cooperation. Research activities are described under the following sections: (I) newly started special researches for 'biological risk evaluation in public exposure' and 'exposure assessment in the environment and the public involved in food chain', and the continuing special research for 'medical use of accelerated heavy ions'; (II) six assigned researches; (III) ordinary researches concerning physics, pharmachochemistry, biology, genetics, pathology and physiology, cell biology, internal exposure, environmental science, clinical research, clinical research for radiation injuries, medical use of heavy particles, environmental radiation ecology, and aquatic radiation ecology; (IV) risk estimation of radiation; (V) actual surveys for Bikini victims, population doses of medical and occupational exposure, and thorotrast exposure; (VI) project research; (VII) radioactivity survey; (VIII) research supported by Science and Technology Agency aids. Appendices include the personnel list and the bibliography of articles reported by the staff. (N.K.) 809 refs

  1. Some topics on radioecological research in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, systematic researches on marine environmental radioactivity started in 1954 when 'Bikini incidence' occurred. After several years of handling emergency situations, basic studies were carried out to understand processes and mechanisms of contamination of aquatic organisms by radionuclides. At this period 'Hiyama Group' had a large contribution to the development of this new field of research. Important concepts and items have already been dealt with in this Grant Group. Toward the end of 'Hiyama Group', a new project started in Nuclear Safety Research Association. This project, so-called 'Kaihohtoku', aimed at gathering necessary information for safety assessment on the release of low-level radioactive liquid wastes from a newly planned spent-fuel reprocessing plant at Tokai. NIRS-Nakaminato Branch was established first as Marine Radioecological Station in this project. The term 'radioecology' got popularity also in this period. Many important results were obtained and scientific basis of the safety assessment was established in this project. Today we have not any urgent matter to be handled concerning radioecology in our coastal environment. Nuclides found are exclusively of fallout and of a quite low level. We have also established methodology of radiological assessment. So, what is the problem? The problem is 'from conservative to realistic', which is the trend in the world. Here, from this viewpoint, some topics such as models and parameters including concentration factors and their validation and verification in the natural environment were discussed. (author)

  2. The Retrospective Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of IPL (Intense Pulse Light in Hair Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlgen Ertam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: There are numerous therapeutic methods for hair removal with various success rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Intense Pulse Light (IPL method for hair removal.Materials and Methods: Ninety patients, who applied for their unwanted hair, were included in the study. IPL was applied to the face, neck, axillary areas, bikini line, sternal area, periareolar areas, and upper and lower extremities. An IPL device (L900 A&M, France was used for hair removal. The results were evaluated according to the clinical improvement (0-25%, 25-50%, 50-75%, 75% and more and patients? satisfaction (very satisfied, satisfied, less satisfied, not satisfied. All results were analyzed using Chi-square test and statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Results: There were eighty-eight female (97.8% and two male (2.2% patients. The mean age of the patients was 33.62±11.11 (15- 55 years. 13.3% of patients had polycystic ovary syndrome. The mean number of treatments was 6.5 (min-max= 2-11. 53.2% of patients had 50-75% clinical response and 53.2% of patients were satisfied. There were no side effects except mild erythema. Conclusion: We observed that IPL for hair removal was safe and moderately effective in our patients.

  3. Annual Program Progress Report under DOE/PHRI Cooperative Agreement: (July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palafox, Neal A., MD, MPH

    2002-07-31

    OAK B188 DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)Annual Program Progress Report. The DOE Marshall Islands Medical Program continued, in this it's 48th year, to provide medical surveillance for the exposed population from Rongelap and Utrik and the additional DOE patients. The program was inaugurated in 1954 by the Atomic Energy Commission following the exposure of Marshallese to fallout from a nuclear test (Castle Bravo) at Bikini Atoll. This year marks the fourth year in which the program has been carried out by PHRI under a cooperative agreement with DOE. The DOERHRI Special Medical Care Program, awarded the cooperative agreement on August 28, 1998, commenced its health care program on January 15, 1999, on Kwajalein and January 22, 1999, on Majuro. This report details the program for the July 1, 2001, through the June 30, 2002, period. The program provides year-round, on-site medical care to the DOE patient population residing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and annual examinations to those patients living in Hawaii and on the Continental U.S.

  4. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ( 63 Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of 63 Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of 63 Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain 63 Ni. The primary source of 63 Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable 62 Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. 63 Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of 63 Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq a per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). 63 Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from 235 U or 239 Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in 63 Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains ∼9% total Ni or ∼0.3% 63 Ni)

  5. Detection of cadmium radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Anglin, D.L.

    1980-12-01

    Sediment and tissues from different marine organisms recently collected atolls of the Marshall Islands have been found to contain measurable amounts of /sup 113m/Cd previously deposited to the atolls during the testing of nuclear devices at the Pacific Proving Grounds. /sup 113m/Cd has been also detected in some internal organs of mullet collected from the east coast of the United States in an area contaminated only with global fallout debris. This is one of the few summaries to show that this long-lived radionuclide (T/sub 1/2/ = 14.6 yr) exists and persists in the marine environment. It is the dominant anthropogenic radionuclide in the liver of some pelagic fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and is found concentrated in other tissues and organs of all fish analyzed. Dose to man from /sup 113m/Cd ingestion is being assessed at the Marshall Islands and should be done at any other global site where contamination by this radionuclide is suspected in the aquatic environment

  6. Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1991-12-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southeast of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral island, having a total land area of about 180 km 2 , distributed over more than 2.5 x 10 6 km 2 of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United States conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planing to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure γ-emitters, such as 40 K, 60 Co and 137 Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure α and β-emitting nuclides, such as 239 Pu and 90 Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods. 6 refs

  7. Vertical distribution of 239+240Pu-concentration and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in sediment cores. Implications for the sources of plutonium in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Jian, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The main sources in the environmental plutonium is due to nuclear explosions held during 1945 - 1980. The global fallout of plutonium is estimated to amount to 10.9 PBq, of which 6.6 PBq entering into the ocean. The Japan Sea is reported to be concentrated in plutonium in excess according to previous measurements. The present report aims to clarify the origin and transport path of plutonium in Japan Sea by measuring 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio in sedimenta cores with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) which depends on the types of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuels, reacting time, or the types of nuclear weapons concerned. As an example the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio from the nuclear explosions in early 1960's is known to be 0.18, while that of 0.34-0.36 Bikini experiments in the Marshall Islands in early 1950's. After a detailed examination, the present authors propose that the plutonium from the explosion sites around the Marshall Islands was carried with an oceanic current to be deposited in the bed of the East-China Sea, from which a part of the plutonium was transported with the Black Stream to enter Japan Sea. (S. Ohno)

  8. Gamma-ray spectrum of the radiaoctive dust produced by the super-hydrogen bomb test explosion on March 1, 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, S.

    1987-03-15

    The super-hydrogen bomb test explosion, the so-called Bravo test of a fission-fusion-fission bomb, was carried out on Bikini Atoll in the mid-Pacific on March 1, 1954. Twenty-three Japanese fishermen on board a fishing boat about 90 miles north-east of the test site were attacked unexpectedly by the fallout, radioactive fine debris of coral reef. Within several months after the accident by radiochemical analysis about 20 different nuclides of fission products and, in addition, a considerable amount of /sup 235/U were discovered from the fallout. As we have been preserving a minute amount of the original fallout dust collected on board the fishing boat 31 years ago, measurements of ..gamma.. rays from it have recently been used to find some active nuclides, if still existing. In the ..gamma..-ray spectrum observed there exist evident peaks of ..gamma.. and X-rays from /sup 241/Am, /sup 155/Eu, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co. Absolute intensities of these four nuclides, still remaining 31 years after the explosion of the bomb, have been estimated. Some discussion on our finding is presented.

  9. Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, B.; Schupfner, R.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Spennemann, D.H.R.

    1995-01-01

    Rongelap Atoll received intensive fallout from the 1 March 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test 105 miles upwind at Bikini. Fearful of their continued exposure to radiation, the residences of Rongelap Atoll went into voluntary exile in 1985. Transuranic soil concentrations on Rongelap Island are about 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the average for the Northern hemisphere; the three dominating transuranic are 239,240 Pu and 241 Am. Only conflicting information has been available about the extent of transuranic uptake by the Rongelap community. As part of the Rongelap Resettlement Project, the community endorsed the exhumation of bones of deceased former atoll residents to provide an independent estimate of plutonium intake. This approach has the advantage of reducing the uncertainties associated with pathway modeling and the interpretation of urine data. Six graves (4 adults, 2 children) were selected for exhumation. Femora and tibiae were selected as well as humeri from the children's graves. The rest of the remains were left undisturbed. The results of the analysis of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am are presented. Assuming that the data can be considered as representative for the Rongelap population as a whole, the contamination with transuranics on Rongelap Atoll appears to result in radiation exposures in the order of 1% of the compliance limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose equivalent per year. (author)

  10. Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, B. [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Takoma Park, MD (United States)]|[Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung e.V., Heidelberg (Germany); Schupfner, R.; Schuettelkopf, H. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Lab. for Environmental Radioactivity; Spennemann, D.H.R. [Charles Sturt Univ., Albury (Australia). School of Environmental and Information Sciences

    1995-11-01

    Rongelap Atoll received intensive fallout from the 1 March 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test 105 miles upwind at Bikini. Fearful of their continued exposure to radiation, the residences of Rongelap Atoll went into voluntary exile in 1985. Transuranic soil concentrations on Rongelap Island are about 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the average for the Northern hemisphere; the three dominating transuranic are {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. Only conflicting information has been available about the extent of transuranic uptake by the Rongelap community. As part of the Rongelap Resettlement Project, the community endorsed the exhumation of bones of deceased former atoll residents to provide an independent estimate of plutonium intake. This approach has the advantage of reducing the uncertainties associated with pathway modeling and the interpretation of urine data. Six graves (4 adults, 2 children) were selected for exhumation. Femora and tibiae were selected as well as humeri from the children`s graves. The rest of the remains were left undisturbed. The results of the analysis of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are presented. Assuming that the data can be considered as representative for the Rongelap population as a whole, the contamination with transuranics on Rongelap Atoll appears to result in radiation exposures in the order of 1% of the compliance limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose equivalent per year. (author).

