WorldWideScience

Sample records for bike and ride

  1. Bike-and-Ride: Build It and They Will Come

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert; Caldwell, Benjamin; Cuellar, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Converting park-and-ride to bike-and-ride trips could yield important environmental, energy conservation, and public-health benefits. While cycling in general is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, it still makes up a miniscule portion of access trips to most rail transit stations. At several rail stations of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, 10 percent or more of access trips are by bicycle, up considerably from a decade earlier.  This paper adopts a case-study ap...

  2. Stay Safe Riding Bikes or Skating Outside

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-02

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about safety when outside, riding bikes or skating.  Created: 2/2/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/2/2011.

  3. Bike racing, recreational riding, impact sport and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmont Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cycling has been shown to confer considerable benefits in terms of health, leading to reductions in death rates principally due to cardiovascular improvements and adaptation. Given the disparity between the benefits of cycling on cardiovascular fitness and previous research finding that cycling may not be beneficial for bone health, Hugo Olmedillas and colleagues performed a systematic review of the literature. They concluded that road cycling does not appear to confer any significant osteogenic benefit. They postulate that the cause of this is that, particularly at a competitive level, riders spend long periods of time in a weight-supported position on the bike. Training programs may be supplemented with impact loading to preserve bone health; however, the small increased risk of soft tissue injury must also be considered. See related commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/168

  4. Bloomer Making Workshop & Bloomer Ride, ESRC funded 'Freedom of Movement: the bike, bloomer and female cyclist in late nineteenth century Britain', www.bikesandbloomers.com

    OpenAIRE

    Jungnickel, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Documentation of 2014 London public Bloomer Making Workshop (5April) and Bloomer cycle ride (11 April) for the ESRC funded 'Freedom of Movement: the bike, bloomer and female cyclist in late nineteenth century Britain' research project. www.bikesandbloomers.com

  5. Tyre Volume and Pressure Effects on Impact Attenuation during Mountain Bike Riding

    OpenAIRE

    Paul W. Macdermid; Miller, Matthew C.; Macdermid, Fiona M.; Fink, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to impacts and vibrations has been shown to be detrimental to cross country mountain bike performance and health. Therefore, any strategy aimed at attenuating such exposure is useful to participants and/or industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tyre size and tyre inflation pressure on exposure to impacts. Participants completed nine trials of a technical section (controlled for initial speed and route taken) including nine separate conditions involving thr...

  6. Overuse Injuries Associated with Mountain Biking: Is Single-Speed Riding a Predisposing Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lebec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though mountain bikers are at significant risk for overuse injury, there is minimal quality research describing this relationship. Single-speed mountain biking, in which participants pedal a bike with only a single gear, may place riders at even greater risk for overuse problems due to the disproportionate physical effort associated with this type of riding. The focus of this study was to provide additional perspective on overuse injuries sustained by mountain bikers and to determine if single-speed mountain biking places participants at greater risk for overuse conditions. Four hundred and four (404 mountain bikers were surveyed concerning overuse injuries sustained during the previous year. Findings indicate that 63% of respondents reported an overuse injury affecting at least one area with the most commonly reported areas being the lumbar spine, knees, hand/wrist, and cervical spine. Individuals riding single-speed mountain bikes did not have a higher incidence of overuse injuries than riders of multiple-geared bikes. However, respondents who split time between riding single-speed and multiple-geared bikes were significantly more likely to report an overuse syndrome than those only riding single-speed or multiple-geared bikes (p = 0.0104. This group of riders may be at greater risk for overuse injury due to excessive fatigue and poor biomechanics.

  7. Tyre Volume and Pressure Effects on Impact Attenuation during Mountain Bike Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Macdermid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to impacts and vibrations has been shown to be detrimental to cross country mountain bike performance and health. Therefore, any strategy aimed at attenuating such exposure is useful to participants and/or industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tyre size and tyre inflation pressure on exposure to impacts. Participants completed nine trials of a technical section (controlled for initial speed and route taken including nine separate conditions involving three tyre sizes and three tyre inflation pressures normalised per tyre. Performance was determined by time to negotiate the technical section while triaxial accelerometers recorded accelerations (128 Hz to quantify impact exposure and the subsequent effects on soft tissue response. Increases in tyre size within the range used improved performance P<0.0001 while changes to tyre inflation pressure had no effect P=0.6870 on performance. Larger tyre sizes and lower tyre inflation pressures significantly P<0.0001 reduced exposure to impacts which could be augmented or negated due to an interaction between tyre size and inflation pressure P<0.0001. It is recommended that mountain bikers use larger tyres, inflated to the moderate pressures used within this study, in order to increase performance and reduce the risk of overuse injuries.

