WorldWideScience

Sample records for bike and ride

  1. Promoting bike-and-ride : the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The number of policy initiatives to promote the use of bike-and-ride, or the combined use of bicycle and public trans-port for one trip, has grown considerably over the past decade as part of the search for more sustainable transport solu-tions. This paper discusses the experiences with, and impacts

  2. Bike Riding and the Art of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert G.

    1978-01-01

    Suggestions for becoming an effective teacher and motivating students to think creatively are proposed based on the author's personal experience and theories of Rogers, Dewey, Piaget, and Maslow. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs is adapted to stages of learning readiness. (LBH)

  3. Riding Bikes: A Pastime for Every Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    People have heard the expression "It's as easy as riding a bike." But the idea of a child with special needs balancing, steering, and pedaling a bike can seem out of reach for some; especially when he may be unable to walk unaided or hold his head up without support. Physical capabilities or stamina need not keep a child from this pleasurable…

  4. Stay Safe Riding Bikes or Skating Outside

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-02

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about safety when outside, riding bikes or skating.  Created: 2/2/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/2/2011.

  5. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  6. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  7. I ride a bike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玲

    2005-01-01

    <正>教学内容《I ride a bike》的核心教学内容是让学生谈论周末生活这样一个话题,其中包括8个词汇教学,以及询问其他人的周末活动所涉及的主要交际用语:

  8. Bike racing, recreational riding, impact sport and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmont Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cycling has been shown to confer considerable benefits in terms of health, leading to reductions in death rates principally due to cardiovascular improvements and adaptation. Given the disparity between the benefits of cycling on cardiovascular fitness and previous research finding that cycling may not be beneficial for bone health, Hugo Olmedillas and colleagues performed a systematic review of the literature. They concluded that road cycling does not appear to confer any significant osteogenic benefit. They postulate that the cause of this is that, particularly at a competitive level, riders spend long periods of time in a weight-supported position on the bike. Training programs may be supplemented with impact loading to preserve bone health; however, the small increased risk of soft tissue injury must also be considered. See related commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/168

  9. Recognition of Bike-Riding States with HMM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepvilojanapong, Niwat; Sugo, Keiji; Namiki, Yutaka; Tobe, Yoshito

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we design and implement an sBike (Sensorized Bike) prototype to support cyclists by recognizing various riding states including going straight, turning right or left, meandering, and stopping. An Android phone, which is equipped with a gyro sensor, an accelerometer, and a GPS receiver, is mounted on the handle of bicycle to collect necessary data for analysis. Hidden Markov model (HMM) is adopted to recognize the riding states from raw sensor data. The experimental results show that the accuracy of recognition is as high as 98%. By knowing the riding states of cyclists, road conditions can be inferred and shared amongst users.

  10. Taking a Bike Ride? Don't Forget Your Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160423.html Taking a Bike Ride? Don't Forget Your Helmet Wearing the ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- All cyclists should wear bike helmets, which can reduce the risk of head ...

  11. Tyre Volume and Pressure Effects on Impact Attenuation during Mountain Bike Riding

    OpenAIRE

    Paul W. Macdermid; Matthew C. Miller; Fiona M. Macdermid; Fink, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to impacts and vibrations has been shown to be detrimental to cross country mountain bike performance and health. Therefore, any strategy aimed at attenuating such exposure is useful to participants and/or industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tyre size and tyre inflation pressure on exposure to impacts. Participants completed nine trials of a technical section (controlled for initial speed and route taken) including nine separate conditions involving thr...

  12. Comparing hiking, mountain biking and horse riding impacts on vegetation and soils in Australia and the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Hill, Wendy; Newsome, David; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2010-01-01

    Hiking, horse riding and mountain biking are popular in protected areas in Australia and the United States of America. To help inform the often contentious deliberations about use of protected areas for these three types of activities, we review recreation ecology research in both countries. Many impacts on vegetation, soils and trails are similar for the three activities, although there can be differences in severity. Impacts include damage to existing trails, soil erosion, compaction and nutrification, changes in hydrology, trail widening, exposure of roots, rocks and bedrock. There can be damage to plants including reduction in vegetation height and biomass, changes in species composition, creation of informal trails and the spread of weeds and plant pathogens. Due to differences in evolutionary history, impacts on soil and vegetation can be greater in Australia than in the USA. There are specific social and biophysical impacts of horses such as those associated with manure and urine, grazing and the construction and use of tethering yards and fences. Mountain bike specific impacts include soil and vegetation damage from skidding and the construction of unauthorised trails, jumps, bridges and other trail technical features. There are gaps in the current research that should be filled by additional research: (1) on horse and mountain bike impacts to complement those on hiking. The methods used need to reflect patterns of actual usage and be suitable for robust statistical analysis; (2) that directly compares types and severity of impacts among activities; and (3) on the potential for each activity to contribute to the spread of weeds and plant pathogens. Additional research will assist managers and users of protected areas in understanding the relative impacts of these activities, and better ways to manage them. It may not quell the debates among users, managers and conservationists, but it will help put it on a more scientific footing.

  13. Overuse Injuries Associated with Mountain Biking: Is Single-Speed Riding a Predisposing Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lebec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though mountain bikers are at significant risk for overuse injury, there is minimal quality research describing this relationship. Single-speed mountain biking, in which participants pedal a bike with only a single gear, may place riders at even greater risk for overuse problems due to the disproportionate physical effort associated with this type of riding. The focus of this study was to provide additional perspective on overuse injuries sustained by mountain bikers and to determine if single-speed mountain biking places participants at greater risk for overuse conditions. Four hundred and four (404 mountain bikers were surveyed concerning overuse injuries sustained during the previous year. Findings indicate that 63% of respondents reported an overuse injury affecting at least one area with the most commonly reported areas being the lumbar spine, knees, hand/wrist, and cervical spine. Individuals riding single-speed mountain bikes did not have a higher incidence of overuse injuries than riders of multiple-geared bikes. However, respondents who split time between riding single-speed and multiple-geared bikes were significantly more likely to report an overuse syndrome than those only riding single-speed or multiple-geared bikes (p = 0.0104. This group of riders may be at greater risk for overuse injury due to excessive fatigue and poor biomechanics.

  14. Tyre Volume and Pressure Effects on Impact Attenuation during Mountain Bike Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Macdermid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to impacts and vibrations has been shown to be detrimental to cross country mountain bike performance and health. Therefore, any strategy aimed at attenuating such exposure is useful to participants and/or industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tyre size and tyre inflation pressure on exposure to impacts. Participants completed nine trials of a technical section (controlled for initial speed and route taken including nine separate conditions involving three tyre sizes and three tyre inflation pressures normalised per tyre. Performance was determined by time to negotiate the technical section while triaxial accelerometers recorded accelerations (128 Hz to quantify impact exposure and the subsequent effects on soft tissue response. Increases in tyre size within the range used improved performance P<0.0001 while changes to tyre inflation pressure had no effect P=0.6870 on performance. Larger tyre sizes and lower tyre inflation pressures significantly P<0.0001 reduced exposure to impacts which could be augmented or negated due to an interaction between tyre size and inflation pressure P<0.0001. It is recommended that mountain bikers use larger tyres, inflated to the moderate pressures used within this study, in order to increase performance and reduce the risk of overuse injuries.

  15. Co-Teaching ELLs: Riding a Tandem Bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigsfeld, Andrea; Dove, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine getting on the tandem bike of co-teaching. You have a lot to decide. Who sits in the front and takes the lead? Who takes the backseat? The fact is, neither classroom teachers nor secondary content-area teachers have proven eager to give up leading their lesson when they have a co-teacher present, whether to support ELLs or students with…

  16. Innovation and combined design of a children bike in entrainment and riding%一种儿童娱乐代步工具的组合式创新设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓莉; 薛澄岐

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the waste of resource and space caused by the diversity of children's bike in the specific age group, and improve reasonability of ergonomics design, the design of multi-function children bike was studied. Through research and study of the entertainment, functionality, safety of the children bike design, we put forward design factors of entertainment and ride instead of walk. A project design was given by combining swing machine and children's bicycle together through applying industrial design methods and ergonomics analysis: The project designed the handle size, the seat height and adjustability of the bike length from ergonomic. Moreover, the children's bike was redesigned from the modeling, the structure, the producing process and the engineering output etc. As a result, the combined innovation design of children's entertainment transport, has not only expanded the using function of children's bike, but solved the problem of homogeneity-oriented design at present. It will promote the design and production of the children's bike in the future.%为了减少在儿童特定年龄段,童车种类多样性而造成的资源和空间的浪费,并提高人机设计的合理性,对童车进行了功能组合式设计研究.通过对童车娱乐性、功能性、安全性的分析,提出了娱乐代步的设计要素,将自行车与摆摆乐的功能相结合,应用工业设计方法、人机工程分析进行了方案设计.该方案在把手、座椅高度以及车身长度可调性方面进行了人机尺寸设计,并从造型、结构、加工工艺、工程输出等细节进行设计.儿童娱乐代步工具的组合式创新设计不仅扩展了童车在使用上的功能,还解决了目前所存在的设计同质化的问题,为童车的设计与生产起到了一定的推动作用.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Motor Bike and Electric Bike in Urban Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Du; LENG Ru-bo; ZHANG Cheng; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    Motor bikes (m-bike) and electric bikes (e-bike) are widely used in urban areas of China. Life cycle assessment of m-bike and e-bike are presented to compare their energy use and environmental emission in a life cycle span. An m-bike and an e-bike are disassembled to collect material composition data for the life cycle assessment. The results show that e-bike consumes less energy and has less global warming potential (GWP), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), dissolved solids (DS), hydrocarbons (HC) than m-bike during life cycle. But e-bike generates more solid wastes, and more acidification potential (AP), heavy metal (HM) than m-bike. Advanced batteries and clean coal fired power plant technologies are recommended to promote e-bike use in urban area.

  18. Borges & Bike Rides: Toward an Understanding of Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O. Wamsted

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author—a full-time high school mathematics teacher and concurrent doctoral candidate in Department of Middle-Secondary Education and Instructional Technology at Georgia State University—will make a case for the use of an autoethnographic methodological tool he is calling narrative mining. He will begin by briefly summarizing his experiences attempting to write and publish autoethnography; a short story by Argentine mystery writer Jorge Luis Borges will serve as a frame to provide three examples of barriers the author believes lie between a writer and any attempt at self-knowledge. A partial solution to these barriers is proposed in the form of an examination of the personal stories a writer has told over time. An example is then shown, and a call made for a deeper look into the possible spaces opened up in a continued examination of the personal story.

  19. E-bike safety: Individual-level factors and incident characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    incidents. Using regression analyses, we demonstrated that riding style and e-bike attitude played a crucial role in both perceived safety and involvement in safety critical incidents. Age and female gender were negatively associated with perceived safety. 29% of participants had experienced at least one...... to report problems maintaining balance due to the weight of the e-bike. Preventive measures discussed include awareness campaigns and making it easier to distinguish e-bikes from conventional bicycles to address the problem of underestimation of speed. We also identified a need to familiarise with the e...

  20. Towards out-of-the-lab EEG in uncontrolled environments: Feasibility study of dry EEG recordings during exercise bike riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Siddharth; Casson, Alexander J

    2015-08-01

    Conventional EEG (electroencephalography) has relied on wet electrodes which require conductive gel to help the electrodes make contact with the scalp. In recent years many dry electrode EEG systems have become available that do not require this gel. As a result they are quicker and easier to set up, with the potential to record the the EEG in situations and environments where it has not previously been possible. This paper investigates the practicality of using dry EEG in new non-conventional recording situations. In particular it uses a dry EEG recording system to monitor the EEG while a subject is riding an exercise bike. The results show that good-quality EEG, free from high-amplitude motion artefacts, can be collected in this challenging motion rich environment. In the frequency domain a peak of activity is seen over the motor cortex (C4) at 23 Hz starting five minutes after the start of the exercise task, giving initial insights into the on-going operation of the brain during exercise.

  1. Cranking Out Adventure: A Bike Leader's Guide to Trial and Error Touring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohnke, Karl

    The product of a 3,355 mile bicycle trip involving a co-ed group of teenagers and a leader (N=12), this guide to bike riding trips presents practical and philosophical insights gained by the Project Adventure leader who conducted the trip. Detailed lists of pre- and on-trip requirements are presented. Specifically, there are sections devoted to…

  2. Using hybrid modeling for life cycle assessment of motor bike and electric bike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Du; LENG Ru-bo; ZHANG Cheng; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is environmental evaluation of products, materials, and processes over their life cycle. Truncation uncertainty and corresponding uncertainty are main problems occurred in process life cycle assessment (PLCA) modeling and economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling. Through combination of these two modelings in different life cycle stage and use of an uncertainty reduction strategy, a hybrid life cycle assessment modeling method was proposed in this study. Case studies were presented on gasoline-powered motorbikes (M-bike) and electricity-powered electric bike (E-bike). Web-based software was developed to analyze process environmental impacts. Results show that the largest part of life cycle energy (LCE) is consumed at use stage. Less energy is consumed in life cycle of E-bike than that of M-bike. GWP (Global Warming Potential), CO (Carbon Monoxide), PM10 (particulate matter) emission of M-bike are higher than that of E-bike, especially at use stage, AP (acidification Potential) emission of E-bike is higher than that of M-bike. Comprehensively, E-bike is energy efficient and less emitting, and better choice for urban private transportation.

  3. The Joy of Biking Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how adults and children elicit and share their everyday experiences of cycling together in a variety of circumstances. Video data was collected of commuter cyclists, family bike rides and school bike tours. Using an ethnomethodologically informed approach to talk, mobile action...... and interactional practices, the novel video recordings of these diverse vélomobile formations are analysed in order to document how cyclists organise and mobilise their experiences and accompanying emotions in relation to the concurrent activity of biking together. Assuming that displays of emotion are situated...

  4. Mountain biking. Breezy ups and traumatic downs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing. The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided. (orig.)

  5. Doping research on and off the bike

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Gleaves, John

    2014-01-01

    From time to time a good colleague of Ask has suggested that the time he spends on the bike equals wasted time. It could have been spent more productively reading books and writing articles (or even better: writing books). In academia it can be hard to counter such arguments. It doesn’t sound...

  6. Bike2Work: and the winners are...

    CERN Multimedia

    Jens Vigen, "Bike2Work" coordinator for CERN

    2015-01-01

    Bike2Work is a popular initiative to promote cycling that was launched in Switzerland in 2004. Every summer, it mobilises some 50,000 employees from more than 1100 companies and organisations across Switzerland. This year, CERN established itself as the main player in French-speaking Switzerland.   The main motivation for Bike2Work is the joy of the cycle commute. Biking contributes to your fitness and reduces pollution and congestion on the roads and in car parks. During this year’s Bike2Work, over 9 million kilometres were recorded across Switzerland! Out of these, 97,462 kilometres were pedaled by the 126 CERN teams participating in the initiative. In this friendly competition, CERN established itself as the main player in French-speaking Switzerland, although EPFL was not far behind with 124 teams. However, CERN beat EPFL by a large margin with regard to the number of kilometres cycled, as our colleagues in the canton of Vaud reached only 63,000 kilometres. Even ETH in Zurich w...

  7. Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

    2010-08-01

    Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

  8. Bike Infrastructures and Design Qualities: Enhancing Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.; Harder, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Decisions on transportation projects are typically – alongside the project costs – based on the potential for the project to contribute to broad public policy goals. Information on how specific design qualities enhance cycling will help decision makers to develop better and more cost-effective bike...... infrastructures. This article aims to present findings of the research project titled Bikeability – funded by the Danish Research Council. The overall purpose of the Bikeability project is to investigate and document relations between cycling motivation from different socio- demographic groups and distinct design....... The main element of the case studies is a questionnaire amongst users of the three infrastructures allowing the determination of socio-economic characteristics of the users and effects of the infrastructure in terms of the use of bike. Furthermore, the users were asked to assess the infrastructure project...

  9. 2013 Bike safety campaign: outcome and feedback

    CERN Document Server

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From 3 to 17 June, the HSE Unit, in collaboration with the Reception and Access Control Service, led a campaign targeting CERN cyclists.   Photo: Laëtitia Wohlgemuth. In exchange for vouchers distributed by the security guards, 195 persons received a helmet and a reflective vest as well as documents on safety issues (ex: how to adjust one’s safety helmet properly; how to avoid blind spots; what is the required equipment for bikes and bike users, etc.). These persons also took part in a survey that contained questions on their cycling habits and level of knowledge on bike safety issues. It appeared that, for instance, 43% of the participants were aware that wearing a reflective vest is mandatory whenever visibility is poor (in France). 95% gave particular attention to the need to protect their heads (by assuming that wearing a helmet is either “mandatory” or “highly recommended”). The HSE Unit provided the participants with further i...

  10. Mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders: A case study of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; Nguyen, Hang T T; De Gruyter, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Motorcyclist injuries and fatalities are a major concern of many developing countries. In Vietnam, motorcycles are involved in more than 70% of all road traffic crashes. This paper aims to explore the prevalence and factors associated with mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders, using a case study of Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional observation survey was undertaken at 12 sites, in which each site was surveyed during a two-hour peak period from 16:30 to 18:30 for two weekdays and one weekend day. A total of 26,360 riders were observed, consisting of 24,759 motorcyclists and 1601 electric bike riders. The overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding was 8.4% (95% CI: 8.06-8.74%) with calling having higher prevalence than screen operation: 4.64% (95% CI: 4.39-4.90%) vs. 3.76% (95% CI: 3.52-3.99%) respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of mobile phone use was higher among motorcyclists than electric bike riders: 8.66% (95%CI: 8.30-9.01%) vs. 4.43% (95% CI: 3.40-5.47%) respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that mobile phone use while riding was associated with vehicle type, age, gender, riding alone, weather, day of week, proximity to city centre, number of lanes, separate car lanes, red traffic light duration, and police presence. Combining greater enforcement of existing legislations with extensive education and publicity programs is recommended to reduce potential deaths and injuries related to the use of mobile phones while riding. PMID:27015225

  11. Mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders: A case study of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; Nguyen, Hang T T; De Gruyter, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Motorcyclist injuries and fatalities are a major concern of many developing countries. In Vietnam, motorcycles are involved in more than 70% of all road traffic crashes. This paper aims to explore the prevalence and factors associated with mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders, using a case study of Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional observation survey was undertaken at 12 sites, in which each site was surveyed during a two-hour peak period from 16:30 to 18:30 for two weekdays and one weekend day. A total of 26,360 riders were observed, consisting of 24,759 motorcyclists and 1601 electric bike riders. The overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding was 8.4% (95% CI: 8.06-8.74%) with calling having higher prevalence than screen operation: 4.64% (95% CI: 4.39-4.90%) vs. 3.76% (95% CI: 3.52-3.99%) respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of mobile phone use was higher among motorcyclists than electric bike riders: 8.66% (95%CI: 8.30-9.01%) vs. 4.43% (95% CI: 3.40-5.47%) respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that mobile phone use while riding was associated with vehicle type, age, gender, riding alone, weather, day of week, proximity to city centre, number of lanes, separate car lanes, red traffic light duration, and police presence. Combining greater enforcement of existing legislations with extensive education and publicity programs is recommended to reduce potential deaths and injuries related to the use of mobile phones while riding.

  12. MOUNTAIN BIKE, MONITORING AND HEART RATE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Scotton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chi pratica sport, sia con obiettivi agonistici sia di fitness, cerca di mantenere il proprio stato di forma ad un livello che gli permetta di essere prestativo e contemporaneamente di prevenire eventi traumatici (Scotton et Al 2006; Viru, Viru 2002. L’atleta che compete, amatore o professionista, dovrebbe seguire scrupolosamente la periodizzazione (Scotton, Gollin 2006 e la programmazione più idonee ai propri scopi, privilegiando i mezzi e i metodi di allenamento più congeniali a lui e più utili per lo specifico periodo. E’ noto che quando si avvicinano le gare il tipo di allenamento seguito assomiglia sempre più alla tipologia di competizione. E’ abitudine consolidata per chi svolge una qualsiasi specialità sportiva (Scotton 2003 con finalità non agonistiche cercare di mantenere efficiente l’apparato locomotore ed i sistemi ad esso collegati (Wilmore, Costill 2005 per ottenere divertimento e, appunto, il fitness, senza considerare troppo le norme che regolano l’allenamento sportivo. Un soggetto, non professionista, indossando il cardiofrequenzimetro Polar S710i ha effettuato due sessioni di allenamento su una mountain bike da free-ride in due distinte giornate e sullo stesso percorso.Il software dello strumento consente di sovrapporre i files del medesimo giro evidenziando le somiglianze dei tratti principali delle sedute: la durata della salita e della discesa con le velocità ottenute e i km percorsi, le frequenze cardiache medie e massime relative alle singole frazioni dell’allenamento e nel totale.Obiettivo: Nel lavoro si propone di utilizzare i dati raccolti sul percorso “reale” per permettere all’atleta di replicarlo a casa o in palestra mantenendo le frequenze cardiache per il tempo indicato abbinando all’uso dei rulli, su cui è posizionata la bicicletta, anche l’impiego del cardiofrequenzimetro (Wirnitzer KC, Kornexl E 2008.

  13. Precauciones al andar en bicicleta o patinar (Stay Safe Riding Bikes or Skating Outside)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-02

    En este podcast para niños, los chicos de Kidtastics hablan sobre las medidas de seguridad que se deben observar al salir para andar en bicicleta o patinar.  Created: 2/2/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  14. Bike Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.;

    Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases are Ves......, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  15. Hippotherapy and Therapeutic Riding Highlight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Horses have always been appreciated by humans for their strength, beauty, and gentle demeanor. Children, especially, have gravitated toward them and many experience their first horseback riding lesson at a young age. However, horses can play a very different role in the lives of children and adults with disabilities. Hippotherapy is physical,…

  16. California Amusement Rides and Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three-year-old Cristina Moreno traveled from Spain to California for her honeymoon in 2000. As part of her visit, she rode the Indiana Jones amusement ride at Disneyland with her new husband. On June 25, 2000, she suffered a brain injury, and she eventually died on September 1, 2000, as a result of injuries allegedly sustained while riding…

  17. Building the BIKE: Development and Testing of the Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Izci, Kemal; McClure, Bruce

    2014-10-01

    Identifying students' conceptual scientific understanding is difficult if the appropriate tools are not available for educators. Concept inventories have become a popular tool to assess student understanding; however, traditionally, they are multiple choice tests. International science education standard documents advocate that assessments should be reform based, contain diverse question types, and should align with instructional approaches. To date, no instrument of this type targeting student conceptions in biotechnology has been developed. We report here the development, testing, and validation of a 35-item Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE) that includes a mix of question types. The BIKE was designed to elicit student thinking and a variety of conceptual understandings, as opposed to testing closed-ended responses. The design phase contained nine steps including a literature search for content, student interviews, a pilot test, as well as expert review. Data from 175 students over two semesters, including 16 student interviews and six expert reviewers (professors from six different institutions), were used to validate the instrument. Cronbach's alpha on the pre/posttest was 0.664 and 0.668, respectively, indicating the BIKE has internal consistency. Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability among the 6,525 total items was 0.684 indicating substantial agreement among scorers. Item analysis demonstrated that the items were challenging, there was discrimination among the individual items, and there was alignment with research-based design principles for construct validity. This study provides a reliable and valid conceptual understanding instrument in the understudied area of biotechnology.

  18. ¿Conduciendo las ruedas del cambio? Jóvenes motociclistas y la “crisis de la juventud” en Sierra Leona | Riding the wheels of change? Young bike riders and the “crisis of youth” in Sierra Leona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael BÜRGE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo consideramos el conflicto armado (1991-2002 en Sierra Leona como el resultado violento de la “crisis de la juventud” (crisis of youth generada por un estado patrimonial en colapso y las habituales prácticas de explotación por parte de las autoridades tradicionales en las áreas rurales, que afectaban particularmente a la población joven procedentes de linajes débiles. El rápido aumento en la posguerra del número de “mototaxis” –un sector dominado por excombatientes inmediatamente después de la guerra, pero que ahora emplea a decenas de miles de jóvenes – se presenta como un ejemplo de una nueva y espontánea actividad, más basada en la regla del contrato y en los principios igualitarios de los tiempos de guerra que en principios patrimoniales. ¿Puede ser esta actividad una respuesta que haga frente a los modos organizativos explotadores del periodo anterior a la guerra y a la subsiguiente crisis de la juventud? ¿O ya está siendo corrompida por ésta?In this article we consider the armed conflict (1991-2002 in Sierra Leone as the violent product of a ‘crisis of youth’, generated by a collapsing patrimonial state and exploitative customary practices of traditional authorities in rural areas, affecting young people from weak lineages in particular. Post war, the rapid growth in the number of motorbike taxies – a sector dominated by ex-combatants straight after the war but now employing tens of thousands of ordinary youth – is presented as an example of a new and spontaneous activity, based more on the rule of contract and wartime egalitarian principles than on patrimonial ones. Could this be an answer to pre-war exploitatively organisational modalities and the subsequent crisis of youth, or is it already getting corrupted by it?

  19. eBikes and sustainable communities : a new opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J. [Magna Marque, Aurora, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that more than half of all commute trips and 3 out of 4 shopping trips are under 5 miles in length. Recent polls have also suggested that nearly 20 per cent of all adults would cycle to work if safe routes, and workplace facilities were provided. This presentation suggested that funding bicycle facilities and program is a cost-effective means of reducing motor vehicle emissions and reducing congestion. Several municipalities have placed an emphasis on the provision of safe travel lanes and traffic signals for cyclists. The Velib program in Paris includes 20,600 bicycles. Velib riders are currently taking 120,000 trips per day. Bike infrastructure and bike share programs will encourage community members to participate in active transportation. Over 23 million electric bicycles were sold in 2008. It is expected that eBike sales will double in 4 years. New electric bike systems incorporate a battery-powered electric motor to supplement pedalling efforts. The hybrid technology uses a torque sensor to measure how much pressure the rider is exerting with each stroke. The electric batteries can assist riders for up to 113 km. Use of the bikes may encourage members of the community to leave their cars at home for shorter trips. tabs., figs.

  20. Use characteristics and mode choice behavior of electric bike users in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, Christopher; Cervero, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, 10 million electric bikes were produced in China. Strong domestic sales are projected for coming years, raising concerns about the sustainability and potential regulation of this fairly new mode. Policy makers are wrestling with developing policy on electric bikes with little information about who uses them, why they are used, and what factors influence electric bike travel. This paper probes these questions by surveying electric bike usage in two large Chinese cities, Kunming and Sh...

  1. Age and attitude: Changes in cycling patterns of different e-bike user segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The use and purchase of electric bicycles (e-bikes) is emerging in many countries. Existing knowledge about changes in cycling patterns and car replacement after gaining e-bike access is limited and partly contradictory. Based on an online survey among e-bike users in Denmark (N = 427), this study...

  2. Behavior and Development: Physical Development--"Riding Along" Outdoors!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Riding toys and push-pull toys are traditionally part of every early childhood program. Young children can develop a wide variety of skills and get numerous health benefits from riding toys if one is careful and thoughtful in setting up the riding-toy area. This article describes various types of riding toys and activity ideas to enhance…

  3. Pocket Bikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terry Mccarthy; 陈青

    2004-01-01

    @@ The next big thing out of California is 18 in. High, weighs about 50 lbs. And is capable of traveling up to 70 m. P. H. Meet the pocket bike, a scaled-down①motorcycle that is selling faster than low-carb hot cakes across the Golden State②-and causing nightmares③ for traffic police.

  4. Performance Evaluation and Development of Virtual Reality Bike Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Song, C.G.; Kim, N.G. [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes a new bike system for the postural balance rehabilitation training. Virtual environment and three dimensional graphic model is designed with CAD tools such as 3D Studio Max and World Up. For the real time bike simulation, the optimized WorldToolKit graphic library is embedded with the dynamic geometry generation method, multi-thread method, and portal generation method. In this experiment, 20 normal adults were tested to investigate the influencing factors of balancing posture. We evaluated the system by measuring the parameters such as path deviation, driving velocity, COP(center of pressure), and average weight shift. Also, we investigated the usefulness of visual feedback information by weight shift. The results showed that continuous visual feedback by weight shift was more effective than no visual feedback in the postural balance control. It is concluded this system might be applied to clinical use as a new postural balance training system. (author). 19 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Insights in Public Health: Initiating Bicycle Sharing in Hawai'i: Lessons Learned from a Small Pilot Bike Share Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-10-01

    In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai'i, with funding from the Hawai'i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011-2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai'i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  6. Insights in Public Health: Initiating Bicycle Sharing in Hawai'i: Lessons Learned from a Small Pilot Bike Share Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-10-01

    In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai'i, with funding from the Hawai'i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011-2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai'i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs.

  7. Youth Walking and Biking Rates Vary by Environments around 5 Louisiana Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Richards, Katherine; Rice, Janet; Andersen, Lori; Parker-Karst, Kathryn; Cole, Shalanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity in children is high, and many do not meet physical activity recommendations. The Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program encourages school-aged children to walk and bike to school. We assessed the condition of the walking/biking environment around schools in Louisiana prior to the state's first SRTS program.…

  8. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  9. Design and Analysis of Piston Design for 4 Stroke Hero Bike Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Yadav

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Piston is the part of engine which convert heat and pressure energy liberated by fuel combustion into mechanical works. Engine piston is the most complex component among the automotives. This paper illustrate design procedure for a piston for 4 stroke petrol engine for hero bike and its analysis by its comparison with original piston dimensions used in bike. The design procedure involves determination of various piston dimensions using analytical method under maximum power condition. In this paper the combined effect of mechanical and thermal load is taken into consideration while determining various dimensions. The basic data of the engine are taken from a located engine type of hero bike.

  10. Vertigo in downhill mountain biking and road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Vibert, Dominique; Bosser, Gilles; Gauchard, Gérome C; Perrin, Philippe P

    2016-01-01

    Vertigo has been described after the practice of mountain bike. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of vertigo following competitions or training sessions of downhill mountain biking (DMB) or road cycling (RC). One hundred and two DMB riders, 79 road cyclists and 73 control participants filled in a survey intended to evaluate the prevalence of vertigo in daily living activities and following competitions or training sessions. Vertigo causal factors (crashes, head trauma, fatigue, characteristics of the path/road ridden) were recorded. DMB riders and road cyclists did not report more vertigo during daily living activities than controls. But DMB riders older than 30 had more risk to report vertigo than age-matched road cyclists (OR: 5.06, 95% CI: 1.23-20.62). Road cyclists aged between 20 and 29 were 2.59-fold (95% CI: 1.06-6.27) more likely to report vertigo than controls. After competitions and training sessions, DMB riders were 2.33-fold (95% CI: 1.22-4.41) more likely to report vertigo than road cyclists. Vertigo causal factors were crash with head trauma in DMB riders and fatigue in road cyclists. Vertigo during daily living activities may be of concern for cyclists, particularly older DMB riders. The accumulation of impacts (crashes, vibrations) during the career of a DMB rider may generate micro-traumatisms of the central nervous system and/or peripheral vestibular structures, particularly the otolith organs. In RC, the pathophysiological mechanisms generating vertigo might be effort-related disturbance of homeostasis. To avoid injuries, DMB riders should be aware that vertigo may occur at the end of training sessions or competitions.

  11. Function combined method for design innovation of children's bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Qiu, Tingting; Chen, Huijuan

    2013-03-01

    As children mature, bike products for children in the market develop at the same time, and the conditions are frequently updated. Certain problems occur when using a bike, such as cycle overlapping, repeating function, and short life cycle, which go against the principles of energy conservation and the environmental protection intensive design concept. In this paper, a rational multi-function method of design through functional superposition, transformation, and technical implementation is proposed. An organic combination of frog-style scooter and children's tricycle is developed using the multi-function method. From the ergonomic perspective, the paper elaborates on the body size of children aged 5 to 12 and effectively extracts data for a multi-function children's bike, which can be used for gliding and riding. By inverting the body, parts can be interchanged between the handles and the pedals of the bike. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the components and structural design, body material, and processing technology of the bike. The study of Industrial Product Innovation Design provides an effective design method to solve the bicycle problems, extends the function problems, improves the product market situation, and enhances the energy saving feature while implementing intensive product development effectively at the same time.

  12. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-01-01

    An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Techn...

  13. Design and Analysis of Piston Design for 4 Stroke Hero Bike Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Yadav; Dr. N.D. MITTAL

    2013-01-01

    Piston is the part of engine which convert heat and pressure energy liberated by fuel combustion into mechanical works. Engine piston is the most complex component among the automotives. This paper illustrate design procedure for a piston for 4 stroke petrol engine for hero bike and its analysis by its comparison with original piston dimensions used in bike. The design procedure involves determination of various piston dimensions using analytical method under maximum power condition. In this ...

  14. The Davis Junior High Global Warming Project and Bike/Walk to School Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Anastasio, C.; Niemeier, D.; Scow, K.

    2007-12-01

    Junior high school students in Davis, CA, were targeted in an outreach project combining interactive and hands- on information about global warming and carbon footprints with a bike/walk to school challenge. The project was conducted by the Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources and the John Muir Institute of the Environment at the University of California Davis. Approximately 70 undergraduates, graduate students, post-doc researchers, faculty and staff from UCD and the town of Davis were involved. Workshops were held in the 7th, 8th and 9th grade science classes in Davis' 3 junior high schools, reaching a total of 1700 students. Each 50-minute presentation consisted of a Global Warming Jeopardy game, followed by individual calculation of carbon footprints oriented towards a junior high school student. Biking or walking to school, instead commuting by car, was introduced as an important and feasible activity that could reduce one's carbon footprint. Working with staff from each junior high, students were then challenged to increase biking or walking to school during a 2 week Bike/Walk to School Challenge . UCD students and staff monitored automobile commuting (# cars, idle time) and bike use during this time and provided incentives for biking or walking . All schools were recognized for efforts to reduce their carbon footprints, and the concept was reinforced at the start of the following school year by planting a tree at each school.

  15. Evaluation of aerodynamic and rolling resistances in mountain-bike field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, William M; Rogier, Simon; Reiser, Raoul F

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic and rolling resistances are the two major resistances that affect road cyclists on level ground. Because of reduced speeds and markedly different tyre-ground interactions, rolling resistance could be more influential in mountain biking than road cycling. The aims of this study were to quantify 1) aerodynamic resistance of mountain-bike cyclists in the seated position and 2) rolling resistances of two types of mountain-bike tyre (smooth and knobby) in three field surfaces (road, sand and grass) with two pressure inflations (200 and 400 kPa). Mountain-bike cyclists have an effective frontal area (product of projected frontal area and drag coefficient) of 0.357 ± 0.023 m², with the mean aerodynamic resistance representing 8-35% of the total resistance to cyclists' motion depending on the magnitude of the rolling resistance. The smooth tyre had 21 ± 15% less rolling resistance than the knobby tyre. Field surface and inflation pressure also affected rolling resistance. These results indicate that aerodynamic resistance influences mountain-biking performance, even with lower speeds than road cycling. Rolling resistance is increased in mountain biking by factors such as tyre type, surface condition and inflation pressure that may also alter performance. PMID:23713547

  16. Evaluation of aerodynamic and rolling resistances in mountain-bike field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, William M; Rogier, Simon; Reiser, Raoul F

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic and rolling resistances are the two major resistances that affect road cyclists on level ground. Because of reduced speeds and markedly different tyre-ground interactions, rolling resistance could be more influential in mountain biking than road cycling. The aims of this study were to quantify 1) aerodynamic resistance of mountain-bike cyclists in the seated position and 2) rolling resistances of two types of mountain-bike tyre (smooth and knobby) in three field surfaces (road, sand and grass) with two pressure inflations (200 and 400 kPa). Mountain-bike cyclists have an effective frontal area (product of projected frontal area and drag coefficient) of 0.357 ± 0.023 m², with the mean aerodynamic resistance representing 8-35% of the total resistance to cyclists' motion depending on the magnitude of the rolling resistance. The smooth tyre had 21 ± 15% less rolling resistance than the knobby tyre. Field surface and inflation pressure also affected rolling resistance. These results indicate that aerodynamic resistance influences mountain-biking performance, even with lower speeds than road cycling. Rolling resistance is increased in mountain biking by factors such as tyre type, surface condition and inflation pressure that may also alter performance.

  17. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakveld, Willem P; Twisk, Divera; Christoph, Michiel; Boele, Marjolein; Sikkema, Rommert; Remy, Roos; Schwab, Arend L

    2015-01-01

    cyclists in middle adulthood. The relatively high speed of the elderly cyclists on e-bikes in complex traffic situations and their relatively high mental workload in these situations may increase the accident risk of elderly cyclist when they ride on an e-bike. PMID:25463949

  18. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakveld, Willem P; Twisk, Divera; Christoph, Michiel; Boele, Marjolein; Sikkema, Rommert; Remy, Roos; Schwab, Arend L

    2015-01-01

    cyclists in middle adulthood. The relatively high speed of the elderly cyclists on e-bikes in complex traffic situations and their relatively high mental workload in these situations may increase the accident risk of elderly cyclist when they ride on an e-bike.

  19. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  20. Incentives and regulations in bike-sharing systems with stations of finite capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Fricker, Christine

    2012-01-01

    As of 2011, more than 200 cities around the world have a bike sharing system. In such a system, users arrive at a station, use the bike for a while and return the bike to another station. This paper presents a model taking account of the finite number of bike locations at the stations. In case of symmetry, as the system gets large, the mean field limit provides an insight of the system behavior. Convergence of the invariant measures is proved and closed form results are obtained. The influence of the parameters and of various load balancing strategies on the performance, measured by the proportion of so called problematic stations, is discussed. Even in this symmetry case, the system exhibits a poor performance. We show that simple incentives, such as suggesting users to return to the least loaded station among two, improve dramatically the situation. An asymmetric scenario is also investigated. In that case, simple incentives are not enough and regulation mechanisms, such as redistribution of the bikes by tr...

  1. Challenging the 'King of the Road' - exploring mobility battles between cars and bikes in the USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre Mikkelsen, Jacob; Smith, Shelley; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper is explorative in both theoretical and empirical terms. Theoretically the paper explores the potential of merging and including ‘assemblage theories’ into mobilities research. Empirically the paper explores the battle of mobilities between bikes and cars in the USA. With the bicycle...... ideas and discourses that led to its status as the ‘King of the Road’. This paper theorizes this theme through a framework that includes both cultural and social agents (Jensen 2010), as well as infrastructural networks and systems (DeLanda 2006, Latour 2005, Farias & Bender 2010). The emerging ‘Biking...... Assemblages’ of American cities are related to the existing hegemonic systems, norms, and practices related to the car. This paper contains empirical field studies conducted in the city of Philadelphia, USA where the ongoing dispute between car-drivers and bicyclists, in news media termed ‘bike wars...

  2. "The Dirt Bike and American Off-road Motorcycle Culture in the 1970s"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Russell

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1960s were a time of dramatic change in America’s stated values, mores, and interests; of experimentation and expanding boundaries. As the 1960s passed into 1970, the availability of vast off-road areas, a lust for personal freedom, and the appearance of light-weight, purpose-built off-road motorcycles set the stage for a nationwide boom in off-road motorcycling. The author explores dirt bike design, 3 important phases of the 1970s dirt bike boom, American off-road motorcycling culture, and the beginnings and influence of the cultural voice of the movement—the irreverent, style-influencing, and comedic “DIRT BIKE Magazine”. The author concludes by examining who these Americans were, why they were drawn to the movement, and how the formative conditions enabling the movement changed over the decade.

  3. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Technology” company’s electric front wheel conversion kit MagicPie3 and 16 cell 10Ah LiFePO4 battery. After installation of the engine and other components, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the electric bike and check the manufacturer’s specifications.