  11. Historical review of radiation research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, F.

    1979-01-01

    The outline of the history of radiation research in Japan is written in connection with the names of researchers. Yoshio Nishina was a pioneer, who derived the Klein-Nishina formula for the scattering of hard X-ray by free electrons. In 1935, the first nuclear experiment laboratory was constructed in the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. Two cyclotrons, 26 in and 60 in pole face diameter, and a high voltage Cockcroft-Walton type ion accelerator were installed. Irradiation of insects and plants with fast neutrons was attempted to examine the biological effect. In August, 1945, atomic bombs exploded in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1950, radioisotopes were available. In early March, 1954, Bikini accident occurred. One fishing vessel was contaminated by radioactive fallout, and to investigate the effect of radioactivity, a committee consisted of investigators of physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, fisheries and geophysics was organized. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was established in June, 1956. Several institutions for the peaceful use of atomic energy were established. The hybrid spark chamber to image the distribution of β-emitting isotopes on a plane surface was constructed in Nagoya University. As for the national project on food irradiation, one laboratory has played the role in irradiation techniques. Researches on radiation chemistry in universities, governmental and commercial organizations have been progressing steadily, and the machines for nanosecond to picosecond pulse radiolysis are working. (Yamashita, S.)

  12. IAEA reference materials for quality assurance of marine radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Pham, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    The IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory has been assisting laboratories in Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) for the analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment since the early seventies. AQCS through world-wide and regional intercomparison exercises and the provision of reference methods and reference materials (RM) have been recognized as an important component of quality assurance/quality control. A total of 43 intercomparison exercises were organized and 37 RM were produced for marine radioactivity studies. All important marine matrices were covered, e.g., seawater, marine sediments of different chemical compositions, fish, shellfish and seaplants. RM were prepared from samples collected at contaminated sites (e.g., the Irish Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Arabian Sea, Mururoa and Bikini Atolls, etc.) as well as from sites affected only by global fallout (e.g., the Pacific Ocean). Available RM are listed in the IAEA biennial catalogue and can be purchased at a minimal price. An overview of prepared RM for radionuclides in marine matrices is presented and discussed in more detail. (author)

  13. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  14. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ({sup 63}Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 63}Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 63}Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 63}Ni. The primary source of {sup 63}Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 62}Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. {sup 63}Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of {sup 63}Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq{sup a} per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). {sup 63}Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in {sup 63}Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains {approximately}9% total Ni or {approximately}0.3% {sup 63}Ni).

  15. Late radiation effects in Marshall Islanders exposed to fallout 28 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1954, following detonation of a megaton nuclear device at Bikini, an unfortunate accident occurred owing to an unpredicted shift in winds resulting in exposure to radioactive fallout of 250 Marshallese people, 28 American servicemen on atolls to the east, and 23 Japanese fishermen on their fishing vessel. In this presentation, medical findings in the exposed Marshallese noted over the past 28 years is briefly reviewed with particular emphasis on late effects on the thyroid gland. The Marshallese were too far distant from the detonation for any direct effects, and their exposure was due entirely to fallout radiation during the 2 days prior to evacuation. This consisted of penetrating whole-body gamma radiation, irradiation of the skin (principally beta radiation) from fallout deposited on the skin, and internal absorption of radionuclides from ingestion of contaminated food and water. The most serious internal exposure was that to the thyroid from radioiodines, which were relatively abundant in the fallout. 63 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  16. Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, B; Schupfner, R; Schüttelkopf, H; Spennemann, D H

    1995-11-01

    Rongelap Atoll received intensive fallout from the 1 March 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test 105 miles upwind at Bikini. Fearful of their continued exposure to radiation, the residents of Rongelap Atoll went into voluntary exile in 1985. Transuranic soil concentrations on Rongelap Island are about 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the average for the Northern hemisphere; the three dominating transuranics are 239,240Pu and 241Am. Only conflicting information has been available about the extent of transuranic uptake by the Rongelap community. As part of the Rongelap Resettlement Project, the community endorsed the exhumation of bones of deceased former atoll residents to provide an independent estimate of plutonium intake. This approach has the advantage of reducing the uncertainties associated with pathway modeling and the interpretation of urine data. Six graves (4 adults, 2 children) were selected for exhumation. Femora and tibiae were selected as well as humeri from the children's graves. The rest of the remains was left undisturbed. The results of the analysis of 239,240Pu and 241Am are presented. Assuming that the data can be considered as representative for the Rongelap population as a whole, the contamination with transuranics on Rongelap Atoll appears to result in radiation exposures in the order of 1% of the compliance limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose equivalent per year.

  17. Isotope ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in soil samples from different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Shinnosuke

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soil samples from Japan and other areas in the world (including IAEA standard reference materials) were determined by ICP-MS. The range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios observed in 21 Japanese soil samples was 0.155 - 0.194 and the average was 0.180 ± 0.011, which is comparable to the global fallout value. A low ratio of about 0.05, which is derived from Pu-bomb, was found in samples from Nishiyama (Nagasaki) and Mururoa Atoll (IAEA-368), while a high ratio of about 0.31 was found in a sample from Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands). The ratio for Irish Sea sediment (IAEA-135) was 0.21, which was higher than the global fallout value, suggesting the influence by the contamination from the Sellafield facility. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soils from the Chernobyl area were determined, and the ratio was found to be very high (about 0.4), indicating the high burn-up grade of the reactor fuel. These results show that the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio can be used as a finger print to identify the source of the contamination. (author)

  18. Annual report of National Institute of Radiological Sciences of the fiscal year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan in the fiscal year 1988. The activities are divided into research, technical aids, training, medical services, management, library or editing, and international cooperation. Research activities are described under the following sections: (I) newly started special researches for 'biological risk evaluation in public exposure' and 'exposure assessment in the environment and the public involved in food chain', and the continuing special research for 'medical use of accelerated heavy ions'; (II) five assigned researches; (III) ordinary researches concerning physics, pharmachochemistry, biology, genetics, pathology and physiology, cell biology, internal exposure, environmental science, clinical research, clinical research for radiation injuries, medical use of heavy particles, environmental radiation ecology, and aquatic radiation ecology; (IV) risk estimation of radiation; (V) actual surveys for Bikini victims, population doses of medical and occupational exposure, and thorotrast exposure; (VI) project research; (VII) radioactivity survey; (VIII) research supported by Science and Technology Agency aids. Appendices include the personnel list and the bibliography of articles reported by the staff. (N.K.)

  19. Annual report of National Institute of Radiological Sciences of the fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan in the fiscal year 1987. The activities are divided into research, technical aids, training, medical services, management, library or editing, and international cooperation. Research activities are described under the following sections: (1) 5-year special projects concerning 'stochastic effects of radiation and risk estimation', 'assessment of human exposure to environmental radiation' and 'medical use of accelerated heavy ions'; (2) 6 titles in assigned research; (3) 60 titles in ordinary research covering physics, chemistry, biology, genetics, pathology and physiology, cell biology, internal exposure, environmental science, clinical research, clinical research for radiation injuries, medical use of heavy particles, environmental radiation ecology, and aquatic radiation ecology; (4) risk estimation of radiation; (5) actual surveys for Bikini victims, population doses of medical and occupational exposure, and thorotrast exposure; (6) project research; (7) radioactivity survey; (8) research supported by Science and Technology Agency aids. An outline of technical aids is given in terms of technical services, radiation safety, animal and plant management, and cyclotron management. Appendices give publications, organization, and staff. (N.K.)

  20. ["Epistemic Negotiations" and the Pluralism of the Radiation Protection Regime: The Determination of Radiation Protection Standards for the General Population in the Early Years After World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Toshihiro

    2015-10-01

    Radiation protection standards for the general population have constituted one of the most controversial subjects in the history of atomic energy uses. This paper reexamines the process in which the first such standards evolved in the early postwar period. While the existing literature has emphasized a "collusion" between the standard-setters and users, the paper seeks to examine the horizontal relationship among the standard-setters. It first examines a series of expert consultations between the United States and the United Kingdom. Representing a different configuration of power and interest, the two failed to agree on the assessment of genetic damage and cancer induction whose occurrence might have no threshold and therefore be dependent on the population size. This stalemate prevented the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), established in 1950, from formulating separate guidelines for the general public. Situations radically changed when the Bikini incident in 1954 led to the creation of more scientific panels. One such panel under the U.S. Academy of Sciences enabled the geneticists to bridge their internal divide, unanimously naming 100 mSv as the genetically permissible dose for the general population. Not to be outdone, ICRP publicized its own guidelines for the same purpose. The case examined in this paper shows that the standard-setting process is best understood as a series of "epistemic negotiations" among and within the standard-setters, whose agendas were determined from the outset but whose outcomes were not.