  8. Bike Infrastructures and Design Qualities: Enhancing Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.; Harder, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    as well as to describe what specific design element primarily motivated them to travel by bike. The findings highlight the critical role of fast connectivity and fast bike lanes in motivating cyclists to ride their bikes more often. It also indicates that it is challenging to ensure the perception of...... infrastructures. This article aims to present findings of the research project titled Bikeability – funded by the Danish Research Council. The overall purpose of the Bikeability project is to investigate and document relations between cycling motivation from different socio- demographic groups and distinct design...

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Motor Bike and Electric Bike in Urban Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Du; LENG Ru-bo; ZHANG Cheng; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    Motor bikes (m-bike) and electric bikes (e-bike) are widely used in urban areas of China. Life cycle assessment of m-bike and e-bike are presented to compare their energy use and environmental emission in a life cycle span. An m-bike and an e-bike are disassembled to collect material composition data for the life cycle assessment. The results show that e-bike consumes less energy and has less global warming potential (GWP), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), dissolved solids (DS), hydrocarbons (HC) than m-bike during life cycle. But e-bike generates more solid wastes, and more acidification potential (AP), heavy metal (HM) than m-bike. Advanced batteries and clean coal fired power plant technologies are recommended to promote e-bike use in urban area.

  10. Borges & Bike Rides: Toward an Understanding of Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O. Wamsted

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author—a full-time high school mathematics teacher and concurrent doctoral candidate in Department of Middle-Secondary Education and Instructional Technology at Georgia State University—will make a case for the use of an autoethnographic methodological tool he is calling narrative mining. He will begin by briefly summarizing his experiences attempting to write and publish autoethnography; a short story by Argentine mystery writer Jorge Luis Borges will serve as a frame to provide three examples of barriers the author believes lie between a writer and any attempt at self-knowledge. A partial solution to these barriers is proposed in the form of an examination of the personal stories a writer has told over time. An example is then shown, and a call made for a deeper look into the possible spaces opened up in a continued examination of the personal story.

  11. Towards out-of-the-lab EEG in uncontrolled environments: Feasibility study of dry EEG recordings during exercise bike riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Siddharth; Casson, Alexander J

    2015-08-01

    Conventional EEG (electroencephalography) has relied on wet electrodes which require conductive gel to help the electrodes make contact with the scalp. In recent years many dry electrode EEG systems have become available that do not require this gel. As a result they are quicker and easier to set up, with the potential to record the the EEG in situations and environments where it has not previously been possible. This paper investigates the practicality of using dry EEG in new non-conventional recording situations. In particular it uses a dry EEG recording system to monitor the EEG while a subject is riding an exercise bike. The results show that good-quality EEG, free from high-amplitude motion artefacts, can be collected in this challenging motion rich environment. In the frequency domain a peak of activity is seen over the motor cortex (C4) at 23 Hz starting five minutes after the start of the exercise task, giving initial insights into the on-going operation of the brain during exercise. PMID:26736439

  12. Using hybrid modeling for life cycle assessment of motor bike and electric bike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Du; LENG Ru-bo; ZHANG Cheng; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is environmental evaluation of products, materials, and processes over their life cycle. Truncation uncertainty and corresponding uncertainty are main problems occurred in process life cycle assessment (PLCA) modeling and economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling. Through combination of these two modelings in different life cycle stage and use of an uncertainty reduction strategy, a hybrid life cycle assessment modeling method was proposed in this study. Case studies were presented on gasoline-powered motorbikes (M-bike) and electricity-powered electric bike (E-bike). Web-based software was developed to analyze process environmental impacts. Results show that the largest part of life cycle energy (LCE) is consumed at use stage. Less energy is consumed in life cycle of E-bike than that of M-bike. GWP (Global Warming Potential), CO (Carbon Monoxide), PM10 (particulate matter) emission of M-bike are higher than that of E-bike, especially at use stage, AP (acidification Potential) emission of E-bike is higher than that of M-bike. Comprehensively, E-bike is energy efficient and less emitting, and better choice for urban private transportation.