  4. Capture and surveillance of quad-bike (ATV)-related injuries in administrative data collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Grzebieta, Raphael; Rechnitzer, George

    2016-09-01

    Identifying quad-bike-related injuries in administrative data collections can be problematic. This study sought to determine whether quad-bike-related injuries could be identified in routinely collected administrative data collections in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and to determine the information recorded according to World Health Organization (WHO) injury surveillance guidelines that could assist injury prevention efforts. Five routinely collected administrative data collections in NSW in the period 2000-2012 were reviewed. The WHO core minimum data items recorded in each of the five data collections ranged from 37.5% to 75.0%. Age and sex of the injured individual were the only data items that were recorded in all data collections. The data collections did not contain detailed information on the circumstances of quad bike incidents. Major improvements are needed in the information collected in these data-sets, if their value is to be increased and used for injury prevention purposes.

  5. Mobile EEG on the bike: disentangling attentional and physical contributions to auditory attention tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Rob; Hunyadi, Borbála; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In the past few years there has been a growing interest in studying brain functioning in natural, real-life situations. Mobile EEG allows to study the brain in real unconstrained environments but it faces the intrinsic challenge that it is impossible to disentangle observed changes in brain activity due to increase in cognitive demands by the complex natural environment or due to the physical involvement. In this work we aim to disentangle the influence of cognitive demands and distractions that arise from such outdoor unconstrained recordings. Approach. We evaluate the ERP and single trial characteristics of a three-class auditory oddball paradigm recorded in outdoor scenario’s while peddling on a fixed bike or biking freely around. In addition we also carefully evaluate the trial specific motion artifacts through independent gyro measurements and control for muscle artifacts. Main results. A decrease in P300 amplitude was observed in the free biking condition as compared to the fixed bike conditions. Above chance P300 single-trial classification in highly dynamic real life environments while biking outdoors was achieved. Certain significant artifact patterns were identified in the free biking condition, but neither these nor the increase in movement (as derived from continuous gyrometer measurements) can explain the differences in classification accuracy and P300 waveform differences with full clarity. The increased cognitive load in real-life scenarios is shown to play a major role in the observed differences. Significance. Our findings suggest that auditory oddball results measured in natural real-life scenarios are influenced mainly by increased cognitive load due to being in an unconstrained environment.

  6. Pedelec, the electric assisted bike : market and product opportunities in Canada 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission statement of Airstream Technologies Corp. is to become the Canadian leader in marketing and distribution of advanced personal hybrid electric vehicles. This Power Point presentation describes the trends of the bicycle industry, with reference to environment, air pollution and urban transport. A new role is emerging for the bicycle as society ages and peoples' attitudes towards health awareness changes. A graph depicting the bicycle market size in major countries around the world showed that China is the world leader in market size, followed by the European Union, United States and Japan, with Canada ranking at number 12 out of 17 countries. The paper presented the Pedelec electric bike, a completely new class of vehicle which is neither a motorcycle nor a bicycle. The idea was first developed by Panasonic/National Bicycle Co. in 1978. Since then, the technology has evolved, enabling lightweight, long-range bikes. In a Pedelec, the motor is linked to muscle power, unlike a classic electric bike in which the motor is independent from pedalling. The pedal electric cycle helps the user by delivering aid when pedaling becomes strenuous. The electric motor augments the pedaling action and is only active while pedaling. The intelligent battery system allows for greater range and more precise readout of remaining charge. In major cities in Japan and China, there are currently many parking facilities with outlets for charging these bikes. The environmental benefits of these bikes include zero emission transportation and no noise. The bikes range in price from $1500 to $3000 CDN. They are perceived to be just as safe as regular bicycles. The market outlook for the bikes appears promising with potential buyers being enthusiastic baby boomers, retirees, and youth. The paper describes some of the current and future models suitable for the Canadian marketplace and describes a possible rental infrastructure. Pedelec is already federally legislated. The bikes are legal

  7. Analytical and experimental assessment of heavy truck ride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, R.V. Jr.; Hurtado, J.E.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    This study is the second phase in a combined analytical and experimental effort to characterize and improve the ride quality of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer. The discussion includes a brief overview of the finite element model of the vehicle and experimental road and modal test results. A novel system identification approach is used, employing both lab-based modal tests, and modal data derived using the Natural Excitation Technique (NExT), a scheme that utilizes the roadway surface as a natural forcing function. The use of a cab isolation system is investigated with the computer model for purposes of improving the ride quality of the vehicle. To validate these analytical predictions, an engineering prototype vehicle was developed, which included a cab isolation system, to experimentally assess ride quality. Ride quality improvements due to the addition of the isolation system are then assessed both experimentally and analytically, and the results are compared.

  8. Road Cycling and Mountain Biking Produces Adaptations on the Spine and Hamstring Extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, J M; Zabala, M

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were as follows: 1) to analyse the influence of training in road cycling or cross-country mountain biking on sagittal spinal curvatures, pelvic tilt and trunk inclination in cyclists of both cycling modalities; 2) to evaluate the specific spinal posture and pelvic tilt adopted on the road bicycle and cross-country mountain bike; and 3) to compare the spinal sagittal capacity of flexion and pelvic tilt mobility as well as hamstring muscle extensibility among road cyclists, cross-country mountain bikers and non-cyclists. Thirty matched road cyclists, 30 mountain bikers and 30 non-cyclists participated in this study. The road cyclists showed significantly greater thoracic kyphosis and trunk inclination than did the mountain bikers and non-cyclists in a standing posture. On the bicycle, the road bicycling posture was characterised by greater lumbar flexion and more significant anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination compared with the mountain biking posture. The thoracic spine was more flexed in mountain biking than in road cycling. Road cyclists had significantly greater hamstring muscle extensibility in the active knee extension test, and showed greater anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination capacity in the sit-and-reach test, compared with mountain bikers and non-cyclists.

  9. Electroluminescent Bike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Not long after Chris Niezrecki was hired as a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Florida,he noticed that many students rode their bicycles around town after dark.He also noticed how hard it was to see the bikes.

  10. Ubiquitous Integrity via Network Integration and Parallelism—Sustaining Pedestrian/Bike Urbanism

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Yen Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, due to the concern regarding environmental issues, establishing pedestrian/bike friendly urbanism is widely encouraged. To promote safety-assured, mobile communication environments, efficient, reliable maintenance, and information integrity need to be designed, especially in highly possibly interfered places. For busy traffic areas, regular degree-3 dedicated short range communication (DSRC) networks are safety and information featured with availability, reliability, and maintainabi...

  11. Mobility Innovation Through a Combined System of Rapid Mass Transit and Bike Rental in Shanghai Suburbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Residents of the Shanghai suburbs find it hard to access transportation. This paper begins by introducing the context and features of the bike-rental rental system, and then describes the innovative mobility project combining Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and a public bike rental system jointly established and run by the Forever Group and local government through a PPP model. The project, which has many technical patents, is headed by Forever Group and run in cooperation with local government, providing bottom-up popularization and development of bike-rental services in the areas surrounding the main rail transit stations. On the basis of a case study on Minhang District and a questionnaire, the paper further demonstrates that the bike rental system improves travel conditions for residents of the suburbs, expands the effective service radius around the rail transit stations and provides possibilities for more wide-ranging restructuring of land-use, which will help to balance the unidirectional tidal flow of transportation.

  12. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  13. Optimal Design and Dynamic Simulation of Mountain Bike with Rear Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Yan; XIANG Zhongxia; HUANG Tian; ZHANG Xu; WANG Xinghua

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic design methodology of mountain bikes with rear suspension. Firstly, a multi-rigid body dynamic model of rider and mountain bike coupled system is constructed. The rider model includes 19 skeletons, 18 joints and 118 main muscles. Secondly, to validate the feasibility of the model, an experiment test is designed to reflect the real cycling status. Finally,aiming at enhancing the performance of the rider vibration comfort, the scale parameters of rear suspension are optimized with computer simulation and uniform design. The mathematical model in the vibration performance and the design variables is constructed with regression analysis. The result shows that when the length of side link is 90 mm, the length of connected rod is 336.115 1 mm and the included angle between absorber and side link is 60°, the mountain bike has better vibration comfort. This study and relevant conclusions are of practical importance to the design of the mountain bike's rear suspension system.

  14. Trails, Bike, Bike trails in Johnson County maintained by Johnson County Parks and Recreation Department, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. It is described as 'Bike trails in Johnson County...

  15. All you need to know on... EU regulations for e-bikes, pedelecs, and speed pedelecs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    For clarity, in the following article pedelec means a bicycle with a motor that only functions on condition the cyclist pedals, whilst e-bike means a bicycle with a motor that functions by turning the throttle, so irrespective of the cyclist pedalling. The term electric bicycle is generic and includ

  16. The effects of sunshields on red light running behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Changxu

    2013-03-01

    Bicycles held an important position in transportation of China and other developing countries. As accidents rate involving electronic and regular bicycles is increasing, the severity of the bicycle safety problem should be paid more attention to. The current research explored the effect of sunshields (a kind of affordable traffic facility built on stop line of non-motor vehicle lanes (According to National Standard in China, e-bikes share the non-motor vehicle lane with regular bikes.) which was undertaken to avoid riders suffering from sunlight and high temperature) on diminishing red light running behavior of cyclists and e-bike riders. An observational study of 2477 riders was conducted to record and analyze their crossing behaviors at two sites across the city of Hangzhou, China. Results from logistic regression and analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of sunshield on reducing red light infringement rate both on sunny and cloudy days, while this effect of sunshield was larger on sunny days than on cloudy days based on further analysis. The effect of intersection type in logistic regression showed that riders were 1.376 times more likely to run through a red light upon approaching the intersection without sunshields compared to with sunshields in general. The results of MANCOVA further confirmed that rates of running behaviors against red lights were significantly lower at the intersections with a sunshield than at intersections without sunshields when other factors including traffic flow were statistically controlled. To sum up, it is concluded that sunshields installed at intersections can reduce the likelihood of red light infringement of cyclists and e-bike riders on both sunny and cloudy days. For those areas or countries with a torrid climate, sunshield might be a recommended facility which offers an affordable way to improve the safety of cyclists and e-bike riders at intersections. Limitations of the current sunshield design and current

  17. The effects of sunshields on red light running behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Changxu

    2013-03-01

    Bicycles held an important position in transportation of China and other developing countries. As accidents rate involving electronic and regular bicycles is increasing, the severity of the bicycle safety problem should be paid more attention to. The current research explored the effect of sunshields (a kind of affordable traffic facility built on stop line of non-motor vehicle lanes (According to National Standard in China, e-bikes share the non-motor vehicle lane with regular bikes.) which was undertaken to avoid riders suffering from sunlight and high temperature) on diminishing red light running behavior of cyclists and e-bike riders. An observational study of 2477 riders was conducted to record and analyze their crossing behaviors at two sites across the city of Hangzhou, China. Results from logistic regression and analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of sunshield on reducing red light infringement rate both on sunny and cloudy days, while this effect of sunshield was larger on sunny days than on cloudy days based on further analysis. The effect of intersection type in logistic regression showed that riders were 1.376 times more likely to run through a red light upon approaching the intersection without sunshields compared to with sunshields in general. The results of MANCOVA further confirmed that rates of running behaviors against red lights were significantly lower at the intersections with a sunshield than at intersections without sunshields when other factors including traffic flow were statistically controlled. To sum up, it is concluded that sunshields installed at intersections can reduce the likelihood of red light infringement of cyclists and e-bike riders on both sunny and cloudy days. For those areas or countries with a torrid climate, sunshield might be a recommended facility which offers an affordable way to improve the safety of cyclists and e-bike riders at intersections. Limitations of the current sunshield design and current

  18. Trails, Other, Bike and walking trails line database in Parks geodatabase, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Other dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Bike and walking trails line database in Parks geodatabase'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  19. Bike to Work: On yer bike!

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Sign up now for "Bike to Work" initiative! It's the best way to combine a gesture for the environment with an action for your health!      This year CERN takes part again in the Swiss national campaign "Bike to Work", which is expected to attract more than 50,000 participants. In teams of four, colleagues will encourage each other to cycle to work throughout the month of June. Last year CERN was the organization in French-speaking Switzerland with the most participants; 126 teams pedaled some 97,462 kilometers. And several of the nice prizes were given to CERN participants. Let’s aim to keep our position at the top of the leaderboard in 2016!  Participating is easy! Simply get together with three of your colleagues and register your "Bike to Work" team online before 31 May. There are no fees for registering teams, there is no mi...

  20. Biking Is Booming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, William H.; Wicks, Carol A.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred thousand bicycle-motor vehicle accidents will occur this year. Close to 1,100 of the mishaps will result in death. Education is the first, last and best hope for cyclists and motorists alike and one facet of bike safety programs is teaching students to understand a machine they may take for granted. Here are some ideas for starters.…

  1. Bike to work safely

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird

    2016-01-01

    As the fine weather appears and CERN fills up with summer visitors, the number of people cycling to and from CERN and around the CERN campus rises dramatically – and so does the number of accidents involving bicycles. So far this summer, there have been 10 reported accidents, all of which could have been avoided. There are many things that road users of all kinds can do to make cycling safer and stop that number rising any further.   If you’re on a bike, make sure you’re visible by using lights and wearing high-visibility clothing. Wear a helmet, and remember that you are subject to the same rules of the road as any other vehicle. There’s also an online course in the SIR application on ‘Road traffic-bike riding’, which is freely available for you to follow. If you’re a motorised vehicle user, be sensitive to cyclists. Bike lanes and cycle paths are for cyclists, so leave them clear, and when overtaking a bike, leave plenty of room...

  2. Bikes around Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余占

    2007-01-01

    Paris—a dream city for many people!It’s a city of food and art.And since this summer,it has become a city of bicycles. On July 15,when Paris people woke up,they found thousands of bikes in hundreds of bicycle

  3. Bike 2 Work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Are you a CERN cyclist? If so, join the Bike 2 Work competition that has just started! The more kilometres you travel by bike, the closer you’ll get to winning…   Yngve Inntjore Levinsen works at CERN, in the BE Department, and is one of the many people who travel to work by bike. Convinced by the benefits and the well-being that this mode of transport brings, he decided to promote it by running a competition. “Everyone working at CERN can participate,” says Yngve. “They just need to sign up on the competition website, or via their Facebook login. Then, participants simply have to report regularly the number of kilometres they cover by bike, travelling between home and work, or during the day between different points at CERN. ” The competition began on 1 March and will last all year long. The 2012 results will be announced at the end of the year. Of course, the winner will be the cyclist who has travelled the most kilometres during the ...

  4. Dancing on a Bike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢新

    2007-01-01

    The sport BMX was first started in California in the late 60s by kids who built their own tracks~* and jumped with their old 20-inch bikes. The kids held competitions on most Sundays. They named it"bicycle motocross",

  5. Spatial potential and limitations for the mountain bike turism in the municipalities of Tolmin and Kobarid

    OpenAIRE

    Ipavec, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    In the thesis we have analysed spatial possibilities for the development of mountainbiking tourism in municipalities of Tolmin and Kobarid. The development of the region, which has all natural, spatial and relief features, is currently slowed down by slovenian legislation. The main purpose of this thesis is to raise the awareness of the possibilities that mountain biking as a tourist product represents to the entire Soča Valley and to help developing this activity in the area. The focus wi...

  6. Understanding on-road practices of electric bike riders: an observational study in a developed city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Yang, Jie; Powis, Brent; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Bilston, Lynne; Wu, Ming

    2013-10-01

    Although millions of electric bikes (E-bikes) operate in China and many associated deaths and injuries have been reported, E-bikers' on-road practices are poorly characterized and few direct observational studies have been performed. This study aims to describe riding behaviors among E-bikers and to investigate factors influencing these practices to inform injury prevention. In March 2012, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 14 randomly selected intersections in Suzhou during a 7-day period. A pro-forma observation checklist was used to collect data on road riding practice. Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) to assess the likelihood of specific riding practices among E-bikers were evaluated using mixed-effects logistic regression. Among 18,150 E-bikers observed, 37.6% rode E-bikes with cycling pedals, 86.0% of E-bikes were registered, 26.6% did not comply with the road rules, and 41.1% wore at least one safety item. The overall prevalence of carrying passengers, riding in a motor vehicle lane, running red lights, riding in opposite directions (i.e., facing oncoming traffic), mobile phone use, and helmet use were 12.4% (95%CI: 11.9-12.9%), 1.9% (95%CI: 1.7-2.1%), 4.8% (95%CI: 4.5-5.1%), 3.4% (95%CI: 3.1-3.7%), 0.4% (95%CI: 0.3-0.5%), and 9.0% (95%CI: 8.5-9.4%), respectively. Male E-bikers was associated with increased helmet use and riding in motor vehicle lanes, whereas riding a registered E-bike was associated with reduced likelihood of carrying passengers. This study demonstrates common road rule violations and low helmet use among E-bikers and supports the urgent need to develop additional regulations and behavioral interventions to improve safety practice among E-bikers in China. PMID:23877004

  7. Understanding on-road practices of electric bike riders: an observational study in a developed city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Yang, Jie; Powis, Brent; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Bilston, Lynne; Wu, Ming

    2013-10-01

    Although millions of electric bikes (E-bikes) operate in China and many associated deaths and injuries have been reported, E-bikers' on-road practices are poorly characterized and few direct observational studies have been performed. This study aims to describe riding behaviors among E-bikers and to investigate factors influencing these practices to inform injury prevention. In March 2012, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 14 randomly selected intersections in Suzhou during a 7-day period. A pro-forma observation checklist was used to collect data on road riding practice. Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) to assess the likelihood of specific riding practices among E-bikers were evaluated using mixed-effects logistic regression. Among 18,150 E-bikers observed, 37.6% rode E-bikes with cycling pedals, 86.0% of E-bikes were registered, 26.6% did not comply with the road rules, and 41.1% wore at least one safety item. The overall prevalence of carrying passengers, riding in a motor vehicle lane, running red lights, riding in opposite directions (i.e., facing oncoming traffic), mobile phone use, and helmet use were 12.4% (95%CI: 11.9-12.9%), 1.9% (95%CI: 1.7-2.1%), 4.8% (95%CI: 4.5-5.1%), 3.4% (95%CI: 3.1-3.7%), 0.4% (95%CI: 0.3-0.5%), and 9.0% (95%CI: 8.5-9.4%), respectively. Male E-bikers was associated with increased helmet use and riding in motor vehicle lanes, whereas riding a registered E-bike was associated with reduced likelihood of carrying passengers. This study demonstrates common road rule violations and low helmet use among E-bikers and supports the urgent need to develop additional regulations and behavioral interventions to improve safety practice among E-bikers in China.

  8. Applying riding-posture optimization on bicycle frame design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee

    2015-11-01

    Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle. PMID:26154206

  9. BikeMaps.org: a global tool for collision and near miss mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A Nelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many public health benefits to cycling, such as chronic disease reduction and improved air quality. Real and perceived concerns about safety are primary barriers to new ridership. Due to limited forums for official reporting of cycling incidents, lack of comprehensive data is limiting our ability to study cycling safety and conduct surveillance. Our goal is to introduce BikeMaps.org, a new website developed by the authors for crowd-source mapping of cycling collisions and near misses. BikeMaps.org is a global mapping system that allows citizens to map locations of cycling incidents and report on the nature of the event. Attributes collected are designed for spatial modelling research on predictors of safety and risk, and to aid surveillance and planning. Released in October 2014, within two months the website had more than 14,000 visitors and mapping in 14 countries. Collisions represent 38% of reports (134/356 and near misses 62% (222/356. In our pilot city, Victoria, Canada, citizens mapped data equivalent to about one year of official cycling collision reports within two months via BikeMaps.org. Using report completeness as an indicator, early reports indicate that data are of high quality with 50% being fully attributed and another 10% having only one missing attribute. We are advancing this technology, with the development of a mobile App, improved data visualization, real-time altering of hazard reports, and automated open-source tools for data sharing. Researchers and citizens interested in utilizing the BikeMaps.org technology can get involved by encouraging citizen mapping in their region.

  10. Mountain biking. Breezy ups and traumatic downs; Mountainbiking. Luftige Hoehen und traumatische Tiefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing. The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided. (orig.) [German] Mountainbiking erfreut sich seit mehr als 2 Jahrzehnten sowohl im Breiten- als auch Wettkampfsport einer ungebrochenen Popularitaet. Die assoziierten Risiken werden allerdings nicht mit derselben Aufmerksamkeit beobachtet wie etwa jene des Skisports. Die Verletzungen beim Mountainbiking sind spezifisch und nicht mit den Verletzungen vergleichbar, die bei anderen Radsportarten entstehen. Dies ist z. T. durch die Besonderheiten des Terrains und z. T. durch eine im Vergleich zum Rennradfahren hoehere Risikobereitschaft zu erklaeren. Die Radiologie hat ihren Stellenwert besonders in der Akutdiagnostik. Hier beschaeftigt sie sich v. a. mit muskuloskelettalen Verletzungen und setzt in erster Linie auf die digitale Projektionsradiographie und die MRT. Zur Evaluierung schwerer Verletzungen des Kopfs, der Wirbelsaeule, des Thorax und des Abdomens wird die CT bevorzugt, insbesondere in dezidierten Traumazentren. Damit kann die Radiologie ihren Teil

  11. Squeal and chatter phenomena generated in a mountain bike disc brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Takashi; Ryu, Takahiro; Sueoka, Atsuo; Nakano, Yutaka; Inoue, Takumi

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines squeal and chatter phenomena generated experimentally in mountain bike disc brakes. There are two kinds of frictional self-excited vibrations in the bike disc brakes, called squeal with frequency of 1 kHz and chatter with frequency of 500 Hz. In order to reproduce the squeal and chatter, a bench test apparatus using an actual bike was set up to determine the associated frequency characteristics experimentally. The results show the frequencies to be independent of pad temperature and disc rotating speed. Squeal is shown to be in-plane vibration in the direction of the disc surface which is caused by the frictional characteristics having negative slope with respect to the relative velocity in the vibrating system, which includes brake unit, spokes and hub. Chatter is generated within a limited high temperature region. Again, it is frictional vibration in which the squeal and out-of-plane vibration of the disc due to Coulomb friction combine through the internal resonance relation between in-plane and out-of-plane nonlinear vibration caused by the temperature increase of the disc during braking.

  12. Trails, Bike, Bike Paths; bikepaths10; This data set contains center lines for all bicycle paths, bicycle routes, and bicycle lane center lines for all statewide and local bikeways, bike routes, and bike lanes for the entire state of Rhode Island., Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as 'Bike...

  13. Free riding and the provision of candy bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Kooreman, P.

    2002-01-01

    A wealth of experimental literature studies the effect of repetition and group size on the extent of free riding in the provision of public goods. In this paper, we use data from honor systems for candy bars in 166 firms to test whether such effects can be found outside the laboratory. We find that

  14. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS) in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  15. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  16. Radiative inflation and dark energy RIDEs again after BICEP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Stephen F.; Merle, Alexander [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Luhn, Christoph [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, Siegen, D-57068 (Germany); Schmidt-May, Angnis, E-mail: P.Di-Bari@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: S.F.King@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: Christoph.Luhn@uni-siegen.de, E-mail: A.Merle@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: Angnis.Schmidt-May@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics and The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm, SE-106 91 (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Following the ground-breaking measurement of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.20{sup +0.07}{sub -0.05} by the BICEP2 collaboration, we perform a statistical analysis of a model that combines Radiative Inflation with Dark Energy (RIDE) based on the M{sup 2}|Φ|{sup 2}ln(|Φ|{sup 2}/Λ{sup 2}) potential and compare its predictions to those based on the traditional chaotic inflation M{sup 2}|Φ|{sup 2} potential. We find a best-fit value in the RIDE model of r=0.18 as compared to r=0.17 in the chaotic model, with the spectral index being n{sub S}=0.96 in both models.

  17. The Transition to Electric Bikes in China and its Effect on Travel Behavior, Transit Use, and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Ma, Chaktan; Yang, Xinmiao

    2006-01-01

    Despite rapid economic growth in China over the past decade and rise in personal car ownership, most Chinese still rely on two-wheeled vehicles (2WV) or public transport for commuting. The majority of these 2WVs are bicycles. In recent years, concern about poor air quality in urban areas and rising energy costs have caused cities to ban gasoline-powered scooters in city centers. Simultaneously, a new 2WV mode emerged to fill the void: the electric bike (e-bike). This shift from bicyc...

  18. Aspects Regarding the Improving of Fitness and Health Issues by Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Octavian MĂNESCU

    2014-01-01

    This article is trying to explain all the benefits cycling has over fitness and specific health issues, the importance of a training plan, of a balanced diet and a good hydration during a training period of time and, also, presents the results of some studies regarding the importance of ride biking, generally, and exercising, particularly. Riding a bike is a healthy activity. Regular exercise in the form of cycling will make people fitter, stronger, will help them reduce fat levels and loo...

  19. Trails, Bike, Middle Georgia Bike and Pedestrian Plan data sets for MGRC Service Region., Published in 2009, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'Middle Georgia...

  20. "Hierarchies of Meaning and Value in the Classic British Bike Scene"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Ward

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Variations in market value for classic British motorcycles of the 1950s and 1960s have been shaped on the one hand by historical importance (relative rarity, engineering advances, competition successes and on the other by marque identification, desirability, and “image.” Using selected examples, the article argues that beyond the obvious factors influencing the prices traders can ask (and usually get, such intangible considerations as aesthetic appeal and cultural resonance are also important determinants. The skyrocketing market for Triumph Bonnevilles is a case in point. Other British bikes match the Bonneville in specifications and performance, but without the advantage provided by name recognition and an association with celebrity enthusiasts, they remain relative “bargains.” In particular, the products of Associated Motor Cycles Ltd (AMC, the maker of AJS and Matchless road bikes and racers, allow an exploration of the factors, some of them difficult to quantify, that condition how the market receives one piece of British iron versus another. The article also describes the work of a few builders and owners, who have found ways to “up” the recognition, and hence the value, of the AMC marques. Objective considerations may be most of what matters in fixing values in the marketplace; but the “meaning” of a particular motorcycle, based on more subtle calculations, can have a lot to do with how many thousands of pounds or dollars end up being exchanged.

  1. Validity and reliability of different kinematics methods used for bike fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Borut; Sarabon, Nejc; Li, François-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The most common bike fitting method to set the seat height is based on the knee angle when the pedal is in its lowest position, i.e. bottom dead centre (BDC). However, there is no consensus on what method should be used to measure the knee angle. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to compare three dynamic methods to each other and against a static method. The second aim was to test the intra-session reliability of the knee angle at BDC measured by dynamic methods. Eleven cyclists performed five 3-min cycling trials; three at different seat heights (25°, 30° and 35° knee angle at BDC according to static measure) and two at preferred seat height. Thirteen infrared cameras (3D), a high-speed camera (2D), and an electrogoniometer were used to measure the knee angle during pedalling, when the pedal was at the BDC. Compared to 3D kinematics, all other methods statistically significantly underestimated the knee angle (P = 0.00; η(2) = 0.73). All three dynamic methods have been found to be substantially different compared to the static measure (effect sizes between 0.4 and 0.6). All dynamic methods achieved good intra-session reliability. 2D kinematics is a valid tool for knee angle assessment during bike fitting. However, for higher precision, one should use correction factor by adding 2.2° to the measured value.

  2. New gate for pedestrians and bikes on Prévessin site

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    On Wednesday 1 June, the SMB Department announced the opening of a new pedestrian and bike automated gate on the Prévessin site, near the “Déchetterie” of Saint-Genis-Pouilly, on the road “Chemin du Moulin des Ponts”.   The gate is open to all CERN personnel 24h/24h with their access card. (Find it here on the GIS website). This gate was generously financed with the help of the EN, BE and TE Departments, and the planning and construction were completed in record time by the team taking care of CERN site access. The timing is perfect for the start of the Bike2Work initiative, which started on 1 June. A record number of 136 teams signed up. If you want to participate, it is not too late, you can sign up here. We remind that safe commuting is imperative. It is now possible to cycle from the CERN hostel in Saint-Genis-Pouilly to the CERN Prévessin site using quiet back ...

  3. The principle of wave superposition applied to the quantum well laser and the motor-bike exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovidis, Greg; McLeod, Ian D.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1990-05-01

    The use of simple ideas applied to 'real-world' situations is of considerable pedagogical value in teaching introductory physics. The principle of wave superposition is applied to understanding the physics of two very different devices: a quantum well laser and a motor-bike exhaust system. Reasonable agreement is found between the predictions of simple models, and the measured parameters of actual devices.

  4. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhou

    Full Text Available The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  5. Transference of 3D accelerations during cross country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Fink, Philip W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2014-06-01

    Investigations into the work demands of Olympic format cross country mountain biking suggest an incongruent relationship between work done and physiological strain experienced by participants. A likely but unsubstantiated cause is the extra work demand of muscle damping of terrain/surface induced vibrations. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between vibration mechanics and their interaction with terrain, bicycle and rider during a race pace effort on a cross country mountain bike track, on both 26″ and 29″ wheels. Participants completed one lap of a cross country track using 26″ and 29″ wheels, at race pace. Power, cadence, speed, heart rate and geographical position were sampled and logged every second for control purposes. Tri-axial accelerometers located on the bicycle and rider, recorded accelerations (128Hz) and were used to quantify vibrations experienced during the whole lap and over terrain sections (uphill and downhill). While there were no differences in power output (p=0.3062) and heart rate (p=0.8423), time to complete the lap was significantly (p=0.0061) faster on the 29″ wheels despite increased vibrations in the larger wheels (p=0.0020). Overall accelerometer data (RMS) showed location differences (p<0.0001), specifically between the point of interface of bike-body compared to those experienced at the lower back and head. The reduction in accelerations at both the lower back and head are imperative for injury prevention and demonstrates an additional non-propulsive, muscular, challenge to riding. Stress was greatest during downhill sections as acceleration differences between locations were greater when compared to uphill sections, and thus possibly prevent the recovery processes that may occur during non-propulsive load. PMID:24735505

  6. Service network design of bike sharing systems analysis and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a tactical planning approach for service network design in metropolitan areas. Designing the service network requires the suitable aggregation of demand data as well as the anticipation of operational relocation decisions. To this end, an integrated approach of data analysis and mathematical optimization is introduced. The book also includes a case study based on real-world data to demonstrate the benefit of the proposed service network design approach. The target audience comprises primarily research experts in the field of traffic engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  7. Ubiquitous Integrity via Network Integration and Parallelism—Sustaining Pedestrian/Bike Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yen Hsu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the concern regarding environmental issues, establishing pedestrian/bike friendly urbanism is widely encouraged. To promote safety-assured, mobile communication environments, efficient, reliable maintenance, and information integrity need to be designed, especially in highly possibly interfered places. For busy traffic areas, regular degree-3 dedicated short range communication (DSRC networks are safety and information featured with availability, reliability, and maintainability in paths of multi-lanes. For sparsely populated areas, probes of wireless sensors are rational, especially if sensor nodes can be organized to enhance security, reliability, and flexibility. Applying alternative network topologies, such as spider-webs, generalized honeycomb tori, and cube-connected cycles, for comparing and analyzing is proposed in DSRC and cellular communications to enhance integrity in communications.

  8. Design of "N-bike" folding bicycle%N-bike折叠自行车的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘自范; 陈艳红; 张鬲君; 田华泉

    2012-01-01

    In order to make the folding bike be ride comfortably and be carried easily,the stress a-nalysis and optimization design for frame,chain box and other major components were made. The "N-bike" bicycle had been folded easily in five times, then the volume became 0.03 m3 and the weight was 5. 4 kg. The bicycle frame was "N" font shape and according to the principle of ergonomics, its layout was reasonable. The riding position of the bicycle becomes more comfortable. With more labor-saving transmission, strong practicability, dynamic and stylish appearance, the N-bike is more suitable as a convenient means of transport for cities.%为了使折叠自行车既骑行舒适又易携带,对车架、链盒等主要部件进行受力分析及优化设计.设计出的N-bike自行车,经过5次完成折叠,体积为0.03 m3,质量为5.4 kg,车架为“N”字型形状,根据人机工程学原理设计,布局合理.N-bike骑行更舒适,传动更省力,实用性强,外形动感时尚,更适合作为城市便捷的代步工具.

  9. Mechanical work and physiological responses to simulated cross country mountain bike racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul William; Stannard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the mechanical work and physiological responses to cross country mountain bike racing. Participants (n = 7) cycled on a cross country track at race speed whilst VO2, power, cadence, speed, and geographical position were recorded. Mean power during the designated start section (68.5 ± 5.5 s) was 481 ± 122 W, incurring an O2 deficit of 1.58 ± 0.67 L - min(-1) highlighting a significant initial anaerobic (32.4 ± 10.2%) contribution. Complete lap data produced mean (243 ± 12 W) and normalised (279 ± 15 W) power outputs with 13.3 ± 6.1 and 20.7 ± 8.3% of time spent in high force-high velocity and high force-low velocity, respectively. This equated to, physiological measures for %VO(2max) (77 ± 5%) and % HR(max) (93 ± 2%). Terrain (uphill vs downhill) significantly (P cadence (76 + 2 vs. 55 ± 4 rpm) but not heart rate (93.8 ± 2.3 vs. 91.3 ± 0.6% HR(max)) and led to a significant difference between anaerobic contribution and terrain (uphill, 6.4 ± 3.0 vs. downhill, 3.2 ± 1.8%, respectively) but not aerobic energy contribution. Both power and cadence were highly variable through all sections resulting in one power surge every 32 s and a supra-maximal effort every 106 s. The results show that cross country mountain bike racing consists of predominantly low velocity pedalling with a large high force component and when combined with a high oscillating work rate, necessitates high aerobic energy provision, with intermittent anaerobic contribution. Additional physical stress during downhill sections affords less recovery emphasised by physiological variables remaining high throughout. PMID:22876780

  10. Urban Bike Scapes, New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Marie Bruun Jespersen, Line

    2016-01-01

    as a 'socially constructed place' with emphasis on the social and mental meaning of the place and on the programs, which play a role for functionality and experience. ⁃Urban bike scapes as an 'architectonic place' from a duality of architectonic gestalt, architectonic elements and aesthetic experience. Finally...

  11. Learning from a Bike Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a bike trip which marks the culmination of a unit reviewing map-reading capabilities. In seventh grade, students develop various map skills, including cardinal and intermediate directions, how to measure distance on a map using a scale of miles, how to interpret the legend of a map, and how to locate places…

  12. To investigate the daily maintenance of mountain biking and maintenance program%山地自行车的日常保养及维护方案的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小强; 王月雷; 朱世鑫; 杨艳萍; 姜国平

    2014-01-01

    随着人类社会生活质量的不断提高,人们对低碳、环保的追求越来越强烈,自行车不仅成了人们出行旅游不可或缺的代步工具,而且对人的身心健康也有极大的益处。山地车作为特种自行车尤为被喜欢挑战勇气和毅力的年轻人们所亲睐,但在骑行中因道路坎坷不平,震动、碰撞等经常会发生,由此也会出现一些机械故障,可是往往大多数人对此束手无策,所以掌握一些山地自行车维修和保养的知识,已体现得越来越重要了,为此我们通过山地自行车的构造、工作特点结合一些前人们的经验以及机械传动的理论知识对山地自行车的维修和保养进行了研究探讨。%with the continuous improvement of the quality of life of human society, people of low carbon, environmental protection and the pursuit of more and more strongly, the bicycle has become an indispensable means of transport for people to travel, but also have great benefits to physical and mental health, physical health of people. Mountain bike as a special bicycle is being like to challenge the courage and perseverance of young people's concern, but in the riding by road is bumpy, vibration, collision occur frequently,so there may be some fault,but most people be at a loss what to do, so to master some mountain bike repair and maintenance of knowledge,has reflected more and more important, so we construct, the characteristics of mountain bike with some people experience and theoretical knowledge of mechanical transmission of mountain bike repair and maintenance are discussed.

  13. Trails, Bike, NCDOT Bike Routes- The bike routes shapefile contains lines representing North Carolina bike routes, as defined by the Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. (SHP), Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, NCDOT-GIS Unit.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'NCDOT...

  14. The Theory of Dynamic Public Transit Priority with Dynamic Stochastic Park and Ride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transit priority is very important for relieving traffic congestion. The connotation of dynamic public transit priority and dynamic stochastic park and ride is presented. Based on the point that the travel cost of public transit is not higher than the travel cost of car, how to determine the level of dynamic public transit priority is discussed. The traffic organization method of dynamic public transit priority is introduced. For dynamic stochastic park and ride, layout principle, scale, and charging standard are discussed. Traveler acceptability is high through the analysis of questionnaire survey. Dynamic public transit priority with dynamic stochastic park and ride has application feasibility.

  15. A hazard-based duration model for analyzing crossing behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobao; Huan, Mei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hazard-based duration approach to investigate riders' waiting times, violation hazards, associated risk factors, and their differences between cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections. A total of 2322 two-wheeled riders approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. The data were classified into censored and uncensored data to distinguish between safe crossing and red-light running behavior. The results indicated that the red-light crossing behavior of most riders was dependent on waiting time. They were inclined to terminate waiting behavior and run against the traffic light with the increase of waiting duration. Over half of the observed riders cannot endure 49s or longer. 25% of the riders can endure 97s or longer. Rider type, gender, waiting position, conformity tendency and crossing traffic volume were identified to have significant effects on riders' waiting times and violation hazards. Electric bike riders were found to be more sensitive to the external risk factors such as other riders' crossing behavior and crossing traffic volume than cyclists. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity was examined in the proposed models. The finding of this paper can explain when and why cyclists and electric bike riders run against the red light at intersections. The results of this paper are useful for traffic design and management agencies to implement strategies to enhance the safety of riders. PMID:25463942

  16. A hazard-based duration model for analyzing crossing behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobao; Huan, Mei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hazard-based duration approach to investigate riders' waiting times, violation hazards, associated risk factors, and their differences between cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections. A total of 2322 two-wheeled riders approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. The data were classified into censored and uncensored data to distinguish between safe crossing and red-light running behavior. The results indicated that the red-light crossing behavior of most riders was dependent on waiting time. They were inclined to terminate waiting behavior and run against the traffic light with the increase of waiting duration. Over half of the observed riders cannot endure 49s or longer. 25% of the riders can endure 97s or longer. Rider type, gender, waiting position, conformity tendency and crossing traffic volume were identified to have significant effects on riders' waiting times and violation hazards. Electric bike riders were found to be more sensitive to the external risk factors such as other riders' crossing behavior and crossing traffic volume than cyclists. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity was examined in the proposed models. The finding of this paper can explain when and why cyclists and electric bike riders run against the red light at intersections. The results of this paper are useful for traffic design and management agencies to implement strategies to enhance the safety of riders.

  17. Sex-related trends in participation and performance in the 'Swiss Bike Masters' from 1994-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, Roman Urs; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Haupt, Samuel; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-04-01

    General participation in contests such as ultra-marathons and ultra-triathlons has increased considerably over the past 30 years, especially among women. This study investigated performance trends in the Swiss Bike Masters, one of the first and most prestigious mountain bike, ultra-endurance races in its class, with comparisons of participation and performance trends to similar races. The development of performance in the Swiss Bike Masters held between 1994 and 2012 was investigated by analysing the number of finishers, their age, sex, and cycling speed. Between 1994 and 2009, the athletes had to cover 120 kilometers with a total difference in altitude of 5,000 meters. Since 2010, the race distance was shortened to 105 kilometers and the total difference in altitude was reduced to 4,400 meters. The total men participating and total finishing decreased significantly, while women's participation has remained low. The age of the annual winners and the annual top three finishers showed no changes over time. Performances of the annual fastest women improved, while performances of the annual fastest men remained unchanged. To summarize, rate of finishing has decreased for men and has been stable, but low, among women. The sex difference in cycling speed for the best cyclists has decreased across the years.

  18. Planning, implementing and evaluating a social and communication skills course for riding instructors

    OpenAIRE

    Seefeld, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Social and emotional skills are very important for effective coaching. As research in this field is still very limited, the purpose of this study was to plan, implement and evaluate a course teaching social and emotional skills to riding instructors. The objective of this research project was to analyse the usefulness and feasibility of a social and communication skills course for riding instructors. The present research study is an educational action research case study approa...