  1. Detection of cadmium radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Anglin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Sediment and tissues from different marine organisms recently collected at atolls of the Marshall Islands have been found to contain measurable amounts of 113 Cdsup(m) previously deposited to the atolls during the testing of nuclear devices at the Pacific Proving Grounds. Cadmium-113m has been also detected in some internal organs of mullet collected from the east coast of the United States of America in an area contaminated only with global fall-out debris. This is one of the few summaries to show that this long-lived radionuclide (Tsub(1/2) = 14.6 years) exists and persists in the marine environment. It is the dominate anthropogenic radionuclide in the liver of some pelagic fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and is found concentrated in other tissues and organs of all fish analysed. Dose to man from 113 Cdsup(m) ingestion is being assessed at the Marshall Islands and should be carried out at any other global site where contamination by this radionuclide is suspected in the aquatic environment. (author)

  2. Environmental surveillance in the Marshall Islands: an application of alternative energy sources in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Recent assessments of potential radiation exposure pathways at Bikini and Enewetak have indicated that doses in excess of current radiation protection guidelines are possible or even likely for persons living in these areas. Rongelap and Utirik Atolls, which were downwind of the 1954 BRAVO event, also received significant fallout; potential radiological problems exist in these areas as well. In view of this prospect, followup environmental monitoring and personnel monitoring programs are being established to maintain our cognizance of radiological conditions, and to take corrective action where necessary. Various aspects of this program require the operation of scientific equipment in remote areas which have no electrical power. In order to solve this problem, windpowered electrical generators were installed on three islands in a planned program through which they will be turned over to the local inhabitants for community use after about two years. This paper describes environmental surveillance efforts for the inhabitants of Pacific Islands who were the recipients of radioactive fallout from US nuclear weapons tests in the Pacific

  3. Thyroid nodules, thyroid function and dietary iodine in the Marshall islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Fujimori, K; Simon, S L; Bechtner, G; Edwards, R; Trott, K R

    1999-08-01

    Thyroid nodules have been found to be common in the population of the Marshall Islands. This has been attributed to potential exposure of radioiodines from the nuclear weapons tests on Bikini and Eniwetok between 1946 and 1958. In order to get a full picture of thyroid pathology in the Marshallese population potentially exposed to radioactive fallout we performed a large thyroid screening programme using palpation, high resolution ultrasound and fine needle biopsies of palpable nodules. In addition, various parameters of thyroid function (free T3, free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) and anti-thyroid antibodies were examined in large proportions of the total population at risk. Since dietary iodine deficiency is an established risk factor for thyroid nodules, iodine concentration in urine samples of 362 adults and 119 children was measured as well as the iodine content of selected staple food products. The expected high prevalence of thyroid nodules was confirmed. There was no indication of an increased rate of impaired thyroid function in the Marshallese population. A moderate degree of iodine deficiency was found which may be responsible for some of the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in the Marshallese population. Studies on the relationship between exposure to radioiodines and thyroid nodules need to take dietary iodine deficiency into account in the interpretation of findings.

  4. Day of two suns. US nuclear testing and the Pacific Islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblin, Jane.

    1988-01-01

    The book focuses on two Pacific communities affected by nuclear testing, the people of Rongelap atoll irradiated by fallout, and the people of Kwajalein atoll forced to leave their islands so it could be used as a target area for missiles launched from the western USA. Both atolls are part of the Marshall Islands which are on the eastern side of the groups of islands known as Micronesia. The USA conducted 66 nuclear tests in the period 1946-1958, one on Bikini Island, codenamed Bravo, causing the contamination of Rongelap. Following the halting of atmospheric nuclear explosions in 1958 the area became a missile testing target area. The reasons why the Marshall Islands were used, the effects of the fallout and destruction of the islanders way of life when they were moved from their homes is described. It draws widely on experience of the Marshall Islanders themselves. One of the appendices lists the tests and displacement in the Marshall Islands in chronological order. (U.K.)

  5. The department of energy's environmental monitoring support for Rongelap resettlement in the Marshall Island: a partnership for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a dedicated program in 1974 to determine residual levels of contamination remaining in the Northern Marshall Islands from the 66 Pacific atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The United States atmospheric nuclear weapons test code-named 'Castle BRAVO', conducted at the Bikini atoll in 1954, inadvertently deposited radioactive fallout on 253 residents of the Rongelap and Utrik atolls. The Rongelap people were evacuated 3 days after Castle Bravo, but not before they received significant fallout doses. Although the Rongelap people resettled on Rongelap Island from June 1957 until May 1985, the Rongelap community self-exiled themselves at that time for fear of what they believed to be rising levels of 137 Cs in their local food supplies. Since that time, the U.S. government has worked with the Rongelap people in a partnership to address environmental concerns and provide environmental monitoring, dose assessment data and information and mitigation strategy alternatives. DOE has been an instrumental partner in agreements, town meetings, interactions at the level of the local atoll government councils as well as the government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands have been needed to do this successfully. (author)

  6. Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1991-11-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southwest of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral islands, having a total land area of about 180 km 2 , distributed over more than 2.5 x 10 6 of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United states conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planning to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure γ-emitters, such as 40 K, 60 Co and 137 Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure α and β-emitting nuclides such as 239 Pu and 90 Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods

  7. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for 241 Am, 6569 for 137 Cs, 4535 for 239+240 Pu, 4431 for 90 Sr, 1146 for 238 Pu, 269 for 241 Pu, and 114 each for 239 Pu and 240 Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included

  8. Studies on the radioactivity in certain pelagic fish. III. Separation and confirmation of /sup 65/Zn in the muscle tissue of a skipjack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K; Tozawa, H; Amano, K; Takase, A

    1955-01-01

    Ashed sample of the muscle tissue of skipjack, which were caught by Shunkotsu-Maru on June 19th near Bikini Atoll was used for the present study. Ion exchanger method, using Dowex 50, was applied to separate radioactive elements with 0.2 HC1, 0.5% oxalic acid and 5% annonium citrate (pH 3.53, 4.18, 4.60, 5.02, 5.63 and 6.42) as the eluents. Elution curve of the ashed muscle is shown in Figure 1. Appreciable amounts of cationic radioactive elements were separated by 0.5% oxalic and by 5% annonium citrate at the pH of 4.18 and also anionic radioactive elements were obtained by 0.2N HC1. As the fraction, which can be withdrawn by annonium citrate as pH 4.18, was proved the most active; further analysis was undertaken according to the scheme cited in Figures 2 and 5. In addition to these chemical separation, absorption curve of this specimen with tin foil was examined simultaneously (Figure 3) and thus the radioactive /sup 65/Zn was confirmed to be present in the fish muscle. Although it was difficult to detect radioactivity in rare-earth and alkaline-earth groups in the muscle tissue, attempts are being made for more precise examination.

  9. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1987-01-01

    Many countries are presently concerned with problems relating to the safe disposal of nuclear waste containing various levels of transuranium nuclides. In this context, a review on the distribution and behaviour of transuranium elements in the environment studied at Kanazawa University in Japan is presented. About 17 years ago, a high degree of accumulation of 239 Pu in the surface soil of Nagasaki was found in the Nishiyama area, where 'black rain' occured just after the nuclear bomb explosion. The introduction of newly developed radiochemical methods and instrumentation has enabled studies to be carried out on environmental plutonium isotopes, americium-241 and more recently neptunium-237 with respect to distribution depth profile, variation with time and relationship with organic materials. Valuable information has been obtained on the basis of samples collected from various locations in Japan, including surface soil, sea and lake sediments, atmospheric aerosol, water from the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean, and from material related with the 'Bikini Event' of 1954. (orig.)

  10. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  11. Summary of thyroid findings in Marshallese 22 years after exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Inhabitants of several atolls in the Marshall Islands were accidently exposed to fallout radiation following a detonation of a high yield thermonuclear device during experiments at Bikini in the Pacific Proving Grounds in March 1954. The most serious acute effects of the exposure were due to penetrating gamma radiation. Contamination of the skin in the Rongelap group resulted in widespread beta burns and epilation. These lesions healed and hair regrew normally within several months. Radiochemical urine analyses revealed that measurable amounts of radionuclides, including 131 I, were absorbed internally from ingestion of contaminated food and water and from inhalation. No acute effects due to this internal exposure were seen. Late thyroid effects from radioiodine absorption are described. Follow-up examinations have revealed, except for one fatal case of leukemia and extensive thyroid lesions, only a few findings that might be related to radiation exposure. A group of more than 200 Rongelap people who were relatives of exposed people, but had been away from the island at the time of the accident, moved back with the exposed people to their home island in 1957 and have served as an ideal comparison population for the studies. Results of medical examinations carried out on these populations for the past 22 years are reviewed

  12. Laboratory experiments on the transfer dynamics of plutonium from marine sediments to sea water and to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, T.; Lowman, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    The leachability of 239 240 Pu from a fine contaminated calcareous sediment to aerated open sea water and to anoxic sea water was measured. The distribution coefficient for 239 240 Pu from sediment to sea water was 6.1 x 10 -5 for aerated water and 2.6 x 10 -6 for anoxic water. Experiments on the uptake of 239 240 Pu by the clams Donax denticulatus, and Lucina pectinata, were done in aquaria containing kilogram quantities of sediment from the Bravo Crater at Bikini Atoll. The concentration factor for 239 240 Pu by the soft parts of these clams was about 200. All the plutonium taken up in the soft parts was associated with the gill, mantle and siphon. No plutonium was detected in the adductor muscles or hepatopancreas. The smooth surfaces of the shells of the Donax did not show any detectable plutonium, but the rough shell surfaces of the Lucina concentrated plutonium by a factor of 1.10 x 10 4 over that in the sea water. Marine periphyton cultured on glass plates in an aquarium concentrated 239 240 Pu by a factor of about 7 x 10 3 over that in the sea water. (U.S.)