  13. Active living and biking: tracing the evolution of a biking system in Arlington, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Royce; Young, Garry

    2008-06-01

    In Arlington, Virginia, a steady evolutionary change in biking policy during the last three decades has yielded some of the nation's best biking assets. It has a comprehensive, well-connected, highly integrated, well-mapped, and well-signed system of shared-use paved trails, bike lanes, bike routes, and other biking assets, such as workplace showers. Understanding the conditions that led to Arlington's current biking system can provide lessons in the strategy and tactics of active-living politics. One potentially effective political strategy that was successful in Arlington is for activists to pressure elected officials to select professional managers who see bike-ways as crucial to the overall transportation system. Then it is important to formalize the government-citizen relationship through an advisory panel. Also, in Arlington, the incremental creation of biking assets helped create demand for more and better facilities. In turn, this created political support for expanding and upgrading. Finally, Arlington used potentially negative circumstances (e.g., the building of highway corridors, the introduction of the Metro) as opportunities to change the built environment in ways that have encouraged more active living. PMID:18469167

  14. The Joy of Biking Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how adults and children elicit and share their everyday experiences of cycling together in a variety of circumstances. Video data was collected of commuter cyclists, family bike rides and school bike tours. Using an ethnomethodologically informed approach to talk, mobile action...... and interactional practices, the novel video recordings of these diverse vélomobile formations are analysed in order to document how cyclists organise and mobilise their experiences and accompanying emotions in relation to the concurrent activity of biking together. Assuming that displays of emotion are situated...

  15. Mountain biking. Breezy ups and traumatic downs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing. The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided. (orig.)

  16. Doping research on and off the bike

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Gleaves, John

    2014-01-01

    From time to time a good colleague of Ask has suggested that the time he spends on the bike equals wasted time. It could have been spent more productively reading books and writing articles (or even better: writing books). In academia it can be hard to counter such arguments. It doesn’t sound com...

  17. Bike2Work: and the winners are...

    CERN Multimedia

    Jens Vigen, "Bike2Work" coordinator for CERN

    2015-01-01

    Bike2Work is a popular initiative to promote cycling that was launched in Switzerland in 2004. Every summer, it mobilises some 50,000 employees from more than 1100 companies and organisations across Switzerland. This year, CERN established itself as the main player in French-speaking Switzerland.   The main motivation for Bike2Work is the joy of the cycle commute. Biking contributes to your fitness and reduces pollution and congestion on the roads and in car parks. During this year’s Bike2Work, over 9 million kilometres were recorded across Switzerland! Out of these, 97,462 kilometres were pedaled by the 126 CERN teams participating in the initiative. In this friendly competition, CERN established itself as the main player in French-speaking Switzerland, although EPFL was not far behind with 124 teams. However, CERN beat EPFL by a large margin with regard to the number of kilometres cycled, as our colleagues in the canton of Vaud reached only 63,000 kilometres. Even ETH in Zurich w...

  18. Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

    2010-08-01

    Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

  19. 2013 Bike safety campaign: outcome and feedback

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From 3 to 17 June, the HSE Unit, in collaboration with the Reception and Access Control Service, led a campaign targeting CERN cyclists.   Photo: Laëtitia Wohlgemuth. In exchange for vouchers distributed by the security guards, 195 persons received a helmet and a reflective vest as well as documents on safety issues (ex: how to adjust one’s safety helmet properly; how to avoid blind spots; what is the required equipment for bikes and bike users, etc.). These persons also took part in a survey that contained questions on their cycling habits and level of knowledge on bike safety issues. It appeared that, for instance, 43% of the participants were aware that wearing a reflective vest is mandatory whenever visibility is poor (in France). 95% gave particular attention to the need to protect their heads (by assuming that wearing a helmet is either “mandatory” or “highly recommended”). The HSE Unit provided the participants with further i...