  19. Trails, Bike, Bike trails drawn as part of road transportation system and tagged as such in attributes, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Scott County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as 'Bike...

  20. Developing crash modification functions to assess safety effects of adding bike lanes for urban arterials with different roadway and socio-economic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Lee, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although many researchers have estimated crash modification factors (CMFs) for specific treatments (or countermeasures), there is a lack of studies that explored the heterogeneous effects of roadway characteristics on crash frequency among treated sites. Generally, the CMF estimated by before-after studies represents overall safety effects of the treatment in a fixed value. However, as each treated site has different roadway characteristics, there is a need to assess the variation of CMFs among the treated sites with different roadway characteristics through crash modification functions (CMFunctions). The main objective of this research is to determine relationships between the safety effects of adding a bike lane and the roadway characteristics through (1) evaluation of CMFs for adding a bike lane using observational before-after with empirical Bayes (EB) and cross-sectional methods, and (2) development of simple and full CMFunctions which are describe the CMF in a function of roadway characteristics of the sites. Data was collected for urban arterials in Florida, and the Florida-specific full SPFs were developed. Moreover, socio-economic parameters were collected and included in CMFunctions and SPFs (1) to capture the effects of the variables that represent volume of bicyclists and (2) to identify general relationship between the CMFs and these characteristics. In order to achieve better performance of CMFunctions, data mining techniques were used. The results of both before-after and cross-sectional methods show that adding a bike lane on urban arterials has positive safety effects (i.e., CMFbike crashes. It was found that adding a bike lane is more effective in reducing bike crashes than all crashes. It was also found that the CMFs vary across the sites with different roadway characteristics. In particular, annual average daily traffic (AADT), number of lanes, AADT per lane, median width, bike lane width, and lane width are significant characteristics that

  1. Perception of Safety and Liking Associated to the Colour Intervention of Bike Lanes: Contribution from the Behavioural Sciences to Urban Design and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Segovia, Ariel; Rojo, Natalia; Moreno, Sandra; Oyarzo, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The perception of colour and its subjective effects are key issues to designing safe and enjoyable bike lanes. This paper addresses the relationship between the colours of bike lane interventions—in particular pavement painting and intersection design—and the subjective evaluation of liking, visual saliency, and perceived safety related to such an intervention. Utilising images of three real bike lane intersections modified by software to change their colour (five in total), this study recruited 538 participants to assess their perception of all fifteen colour-design combinations. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with the Bonferroni post hoc test was performed to assess the effect of the main conditions (colour and design) on the dependent variables (liking towards the intervention, level of visual saliency of the intersection, and perceived safety of the bike lane). The results showed that the colour red was more positively associated to the outcome variables, followed by yellow and blue. Additionally, it was observed that the effect of colour widely outweighs the effect of design, suggesting that the right choice and use of colour would increase the effectiveness on bike-lanes pavement interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27548562

  2. Perception of Safety and Liking Associated to the Colour Intervention of Bike Lanes: Contribution from the Behavioural Sciences to Urban Design and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Beyle, Christian; Segovia, Ariel; Rojo, Natalia; Moreno, Sandra; Oyarzo, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The perception of colour and its subjective effects are key issues to designing safe and enjoyable bike lanes. This paper addresses the relationship between the colours of bike lane interventions-in particular pavement painting and intersection design-and the subjective evaluation of liking, visual saliency, and perceived safety related to such an intervention. Utilising images of three real bike lane intersections modified by software to change their colour (five in total), this study recruited 538 participants to assess their perception of all fifteen colour-design combinations. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with the Bonferroni post hoc test was performed to assess the effect of the main conditions (colour and design) on the dependent variables (liking towards the intervention, level of visual saliency of the intersection, and perceived safety of the bike lane). The results showed that the colour red was more positively associated to the outcome variables, followed by yellow and blue. Additionally, it was observed that the effect of colour widely outweighs the effect of design, suggesting that the right choice and use of colour would increase the effectiveness on bike-lanes pavement interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  3. Fault ride-through and voltage support of permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalke, G.; Hartkopf, T. [Darmstadt Technical Univ., Dept. of Renewable Energies (Germany); Hansen, A.D. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a control strategy of direct driven multipole PMSG wind turbines, which enhances the fault ride-through and voltage support capability of such wind turbines during grid faults. A dynamic simulation model of the turbine is implemented in the simulation software DIgSILENT. Simulation results approve the effectiveness of the developed control strategy. It is shown that PMSG wind turbines equipped with such control even enable nearby connected conventional wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. (au)

  4. Evaluating clustering methods within the Artificial Ecosystem Algorithm and their application to bike redistribution in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Manal T; Bentley, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes and evaluates a solution to the truck redistribution problem prominent in London's Santander Cycle scheme. Due to the complexity of this NP-hard combinatorial optimisation problem, no efficient optimisation techniques are known to solve the problem exactly. This motivates our use of the heuristic Artificial Ecosystem Algorithm (AEA) to find good solutions in a reasonable amount of time. The AEA is designed to take advantage of highly distributed computer architectures and adapt to changing problems. In the AEA a problem is first decomposed into its relative sub-components; they then evolve solution building blocks that fit together to form a single optimal solution. Three variants of the AEA centred on evaluating clustering methods are presented: the baseline AEA, the community-based AEA which groups stations according to journey flows, and the Adaptive AEA which actively modifies clusters to cater for changes in demand. We applied these AEA variants to the redistribution problem prominent in bike share schemes (BSS). The AEA variants are empirically evaluated using historical data from Santander Cycles to validate the proposed approach and prove its potential effectiveness.

  5. A new vehicle for urban freight? An ex-ante evaluation of electric cargo bikes in courier services

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Johannes; Kihm, Alexander; Lenz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    One possible strategy to tackle the negative effects of urban freight is the substitution of cars by electric cargo bikes for inner-city courier shipments. This paper determines whether there is a potential market for electric cargo bikes, how the current market is organized, how electric cargo bikes are perceived by bike and car messengers, and what factors drive their willingness to use them. We find that in terms of cost, payload and range, electric cargo bikes lie in between two existing ...

  6. Solitons riding on solitons and the quantum Newton's cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manjun; Navarro, R.; Carretero-González, R.

    2016-02-01

    The reduced dynamics for dark and bright soliton chains in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to study the behavior of collective compression waves corresponding to Toda lattice solitons. We coin the term hypersoliton to describe such solitary waves riding on a chain of solitons. It is observed that in the case of dark soliton chains, the formulated reduction dynamics provides an accurate an robust evolution of traveling hypersolitons. As an application to Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standard harmonic potential, we study the case of a finite dark soliton chain confined at the center of the trap. When the central chain is hit by a dark soliton, the energy is transferred through the chain as a hypersoliton that, in turn, ejects a dark soliton on the other end of the chain that, as it returns from its excursion up the trap, hits the central chain repeating the process. This periodic evolution is an analog of the classical Newton's cradle.

  7. Solitons riding on solitons and the quantum Newton's cradle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manjun; Navarro, R; Carretero-González, R

    2016-02-01

    The reduced dynamics for dark and bright soliton chains in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to study the behavior of collective compression waves corresponding to Toda lattice solitons. We coin the term hypersoliton to describe such solitary waves riding on a chain of solitons. It is observed that in the case of dark soliton chains, the formulated reduction dynamics provides an accurate an robust evolution of traveling hypersolitons. As an application to Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standard harmonic potential, we study the case of a finite dark soliton chain confined at the center of the trap. When the central chain is hit by a dark soliton, the energy is transferred through the chain as a hypersoliton that, in turn, ejects a dark soliton on the other end of the chain that, as it returns from its excursion up the trap, hits the central chain repeating the process. This periodic evolution is an analog of the classical Newton's cradle. PMID:26986326

  8. Test Verification and Design of the Bicycle Frame Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long; XIANG Zhongxia; LUO Huan; TIAN Guan

    2015-01-01

    Research on design of bicycles is concentrated on mechanism and auto appearance design, however few on matches between the bike and the rider. Since unreasonable human-bike relationship leads to both riders’ worn-out joints and muscle injuries, the design of bicycles should focus on the matching. In order to find the best position of human-bike system, simulation experiments on riding comfort under different riding postures are done with the lifemode software employed to facilitate the cycling process as well as to obtain the best position and the size function of it. With BP neural network and GA, analyzing simulation data, conducting regression analysis of parameters on different heights and bike frames, the equation of best position of human-bike system is gained at last. In addition, after selecting testers, customized bikes based on testers’ height dimensions are produced according to the size function. By analyzing and comparing the experimental data that are collected from testers when riding common bicycles and customized bicycles, it is concluded that customized bicycles are four times even six times as comfortable as common ones. The equation of best position of human-bike system is applied to improve bikes’ function, and the new direction on future design of bicycle frame parameters is presented.

  9. Trends in electric bike-related injury in China, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Cui, Mengjing; Gu, Yue; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2015-03-01

    This study describes electric bike-related injuries from 2004 to 2010, and suggests injury prevention strategies to reduce electric bike-related injuries in China and other countries. Electric bike-related injuries data were obtained from the Bureau of Traffic Management at the Ministry of Public Security. Linear regression was used to identify statistically significant trends in electric bike-related injuries over the period. The results showed electric bike-related nonfatal injury rate had increased almost 4-fold and mortality rate increased 6-fold from 2004 to 2010. Linear regression showed a significant increase of 0.23 per 100 000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 0.18-0.29, P electric bike-related road traffic injuries. China will face new challenges arising from electric bike-related injuries. Programs need to be developed to prevent nonfatal injuries and fatalities caused by electric bike-related crashes in this country. PMID:24097921

  10. Trends in electric bike-related injury in China, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Cui, Mengjing; Gu, Yue; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2015-03-01

    This study describes electric bike-related injuries from 2004 to 2010, and suggests injury prevention strategies to reduce electric bike-related injuries in China and other countries. Electric bike-related injuries data were obtained from the Bureau of Traffic Management at the Ministry of Public Security. Linear regression was used to identify statistically significant trends in electric bike-related injuries over the period. The results showed electric bike-related nonfatal injury rate had increased almost 4-fold and mortality rate increased 6-fold from 2004 to 2010. Linear regression showed a significant increase of 0.23 per 100 000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 0.18-0.29, P bike-related road traffic injuries. China will face new challenges arising from electric bike-related injuries. Programs need to be developed to prevent nonfatal injuries and fatalities caused by electric bike-related crashes in this country.

  11. Optimization of Damper Top Mount Characteristics to Improve Vehicle Ride Comfort and Harshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina M. S. Kaldas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimization technique for optimizing the damper top mount characteristics to improve vehicle ride comfort and harshness is developed. The proposed optimization technique employs a new combined objective function based on ride comfort, harshness, and impact harshness evaluation. A detailed and accurate damper top mount mathematical model is implemented inside a validated quarter vehicle model to provide a realistic simulation environment for the optimization study. The ride comfort and harshness of the quarter vehicle are evaluated by analyzing the body acceleration in different frequency ranges. In addition, the top mount deformation is considered as a penalty factor for the system performance. The influence of the ride comfort and harshness weighting parameters of the proposed objective function on the optimal damper top mount characteristics is studied. The dynamic stiffness of the damper top mount is used to describe the optimum damper top mount characteristics for different optimization case studies. The proposed optimization routine is able to find the optimum characteristics of the damper top mount which improve the ride comfort and the harshness performances together.

  12. Bike Skills Training in PE Is Fun, Keeps Kids Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Judi Lawson; Sutton, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating bike skills into the elementary- and middle-school physical education curriculum encourages students to be physically active in a fun way while also learning bike safety skills. Winston-Salem's (NC) Safe Routes to School program demonstrates how collaboration with the public schools' health and physical education program…

  13. Pricing Decision under Dual-Channel Structure considering Fairness and Free-Riding Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under dual-channel structure, the free-riding behavior based on different service levels between online channel and offline channel cannot be avoided, which would lead to channel unfairness. This study implies that the dual-channel supply chain is built up by online channel controlled by manufacturer and traditional channel controlled by retailer, respectively. Under this channel structure, we rebuild the linear demand function considering free-riding behavior and modify the pricing model based on channel fairness. Then the influences of fair factor and free-riding behavior on manufacturer and retailer pricing and performance are discussed. Finally, we propose some numerical analysis to provide some valuable recommendations for manufacturer and retailer improving channel management performance.

  14. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise.

  15. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations : a field experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlakveld, W.P. Twisk, D.A.M. Christoph, M.W.T. Boele, M.J. Sikkema, R. Remy, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for

  16. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety: speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M.; Boele, M.J.; Vlakveld, W.P.; Christoph, M.; Sikkema, R.; Remij, R.; Schwab, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed

  17. Video markers tracking methods for bike fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkiewicz, Piotr; Łepkowska, Katarzyna; Cygan, Szymon

    2015-09-01

    Sports cycling is becoming increasingly popular over last years. Obtaining and maintaining a proper position on the bike has been shown to be crucial for performance, comfort and injury avoidance. Various techniques of bike fitting are available - from rough settings based on body dimensions to professional services making use of sophisticated equipment and expert knowledge. Modern fitting techniques use mainly joint angles as a criterion of proper position. In this work we examine performance of two proposed methods for dynamic cyclist position assessment based on video data recorded during stationary cycling. Proposed methods are intended for home use, to help amateur cyclist improve their position on the bike, and therefore no professional equipment is used. As a result of data processing, ranges of angles in selected joints are provided. Finally strengths and weaknesses of both proposed methods are discussed.

  18. Fast Coordinated Control of DFIG Wind Turbine Generators for Low and High Voltage Ride-Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Xu, Honghua;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fast coordinated control scheme of the rotor side converter (RSC), the DC chopper and the grid side converter (GSC) of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine generators (WTGs) which is to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT) and high voltage ride through...... (HVRT) capability of the DFIG WTGs. The characteristics of DFIG WTGs under voltage sags and swells were studied focusing on the DFIG WTG stator flux and rotor voltages during the transient periods of grid voltage changes. The protection schemes of the rotor crowbar circuit and the dc chopper circuit...

  19. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story of a blind person's…

  20. Acute injuries from mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, T K; Bracker, M D; Patrick, K

    1993-08-01

    We questioned members of 2 southern California off-road bicycling organizations about injuries associated with the use of all-terrain bicycles. Cyclists were asked about riding and safety habits, the kind(s) of injury sustained with their most recent accident and whether they sought medical treatment, and the circumstances of the accident. Of 459 mailed surveys, 268 (58.4%) were returned. Respondents (82.8% of whom were male) ranged in age from 14 to 68 years. Of these, 225 (84%) had been injured while riding all-terrain bicycles, 51% in the past year. Although most injuries were characterized as minor, 26% required professional medical care, and 4.4% of those injured were admitted to hospital. Extremity injuries--abrasions, lacerations, contusions--occurred in 201 (90%) cyclists with 27 (12%) sustaining a fracture or dislocation. High levels of helmet use (88%) may explain the low occurrence of head and neck trauma (12%). Frequent riding and riding on paved terrain were associated with increased severity of injury, although most accidents--197 (87.6%)--occurred off paved roads. These results suggest that, compared with regular bicyclists, all-terrain cyclists have more, but not necessarily more severe, injuries. Clinicians and emergency medical personnel should be aware that the increasing popularity of off-road cycling may change the frequency and nature of bicycling injuries.

  1. How challenging is a riding horse’s life? Field studies on fitness, workload and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to evaluate in practice workload, fitness and welfare of riding horses under work and training conditions. Chapter II presents an overview of the parameters used in earlier studies on training, behaviour and equine welfare, and describes the evaluation of the physi

  2. Therapeutic Riding for a Student with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrman, Jennifer; Ross, David B.

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old with multiple disabilities and visual impairments was the focus of a 10-week developmental therapeutic riding program incorporating hippotherapy. The program has led to increased mobility, an increase in visual attention span and fixation time, signs of greater verbal communication, and the acquisition of new functional signs.…

  3. An Evaluation of a Group Project Designed to Reduce Free-Riding and Promote Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaray, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Group projects are recognised as effective means of engaging students with work-related skills and promoting cooperative learning. This paper reports findings of a small survey--a group project designed to reduce problems associated with the process of production of group goods and services: free-riding and monitoring participation level. The…

  4. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  5. A Motion Simulator Ride Associated With Headache and Subdural Hematoma: First Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scranton, Robert A; Evans, Randolph W; Baskin, David S

    2016-02-01

    We report the first case report of symptomatic bilateral subdural hematomas (SDH) associated with riding a centrifugal motion simulator ride. A previously healthy 55-year-old male developed new onset daily headaches 1 week after going on the ride that were due to symptomatic bilateral SDH requiring operative intervention with a full recovery. There was no history of other trauma or other systemic or intracranial abnormality to account for the development of the SDH. We review the headaches and other clinical features associated with chronic SDH. Twelve cases of roller coaster headaches due to SDH associated with riding roller coasters have been reported. The pathophysiology is reviewed, which we believe is the same mechanism that may be responsible in this case. Although it is possible that this neurovascular injury is truly rare, it is also possible that this injury is underreported as patients and physicians may not make the association or physicians have not reported additional cases. The risk of this injury likely increases with age, as the size of the subdural space increases, and may support the maxim that "roller coasters and simulators are for kids." PMID:26581189

  6. Coordination between Fault-Ride-Through Capability and Overcurrent Protection of DFIG Generatorsfor Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Kawady, Tamer A.; Abdel-Rahman, Mansour H.

    2009-01-01

    , the Coor-dination between Fault Ride-Through Capability and Overcur-rent Protection of DFIG Wind Generators in MV Networks is in-vestigated. Simulation test cases using MATLAB-Simulink are implemented on a 345-MW wind farm in AL-Zaafarana, Egypt. The simulation results show the influence of FRT...... capability on protective relaying coordination in wind farms....

  7. Paediatric ride-on mower related injuries and plastic surgical management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2011-05-01

    Lawnmower related injuries cause significant morbidity in children and young teenagers. The \\'ride-on\\' mowers which are more powerful than the \\'walk behind\\' mowers are becoming increasingly popular. The incidence and severity of injuries from either type of lawnmower appears to be steadily rising as is the burden placed on local plastic surgical and emergency services in managing the care of these patients. The aims of the study were to demonstrate changing trends in lawnmower-related injuries to children presenting to a single unit over a ten-year period and to identify any association between injury severity and machine subtype (\\'ride-on\\' versus \\'walk-behind\\'). Hospital databases, theatre records and medical case notes were reviewed retrospectively of all patients under the age of 16 treated for lawnmower related injuries over a 10 year period from July 1998 to June 2008. Data gathered included patient demographics, injury site and severity, management (type and number of surgical procedures), length of hospital stay and outcome. Injury severity score was also calculated for each case. Controlling for estimated regional population changes, there was a significant increase in the number of ride-on mower related accidents in the time period 2003-2008, compared to the time period 1998-2003. Ride-on injuries had significantly higher injury severity scores, longer hospital stays and were more likely to involve amputations as compared with walk-behind injuries. Children can sustain significant injuries with unsafe lawnmower use. The current study demonstrates the increasing incidence of ride-on mower related injuries in children and identifies a greater morbidity associated with such injuries. Such presentations place intense demands on local plastic surgical services.

  8. Bicycle Riding: Impact on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Esther; Kam, Sin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, reports in the mass media have implicated that bicycle riding increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and prostatic diseases. So, we evaluate the impact of bicycle riding on erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy general men. Methods From 26 June 2010 to 20 July 2010, we investigate degree of LUTS (voiding and storage symptoms), using International Continence Society-male Questionnaire (ICS-mQ) and erectile function using International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire (IIEF-5) in 5 work places (personnel of public office, hospital, university, etc.) of which bicycle riding club members were doing active club activities. Respondents, who participated in club activities for 6 months and longer, were classified as the bicycle club (142 men; age, 44.02±8.56). Ones who do not ride bicycles were classified as the control group (83 men; age, 42.13±7.85). People who were having the history of urological and other chronic diseases (diabetes, vascular disease, heart disease, etc) were excluded from both groups. Results Bicycle club is not significantly associated with increased prevalence of LUTS (bicycle club, 2.1 to 57.7% control, 4.8 to 73.5%) and erectile dysfunction (bicycle club, 46.1% control, 55.4%). The total mean score (storage/voiding/erectile function) of bicycle club (13.93±1.95/11.14±3.49/20.46±5.30) were not significantly different from control (14.35±2.49/11.52±3.38/20.40±4.07) (P=0.190 to 0.968). Conclusions These results suggested that bicycle riding as exercise or hobby has no negative effect on LUTS and erectile function in healthy general men, although this research data were limited to the questionnaire analysis. PMID:21811700

  9. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed. PMID:23036395

  10. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed.

  11. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  12. The influence of speed, cyclists' age, pedaling frequency, and observer age on observers' time to arrival judgments of approaching bicycles and e-bikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleinitz, Katja; Petzoldt, Tibor; Krems, Josef F; Gehlert, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Given their potential to reach higher speed levels than conventional bicycles, the growing market share of e-bikes has been the reason for increased concerns regarding road safety. Previous studies have shown a clear relationship between object approach speed and an observers' judgment of when the object would reach a predefined position (i.e., time to arrival, TTA), with higher speed resulting in longer TTA estimates. Since TTA estimates have been linked to road users' decisions of whether or not to cross or turn in front of approaching vehicles, the higher potential speeds of e-bikes might result in an increased risk for traffic conflicts. The goal of the two experiments presented in this paper was to examine the influence of speed and a variety of other factors on TTA estimation for conventional bicycles and for e-bikes. In both experiments, participants from two age groups (20-45 years old and 65 years or older) watched video sequences of bicycles approaching at different speeds (15-25km/h) and were asked to judge the TTA at the moment the video was stopped. The results of both experiments showed that an increase in bicycle approach speed resulted in longer TTA estimates (measured as the proportion of estimated TTA relative to actual TTA) for both bicycle types (ηp(2)Exp.1=.489, ηp(2)Exp.2=.705). Compared to younger observers, older observers provided shorter estimates throughout (Exp. I: MDiff=0.35, CI [0.197, 0.509], ηp(2)=.332, Exp. II: MDiff=0.50, CI [.317, 0.682], ηp(2)=.420). In Experiment I, TTA estimates for the conventional bicycle were significantly shorter than for the e-bike (MDiff=0.03, CI [.007, 0.044], ηp(2)=.154), as were the estimates for the elder cyclist compared to the younger one (MDiff=0.05, CI [.025, 0.066], ηp(2)=.323). We hypothesized that the cause for this effect might lie in the seemingly reduced pedaling effort for the e-bike as a result of the motor assistance it provides. Experiment II was able to show that a high pedaling

  13. Stay Fit - Have Fun - Bike To Work

    CERN Document Server

    Jens Vigen, CERN coordinator for Bike2Work

    2013-01-01

    This June, CERN will take part in the Swiss "Bike to Work" campaign once again. In this Swiss national campaign, which has attracted more than 50,000 participants, teams of four colleagues encourage each other to cycle to work throughout the month of June.   Participants of the “2012 Bike2CERN through the year” campaign - with the campaign winners, Tim Smith, Martial Dujardin and Mika Huhtinen - alongside the organisers and cycling enthusiasts. Participating is easy! Simply get together with three of your colleagues and register your Bike to Work team online before 31 May. There are no fees for registering teams, there is no minimum distance, and parts of the journey can be done using public transport. There is even an opening for non-cyclists: one member per team can be a pedestrian or a skateboarder or use any other means of transport that does not depend on an engine. In addition to the June event, CERN is also supporting "Bike to CERN throu...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  18. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations : a field experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Vlakveld, W.P. Twisk, D.A.M. Christoph, M.W.T. Boele, M.J. Sikkema, R. Remy, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for the electric pedal support system. Two groups were compared: elderly cyclists (65 years of age and older) and a reference group of cyclists in middle adulthood (between 30 and 45 years of age). Par...

  19. Motor ability of forelimb both on- and off-riding during walk and trot cadence of horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the motor ability of forelimb according to on- or off-riding during cadences (walk and trot) of horse. Horses and rider selected as subject consisted of total 37 heads of Jeju native horse and 1 female rider. The variables analyzed composed of 1 stride length, 1 step length, elapsed time of stance, elapsed time of swing, elapsed time of 1 step, and forward velocity (x-axis). Two-way analysis of variance of variables was employed for the statistical analysis with the level of significance set at 5% (P<0.05). Trot cadence showed significant difference with the faster and shorter during trot than that of walk in velocity and elapsed time. When analyzed interaction effect in stance and swing phase, the locomotion showed the shorter elapsed time in trot than that of walk, but more delayed in case of on-riding during stance phase, whereas the case of on-riding showed with the shorter during swing phase than that of the case of off-riding These result of horse’s analysis meant that there was very close relation among variables of rider’s weight-velocity-stride length-stride elapsed time. Next study will be necessary to analyze cadence variables added both stride length and rider’s weight for riding activity and rehabilitation during horse riding using Jeju native horse. PMID:26933662

  20. Chinese Culture on the Global Stage: Zhang Yimou and Riding Alone for Thousands of Miles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Larson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As opposed to Zhang Yimou’s 张艺谋 much-criticized film Hero《英雄》(2002, which addresses the relationship between culture and political power, Riding Alone for Thousands of Miles《千里走单骑》 (2005 asks the question of whether, under the conditions of globalization, any performance between cultures can contain truth value, be authentic, or represent something real. Although a key scene acted by Japanese star Ken Takakura effectively expresses his true despair and thus seems to indicate a positive response, Zhang Yimou persistently inserts into the film queries about the validity of performance across cultural and linguistic borders, and the complex trail of conflicting desires that motivate it. Riding Alone is one example of Zhang's complex filmic investigation into the relationship between culture and political power under the developing conditions of a border-crossing global world.

  1. Ride electric bycycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Last week, our school had a discussion about whether junior students could ride electric bycycles to go to school. 25 students of our class agreed with it, because they say it was convenient for them and it could take less time to go to school. But the other 35 students didn't agree with them.

  2. "Riding the Wave": Transforming Sport and Exercise Psychology within an Interdisciplinary Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2008-01-01

    A metaphor of "riding the wave" is used as a means of envisioning the future of sport and exercise psychology given what we know about past and present waves in the field. First, I review the waves of the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s to understand critical issues in the field and to evaluate the waves as smooth, choppy, or turbulent today. Second,…

  3. The Geo Quick Ride (GQR) Program: Providing Inexpensive and Frequent Access to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Robert; Baniszewski, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines piggybacking NASA, university, and industry payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites. NASA's RSDO Office awarded Geo Quick Ride (GQR) study contracts in 1998 to spacecraft manufactures to examine the issues with flying secondary payloads. The study results were very promising. Commercial communication satellites have frequent flights and significant unused resources that could be used to fly secondary payloads. However, manifesting secondary payloads on a commercial revenue-generating satellite is a complex problem to solve. The solution requires multiple simultaneous approaches in order to be successful. There are business, economic, technical, schedule, and organizational issues to be resolved. This paper examines the Geo Quick Ride (GQR) concept, discusses the development issues, and describes how this concept solves many of these issues.

  4. Sport cycling crashes on public roads, the influence of bunch riding and experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Gent, P. van

    2014-01-01

    Cycling is a popular but unsafe mode of transport in the Netherlands and the number of seriously injured bicyclists has increased significantly since 2006. A special subgroup is the population of sport cyclists who perform their sport on public roads. The number of road crashes with sport cyclists shows an increasing trend. The authors propose two factors which might contribute to this trend. First, bunch riding among sport cyclists, and second the inflow of cyclists with low experience. No e...

  5. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  6. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  7. Crossing Reliability of Electric Bike Riders at Urban Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Mei; Yang Xiaobao; Jia Bin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a crossing reliability model of electric bike riders at urban intersections using survival analysis approach. Riders’ crossing behavior was collected by video cameras. Waiting times in the red-light phase were modeled by reliability-based model that recognizes the covariate effects. Three parametric models by the exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic distributions were proposed to analyze when and why electric bike riders cross against the red light. The results indicate ...

  8. Relative vs. absolute physiological measures as predictors of mountain bike cross-country race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John; Johns, David P; Walls, Justin T

    2007-02-01

    The aims of this study were to document the effect terrain has on the physiological responses and work demands (power output) of riding a typical mountain bike cross-country course under race conditions. We were particularly interested in determining whether physiological measures relative to mass were better predictors of race performance than absolute measures. Eleven A-grade male cross-country mountain bike riders (VO2max 67.1 +/- 3.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed 2 tests: a laboratory-based maximum progressive exercise test, and a 15.5-km (six 2.58-km laps) mountain bike cross-country time trial. There were significant differences among the speed, cadence, and power output measured in each of 8 different terrain types found in the cross-country time trial course. The highest average speed was measured during the 10-15% downhill section (22.7 +/- 2.6 km x h(-1)), whereas the cadence was highest in the posttechnical flat sections (74.3 +/- 5.6 rpm) and lowest on the 15-20% downhill sections (6.4 +/- 12.1 rpm). The highest mean heart rate (HR) was obtained during the steepest (15-20% incline) section of the course (179 +/- 8 b x min(-1)), when the power output was greatest (419.8 +/- 39.7 W). However, HR remained elevated relative to power output in the downhill sections of the course. Physiological measures relative to total rider mass correlated more strongly to average course speed than did absolute measures (peak power relative to mass r = 0.93, p < 0.01, vs. peak power r = 0.64, p < 0.05; relative VO2max r = 0.80, p < 0.05, vs. VO2max r = 0.66, p < 0.05; power at anaerobic threshold relative to mass r = 0.78, p < 0.05, vs. power at anaerobic threshold r = 0.5, p < 0.05). This suggests that mountain bike cross-country training programs should focus upon improving relative physiological values rather than focusing upon maximizing absolute values to improve performance. PMID:17313256

  9. Evaluating cumulative ascent: Mountain biking meets Mandelbrot

    CERN Document Server

    Rapaport, D C

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determining total distance ascended during a mountain bike trip is addressed. Altitude measurements are obtained from GPS receivers utilizing both GPS-based and barometric altitude data, with data averaging used to reduce fluctuations. The estimation process is sensitive to the degree of averaging, and is related to the well-known question of determining coastline length. Barometric-based measurements prove more reliable, due to their insensitivity to GPS altitude fluctuations.

  10. Little Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2011-01-01

    你一定看过并知道小红帽(Little Red Riding Hood)的故事吧!下面是英语版的小红帽,你看过吗? Once upon a time,people liked a little girl very much.Her red hood(头巾 ) fit her, so people called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day,her mother said, "Take a piece of cake and a bottle ofwine to your grandmother.She is ill and weak.These will do her good.Donot run off the road,or you may fall and break the bottle,and then yourgrandmother will get nothing.OK! Go at once."

  11. Development and application of ride-quality criteria. [considering vehicle vibration damping design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    Ride quality vibration criteria applicable to the design and evaluation of air and surface transportation systems are described. Consideration is given to the magnitude of vehicle vibration experienced by the passenger, the frequency of vibration, the direction of vibration measurements are presented for a variety of air and surface transportation systems. In addition, simulator data on seat dynamics and passenger response are presented. Results suggest the relative merits of various physical descriptors and measurement locations for characterizing the vibration in terms suitable for the design and/or evaluation of transportation systems.

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Mechanical Horseback Riding on Gait and Balance Ability in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun Young; Kim, Shin Kyoung; Chung, Jin Sang; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Lim, Jae Kuk; Lee, Jiwon; Park, Kawn Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of mechanical horseback riding for gait and balance parameters in post-stroke patients. Method This study was a non randomized prospective positive-controlled trial over a 12 week period. From May 2011 to October 2011, 37 stroke patients were recruited from our outpatient clinic and divided into two groups. The control group received the conventional physiotherapy while the intervention group received the conventional physiotherapy along with mechanical horseback riding therapy for 12 weeks. Outcome measurements of gait included the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) and gait part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (G-POMA) while those of balance included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the balance part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (B-POMA). These measurements were taken before and after treatment. Results There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and initial values between the two groups. When comparing baseline and 12 weeks post treatment in each group, the intervention group showed significant improvement on BBS (39.9±5.7 → 45.7±4.8, p=0.001) and B-POMA (10.4±2.6 → 12.6±2.1, p=0.001), but significant improvement on gait parameters. When comparing the groups, the dynamic balance category of BBS in post treatment showed significant difference (p=0.02). Conclusion This study suggests that mechanical horseback riding therapy may be an effective treatment tool for enhancing balance in adults with stroke. PMID:23342307

  13. Managing Recreational Trail Environments for Mountain Bike User Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmonds; Hammitt; Quisenberry

    2000-05-01

    / The carrying capacity model is an effective tool for the management of a wildland recreation resource. Within the model are four primary subcapacities, namely, physical capacity, biological capacity, social capacity, and facility capacity; combined, they are essential to the appropriate management of wildland recreation resource environments. This study focuses on environmental factors of recreational environments that are primarily used by mountain bikers. Little research has been conducted on the social carrying capacity of mountain biking environments, relative to the amount of physical and biological capacity research that has been conducted. The objective of this study was to further resource management knowledge of the mountain bike user in order to better incorporate social carrying capacity into the management of bike use environments. An email survey was used to identify such issues as mountain biker preference of soil erosion management techniques and to measure the effect on experience of resultant factors of soil erosion and trail design. Other issues, such as environmental concern, biker perception of other users, and biker commitment, were also measured. A 58% response rate was achieved. Data gathered from bikers in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand (N = 406), highlight some important issues concerning the design and management of wildland recreation environments that are primarily used for mountain biking. For example, bikers were found to significantly prefer water bars above all other tested soil erosion management techniques; trail erosion factors, including the presence of rocks, roots, and gullies, all added to biking experiences on average; trail design factors, such as the presence of turns, bumps, jumps, and obstacles, all added to biking experiences in general. These findings were used to address questions that resource managers should consider when striving to effectively manage wildland recreation areas

  14. An Enhanced Search Technique for Managing Partial Coverage and Free Riding in P2P Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a Q-learning based scheme for managing the partial coverage problem and the ill-effects of free riding in unstructured P2P networks. Based on various parameter values collected during query routing, reward for the actions are computed and these rewards are used for updating the corresponding Q-values of peers. Thus, the routing is done through only nodes which have shown high performance in the past. Simulation experiments are conducted in several times and the results are plotted. Results show that the proposed scheme effectively manages free riders, generates high hit ratio, reduces network traffic and manages partial coverage problem.

  15. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  16. Discourage free riding in Peer-to-Peer file sharing systems with file migration and workload balancing approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yijiao; JIN Hai

    2007-01-01

    Free riding is a great challenge to the development and maintenance of Peer-to-Peer(P2P)networks.A file migration and workload balancing based approach (FMWBBA)to discourage free riding is proposed in this paper.The heart of our mechanism is to migrate some shared files from the overloaded peers to the neighboring free riders automatically and transparently,which enforces free riders to offer services when altruistic peers are heavily overloaded.File migration is a key issue in our approach,and some related strategies are discussed.A simulation is designed to verify this approach,and the results show that it can not only alleviate free riding,but also improve the Quality of Service(QoS)and robustness of P2P networks efficiently.

  17. The Year in Gaming: Titles and Trends of 2002%2002游戏盘点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George

    2003-01-01

    @@ This year's biggest phenomcnons 1. Sex and Violence(性和暴力): Mature content in console games created controversy(论战).Grand Theft Auto: Vice City returned to give lawmakers nightmares, and Sony censors the PS2 version of BMX XXX. Strangely, we have yet to see dramatic increases in car-jacking and topless bike-riding in the real world.

  18. Physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted bicycle versus a classical bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurel, J; Theurel, A; Lepers, R

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the physiological responses and the subsequent cognitive performance when riding an electrically assisted (EB) versus a classical (CB) bicycle. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and leg extensor muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded in 10 subjects during a 30-min intermittent cycling exercise performed with EB versus CB. Cognitive performance was evaluated by a mail sorting test, performed at rest and after each cycling session. Averaged oxygen uptake and heat rate were significantly (P cycling than during CB cycling. The EMG activities of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscles were significantly (P cycling than during EB cycling. The time to complete the mail sorting test was significantly (P cycling than after CB cycling. Because EB cycling reduced muscle strains and physiological stress, it might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study compared physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted versus a classical bicycle. The results showed that the electrically assisted bicycle led to reduced muscle strains and physiological stress and, therefore, might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. PMID:22506555

  19. Does Bicycle Riding Impact the Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Sexual Dysfunction in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Gon; Kim, Dae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to determine whether men who engaged in recreational bicycle riding are more likely to be affected by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction than are man who exercised by amateur marathon running with less perineal impact. Materials and Methods A total of 22 healthy male amateur bicyclists and 17 healthy male amateur marathoners were enrolled in the study. We evaluated questionnaires including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), uroflowmetric values, postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate in all subjects. We also compared the prevalence of urination disorders (UD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, comorbidities, or exercise habits (p>0.05). Mean total and subscale scores of the IPSS and IIEF and the prevalence of UD (8/22 vs. 4/17, p=0.494) and ED (11/22 vs. 10/17, p=0.748) were not significantly different between the two groups. Also, there were no significant differences between the two groups in uroflowmetric parameters such as peak urinary flow rates, voided urine volume, PVR urine volume, prostate volume, or serum PSA level. Conclusions Bicycle riding seems to have no measurable hazardous effect on voiding function or sexual function in men who cycled recreationally. PMID:21687396

  20. Effects of the Horse Riding Simulator and Ball Exercises on Balance of the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SeongGil; Yuk, Goon-chang; Gak, Hwangbo

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of horse riding exercise using a horse riding simulator (HRS) and a ball on static and dynamic balance of elderly people. [Methods] Thirty-two elderly people hospitalized in geriatric hospitals were randomly assigned to the HRS exercise group or the ball exercise groups, and they performed exercise for eight weeks. [Results] The length of postural sway during quite standing with and without eyes closed significantly decreased in both groups after the exercises and there was no significant difference between both groups in the Romberg test. In the functional reach test (FRT), there were significant increases in distance in both groups after the exercises, and the distance of the HRS exercise group was significantly greater than that of the ball exercise group. In the Timed Up & Go test (TUG) and Timed 10-meter walk test (10MWT), the time significantly decreased in both groups, and there was a more significant decrease in the HRS exercise group than in the ball exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that HRS and ball exercises may improve the balance and gait ability of elderly people hospitalized in nursing homes or geriatric hospitals. PMID:24396203

  1. Measuring Engagement as Students Learn Dynamic Systems and Control with a Video Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, B. D.; Shernoff, David J.; Strati, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents results of a multi-year quasi-experimental study of student engagement during which a video game was introduced into an undergraduate dynamic systems and control course. The video game, "EduTorcs", provided challenges in which students devised control algorithms that drive virtual cars and ride virtual bikes through a…

  2. Improving Vehicle Ride and Handling Using LQG CNF Fusion Control Strategy for an Active Antiroll Bar System

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain, N.; H. Zamzuri; Y. M. Sam; Mazlan, S. A.; S. M. H. F. Zainal

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses a comparison of performance for an active antiroll bar (ARB) system using two types of control strategy. First of all, the LQG control strategy is investigated and then a novel LQG CNF fusion control method is developed to improve the performances on vehicle ride and handling for an active antiroll bar system. However, the ARB system has to balance the trade-off between ride and handling performance, where the CNF consists of a linear feedback law and a nonlinear feedback ...

  3. Velo: Riding the Knowledge Management Wave for Simulation and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Ian; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Black, Gary D.; White, Signe K.; Purohit, Sumit; Madison, Michael C.; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2011-05-28

    Modern scientific enterprises are inherently knowledge-intensive. In general, scientific studies in domains such as geosciences, climate, and biology require the acquisition and manipulation of large amounts of experimental and field data in order to create inputs for large-scale computational simulations. The results of these simulations must then be analyzed, leading to refinements of inputs and models and further simulations. Further, these results must be managed and archived to provide justifications for publications and regulatory decisions that are based on these models. In this paper we describe our Velo framework that is designed as a reusable, domain independent knowledge management infrastructure for modeling and simulation. Velo leverages, integrates, and extends open source collaborative and content management technologies to create a scalable and flexible core platform that can be tailored to specific scientific domains. In this paper we describe the architecture of Velo for managing and associating the various types of data that are used and created in modeling and simulation projects, as well as the framework for integrating domain-specific tools. To demonstrate a realization of Velo, we describe the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3) that has been developed to support geologic sequestration modeling. This provides a concrete example of the inherent extensibility and utility of our approach.