  13. Annual report of National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    From this year, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) started as an administrative corporation independent of the Government and concomitant internal re-organization was conducted: Three major Centers for Radiation safety, Radiation Emergency Medicine and Charged Particle Therapy were made. This report contains the summary of NIRS activities; research and development including studies of important project, fundamental research, fundamental and frontier research, contract research and fact-finding; management; organization/budget/finance; and appendix. Important projects are radiological studies in advanced medicine, on sensitivity, of effects on human and of hazard. Fundamental research concerns studies of environmental radiation, radiobiology, heavy particle ion therapy, diagnostic imaging, dose assessment and protection in medical radiation, brain function, systematic basic technology of nuclear sciences and international cooperation. Fact-finding studies are on the present situations of people exposed by nuclear experiment at Bikini Atoll in 1954 and of patients treated with thorotrast in past. Appendix cites the personnel name list, honorable events, cooperative studies, patent situation and others. (N.I.)

  14. Annual report of National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    Five years have passed since the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) was reformed as an Independent Administrative Institution (IAI) in April 2001, and this fiscal year (2005-2006) is the last year in the first Mid-term Plan of NIRS. The main items of this report, being the same as the previous year's, are: the summary of NIRS activities; research and development including studies of important project, fundamental research, fundamental and frontier research, contract research and fact-finding; management; organization/budget/finance; and appendix. Important projects are radiological studies in advanced medicine, on sensitivity, of effects on human and of hazard. Fundamental research concerns studies of environmental radiation, radiobiology, heavy particle ion therapy, diagnostic imaging, dose assessment and protection in medical radiation, brain function, development of High-Coverage Expression Profiling (HiCEP) technique and new crossover studies. Fact-finding studies are on the present situations of people exposed by nuclear experiment at Bikini Atoll in 1954 and of patients treated with thorotrast in past. Appendix cites the personnel name list, honorable events, cooperative studies, patent situation and others. (J.P.N.)

  15. Annual report of National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The fiscal year 2004 was the 4th year since the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) reformed as an Independent Administrative Institution (IAI) in April 2001. The main items of this report, being the same as the previous year's, are: the summary of NIRS activities; research and development including studies of important project, fundamental research, fundamental and frontier research, contract research and fact-finding; management; organization/budget/finance; and appendix. Important projects are radiological studies in advanced medicine, on sensitivity, of effects on human and of hazard. Fundamental research concerns studies of environmental radiation, radiobiology, heavy particle ion therapy, diagnostic imaging, dose assessment and protection in medical radiation, brain function, systematic basic technology of nuclear sciences and international cooperation. Fact-finding studies are on the present situations of people exposed by nuclear experiment at Bikini Atoll in 1954 and of patients treated with thorotrast in past. Appendix cites the personnel name list, honorable events, cooperative studies, patent situation and others. (J.P.N.)

  16. Radiation in living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, R.

    1991-01-01

    Aside from the atomic bomb attacks in 1945, the experience of radioactive contamination of human environment was the exposure of a tuna fishing boat to the radioactive fallout of a hydrogen bomb test explosion at Bikini atoll in March, 1954. Thereafter, radioactivity was frequently detected in fishes in central Pacific Ocean. Radioactivity was also detected in rain, which resulted in the contamination of agricultural products. Due to the great concern of general public for the radioactivity in food materials, the government initiated the national program of radioactivity surveillance. Since then, the fallout radioactivity due to nuclear test explosions was the main object surveillance in 1950s and 1960s, but the program was gradually expanded to include natural radiation, the artificial radioactivity due to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and other special programs. The history of the radioactive contamination of environment, natural radiation, medical exposure, the radioactive fallout due to nuclear tests, nuclear power generation and the Chernobyl accident are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Notorious: Hitchcock’s good neighbor film Notorious: Hitchcock’s good neighbor film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Castro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The New York release of Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious occurred in August 1946, one month after the Bikini atomic explosions, and one year after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. “Is mankind dying of curiosity?” asked a double page Time magazine ad, in the same issue that published a review of the film. “Time’s Science department noted recently,” readers were told, “that people everywhere have one great Fear: will the curiosity of nuclear physicists someday set off a giant chain reaction which will flash-bum the world to a clinker?”l To overcome that fear of the nuclear apocalypse, according to the add, readers should learn more and more about “the big mysteries of our atomic age,” beginning by checking her or his score in the “Time’s Quiz on Science.” If they happened to go to Radio City Music Hall, Notorious would reassure them that the U.S. was doing well in preventing obstinate Nazis from making an atomic bomb, though at that moment of the nuclear espionage war, former Manhattan Project insider Klaus Fuchs had actually passed on to a Soviet contact in London classified information about the Manhattan Project and American atomic plans.2 Indeed, in that transitional period between World War II and the Cold War, the major political villains were still Nazis, not Communists, as exemplified by other 1946 films like Orson Welles’ The Stranger, Charles Vidor’s Gilda, and Edward Dmytryk’s Cornered. The New York release of Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious occurred in August 1946, one month after the Bikini atomic explosions, and one year after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. “Is mankind dying of curiosity?” asked a double page Time magazine ad, in the same issue that published a review of the film. “Time’s Science department noted recently,” readers were told, “that people everywhere have one great Fear: will the curiosity of nuclear physicists someday set off a giant chain reaction which will

  18. The way to the extinction of nuclear weapons, chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The atomic bomb disasters in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are reviewed, investigated and reported. The surveys and investigations related to the medical and natural scientific problems are classified into the investigations immediately after having been bombed, the investigating activities by universities and laboratories in the early days after having been bombed, the activities of special study committee for the atomic bomb disasters in the learning research conference, the establishment and activities of the Japan-USA cooperative study group, the documentary film of the Japan Cinema Company and the investigating group of the US Strategic Bombing Survey, the establishment of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its activity, the re-starting of the studies after the end of occupation system, the evolution after the Bikini explosion, the establishment of the laboratories for the atomic bombing investigation and the establishment of the radiation influence research laboratory. The investigations concerning the humanity and social scientific problems are also classified into the systematic organization of the studies on the victims of atomic bombing, the historical studies and the movement of the victims of atomic bombing. The investigations are explained in detail about each item. The relief and medical treatment of the sufferers in 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described in detail. The actual medical treatment methods and the conditions of the patients are presented. The law on the medical services related to the atomic bombing is introduced with the modifications being conducted from 1954 until 1974. The administration for the victims of atomic bombing and the activities of citizens, including the countermeasures for the victims of atomic bombing and so on are explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  19. 137Cs exposure in the Marshallese populations: An assessment based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1997-01-01

    The Marshall Islands were the site of numerous tests of nuclear weapons by the United States. From 1946 to 1958, nuclear devices were detonated at Enemetak and Bikini Atolls. Following the inadvertent contamination of the northern islands downwind of the 1954 Bravo Test, Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in the medical care and the radiological safety of the affected populations. One important technique employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides is whole-body counting. To estimate current and future exposures to 1376, data from 1989 to 1994 were analyzed and are reported in this paper. During this period, 3,618 measurements were made for the Marshallese. The cesium body contents were assumed to result from a series of chronic intakes. Also, it was assumed that cesium activity in the body reaches a plateau that is maintained over 365 d. We estimated the annual effective dose rate for each population, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average 137 Cs uptake measured by the whole-body counting method varies from one population to another; it was consistent with measurements of external exposure rate. The analysis. though based on limited data, indicates that there is no statistical support for a seasonal effect on 137 Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is adult males. Within the 5-y monitoring period, all internal exposures to 137 Cs mere less than 0.2 mSv y -1 . Similarly, a persistent average cesium effective dose rate of 2 μSv y -1 was determined for Majuro residents. 73 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Analysis of {sup 236}U and plutonium isotopes, {sup 239,240}Pu, on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, as a potential tool in oceanography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, Elena; López-Lora, Mercedes [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Villa, María [Departamento de Física Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4A, 41012 Seville (Spain); Servicio de Radioisótopos, Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, 41012 Seville (Spain); Casacuberta, Núria [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); López-Gutiérrez, José María [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidad de Sevilla, Virgen de África 7, 41011 Seville (Spain); Pham, Mai Khanh [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2015-10-15

    The performance of the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Seville, Spain) for {sup 236}U and {sup 239,240}Pu measurements has been extensively investigated. A very promising {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U abundance sensitivity of about 3 × 10{sup −11} has been recently achieved, and background figures for {sup 239}Pu of about 10{sup 6} atoms were reported in the past. These promising results lead to the use of conventional low energy AMS systems for the analysis of {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu and its further application in environmental studies. First {sup 236}U results obtained on our AMS system for marine samples (sediments and water) are presented here. Results of two new IAEA reference materials (IAEA-410 and IAEA-412, marine sediments from Pacific Ocean) are reported. The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, of 0.12 and 0.022, respectively, show a dependency with the contamination source (i.e. local fallout from the US tests performed at the Bikini Atoll and general fallout). The results obtained for a third IAEA reference material (IAEA-381, seawater from the Irish Sea), are also presented. In the following, the uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions obtained on a set of 5 intercomparison seawater samples from the Arctic Ocean provided by the ETH Zürich are discussed. By comparing them with the obtained results on the 600 kV AMS facility Tandy at the ETH Zürich, we demonstrate the solidity of the CNA technique for {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U determinations at, at least, 7 × 10{sup −10} level. Finally, these results are discussed in their environmental context.