  20. Mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders: A case study of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; Nguyen, Hang T T; De Gruyter, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Motorcyclist injuries and fatalities are a major concern of many developing countries. In Vietnam, motorcycles are involved in more than 70% of all road traffic crashes. This paper aims to explore the prevalence and factors associated with mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders, using a case study of Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional observation survey was undertaken at 12 sites, in which each site was surveyed during a two-hour peak period from 16:30 to 18:30 for two weekdays and one weekend day. A total of 26,360 riders were observed, consisting of 24,759 motorcyclists and 1601 electric bike riders. The overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding was 8.4% (95% CI: 8.06-8.74%) with calling having higher prevalence than screen operation: 4.64% (95% CI: 4.39-4.90%) vs. 3.76% (95% CI: 3.52-3.99%) respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of mobile phone use was higher among motorcyclists than electric bike riders: 8.66% (95%CI: 8.30-9.01%) vs. 4.43% (95% CI: 3.40-5.47%) respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that mobile phone use while riding was associated with vehicle type, age, gender, riding alone, weather, day of week, proximity to city centre, number of lanes, separate car lanes, red traffic light duration, and police presence. Combining greater enforcement of existing legislations with extensive education and publicity programs is recommended to reduce potential deaths and injuries related to the use of mobile phones while riding. PMID:27015225

  1. Bike Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.; Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard

    Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases are Ves......, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  2. Precauciones al andar en bicicleta o patinar (Stay Safe Riding Bikes or Skating Outside)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-02

    En este podcast para niños, los chicos de Kidtastics hablan sobre las medidas de seguridad que se deben observar al salir para andar en bicicleta o patinar.  Created: 2/2/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  3. Rebalancing citi bike : a geospatial analysis of bike share redistribution in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Tedeschi, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a model to rate and visualize the bicycle redistribution of Citi Bike, the bikeshare system that operates in New York City. The share of rebalanced bicycles in proportion to total rides sharply decreased in the spring of 2015, which prompted the question as to what impact, if any, this change in operations had on the availability of bikes and the system’s ability to relay bikes to empty stations. In terms of public transit, a bikeshare system is only as effective as its ab...

  4. Building the BIKE: Development and Testing of the Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Izci, Kemal; McClure, Bruce

    2014-10-01

    Identifying students' conceptual scientific understanding is difficult if the appropriate tools are not available for educators. Concept inventories have become a popular tool to assess student understanding; however, traditionally, they are multiple choice tests. International science education standard documents advocate that assessments should be reform based, contain diverse question types, and should align with instructional approaches. To date, no instrument of this type targeting student conceptions in biotechnology has been developed. We report here the development, testing, and validation of a 35-item Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE) that includes a mix of question types. The BIKE was designed to elicit student thinking and a variety of conceptual understandings, as opposed to testing closed-ended responses. The design phase contained nine steps including a literature search for content, student interviews, a pilot test, as well as expert review. Data from 175 students over two semesters, including 16 student interviews and six expert reviewers (professors from six different institutions), were used to validate the instrument. Cronbach's alpha on the pre/posttest was 0.664 and 0.668, respectively, indicating the BIKE has internal consistency. Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability among the 6,525 total items was 0.684 indicating substantial agreement among scorers. Item analysis demonstrated that the items were challenging, there was discrimination among the individual items, and there was alignment with research-based design principles for construct validity. This study provides a reliable and valid conceptual understanding instrument in the understudied area of biotechnology.