  4. Research into the Impact of Bikeability Training on Children's Ability to Perceive and Appropriately Respond to Hazards When Cycling on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Claire; Worth, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Bikeability (2014) is described as "cycling proficiency for the 21st century". The training is practical, skill-based, outcome-led and designed to "boost the confidence of the trainee and to minimise risk". There are three levels of training and children typically start Bikeability lessons once they have learned to ride a bike.…

  5. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawasumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years and aged (11-18 years. They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Therapeutic Horse Riding on the Quality of Life, Health, and Function of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E.; Davies, B.; Wolfe, R.; Raadsveld, R.; Heine, B.; Thomason, P.; Dobson, Fiona; Graham, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined whether therapeutic horse riding has a clinically significant impact on the physical function, health and quality of life (QoL) of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Ninety-nine children aged 4 to 12 years with no prior horse riding experience and various levels of impairment (Gross Motor Function…

  7. Bike-powered electricity generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFAN MOCANU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding new energy sources is an important challenge of our times. A lot of research focuses on identifying such sources that can also be exploited with relatively simple and efficient systems. These sources can be either new materials that can be used to generate energy, or solutions to scavenge already existing forms of energy. Part of the latter class of solutions, the system presented in this paper converts the energy consumed by many people in gyms (or even at home, during exercise into electric energy. This energy exists anyway, because people want to be healthier or to look better. Currently, this significant (in our opinion amount of energy is actually wasted and transformed into heat. Instead, in this study, a prototype scavenging system (dedicated to fitness/stationary bikes to collect and (reuse this energy is presented. Specifically, we depict the design of a low-budget system that uses existing, discrete components and is able to scavenge some of the energy spent by the biker. The experimental results show that the system is functional, but its efficiency is limited by (mechanical losses before the collection.

  8. Riding comfort optimization of railway trains based on pseudo-excitation method and symplectic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, You-Wei; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Jia-Hao; He, Xing-Wen

    2013-10-01

    This research is intended to develop a FEM-based riding comfort optimization approach to the railway trains considering the coupling effect of vehicle-track system. To obtain its accurate dynamic response, the car body is modeled with finite elements, while the bogie frames and wheel-sets are idealized as rigid bodies. The differential equations of motion of the dynamic vehicle-track system are derived considering wheel-track interaction, in which the pseudo-excitation method and the symplectic mathematical method are effectively applied to simplify the calculation. Then, the min-max optimization approach is utilized to improve the train riding comfort with related parameters of the suspension structure adopted as design variables, in which 54 design points on the car floor are chosen as estimation locations. The K-S function is applied to fit the objective function to make it smooth, differentiable and have superior integrity. Analytical sensitivities of the K-S function are then derived to solve the optimization problem. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through numerical examples and some useful discussions are made.

  9. Time Consistency and Free-Riding in a Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, V. V.; Patrick J. Kehoe

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the setting of monetary and nonmonetary policies in monetary unions. We show that in these unions a time inconsistency problem in monetary policy leads to a novel type of free- rider problem in the setting of nonmonetary policies, such as labor market policy, fiscal policy, and bank regulation. The free-rider problem leads the union's members to pursue lax nonmonetary policies that induce the monetary authority to generate high inflation. The free-rider problem can be mitigated by ...

  10. Dynamics of Social Systems: Cooperation and Free-Riding

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Y; Nadal, J P; Gordon, Mirta B.; Ma, Yiping; Nadal, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    We study the mean field dynamics of a model introduced by Phan et al [Wehia, 2005] of a polymorphic social community. The individuals may choose between three strategies: either not to join the community or, in the case of joining it, to cooperate or to behave as a free-rider. Individuals' preferences have an idiosyncratic component and a social component. Cooperators bear a fixed cost whereas free-riders support a cost proportional to the number of cooperators. We study the dynamics of this model analytically in the mean field approximation for both parallel and sequential updating. As we vary one of the parameters while keeping the other parameters fixed, the phase diagram experiences a rich class of bifurcations. Noticeably, a limit cycle is shown to exist in both parallel and sequential updating, under certain parameter settings. A comparison of the analytical predictions with computer simulation is also included.

  11. Time inconsistency and free-riding in a monetary union

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, V. V.; Patrick J. Kehoe

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the setting of monetary and nonmonetary policies in monetary unions. We show that in these unions a time inconsistency problem in monetary policy leads to a novel type of free-rider problem in the setting of nonmonetary policies, such as labor market policy, fiscal policy, and bank regulation. The free-rider problem leads the union’s members to pursue lax nonmonetary policies that induce the monetary authority to generate high inflation. The free-rider problem can be mitigated by i...

  12. Jazz Researchers: Riding the Dissonance of Pedagogy and Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozenski, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from a two-year ethnographic study, this article establishes jazz as an epistemological metaphor for critical participatory action research. The author juxtaposes the tensions inherent in jazz music and critical participatory research methodologies to provide a framework for understanding how dissonance can become a productive element for…

  13. Analysis of lateral dynamics and ride performance of the Superbus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herk, S.; Terzi, A.; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle handling and stability are very important at high speeds especially when the vehicle has a weight of about 6 times a normal luxury passenger car as in the case of the Superbus which travels at 250kph. In this paper the high speed performance of the Superbus will be analyzed. First the model

  14. Baseline Testing of The EV Global E-Bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption and reduce Operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done Linder the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W. electric hub motor and a 7-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  15. Energy cost and mechanical efficiency of riding a human-powered recumbent bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Carlo; Ardigo, Luca Paolo; Schena, Federico; Zamparo, Paola

    2008-10-01

    When dealing with human-powered vehicles, it is important to quantify the capability of converting metabolic energy in useful mechanical work by measuring mechanical efficiency. In this study, net mechanical efficiency (eta) of riding a recumbent bicycle on flat terrain and at constant speeds (v, 5.1-10.0 m/s) was calculated dividing mechanical work (w, J/m) by the corresponding energy cost (C(c), J/m). w and C(c) increased linearly with the speed squared: w = 9.41 + 0.156 . v(2); C(c) = 39.40 + 0.563 . v(2). eta was equal to 0.257 +/- 0.0245, i.e. identical to that of concentric muscular contraction. Hence, i) eta seems unaffected by the biomechanical arrangement of the human-vehicle system; ii) the efficiency of transmission seems to be close to 100%, suggesting that the particular biomechanical arrangement does not impair the transformation of metabolic energy in mechanical work. When dealing with human-powered vehicles, it is important to quantify mechanical efficiency (eta) of locomotion. eta of riding a recumbent bicycle was calculated dividing the mechanical work to the corresponding energy cost of locomotion; it was practically identical to that of concentric muscular contraction (0.257 +/- 0.0245), suggesting that the power transmission from muscles to pedals is unaffected by the biomechanical arrangement of the vehicle.

  16. 考虑俯仰振动的摩托车平顺性多目标优化%Multi-objective Optimization for Motorcycle Ride Comfort with Consideration of Pitching Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中明; 杨建国; 张志飞; 李仕生

    2012-01-01

    采用摩托车动力学专用软件BikeSim建立了摩托车整车模型,先在B级路面和路面脉冲输入两种工况下分别对整车平顺性进行了仿真;后又以俯仰和垂向振动加速度均方根值最小化为目标,以悬架特性参数为设计变量,采用iSIGHT为优化平台,集成BikeSim和MATLAB进行了多目标优化,得到了Pareto前沿.优化后的俯仰与垂向振动的曲线与数据和优化前仿真结果的对比表明,摩托车平顺性得到了改善.%A Model for motorcycle is established with the motorcycle dynamics software BikeSim, and the simulations on motorcycle ride comfort are conducted under two conditions of B-grade road stochastic and pulse excitations. Then with minimizing the acceleration root-mean-square values of both pitching and vertical vibrations as objectives, the characteristic parameters of suspension as design variables, and iSIGHT as platform integrating BikeSim and MATLAB, a multi-objective optimization is performed with Pareto frontier obtained. The results of comparison between the curves and data of pitching and vertical vibrations before optimization and related simulation results before optimization indicate that the ride comfort of motorcycle is improved.

  17. A tale of 2 continents and 4 cities about the inuence of demographics and social constraints on ride-sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Cici, Blerim; Laoutaris, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    Ride-sharing on the daily home-work-home commute can help individuals save on gasoline and other car-related costs, while at the same time reduce traffic and pollution. This paper presents a quantitative study of the potential of ride-sharing in two European and two US cities based on mobility data extracted from 3G Call Description Records (CDRs) and Online Social Networks (OSN) geo-tagging. We start with ride-sharing among neighbors for which we derive up- per bounds based on the assumption that commutes occur synchronously and that any passenger can be matched with any driver. We show that a small detour distance of 0.8 Km leads to an impressive 55% reduction of traffic. This value reduces to 26% for asynchronous commutes and a pick-up tolerance of 10 minutes. The latter result can be improved to 47% by permitting additional passengers to be picked-up en-route using e.g., smartphone apps. We then introduce social constraints on the relationship between drivers and passengers. Riding only with immediate fri...

  18. Come on and take a free ride : Contributing to public goods in native and foreign language settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbig, D.; Terjesen, S.; Procher, V.; Muhlfeld, K.S.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2016-01-01

    Business schools around the world must prepare their students for two realities: operating in an English-speaking business world and working in teams. As yet, there is limited understanding of how operating in a native or a foreign language impacts students' propensity to free ride in group settings

  19. Crossing Reliability of Electric Bike Riders at Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Mei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a crossing reliability model of electric bike riders at urban intersections using survival analysis approach. Riders’ crossing behavior was collected by video cameras. Waiting times in the red-light phase were modeled by reliability-based model that recognizes the covariate effects. Three parametric models by the exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic distributions were proposed to analyze when and why electric bike riders cross against the red light. The results indicate that movement information and situation factors have significant effects on riders’ crossing reliability. The findings of this paper provide an important demonstration of method and an empirical basis to assess crossing reliability of electric bike riders at the intersection.

  20. Effects of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 normal adults and divided them into two groups: an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n = 12) and a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n = 12). [Methods] IHREG exercised on indoor horseback riding equipment and VREG exercised using the Nintendo Wii Fit three times a week for six weeks. The Biodex Balance System was used to analyze dynamic balance as measured by the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). [Results] In the within-group comparison, IHREG and VERG both showed significant decreases in the dynamic balance indexes of OSI, APSI, and MLSI after the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the groups. [Conclusion] Both indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises were effective at improving the subjects' dynamic balance ability as measured by OSI, APSI, and MLSI, and can be used as additional exercises for patients with conditions affecting postural control. PMID:25540494

  1. Free Riding or Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Nilsson, Jerker

    2011-01-01

    . These competing explanations refer to the theory of collective action and the social capital paradigm, respectively, and may be linked to the classical Gesellschaft and Gemeinschaft concepts. Hence, one may expect free-rider behavior when conditions of Gesellschaft exist and trustful behavior when Gemeinschaft...... conditions rule. These propositions get support from five studies of members’ readership of their cooperatives’ annual reports. In large and heterogeneous memberships there is free-riding behavior, which explains the members’ low interest in governing their cooperatives. To a limited extent a membership may...

  2. Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    2003-01-01

    excess ride time and allowed deviation from desired service time. All vehicles start and end at a depot, which can be different for each vehicle. The fleet of vehicles is heterogeneous meaning the vehicles can have a different capacity of passenger seats, wheelchairs and beds. The problem...... related to a generalization of capacity to include substitution of seats to wheelchairs and beds, but also extensions to the objective to give a better view of passenger comfort are included. To enable practical use of the algorithm, it is incorporated in the developed user interface and linked...

  3. Effects of therapeutic horse riding on gait cycle parameters and some aspects of behavior of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, H; Kertesz, Zs

    2015-09-01

    We studied effects of therapeutic riding on the development of children with autism. Experiments in walking is appropriate for assessing the coordination of movement and for following the changes. We found that therapeutic riding should be considered as a new form of rehabilitation. Twenty-six pupils (12 boys and 14 girls) of a special needs school participated in therapeutic riding. We analyzed walking twice during a school-term: full body analyses each time before and after one-month therapy. The research included a non-riding control group. All together 104 analyses were performed. We measured mental skills using Pedagogical Analysis and Curriculum (PAC) test consisting of four parts being communication, self care, motor skills and socialization. The Gait Cycle Analysis consists of the time-series analysis, the analysis of part of the gait cycle and the measurement of joint angles in each plane. We found significant differences between before and after the therapy in the length of the gait cycle that became more stable in the sagital plane and concluded that our results proved that horse therapy may be successfully used as an additional therapy for children with autism, and it may be a form of rehabilitation in cases when other therapies are not successful.

  4. Improving Vehicle Ride and Handling Using LQG CNF Fusion Control Strategy for an Active Antiroll Bar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a comparison of performance for an active antiroll bar (ARB system using two types of control strategy. First of all, the LQG control strategy is investigated and then a novel LQG CNF fusion control method is developed to improve the performances on vehicle ride and handling for an active antiroll bar system. However, the ARB system has to balance the trade-off between ride and handling performance, where the CNF consists of a linear feedback law and a nonlinear feedback law. Typically, the linear feedback is designed to yield a quick response at the initial stage, while the nonlinear feedback law is used to smooth out overshoots in the system output when it approaches the target reference. The half car model is combined with a linear single track model with roll dynamics which are used for the analysis and simulation of ride and handling. The performances of the control strategies are compared and the simulation results show the LQG CNF fusion improves the performances in vehicle ride and handling.

  5. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety : speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists. Paper presented at the International Cycling Safety Conference 2013, Helmond, The Netherland, 20-21 November 2013.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Boele, M.J. Vlakveld, W.P. Christoph, M. Sikkema, R. Remij, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed

  6. Air cooling effect of fins on a Honda shine bike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhiyar Abhesinh J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main of aim of this work is to study various researches done in past to improve heat transfer rate of cooling fins by changing cylinder block fin geometry. Low rate of heat transfer through cooling fins is the main problem in this type of cooling. So efficiency of the engine is increase by increase the heat transfer. Examples of direct air cooling in modern automobiles are rare. The most common example is the commercials Automobile bike like a Honda Shine, Bajaj bike, Honda splendor etc. It is conclude about shape try to this fins is more effectively heat transfer in Honda shine bike compare to existing fins. After FEA Analysis it checking on fin whether efficiency of heat transfer increases or not. This work validation with Experimental and Mathematical.

  7. Use of salivary cortisol to evaluate the influence of rides in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Korver, Wendy; Burness, Gary

    2015-01-15

    Animals in captivity and in the wild face numerous challenges, including the risk of enduring acute or chronic stress. In captivity, facilities attempt to alleviate the risk of chronic stress by providing environmental enrichment, shown to minimize behavioral disorders and stress in several species. One potential form of enrichment in zoos is training animals to provide rides for guests, however, the effect of this activity on the welfare of individual animals has never been examined. We validated the use of saliva for assessing stress in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), an animal commonly used for rides. We then measured variation in salivary cortisol in four male camels while providing rides of differing frequency for guests at the Toronto Zoo. The camels were sampled during the ride season (June to September) using four treatments: (1) in their pasture, (2) at the ride area when not performing rides, (3) while providing a low number of rides (n=50/day) and (4) while providing a high number of rides (n=150/day). Furthermore, samples were taken before and after the ride season for comparison. There was a significant difference between the post-ride season treatment and the three treatments involving guest presence during the ride season (ride area, low rides, high rides). In general, cortisol concentrations were lower during the ride season and higher during the non-ride season. Based on the metrics we used, performing rides is not a stressful experience for these dromedary camels and suggests that rides may be a form of enrichment. PMID:25452030

  8. Off grid charging station for electric bike

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Martín, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to design and understand a system for charging the battery of an electric bike in an off-grid station which obtains this energy from the sun the wind and human work. To make possible the fact of using these sources of energy the system will consist on the integration of three different parts which are the solar panel the wind turbine and a motor used as generator that transforms the movement coming from legs into electricity. Eventually the three p...

  9. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  10. Long distance bicycle riding causes prostate-specific antigen to increase in men aged 50 years and over.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Mejak

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether bicycle riding alters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA serum concentrations in healthy older men. METHODS: 129 male participants, ranging in age from 50 to 71 years (mean 55 years, rode in a recreational group bicycle ride of between 55 and 160 kilometers. Blood samples for tPSA analysis were drawn within 60 minutes before starting, and within 5 minutes after completing the ride. The pre-cycling and post-cycling tPSA values were log transformed for normality and compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between changes in tPSA with age and distance cycled. RESULTS: Bicycle riding caused tPSA to increase by an average of 9.5% (95% CI = 6.1-12.9; p<0.001 or 0.23 ng/ml. The number of participants with an elevated tPSA (using the standard PSA normal range cut-off of 4.0 ng/ml increased from two pre-cycle to six post-cycle (or from five to eight when using age-based normal ranges. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that the change in tPSA was positively correlated with age and the distance cycled. CONCLUSIONS: Cycling causes an average 9.5% increase in tPSA, in healthy male cyclists ≥50 years old, when measured within 5 minutes post cycling. We considered the increase clinically significant as the number of participants with an elevated PSA, according to established cut-offs, increased post-ride. Based on the research published to date, the authors suggest a 24-48 hour period of abstinence from cycling and ejaculation before a PSA test, to avoid spurious results.

  11. Long Distance Bicycle Riding Causes Prostate-Specific Antigen to Increase in Men Aged 50 Years and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejak, Sandra L.; Bayliss, Julianne; Hanks, Shayne D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether bicycle riding alters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) serum concentrations in healthy older men. Methods 129 male participants, ranging in age from 50 to 71 years (mean 55 years), rode in a recreational group bicycle ride of between 55 and 160 kilometers. Blood samples for tPSA analysis were drawn within 60 minutes before starting, and within 5 minutes after completing the ride. The pre-cycling and post-cycling tPSA values were log transformed for normality and compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between changes in tPSA with age and distance cycled. Results Bicycle riding caused tPSA to increase by an average of 9.5% (95% CI = 6.1–12.9; p<0.001) or 0.23 ng/ml. The number of participants with an elevated tPSA (using the standard PSA normal range cut-off of 4.0 ng/ml) increased from two pre-cycle to six post-cycle (or from five to eight when using age-based normal ranges). Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that the change in tPSA was positively correlated with age and the distance cycled. Conclusions Cycling causes an average 9.5% increase in tPSA, in healthy male cyclists ≥50 years old, when measured within 5 minutes post cycling. We considered the increase clinically significant as the number of participants with an elevated PSA, according to established cut-offs, increased post-ride. Based on the research published to date, the authors suggest a 24–48 hour period of abstinence from cycling and ejaculation before a PSA test, to avoid spurious results. PMID:23418500

  12. Generation of ride comfort index

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Solano, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to obtain a ride comfort index of a vehicle. This parameter shall be representative of the vibration received by the human body during the ride. The comfort, as we understand, is the sensation which comes from vehicle dynamics and not from the luxury cabin. Initially the comfort evaluation of the cars was done subjectively. The driver-tester exposed his own feelings when he tested the car on a random circuit and compared with other vehicles that he tes...

  13. Electric Bike Use in China and Their Impacts on the Environment, Safety, Mobility and Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Chinese cities have a long legacy of bicycle use due to relatively low incomes, dense urban development, and short trip lengths. Because of tremendous economic growth resulting in increased motorization and spatial expansion of cities, trips are becoming longer and more difficult to make by bicycle. As a result, electric powered twowheelers have risen in popularity over the past five years. Touted as environmentally friendly vehicles, they are capable of traveling 450 kilometers on a single c...

  14. Using Video Feedback to Improve Horseback-Riding Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Heather; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study used video feedback to improve the horseback-riding skills of advanced beginning riders. We focused on 3 skill sets: those used in jumping over obstacles, dressage riding on the flat, and jumping position riding on the flat. Baseline consisted of standard lesson procedures. Intervention consisted of video feedback in which a recorded…

  15. Team Size and Effort in Start-Up-Teams – Another Consequence of Free-Riding and Peer Pressure in Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Uschi Backes-Gellner; Arndt Werner; Alwine Mohnen

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether effort provision in entrepreneurial teams depends on the size of the team, assuming that size determines the strength of free-riding and peer pressure effects in entrepreneurial teams. We provide a theoretical model and empirical analyses to explain the joint effect of free-riding and peer pressure on effort in start-up teams. We begin with an economic model by Kandel and Lazear (1992) and enrich it using insights from entrepreneurship research. Based on our model,...

  16. Barriers and Facilitators for Generalizing Cycling Skills Learned at Camp to Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A; Purves, P Lynn; Misovic, Robyn; Lewis, Coral J; DeBoer, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Many children with disabling conditions do not acquire the skills to successfully ride a 2-wheeled bicycle. The aim was to describe cycling patterns before and after an innovative learn-to-ride bike camp and factors that facilitate or hinder the generalization of skills developed at camp to home. Parents and children participated in semistructured interviews 3-4 mo postcamp. Transcripts were examined deductively for participation and contextual influences using a template of codes approach. None of the children were successfully riding a 2-wheeled bicycle before camp. Two patterns of participation were evident from narrative descriptions of postcamp riding: "riders" and "not there yet." Major facilitating factors were the camp itself, the interaction between the camp and the health service, and continued parent involvement. The program transferred well to home for children who were riding independently on the last day of camp. Ongoing support is needed for children "not there yet."

  17. Metabolic and kinematic effects of self-selected Q Factor during bike fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disley, Benedict Xavier; Li, Francois-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Correct bicycle fit is important, and kinematic instability must be addressed to reduce the risk of knee injury. A change in Q Factor (horizontal distance between crank arms) has been shown to decrease metabolic cost. The combined effect upon gross mechanical efficiency (GME) and knee variability is unclear, however; there is no known simple method to predict self-selected Q Factor (SSQ). The SSQ was hypothesized to provide the greatest GME and least variability at the knee. Ten trained cyclists completed bouts of submaximal cycling at a range of Q Factors. The effectiveness of hanging and stepping tasks as predictors of SSQ was also tested. Measured SSQ (142 mm) provided the best combination of GME and knee stability compared with other Q Factors, and could be accurately predicted using a simple hanging task. The SSQ has the potential to lower the risk of knee injury and provide increased efficiency whilst cycling.

  18. An MCDA approach for the selection of bike projects based on structuring and appraising activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an MCDA approach for the structuring and appraising activities of a large and complex decision problem. More specifically, the paper makes use of the three-step structuring process for decision analysis proposed by von Winterfeldt and Edwards: 1) identifying the problem; 2....... The process is embedded in a decision support system (DSS) making use of the REMBRANDT technique for pair wise comparisons to determine project rankings. A procedure for limiting the number of pair wise comparisons to be made in the process is in this connection presented. Finally, strengths and weaknesses...

  19. 75 FR 32806 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Upright and Recumbent Exercise Bikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... correspondence of September 1, 2009, resubmitted January 19, 2010, forwarded to us by the National Import... bicycle was assembled in Taiwan and one of the bicycle's most significant components, the frame, was made in Taiwan, the country of origin of the bicycle was Taiwan. Although the other components came...

  20. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    2005-01-01

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as w

  1. Changes in heart rate, arrhythmia frequency, and cardiac biomarker values in horses during recovery after a long-distance endurance ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Flethøj; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Haugaard, Maria Mathilde;

    2016-01-01

    and SDNN was decreased during the recovery versus preride period. Frequency of ventricular premature complexes increased during recovery, albeit not significantly, whereas frequency of supraventricular premature complexes was not significantly different between preride and recovery periods. Serum cardiac......-km endurance ride. PROCEDURES: ECG recordings were obtained from each horse before (preride) and after (recovery) an endurance ride to evaluate changes in heart rate and the SD of normal R-R intervals (SDNN) during the initial 12 hours of recovery. Frequencies of supraventricular and ventricular...... premature complexes before and after the ride were evaluated. Blood samples were obtained before the ride and twice during recovery. Hematologic analyses included measurement of serum cardiac troponin I concentration and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity. RESULTS: Heart rate was significantly increased...

  2. [Riding therapy in the rehabilitation of mobility-impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Helena; Kela, Katri; Sätilä, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Riding therapy is a comprehensive and functional form of rehabilitation, in which the rehabilitee, the horse and the riding therapist collaborate in order to achieve individually assigned goals that support rehabilitation. In Finland, riding therapy is therapeutic rehabilitation carried out by riding therapists who have undergone approved training. The therapy is mainly implemented in an individual form, but small group working is also applied, e.g. in the form of pair therapy and therapeutic vaulting. In Europe, this form of rehabilitation has been divided into hippotherapy supporting motor functions and heilpedagogical riding therapy functioning in support of upbringing.

  3. Genetic correlations between performance traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2007-01-01

    Results of mare performance tests in the field (MPT-F) of 10,949 mares, mare performance tests at station (MPT-S) of 1,712 mares, and inspections of horses intended for sale at riding horse auctions (AU) of 4,772 horses were used to investigate genetic correlations between corresponding performance traits. Mare performance tests were held in 1995 to 2004 and auction inspections in 1999 to 2004. Scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for gaits under rider (walk, trot, canter), rideability (evaluated by judging commission and test rider), free-jumping (ability, style, total), and character. Radiography results of 5,102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used to investigate genetic correlations between performance traits and particular radiographic findings. The radiographic findings included osseous fragments in fetlock and hock joints, deforming arthropathy in hock joints, and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones, which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones, which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on the horses radiographed and their contemporaries (n = 18,609). Heritability of performance traits ranged between 0.14 and 0.61, and heritability of radiographic findings between 0.14 and 0.33. Additive genetic correlations between corresponding performance traits were close to unity for MPT-F and MPT-S, ranged from 0.81 to 0.90 for MPT-F and AU, and were 0.75 to 0.92 for MPT-S and AU. Genetic correlations between performance and radiography results were mostly close to zero. Indications of negative additive genetic correlations were observed for deforming arthropathy in hock joints and canter, rideability evaluated by test rider, jumping traits and character, and osseous fragments in hock joints and character. Selection of horses for radiological health of their limbs will assist further genetic

  4. IMPORTANT INFORMATION - Flagstaff Car-Park and Park-and-Ride (P+R)

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    As part of the new arrangements following the arrival of the tram-line at CERN, an Automatic Number-Plate Recognition (ANPR) system has been installed restricting access to the Flagstaff Car-park and the Park-and-Ride (P+R) zone according to the conditions set out below: Holders of a valid P+R user card may enter the car-park at all hours but may only park in the area specifically designated as the P+R zone. P+R user cards can be purchased from the Fondation des Parkings de Genève (http://www.ge.ch/parkings/abonnements.html)   Members of CERN personnel and of contractors' personnel, whatever their status, may freely access the Flagstaff Car-Park at all hours, as long as their vehicle is duly registered with CERN, but they may not use the P+R zone, which is reserved for holders of P+R user cards. Please check that your vehicle number-plates are properly registered via AdaMS (http://cern.ch/adams). If this is not the case, the following action must be taken: - for private or co...

  5. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  6. The force output of handle and pedal in different bicycle-riding postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Wu, Yu-Kuang; Chan, Ming-Sheng; Shih, Yo; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the force output of handle and pedal as well as the electromyography (EMG) of lower extremity in different cycling postures. Bilateral pedalling asymmetry indices of force and EMG were also determined in this study. Twelve healthy cyclists were recruited for this study and tested for force output and EMG during steady state cycling adopting different pedalling and handle bar postures. The standing posture increased the maximal stepping torque (posture 1: 204.2 ± 47.0 Nm; posture 2: 212.5 ± 46.1 Nm; posture 3: 561.5 ± 143.0 Nm; posture 4: 585.5 ± 139.1 Nm), stepping work (posture 1: 655.2 ± 134.6 Nm; posture 2: 673.2 ± 116.3 Nm; posture 3: 1852.3 ± 394.4 Nm; posture 4: 1911.3 ± 432.9 Nm), and handle force (posture 1: 16.6 ± 3.6 N; posture 2: 16.4 ± 3.6 N; posture 3: 26.5 ± 8.2 N; posture 4: 41.4 ± 11.1 N), as well as muscle activation (posture 1: 13.6-25.1%; posture 2: 13.0-23.9%; posture 3: 23.6-61.8%; posture 4: 22.5-65.8%) in the erector spine, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and soleus. However, neither a sitting nor a standing riding posture affected the hamstring. The riding asymmetry was detected between the right and left legs only in sitting conditions. When a cyclist changes posture from sitting to standing, the upper and lower extremities are forced to produce more force output because of the shift in body weight. These findings suggest that cyclists can switch between sitting and standing postures during competition to increase cycling efficiency in different situations. Furthermore, coaches and trainers can modify sitting and standing durations to moderate cycling intensity, without concerning unbalanced muscle development. PMID:26967311

  7. Buffer scheme with battery energy storage capability for enhancement of network transient stability and load ride-through

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.Y.; Vilathgamuwa, D.M.; Choi, S.S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2008-05-01

    This paper examines a buffer scheme to mitigate the negative impacts of power-conditioned loads on network voltage and transient stabilities. The scheme is based on the use of battery energy-storage systems in the buffers. The storage systems ensure that protected loads downstream of the buffers can ride through upstream voltage sags and swells. Also, by controlling the buffers to operate in either constant impedance or constant power modes, power is absorbed or injected by the storage systems. The scheme thereby regulates the rotor-angle deviations of generators and enhances network transient stability. A computational method is described in which the capacity of the storage systems is determined to achieve simultaneously the above dual objectives of load ride-through and stability enhancement. The efficacy of the resulting scheme is demonstrated through numerical examples. (author)

  8. Trails, Hiking, Bike trails in Johnson County maintained by Johnson County Parks and Recreation Department, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Hiking dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. It is described as 'Bike trails in Johnson County...

  9. The effects of hippotherapy and a horse riding simulator on the balance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Kim, Seong Gil; Na, Sang Su

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] We with respect to their effects on the compared hippotherapy with a horseback riding simulator (JOBA, Panasonic Inc. JP) static and dynamic balance of children with cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six children were randomly divided into two groups: a hippotherapy group that included 13 children, and a horseback riding simulator (JOBA, Panasonic Inc., Japan) group, which was also composed of 13 children. The two groups participated in 1 hour of exercise per day, 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. The subjects' static balance ability was measured using BPM (software 5.3, SMS Healthcare Inc., UK) as the center of pressure sway length while standing for 30 seconds with their eyes open and looking to the front. Dynamic balance ability was measured using the PBS (Pediatric Balance Scale). [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in static and dynamic balance but significant differences between the two groups were not found. [Conclusion] The horseback riding simulator could be a useful alternative to hippotherapy for the improvement of static and dynamic balance of children with CP.

  10. Factors of the safety in bicycle traffic in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in underlying factors of Zagreb cycling, compared to the "types of cyclists" (driving style, i.e. different ways of using bicycles as a means of transport. The study included over 3,000 frequent participants in urban traffic cycling, sample of members of the association Cyclist Union (N = 1259 and snowball sample of "typical" of cyclists, i.e. people who are using the bike, but are not the members of the Cyclist Union (N = 1831, using the conveniently assembled questionnaire. Study participants who bike used in various applications prefer the safest driving style (only on sidewalks and bike paths / lines. Barriers of the weather conditions are ubiquitous in the safest driving style. Daily, weekly and yearly riding a bicycle are more often found in those who prefer the safest driving style. Cyclists who drive with medium secure style (roads with less traffic and lower speeds, more often ride a bike, as compared with those who prefer the safest driving style. Having a better bike line / track and other infrastructure is the most often considered at those with the highest risk driving style. The results provide the guidance for local authorities and for the cyclists to improve the conditions for a safer and more often by bicycle circulation in the City of Zagreb and its surroundings.

  11. Rapid weight-loss impairs simulated riding performance and strength in jockeys: implications for making-weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George; Hawken, Malcolm B; Poole, Ian; Sparks, Andy; Bennett, Simon; Drust, Barry; Morton, James; Close, Graeme L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the performance concerns of dehydration in other sports, there are currently no data on the effects of rapid weight-loss on the physical and cognitive performance of jockeys in a sport-specific context. In a randomised crossover design, eight Great Britain (GB) male licensed jockeys were assessed for chest strength, leg strength, simulated riding performance (assessed by maximum pushing frequency on a mechanical riding simulator during the final two furlongs of a simulated 2 mile race) and simple reaction time after performing 45 min of exercise, during which euhydration was maintained (Control trial) or induced 2% dehydration (Rapid Weight-Loss trial). Reductions in both chest (-13.8 ± 3.03% vs. 0.62 ± 1.04%) and leg strength (-4.8 ± 4.8% vs. -0.56 ± 2.5%) were greater in Rapid Weight-Loss compared with Control (P performance were also greater (P = 0.05) in Rapid Weight-Loss (-2.8 ± 4.0%) compared with Control (-0.07 ± 1.5%), whereas there were no significant changes (P = 0.14) in simple reaction time. We conclude that a 2% reduction in body mass, as achieved by 45 min of moderate-intensity exercise undertaken in a sweatsuit (a common method of inducing acute dehydration by jockeys), significantly impairs maximum pushing frequency during a simulated race. In addition, the observed reductions in strength may also increase the occupational hazards associated with race riding.

  12. Acceleration and Rotation in a Pendulum Ride, Measured Using an iPhone 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rohlen, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Many modern cell phones have built-in sensors that may be used as a resource for physics education. Amusement rides offer examples of many different types of motion, where the acceleration leads to forces experienced throughout the body. A comoving 3D-accelerometer gives an electronic measurement of the varying forces acting on the rider, but a…

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  14. Come muoversi a Roma con il trasporto pubblico e il Bike Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ieradi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The public transport-bike sharing integration in RomeBased on the success in Rome due to the launch of its bike sharing service (on June 13, 2008, ATAC (Rome Mobility Agency designed and implemented the integration of paths that connect the 19 bike sharing collection points, located in the heart of Rome, with the public transport network. The resulting database has been included in a new version of the Journey Planner service, Infopoint, already available on the ATAC website, which gives users the opportunity to calculate an itinerary with public transport and if possible to combine the public transport with the bike sharing schedule.

  15. Bike Racing Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  16. Buses, Bikes or Boots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEAL

    2010-01-01

    @@ If you have been in Beijing for any length of time, you will have come to realize that there are several modes of trans-portation available to commuters, all of them relatively inexpensive, especially when compared to fares in the Western world. The choice is not only a matter of frugality, but also of convenience, comfort and speed.

  17. Bike2Work 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Herterich, Patricia Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    To celebrate the success of the 97 CERN teams, the participants gathered on Thursday 19th June at lunchtime for a "CERN critical mass". The bicyclists started at Restaurant 2 and cruised around the Meyrin site terminating with a photo session outside Restaurant 1. The colleagues based in Prevessin made a "pre-parade" to join their colleagues in Meyrin.

  18. Bike2Work 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)439147

    2015-01-01

    To celebrate the success of the 126 CERN teams (to be compared to the 97 teams of the year before), the participants gathered on Tuesday 23rd June at lunchtime for a "CERN critical mass". The bicyclists started at Restaurant 2 and cruised around the Meyrin site terminating with a photo session outside Restaurant 1. The colleagues based in Prevessin made a "pre-parade" to join their colleagues in Meyrin. The parade was escorted by the CERN Fire Brigade.

  19. Riding the Yield Curve: Reprise

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Grieves; Marcus, Alan J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the efficacy of riding the yield curve. This strategy dictates holding longer-term treasury bills when the yield curve is upwardsloping. We find that the strategy is surprisingly effective. it stochastically dominates buying and holding shorter-term bills for large subperiods, and nearly dominates for the entire sample period, 1949-1988. Our empirical results suggest that abnormal profit opportunities are available from selectively increasing the maturity of a short-term portfo...

  20. Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

  1. Urban Design Interventions Towards a Bike Friendly City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    , it was possible to identify the design qualities of the intervention and the impacts of the intervention in the travel behavior of the cyclists. A conjugation of sources of data was used: questionnaires, interviews with key actors, visual analysis of the site, counting, etc. The findings highlight important......This paper`s goal is to present findings of the research project titled Bikeability, funded by the Danish Research Council, concerning the investigation of how Urban Design interventions in consolidated urban areas can promote cycling – with a special focus on alterations in the urban fabric...... and design qualities of the streetscape. The research focuses on a bike infrastructure with a distinct typology: Hans Broges Gade in Aarhus where a dedicated bike lane function as an extension of a bicycle route linking the suburb to Aarhus Central Station. Based on the data collected and analyzed...

  2. Coordination between Fault-Ride-Through Capability and Over-current Protection of DFIG Generators for Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Kawady, T.A.; Abdel-Rahman, Mansour Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Fault Ride-Through (FRT) capabilities set up according to the grid codes may affect the performance of related protective elements during fault periods. Therefore, in this paper the coordination between the FRT capability and over-current protection of DFIG Wind Generators in MV networks is...... investigated. Simulation test cases using MATLAB-Simulink are implemented on a 365-MW wind farm in AL-Zaafarana, Egypt. The simulation results show the influence of the FRT capability on the protective relaying coordination in wind farms, showing that the FRT may work in situations where is were expected not...

  3. Design of energy generation system by using spinning bikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, J.; Núñes, C.; Osma, G.; Ordóñez, G.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a system that generates energy by using the work done by a crew on a spinning bike. The builded system is configured by two subsystems: connection and injection of real-time power to the grid connection and power isolation for specific loads. The first subsystem will have twelve (12) units and the second will have six (6) units.

  4. Fancy a ride?

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    This Sunday 7 September, don’t miss your chance to climb into a supercar, one of those exceptional machines that tear up the tracks and that you sometimes hear revving their engines on the motorway. The 2014 supercar experience day, organised by members of CERN, will allow car lovers to go for a ride in style and all for a good cause!   Supercars at the 2013 experience day. Photo: Kevin Mazzilli. If you have always dreamt of sitting in a Ferrari, feeling the vibrations of a Lamborghini, or losing yourself in the hushed calm of a classic car, don’t miss the supercar experience day taking place on Sunday, 7 September! This event has been organised by CERN’s own car enthusiasts, in collaboration with the charity Kumansansa – Children of Zambia, founded by two CERN members. It will take place for the third consecutive year in the car park of the Macumba leisure centre in Saint-Julien-en-Genevois (France). From 9.30 a.m. to 6 p.m., visitors old and young (c...

  5. Talk, Mobility and Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    The intersection of the quotidian practices of social interaction, learning and mobility outside of the classroom – for example, the ways in which talk shapes how children learn to be actively mobile – has been little studied until recently. This paper develops a social interactional approach...... to analysing talk and mobile action in what are arguably two quintessentially Nordic mobility practices, namely cycling and skiing. More specifically the focus is on investigating and comparing how a child learns to cycle in a bike-friendly urban infrastructure, and how a child learns to ski cross......-country, both within the context of familial social interaction. Audiovisual data was collected with mobile video cameras from family bike rides in Denmark and family skiing in Finland, in which among other things a parent instructs and guides a child to bike or to ski. Using an EMCA approach, the analysis...

  6. Bringing Bike Share to a Low-Income Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-14

    This podcast is an interview with Sarah Kretman Stewart, MPH, MEd, Healthy Living Minneapolis Project Specialist at the Minneapolis Health Department. In this program, Sarah talks about the impact a bike share program had on the low-income town of Near North, Minnesota.  Created: 8/14/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/14/2013.

  7. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenherg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX as an update of the state of the art in hybrid electric bicycles. The E-bike is seen as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The SX is a high performance, state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the SX's 36 V power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W, electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the SX, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the SX provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  8. Bike2Work 2016 is over – keep on pedalling!