  1. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  2. 137Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Hamilton, Terry F.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bq g -1137 Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bq g -1137 Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict 137 Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate 137 Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of 137 Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in 137 Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples

  3. Notorious: Hitchcock’s good neighbor film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Castro

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The New York release of Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious occurred in August 1946, one month after the Bikini atomic explosions, and one year after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. “Is mankind dying of curiosity?” asked a double page Time magazine ad, in the same issue that published a review of the film. “Time’s Science department noted recently,” readers were told, “that people everywhere have one great Fear: will the curiosity of nuclear physicists someday set off a giant chain reaction which will flash-bum the world to a clinker?”l To overcome that fear of the nuclear apocalypse, according to the add, readers should learn more and more about “the big mysteries of our atomic age,” beginning by checking her or his score in the “Time’s Quiz on Science.” If they happened to go to Radio City Music Hall, Notorious would reassure them that the U.S. was doing well in preventing obstinate Nazis from making an atomic bomb, though at that moment of the nuclear espionage war, former Manhattan Project insider Klaus Fuchs had actually passed on to a Soviet contact in London classified information about the Manhattan Project and American atomic plans.2 Indeed, in that transitional period between World War II and the Cold War, the major political villains were still Nazis, not Communists, as exemplified by other 1946 films like Orson Welles’ The Stranger, Charles Vidor’s Gilda, and Edward Dmytryk’s Cornered.

  4. Radioactivity in certain pelagic fish. IV. Separation and confirmation of radioiron in skipjack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, K; Tozawa, H; Takase, A

    1956-01-01

    Incinerated liver (0.2g.) and stomach (0.15g.) of a skipjack caught near the Bikini Atoll on June 19, 1954, were dissolved in 0.2N HCl, filtered, and the filtrates made up to 100 cc.; the radioactivities were 130 and 86 counts/min./cc., respectively. The solutions were passed through column of Dowex 50. Elution with 0.5% oxalic acid gave powerful radioactivity with liver, but very weak with stomach. Elution with a solution of NH/sub 4/ citrate at pH 3.5 from both samples showed strong radioactivity, probably due to the presence of /sup 65/Zn. Distinct radioactivity was also detected in the NH/sub 4/ citrate eluate at pH 4.1 from the liver, but not from the stomach; this eluted element emitted no ..gamma..-rays and differed from /sup 65/Zn. The elution behavior of the radioactive element in the 0.5% oxalic acid elution showed that it was Fe; elution by 0.6M HCl after adsorption to Dowex 1 supported this result. /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb were indicated from these data to be absent. The pulse height distribution curve of ..gamma..-ray emitted by the element also indicated that it was Fe. However, the radiation decay curve differed considerably from that of /sup 59/Fe, suggesting the presence of radioactive element with longer half-life. Comparison of the absorption coefficient of Al, Ag, and Au for x rays from /sup 55/Fe, /sup 63/Ni and the isolated element indicated that the element was /sup 55/Fe.

  5. The use of comparative 137Cs body burden estimates from environmental data/models and whole body counting to evaluate diet models for the ingestion pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Sun, C.

    1997-01-01

    Rongelap and Utirik Atolls were contaminated on 1 March 1954, by a U.S. nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code named BRAVO. The people at both atolls were removed from their atolls in the first few days after the detonation and were returned to their atolls at different times. Detailed studies have been carried out over the years by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls and estimate the doses to the populations. The contribution of each exposure pathway and radionuclide have been evaluated. All dose assessments show that the major potential contribution to the estimated dose is 137 Cs uptake via the terrestrial food chain. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has carried out an extensive whole body counting program at both atolls over several years to directly measure the 137 Cs body burden. Here we compare the estimates of the body burdens from the LLNL environmental method with body burdens measured by the BNL whole body counting method. The combination of the results from both methods is used to evaluate proposed diet models to establish more realistic dose assessments. Very good agreement is achieved between the two methods with a diet model that includes both local and imported foods. Other diet models greatly overestimate the body burdens (i.e., dose) observed by whole body counting. The upper 95% confidence limit of interindividual variability around the population mean value based on the environmental method is similar to that calculated from direct measurement by whole body counting. Moreover, the uncertainty in the population mean value based on the environmental method is in very good agreement with the whole body counting data. This provides additional confidence in extrapolating the estimated doses calculated by the environmental method to other islands and atolls. 46 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  6. A moat around castle walls. The role of axillary and facial hair in lymph node protection from mutagenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Svetlana V

    2006-01-01

    Axillary hair is a highly conserved phenotypical feature in humans, and as such deserves at least consideration of its functional significance. Protection from environmental factors is one of the main functions attributed to hair in furred vertebrates, but is believed to be inapplicable to humans. I considered the hypothesis that the phenotypic preservation of axillary hair is due to its unrecognized role in the organism protection. Two immediate questions arise--what exactly is being protected and what it is protected from. A large group of axillary lymph nodes represents a major difference between underarms and the adjacent areas of the trunk. The consideration of potential factors from which hair can offer protection identifies sunlight as the most likely candidate. Intense sweat production underarms may represent an independent defense mechanism, specifically protecting lymph nodes from overheating. Moreover, the pattern of facial hair growth in males strikingly overlaps with the distribution of superficial lymph nodes, suggesting potential role for facial hair in protection of lymph nodes, and possibly thymus and thyroid. The idea of lymph node protection from environmental mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation and heat, appears particularly important in light of wide association of lymph nodes with cancers. The position of contemporary fashion towards body hair is aggressively negative, including the social pressure for removal of axillary and bikini line hair for women, facial hair for men in many professional occupations, and even body hair for men. If this hypothesis is proven to be true, the implications will be significant for immunology (by providing new insights in lymph node physiology), health sciences (depilation is painful and therefore easily modifiable habit if proven to increase disease risk), as well as art, social fashion and economy.

  7. Studies of participants in nuclear tests. Final report, 1 September 1978-31 October 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinette, C.D.; Jablon, S.; Preston, T.L.

    1985-05-01

    A study of mortality, by cause of death, was done on a cohort of 46,186 participants in one or more of five test series. The series studied were UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE (1953) and PLUMBBOB (1957) at the Nevada Test Site, and GREENHOUSE (1951), CASTLE (1954), and REDWING (1956) which were conducted at the Pacific Proving Ground at Enewetak and Bikini. The participants were traced individually by the use of Veterans Administration records. For the participants in each series, the number of deaths attributed to particular causes was compared with the number expected to occur at US cause- and age-specific mortality rates. A total of 5113 deaths from all causes was ascertained; this was 11.1% of the number of participants. The number was, however, only 83.5% of the number expected at US mortality rates. Mortality from leukemia among the 3554 participants at SMOKY - 10 deaths below age 85 - were 2.5 times the expected number. When the leukemia deaths are compared to other deaths in all six data sets, the differences among the series are not significant. No cancer other than leukemia was ascertained to have occurred in significant excess among SMOKY participants and the number of deaths from other cancers (67) was less than the number expected at population rates (83.8). The total body of evidence cannot convincingly either affirm or deny that the higher than statistically expected incidence of leukemia among SMOKY participants (or of prostate cancer among REDWING participants) is the result of radiation exposure incident to the tests. 19 refs., 27 tabs

  8. Nuclear Bombs and Coral: Guam Coral Core Reveals Operation-Specific Radiocarbon Signals from the Pacific Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from the western Central Pacific (Guam) has revealed a series of early peaks in the marine bomb 14C record. The typical marine bomb 14C signal, one that is phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric bomb 14C, is present in the coral core and is consistent with other North Pacific records. However, 14C levels that are well above what can be explained by air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly has been demonstrated to a limited extent in other coral cores of the Indo-Pacific region, but is unmatched relative to the magnitude and temporal resolution recorded in the Guam coral core. Other records have shown an early Δ14C rise on the order of 40-50‰ above pre-bomb levels, with a subsequent decline before continuing the gradual Δ14C rise that is indicative of air-sea diffusion of 14CO2. The Guam coral Δ14C record provided three strong pulses in 1954-55, 1956-57, and 1958-59 that are superimposed on the pre-bomb to initial Δ14C rise from atmospheric bomb 14C. Each of these peaks can be directly linked to testing of thermonuclear devices in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Eniwetok and Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. The measurable lag in reaching Guam can be tied to ocean surface currents and can be traced to other regional Δ14C records from corals, providing a transport timeline to places as distant as the Indonesian throughflow, Okinawa and Palmyra.