  5. People and Horses: The Risks of Riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBenedette, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    The article looks at risks and benefits of horseback riding. Several risks can be minimized if riders take lessons, check riding equipment before each ride, wear proper headgear and footgear, and respect the horse's size and will. Medical guidelines for equestrian sports could help reduce injuries. (SM)

  6. California Amusement Rides and Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three-year-old Cristina Moreno traveled from Spain to California for her honeymoon in 2000. As part of her visit, she rode the Indiana Jones amusement ride at Disneyland with her new husband. On June 25, 2000, she suffered a brain injury, and she eventually died on September 1, 2000, as a result of injuries allegedly sustained while riding…

  7. eBikes and sustainable communities : a new opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J. [Magna Marque, Aurora, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that more than half of all commute trips and 3 out of 4 shopping trips are under 5 miles in length. Recent polls have also suggested that nearly 20 per cent of all adults would cycle to work if safe routes, and workplace facilities were provided. This presentation suggested that funding bicycle facilities and program is a cost-effective means of reducing motor vehicle emissions and reducing congestion. Several municipalities have placed an emphasis on the provision of safe travel lanes and traffic signals for cyclists. The Velib program in Paris includes 20,600 bicycles. Velib riders are currently taking 120,000 trips per day. Bike infrastructure and bike share programs will encourage community members to participate in active transportation. Over 23 million electric bicycles were sold in 2008. It is expected that eBike sales will double in 4 years. New electric bike systems incorporate a battery-powered electric motor to supplement pedalling efforts. The hybrid technology uses a torque sensor to measure how much pressure the rider is exerting with each stroke. The electric batteries can assist riders for up to 113 km. Use of the bikes may encourage members of the community to leave their cars at home for shorter trips. tabs., figs.

  8. Age and attitude: Changes in cycling patterns of different e-bike user segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    looked into these effects by differentiating between different segments of e-bike users. We distinguished four age groups as well as three segments based on cycling attitudes and motives for the use and purchase of e-bikes: (1) enthusiastic e-bikers who showed the most positive attitudes towards e......-bikes and mainly bought an e-bike to increase cycling frequency; (2) utilitarian e-bikers who already cycled regularly before having access to an e-bike and used the e-bike particularly for practical purposes and to reduce travel time; (3) recreational e-bikers who were very positive about e-bike use but...... workplaces, intended to address not only instrumental but also affective motives of e-bike use....

  9. ¿Conduciendo las ruedas del cambio? Jóvenes motociclistas y la “crisis de la juventud” en Sierra Leona | Riding the wheels of change? Young bike riders and the “crisis of youth” in Sierra Leona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael BÜRGE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo consideramos el conflicto armado (1991-2002 en Sierra Leona como el resultado violento de la “crisis de la juventud” (crisis of youth generada por un estado patrimonial en colapso y las habituales prácticas de explotación por parte de las autoridades tradicionales en las áreas rurales, que afectaban particularmente a la población joven procedentes de linajes débiles. El rápido aumento en la posguerra del número de “mototaxis” –un sector dominado por excombatientes inmediatamente después de la guerra, pero que ahora emplea a decenas de miles de jóvenes – se presenta como un ejemplo de una nueva y espontánea actividad, más basada en la regla del contrato y en los principios igualitarios de los tiempos de guerra que en principios patrimoniales. ¿Puede ser esta actividad una respuesta que haga frente a los modos organizativos explotadores del periodo anterior a la guerra y a la subsiguiente crisis de la juventud? ¿O ya está siendo corrompida por ésta?In this article we consider the armed conflict (1991-2002 in Sierra Leone as the violent product of a ‘crisis of youth’, generated by a collapsing patrimonial state and exploitative customary practices of traditional authorities in rural areas, affecting young people from weak lineages in particular. Post war, the rapid growth in the number of motorbike taxies – a sector dominated by ex-combatants straight after the war but now employing tens of thousands of ordinary youth – is presented as an example of a new and spontaneous activity, based more on the rule of contract and wartime egalitarian principles than on patrimonial ones. Could this be an answer to pre-war exploitatively organisational modalities and the subsequent crisis of youth, or is it already getting corrupted by it?

  10. Pocket Bikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terry Mccarthy; 陈青

    2004-01-01

    @@ The next big thing out of California is 18 in. High, weighs about 50 lbs. And is capable of traveling up to 70 m. P. H. Meet the pocket bike, a scaled-down①motorcycle that is selling faster than low-carb hot cakes across the Golden State②-and causing nightmares③ for traffic police.