    CERN Document Server

    Kathryn Coldham

    2016-01-01

    142 CERN teams cycled more than twice around the Earth in the thirteenth year of Switzerland’s Bike2Work initiative.   Teams cycle to work at CERN’s Meyrin site in June, as part of Bike2Work 2016. (Image: Sophia Bennett/CERN) A record number of 142 CERN teams battled June rain to achieve ninth place in this year’s SwissBike2Work competition, in terms of the number of participating teams. Close to 54,000 employees from more than 1700 companies and organisations took part in this annual, national campaign, launched in 2004. It aims to encourage commuters to grab a helmet and travel on two wheels, improving fitness and reducing congestion on the roads. Overall, the CERN teams cycled 97,091 kilometres; amounting to a 15,000 kg reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, compared to what would have been produced by cars. A 15% participation rate also placed us third among companies with 1000-5000 employees. Both the École polytechnique féd&e...

  9. Bike to work”, a successful motto

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2012-01-01

    In June 2012, Switzerland launched a “Bike to work” campaign in which several tens of thousands took part. CERN personnel also took up the challenge.   "Bike to work" participants, 21 June 2012. The purpose of the campaign was to encourage the employees of Swiss companies to bike to work in June. Grouped into teams of four, no fewer than 50,000 cyclists accepted the challenge and clocked up a total of 6.8 million kilometres, 171 times the circumference of the Earth, thereby reducing CO2 emissions by 1088 tonnes (calculation basis: 160g CO2/km, for a small-cylinder car). At CERN, 316 people took part in this initiative, which was supported by the Medical Service. With their car left in the garage and their feet on the pedals, the CERN participants alone clocked up over  58,000 kilometres. The result was less stress - fortunately no accidents - less pollution, and a strong request for more cycle lanes! To build on this promising initial enthusia...

  10. Reminder: Bike safety – e-learning module still available!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    The “Safe bike riding” e-learning module offered by the Safety Training Section of the HSE Unit is designed for anyone who uses a bike on the CERN site.   The course, which takes around 10 minutes to complete, can be accessed via the SIR application. It presents safety information, such as the road traffic rules, and practical advice, such as the appropriate safety equipment to wear and to have fitted to your bike. Regarding the rules, we would like to remind you that CERN's Safety Code A7 applies to cyclists as well as motorists.  The training module was created by the accident prevention service of the HSE Unit after it was noticed that the number of occupational accidents involving cyclists had been constantly increasing since 2008, with a rise from about 20 in 2009 to about 50 in 2013. Since its launch in September 2013, the course has been taken by more than 670 people. It can be completed at any time, in either English or French. The Safety T...

  11. A Novel Wind Turbine Concept Based on an Electromagnetic Coupler and the Study of Its Fault Ride-through Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui You

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel type of variable speed wind turbine with a new drive train different from the variable speed wind turbine commonly used nowadays. In this concept, a synchronous generator is directly coupled with the grid, therefore, the wind turbine transient overload capability and grid voltage support capability can be significantly improved. An electromagnetic coupling speed regulating device (EMCD is used to connect the gearbox high speed shaft and synchronous generator rotor shaft, transmitting torque to the synchronous generator, while decoupling the gearbox side and the synchronous generator, so the synchronous generator torque oscillations during a grid fault are not transmitted to the gearbox. The EMCD is composed of an electromagnetic coupler and a one quadrant operation converter with reduced capability and low cost. A control strategy for the new wind turbine is proposed and a 2 MW wind turbine model is built to study the wind turbine fault ride-through capability. An integrated simulation environment based on the aeroelastic code HAWC2 and software Matlab/Simulink is used to study its fault ride-through capability and the impact on the structural loads during grid three phase and two phase short circuit faults.

  12. Chronic subdural haematoma after riding a roller coaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakami, Iwao; Mine, Seiichiro; Yamaura, Akira; Fukutake, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    We report a 20-year-old man who developed a chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) after riding a "giant" roller coaster. The patient had a past history of a subdural hygroma, diagnosed six weeks after a motorcycle accident. Three months after this accident, he rode on a roller coaster, but suffered no direct head trauma during the ride. Three weeks later, he developed a CSDH requiring surgical evacuation. Roller coaster riding, associated with high velocities and extreme acceleration/deceleration forces is a modern cause of CSDH in the young, which may be increasing due to ever-faster rides. PMID:15639420

  13. It Wasn't Me! Visibility and Free Riding in Waste Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Bucciol; Natalia Montinari; Marco Piovesan; Jean-Robert Tyran

    2014-01-01

    Free riding problems can be more severe in multiple-person social dilemmas than in two-person dilemmas, since agents can hide their actions behind the veil of anonymity. In this paper, we use field data on waste sorting to study the effect of visibility in social dilemmas. We compare the sorting behavior of households sharing (or not) their bin for unsorted waste. Since households have to pay a fee proportional to their unsorted waste production, sharing the bin means sharing the fee. We find...

  14. Trails, Bike, This layer contains data for existing & proposed on-street bicycle facilities, such as bike lanes, sharrows, and signed routes. The layer is derived from the Baltimore City street centerline., Published in 2010, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, City of Baltimore.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale as of 2010. It is described as 'This layer contains data for existing in a Not Sure projection;...

  15. Trails, Bike, Greenprints Proposed Bike Lanes, Published in 2008, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, City of Woodstock.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 2008. It is described as 'Greenprints Proposed Bike Lanes'. Data by this publisher are often...

  16. Trails, Bike, Bike Trail, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'Bike Trail'....

  17. Trails, Bike, Bike Trails, Published in 2000, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Waukesha County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2000. It is described as 'Bike...

  18. Preparation for the industrial production of the Velocity Dolphin Power e-bike; Vorbereitungen zur Industrialisierung des Velocity Dolphin Power E-Bikes - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutter, M.

    2002-06-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the iterative process used in the development of this electrically-powered bicycle. The report covers the design-principles involved as far as appearance, operation and servicing are concerned. The report also describes the development and production of the various components such as the bike's frame, its special gearing system and the charger unit for the bike's accumulators as well as the motor and its control system. The programming of the controller and the interface to the bike's user are discussed. Finally, prototypes presented at an exhibition are looked at.

  19. Aspects Regarding the Improving of Fitness and Health Issues by Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Octavian MĂNESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is trying to explain all the benefits cycling has over fitness and specific health issues, the importance of a training plan, of a balanced diet and a good hydration during a training period of time and, also, presents the results of some studies regarding the importance of ride biking, generally, and exercising, particularly. Riding a bike is a healthy activity. Regular exercise in the form of cycling will make people fitter, stronger, will help them reduce fat levels and look in better shape, boost their energy and generally improve their mood. For many people, cycling is the first step to independence and exploration. Good planning and preparation are essential to ensure that cycling is a positive experience to everybody.

  20. Research on Vibration Characteristics Between Human Body and Seat, Steering Wheel, and Pedals (effects of Seat Position on Ride Comfort)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISHIYAMA, S.; UESUGI, N.; TAKESHIMA, T.; KANO, Y.; TOGII, H.

    2000-09-01

    Experimental results are presented of the vibrational characteristics of the automotive subsystem comprising the human body, seat, steering wheel and pedals. The magnitude of the vibrations transferred to a driver from the seat, steering wheel and pedals have been measured with both sinusoidal and random excitations in the vertical direction at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Measurement points were located on the surface of the head, chest, hip, thigh, shin, upper arm and lower arm. Eleven subjects were used to investigate the effect of some variable factors, such as arm angle, that may affect human dynamic behavior. It was found that arm angle in driving posture has a substantial influence on the dynamic behavior of the human body while driving. Some results are presented in the form of parametric graphs and tables. The results are useful for improving ride comfort, maneuverability and safety.

  1. Landscape complexity and vegetation dynamics in Riding Mountain National Park, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David John

    The primary focus of landscape ecology is the interrelationship between spatial pattern and processes within an ecosystem. It is through their mutual interaction that landscape structure and complexity are ultimately determined. Complexity, which includes both the horizontal and vertical arrangement of vegetation structure on the landscape, is an emergent property of dynamic systems. In the boreal forest, landscape complexity is a product of successional dynamics, physiography and environmental variability. The objective of this study was to examine spatial and temporal changes to landscape complexity in the boreal mixedwood of Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP), Canada. Using remotely sensed Landsat data and scale invariant fractal measures of spatial pattern, change in landscape complexity under natural and human induced fragmentation regimes was examined. The importance of structure as an emergent property of boreal canopies and its influence on landscape mapping using satellite data was addressed. It was found that landscape-level spatial pattern became increasingly entropic during succession. Old landscapes (120 years post-fire) were typified by a landscape matrix dominated by small scale patches and low spatial persistence. Physiography was also found to influence scale invariant landscape complexity. Landscapes typified by simple physiographies (well-drained, topographically simple sites) were characterized by a few dominant over-dispersed land-cover classes. Complex landscapes (variably drained, topographically complex sites), patches were under-dispersed and contagious, however complex gradients resulted in high pattern complexity (increased juxapositioning of landscape elements). It is suggested that the accumulation of small-scale disturbances over time and species turnover along complex environmental gradient affect high landscape complexity in the boreal forest. In contrast, human driven disturbance processes in the boreal forest resulted in lower

  2. Device and method to determine perineal artery occlusion during road bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, Sujeeth; Hotaling, James M; Ohlander, Samuel J; Baftiri, Amit P; Freels, Sally; Niederberger, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    Greater than 60 million American men who ride bicycles are at risk of developing erectile dysfunction. One possible reason is occlusion of the perineal arteries. Researchers relied on indirect methods and stationary models to study this problem. We developed a novel system to quantify occlusion among bicycle riders during a road bike ride. Our verification and validation activities show that this system can be safely used on human subjects to measure perineal artery occlusion. The method described in this paper provides a valuable tool to the researchers to study or to develop new solutions that alleviate this problem. The outcomes of these efforts will help millions of cyclists worldwide. PMID:25570811

  3. Preference of e-Bike by Women in India–a Niche Market for Auto Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Alamelu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing urbanization with climate change, global warming issues and the related need to decarbonize the economy, is forcing urgency for identifying the alternate source for the global adoption and sustainable scalable solutions. The country’s demographic and road patterns and its natural resources availability provide enormous scope for the electric bike industry. As per the “Navigant Research Report”, it is predicted that by 2018, the sales of electric vehicles in India will shoot up by 17 percent. 1.1 million electric vehicles will be targeted within next five years. A recent study on the environment impact of e-bikes with other forms of transportation found that e-bikes are about 18 times more energy consumption than SUV, 13 times than a sedan, 6 times more than rail transit, and it is having considered as an innovated conventional bicycle. It is a frugal innovation strategy which provide safe carbon free environment, and moreover a part of health rehabilitation programmes. It is required that societal, economic and political and infrastructure systems integrate together to balance the energy environment. With this potential, the era of electric bike started its new avenues on the roads of India specifically focusing on Indian women. To develop this viewpoint, the present study focuses on the preference of e-bike among the women in Madurai city.

  4. Bike to work safely (follow-up)

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Following a recent article about safe cycling (see here), the Bulletin received a request for more details on the type of accidents that are reported.   An analysis of the 38 accidents involving bicycles reported this year up to the end of August reveals that the most common single cause of accidents is slippery surfaces: ice, snow, water and gravel, so the message here is to take extra care, particularly when cycling in bad weather. The second item on the list is obstacles of various kinds: collisions with kerbs, potholes and even the transition from roads to cycle paths. The lesson here is to pay close attention to the surface you’re cycling over, and if you do spot a pothole, even if it does not lead to an accident, report it so that it can be repaired. It’s also worth remembering that you’re more likely to avoid coming off your bike if you keep your hands on the handlebars. The third highest cause is collisions with other vehicles, and here there are lessons for ...

  5. Riding Gravity Away from Doomsday

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that most of the energy density in the universe is stored in the form of dark energy has profound consequences for our future. In particular our current limited understanding of quantum theory of gravity indicates that some time in the future our universe will undergo a phase transition that will destroy us and everything else around us instantaneously. However the laws of gravity also suggest a way out -- some of our descendants could survive this catastrophe by riding gravity away from the danger. In this essay I describe the tale of this escape from doomsday.

  6. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike with Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX with ultracapacitors as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The E-Bike provides an inexpensive approach to advance the state of art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electrical bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  7. Analyzing Forces on Amusement Park Rides with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Rebecca E.; Vieyra, Chrystian

    2014-01-01

    Mobile device accelerometers are a simple and easy way for students to collect accurate and detailed data on an amusement park ride. The resulting data can be graphed to assist in the creation of force diagrams to help students explain their physical sensations while on the ride. This type of activity can help students overcome some of the…

  8. 电动自行车转矩脉动抑制分析与实现%Analysis and Implementation of Minimizing Torque Ripple of Electric Bikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵月花; 张晓涛

    2012-01-01

    According to the issues of how to minimize torque ripple of electric bikes, commutation current close-loop method based on theory analysis is proposed.%针对电动自行车生产中如何抑制转矩脉动的问题,结合理论分析,提出采用换相电流闭环控制方法。

  9. Spinal Cord Injuries in Wave-Riding Sports: The Influence of Environmental and Sport-Specific Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconi, Audrey; Flick, David; Ferguson, Jason; Glorioso, John E

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a nonfatal, catastrophic consequence of wave-riding sports. With surfing at the core, a multitude of activities have evolved that attempt to harness the power of ocean waves. The unique qualities of each wave-riding sport, in combination with the environmental factors of the ocean, define the risk for potential injuries. As wave-riding sports have become more advanced, athletes continue to push physical barriers. Taller waves are attempted while incorporating aerial maneuvers, all without protective equipment.

  10. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    OpenAIRE

    Choon Wah Yuen; Mohamed Rehan Karim; Ahmad Saifizul

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as...

  11. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense... 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and DoD- exempted individuals who perform.... 109-364). Section 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and...

  12. Analýza positioningu značky jízdních kol Race bike

    OpenAIRE

    Sameš, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis "Analysis of positioning bicycle brand Bike Race" offers a look at the brand in a highly competitive Czech bicycle market, which presents more than 100 different bicycle manufacturers. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the current brand positioning bicycles Bike Race in the main target group of customers and a draft set of recommendations for effective marketing impact of the selected main target group of customers. We start from the results of both its own market research (...

  13. Augmented Exercise Biking with Virtual Environments for Elderly Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Serafin, Stefania; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to function well as an assistive technology to physical therapy for elderly users. Elderly users, and more specifically retirement home residents, form a unique user group in this field, due to their characteristics and demands. In a case study, retirement home...... residents used an audio-visual virtual environment (VE) augmentation for an exercise bike. Besides a visual display, a soundscape was played to the subjects using headphones. The soundscape was not no- ticed wand the headphones were found to be obtrusive. In this paper, we consider and discuss possible...

  14. The effects of performing the YMCA Bike protocol on general brain function in athletes with and without mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Michael

    Research into concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has increased significantly within the past decade. In the literature some researchers are reporting 1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occurring in sports (Langlois, 2006), mTBI accounts for 80% of all reported traumatic brain injuries (Ruff, 2011). With these alarming statistics and an increasing number of athletes suffering a concussion there has been an increased emphasis for sports medicine practitioners to properly diagnose and treat those recovering from brain injury so that they may return safely to school, sports or work. Current clinical tools available to practitioners give them the ability to assess functional recovery in clinical measures of personality change; patient self reported symptom scales; functional cognitive domains (computer based neuropsychological batteries) and clinical balance measures. These current methods of clinical measurement, diagnosis and return to play protocols have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years. In addition, there is some controversy into the application of these clinical measures within repeated measure testing as improvement does not necessarily reflect post-traumatic recovery but may instead reflect practice or "ceiling effects" of measurement. Therefore, diagnostic platforms that measure structural physiologic recovery must be implemented to assist the clinician in the 'Return to Play' process for athletic participation. In this study quantitative EEG (qEEG) analysis using a 128-lead dense array system during the first aerobic challenge in a 'Return to Play' protocol was performed. Subjects recovering from concussion and normal volunteers with no history of concussion were included and their neuroelectric activity recorded before, during, after and 24 hours post light aerobic exercise on a stationary bike. Subjects recovering from concussion demonstrated altered spectral absolute power across relevant regions of interest in the frontal, central

  15. Comparison of Road Safety Behaviour of Rented Dublin Bike Users With That of Owner Cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Deegan, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Cycling is a unique way of travelling and exercising. The Irish Heart Foundation recommends thirty minutes of exercise most days in the week to maintain a healthy heart (IHF, 2008). The introduction of the Dublin-bike scheme by Dublin city Council in connection with JCDecaux on the 13th of September 2009 has encouraged and allowed more people to cycle around the city of Dublin. Since their introduction, Dublin-bikes have grown rapidly in popularity. By the 31st of December 2009 24,016 people ...

  16. Solving a static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems using iterated tabu search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints. The objec......In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints...

  17. Calming the Waters or Riding the Waves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydén, Pernille; Kottika, Efthymia; Hossain, Muhammad Ismail;

    Traditional consumer anger management tends to be compromising rather than empowering the brand. This paper conceptualizes and provides a case example on how consumer empowerment and negative emotions can in fact create opportunities for companies to ride the waves of consumer anger in a way that...

  18. Riding Third: Social Work in Ambulance Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Hilary; Rasmussen, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the possible role of social work alongside emergency ambulance services. An ethnographic study included semistructured interviews and direct observations collected over 300 hours while riding in ambulances in an urban setting. The data suggest that social work could play a role by providing needed psychosocial care during…

  19. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H

    2009-12-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides. PMID:19901817

  20. Bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections with retinal artery occlusion after a roller coaster ride - case report and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan Arat, Yonca; Volpi, John; Arat, Anıl; Klucznik, Richard; Diaz, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    We present the first case of a woman with no significant medical history who developed dissections of bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries, as well as a retinal artery occlusion, after a roller coaster ride. A 35-year-old woman developed right-sided neck pain followed by a frontal headache immediately after a roller coaster ride. Five days after the incident, she developed complete loss of vision in her right eye for two hours. Subsequently, the vision improved but remained significantly decreased. On presentation, her visual acuity was 20/200 in the right and 20/20 in the left eye. Her fundus exam revealed retinal edema in the superotemporal retinal artery distribution without any visible emboli. Her neurological exam was otherwise normal. The cerebral angiogram showed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. The patient remained stable with conservative therapy without further worsening of vision or any new neurological deficits. Outcomes for cervicocephalic arterial dissection are usually favorable, but early diagnosis is critical for initiation of appropriate treatment of possible complications. Physicians must have a high index of suspicion for arterial dissection when patients note any headache, neck pain or vertigo triggered by violent motion after leisure activities such as roller coaster rides. PMID:21341139

  1. Cyclist's nodule: no smooth ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Adam; Thway, Khin; Messiou, Christina; Smith, Myles

    2016-01-01

    A fit and active amateur cyclist was referred by his general practitioner to a surgical oncology outpatient clinic with a slowly-growing perineal mass. Following clinical examination, the patient underwent imaging and biopsy at a tertiary soft tissue tumour centre, which diagnosed perineal nodular induration: a rare, benign tumour caused by repetitive trauma associated with 'saddle sports' such as cycling or horse riding. It is important to consider soft tissue tumours in patients who present with 'lumps and bumps'; they can occur anywhere in the body including the groin or perineum, where it is sometimes referred to as a 'third' or 'accessory' testicle in men. Although unusual, the case emphasises the importance of rapid specialist referral from primary care, and consideration of a patient's occupation and hobbies when formulating diagnoses. PMID:26965405

  2. A co-modelling process of social and natural dynamics on the isle of Ouessant: Sheep, turf and bikes

    OpenAIRE

    Rouan, Mathias; Kerbiriou, Christian; Levrel, Harold; Etienne, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Thematic issue : Modelling with Stakeholders International audience An interdisciplinary team has applied the multi-agent system formalism to study shrub encroachment in the Biosphere Reserve on the isle of Ouessant. The main goals were (1) to understand vegetation dynamics, and (2) to represent how main agents, or actors view the dynamics of natural resources in relation to their own living practices. The management strategies established for each type of stakeholders were formalised a...

  3. Effects of oral powder electrolyte administration on packed cell volume, plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating in a 6-day 162-km trail ride

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Wade T.; Callan, Robert J.; Hill, Ashley E.; Tisher, Kelly B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of administering oral powder electrolytes on packed cell volume (PCV), plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating on a 6-day 162-km trail ride in which water was not offered ad libitum. Twenty-three horses received grain with powder electrolytes daily while 19 control horses received grain only. Horses were ridden approximately 32 km a day at a walk or trot. Packed cell volume and plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed daily...

  4. A Novel Method on Fault Ride-Through of a DFIG Wind Turbine using a Dynamic Voltage Restorer During Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radha Krishna Reddy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR connected to a wind-turbine-driven doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is investigated. The setup allows the wind turbine system an uninterruptible fault ride-through of voltage dips. The DVR can compensate the faulty line voltage, while the DFIG wind turbine can continue its nominal operation as demanded in actual grid codes. Simulation results for a 2 MW wind turbine and measurement results on a 22 kW laboratory setup are presented, especially for asymmetrical grid faults. They show the effectiveness of the DVR in comparison to the low-voltage ride-through of the DFIG using a crowbar that does not allow continuous reactive power production.

  5. A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karina Mallardo; Sandra Nizza; Filomena Fiorito; Ugo Pagnini; Luisa De Martino

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Methods:A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. Results: MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95%CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95%CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusions:It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses.

  6. Industrial Education. Mini-Course Cluster: Bikes, Electricity, Small Engines. [Grade 9].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides three units to be used in a one semester course in grade 9 on the subjects of bikes, electricity, and small engines. The section on bicycles is divided into two parts, mechanical and power (i.e. motorcycles) and covers the topics of…

  7. Health impact assessment and urban transport policy: E bike – silent killer or new urban transport ipod?

    OpenAIRE

    Brent Powis

    2013-01-01

    The growth in Asia of motorised vehicles posesa major public health threat in terms of the healtheffects of emissions, road safety and climate change.Future transport policy needs to come to terms withthese issues and at the same time address the growingsocial and economic needs of cities to provide transportsystems which are both economically viable and meetcommunities’ needs for access and mobility. Our rapidlyurbanising community’s demand for greater mobilityhas the potential to lead to po...

  8. EFFECT OF GASOLINE - ETHANOL BLENDS ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A SINGLE CYLINDER AIR COOLED MOTOR BIKE SI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SAMUEL RAJA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of using gasoline-ethanol (GE blends on performance and exhaust emission of a four stroke 150 cc single cylinder air cooled spark ignition (SI engine, without any modifications. Experiments were conducted at part load and different engine speeds ranging from 3000 to 5000 rpm, without and with catalytic converter. Ethanol content was varied from 5 percentage to 20 percentage by volume and four different blends (E5, E10, E15 and E20 were tested. Fuel consumption, engine speed, air fuel ratio, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust emissions were measured during each experiment. Brake thermal efficiency (ηb,th, volumetric efficiency (ηvol, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and excess air factor were calculated for each test run. Brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency and excess air factor increased with ethanol percentage in the blend. Carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbon (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx emissions decreased with blends.

  9. Health impact assessment and urban transport policy: E bike – silent killer or new urban transport ipod?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Powis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth in Asia of motorised vehicles posesa major public health threat in terms of the healtheffects of emissions, road safety and climate change.Future transport policy needs to come to terms withthese issues and at the same time address the growingsocial and economic needs of cities to provide transportsystems which are both economically viable and meetcommunities’ needs for access and mobility. Our rapidlyurbanising community’s demand for greater mobilityhas the potential to lead to poorly considered transportpolicy lest we ensure that the environment and healthimpacts of new transport technologies and policiesare fully assessed. The rapid and currently largelyunregulated emergence of the electric ‘bicycle’ (E Bikein China, now extending globally, serves to illustrate thecase for more extensive transport policy research.

  10. E-bike injuries: experience from an urban emergency department-a retrospective study from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsi, Sylvana; Martinolli, Luca; Braun, Christian Tasso; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2014-01-01

    Background. Between 2005 and 2012, annual sales of E-bikes in Switzerland increased from 1,792 to 52,941. This continuous and rapid transition from human-powered bicycles to an electric bicycle technology may indicate the increasing demand for low-cost transportation technology in combination with a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. In the present study, from April 2012 to September 2013, we retrospectively analysed E-bike accidents treated in the Emergency Department of our hospital by focusing on the following parameters: age, gender, time, period, and cause of the accident, as well as injury and outcome. Results. Patients were predominantly male. The mean age of injured E-cyclists was 47.5 years. The main causes of injury were self-accident. Most injuries were to the head/neck. The mean ISS was 8.48. The outcome showed that 9 patients were treated as outpatients, 9 were inpatients, and 5 patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Only six patients underwent surgery (S). Discussion. This is the first attempt to evaluate E-bike injuries in Switzerland in an acute hospital setting. Since there is increasing popular preference for E-bikes as means of transportation and injuries to the head or neck are prevalent among E-cyclists, the hazard should not to be underestimated. PMID:24778880

  11. E-bike injuries: experience from an urban emergency department-a retrospective study from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsi, Sylvana; Martinolli, Luca; Braun, Christian Tasso; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2014-01-01

    Background. Between 2005 and 2012, annual sales of E-bikes in Switzerland increased from 1,792 to 52,941. This continuous and rapid transition from human-powered bicycles to an electric bicycle technology may indicate the increasing demand for low-cost transportation technology in combination with a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. In the present study, from April 2012 to September 2013, we retrospectively analysed E-bike accidents treated in the Emergency Department of our hospital by focusing on the following parameters: age, gender, time, period, and cause of the accident, as well as injury and outcome. Results. Patients were predominantly male. The mean age of injured E-cyclists was 47.5 years. The main causes of injury were self-accident. Most injuries were to the head/neck. The mean ISS was 8.48. The outcome showed that 9 patients were treated as outpatients, 9 were inpatients, and 5 patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Only six patients underwent surgery (S). Discussion. This is the first attempt to evaluate E-bike injuries in Switzerland in an acute hospital setting. Since there is increasing popular preference for E-bikes as means of transportation and injuries to the head or neck are prevalent among E-cyclists, the hazard should not to be underestimated.

  12. E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department—A Retrospective Study from Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvana Papoutsi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Between 2005 and 2012, annual sales of E-bikes in Switzerland increased from 1,792 to 52,941. This continuous and rapid transition from human-powered bicycles to an electric bicycle technology may indicate the increasing demand for low-cost transportation technology in combination with a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. In the present study, from April 2012 to September 2013, we retrospectively analysed E-bike accidents treated in the Emergency Department of our hospital by focusing on the following parameters: age, gender, time, period, and cause of the accident, as well as injury and outcome. Results. Patients were predominantly male. The mean age of injured E-cyclists was 47.5 years. The main causes of injury were self-accident. Most injuries were to the head/neck. The mean ISS was 8.48. The outcome showed that 9 patients were treated as outpatients, 9 were inpatients, and 5 patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Only six patients underwent surgery (S. Discussion. This is the first attempt to evaluate E-bike injuries in Switzerland in an acute hospital setting. Since there is increasing popular preference for E-bikes as means of transportation and injuries to the head or neck are prevalent among E-cyclists, the hazard should not to be underestimated.

  13. Taking the tyke on a bike: mothers’ and childless women’s space–time geographies in Amsterdam compared

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Eyer; Antonio Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between cycling and mothers’ mobility in Amsterdam. Considering that mothers (still) tend to be responsible for transporting children and doing so on a bicycle may increase the difficulties of travel, the city’s push for cycling may not suit mothers’ mobility needs. Hence, this research aimed to uncover whether mothers’ physical levels and experience of mobility by bicycle are by any means inferior to childless women’s in Amsterdam. Activity–travel dat...

  14. On your bike! a cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapp Georgina SA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active school transport (AST has declined rapidly in recent decades. While many studies have examined walking, cycling to school has received very little attention. Correlates of cycling are likely to differ to those from walking and cycling enables AST from further distances. This study examined individual, social and environmental factors associated with cycling to school among elementary school-aged children, stratified by gender. Methods Children (n = 1197 attending 25 Australian primary schools located in high or low walkable neighborhoods, completed a one-week travel diary and a parent/child questionnaire on travel habits and attitudes. Results Overall, 31.2% of boys and 14.6% of girls cycled ≥ 1 trip/week, however 59.4% of boys and 36.7% of girls reported cycling as their preferred school transport mode. In boys (but not girls, school neighborhood design was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., boys attending schools in neighborhoods with high connectivity and low traffic were 5.58 times more likely to cycle (95% CI 1.11-27.96 and for each kilometer boys lived from school the odds of cycling reduced by 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.99. Irrespective of gender, cycling to school was associated with parental confidence in their child's cycling ability (boys: OR 10.39; 95% CI 3.79-28.48; girls: OR 4.03; 95% CI 2.02-8.05, parental perceived convenience of driving (boys: OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.74; girls: OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.82; and child's preference to cycle (boys: OR 5.68; 95% CI 3.23-9.98; girls: OR 3.73; 95% CI 2.26-6.17. Conclusion School proximity, street network connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods was associated with boys (but not girls cycling to school. Irrespective of gender, parents need to be confident in their child's cycling ability and must prioritize cycling over driving.

  15. Motivating Elderly To Exercise – Recreational Virtual Environment for Indoor Biking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Serafin, Stefania; Kofoed, Lise

    2016-01-01

    For most nursing home residents, regular physical exercise is a necessity to keep standard motor-function and strength. Meanwhile, many nursing home residents do not pursue this actively. This paper examines if augmenting a conventional chair-based bike exercise, with a suite of four recreational...

  16. Energy and macronutrient intake of a female vegan cyclist during an 8-day mountain bike stage race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirnitzer, Katharina C; Kornexl, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the dietary intake of a vegan mountain biker (height, 161 cm; weight, 49.6 kg; body mass index, 19.1 kg/m(2); relative peak power output, 4.6 W/kg) during the Transalp Challenge 2004 (altitude climbed, 22,500 m; total distance, 662 km), illustrating an aggressive dietary strategy that allowed the cyclist to be competitive. She finished the 8-stage event in 42 hours (mixed category, rank 16; 514 minutes behind the winners of this category), cycling with an average heart rate of 79.5% of laboratory-determined maximum, spending 892 minutes and 1627 minutes at intensities below and above 80%, respectively. During racing, the consumption of energy was 69.3 MJ (1.65 MJ/h), 65.76 MJ from carbohydrates (92 g/h), which was 35% of calories and 40% of carbohydrate total intake, and the fluid ingested was 3 L/day (570 mL/h), 55% of the total fluid consumed.

  17. Implementing the connected e-bike: challenges and requirements of an IoT application for urban transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Flüchter, Kristina; Wortmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    As local transportation systems are facing enormous challenges in consequence of extensive urban growth, technological advancements are creating unprecedented opportunities as the Internet is extending into the real world, connecting physical items to the virtual world and creating an Internet of Things (IoT). While many activities are exploring corresponding applications, e.g. connecting bicycles to the Internet, widespread economic success of a truly connected device is still outstanding. F...

  18. Innovative Bike-Sharing Design as a Research and Educational Platform for Promoting More Livable Urban Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitas, Alexandros; Rahe, Ulrike; Karjalainen, Toni-Matti

    2013-01-01

    Studying the viability of innovative urban access design is the key in achieving optimum results when attempting to transform dogmatism referring to conventional car-orientation into a meaningful driver of modal change founded on the actual societal needs for future transportation. An efficient public bicycle scheme could be the very definition of a system that could encourage and even facilitate, in real terms, such a transition. This paper is discussing how a post-graduate course embraced, ...

  19. User-based solutions for increasing level of service in bike-sharing transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Raimbault, Juste

    2016-01-01

    Bike-sharing transportation systems have been well studied from a top-down viewpoint, either for an optimal conception of the system, or for a better statistical understanding of their working mechanisms in the aim of the optimization of the management strategy. Yet bottom-up approaches that could include behavior of users have not been well studied so far. We propose an agent-based model for the short time evolution of a bike-sharing system, with a focus on two strategical parameters that are the role of the quantity of information users have on the all system and the propensity of user to walk after having dropped their bike. We implement the model in a general way so it is applicable to every system as soon as data are available in a certain format. The model of simulation is parametrized and calibrated on processed real time-series of bike movements for the system of Paris. After showing the robustness of the simulations by validating internally and externally the model, we are able to test different user...

  20. Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on these knee replacements, but you can play tennis. You can actually ride bikes. You can play ... swim. But you cannot jog. You cannot play tennis on them or you’ll destroy them earlier. ...

  1. Analýza využitelnosti bike-sharingu v hlavním městě Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbachová, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse a bike-sharing in Prague, especially its usability and future potential. The thesis answers questions whether a bike-sharing can prosper in Prague and if so whether it can contribute to the solution of a problematic traffic situation. In a theoretical part of the thesis there are firstly described concepts of economics theories which are closely related with the concept of bike-sharing. The thesis also characterises fields of the collaborative economy, col...

  2. The bike is back with a battery

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2009-01-01

    The attention the electric car receives as a promising means of sustainable transportation seems at times to overshadow the rise of that other electric vehicle: the pedelec or electric bicycle. For those who don't know yet: a pedelec is a bicycle assisted by an electric motor. That motor is powered by a rechargeable (lithium-ion) battery. The motor is intended to assist pedaling, not to replace it. It is the newest evolution of the bike. Its numbers are growing fast. This paper assumes that t...

  3. Feasibility Testing for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    2010-01-01

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue ...... of a simple example, we show in this work that their algorithm is incorrect. We also prove that by increasing the time complexity by only a logarithmic factor, a correct algorithm is obtained....

  4. Feasibility testing for dial-a-ride problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue ...... of a simple example, we show in this work that their algorithm is incorrect. We also prove that by increasing the time complexity by only a logarithmic factor, a correct algorithm is obtained....

  5. Feasibility Checking for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue ...... of a simple example, we show in this work that their algorithm is incorrect. We also prove that by increasing the time complexity by only a logarithmic factor, a correct algorithm is obtained....

  6. Stability of a Light Sail Riding on a Laser Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Manchester, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    The stability of a light sail riding on a laser beam is analyzed both analytically and numerically. Conical sails on Gaussian beams, which have been studied in the past, are shown to be unstable in general. A new architecture for a passively stable sail and beam configuration is proposed. The novel spherical shell sail design is capable of "beam riding" without the need for active feedback control. Full three-dimensional ray-tracing simulations are performed to verify our analytical results.

  7. Air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  8. Head motions while riding roller coasters: Implications for brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pfister, Bryan J.; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI betw...

  9. Scaling Law of Urban Ride Sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Tachet, Remi; Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Strogatz, Steven; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Sharing rides could drastically improve the efficiency of car and taxi transportation. Unleashing such potential, however, requires understanding how urban parameters affect the fraction of individual trips that can be shared, a quantity that we call shareability. Using data on millions of taxi trips in New York City, San Francisco, Singapore, and Vienna, we compute the shareability curves for each city, and find that a natural rescaling collapses them onto a single, universal curve. We explain this scaling law theoretically with a simple model that predicts the potential for ride sharing in any city, using a few basic urban quantities and no adjustable parameters. Accurate extrapolations of this type will help planners, transportation companies, and society at large to shape a sustainable path for urban growth.

  10. BIOMECHANICS OF THERAPEUTIC RIDING DURING THE DISEASES OF I-II DEGREE DYSPLASTIC LUMBAR AND STATIC (SHORT LEG) SCOLIOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshaberidze, E; Merabishvili, I; Loria, M

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the paper is to substantiate the essence of ridetherapy biomechanics as the pathogenetic therapeutic and prophylactic method at lumbar dysplastic (the I and II degrees) and static (short-legged induced) scoliosis. Uneven lower extremities caused by any reason and asymmetric support induce the change in the arrangement of trochantin to the vertebra and correspondingly the uneven loading of lumbar muscles. The asymmetric strength of lumbar muscles evoked by the change in rotator condition becomes the cause of the formation of scoliosis primary arc which, in its turn, causes a compensatory spinal curvature. In case of dysplastic scoliosis a leading role belongs to the beginning of dystrophic changes in intervertebral discs and its further decentration. At riding position the lower extremities are completely disengaged from the antigravity redistribution, the child is in direct contact with vibrations and jolts coming from the horseback; the antigravity loading is distributed on the muscles of the torso and thus, it creates an opportunity to purposefully affect the correction of the spine. During scoliosis the pathogenic essence of ridetherapy is due to the comprehensiveness of its procedures, expressed in the fact that during one procedure several factors are influenced simultaneously: nucleus pulpous, the torso and iliopsoas muscles, the antigravity system, etc. According to the clinical-functional and radiographic studies carried out in the dynamics on 11-16 years old adolescents it has been established that in those groups where the rehabilitation was conducted in a complex with ridetherapy the authentically higher results were obtained as compared to the groups where the rehabilitation was held using therapeutic exercises and massage.

  11. BIOMECHANICS OF THERAPEUTIC RIDING DURING THE DISEASES OF I-II DEGREE DYSPLASTIC LUMBAR AND STATIC (SHORT LEG) SCOLIOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshaberidze, E; Merabishvili, I; Loria, M

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the paper is to substantiate the essence of ridetherapy biomechanics as the pathogenetic therapeutic and prophylactic method at lumbar dysplastic (the I and II degrees) and static (short-legged induced) scoliosis. Uneven lower extremities caused by any reason and asymmetric support induce the change in the arrangement of trochantin to the vertebra and correspondingly the uneven loading of lumbar muscles. The asymmetric strength of lumbar muscles evoked by the change in rotator condition becomes the cause of the formation of scoliosis primary arc which, in its turn, causes a compensatory spinal curvature. In case of dysplastic scoliosis a leading role belongs to the beginning of dystrophic changes in intervertebral discs and its further decentration. At riding position the lower extremities are completely disengaged from the antigravity redistribution, the child is in direct contact with vibrations and jolts coming from the horseback; the antigravity loading is distributed on the muscles of the torso and thus, it creates an opportunity to purposefully affect the correction of the spine. During scoliosis the pathogenic essence of ridetherapy is due to the comprehensiveness of its procedures, expressed in the fact that during one procedure several factors are influenced simultaneously: nucleus pulpous, the torso and iliopsoas muscles, the antigravity system, etc. According to the clinical-functional and radiographic studies carried out in the dynamics on 11-16 years old adolescents it has been established that in those groups where the rehabilitation was conducted in a complex with ridetherapy the authentically higher results were obtained as compared to the groups where the rehabilitation was held using therapeutic exercises and massage. PMID:26656557

  12. Smart Ride Seeker (SRS) An Introductory Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Naby, Sameh; Giorgini, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A diverse range of architectures and concepts was proposed by scholars within the theme of Car Pooling Problem solving. Most of these scholars have attempted to put together two major elements: the need for people to move from a place to another, and the resources used to accomplish this action. Based on the use of location and available car seats, Car sharing systems allowed a substantial number of people to share car rides. These systems would, among other advantages, rationalize energy con...

  13. Riding to School in a Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Shutrump, Sue; Manary, Miriam A.

    2007-01-01

    Riding on a school bus is one of the safest forms of transportation in the U.S. Every year 450,000 public school buses travel more than 4.3 billion miles to transport 23.5 million children to and from school and school related activities. Students are reportedly eight times safer on the school bus than they are in cars. However, the percentage of…

  14. Vehicle Ride Height Change Due To Radial Expansion Of Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čavoj Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, tire deformations caused by wheel rotation are not taken into account when developing vehicle aerodynamics. On the road the tires radially expand as speed increases, which affects the actual ride height of a vehicle. In turn this often increases the real aerodynamic drag compared to values obtained using CFD or a wind tunnel as the mass flow across the relatively rough underbody increases with ground clearance. In this study, on-road ride heights were measured while running a vehicle in a straight line with fixed velocity whilst the aerodynamic lift of the vehicle was determined in a wind tunnel. Subsequently, the relationships between ride height and axle load were obtained by loading the vehicle at standstill with ballast. By comparing the ride heights at high and very low velocities with expected vertical displacement caused purely by aerodynamic lift force as computed according to the ride height - axle load equations, the ride height change due to tire radial expansion was determined.