  9. A brief history of people and events related to atomic weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S L

    1997-07-01

    The events related to nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands began at the end of WWII when the U.S. began an initiative to determine the effect of nuclear weapons on naval vessels and on the performance of military personnel. The first tests took place in 1946 even though the area known as Micronesia was not entrusted to the U.S. by the United Nations until 1947. Beginning with the first relocation of the Bikini people to Rongerik Atoll in 1946, the saga of the Marshall Islands involvement in the atomic age began. Although the testing program was limited to the years 1946 through 1958, many of the consequences and events related to the testing program continued over the decades since. That story is still ongoing with programs currently underway to attempt to resettle previously displaced communities, remediate contaminated islands, and to settle claims of damages to individuals and communities. The history of the years subsequent to 1958 are a mixed chronicle of a few original scientific investigations aimed at understanding the coral atoll environment, continued surveillance of the acutely exposed Marshallese, some efforts at cleanup and remediation, numerous monitoring programs and many studies repeated either for credibility purposes, to satisfy international demands or because the changing state of knowledge of radiation protection has necessitated us to rethink earlier beliefs and conclusions about late health effects and social consequences. The objective of this paper is to briefly note many of the historical and political events, scientific studies, persons and publications from 1946 to the present that relate to atomic weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

  10. 137Cs exposure in the Marshallese populations: an assessment based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L C; Clinton, J H; Kaplan, E; Meinhold, C B

    1997-07-01

    The Marshall Islands were the site of numerous tests of nuclear weapons by the United States. From 1946 to 1958, nuclear devices were detonated at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. Following the inadvertent contamination of the northern islands downwind of the 1954 Bravo Test, Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in the medical care and the radiological safety of the affected populations. One important technique employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides is whole-body counting. To estimate current and future exposures to 137Cs, data from 1989 to 1994 were analyzed and are reported in this paper. During this period, 3,618 measurements were made for the Marshallese. The cesium body contents were assumed to result from a series of chronic intakes. Also, it was assumed that cesium activity in the body reaches a plateau that is maintained over 365 d. We estimated the annual effective dose rate for each population, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average 137Cs uptake measured by the whole-body counting method varies from one population to another; it was consistent with measurements of external exposure rate. The analysis, though based on limited data, indicates that there is no statistical support for a seasonal effect on 137Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is adult males. Within the 5-y monitoring period, all internal exposures to 137Cs were less than 0.2 mSv y(-1). Similarly, a persistent average cesium effective dose rate of 2 microSv y(-1) was determined for Majuro residents.

  11. Radiation doses to local populations near nuclear weapons test sites worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing was conducted in the atmosphere at numerous sites worldwide between 1946 and 1980, which resulted in exposures to local populations as a consequence of fallout of radioactive debris. The nuclear tests were conducted by five nations (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, and China) primarily at 16 sites. The 16 testing sites, located in nine different countries on five continents (plus Oceania) contributed nearly all of the radioactive materials released to the environment by atmospheric testing; only small amounts were released at a fewother minor testing sites. The 16 sites discussed here are Nevada Test Site, USA (North American continent), Bikini and Enewetak, Marshall Islands (Oceania); Johnston Island, USA (Oceania), Christmas and Malden Island, Kiribati (Oceania); Emu Field, Maralinga, and Monte Bello Islands, Australia (Australian continent); Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia (Oceania), Reggane, Algeria (Africa), Novaya Zemlya and Kapustin Yar, Russia (Europe), Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan (Asia), and Lop Nor, China (Asia). There were large differences in the numbers of tests conducted at each location and in the total explosive yields. Those factors, as well as differences in population density, lifestyle, environment, and climate at each site, led to large differences in the doses received by local populations. In general, the tests conducted earliest led to the highest individual and population exposures, although the amount of information available for a few of these sites is insufficient to provide any detailed evaluation of radiation exposures. The most comprehensive information for any site is for the Nevada Test Site. The disparities in available information add difficulty to determining the radiation exposures of local populations at each site. It is the goal of this paper to summarize the available information on external and internal doses received by the public living in the regions near each of the

  12. Urinary excretion of radionuclides from Marshallese exposed to fallout from the 1954 Bravo nuclear test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Payne S; Simon, Steven L; Ibrahim, Shawki A

    2010-08-01

    Soon after the Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 1 March 1954, urine samples were collected for analysis of excreted radioactivity from native residents exposed to radioactive fallout on two atolls as well as from U.S. military personnel on a third atoll. The earliest acquired samples, obtained by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), were assayed for various radionuclides and provided the first known measurements of (131)I in urine following exposure to fallout from a nuclear test. Over the course of 1954, many additional samples were collected by the LASL, as well as by the Atomic Energy Commission New York Operations Office's Health and Safety Laboratory and the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Collectively, the groups sampled included Marshallese exposed on Rongelap and Ailinginae Atolls, American military weather observers temporarily resident on Rongerik Atoll, and sailors from the Japanese fishing vessel, the Lucky Dragon. While the bioassay measurement data and individual urine volumes have been crucial to various attempts to assess intakes of radioactivity and the related internal radiation doses among the Marshallese, those data have never been published in any peer-reviewed journal, but have been restricted to agency memoranda, laboratory reports, and summaries in some publications and book chapters. Reconstructions of internal doses to Marshallese in 1954 and in later years have depended on these data and, hence, they have considerable historical importance as well as importance to ongoing health risk projections for Marshallese. This paper presents much of the original data on urine volumes and radioactivity from the various assays of urine for radionuclides, and compares estimates of (131)I intakes made in 1954, 1985, 1987, and 2008.

  13. University of Washington's radioecological studies in the Marshall Islands, 1946-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L R; Seymour, A H; Nevissi, A E

    1997-07-01

    Since 1946, personnel from the School of Fisheries, University of Washington (Applied Fisheries Laboratory, 1943-1958; Laboratory of Radiation Biology, 1958-1967; and Laboratory of Radiation Ecology, since 1967), have studied the effects of nuclear detonations and the ensuing radioactivity on the marine and terrestrial environments throughout the Central Pacific. A collection of reports and publications about these activities plus a collection of several thousand samples from these periods are kept at the School of Fisheries. General findings from the surveys show that (1) fission products were prevalent in organisms of the terrestrial environment whereas activation products were prevalent in marine organisms; (2) the best biological indicators of fallout radionuclides by environments were (a) terrestrial-coconuts, land crabs; (b) reef-algae, invertebrates; and (c) marine-plankton, fish. Studies of plutonium and americium in Bikini Atoll showed that during 1971-1977 the highest concentrations of 241Am, 2.85 Bq g(-1) (77 pCi g(-1)) and 239,240Pu, 4.44 Bq g(-1) (120 pCi g(-1)), in surface sediments were found in the northwest part of the lagoon. The concentrations in the bomb craters were substantially lower than these values. Concentrations of soluble and particulate plutonium and americium in surface and deep water samples showed distributions similar to the sediment samples. That is, the highest concentration of these radionuclides in the water column were at locations with highest sediment concentration. Continuous circulation of water in the lagoon and exchange of water with open ocean resulted in removal of 111 G Bq y(-1) (3 Ci y(-1)) 241Am and 222 G Bq y(-1) (6 Ci y(-1)) 239,240Pu into the North Equatorial Current. A summary of the surveys, findings, and the historical role of the Laboratory in radioecological studies of the Marshall Islands are presented.

  14. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several Northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, S V; Greenhouse, N A; Hull, A P

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. The current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. The external exposures and 137Cs soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout.