  11. Reject or embrace? Messengers and electric cargo bikes

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Johannes; Kihm, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    One of many approaches to react to the challenges faced by urban freight can be the introduction of electric cargo bikes as an environmentally friendly mode of transport for courier deliveries. Since this market consists of highly decentralized decision-making structures, it is important to characterize the individuals involved and their perceptions in order to estimate market potentials and identify barriers to market uptake. To achieve this goal, we use information from a nationwide survey ...

  12. I like riding my bike. If it doesn't rain of course'. Accounts of embodied practices of rain in the face of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    The paper reports on an ethnomethodologically informed study of the discursive accomplishment of everyday transportation practices in the face of climate change. Drawing upon focus group data, the paper shows and discusses the implications of how embodied everyday practices of rain...... that is pouring while walking or cycling, it is treated quite differently in talk in interaction. The paper argues that this points towards how accounts of the experience of being soaked are related to broader nexus of practice, or, generally, how embodied practices of weather are always related to broader nexus....... Secondly, the paper focuses more thoroughly on conceptualisations of cycling in rain by showing how rain is used in making socially legitimate meanings of everyday transportation practices. It shows the subtle ways in which matters of rain are used as justifications for not biking. It also shows...

  13. Bike Race Event

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, M. Mehedi

    2013-01-01

    In this workshop project, our intention is to arrange a Bike race event for the bike club’s members. Our project is based upon through a market research of Bike race event market. After analysing the market we have done a plan for our event, which structured by different tools of the project management, such as WBS, RBS etc. project management is the key tool in this project. Lastly we have shown our budget and financial structure of the event.

  14. Youth Walking and Biking Rates Vary by Environments around 5 Louisiana Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Richards, Katherine; Rice, Janet; Andersen, Lori; Parker-Karst, Kathryn; Cole, Shalanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity in children is high, and many do not meet physical activity recommendations. The Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program encourages school-aged children to walk and bike to school. We assessed the condition of the walking/biking environment around schools in Louisiana prior to the state's first SRTS program.…

  15. CyberBike

    OpenAIRE

    Sølvberg, Audun

    2007-01-01

    The idea about the CyberBike came to Jens G. Balchen - the founder of the Department of Engineering Cybernetics (ITK) at NTNU - in the 1980's. He wanted to make an unmanned autonomus bicycle, i.e. a bike that could run by itself. The idea was picked up by Amund Skavhaug, who started the CyberBike project in the late 80's. After being deffered for some years, the CyberBike has again gained some attention. This master's thesis is based on Hans Olav Loftum's and Lasse Bjermeland's theses at the ...

  16. Insights in Public Health: Initiating Bicycle Sharing in Hawai'i: Lessons Learned from a Small Pilot Bike Share Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-10-01

    In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai'i, with funding from the Hawai'i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011-2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai'i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  17. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  18. Design and Analysis of Piston Design for 4 Stroke Hero Bike Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Yadav

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Piston is the part of engine which convert heat and pressure energy liberated by fuel combustion into mechanical works. Engine piston is the most complex component among the automotives. This paper illustrate design procedure for a piston for 4 stroke petrol engine for hero bike and its analysis by its comparison with original piston dimensions used in bike. The design procedure involves determination of various piston dimensions using analytical method under maximum power condition. In this paper the combined effect of mechanical and thermal load is taken into consideration while determining various dimensions. The basic data of the engine are taken from a located engine type of hero bike.

  19. Proposal of mountain-bike trails in the Litija and Šmartno pri Litiji municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Elsner, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    In the thesis we have presented proposal of mountain-bike trails in the area of municipalities Litija and Šmartno pri Litiji. Both municipalities are mountainous, both of them are surrounded by forest, the terrain is varied and exciting and because of this, a lot of people started to practise mountain biking. The municipalities, have a rich cultural and natural heritage, yet the tourism on this area is poorly developed, because the municipalities put to small effort investing into...

  20. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-01-01

    An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Techn...

  1. Design and Analysis of Piston Design for 4 Stroke Hero Bike Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Yadav; Dr. N.D. MITTAL

    2013-01-01

    Piston is the part of engine which convert heat and pressure energy liberated by fuel combustion into mechanical works. Engine piston is the most complex component among the automotives. This paper illustrate design procedure for a piston for 4 stroke petrol engine for hero bike and its analysis by its comparison with original piston dimensions used in bike. The design procedure involves determination of various piston dimensions using analytical method under maximum power condition. In this ...