  15. Fault ride-through and grid support of permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind farms with HVAC and VSC-HVDC transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes fault ride-through and grid support of offshore wind farms based on permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbines connected to the onshore AC network through two alternative transmission systems: high voltage AC (HVAC) or high voltage DC (HVDC) based on voltage...... source converters (VSC). The proposed configurations of the PMSG-based offshore wind farm and VSC-based HVDC are given as well as their control strategies under both steady state and fault state. The PMSG-based offshore wind farm is integrated into a test power transmission system via either HVAC or VSC...

  16. Trails, Bike, bike trails (Wild Goose State Trail), Published in 2012, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Dodge County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2012. It is described as 'bike...

  17. Trails, Bike, Bike Lanes within City of Ashland, WI, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Ashland.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Bike Lanes within...

  18. VRACK: measuring pedal kinematics during stationary bike cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjadian, Amir B; Kong, Qingchao; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2013-06-01

    Ankle impairment and lower limb asymmetries in strength and coordination are common symptoms for individuals with selected musculoskeletal and neurological impairments. The virtual reality augmented cycling kit (VRACK) was designed as a compact mechatronics system for lower limb and mobility rehabilitation. The system measures interaction forces and cardiac activity during cycling in a virtual environment. The kinematics measurement was added to the system. Due to the constrained problem definition, the combination of inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Kalman filtering was recruited to compute the optimal pedal angular displacement during dynamic cycling exercise. Using a novel benchmarking method the accuracy of IMU-based kinematics measurement was evaluated. Relatively accurate angular measurements were achieved. The enhanced VRACK system can serve as a rehabilitation device to monitor biomechanical and physiological variables during cycling on a stationary bike.

  19. Investigation on motorcyclist riding behaviour at curve entry using instrumented motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Choon Wah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Saifizul, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables. PMID:24523660

  20. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Wah Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables.

  1. Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: an ABA' multiple case design examining dosing and generalization to the home and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Margo B; Baird, Joanne M; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70% of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63% of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community. PMID:24091469

  2. Riding Tandem: An Organic and Collaborative Approach to Research in Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Cathy; Dyer, Alec; Thompson, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to explore the use of the Internet in peer-to-peer learning environments within vocational education and training and to investigate whether this approach could replace traditional teaching and learning. A mixed methods design, including classroom observations, design experiments, interviews and questionnaires was adopted.…

  3. Research on integration of visual and motion cues for flight simulation and ride quality investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Curry, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vestibular perception and integration of several sensory inputs in simulation were studied. The relationship between tilt sensation induced by moving fields and those produced by actual body tilt is discussed. Linearvection studies were included and the application of the vestibular model for perception of orientation based on motion cues is presented. Other areas of examination includes visual cues in approach to landing, and a comparison of linear and nonlinear wash out filters using a model of the human vestibular system is given.

  4. Modeling and simulation on ride comfort of a self-propelled gun%某型自行火炮行驶平顺性仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向涛波; 刘重发; 赵凌; 陈伟

    2011-01-01

    Ride comfort is a key index of a self-propelled gun.A good ride comfort ensures the high reliability of the weapon system,and can reduce the intensity of labor.lt presents a dynamic model of a self-propelled gun.An impulse road input simulation was carried out to verify the correctness of the model.The simulation results fit the experiment data very well,and illustrated the correctness of the model.The vehicle was evaluated based on the simulation results of the random road input simulation, and the optimization was carried out to get a better performance.The simulation result shows that,the self-propelled gun gains a good ride comfort.%平顺性是自行火炮的一项重要性能指标.良好的平顺性能保证武器系统的可靠性,而且能降低驾驶员的劳动强度.以某型自行火炮为研究对象,建立了某型自行火炮的动力学模型,并采用脉冲输入平顺性试验进行了模型验证.仿真分析结果与试验数据吻合度较好,验证了模型的可靠性及有效性.对该自行火炮进行了随机路面行驶平顺性仿真分析,并进行了评价.仿真及评价结果表明,该火炮系统的平顺性较好.

  5. The science of vehicle dynamics handling, braking, and ride of road and race cars

    CERN Document Server

    Guiggiani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics is often perceived as a quite intuitive subject. As a matter of fact, lots of people are able to drive a car. Nevertheless, without a rigorous mathematical formulation it is very difficult to truly understand the physical phenomena involved in the motion of a road vehicle. In this book, mathematical models of vehicles are developed, always paying attention to state the relevant assumptions and to provide explanations for each step. This approach allows for a deep, yet simple, analysis of the dynamics of vehicles, without having to resort to foggy concepts. The reader will soon achieve a clear understanding of the subject, which will be of great help both in dealing with the challenges of designing and testing new vehicles and in tackling new research topics. The book covers handling and performance of both road and race cars. A new approach, called MAP (Map of Achievable Performance), is presented and thoroughly discussed. It provides a global and intuitive picture of the handling features of...

  6. Car- and ride sharing: The current state and future possibilities in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Ásta Karen Helgadóttir 1992

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy has been gaining momentum in the world over the past decade or so. The sharing economy has been defined as the value in taking underutilized assets and making them accessible online to a community, leading to a reduced need for ownership of those assets. Iceland has only become familiar with the term in the last couple of years, and the sharing economy is slowly, but steadily gaining a foothold in Iceland, with Icelanders‘ increased use and acceptance of the sharing econom...

  7. Riding a Trail of Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the comet Encke riding along its pebbly trail of debris (long diagonal line) between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This material actually encircles the solar system, following the path of Encke's orbit. Twin jets of material can also be seen shooting away from the comet in the short, fan-shaped emission, spreading horizontally from the comet. Encke, which orbits the Sun every 3.3 years, is well traveled. Having exhausted its supply of fine particles, it now leaves a long trail of larger more gravel-like debris, about one millimeter in size or greater. Every October, Earth passes through Encke's wake, resulting in the well-known Taurid meteor shower. This image was captured by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer when Encke was 2.6 times farther away than Earth is from the Sun. It is the best yet mid-infrared view of the comet at this great distance. The data are helping astronomers understand how rotating comets eject particles as they circle the Sun.

  8. Italian school students enjoy the ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-06-01

    A new initiative that explores the physics of motorbikes is proving a hit with schoolchildren in Italy. The "Fisica in Moto" centre, housed at motorcycle manufacturer Ducati's factory in Bologna, comprises three rooms full of purpose-built experiments and mockup bikes designed to help high-school students understand concepts such as acceleration, friction and angular momentum. As project leader Mario Alvisi explains, the new centre seeks to bring to life the ideas that students learn in class. "Students are often bored with the physics they are taught at school," he says. "But we hope that by using entertaining, interactive equipment they will find out that the formulas printed in their textbooks are in fact fascinating and tangible."

  9. Framing and Free Riding: Emotional Responses and Punishment in Social Dilemma Games

    OpenAIRE

    Robin P. Cubitt; Michalis Drouvelis; Simon Gächter

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report an experimental investigation of the effect of framing on social preferences, as revealed in a one-shot linear public goods game. We use two indicators to measure social preferences: self-reported emotional responses; and, as a behavioural indicator of disapproval, punishment. Our findings are that, for a given pattern of contributions, neither punishment nor emotion depends on the Give versus Take framing that we manipulate. To this extent, they suggest that the soci...

  10. Time Walk Bike To Work, 2001-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the percent of population aged 16 years or older whose commute to work is 10 or more minutes/day by walking or biking for California,...

  11. Flexible fault ride through strategy for wind farm clusters in power systems with high wind power penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A flexible fault ride through strategy is proposed. • The strategy comprises of grid code requirements and power restrictions. • Slight faults and moderate faults are the main defending objectives. • Temporary overloading capability of the doubly fed induction generator is considered. - Abstract: This paper investigates a flexible fault ride through strategy for power systems in China with high wind power penetration. The strategy comprises of adaptive fault ride through requirements and maximum power restrictions of the wind farms with weak fault ride through capabilities. The slight faults and moderate faults with high probability are the main defending objective of the strategy. The adaptive fault ride through requirement in the strategy consists of two sub fault ride through requirements, a temporary slight voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a slight fault incident, with a moderate voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a moderate fault. The temporary overloading capability of the wind farm is reflected in both requirements to enhance the capability to defend slight faults and to avoid tripping when the crowbar is disconnected after moderate faults are cleared. For those wind farms that cannot meet the adaptive fault ride through requirement, restrictions are put on the maximum power output. Simulation results show that the flexible fault ride through strategy increases the fault ride through capability of the wind farm clusters and reduces the wind power curtailment during faults

  12. Trails, Bike, Bike Trails, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2007. It is described as...

  13. Trails, Bike, Bike trails, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described...

  14. Study on the energy-efficiency of 'park and ride' systems (French version); Efficience energetique des P et R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume-Gentil, S.; Camandona, Ch.; Stucki, M. [Transitec Ingenieurs Conseils, Lausanne (Switzerland); Baumgartner, P.; Lippuner, Ch. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the efficiency of 'park and ride' (P+R) systems from the energy-efficiency point of view. 'Park and ride' means: 'Leave your car on a parking area and travel by public transport services for the second part of your journey'. Five hypotheses are examined: that P+R helps improve the general energy-efficiency of traffic, P+R installations are not an economically advantageous measure for improving the energy-efficiency of traffic, that they are not cost-effective, that they are financed by other public transport services and that their contribution to energy efficiency is dependent on the characteristics of their particular locations. The study looks at the positive and negative effects of P+R on energy efficiency and develops criteria for choosing locations. Three typical P+R installations are looked at - at a main station in a city centre, on the edge of a city and on a main city access road. These locations are analysed with respect to their energy and financial balances and their cost-effectiveness. Also, the use of P+R installations is analysed and the importance of the results of the study for traffic planning is discussed.

  15. Study on the energy-efficiency of 'park and ride' systems (French/German version); Efficience energetique des P et R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume-Gentil, S.; Camandona, Ch.; Stucki, M. [Transitec Ingenieurs Conseils, Lausanne (Switzerland); Baumgartner, P.; Lippuner, Ch. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the efficiency of 'park and ride' (P+R) systems from the energy-efficiency point of view. 'Park and ride' means: 'Leave your car on a parking area and travel by public transport services for the second part of your journey'. Five hypotheses are examined: that P+R helps improve the general energy-efficiency of traffic, P+R installations are not an economically advantageous measure for improving the energy-efficiency of traffic, that they are not cost-effective, that they are financed by other public transport services and that their contribution to energy efficiency is dependent on the characteristics of their particular locations. The study looks at the positive and negative effects of P+R on energy efficiency and develops criteria for choosing locations. Three typical P+R installations are looked at - at a main station in a city centre, on the edge of a city and on a main city access road. These locations are analysed with respect to their energy and financial balances and their cost-effectiveness. Also, the use of P+R installations is analysed and the importance of the results of the study for traffic planning is discussed.

  16. A Joyful and Exhilarating Ride: An Interview with Frank J. Vattano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bryan J.

    2008-01-01

    Frank J. Vattano is Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Emeritus University Distinguished Teaching Scholar at Colorado State University (CSU), his undergraduate alma mater. He earned his PhD in experimental psychology from The Ohio State University and served as Associate Dean of Arts and Sciences and Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs at the…

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Media Crises - How to ride off a CSR-related shitstorm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette; Schmeltz, Line

    This paper aims to explore and offer insights into the phenomenon of social media crises in a CSR-related context by reflexively merging theoretical and case insights (Alvesson & Kärreman, 2007, p. 2011). The phenomenon and the components of a social media crisis are theoretically identified......, and the case of the Norwegian chocolate brand Freia is used to illustrate how CSR-related issues are particularly vulnerable and thus potentially responsible for creating a social media crisis. The case furthermore serves to illustrate the importance of social media readiness, responsiveness and not least...... strategy and communicative skills during a CSR-related social media crisis....

  18. Influence Of Specialisation On Connectedness And Genetic Parameters In Dutch Warmblood Riding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise;

    During the last decades, a process of specialisation into show jumping (JH) and dressage (DH) has been taking place in the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN). The objectives of this paper were to describe the evolution of the connectedness between JH and DH over the last 15 years and to analyse...

  19. Effects of oral powder electrolyte administration on packed cell volume, plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating in a 6-day 162-km trail ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wade T; Callan, Robert J; Hill, Ashley E; Tisher, Kelly B

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of administering oral powder electrolytes on packed cell volume (PCV), plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating on a 6-day 162-km trail ride in which water was not offered ad libitum. Twenty-three horses received grain with powder electrolytes daily while 19 control horses received grain only. Horses were ridden approximately 32 km a day at a walk or trot. Packed cell volume and plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed daily. Episodes of colic were diagnosed and treated by a veterinarian unaware of treatment group allocation. Blood parameters and incidence of colic were compared between treatment groups. Electrolyte administration did not alter PCV or plasma chemistry parameters compared to controls. The incidence of colic was significantly higher in treated horses (P = 0.05). Oral powder electrolytes did not enhance hydration status or electrolyte homeostasis and may be associated with colic in horses participating on long distance trail rides similar to this model. PMID:25082992

  20. Simulation and analysis of a Truck Model's ride comfort based on fuzzy adaptive control theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Li-biao; WANG Deng-feng; NI Qiang; TAN Wei-ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper tried to analyse and verify the fuzzy adaptive control strategy of electronic control air suspension system for heavy truck. Created the seven-freedoms vehicle suspension model, and the road input model; with Matlab/Simulink toolboxes and modules, built dynamical system simulation model for heavy truck with air suspension, fuzzy adaptive control model, height control model for air spring, and intelligent control and analyse on root mean square value of acceleration of gravity center of the vehicle under excitation of road. Results show that the fuzzy control had less help to the body vibration on the better pavement, but had the better benefit on the bad road, and the vehicle's root mean square value of acceleration of gravity center is less than passive suspension's obviously.

  1. Commuting Pattern with Park-and-Ride Option for Heterogeneous Commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjuan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of the parking on heterogeneous commuters' travel choice in a competitive transportation system which consists of a subway and a parallel road with a bottleneck of limited service capacity. Every morning, commuters either use their private cars only or drive their cars to the bottleneck, park there, and then take the subway to the destination. Considering the effects caused by body congestion in carriage and the parking fees, we developed a bottleneck model to describe the commuters' travel choice. There exist several types of equilibrium that corresponds to user equilibrium. We investigated the influence of the capacity of the bottleneck and the total travel demand on the travel behaviors and on the total social cost. It is shown that there exists a scheme with suitable subway fare and parking fees to implement the minimum total social cost.

  2. Riding the tide of emotions with mindfulness: Mindfulness, affect dynamics, and the mediating role of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tong, Eddie M W

    2016-08-01

    Little research has examined ways in which mindfulness is associated with affect dynamics, referring to patterns of affect fluctuations in daily life. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), the present study examined the associations between trait mindfulness and several types of affect dynamics, namely affect variability, affect inertia, affect switch, and affect instability. Three hundred ninety undergraduate students from Singapore reported their current emotions and coping styles up to 19 times per day across 2 days. Results showed that trait mindfulness correlated negatively with variability, instability, and inertia of negative affect and positively with negative-to-positive affect switch. These relationships were independent of openness, habitual reappraisal, habitual suppression, depression, and self-esteem. Importantly, lower maladaptive coping was found to mediate these relationships. The study suggests that trait mindfulness independently promotes adaptive patterns of affective experiences in daily life by inhibiting maladaptive coping styles. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27064290

  3. Free riding, contribution behavior, and public goods : the case of the Virginia nongame wildlife tax checkoff

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, James Montgomery

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the free rider effect and other voluntary contribution behavior in an actual public goods funding situation. Because the traditional neoclassical economic model of consumption behavior does not adequately explain behavior with respect to voluntary contribution to the funding of public goods. A model is developed that expands upon the traditional model and which incorporates several aspects of behavior. These aspects include strategic behavior such as strong and weak f...

  4. HETEROGENEOUS SOCIAL PREFERENCES AND THE DYNAMICS OF FREE RIDING IN PUBLIC GOOD EXPERIMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    URS FISCHBACHER; SIMON GAECHTER

    2008-01-01

    We provide a direct test of the role of social preferences and beliefs in voluntary cooperation and its decline. We elicit individuals’ cooperation preference in one experiment and use them – as well as subjects’ elicited beliefs – to make predictions about contributions to a public good played repeatedly. We find substantial heterogeneity in people’s preferences. With simulation methods based on this data, we show that the decline of cooperation is driven by the fact that most people have a ...

  5. Social Preferences, Beliefs, and the Dynamics of Free Riding in Public Good Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbacher, Urs; Gächter, Simon

    2008-01-01

    We provide a test of the role of social preferences and beliefs in voluntary cooperation and its decline. We elicit individuals’ cooperation preferences in one experiment and use them – as well as subjects’ elicited beliefs – to explain contributions to a public good played repeatedly. We find substantial heterogeneity in people’s preferences. With simulation methods based on this data, we show that the decline of cooperation can be driven by the fact that most people have a preference to con...

  6. On the Complexity of Computing Optimal Private Park-and-Ride Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    that the folklore belief may not be fully accurate. In this work, we initiate a theoretical study of input-size hiding secure computation, and focus on the two-party case. We present definitions for this task, and deal with the subtleties that arise in the setting where there is no a priori polynomial bound...... on the parties’ input sizes. Our definitional study yields a multitude of classes of input-size hiding computation, depending on whether a single party’s input size remains hidden or both parties’ input sizes remain hidden, and depending on who receives output and if the output size is hidden from a party...

  7. Riding the wave: reconciling the roles of disease and climate change in amphibian declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R Lips

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the evidence for the role of climate change in triggering disease outbreaks of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. Both climatic anomalies and disease-related extirpations are recent phenomena, and effects of both are especially noticeable at high elevations in tropical areas, making it difficult to determine whether they are operating separately or synergistically. We compiled reports of amphibian declines from Lower Central America and Andean South America to create maps and statistical models to test our hypothesis of spatiotemporal spread of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, and to update the elevational patterns of decline in frogs belonging to the genus Atelopus. We evaluated claims of climate change influencing the spread of Bd by including error into estimates of the relationship between air temperature and last year observed. Available data support the hypothesis of multiple introductions of this invasive pathogen into South America and subsequent spread along the primary Andean cordilleras. Additional analyses found no evidence to support the hypothesis that climate change has been driving outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis, as has been posited in the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis. Future studies should increase retrospective surveys of museum specimens from throughout the Andes and should study the landscape genetics of Bd to map fine-scale patterns of geographic spread to identify transmission routes and processes.

  8. Riding the wave: reconciling the roles of disease and climate change in amphibian declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Karen R; Diffendorfer, Jay; Mendelson, Joseph R; Sears, Michael W

    2008-03-25

    We review the evidence for the role of climate change in triggering disease outbreaks of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. Both climatic anomalies and disease-related extirpations are recent phenomena, and effects of both are especially noticeable at high elevations in tropical areas, making it difficult to determine whether they are operating separately or synergistically. We compiled reports of amphibian declines from Lower Central America and Andean South America to create maps and statistical models to test our hypothesis of spatiotemporal spread of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and to update the elevational patterns of decline in frogs belonging to the genus Atelopus. We evaluated claims of climate change influencing the spread of Bd by including error into estimates of the relationship between air temperature and last year observed. Available data support the hypothesis of multiple introductions of this invasive pathogen into South America and subsequent spread along the primary Andean cordilleras. Additional analyses found no evidence to support the hypothesis that climate change has been driving outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis, as has been posited in the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis. Future studies should increase retrospective surveys of museum specimens from throughout the Andes and should study the landscape genetics of Bd to map fine-scale patterns of geographic spread to identify transmission routes and processes.

  9. Riding the wave: reconciling the roles of disease and climate change in amphibian declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Karen R; Diffendorfer, Jay; Mendelson, Joseph R; Sears, Michael W

    2008-03-25

    We review the evidence for the role of climate change in triggering disease outbreaks of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. Both climatic anomalies and disease-related extirpations are recent phenomena, and effects of both are especially noticeable at high elevations in tropical areas, making it difficult to determine whether they are operating separately or synergistically. We compiled reports of amphibian declines from Lower Central America and Andean South America to create maps and statistical models to test our hypothesis of spatiotemporal spread of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and to update the elevational patterns of decline in frogs belonging to the genus Atelopus. We evaluated claims of climate change influencing the spread of Bd by including error into estimates of the relationship between air temperature and last year observed. Available data support the hypothesis of multiple introductions of this invasive pathogen into South America and subsequent spread along the primary Andean cordilleras. Additional analyses found no evidence to support the hypothesis that climate change has been driving outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis, as has been posited in the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis. Future studies should increase retrospective surveys of museum specimens from throughout the Andes and should study the landscape genetics of Bd to map fine-scale patterns of geographic spread to identify transmission routes and processes. PMID:18366257

  10. High Tech Hunks of Steel: Fixed-Site Amusement Rides and Safety Under State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kingsley

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  Tomorrow is the big day! Little Bobby Missoula is going to turn ten tomorrow and his parents have promised to take him to Outlandish Adventures, an amusement park that Bobby has seen advertised on television. As Bobby drifts off to sleep, he begins to dream about the fun that he will have on his birthday. He dreams about the smell of cotton candy and the yells of carnies soliciting people in to play their games, but most of all, he dreams about the Lightning Bolt - the tallest, fastest, and scariest roller coaster that little Bobby has ever seen. In his dream, the Lightning Bolt whips Bobby around sharp angles, through upside down loops so close to water that Bobby’s hair and face get wet, down vertical descents at speeds over 100 miles per hour, and finally to an abrupt stop where Bobby rushes to the end of the line to do it all over again.

  11. The last ride of Henry II of France: orbital injury and a king's demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Kian; Choe, Christina H; Vagefi, M Reza; Eckstein, Lauren A

    2015-01-01

    Jousting was a popular pastime for royalty in the Renaissance era. Injuries were common, and the eye was particularly at risk from the splinters of the wooden lance. On June 30, 1559, Henry II of France participated in a jousting tournament to celebrate two royal weddings. In the third match, Gabriel de Montgomery struck Henry on the right shoulder and the lance splintered, sending wooden shards into his face and right orbit. Despite being cared for by the prominent physicians Ambroise Paré and Andreas Vesalius, the king died 10 days later and was found to have a cerebral abscess. The wound was not explored immediately after the injury; nevertheless, wooden foreign bodies were discovered in the orbit at the time of autopsy. The dura had not been violated, suggesting that an infection may have traveled from the orbit into the brain. Nostradamus and Luca Guarico, the astrologer to the Medici family, had prophesied the death of Henry II of France, but he ignored their warnings and thus changed the course of history in Renaissance Europe. PMID:25890627

  12. Sport cycling crashes on public roads, the influence of bunch riding and experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. Gent, P. van & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    Cycling is a popular but unsafe mode of transport in the Netherlands and the number of seriously injured bicyclists has increased significantly since 2006. A special subgroup is the population of sport cyclists who perform their sport on public roads. The number of road crashes with sport cyclists s

  13. HIV and mature dendritic cells: Trojan exosomes riding the Trojan horse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Izquierdo-Useros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are secreted cellular vesicles that can induce specific CD4(+ T cell responses in vivo when they interact with competent antigen-presenting cells like mature dendritic cells (mDCs. The Trojan exosome hypothesis proposes that retroviruses can take advantage of the cell-encoded intercellular vesicle traffic and exosome exchange pathway, moving between cells in the absence of fusion events in search of adequate target cells. Here, we discuss recent data supporting this hypothesis, which further explains how DCs can capture and internalize retroviruses like HIV-1 in the absence of fusion events, leading to the productive infection of interacting CD4(+ T cells and contributing to viral spread through a mechanism known as trans-infection. We suggest that HIV-1 can exploit an exosome antigen-dissemination pathway intrinsic to mDCs, allowing viral internalization and final trans-infection of CD4(+ T cells. In contrast to previous reports that focus on the ability of immature DCs to capture HIV in the mucosa, this review emphasizes the outstanding role that mature DCs could have promoting trans-infection in the lymph node, underscoring a new potential viral dissemination pathway.

  14. The "Ticket to Ride" Formative Assessment Ritual: Collaboration and Festivity in High School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawiter, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry taught in high schools typically has group interaction components designed to provide opportunities for groups of two or more students to collaborate. Such opportunities, however, can lead to diminished learning among some students, as domination, group dissonance, and/or non-participation among group members can derail the collaborative…

  15. The contribution of Park and Ride to a robuust mobility system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.; Egeter, B.; Hendriks, T.; Immers, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Transport networks in many urbanized areas are vulnerable. Small disturbances can cause large delays for many travellers. In (Schrijver et al., 2008) and (Snelder et al., 2009), an architecture for designing robust road networks is presented. In this architecture robustness is defined as the extent

  16. Heterogeneous social preference and the dynamics of free riding in public goods

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbacher, Urs; Gächter, Simon

    2006-01-01

    We provide a direct test of the role of social preferences in voluntary cooperation. We elicit individuals' cooperation preference in one experiment and make a point prediction about the contribution to a repeated public good. This allows for a novel test as to whether there are types of players who behave consistently with their elicited preferences. We find clear-cut evidence for the existence of types. People who express free rider preferences show the most systematic deviation from the pr...

  17. Free Riding and Energy Use : Empirical evidence from residential electricity demand in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Petré, Ingel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focus on the free rider problem, well known in the field of economics. It is an unwanted situation that gives rise to unnecessary deadweight costs. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the free rider problem that occur when rent include housing utilities and especially when electricity is billed collectively. A Difference-in-Differences design has been applied on two different sets of panel data covering tenants electricity consumption. The results show that tenants use 21.3 perce...

  18. Heterogeneous social preferences and the dynamics of free riding in public goods

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbacher, Urs; Gächter, Simon

    2005-01-01

    "We provide a direct test of the role of social preferences in voluntary cooperation. We elicit individuals’ cooperation preference in one experiment and make a point prediction about the contribution to a repeated public good. This allows for a novel test as to whether there are ""types"" of players who behave consistently with their elicited preferences. We find clear-cut evidence for the existence of ""types"". People who express free rider preferences show the most systematic deviation fr...

  19. Solid state transformer with low-voltage ride-through and current unbalance management capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Alepuz Menéndez, Salvador; González, Francisco; Martín-Arnedo, Jacinto; Martínez Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The solid state transformer is an emerging technology which aims at replacing the conventional lowfrequency power transformer by means of a high-frequency transformer driven by a proper AC/AC power electronics conversion system, at both transformer sides. In comparison with the conventional power transformer, the solid state transformer provides extended and enhanced operating capabilities that can be achieved with an appropriate controller design for the power electronics converters. I...

  20. HIV and mature dendritic cells : Trojan exosomes riding the Trojan horse?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria Izquierdo-Useros; Mar Naranjo-Gómez; Itziar Erkizia; Maria Carmen Puertas; Francesc E Borràs; Julià Blanco; Javier Martinez-Picado

    2010-01-01

    Exosomes are secreted cellular vesicles that can induce specific CD4(+) T cell responses in vivo when they interact with competent antigen-presenting cells like mature dendritic cells (mDCs). The Trojan exosome hypothesis proposes that retroviruses can take advantage of the cell-encoded intercellular vesicle traffic and exosome exchange pathway, moving between cells in the absence of fusion events in search of adequate target cells. Here, we discuss recent data supporting this hypothesis, whi...

  1. Riding High - Success in Sports and the Rise of Doping Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Strulik, Holger

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a socio-economic model that analyzes the doping decision of professional athletes. In their decision to use performance enhancing drugs athletes do not only evaluate the costs and benefits (in terms of potential rank improvement). They also take into account peer-group approval of using drugs. Peer-group approval is modelled as a lagged endogenous variable that depends on the share of drug using athletes in the history of a sport. This way, the model can explain multiple...

  2. CAD System Dedicated to the Design of Sport Bike Frame Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianhua; Yang Wentong; Hu Fenglai; Wang Dakang

    2001-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the design process of the CAD system dedicated for sport bikeflame stracture, introducing in detail its design concept and the scheme of implementation. Based onthe different usages of sport bikes and the requirements on the system made out by Beijing HanglunSport Apparatus Company Limited. Structural analysis on two types of bikes' frames is carried out.The system defines the basic design parameters and analyses the constraint conditions. Thencalculating formulas with constraint conditions are derived. The system solves equations with VisualC++ program, realizes input of the original data and output of the results through interactive system.With AutoCAD14.0 as the platform, the system uses VC++ and ObjectARX to realize auto output ofbike frame graphics. The system has been put into use. Practice has affirmed that the system'sconvenience, applicability and reliability all have reached the expected goal.

  3. Energy harvesting from an exercise bike using a switch-mode converter controlled generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Lindberg-Poulsen, Kristian; Andersen, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    output of the bike. The complete controller design consists of this power stage, a control circuit, a startup circuit and an overvoltage protection circuit. A functional overview of the entire controller is presented in the paper, along with in-depth descriptions of the specific subcircuits designed......This paper investigates the feasibility of using an alternator as means of harvesting energy from a stationary exercise bicycle. A switch mode converter was designed to regulate the current in the alternator rotor winding, thus regulating the power required to pedal, and consequently the power....... The system is self-starting and does not require an external power source. There are two modes of operation: Voltage regulated 12V output for connection to a standard inverter, and unregulated output for charging of a 24V battery, with direct linear control of the rotor current, thus simulating road bike...

  4. On the Use of City Bikes to Make the City Even Smarter

    OpenAIRE

    Mitton, Nathalie; Rivano, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    International audience These last years have witnessed the riseof the smart cities and several mechanisms to renderthe cities more sustainable and more energy-efficient.Among all different aspects is transportation and urbanbike development. Besides the growing enthusiast provokedby bicycles and the benefit for health they bring,there still exists some reluctance in using bikes becauseof safety, road state, weather, etc. To counter-balancethese feelings, there is a need to better understan...

  5. Bike2Work celebration in honour of the colleagues who registered most kilometers in 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    Vigen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Before the 2014 season was officially launched, the CERN bikers took time to celebrate the strong commitment of biking to work in 2013. The celebration took place in front of Restaurant 1. The president of the CERN Bike Club, Henrik Nissen, was the master of ceremonies and presented a set of prizes: The three first prizes, all corresponding to the so-called "Karma Level Sexy Bottom", went to Tim Smith (7182 km), Martial Dujardin (5109 km) and Gabriele Thiede (4326 km). For the remaining group of participants there were seven extra prizes, attributed from a prize draw - where each of their registered kilometers was used as lottery ticket. In addition all got a diploma stating their karma level .

  6. The risk analysis during production process of an innovative baby carriage with a bike function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowiński Emil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the risk assesment of damages occurance in production stage of a babycarriage with a bike function. The analysis of risk is done by using the FMEA – Failure Made and Effect Analysis that is used in aviation and automotive industry. This way of innovative product assessment allows to evaluate the risk of defects and indicate the priorities of quality for key parts as well as the device.

  7. Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA' Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Margo B.; Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years…

  8. Neurologic complication after a roller coaster ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa Leitao, Davi; Mendonca, Dercio; Iyer, Harish; Kao, Cheng-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Neurologic complications after roller coaster rides are uncommon but potentially catastrophic. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion and prompt appropriate investigation. A 22-year-old healthy African American man presented with a 2-day history of constant occipital headache associated with vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and ambulatory dysfunction. Physical examination showed gait ataxia, slight dysmetria, and vertical nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed early subacute ischemic infarct in the right cerebellum in the distribution of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Magnetic resonance angiography of the neck showed focal dissection of the right vertebral artery at C1 through C2 level. On subsequent questioning, the patient recollected riding a roller coaster 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms. Anticoagulation with heparin was started, and the patient was bridged to oral warfarin. After a 5-day uneventful hospital course, symptoms improved and patient was discharged on oral anticoagulation. Cervicocephalic arterial dissections after roller coaster rides are rarely described in literature. The acceleration and abrupt changes of direction might lead to indirect trauma that is applied to mobile portions of the cervicocephalic arteries leading to intimal tears. Magnetic resonance angiography combined with axial T1-weighted cervical MRI is preferred because it is a high-sensitive, noninvasive test. The rationale for the use of anticoagulants or antiplatelets in patients with cervicocephalic arterial dissection is to prevent early recurrence and infarction. However, a meta-analysis failed to show significant difference in the rates of disability or death between both groups. Therefore, the decision for medical treatment should be made in a case-by-case basis. PMID:20980120

  9. Predicting Whole Body Vibration Exposure from Occupational Quad Bike Use in Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Lynne; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Trask, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure is recognised as a risk factor to the high prevalence of spinal musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) experienced by farmers. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported predictors that could be used to develop statistical models for WBV exposure (expressed as A8rms and VDV) in farmers operating agricultural quad bikes. Data were collected in the field from 130 farmers. Linear mixed effects modeling was used to determine the models of best fit. The p...

  10. Pedaling into high gear for bicycle policy in Canada : lessons from bike summit 2008 in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2008 bike summit provided a forum for the discussion of international and Canadian best practices related to bicycles and bicycling policy. The aim of the summit was to assist communities across Canada to improve conditions for cycling in the urban environment and help to generate a cultural shift towards greater acceptance of cycling on roads. This paper discussed lessons learned during the summit and outlined new methods of improving cycling in communities. The City of London has recently increased the amount of cyclists using its roads by 200 per cent. Cycling infrastructure is more affordable than constructing major public transit or road infrastructure. Savings in healthcare costs will be accrued over time as a result of the healthier lifestyles promoted by regular cycling activity. Bicycle trips can help to alleviate over-demand on heavy transit routes. Encouraging commuters to cycle will also reduce the amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in urban areas. Lane width reductions will help to reduce speeds as drivers are forced to pay more attention when driving. Public bike sharing programs and bike stations are now being used in many North American cities. It was concluded that strong advocacy is needed to ensure the growth and acceptance of cycling in urban centres. 23 figs

  11. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  12. Modeling and Control System Design for an Integrated Solar Generation and Energy Storage System with a Ride-Through Capability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Yue, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a generic approach for PV panel modeling. Data for this modeling can be easily obtained from manufacturer datasheet, which provides a convenient way for the researchers and engineers to investigate the PV integration issues. A two-stage power conversion system (PCS) is adopted in this paper for the PV generation system and a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) can be connected to the dc-link through a bi-directional dc/dc converter. In this way, the BESS can provide some ancillary services which may be required in the high penetration PV generation scenario. In this paper, the fault ride-through (FRT) capability is specifically focused. The integrated BESS and PV generation system together with the associated control systems is modeled in PSCAD and Matlab platforms and the effectiveness of the controller is validated by the simulation results.

  13. Riding the Yield Curve: A Spanning Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galvani, Valentina; Landon, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The average return on long-term bonds exceeds the return on short-term bills by a large amount over short investment horizons. A riding-the-yield-curve investment strategy takes advantage of the higher returns on longer term bonds. This strategy involves the purchase of bonds with maturities longer than the investment horizon and the sale of these bonds, before they mature, at the end of the investment horizon. Most of the literature that evaluates this strategy compares only ex post average ...

  14. Helmet use among users of the Citi Bike bicycle-sharing program: a pilot study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Basch, Charles E

    2014-06-01

    The use of bicycle helmets to prevent or reduce serious head injuries is well established. However, it is unclear how to effectively promote helmet use, particularly in the context of bicycle-sharing programs. The need to determine rates of helmet use specifically among users of bicycle-sharing programs and understand if certain characteristics, such as time of day, affect helmet use, is imperative if effective promotion and/or legislative efforts addressing helmet use are to be developed. We estimated the prevalence of helmet use among a sample of Citi Bike program users in New York City. A total of 1,054 cyclists were observed over 44 h and across the 22 busiest Citi Bike locations. Overall, 85.3% (95% CI 82.2, 88.4%) of the cyclists observed did not wear a helmet. Rates of helmet non-use were also consistent whether cyclists were entering or leaving the docking station, among cyclists using the Citi Bikes earlier versus later in the day, and among cyclists using the Citi Bikes on weekends versus weekdays. Improved understanding about factors that facilitate and hinder helmet use is needed to help reduce head injury risk among users of bicycle sharing programs.

  15. A review of ride comfort studies in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    United Kingdom research which is relevant to the assessment of vehicle ride comfort was reviewed. The findings reported in approximately 80 research papers are outlined, and an index to the areas of application of these studies is provided. The data obtained by different research groups are compared, and it is concluded that, while there are some areas of general agreement, the findings obtained from previous United Kingdom research are insufficient to define a general purpose ride comfort evaluation procedure. The degree to which United Kingdom research supports the vibration evaluation procedure defined in the current International Standard on the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration is discussed.

  16. The Medical Staff Ride: an education tool for military medical leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Martin C M

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a description of the Medical Staff Ride as an educational tool for military medical leadership. It is based upon two Medical Staff Rides covering the Somme Campaign 1916 and the Normandy Campaign 1944. It describes the key educational activity 'The Stand' at which history and current issues are brought together through study of a particular location on the historical battlefield. The Medical Staff Ride can be divided into six distinct phases, each of which have common question sets for analysis by attendees. The Medical Staff Ride can be shown to have valuable educational outcomes that are efficient in time and cost, and effective in achieving personal learning. The supporting Readers for the two Medical Staff Rides covered by this paper are available as electronic supplement to this edition of the journal. PMID:26115999

  17. Riding comfort simulation and experiment research of air suspension bus%空气悬架客车平顺性仿真与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高家兵; 刘慧建; 李强

    2011-01-01

    Take some large size bus as research object,separately fit the rigidity of air suspension for front and rear suspension,set up eight degrees of freedom vehicle model in Matlab,and make riding comfort simulation and experiment,make eomparasion for simulation result and experiment result,the consequence shows,the dynamic model and simulation result are correct.%以某大客车为研究对象,分别拟合前后悬架空气弹簧刚度,在Matlab中建立八自由度整车模型,并进行平顺性仿真与实验,将其仿真结果与试验结果进行比较,结果显示,所建立的动力学模型及仿真结果是正确的。

  18. Loss and thermal redistributed modulation methods for three-level neutral-point-clamped wind power inverter undergoing Low Voltage Ride Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    investigates the loss and thermal performances of a 10 MW 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) operation. A series of new space vector modulation methods are then proposed to relocate the thermal loading among the power switching devices. It is concluded that, with the proposed......The three-level neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) converter is a promising multilevel topology in the application of mega-watts wind power generation system. However, the growing requirements by grid codes may impose high stress and even give reliability problem to this converter topology. This paper...... modulation methods, the thermal distribution in the 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing LVRT becomes more equal, and the junction temperature of the most stressed devices can be also relieved. Also the control ability of DC-bus neutral point potential, which is one of the crucial considerations for the 3L...

  19. Modulation Methods for Neutral-Point-Clamped Wind Power Converter Achieving Loss and Thermal Redistribution Under Low-Voltage Ride-Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    paper investigates the loss and thermal performances of a 10-MW 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) operation. A series of new space vector modulation methods is then proposed to relocate the thermal loading among the power switching devices. It is concluded that, with......The three-level neutral-point (NP)-clamped (3L-NPC) converter is a promising multilevel topology in the application of megawatt wind power generation systems. However, the growing requirements by grid codes may impose high stress and even give reliability problem to this converter topology. This...... the proposed modulation methods, the thermal distribution in the 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing LVRT becomes more equal, and the junction temperature of the most stressed devices can be also relieved. Also, the control ability of the dc-bus NP potential, which is one of the crucial...

  20. Dial a Ride from k-forest

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Anupam; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R

    2007-01-01

    The k-forest problem is a common generalization of both the k-MST and the dense-$k$-subgraph problems. Formally, given a metric space on $n$ vertices $V$, with $m$ demand pairs $\\subseteq V \\times V$ and a ``target'' $k\\le m$, the goal is to find a minimum cost subgraph that connects at least $k$ demand pairs. In this paper, we give an $O(\\min\\{\\sqrt{n},\\sqrt{k}\\})$-approximation algorithm for $k$-forest, improving on the previous best ratio of $O(n^{2/3}\\log n)$ by Segev & Segev. We then apply our algorithm for k-forest to obtain approximation algorithms for several Dial-a-Ride problems. The basic Dial-a-Ride problem is the following: given an $n$ point metric space with $m$ objects each with its own source and destination, and a vehicle capable of carrying at most $k$ objects at any time, find the minimum length tour that uses this vehicle to move each object from its source to destination. We prove that an $\\alpha$-approximation algorithm for the $k$-forest problem implies an $O(\\alpha\\cdot\\log^2n)$-ap...