  15. Transuranic resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-04-01

    Characteristics of aged resuspension sources are more uncertain than those of new resuspension sources, which can be investigated using inert-particle controlled-tracer sources. Even though airborne concentrations are low, one aged uniform-area source which can be used for resuspension studies is the accumulated radionuclide fallout in the soil from stratospheric and tropospheric fallout debris. Airborne radionuclide concentrations from this source were investigated at convenient locations on the Hanford site. The objective is to summarize plutonium and americium resuspension research conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1977 to 1983. Airborne plutonium was determined at five sites in the Hanford area, and both plutonium and americium were determined at two Hanford sites. Airborne plutonium and americium were examined as a function of aerodynamic particle diameter, sampling height, wind speed increments, and wind direction increments. The following results are discussed: airborne radionuclide concentrations, μCi/cm 3 of sampled air; radionuclide activity densities, μCi/g of airborne solids; airborne plutonium fluxes, μCi/(m 2 day); 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu) activity ratios, (μCi 241 Am)/(μCi 239+240 Pu); and airborne solid concentrations, μg/m 3 of sampled air. In addition, a relationship based on field data for aged plutonium sources at Bikini Atoll, the Hanford site, and Rocky Flats was developed to estimate the maximum expected plutonium activity density on airborne solids compared to activity densities for bulk surface-soil samples. As a result, it is possible to more accurately predict resuspension factor ranges as a function of the resuspension source activity densities. 31 references, 18 figures, 5 tables

  16. Website application for calculating cesium-137 ingestion doses from consumption of locally grown foods in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehl, S.R.; Hamilton, T.F.; Simpson, A.E.; Freitas, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Fallout deposition from the US nuclear weapons test program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) resulted in widespread nuclear fallout contamination of the northern Marshall Islands. About 85-90 % of the nuclear test-related dose delivered to resident populations is derived from ingestion of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) contained in locally grown tree-crop food products. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a series of interactive internet applications to provide the public with an open access platform to learn more about radiological conditions in the Marshall Islands. The ingestion dose calculator application described here is one such feature whereby users can calculate hypothetical ingestion doses from 137 Cs based on interactive user input matched to environmental data on the activity concentration of 137 Cs contained in food plants such as coconut, breadfruit, Pandanus, and arrowroot. Users are asked to enter a date, an island and atoll location, a plant food type, and a daily intake amount (highlighted by the number of portions eaten per day in estimated gram equivalents). The application computes the user daily dose and the user equivalent annualized dose, and then compares the results with default settings based on dietary models developed for the Marshall Islands from independent dietary surveys. The default diets are based on a local plus imported food diet (or IA diet model) and an imported foods unavailable diet (or IUA diet model). Environmental data are decay corrected to the date entered by the user using an effective half-life of 137 Cs of 8.5 years (http://marshallislands.llnl.gov). (author)

  17. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, S.V.; Hull, A.P.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. Current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137 Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. External exposures and 137 Cs Soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. 30 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Remediation and rehabilitation programmes in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Following cessation of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands in 1958 the northern atolls have been subject to extensive studies of their radiological status with a view to the return of displaced residents. In the case of Bikini an assessment was most recently carried out at the request of the Marshall Islands Government by the IAEA, based on data obtained through the DOE funded studies of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Nationwide Radiological Study undertaken for the Marshall Islands Government. For a diet of entirely local foodstuffs the mean adult annual dose to residents could be about 15 mSv, and greater than a generic reference level for intervention of 10 mSv/a. A more likely diet with some imported foods, however, would incur annual doses of about 4 mSv. Remediation in the form of potassium fertilizer application, which suppresses the uptake of Cs-137 in plants, has been recommended. In the case of Rongelap Atoll, conditions for resettlement were established in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between US Government agencies and the Rongelap community. This required that annual doses to the maximally exposed resident not exceed I mSv. A number of independent evaluations and reviews found that some residents could exceed this compliance level and again remediation measures have been recommended, primarily the application of potassium to soil. It is, however, doubtful whether any remediation is justifiable on solely radiological grounds. The Rongelap MOU also specified an activity concentration limit for transuranics in soil, but this additional constraint could be considered confusing and unnecessary, particularly when it appeared to have no derivable connection to the compliance dose value. (author)

  19. Ground-water resources of the Laura area, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.; Anthony, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The water system that supplies the heavily populated Dalap-Uliga-Darrit (DUD) area of Majuro atoll, Marshall Island, relies almost entirely upon airstrip catchment of rain water. Droughts cause severe water supply problems and water rationing is required, even during periods of normal rainfall. The Laura area contains a substantial lens of fresh groundwater that could be developed for export to the DUD area 30 mi to the east. Study of the groundwater resource at Laura involved a survey of existing wells, installation of monitoring wells and test holes, compilation of continuous records of rainfall and water level fluctuations, and collection of water quality data. Test hole data permitted the definition of three geohydrologic units which correlate well with similar units in Bikini and Enewetak atolls. The units consist of two layers of unconsolidated reef and lagoon sediments resting on a dense, highly permeable limestone. The potable water zone, or freshwater nucleus, of the lens is contained mostly within the unconsolidated layers, which are much less permeable than the basal limestone. Recharge to the Laura freshwater lens is estimated to be 1.8 mil gal/day, based on an average annual rainfall of 140 in. Sustainable yield is estimated to be about 400,000 gal/day. Shallow skimming wells or infiltration galleries similar to those used on Kwajalein atoll would be appropriate to develop the freshwater lens. The impact of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the salinity in developed water and in a network of monitor wells. (Author 's abstract)

  20. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: Data and dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Conrado, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137 Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240 Pu and 241 Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y -1 . The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y -1 to 4.5 mSv y -1 . The 50-y integral dose ranges from 0.5 to 65 mSv. 35 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Space: The Final Frontier-Research Relevant to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D

    2017-04-01

    A critically important gap in knowledge surrounds the health consequences of exposure to radiation received gradually over time. Much is known about the health effects of brief high-dose exposures, such as from the atomic bombings in Japan, but the concerns today focus on the frequent low-dose exposures received by members of the public, workers, and, as addressed in this paper, astronauts. Additional guidance is needed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for planning long-term missions where the rate of radiation exposure is gradual over years and the cumulative amounts high. The direct study of low doses and low-dose rates is of immeasurable value in understanding the possible range of health effects from gradual exposures and in providing guidance for radiation protection, not only of workers and the public but also astronauts. The ongoing Million Person Study (MPS) is 10 times larger than the study of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of 86,000 survivors with estimated doses. The number of workers with >100 mSv career dose is substantially greater. The large study size, broad range of doses, and long follow-up indicate substantial statistical ability to quantify the risk of exposures that are received gradually over time. The study consists of 360,000 U.S. Department of Energy workers from the Manhattan Project; 150,000 nuclear utility workers from the inception of the nuclear age; 115,000 atomic veterans who participated in above-ground atmospheric tests at the Nevada Test Site and the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and Johnston Island in the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG); 250,000 radiologists and medical workers; and 130,000 industrial radiographers. NASA uses an individual risk-based system for radiation protection in contrast to the system of dose limits for occupational exposures used by terrestrial-based organizations. The permissible career exposure limit set by NASA for each astronaut is a 3% risk of exposure-induced death (REID

  2. Taking the pulse of the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterberg, C.

    1977-01-01

    The staff at the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco realized that they were favourably located to ?take the pulse of the Mediterranean? and begin an enquiry into its health. Practically all of the radioactivity in the water and sediments could be attributed to world-wide fallout from the nuclear tests of the 1960's. Unable to find enough radioactivity in the Mediterranean to work with in a meaningful way, the laboratory imported sediments from the Bikini-Eniwetok sites of the American thermonuclear tests, and sediments from the Irish Sea near the Windscale effluent pipe to do their experiments. Other experiments were carried out with relatively innocuous, short half-lived 237 Pu, made especially for the laboratory in Japan and in the USA. A proposal was made to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to monitor the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy elements in the Mediterranean. This report briefly discusses that work. Three sets of studies were carried out by the Monaco group to assess the current levels of pollutants in the Mediterranean: 1) Radioactivity; 2) Chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT's and polychlorinated biphenyls); 3) Heavy elements. As stated earlier, measurements showed that radioactivity in the ocean off Monaco is quite low, indicating that there are no major sources of radionuclides reaching the open ocean other than fallout. Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured by gas-chromatography. The results of this study were being published (Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1977) but it can be said that the data are not much different than that for the Atlantic Ocean and Saragasso Sea. The western Mediterranean is clearly higher in PCB's than the eastern Mediterranean, but not unduly so. Less can be said about the trace or heavy elements because the patterns are so variable. Atomic absorption spectrometry is used to detect and measure most trace elements. For the lower levels that appear in seawater, chemical

  3. 137Cs, 239+24Pu and 24Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng Jian; Wang Zhongliang

    2006-01-01

    could be attributed to close-in fallout Pu delivered from the Enewetak and Bikini Atolls by ocean currents of branches of the North Equatorial Current to the Southeast Asian seas

  4. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and

  5. The Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey: data and dose assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Conrado, C L; Eagle, R J; Brunk, J L; Jokela, T A; Mount, M E; Phillips, W A; Stoker, A C; Stuart, M L; Wong, K M

    1997-07-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137Cs. 90Sr is the second most significant radionuclide via ingestion. External gamma exposure from 137Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240Pu and 241Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y(-1) to 2.1 mSv y(-1). The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y(-1). The combined dose from both background and bomb related radionuclides ranges from slightly

  6. Concentrations of /sup 113m/Cd in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Anglin, D.L.

    1980-09-18

    Reports on the detection of /sup 113m/Cd in any type of environmental sample have been rare. The 113 mass chain yield is small relative to other longer-lived fission products, such as /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs, produced from uranium, plutonium and thorium fissions. Also, only a small fraction of the 113 chain yield decays to /sup 113m/Cd. Salter estimated that the /sup 113m/Cd//sup 90/Sr activity quotient in thermonuclear fission should be 0.003. He stated that this ratio is in good agreement with data from a few samples measured in the northern hemisphere prior to 1962 which have no /sup 109/Cd. This, to our knowledge, was the first report of the detection of fission-produced /sup 113m/Cd in the environment. Salter also calculated that 0.062 MCi of /sup 113m/Cd and 0.25 MCi of /sup 109/Cd were produced by activation during the atmospheric detonation of the 1.4-megaton Starfish device on 9 July 1962 over Johnston Atoll. As both /sup 109/Cd and /sup 113m/Cd are produced during neutron activation of stable cadmium, and /sup 109/Cd is not a fission product, the last part of Salter's statement is significant. The absence of /sup 109/Cd in samples collected before 1962 indicates that all nuclear testing before this time, which included all tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls in the Marshall Islands, could have generated /sup 113m/Cd only as a fission product. It is therefore important to recognize that /sup 113m/Cd could be present in other environments contaminated with fission product wastes discharged to the aquatic environment from other nuclear facilities. /sup 113m/Cd has a half life of 14.6 +- 0.1 y and decays predominantly by beta-particle emission. We present here a preliminary report of /sup 113m/Cd concentrations measured in sediment and tissue samples of marine organisms collected around different atolls in the Marshall Islands.