  1. Exploring Circumstances Involving Voluntary Invitation and Involuntary Invitation in Bona Fide Free Ride%善意同乘中主被动情形的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洋

    2015-01-01

    善意同乘作为好意施惠行为,在间接侵权责任的法律关系中,其应当以过错责任为标准衡量机动车驾驶者的责任,但是除此之外,法律和理论并未论述到善意同乘建立时的不同:是驾车者主动要求搭载第三人;还是驾车者受第三人所邀,被动搭载第三人。不论是从法理上还是社会情理上,这两种情形在法律关系建立时所起的效果明显完全不同,因此本文尝试论述这两种情形的差异以及事后相关侵权责任的划分,以完善整个交通事故侵权责任理论。%As a beneficent act of bestowing favor , bona fide free ride , if resulting in legal actions , should be trea-ted with the principle of fault liability .However , the existing legal documents and theoretical stipulations have yet fallen short of mentioning the differences between voluntary invitation and involuntary invitation in dealing with bona fide free ride disputes .The two situations might result in distinct legal outcomes either from legal or social-moral perspectives .Therefore , this paper attempts a distinction between these two circumstances and their resultant liabil-ities with a view to perfecting the tort liability theory in cases involving traffic accidents .

  2. Beowulf Rides the Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Jordan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a series of poetry workshops that connect poetry to the tangible world of nature, and also teaches students about the biology, ecology, and history of their area. Presents several old and middle English poems used in the workshop and discusses different translations and their relation to nature. (SC)

  3. Riding the Diversified Rails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More open and flexible measures are ready to be adopted by the Chinese Government in the railway sector, bringing hugeopportunities for foreign and private Chinese investment. At the same time, market-oriented operating practices will help modernize this

  4. Renewable Energy Riding High

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is putting greater emphasis on green energy as it tries to clean up industry and meet target for cuts in carbon emissions over the past two years, China has already leapfrogged competitors from Denmark, Germany, Spain and the United States to become the world's largest maker of wind turbines and solar panels. At the same time, the country is also taking steps to build more nuclear reactors and energy-efficient coal power plants.

  5. Magic Carpet Ride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2007-01-01

    Last month cabin fever overwhelmed me. I desperately needed a break: from my polite but wily students, from my unsatisfactory yet demanding lover, and from my overpopulated and mundane Chinese city. But going abroad took too much time, money and planning

  6. Riding the Rails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRANDON TAYLOR

    2010-01-01

    My seat was in the full, upright position as one of the atten-dants came by. I showed her my ticket, to which she smiled and said, "Enjoy your trip." The seat was spacious and comfortable. I'd paid extra for business class. And I had a window seat.

  7. Ride or Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmead, Tyler; Brown, Ruth-Nicole

    2014-01-01

    In this Instructional Resource, Denmead and Brown consider how "Ruffneck Constructivists," an exhibition curated by Kara Walker at the Institute for Contemporary Art (ICA), University of Pennsylvania, can disturb and provoke young creatives and art education more broadly. For this exhibition, Walker draws on the figure that MC Lyte…

  8. Workload demand in police officers during mountain bike patrols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takken, T; Ribbink, A; Heneweer, H; Moolenaar, H; Wittink, H

    2009-02-01

    To the authors' knowledge this is the first paper that has used the training impulse (TRIMP) 'methodology' to calculate workload demand. It is believed that this is a promising method to calculate workload in a range of professions in order to understand the relationship between work demands and aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to assess workload demand in police officers from the Utrecht police department in the Netherlands, during patrol by mountain bike. Maximum oxygen intake, maximum heart rate (HRmax), ventilatory threshold (VT)1 and VT2 were determined with a maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. Heart rates were registered throughout three shifts in 20 subjects using a heart rate monitor. Exercise intensity was divided into three phases: phase I (between 40% of HRmax and VT1); phase II (between VT and the respiratory compensation point (RCP)); and phase III (>RCP). The total TRIMP score was obtained by summating the results of the three phases. Average daily workload demands of 355 TRIMPs per day and 1777 TRIMPs per week were measured. Workload demand approached and in some cases exceeded the upper limit of 2000 TRIMPs per week threshold level for physiological stress demands in professional male cyclists.

  9. Riding the MOOC Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have the potential to revolutionize teaching and learning at universities. It is even conceivable that MOOCs can endanger the basic business model of higher education, because they have the potential to erase traditional brick-and-mortar advantages. I will discuss our experiences with 15 years of offering online physics courses at Michigan State University, and lessons learned in doing so.

  10. Pimp My Ride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EVELINE CHAO

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cars 'n' guns. For as long as he can remember, Jason Wang has been obsessed with both. And as a co-partner in ACE Auto, a garage near Beijing's South Fourth Ring Road that repairs and soups up luxury cars, Wang now gets to be around at least one of his obsessions full-time.

  11. Riding the Technology Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Pierre

    This paper presents an overview of information technology development. The first section sets the scene, comparing the first WAN (Wide Area Network) and Intel processor to current technology. The birth of the microcomputer is described in the second section, including historical background on semiconductors, microprocessors, and the microcomputer.…

  12. About the Little Red Riding Hood, Durex and anger: production, meaning and reception of one fairy tale and one commercial ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By applying the semiological analysis, this paper considers planned and unplanned readings of a provocative domestic commercial, which, in order to convey its message, transposed the Little Red Riding Hood’s character in accordance with the advertised product – Durex condoms. This commercial caused furious reactions of parents who took legal action for breaching the Law on public advertising and, especially, "harming children’s sensibility and integrity". Provocative billboards also caused numerous comments in the daily newspapers, in the Internet chat rooms, with some considering the commercial vulgar and offensive and others having no problem with it, adding that the ones who took offence belonged to those puritan and conservative layers of the society. In order to discover the reasons to this kind of reactions, I started with researching how the commercial was made and what kind of message it offered. Next, I reconsidered the meaning of the very fairy tale "The Red Riding Hood". Its original version, which contains open sexual allusions, is quite different to the changed versions offered by Charles Perrault and the Grimm brothers. Their versions can be seen as fakelore, since they outrageously intervened on the plot and the meaning of the original fairy tale. However, since the Grimm brothers’ version is the most popular, it is a fact that our public reacted with such anger led by the meaning of their version, which accentuates overeating and cannibalism, and not sexual development of girls, which is the basic message of the original version. This is where the "communicational noise" that led to those negative reactions came from. By discovering the true meaning of the tale, the answer is given to the question whether the advertising agency made a slip up, or it had actually found the right way to communicate the hidden message of the tale, and at the same time ruin the advertising campaign for which it was used. In the end, range and

  13. RIDING IN STYLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing is upgrading its bus fleet to make commuting more comfortable and environmentally friendly As part of the Beijing Municipal Government's efforts to promote public transportation, the city is upgrading its fleet of buses to provide the latest in comfort and to meet more stringent pollution emission standards. People may remember a line from the American sitcom Friends describing Beijing buses in 1996 as "easily 200 years old...200 at least." If the cast of the television show paid a visit to China...

  14. A Turbulent Ride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRADLEY GARDNER

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Eastern Airlines (中国东方航空) is having a rough time these days. Besides problematic pilot strikes late last year, the rising cost of jet-fuel, and increased competi-tion, the company is now in-creasingly short of money.

  15. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...

  16. Riding the Internet Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brendan; McGauley

    2007-01-01

    The days before Internet (BI) seem very distant now like another time in history. At that time, I avoided computers and never thought I would use them. My passion was selling musical gear. Not a very scholarly pursuit, I know, but it kept me out of trouble.

  17. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  18. Research on Electric Bike Service Development in City%某市电动自行车服务水平发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨权涛; 任璐

    2015-01-01

    Electric bike is a transition transportation indicating the civilian commuting in our nation has changed from bikes to public transportation.The present growing demands for electric bikes lead to a rapid development of this industry,which constantly exposed the existing problems.In order to better solve these problems,this paper analyzes firstly the advantages and disadvantages of electric bikes,then the electric bikes′development in Xi′an city by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method,and finally the possible development in the future,which has a guiding significance for the development of electric bikes in China.%分析了电动自行车的特点,运用模糊综合评价方法对某市电动自行车的发展进行分析;在分析电动自行车发展结论的基础上,对国内电动自行车服务水平发展研究有一定指导意义。

  19. Connect the Book. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    The famous poem "The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (originally included in "Tales of a Wayside Inn" as "The Landlord's Tale") has been illustrated by a number of children's book artists over the years. One particular version of note was graved and painted by Christopher Bing and published by Handprint Books in 2001.…

  20. Accreditation's Alchemy Hour: Riding the Wave of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    This article was adapted from Paul L. Gaston's address to the 2014 annual meeting of the "Association of American Colleges and Universities." The panel session talk "Accreditation: Riding the Wave of Innovation--or Going Under?" addressed issues surrounding the many proposals for demolishing and rebuilding higher education…

  1. 基于UG的电动自行车虚拟装配与运动学分析%Virtual assembly and kinematics analysis for e-bike based on UG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路连; 高荣

    2011-01-01

    UG提供了一种产品工程解决方案,可对产品设计与加工全过程实现数字化造型与验证.采用UG软件完成电动自行车主要机械零部件三维设计与虚拟装配,其中也利用其Senario?for?FEA 模块对电动车关键零部件展开有限元分析;虚拟装配可实现零件静态干涉检查、装配路径规划等,有限元分析也促进了零件的进一步优化.最后,文中简述UG的运动学分析方法,其操作简单,可视化.通过运动件各关键点的位移、速度、加速度等变化规律曲线,从而轻松获知其运动特性.%UG software provides a kind of solution in Product Engineering, which may achieve digital modeling and verification for product design and machining process.3D design and virtual assembly for key mechanical parts of e-bike(electric bicycle )are accomplished by using UG.Meanwhile Finite-element analysis for the key parts has been done with UG/FEA as well.With the virtual assembly, static interference checking, layout planning for assembly is achieved.And the further optimization for the parts is realized by finite element analysis.As a result,the UG kinematics analysis method is expounded,which operation is easy and visualized.From the variational rule curve of speed,acceleration and displacement for key points of the moving parts, the characteristics of kinematics is obtained easily.

  2. Science 101: How Do People Design Safe Amusement Park Rides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    To address the question of how people design safe amusement park rides, Bill Robertson focuses on the factors designers must consider so that human bodies don't experience too large an acceleration (any change in speed and/or direction) or "g-force" (the acceleration an object undergoes while freely falling, with no air resistance, under…

  3. Ride comfort analysis with physiological parameters for an e-health train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngbum; Shin, Kwangsoo; Lee, Sangjoon; Song, Yongsoo; Han, Sungho; Lee, Myoungho

    2009-12-01

    Transportation by train has numerous advantages over road transportation, especially with regard to energy efficiency, ecological features, safety, and punctuality. However, the contrast in ride comfort between standard road transportation and train travel has become a competitive issue. The ride comfort enhancement technology of tilting trains (TTX) is a particularly important issue in the development of the Korean high-speed railroad business. Ride comfort is now defined in international standards such as UIC13 and ISO2631. The Korean standards such as KSR9216 mainly address physical parameters such as vibration and noise. In the area of ride comfort, living quality parameter techniques have recently been considered in Korea, Japan, and Europe. This study introduces biological parameters, particularly variations in heart rate, as a more direct measure of comfort. Biological parameters are based on physiological responses rather than on purely external mechanical parameters. Variability of heart rate and other physiological parameters of passengers are measured in a simulation involving changes in the tilting angle of the TTX. This research is a preliminary study for the implementation of an e-health train, which would provide passengers with optimized ride comfort. The e-health train would also provide feedback on altered ride comfort situations that can improve a passenger's experience and provide a healthcare service on the train. The aim of this research was to develop a ride comfort evaluation system for the railway industry, the automobile industry, and the air industry. The degree of tilt correlated with heart rate, fatigue, and unrelieved alertness.

  4. Why Exercise Is Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... roller hockey, jogging (or walking quickly), inline skating, soccer, cross-country skiing, biking, or rowing. And don' ... push-ups pull-ups tug-of-war rowing running inline skating bike riding continue Exercise Makes You ...

  5. Learning To Be Vélomobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    to use a bike-friendly infrastructure, and how in such an environment they learn to ride with the help of others. Video and audio recordings of family bike rides as well as school bike training sessions and school bike tours were made to capture from multi-angles the aural and visual features......There are few qualitative studies to date of how children learn to become vélomobile, and of how parents and caregivers talk and interact with children to instruct them how to ride safely. This paper reports on a study of how children learn to sit in a carrier bike as a passenger and to ride...... and instructed action: directing, assessing and shepherding children who are learning to cycle; 3) learning to ride in formation: the ‘bike train’ as an instructed formation-in-action; 4) sharing the experience of riding together; 5) learning to navigate an obstacle course together; 6) practising safe cycling...

  6. The effects of riding therapy from client’s point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Koivuniemi, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to find out what kind of effects riding therapy clients experience and how those effect on their everyday lives. This thesis also aims to ex-plain the concept of riding therapy and its benefits from the physiotherapy point of view. Its implementation and requirements are also explained. This study’s main aim was to figure the clients’ point of view about the effects of riding therapy, and to gain knowledge of how they experience them, via a question-naire. ...

  7. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from national horse racetracks and private horse-riding courses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon Soo; Song, Jae Won; Kim, Dae Ho; Shin, Sook; Park, Young Kyung; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Suk Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding horse-associated antimicrobial resistant (AR) Escherichia (E.) coli. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and characterize the pattern of AR E. coli from healthy horse-associated samples. A total of 143 E. coli (4.6%) were isolated from 3,078 samples collected from three national racetracks and 14 private horse-riding courses in Korea. Thirty of the E. coli isolates (21%) showed antimicrobial resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, and four of the AR E. coli (13.3%) were defined as multi-drug resistance. Most of the AR E. coli harbored AR genes corresponding to their antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Four of the AR E. coli carried class 1 integrase gene (intI1), a gene associated with multi-drug resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis showed no genetic relatedness among AR E. coli isolated from different facilities; however, cross-transmissions between horses or horses and environments were detected in two facilities. Although cross-transmission of AR E. coli in horses and their environments was generally low, our study suggests a risk of transmission of AR bacteria between horses and humans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the risk of possible transmission of horse-associated AR bacteria to human communities through horse riders and horse-care workers. PMID:26645344

  8. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from national horse racetracks and private horse-riding courses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon Soo; Song, Jae Won; Kim, Dae Ho; Shin, Sook; Park, Young Kyung; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Suk Kyung; Park, Kun Taek; Park, Yong Ho

    2016-06-30

    Limited information is available regarding horse-associated antimicrobial resistant (AR) Escherichia (E.) coli. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and characterize the pattern of AR E. coli from healthy horse-associated samples. A total of 143 E. coli (4.6%) were isolated from 3,078 samples collected from three national racetracks and 14 private horse-riding courses in Korea. Thirty of the E. coli isolates (21%) showed antimicrobial resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, and four of the AR E. coli (13.3%) were defined as multi-drug resistance. Most of the AR E. coli harbored AR genes corresponding to their antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Four of the AR E. coli carried class 1 integrase gene (intI1), a gene associated with multi-drug resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis showed no genetic relatedness among AR E. coli isolated from different facilities; however, cross-transmissions between horses or horses and environments were detected in two facilities. Although cross-transmission of AR E. coli in horses and their environments was generally low, our study suggests a risk of transmission of AR bacteria between horses and humans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the risk of possible transmission of horse-associated AR bacteria to human communities through horse riders and horse-care workers. PMID:26645344

  9. A Study on the Cooperative Optimization of Vehicle Controllability/Stability and Ride Comfort%车辆操纵稳定性及平顺性的协同优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣山; 袁仲荣; 黄向东; 赵克刚

    2009-01-01

    利用车辆多体动力学模型与多目标优化工具,对悬架弹簧、减振器及横向稳定杆特性进行操纵稳定性与行驶平顺性的协同优化仿真.结果表明汽车的操稳性和行驶平顺性的各项性能指标均得到了改善.%By using multi-body dynamics model and multi-objective optimization tools, a cooperative opti-mization simulation for controllability/stability and ride comfort is conducted on suspension spring, shock absorber and anti-roll bar of a car. The results show that all performance indicators in controllability/stability and ride comfort of the car are concurrently improved.

  10. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ghekiere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10-12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. METHODS: Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi- urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (indirectly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. CONCLUSION: Road safety is of major concern in this 10-12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport.

  11. Design of a bike headlamp based on a power white-light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chien; Chen, Cheng-Chien; Chou, Hung-Yu; Yang, Kai-Yu; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2011-08-01

    In this letter, we present a new design for a light-emitting diode- based bike headlamp. The optical design contains two horizontal reflectors and a light pipe with two horizontal parallel mirrors. The designed illumination pattern in our simulations performs a contrast of 250 in the K-mark regulation, and it was measured to be 21 in the experiment with a not well-finished prototype, which was operated at 1 W. The contrast is higher than 5 as requested in the regulation.

  12. Corneal Opacity in a Participant of a 161-km Mountain Bike Race at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Torres, David R

    2016-06-01

    Visual dysfunction is a relatively uncommon complaint among athletes during ultraendurance races. The pathophysiology of most of these cases is unknown. Corneal opacity has been speculated as the etiology for most of reported cases. We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old man with a partial unilateral corneal opacity and edema at kilometer 150 of a 161-km mountain bike race in high altitude. He was not able to finish the race (12-hour cutoff) because of his visual symptoms. He completely recovered in 3 days with no sequelae. PMID:27095539

  13. Use of a virtual reality physical ride-on sailing simulator as a rehabilitation tool for recreational sports and community reintegration: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Albert C; Becker, Daniel; Morgan, Marjorie; Saunders, Norman R; Schramm, Lawrence P; McDonald, John W

    2013-12-01

    Participation in sailing by people with disabilities, particularly in small sailboats, is widely regarded as having positive outcomes on self-esteem and general health for the participants. However, a major hurdle for people with no previous experience of sailing, even by those without disabilities, is the perception that sailing is elitist, expensive, and dangerous. Real-time "ride-on" sailing simulators have the potential to bridge the gap between dry-land and on-the-water sailing. These provide a realistic, safe, and easily supervised medium in which nonsailors can easily and systematically learn the required skills before venturing out on the water. The authors report a 12-wk pilot therapeutic sailing program using the VSail-Access sailing simulation system followed by on-water experience. After completion of the training, all subjects demonstrated the ability to navigate a simple course around marker buoys (triangular configuration) on the computer screen, the ability to sail independently in winds of moderate strength (up to 14 knots) on water, and measurable improvements in their psychologic health. In addition, the subjects were able to participate in a sports activity with their respective family members and experienced a sense of optimism about their future.

  14. Intentions to use bike-sharing for holiday cycling: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Manca, Francesco; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the behavioral factors underlying tourist intentions to use urban bike-sharing for cycling while on holiday. The analytical framework relied on the Theory of Planned Behavior relating tourist intentions to favorable attitudes toward cycling, interest in bicycle technology......, favorable subjective norms toward cycling, and perceived cycling ease. The case-study focused on the new bikesharing system in Copenhagen (Denmark) and questioned 655 potential tourists about a hypothetical holiday scenario. Structural equation models revealed: (i) a great interest in using bike......-sharing, frequently and for multiple purposes; (ii) a relation between holiday cycling and living in a cyclingfriendly country, past cycling experience, and habitual transport mode choice during daily life; (iii) an appeal of electric bicycles to tourists with high interest in bicycle technology, low perceived...

  15. Motorcycle riding under the influence of alcohol: results from the SARTRE-4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George; Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami

    2014-09-01

    Riding a motorcycle under the influence of alcohol is a dangerous activity, especially considering the high vulnerability of motorcyclists. The present research investigates the factors that affect the declared frequency of drink-riding among motorcyclists in Europe and explores regional differences. Data were collected from the SARTRE-4 (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) survey, which was conducted in 19 countries. A total sample of 4483 motorcyclists was interviewed by using a face-to-face questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of multilevel ordered logit models. The results revealed significant regional differences (between Northern, Eastern and Southern European countries) in drink-riding frequencies in Europe. In general, declared drinking and riding were positively associated with gender (males), increased exposure, underestimation of risk, friends' behaviour, past accidents and alcohol ticket experience. On the other hand, it was negatively associated with underestimation of the amount of alcohol allowed before driving, and support for more severe penalties.

  16. Motorcycle riding under the influence of alcohol: results from the SARTRE-4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George; Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami

    2014-09-01

    Riding a motorcycle under the influence of alcohol is a dangerous activity, especially considering the high vulnerability of motorcyclists. The present research investigates the factors that affect the declared frequency of drink-riding among motorcyclists in Europe and explores regional differences. Data were collected from the SARTRE-4 (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) survey, which was conducted in 19 countries. A total sample of 4483 motorcyclists was interviewed by using a face-to-face questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of multilevel ordered logit models. The results revealed significant regional differences (between Northern, Eastern and Southern European countries) in drink-riding frequencies in Europe. In general, declared drinking and riding were positively associated with gender (males), increased exposure, underestimation of risk, friends' behaviour, past accidents and alcohol ticket experience. On the other hand, it was negatively associated with underestimation of the amount of alcohol allowed before driving, and support for more severe penalties. PMID:24713220

  17. Fault Ride Though Control of Photovoltaic Grid-connected Inverter with Current-limited Capability under Offshore Unbalanced Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2016-01-01

    of the excessive current phenomenon with the conventional fault ride through control is discussed. The quantitative analysis of the current peak value is conducted and a new current-limiting control strategy is proposed to achieve the flexible power control and successful fault ride through in a safe current...

  18. Comparison Between Time and Frequency Domain Method in Vehicle Ride Comfort Analysis%汽车平顺性分析中时域法和频域法的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中明; 周小林; 余烽; 张芳; 谭建林

    2012-01-01

    Based on international standard ISO2631 and national standard GB/T4970 Method of random input running test-Automotive ride comfort, the ride comfort tests are conducted on a bus with a study focused on the applicability discrepancy between different algorithms in ride comfort analysis. By applying Parseval theorem, both time and frequency domain algorithms are implemented with FAMOS and VC&MATLAB software development platforms. The results show that the outcomes of calculation with different algorithms don't have significant differences, but each algorithm has its own distinguishing feature. The time domain algorithm is more sensitive to peak factor and can be used to evaluate the ride comfort of vehicle from the perspective of human body comfort, while the frequency domain algorithm is suitable for analyzing the influence of each frequency of one-third octave band on human body vibration and providing bases for ride comfort improvement, but with die defects in lower accuracy and processing efficiency. And in frequency domain, the results of comparison between two spectrum estimation schemes indicate that the Welch classic spectrum estimation technique has poor consistency while the Yule-Walker method using AR model has relatively stable performance.%依据国际标准ISO2631和国标GB/T4970《汽车平顺性随机输入行驶试验方法》,对某客车进行了行驶平顺性试验,重点研究了不同算法在平顺性分析中的差别.以FAMOS、VC&MATLAB为软件开发平台,在Parse-val定理基础上实现了时、频域两种算法.结果表明,各种算法计算结果差别不大但各有特点,时域法对峰值系数更加敏感,可用于从人体舒适性角度评价平顺性;频域法则适用于分析1/3倍频程各频带对人体振动的影响并为改善汽车平顺性提供依据,但存在精度较低、处理效率不高等问题.而频率法中两种谱估计法的对比结果表明,Welch经典谱估计法的一致

  19. Bike-Sharing: Is Safety an Issue Adversely Affecting its Potential for Being Embraced by Urban Societies?

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitas, Alexandros; Michalakopoulos, Nikitas; Wallgren, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    Using bicycles on an ‘as-needed’ basis, usually for a small rental fee and without the externalities and obligations linked to bicycle ownership, is what makes public bicycles a societally affordable medium to enhance the transition to a more sustainable urban transport paradigm. However, despite its distinctive character in terms of its potential to be a mechanism transforming in some degree urban mobility to a shared responsibility regime, bike-sharing still faces some of the same safety co...

  20. Outcomes of Home-Support Consultation on the Maintenance of Bicycle-Riding Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Pitchford, E. Andrew; Hauck, Janet L.; Ketcheson, Leah R.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle riding is a functional motor skill that increases physical activity opportunities, social interaction, and independence. However, bicycle riding is difficult for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to learn. This study examined the effectiveness of home-support consultation (HSC) on increasing the maintenance of independent bicycle…

  1. Ride control of surface effect ships using distributed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgeir J. Sørensen

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A ride control system for active damping of heave and pitch accelerations of Surface Effect Ships (SES is presented. It is demonstrated that distributed effects that are due to a spatially varying pressure in the air cushion result in significant vertical vibrations in low and moderate sea states. In order to achieve a high quality human comfort and crew workability it is necessary to reduce these vibrations using a control system which accounts for distributed effects due to spatial pressure variations in the air cushion. A mathematical model of the process is presented, and collocated sensor and actuator pairs are used. The process stability is ensured using a controller with appropriate passivity properties. Sensor and actuator location is also discussed. The performance of the ride control system is shown by power spectra of the vertical accelerations obtained from full scale experiments with a 35 m SES.

  2. The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike World Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbiss, Chris R; Ross, Megan L R; Garvican, Laura A; Ross, Neil; Pottgiesser, Torben; Gregory, John; Martin, David T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of pace self-selected by cyclists of varying ability, biological age and sex performing in a mountain bike World Championship event. Data were collected on cyclists performing in the Elite Male (ELITEmale; n = 75), Elite Female (ELITEfemale; n = 50), Under 23 Male (U23male; n = 62), Under 23 Female (U23female; n = 34), Junior Male (JNRmale; n = 71) and Junior Female (JNRfemale; n = 30) categories of the 2009 UCI Cross-Country Mountain Bike World Championships. Split times were recorded for the top, middle and bottom 20% of all finishers of each category. Timing splits were positioned to separate the course into technical and non-technical, uphill, downhill and rolling/flat sections. Compared with bottom performers, top performers in all male categories (ELITEmale, U23male, JNRmale) maintained a more even pace over the event as evidenced by a significantly lower standard deviation and range in average lap speed. Top performers, males, and ELITEmale athletes spent a lower percentage of overall race time on technical uphill sections of the course, compared with middle and bottom placed finishers, females, and JNRmale athletes, respectively. Better male performers adopt a more even distribution of pace throughout cross-country mountain events. Performance of lower placed finishers, females and JNRmale athletes may be improved by enhancing technical uphill cycling ability. PMID:23521618

  3. The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike World Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbiss, Chris R; Ross, Megan L R; Garvican, Laura A; Ross, Neil; Pottgiesser, Torben; Gregory, John; Martin, David T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of pace self-selected by cyclists of varying ability, biological age and sex performing in a mountain bike World Championship event. Data were collected on cyclists performing in the Elite Male (ELITEmale; n = 75), Elite Female (ELITEfemale; n = 50), Under 23 Male (U23male; n = 62), Under 23 Female (U23female; n = 34), Junior Male (JNRmale; n = 71) and Junior Female (JNRfemale; n = 30) categories of the 2009 UCI Cross-Country Mountain Bike World Championships. Split times were recorded for the top, middle and bottom 20% of all finishers of each category. Timing splits were positioned to separate the course into technical and non-technical, uphill, downhill and rolling/flat sections. Compared with bottom performers, top performers in all male categories (ELITEmale, U23male, JNRmale) maintained a more even pace over the event as evidenced by a significantly lower standard deviation and range in average lap speed. Top performers, males, and ELITEmale athletes spent a lower percentage of overall race time on technical uphill sections of the course, compared with middle and bottom placed finishers, females, and JNRmale athletes, respectively. Better male performers adopt a more even distribution of pace throughout cross-country mountain events. Performance of lower placed finishers, females and JNRmale athletes may be improved by enhancing technical uphill cycling ability.

  4. Coordination of Advertising Free Riding in Hybrid Channel Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Jin; Wang, Aihu; Lv, Ting; Wu, Wenling

    2016-01-01

    Advertising is a crucial tool for demand creation and market expansion; enterprises in supply chain use it widely to increase sales and improve profits. But the homogeneity of products sold in hybrid channel supply chain magnifies the positive externalities of advertising and leads to serious free-riding problem. To coordinate the supply chain effectively, firstly, this paper classifies hybrid channel supply chain based on the relationship between members and selects horizontally integrated, ...

  5. Velocity control with disturbance observer for pedal-assisted electric bikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shyue-Bin; Chen, Pang-Chia; Chuang, Hung-Shiang; Hsiao, Chih-Ching

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a velocity control approach for light electric bicycles with human power assistance. A disturbance observer mechanism is used to estimate the sum of the human torque and resistance torques. The resulting vehicle velocity control provides better battery energy efficiency by knowledge of the instantaneous human torque assistance and better speed control by knowledge of the instantaneous resistive torque. The disturbance observer is tuned in terms of the DC gain of a low-passed Q-filter for both open-loop and closed-loop schemes. Assuming that the slow varying nature of the disturbance has been properly estimated and compensated, the torque control law is designed via an optimal control approach to achieve multi-objective performances regarding the external disturbance input, control signal magnitude, and velocity tracking error. The three main parameters of the electric bike, including the moment of inertia, the radius of tyre and the vehicle weight are allowed to be variational. Specifically, the deviation of the inertia moment and deviation of the tyre radius are addressed during the controller design in terms of linear matrix inequalities. On the other hand, the effect of vehicle weight deviation on the system behaviour is evaluated when the vehicle is implemented with the constructed control law. Based on the parameters and specifications of the EL-168 electric bike produced by KENTFA Advanced Technology, Taiwan, the design results are verified through time-response simulations.

  6. The effect of alcohol hangover on the ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Mindiashvili, Nona; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on the ability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests were carried out at different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). For this purpose, various alcoholic beverages could be consumed from around 2 p.m. until 11 p.m. Afterwards, the test persons spent the night on the trial site and were provided with dormitory sleeping accommodation. On the following morning, beginning at around 8 a.m., a final cycling test was performed. The performances of those test persons who had returned to state of soberness and of those with residual blood alcohol levels were compared to the performances on the day before. The practical ability to ride a bicycle was significantly reduced in the postalcoholic state compared to the rides of the day before. The relative cycling performance in the postalcoholic state was comparable to the rides under the influence of BAC of around 0.30 g/kg. There were no remarkable differences between the groups with and without residual blood alcohol levels regarding the rides on the next morning. Therefore, it can be assumed that the direct influence of residual blood alcohol levels plays a minor role for the ability to ride a bicycle in the postalcoholic state. Instead, the side effects of the high amounts of alcohol that were consumed the night before are crucial. PMID:25940454

  7. Does MFN Free Riding Plague the Information Technology Agreement?

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Information Technology Agreement (ITA), enacted in 1997 as one of a few World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements realized after the Uruguay Round, lifted tariffs on a broad range of IT products such as telecommunication equipment and computers. As part of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/WTO system, the ITA is built on the most-favored nation (MFN) principle. However, since participation is not mandatory, any WTO member country can potentially free ride on the agreement....

  8. Unrestricted riding in pickup truck cargo beds poses significant hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, R C

    2000-02-01

    Individuals riding in the beds of pickup trucks face significant risks of debilitating injury or death, yet Mississippi currently has no legislation restricting ridership in truck beds. Data collection on accidents involving truck bed passengers indicates that children make up the majority of victims. Such accidents impose a heavy burden on society in terms of both medical expenses and impaired quality of life for the victims. PMID:10710895

  9. Fault ride-through enhancement using an enhanced field oriented control technique for converters of grid connected DFIG and STATCOM for different types of faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, D V N; Nagesh Kumar, G V

    2016-05-01

    With increase in electric power demand, transmission lines were forced to operate close to its full load and due to the drastic change in weather conditions, thermal limit is increasing and the system is operating with less security margin. To meet the increased power demand, a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind generation system is a better alternative. For improving power flow capability and increasing security STATCOM can be adopted. As per modern grid rules, DFIG needs to operate without losing synchronism called low voltage ride through (LVRT) during severe grid faults. Hence, an enhanced field oriented control technique (EFOC) was adopted in Rotor Side Converter of DFIG converter to improve power flow transfer and to improve dynamic and transient stability. A STATCOM is coordinated to the system for obtaining much better stability and enhanced operation during grid fault. For the EFOC technique, rotor flux reference changes its value from synchronous speed to zero during fault for injecting current at the rotor slip frequency. In this process DC-Offset component of flux is controlled, decomposition during symmetric and asymmetric faults. The offset decomposition of flux will be oscillatory in a conventional field oriented control, whereas in EFOC it was aimed to damp quickly. This paper mitigates voltage and limits surge currents to enhance the operation of DFIG during symmetrical and asymmetrical faults. The system performance with different types of faults like single line to ground, double line to ground and triple line to ground was applied and compared without and with a STATCOM occurring at the point of common coupling with fault resistance of a very small value at 0.001Ω. PMID:25840675

  10. Ride comfort optimization of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Gong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck is carried out based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model in this article. The root mean square of vertical vibration acceleration, in the center of sprung mass, is assigned as the optimization objective. The constraints are the natural frequency, the working stroke, and the dynamic load of wheels. The suspension structure for the truck is the adjustable hydro-pneumatic suspension with ideal vehicle nonlinear characteristics, integrated with elastic and damping elements. Also, the hydraulic systems of two adjacent hydro-pneumatic suspension are interconnected. Considering the high complexity of the engineering model, a novel kind of meta-model called virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging is proposed in this article. The interpolation principle and the construction of virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model were elucidated. Being different from traditional Kriging, virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging combines the respective advantages of actual test and Computer Aided Engineering simulation. Based on the virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model, the optimization results, obtained by experimental verification, showed significant improvement in the ride comfort by 12.48% for front suspension and 11.79% for rear suspension. Compared with traditional Kriging, the optimization effect was improved by 3.05% and 3.38% respectively. Virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging provides an effective way to approach the optimal solution for the optimization of high-complexity engineering problems.

  11. Roadway deformation during riding mining in soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guozhen; Ma Zhanguo; Zhu Qinghua; Mao Xianbiao; Feng Meimei

    2012-01-01

    "Riding mining" is a form of mining where the working face is located above the roadway and advances parallel to it.Riding mining in deep soft rock creates a particular set of problems in the roadway that include high stresses,large deformations,and support difficulties.Herein we describe a study of the rock deformation mechanism of a roadway as observed during riding mining in deep soft rock.Theoretical analysis,numerical simulations,and on site monitoring were used to examine this problem.The stress in the rock and the visco-elastic behavior of the rock are considered.Real time data,recorded over a period of 240 days,were taken from a 750 transportation roadway.Stress distributions in the rock surrounding the roadway were studied by comparing simulations to observations from the mine.The rock stress shows dynamic behavior as the working face advances.The pressure increases and then drops after peaking as the face advances.Both elastic and plastic deformation of the surrounding rock occurs.Plastic deformation provides a mechanism by which stress in the rock relaxes due to material flow.A way to rehabilitate the roadway is suggested that will help ensure mine safety.

  12. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

  13. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  14. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  15. 山地组团城市停车换乘方案评价方法%Evaluation on Park and Ride Scheme in Mountain Group City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琼

    2012-01-01

    停车换乘(P+R)作为城市交通系统中的重要组成部分,已经被许多发达国家所采用,并发挥了积极的作用.而对于新建P+R设施的地区来说,需要对其进行详细的分析,以达到修建P+R设施的目的.以重庆市观音桥地区预建的3个P+R设施为研究对象,先以确立选址合理和满足需求为重要评价指标,建立评价集.经观音桥地区现状调查,评价了P+R设施位置的合理性.然后,结合二项Logit模型,对P+R设施进行了需求预测,评价了设施的规模对缓解中心区交通的作用.%As the city traffic system's important component, park and ride (P + R) has been adopted by many developed countries, and plays a positive role. While for the region with new built P + R facilities, it is necessary to carry on the detailed analysis so as to achieve the purpose of building facilities P + R. The Guanyinqiao area of Chongqing, which will build three P + R facilities, was taken as the research object to establish evaluation set by the important evaluation indexes, which are a reasonable location and adequate demand. The accuracy location of the three P + R facilities was evaluated by the present situation investigation of Guanyinqiao. Then, the P + R facilities' demand was predicted by the Logit model. Finally, the function of the facility scale to alleviate central area traffic was evaluated.

  16. How Does Free Riding on Customer Service Affect Competition?

    OpenAIRE

    Jiwoong Shin

    2007-01-01

    The free-riding problem occurs if the presales activities needed to sell a product can be conducted separately from the actual sale of the product. Intuitively, free riding should hurt the retailer that provides that service, but the author shows analytically that free riding benefits not only the free-riding retailer, but also the retailer that provides the service when customers are heterogeneous in terms of their opportunity costs for shopping. The service-providing retailer has a postserv...

  17. Trails, Bike, Local Bike Route in Tift County, GA, Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'Local...

  18. Trails, Bike, Heard County, Georgia Bike Plan Map, Published in 2005, 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'Heard...

  19. Trails, Bike, Carroll County, Georgia Bike Plan Map, Published in 2005, 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'Carroll...

  20. Trails, Bike, City of Morganton Bike Routes, Published in 2007, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Morganton.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is described as 'City...

  1. Trails, Bike, bike routes located within Peachtree City boundary, Published in unknown, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Peachtree City government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of unknown. It is described as...

  2. Trails, Bike, City of Hutchinson hike-bike trails polyline layer, Published in 2005, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. It is described as 'City of...

  3. Trails, Bike, All off road bike trails in Walworth County, Published in 2012, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Walworth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2012. It is described as 'All off...

  4. Selections Prom the Writing of Laura (Riding Jackson Selections Prom the Writing of Laura (Riding Jackson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebelo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available I swear to strive for a perfect impartiality. . . not to hate or do malice to the hating. . ." chirps "dove of peace" Laura (Riding Jackson in her "Conclusory letter for Everyone" - she has just preached against eud's "longwindedness" anespeculation", chastised "A Young Scholastic" for calling her a genius, (This kind of categorization belongs to a market-place. . . caustically labell ed D. H. Lawrence's writings as being "reference-to-himself". . . which in the end contributes nothing to the,reader", and sweetly belittled and debunked her ex-"pal" Hart Crane, atributing". . . habitual disorganized private behavior, a crazy-pattern dominated by drunken exuberance verging on hysteria and desperately wilful excursions into homosexual experience. . . to be a consequence of gradual resort to forced spontaneity. . ."

  5. Biking, Buying and Belonging: An Exploration of how an Irish Subculture of Consumption’s Socialisation Process Equips its Members to Critically Filter Marketing Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Sherlock, Roger; Weller, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies how members of an Irish biker subculture of consumption critically decode marketing messages, brands and products using a subcultural filter (peculiar to the subculture) learnt through localised socialisation. This critical filter develops through prolonged subcultural immersion and is influenced by the word-ofmouth purchase advice and product judgement of other members of the subculture of consumption; with a parallel between its development and use, and the development...

  6. Paris to Beijing by bike: they made it!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The challenge, a 12,623 km cycle trip to Beijing for the inauguration of the Olympic Games, was no easy ride, but they made it there on time. "I can do nothing for those who do not ask themselves questions" (Confucius -551-479 BC) CERN’s Raymond Cambarrat and Peter Dreesen arrived in the Chinese capital on 3 August after an incredible human and sporting adventure that began in Paris on 16 March (see Bulletin No. 20 & 21, 8 May 2008). The two cyclists, who set off on their journey with 102 other enthusiasts, rode for a total of 120 days with only ten days’ rest along the way. The greatest distance they covered in a single day was a 192 km leg in Russia, one of 12 countries their expedition took them through. From the arid steppes of Kirghizstan through the fog of Mount Hua to the snowy wind-swept pass of Kampa, the group covered roads of varying quality, some of them untarmacked, notchi...

  7. Kick back and destroy the ride: Alcohol-related violence and associations with drinking patterns and delinquency in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafström Martin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To assess how drinking patterns and delinquency are associated with self-reported experiences of alcohol-related violence in an adolescent population. Population and research design Cross-sectional data were acquired from the Scania drug use survey 2005, consisting of 3847 students in 9th grade. Abstainers were omitted and 1873 responses analyzed, with binary and multi-variable logistic regression modeling. Results All drinking pattern indicators were statistically significantly associated with alcohol-related violence, high usual volume of distilled spirits consumed (OR 2.2, CI 95 % 1.7–2.9 being the strongest. Delinquency had, when included in the analysis, a significant effect (OR 2.5, CI 95 % 1.8–3.6; however, the drinking pattern indicators also remained statistically significant. An analysis of the effect moderation between usual volume of distilled spirits consumed and delinquency showed that there was a synergetic effect between them (SI 1.6, CI 95 % 1.1–2.4. A separate analysis for non-delinquent students, those with little experience of delinquency, and those who engaged regularly in delinquent activities, showed that the effects of different drinking patterns, especially use of distilled spirits, were significant in both groups, however, differently distributed. Conclusion The results show that alcohol consumption pattern, with usual volume of distilled spirits being the most prominent one, had an effect on alcohol-related violence, and that this effect was amplified by delinquent behavior. The analyses also showed that there are similarities, regarding risk factors for alcohol-related violence, between delinquent and non-delinquent youth. This, indicating that consumption pattern cannot be discarded as a key factor in alcohol-related violence in adolescence. Policy implications The study shows that alcohol-related violence in adolescence is related to both alcohol consumption patterns, e.g. usual volume of

  8. Dieta vegetariana e níveis de colesterol e triglicérides Vegetarian diet and cholesterol and triglycerides levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Grigoletto De Biase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores de triglicérides (TG, colesterol total (CT, lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL entre indivíduos vegetarianos e onívoros. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras sangüíneas de 76 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, que foram separados em quatro grupos de dieta: onívoro, ovolacto, lacto e vegetariano restrito (ou "vegan". Foram dosados: CT, LDL, HDL e TG. RESULTADOS: Para as taxas de CT, LDL e TG, observa-se diferença significante entre as amostras, sendo o maior valor nos onívoros, havendo decréscimo nos vegetarianos, de acordo com o grau de restrição de produtos de origem animal, sendo a menor taxa observada nos "vegans". A média e o desvio padrão do CT foram de 208,09 ± 49,09 mg/dl no grupo de onívoros, e 141,06 ± 30,56 mg/dl no de vegan (p OBJECTIVE: Compare levels of triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL among vegetarians and omnivores. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 76 individuals - both males and females - separated in four different diet groups: omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and restricted vegetarians (or vegans. Dosing was done for: TC, LDL, HDL and TG. RESULTS: Significant difference was reported for TC, LDL and TG levels among the samples. Higher levels were reported by omnivores, with decreased levels for vegetarians as animal products were restricted, with lowest levels having been reported by vegans. Mean and standard deviation for TC were 208.09 ± 49.09 mg/dl in the group of omnivores, and 141.06 ± 30.56 mg/dl in the group of vegans (p < 0.001. LDL values for omnivores and vegans were respectively: 123.43 ± 42.67 mg/dl and 69.28 ± 29.53 mg/dl (p < 0.001. As for TG, those values were 155.68 ± 119.84 mg/dl and 81.67 ± 81.90 mg/dl (p < 0.01. As for HDL level no difference was reported between the samples, but HDL/TC ratio was significantly higher in

  9. Riding the Sea and Chasing the Wave Chinese Ceramics Sold to Europe in the Ming and Qing Dynasties(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Orders from Europe: Features of Chinese Export Porcelain Chinese porcelain was first imported to Europe by Portuguese traders. However, the glossy ware was not supposed to be profitable and was bought as ballast for silk, lacquer ware, spice, and other dearly cargos.

  10. Riding the ‘O' Train: Comparing the Effects of Ostracism and Verbal Dispute on Targets and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Zadro, Lisa; Williams, Kipling D.; Richardson, Rick

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In the present study we examined the effects of social ostracism (being excluded and ignored in the presence of others) on those who ostracize (sources) and those who are ostracized (targets). Unlike previous research that compared ostracism to social inclusion, the present study also compared ostracism to verbal dispute (i.e. an argument). A role-play method was used such that participants acted o...

  11. 农用三轮摩托车平顺性仿真及优化设计研究%Study on ride comfort simulation and Its optimization design of agricultural tricycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩翔

    2012-01-01

    利用Adams/View建立三轮车的多刚体动力学模型,并在其中添加驾驶员模型,通过驾驶员控制方向把的转角对跑偏现象进行实时的反馈和调节,从而精确模拟实际车辆在道路上的行驶情况.然后对车辆的平顺性能进行仿真分析,得其振动的加速度,参考汽车的平顺性评价指标,对其平顺性进行评价.在此基础上,以驾驶员座椅垂向加速度均方根值作为目标函数,对三轮车的行驶平顺性进行优化设计,得到前后减振器的刚度、阻尼的最优值,使其乘坐舒适性得到大幅度提高.%A multi-rigid-body dynamics model of agricultural tricycle is established by means of the Adams/View, where in the driver model is added.The driver controls angular of the steering handle to feedback and adjust deviation in real time,lhus the actual vehicle running is accurately simulatedThen the simulating analysis for ride comfort of the tricycle is carried out to obtain the accelerated speed in vibration and evaluate the ride comfort referencing to the evaluating index for vehicles.Based on the assessing system of vehicle ride performance, the root mean square value of acceleration of z-axis of the driver's seat is selected as the optimization target junction to optimize the design of driving comfort of the tricycleA nd the optimal value for stiffness and damper of the front and rear suspension are gainedThere fore the ride comfort is improved drastically.

  12. Riding a Tiger without Being Eaten: How Companies and Analysts Tame Financial Restatements and Influence Corporate Reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.M. Gertsen (Fred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe primary objective of financial statements is to provide capital market participants with information that enables them to make informed decisions. They also serve to alleviate the so-called ‘agency problem’ – through true and fair disclosures, financial statements contribute to keepi

  13. Simulation and Experiment Research on Ride Performance of Zero Turning Radius Mower%零转弯半径草坪机行驶平顺性建模仿真及试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新彦; 高里悦; 周浩; 袁春元; 吴鹏

    2016-01-01

    零转弯半径草坪机行驶平顺性直接影响其操作舒适性品质。为了探索零转弯半径草坪机行驶平顺性的研究方法,以 WBZ12219 K-S 零转弯半径草坪机为研究对象,利用 Lagrange 方程法建立了三自由度半车分析模型,以该分析模型为基础应用 MatLab/Simulink 搭建了仿真模块,并以操作者位置的加速度均方根值及加权振级作为评价指标进行了仿真计算分析。同时,在某高尔夫球场进行了实车试验,结果表明试验数据与仿真结果基本吻合,验证了仿真模型的正确性和有效性。根据评价指标与人主观感受的关系,给出了操作者对于该型号草坪机行驶平顺性的主观感受,为今后改善零转弯半径草坪机平顺性提供参考。%Ride performance of ZTR ( Zero Turning Radius) mower directly influences the driving comfort.In order to study on the ride performance of ZTR mower, WBZ122919K-S ZTR mower was used as the experimental mower.A three degree of freedom model was developed using the lagrange method.The ride performance simulation model of ZTR mower was established in Matlab/Simulink based on this three degree of freedom model.The indicator is the RMS ( Root Mean Square) of acceleration of operator’ s position and the vibration level.Finally,the correctness of the simulation mod-el is verified by the experiment.According to the relationship between the evaluation index and subjective feelings, sub-jective feelings of this mower are proposed, and it is a reference for improving the ride performance of ZTR mowers in the future.

  14. The phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid J Tehrani

    Full Text Available Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into "international types" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives.

  15. The phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Jamshid J

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into "international types" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives. PMID:24236061

  16. The directors’ roles in containing the Robben Island Diversity Experience (RIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Robben Island represents past denigration and present day liberation. The researchers report on their experiences of containing the learning, consciously and unconsciously, in the Robben Island Diversity Experience.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe the experiences of the directors of RIDE in the last 10 years.Motivation for the study: Of the many and different diversity events that South African organisations present, RIDE is the only systems psycho-dynamically designed and presented event. This research was an effort to explore the nature of the directors’ roles in working with unconscious diversity dynamics in such a provocative venue.Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted qualitative, descriptive and double hermeneutic research. The various RIDE events served as case studies. The data consisted of researcher field notes collected during the 10 years. Thematic analysis resulted in four themes, for which the researchers formulated working hypotheses. They integrated them into the research hypothesis.Main findings: Four themes emerged. They were the diversity characteristics of the directors as containers, working on the boundary between RIDE and the macro role players, attacks on the programme as container and challenges from participants.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlighted the important roles of directors’ authorisation as a resilience factor in containing RIDE.Contribution/value-add: The research contributed towards the awareness of intergroup relations between role players during diversity dynamic events and of how authorisation cements relationships.

  17. MADE CLEAR: Riding the waves of new science standards and environmental literacy requirements to enhance climate change education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, D. F.; Griswold, M.; Targett, N. M.; Stylinski, C.; Merrill, J. Z.

    2012-12-01

    The ongoing development of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to engage K-12 educators in climate change education. In particular, scientists and educators can collaborate on NGSS performance expectations, materials and interpretation for instruction and assessment. This could include working together to incorporate real world science and engineering practices, such as data analysis, model development and interpretation, arguments from evidence and critical evaluation of solutions. NGSS learning progressions allow the ramping up of science relevant to climate change starting from a broad foundation in elementary school to a focus on the interdisciplinary concepts in high school. The Maryland-Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment and Research (MADE CLEAR) partnership is fostering such an integrated approach through collaborations among environmental scientists, learning scientists, K-12 educators, and informal educators in our states. First, we are engaging and assisting the state departments of education in Maryland and Delaware to inform the development and implementation of climate change science in curricula not only for inclusion in the NGSS, but also new environmental literacy requirements. Second, we are convening informal and formal educators to refine approaches and address gaps in teaching about climate change science, with a particular focus on regional consequences. Lastly, K-12 and informal educators are provided access to experts in the fields of climate science, adaptation, and energy production and conservation. This will be achieved through professional development and creation of regionally focused resources in an iterative approach, assessed and guided by learning scientists. When fully implemented, we believe that our frameworks, curricula, processes and lessons learned can serve as models for other states in developing strategies for implementing science standards that also improve literacy in

  18. Postfeminist construction of women's sexuality in The village bike by Penelope Skinner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Novak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelope Skinner's drama The Village Bike deals with issues ranging from pregnancy to sexuality, pornography and sexual exploration. In this article I focus on the way these issues are presented and explain why pornography and sexual exploration belong to the postfeminist ideology. Namely, the author uncritically deals with these issues, objectifies a woman's body and favours gender constructs. Contemporary British drama by women playwrights is not marked by its engagement with feminism even though it might declare itself as pro-feminist or feminist. Penelope Skinner is one of the contemporary playwrights. I try to present that even though her drama seems to appear provocative at first sight this is not really the case. The provocation does not offer a critical insight and distance. I argue that this drama is postfeminist because it mainstreams pornography and presents a peculiar view on the part of sexual liberation, which is very limited.

  19. A Novel Wind Turbine Concept Based on an Electromagnetic Coupler and the Study of Its Fault Ride-through Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Rui; Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Chai, Jianyun;

    2013-01-01

    and grid voltage support capability can be significantly improved. An electromagnetic coupling speed regulating device (EMCD) is used to connect the gearbox high speed shaft and synchronous generator rotor shaft, transmitting torque to the synchronous generator, while decoupling the gearbox side...... and the synchronous generator, so the synchronous generator torque oscillations during a grid fault are not transmitted to the gearbox. The EMCD is composed of an electromagnetic coupler and a one quadrant operation converter with reduced capability and low cost. A control strategy for the new wind turbine...

  20. Hyper-competition, collusion, free riding or coopetition: basins of attraction when firms simultaneously compete and cooperate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Surya; Pokharel, Mohan P; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2013-01-01

    Using a dyad in a homogeneous market, facing investment decisions, we investigate simultaneous competition and cooperation behavior of firms under the effects of (a) government policies that send signals regarding incentives for different levels of competition and cooperation and (b) two different 'states of nature' for the market, i.e., one that rewards firms for building on their existing strategic path and another that rewards firms for exploring new strategies. We conceptualize the dyad and the external environment as a complex adaptive system and formulate simultaneous competition and cooperation as a dynamic duopoly game with variable demand and supply curves. Employing a simulation-based methodology, we investigate the attractors of this two-firm system. We find that in markets that reward firms for building on their existing strategic path, coopetition (sustained simultaneous competition and cooperation) is a common attractor and the system is not affected by imbalances in governmental policies. On the other hand, in markets that reward firms for exploring new strategy, competition is rare; rather, the system frequently exhibits hyper-coopetition, collusion or freeridership. Additionally, we find that the market share of firms as well as a firm's initial disposition toward competition and cooperation are important factors that affect the outcome. PMID:23244753

  1. 水罐消防车操纵稳定性与平顺性的仿真优化%Simulation Optimization on the Handling Stability and Ride Comfort of Fire-extinguishing Water Tanker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁; 高昱; 申晋宪

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic model for a fire-extinguishing water tanker is built with software MSC Adams/Car, based on which simulation tests are conducted on its handling stability and ride comfort performances. An optimization is then performed on the stiffness and damping of front and rear suspensions on the base of simulation data. Finally by trading off the results of optimization, the optimum combination of suspension parameters, which can improve both handling stability and ride comfort, is selected and validated by simulation test again.%使用MSC Adams/Car软件建立了某水罐消防车的动力学模型,基于此模型对整车操纵稳定性与平顺性进行仿真试验.结合仿真数据对前后悬架的刚度和阻尼进行正交设计优化,最后根据对优化结果的权衡分析,选定能同时提高操纵稳定性与平顺性的最优悬架参数组合,并通过仿真试验进行验证.

  2. Riding the globalization wave (1974-2004: islandness and strategies of economic development in two post-colonial states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Karides

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1974, the Republic of Cyprus and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, both former British colonies, experienced significant events that permanently altered their economic and social realities. The coincidence of these occurrences offers an opportunity for a historical comparison of island development. In effect, this paper argues that the economic paths of these islands were shaped largely by their responses to neo-liberalism. Cyprus’ support for domestic enterprises and resistance to neo-liberal policies throughout the early 1990s compared to Trinidad and Tobago’s forced acquiescence to them and reliance on its energy sector explain the difference in their economic trajectories. Analytically, I argue that island nations can chart a course for economic strategies that benefit more of the population despite neo-liberal pressure to adopt policies that advantage global capital. This comparison supports the island studies position that islands have distinct place-based and/or historical capacities for resourceful and creative tactics towards economic autonomy and development.

  3. The top 100: hanging on for another wild oil price ride with new survival skills and help from hired hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A forecast of industry performance in 1998 predicts that despite the heavy plunge of prices in 1997 that resulted in an increase in the TSE oil and gas index of only 2.8 per cent compared to 36.6 per cent in 1996, the Canadian oil and gas industry will be able to hang on. This is due to new technology, overhauled companies, improved management, a more diverse mix of products, better access to export outlets and new expertise in marketing, trading, hedging and risk assessment. Industry forecasts call for 12,000 new wells in 1998 which, if realized, will be the second best performance for the industry since 1986. Takeovers by the likes of Renaissance Energy, the merger by Nova Corporation and TransCanada Pipelines and the prospect of new competition to the Nova-TransCanada System by the Alliance Pipeline Project, are just some of the twists and turns that help maintain the buoyancy of the industry. Heavy oil developments are likely to remain dormant during 1998, although the long term prospects look strong. Husky Oil's $ 500 million expansion of its Lloydminster upgrader is seen as the lone bright spot in 1998. The natural gas sector has kept the industry going in 1997, but with the heating season over, the immediate prospects are not very bright. Gas prices are likely to decline during the summer, but with new pipeline capacity coming on-stream soon, the artificially low gas prices in Alberta should begin to ease later in the year. Conventional oil prices are expected to rise, provided OPEC members can keep recalcitrant members in check. If light oil prices do not rise soon, the forecast calls for several oil companies to end up on the auctioneer's block

  4. A Riding-through Technique for Seamless Transition between Islanded and Grid-Connected Modes of Droop-Controlled Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Shang-hung; Lee, Tzung-Lin; Kuo, Chun-Yi;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a seamless transition method for a droop-controlled inverter. The droop control is suitable to make the inverter work as a voltage source in both islanded and grid-connected modes, however, the transfer between theses modes can result in a big inrush current that may damage...... the system. The proposed method allows the droop-controlled inverter to improve the transient response when transferring between modes, by detecting the inrush current, activating a current control loop during transients, and then transferring back to droop-controlled mode smoothly by using a virtual...... inductance loop. In addition, a local phase-locked-loop (PLL) is proposed to align the inverter voltage with the grid in order to reduce the transient current during the transition. Therefore, the droop-controlled inverter is able to operate in both grid-connected and islanded modes, providing as well...

  5. Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The cost of building rail transit facilities in the United States has skyrocketed in recent decades. Sections of Los Angeles’s Red Line subway cost more than $750 million per mile to build and even less pricey light-rail systems can cost more than $200 million per mile. Soaring capital investment costs are today’s biggest deterrent, both political and financial, to constructing new transit infrastructure. It stands to reason that high-cost transit projects need high ridership levels. With...

  6. Riding Elvis's Motorcycle: Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development To PLAN and WRITE for a State Writing Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Paz, Susan; Owen, Bonnie; Harris, Karen R.; Graham, Steve

    2000-01-01

    This article describes implementation of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) approach to help students learn a specific essay writing strategy in preparation for a state writing test. It also reviews the theoretical and research bases for using SRSD to teaching writing strategies. (Contains references.) (DB)

  7. A Riding-through Technique for Seamless Transition between Islanded and Grid-Connected Modes of Droop-Controlled Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Hung Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a seamless transition method for a droop-controlled inverter. The droop control is suitable to make the inverter work as a voltage source in both islanded and grid-connected modes, however, the transfer between theses modes can result in a big inrush current that may damage the system. The proposed method allows the droop-controlled inverter to improve the transient response when transferring between modes, by detecting the inrush current, activating a current control loop during transients, and then transferring back to droop-controlled mode smoothly by using a virtual inductance loop. In addition, a local phase-locked-loop (PLL is proposed to align the inverter voltage with the grid in order to reduce the transient current during the transition. Therefore, the droop-controlled inverter is able to operate in both grid-connected and islanded modes, providing as well a smooth transition between them, requiring neither synchronization signals nor grid-side information. The control algorithm and design procedure are presented. Experimental results from a laboratory prototype validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Intergovernmental (Dis)incentives, Free-Riding, Teacher Salaries and Teacher Pensions. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 15-220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I document evidence that intergovernmental incentives inherent in public sector defined benefit pension systems distort the amount and timing of income for public school teachers. This intergovernmental incentive stems from the fact that, in many states, local school districts are responsible for setting the compensation that…

  9. A compact bike head lamp design based on a white LED operated at one watt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chien; Cai, Jhih-You; Chen, Chin-Wei; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2012-06-01

    A design of a compact bike head lamp meeting the K mark regulation based on a white LED by Cree XP-C is presented. The proposed design contains three parts, one is a parabolic mirror, another is a flat mirror and the other is a lens. The design performed a contrast of 66.7 across the cut-off line by the K-mark regulation, and a prototype fabricated by a simple CNC machining was measured a contrast of 12.4 across the cut-off line. The successful design requests the LED operated at only 1 W, and it enables an user to operate the lamp longer with energy saving.

  10. 对等网络中的搭便车行为分析与对策研究%Analysis of Free-Riding Behaviors and Countermeasures Research on Peer-to-Peer Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙江

    2013-01-01

      传统的P2P网络都假设每个用户能积极共享自己的资源,这导致大量免费搭车者的出现。搭便车行为在对等网络中日趋严重,它对网络健壮性、可用性和生命周期等造成负面影响。介绍各类激励机制模型,指出其优缺点,分析现有激励机制算法,对未来的研究方向进行展望。%Traditional P2P networks consider that each user (or node) can actively share their own re-sources, which will lead to a large number of free-riders. free riding is prevalent in almost all networks, which reduces the robustness,availability and lifetime of the P2P networks. Intro-duces all kinds of the incentive mechanism model, points out their advantages and weaknesses, analyzes the existing incentive mechanism algorithm. Outlines the future research direction about the mechanisms discouraging free riding in P2P networks.

  11. Riding the Banzai Pipeline at Jupiter: Balancing Low Delta-V and Low Radiation to Reach Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrath, Timothy P.; Campagnola, Stefano; Strange, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Europa's tantalizing allure as a possible haven for life comes cloaked in a myriad of challenges for robotic spacecraft exploration. Not only are the propulsive requirements high and the solar illumination low, but the radiation environment at Jupiter administers its inexorable death sentence on any electronics dispatched to closely examine the satellite. So to the usual trades of mass, delta-V, and cost, we must add radiation dose, which tugs the trajectory solution in a contrary direction. Previous studies have concluded that adding radiation shielding mass is more efficient than using ?V to reduce the exposure time, but that position was recently challenged by a study focusing on delivering simple landers to the Europa surface. During this work, a new trajectory option was found to occupy a strategic location in the delta-V/radiation continuum - we call it the "Banzai pipeline" due to the visual similarity with the end-on view down a breaking wave, as shown in the following figures.

  12. ALIVE OPTIMIZATION ON USED VEHICLE BIKE SALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. MATHEVAN PILLAI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the basic properties involving the sojourn time and the transition rate between two states and the first passage time for a Continuous Time Markov Chain (CMTC the applicability for optimizing the second sales used two wheelers in a showroom. Only the basic properties of the CTMC and the properties of rate matrix we are able to obtain a solution for maximum profit.

  13. Too far to walk or bike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Only 25-35% of Canadian children and youth regularly engage in active transportation (AT; e.g., non-motorized travel modes such as walking and cycling) to/from school. Previous research shows that distance between home and school is the strongest barrier to AT. Based on social ecological theory, we describe several strategies to overcome this barrier. At the individual level, children and youth could engage in AT to/from destinations such as parks, shops, friends' and family members' residence, and sport fields which may be located closer than their school. Parents who drive their kids to/from school could drop them within a "walkable" distance so that they can walk for the remainder of the trip. Partnerships could be developed between schools and other nearby institutions that would allow cars and buses to use their parking lot temporarily so that children could do a portion of the school trip on foot. Developing a well-connected network of sidewalks along low traffic streets can also facilitate AT. At the policy level, decisions regarding school location have a direct influence on distance. Finally, social marketing campaigns could raise awareness about strategies to incorporate AT into one's lifestyle, and encourage parents to reconsider what constitutes a "walkable" distance. PMID:24495826

  14. Havana: A Bike-Friendly City?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyula, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The abrupt breakup of the USSR and socialist bloc in the early 1990s dealt a devastating blow to the island's economy. Almost overnight, beneficial aid and trade provided by the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance ground to a halt, including 80% of foreign trade previously conducted as barter and sales of 13 million tons of oil per year at preferential prices. When the Cuban economy bottomed out in 1993, oil imports had dropped from 13 to 4 million tons annually. At the time, Cuba depended almost entirely on imported oil and the dramatic decline in imports created massive blackouts, leaving most Cuban homes without electricity 12 hours a day. PMID:27510938

  15. Too far to walk or bike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Only 25-35% of Canadian children and youth regularly engage in active transportation (AT; e.g., non-motorized travel modes such as walking and cycling) to/from school. Previous research shows that distance between home and school is the strongest barrier to AT. Based on social ecological theory, we describe several strategies to overcome this barrier. At the individual level, children and youth could engage in AT to/from destinations such as parks, shops, friends' and family members' residence, and sport fields which may be located closer than their school. Parents who drive their kids to/from school could drop them within a "walkable" distance so that they can walk for the remainder of the trip. Partnerships could be developed between schools and other nearby institutions that would allow cars and buses to use their parking lot temporarily so that children could do a portion of the school trip on foot. Developing a well-connected network of sidewalks along low traffic streets can also facilitate AT. At the policy level, decisions regarding school location have a direct influence on distance. Finally, social marketing campaigns could raise awareness about strategies to incorporate AT into one's lifestyle, and encourage parents to reconsider what constitutes a "walkable" distance.

  16. Biking in the Land of the Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is theoretical in its attempt to articulate and theorize the notion of ‘mobility culture'. It is empirical in its choice of cases illustrating the notion of mobility culture. The paper explores three cases in the USA; The East Coast Greenway bicycle corridor and the contemporary tensio...

  17. Ride-through for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Aaron; Koopman, Philip

    2013-01-01

    * This research was funded in part by General Motors through the GM-Carnegie Mellon Vehicular Information Technology Collaborative Research Lab International audience Safety critical systems often have shutdown mechanisms to bring the system to a safe state in the event of a malfunction. We ex- amine the use of ride-through, a technique to reduce the frequency of safety shutdowns by allowing small transient violations of safety rules. An illustrative example of enforcing a speed limit f...

  18. Adaptive ride hydraulic damper with piston rod dress cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spisak, A.M.; Adduci, R.L.

    1987-04-28

    A hydraulic damper is described for connection between sprung and unsprung portions of a wheeled vehicle and operative to dampen the ride motions of the vehicle comprising: an outer support tube operatively connected to one of the portions. A cylinder tube is supported within the outer tubular member having a hydraulic fluid therein. A piston operatively is mounted in the cylinder tube and has means movable to varying positions to selectively vary and control the flow of fluid when stroking within the cylinder tube.

  19. Hardness of Preemptive Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2006-01-01

    In the Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride problem the input is a metric space, a set of objects, each specifying a source and a destination, and an integer k---the capacity of the vehicle used for making the deliveries. The goal is to compute a shortest tour for the vehicle in which all objects can...... be delivered from their sources to their destinations while ensuring that the vehicle carries at most k objects at any point in time. In the preemptive version an object may be dropped at intermediate locations and picked up later and delivered. Let N be the number of nodes in the input graph. Charikar...

  20. Compression fractures of the vertebrae during a "bumpy" boat ride.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chukwunyerenwa, C K

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Compression fracture of the vertebrae is common, often the result of falls from height and motor vehicle accidents in the younger age groups. It can occur following minor trauma in the elderly and in those with osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present an interesting case of compression fracture of the vertebral bodies occurring simultaneously in a couple during a boat ride while on holiday. One individual had fracture of the T8, while the other fractured the L1 vertebrae. Both injuries were treated conservatively with Taylor braces. CONCLUSION: We highlight one of the potential hazards of this recreational activity, and the almost identical fracture pattern in this couple.

  1. Solving the Dial-a-Ride Problem using Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene Munk; Larsen, Jesper; Bergvinsdottir, Kristin Berg

    2007-01-01

    In the Dial-a-Ride problem (DARP), customers request transportation from an operator. A request consists of a specified pickup location and destination location along with a desired departure or arrival time and capacity demand. The aim of DARP is to minimize transportation cost while satisfying...... routing problems for the vehicles using a routing heuristic. The algorithm is implemented in Java and tested on publicly available data sets. The new solution method has achieved solutions comparable with the current state-of-the-art methods....

  2. Using forecast information for storm ride-through control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Vincent, Claire Louise;

    2013-01-01

    Using probabilistic forecast information in control algorithms can improve the performance of wind farms during periods of extreme winds. This work presents a wind farm supervisor control concept that uses probabilistic forecast information to ride-through a storm with softer ramps of power. Wind...... is illustrated with data from the Horns Rev 1 wind farm, located in the North Sea. To conclude, an overview of ongoing and future research in the Radar@Sea experiment is given. This experiment aims at improving offshore wind power predictability and controllability through the increased use of meteorological...... information, and particularly weather radar images....

  3. E-bikes in the Mainstream:Reviewing a Decade of Research%电动自行车交通发展的主要趋势——近10年文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elliot Fishman; Christopher Cherry; 秦维

    2016-01-01

    Electric bicycles (e-bikes) represent one of the fastest growing segments of the transport market. Over 31 million e-bikes were sold in 2012. Research has followed this growth and this paper provides a synthesis of the most pertinent themes emerging over the past on the burgeoning topic of e-bikes. The fo-cus is transport rather than recreational e-bike research, as well as the most critical research gaps requiring attention. China leads the world in e-bike sales, followed by the Netherlands and Germany. E-bikes can maintain speed with less effort. E-bikes are found to increase bicycle usage. E-bikes have the potential to displace conventional motorised (internal combustion) modes, but there are open questions about their role in displacing traditional bicycles. E-bikes have been shown to provide health benefits and an order of mag-nitude less carbon dioxide than a car travelling the same distance. Safety issues have emerged as a policy issue in several jurisdictions and e-bike numbers are now approaching levels in which adequate safety data are able to be collected. Research on e-bikes is still in its infancy. As e-bike usage continues to grow, so too will theneed for further research, in order to provide the necessary data to inform policy-makers and indus-try.%电动自行车是交通市场增长最快的领域之一,2012年总销售量超过3100万辆.相关研究的数量不断上升,鉴于此,对过去蓬勃发展的与电动自行车最相关的主题进行综合分析.将研究重点放在电动自行车交通及需要注意的最关键的研究缺口方面,而非休闲娱乐.中国的电动自行车销量在世界占领先地位,荷兰、德国紧随其后.电动自行车能够以较少能耗保持一定速度,也有研究发现电动自行车能增加自行车使用率.电动自行车有潜力取代传统机动交通方式(内燃式),但在取代传统自行车方面所扮演的角色仍存在争议.电动自行车不仅有益身体健康,并且相同行

  4. Trails, Bike, Published in 2013, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2013. Data by this publisher are...

  5. Trails, Bike, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Milton.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. Data by this publisher are...

  6. Trails, Bike, Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Coweta County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. Data by this publisher are...

  7. Trails, Bike, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Fayette County Georgia.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often...

  8. Trails, Bike, Published in 2010, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, White County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. Data by this publisher are often...

  9. Trails, Bike, Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. Data by this publisher are...

  10. Carter’s Rewriting of Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文诣

    2014-01-01

    "Little Red Riding Hood" is known worldwide and almost every child in China has heard this story. The Chinese one(Xiao Hongmao) is mainly derived from the Brothers Grimm’s version, while a less known version in China, called "The Company of Wolves", is written by a British female writer, Angela Carter. By putting different revisions of the same materials side by side, Carter makes a talk with herself. In this article, the author will mainly talk about what Carter learns from the previous version and what she wants to tell us from this exotic short story.

  11. Carter’s Rewriting of Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文诣

    2014-01-01

    "Little Red Riding Hood" is known worldwide and almost every child in China has heard this story. The Chinese one (Xiao Hongmao) is mainly derived from the Brothers Grimm’s version, while a less known version in China, called“The Company of Wolves”, is written by a British female writer, Angela Carter. By putting different revisions of the same materials side by side, Carter makes a talk with herself. In this article, the author will mainly talk about what Carter learns from the previous version and what she wants to tell us from this exotic short story.

  12. Ride comfort characteristics with different tire pressure of passenger vehicle featuring MR damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents ride comfort characteristics of a quarter-vehicle magneto-rheological (MR) suspension system with respect to different tire pressure. As a first step, controllable MR damper is designed and manufactured based on the optimized damping force levels and mechanical dimensions required for a commercial mid-sized passenger vehicle. After experimentally evaluating dynamic characteristics of the manufactured MR damper, the quarter-vehicle suspension system consisting of sprung mass, spring, tire and the MR damper is constructed in order to investigate the ride comfort. After deriving the equations of the motion for the proposed quarter-vehicle MR suspension system, vertical tire stiffness with respect to different tire pressure is experimentally identified. The skyhook controller is then implemented for the realization of quarter-vehicle MR suspension system. Ride comfort characteristics such as vertical acceleration RMS of sprung mass are evaluated under bump road condition and presented in time domain.

  13. Travel Cost Model for an Agrifarm Specialised in Horse Riding Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antoušková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agritourism, as a form of tourism, brings tourists a valuable contact with nature. To assess such a value, several methods can be used. One of these methods is the travel cost method, which is used in conducted research. Especially, a single site model is applied to recreation in a farm specialised in horse riding activities. It is not only tourists staying in the farms that take part in horse riding activities, these are also visitors staying in other places and coming to farms for horse riding as an accompanying activity to their recreation. Therefore, two separate travel cost models are estimated, for tourists and for visitors. Results show that the parameter of travel costs has a negative influence on the number of visits, which confirms the economic theory. The parameters involved in the estimated models for visitors and tourists show similar tendencies, except for the parameter of education.

  14. Are riding club members willing to pay or work for an overall quality improvement?

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the willingness-to-pay (WTP) and the willingness-to-work (WTW) of German riding club members for an overall quality improvement. Therefore, German riding club members were asked via an online questionnaire. As far as the author knows, this study is the first to include the concept of WTW in the amateur sport context. The results show that on average the participants would be willing to pay €117.39 and would be willing to work 30.39 hours per year if the quality were improv...

  15. 基于遗传算法的汽车平顺性和操纵稳定性优化%Optimization Study on the Vehicle Handling Stability and Ride Comfort Using Genetic Algorithm Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘筱; 陈潇凯; 林逸; 王冬成

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the automobile ride comfort and handling stability, a nonlinear threefreedom handling stability model was established and the influence of the load transfer and the tire nonlinear stiffness characteristic on the automobile stability was researched during the high speed lane- change condition. An optimization of the suspension parameters based on genetic algorithm was proposed. The vehicle body roll angle was selected for minimum optimization objectives , the suspension frequency and the vehicle understeer performance was selected for constraint condition, and the suspension stiffness parameters were taken as the the design variables. The computation results show that the suspension design scheme through optimization has apparant effects on improving ride comfort and handling stability. Finally, the result of analysis indicates that the ride comfort and handling stability during high speed can be improved effectively through this matching method.%为改善汽车行驶的平顺性和操纵稳定性,建立了某SUV非线性三自由度操纵稳定性模型,研究了高速转弯工况侧倾载荷转移及轮胎的非线性特性对整车操纵稳定性的影响.提出了基于遗传算法的悬架刚度参数的优化匹配方法.以车身侧倾最小为优化目标,以弹簧刚度对悬架偏频及不足转向度影响为约束,以前、后悬架弹簧刚度及前、后稳定杆刚度为设计自变量.计算结果及实车对比表明:优化后的方案比原方案在平顺性和操纵稳定性方面有了较大的改善;采用该匹配方法,可以有效提高车辆的平顺性和高速车辆操纵稳定性.

  16. 非线性油气悬架系统平顺性仿真与参数优化设计%Ride comfort simulation and parameters optimization design of nonlinear hydro-pneumatic suspension system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玲玲; 谷正气; 李伟平; 梁小波; 彭国谱

    2011-01-01

    Based on the bench test of hydro-pneumatic suspension, the model of engineering dump truck with eight degrees of freedom was set up, including five square stiffness and cubic damping characteristics. The simulation model was established by SIMULINK and validated by test. The most suitable optimized parameters were achieved according to sensitivity analysis, and then the optimal design model was established by taking ride comfort as optimization objective. The optimal stiffness and damping curves were obtained after the combined optimization design between SIMULINK and GA algorithm. The results show that the stiffness and damping characteristics of hydro-pneumatic suspension need to be optimized to improve ride comfort. The root mean square values of different seat accelerations are brought down by 17.3%, 18.8%, 25.8%, and the vehicle ride comfort can be significantly improved.%基于油气悬架台架实验,建立工程自卸车八自由度数学模型,该模型包含刚度五次方非线性和阻尼立方非线性.在此基础上利用SIMULINK建立仿真模型,并用实验验证仿真模型的正确性.通过对油气悬架参数的灵敏度分析,确定优化变量,然后以行驶平顺性为优化目标,建立油气悬架参数优化模型,利用SIMULINK、遗传算法对油气悬架参数进行联合优化设计,得到油气悬架理想的非线性刚度和阻尼特性曲线.仿真分析与实验结果表明:油气悬架的减振特性需要进一步优化设计.优化后,各车速下座椅的加权加速度均方根值分别降低了约17.3%,18.8%,25.8%,油气悬架的减振性能和整车行驶平顺性得到明显改善.

  17. 电动汽车车身平顺性及车轮接地性分析与优化%Analysis and Optimization of Ride Comfort and Wheel Ground Adhesion of Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张擎宇; 陈辛波

    2014-01-01

    以某分布式四轮驱动电动汽车为研究对象,在Adams/car中建立了整车模型,通过对前、后悬架参数进行灵敏度分析,探讨其对车身平顺性与车轮接地性的影响。基于α法建立评价车身平顺性与车轮接地性指标的多目标函数,对灵敏度较高的悬架参数进行优化设计。结果表明,优化后前、后悬架的刚度减小,前悬架的阻尼增大。与优化前相比,车身垂向加速度均方根值减小16%,左、右前轮动载荷的均方根值均减小11%。%With a distributed 4WD electric vehicle as research object, a vehicle model is constructed in Adams/car environment. Sensitivity analysis is made to the front and rear suspension parameters, its effect on ride comfort and wheel ground adhesion is investigated. Multi-objective function to evaluate body ride comfort and wheel ground adhesion is established based on α method and suspension parameters with high sensitivity are optimized. The results indicate that stiffness of the optimized front and rear suspension descends, whereas damping of the front suspension ascends. Compared with the suspension before optimization, the root-mean-square value of body vertical acceleration is reduced by 16%, and that of the front wheels on both sides is reduced by 11%.

  18. 基于平顺性与操纵稳定性的悬架系统多目标优化%Multi-objective optimization of suspension system based on vehicle ride comfort and handling stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 史文库; 桂龙明; 方德广; 郭福祥

    2011-01-01

    针对汽车悬架系统开发设计中行驶平顺性和操纵稳定性两个目标相互矛盾的问题,以某轻型乘用客车后悬架系统为研究对象,建立了汽车悬架系统多目标优化模型。以汽车行驶平顺性、操纵稳定性为优化目标,选择后悬架弹簧刚度、减振器阻尼系数及稳定杆扭转刚度为优化参数,设计了一种基于改进遗传算法NSGA-Ⅱ的悬架系统多目标优化策略。悬架优化前后试验结果表明,本文提出的多目标优化策略在改善汽车行驶平顺性的同时,兼顾了操纵稳定性,具有较好的优化效果。%In view of the trade-off between the handling stability and the ride comfort in the design of the suspension system,taking the rear suspension system of alight passenger bus as a research object,a multi-objective optimization model of the suspension system parameters was established.Taking the handling stability and the ride comfort as the optimization objectives,selecting the suspension spring stiffness,the shock Absorber damping factor and the stabilizer bar torsional stiffness as the optimization variables,a multi-objective optimization strategy based on the improved genetic algorithm NSGA-Ⅱ was designed for the suspension system.The test results show that the proposed optimization approach demonstrated good results in improvement of the vehicle ride comfort without penalty on the handling stability.

  19. Balance Food and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instead of whole eggs Use tuna canned in water (6-ounce can), instead of oil Here are some ways to burn 150 calories (ENERGY OUT), in just 30 minutes (for a 150 pound person): Shoot hoops Walk two miles Do yard work (gardening, raking leaves, etc.) Go for a bike ride ...

  20. CORRIGENDUM: Atoms riding Rayleigh waves Atoms riding Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, G.; Echenique, P. M.; Toennies, J. P.; Traeger, F.

    2010-09-01

    In the original paper the affiliation list is incorrect. The correct address list is as follows: G Benedek1, 5, P M Echenique1, 2, J P Toennies3 and F Traeger4 1 Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizábal 4, 20018 Donostia—San Sebastián, Spain 2 Departamento de Física de Materiales and CFM (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, E-20018 San Sebastián/Donostia, Spain 3 Max Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation, Bunsenstraße 10 D-37073 Göttingen, Germany 4 Fakultät für Chemie und Biochemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany 5 Permanent address: Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universitá di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano, Italy