  7. Propaganda, grafite e as representações de uma cidade negra/Advertising, graffiti, and representations of a black city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Finn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Na imaginação geográfica dos Estados Unidos, o Brasil é um País de futebol, samba e biquínis. Representações do Brasil entram nos EUA através dos filtros culturais de Pelé e a Garota de Ipanema. Mas nesta visão se perde a historia intricada e complexa da raça no Brasil, especialmente na cidade do Salvador da Bahia. Mas, chegando de fora e vendo as representações raciais pela propaganda popular, nunca se imaginaria que mais de 80% dos soteropolitanos é de descendência africana. Neste artigo, contextualizarei primeiramente Salvador em termos raciais no Brasil. Então, após examinar as atuais teorias das raças e das suas representações, desconstruirei algumas das representações raciais mais chocantes e contraditórias, do ponto de vista de uma pessoa relativamente nova na Bahia. Concluirei com as observações do grafite como uma maneira popular de contestar as representações brancas dominantes numa cidade negra, através da qual as representações raciais são democratizadas nas superfícies verticais da capital baiana.In the geographical imagination of the United States, Brazil is a country of soccer, samba, and bikinis. Representations of Brazil enter the United States through the cultural filters of Pelé and the Girl from Ipanema. This view misses, however, the intricacies of Brazil’s troubled racial history, especially in the northeast city of Salvador, Bahia. Attempting to understand Salvador’s racial make-up in terms of popular visual media in the urban landscape, an outsider might never guess that more than 80% of the city’s population is of African descent. In this paper I will first contextualize Salvador in terms of race in Brazil. After briefly interrogating current thought in race and representation, I will then deconstruct some of the most shocking and contradictory representations of race in this Afro-Brazilian urban context. I conclude by wondering if much of the city’s graffiti isn’t an informal

  8. Monitoring Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Western Pacific Using Satellite Remote Sensing Integrated with Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, C. M.; Phinn, S. R.; Lyons, M. B.; Kovacs, E.; Saunders, M. I.; Leon, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) are typically found in highly dynamic environments where the magnitude and types of physical and biological processes controlling their distribution, diversity and function changes dramatically. Recent advances in the types of satellite image data and the length of their archives that are available globally, coupled with new techniques for extracting environmental information from these data sets has enabled significant advances to be made in our ability to map and monitor coral and SAV environments. Object Based Image Analysis techniques are one of the most significant advances in information extraction techniques for processing images to deliver environmental information at multiple spatial scales. This poster demonstrates OBIA applied to high spatial resolution satellite image data to map and monitor coral and SAV communities across a variety of environments in the Western Pacific that vary in their extent, biological composition, forcing physical factors and location. High spatial resolution satellite imagery (Quickbird, Ikonos and Worldview2) were acquired coincident with field surveys on each reef to collect georeferenced benthic photo transects, over various areas in the Western Pacific. Base line maps were created, from Roviana Lagoon Solomon island (600 km2), Bikini Atoll Marshall Island (800 Km2), Lizard Island, Australia (30 km2) and time series maps for geomorphic and benthic communities were collected for Heron Reef, Australia (24 km2) and Eastern Banks area of Moreton Bay, Australia (200 km2). The satellite image data were corrected for radiometric and atmospheric distortions to at-surface reflectance. Georeferenced benthic photos were acquired by divers or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, analysed for benthic cover composition, and used for calibration and validation purposes. Hierarchical mapping from: reef/non-reef (1000's - 10000's m); reef type (100's - 1000's m); 'geomorphic zone' (10's - 100's m); to

  9. Projected lifetime cancer risks from exposure to regional radioactive fallout in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Charles E; Bouville, André; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946-1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the MI archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external irradiation resulting from exposure to radioactive fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses for cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948-1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 y (1959-1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% to 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. By sub-population, the projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28% to 69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2.4% to 22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2.2% (0.5% to 4.8%) and 0.8% (0.2% to 1.8%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied, by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and

  10. Management of developmental dysplasia of the hip in less than 24 months old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus on the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip in children less than 24 months of age. The aim of this study was to present the results of open reduction and concomitant primary soft-tissue intervention in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip in children less than 24 months of age. Materials and Methods: Sixty hips of 50 patients (4 male, 46 female with mean age of 14.62 ± 5.88 (range 5-24 months months with a mean followup of 40.00 ± 6.22 (range 24-58 months months were included. Twenty five right and 35 left hips (10 bilaterally involved were operated. Open reduction was performed using the medial approach in patients aged < 20 months (with Tönnis type II-III and IV hip dysplasias and for those aged 20-24 months with Tönnis type II and III hip dysplasias ( n = 47. However for 13 patients aged 20-24 months with Tönnis type IV hip dysplasias, anterior bikini incision was used. Results: Mean acetabular index was 41.03 ± 3.78° (range 34°-50° in the preoperative period and 22.98 ± 3.01° (range 15°-32° at the final visits. Mean center-edge angle at the final visits was 22.85 ± 3.35° (18°-32°. Based on Severin radiological classification, 29 (48.3% were type I (very good, 25 (41.7% were type II (good and 6 (10% were type III (fair hips. According to the McKay clinical classification, postoperatively the hips were evaluated as excellent ( n = 42; 70%, good ( n = 14; 23.3% and fair ( n = 4; 6.7%. Reduction of all hip dislocations was achieved. Additional pelvic osteotomies were performed in 14 (23.3% hips for continued acetabular dysplasia and recurrent subluxation. (Salter [ n = 12]/Pemberton [ n = 2] osteotomy was performed. Avascular necrosis (AVN developed in 7 (11.7% hips. Conclusion: In DDH only soft-tissue procedures are not enough, because of the high rate of the secondary surgery and AVN for all cases aged less than 24 months. Bone procedures may be necessary in the walking

  11. Thyroid Nodules as a Late Effect of Exposure to Fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R. A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Sutow, W. W. [M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Colcock, B. P. [Lahey Clinic, Boston, MA (United States); Dobyns, B. M. [Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Cleveland, OH (United States); Paglia, D. E. [Center for the Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1969-11-15

    Multiple nodules of the thyroid gland have developed in a Marshallese population 10 to 14 years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout The exposure occurred in 1954 when an unpredicted shift in winds caused deposition of fallout on several Marshall Islands east of Bikini Sixty four people received 175 rads of gamma radiation which proved to be sub lethal but resulted in early nausea and vomiting and significant depression of blood elements Exposure of the skin resulted m beta bums and epilation and there was significant internal absorption of fission isotopes from contaminated food and water The most serious internal exposure was from radioiodines ({sup 131}I {sup 132}I {sup 133}I {sup 135}I) It was estimated that in addition to the gamma radiation the adult thyroid gland received 160 rads from radioiodines and the young children because of their considerably smaller glands an estimated 700 1400 rads Recovery of blood elements to nearly normal and healing of skin lesions with regrowth of hair was complete by one year These findings have been fully documented The most important late radiation effect has been the development of thyroid abnormalities Since 1963 a total of 20 cases have thus far been detected 17 in children exposed at less than 10 years of age (90% of that group) and 3 in adults Thyroid surgery on 11 children and 3 adults revealed that all had benign adenomatous nodules except for a mixed papillary and follicular carcinoma in a 40 year-old woman The benign nodules were similar to those associated with iodine deficiency but such deficiency was not apparent m the Marshallese who live largely on seafood However most pathologists could not distinguish definite radiation effects in the nodules Growth and development retardation in some of the exposed children is now clearly related to thyroid deficiency Two boys with the greatest growth retardation developed pronounced hypothyroidism with atrophy of their thyroid glands Treatment of the exposed

  12. Transport process of Pu isotope in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, 036-8564, Aomori (Japan); Zheng, Jian [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    the Sea of Okhotsk, the {sup 239+240}Pu concentration was 2.8 mBq m{sup -3} in the surface water and they increased with depth; a broad maximum was identified at 1000 - 2000 m depth. The atom ratio of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu showed no notable variation from surface water to deep water of 3000 m depth. In the Sulu Sea, the {sup 239+240}Pu concentration was 6.3 mBq m{sup -3} in the surface water; a sharp maximum was identified at 1250 m depth. The Pu inventory of 107 Bq m{sup -2} was 7.3 times higher than the expected cumulative deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude. The atom ratio of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu increased gradually with depth from surface water to deep water of 5000 m depth. The atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18. The atom ratios in the water column of the Sea of Okhotsk were slightly lower than those observed in the Sulu Sea, South China Sea and Japan Sea. The Bikini close-in tropospheric fallout Pu could be transported to marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean by ocean currents. (authors)

  13. Female condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will