  2. The Davis Junior High Global Warming Project and Bike/Walk to School Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Anastasio, C.; Niemeier, D.; Scow, K.

    2007-12-01

    Junior high school students in Davis, CA, were targeted in an outreach project combining interactive and hands- on information about global warming and carbon footprints with a bike/walk to school challenge. The project was conducted by the Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources and the John Muir Institute of the Environment at the University of California Davis. Approximately 70 undergraduates, graduate students, post-doc researchers, faculty and staff from UCD and the town of Davis were involved. Workshops were held in the 7th, 8th and 9th grade science classes in Davis' 3 junior high schools, reaching a total of 1700 students. Each 50-minute presentation consisted of a Global Warming Jeopardy game, followed by individual calculation of carbon footprints oriented towards a junior high school student. Biking or walking to school, instead commuting by car, was introduced as an important and feasible activity that could reduce one's carbon footprint. Working with staff from each junior high, students were then challenged to increase biking or walking to school during a 2 week Bike/Walk to School Challenge . UCD students and staff monitored automobile commuting (# cars, idle time) and bike use during this time and provided incentives for biking or walking . All schools were recognized for efforts to reduce their carbon footprints, and the concept was reinforced at the start of the following school year by planting a tree at each school.

  3. Evaluation of aerodynamic and rolling resistances in mountain-bike field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, William M; Rogier, Simon; Reiser, Raoul F

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic and rolling resistances are the two major resistances that affect road cyclists on level ground. Because of reduced speeds and markedly different tyre-ground interactions, rolling resistance could be more influential in mountain biking than road cycling. The aims of this study were to quantify 1) aerodynamic resistance of mountain-bike cyclists in the seated position and 2) rolling resistances of two types of mountain-bike tyre (smooth and knobby) in three field surfaces (road, sand and grass) with two pressure inflations (200 and 400 kPa). Mountain-bike cyclists have an effective frontal area (product of projected frontal area and drag coefficient) of 0.357 ± 0.023 m², with the mean aerodynamic resistance representing 8-35% of the total resistance to cyclists' motion depending on the magnitude of the rolling resistance. The smooth tyre had 21 ± 15% less rolling resistance than the knobby tyre. Field surface and inflation pressure also affected rolling resistance. These results indicate that aerodynamic resistance influences mountain-biking performance, even with lower speeds than road cycling. Rolling resistance is increased in mountain biking by factors such as tyre type, surface condition and inflation pressure that may also alter performance. PMID:23713547

  4. Function combined method for design innovation of children's bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Qiu, Tingting; Chen, Huijuan

    2013-03-01

    As children mature, bike products for children in the market develop at the same time, and the conditions are frequently updated. Certain problems occur when using a bike, such as cycle overlapping, repeating function, and short life cycle, which go against the principles of energy conservation and the environmental protection intensive design concept. In this paper, a rational multi-function method of design through functional superposition, transformation, and technical implementation is proposed. An organic combination of frog-style scooter and children's tricycle is developed using the multi-function method. From the ergonomic perspective, the paper elaborates on the body size of children aged 5 to 12 and effectively extracts data for a multi-function children's bike, which can be used for gliding and riding. By inverting the body, parts can be interchanged between the handles and the pedals of the bike. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the components and structural design, body material, and processing technology of the bike. The study of Industrial Product Innovation Design provides an effective design method to solve the bicycle problems, extends the function problems, improves the product market situation, and enhances the energy saving feature while implementing intensive product development effectively at the same time.

  5. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakveld, Willem P; Twisk, Divera; Christoph, Michiel; Boele, Marjolein; Sikkema, Rommert; Remy, Roos; Schwab, Arend L

    2015-01-01

    cyclists in middle adulthood. The relatively high speed of the elderly cyclists on e-bikes in complex traffic situations and their relatively high mental workload in these situations may increase the accident risk of elderly cyclist when they ride on an e-bike. PMID:25463949

  6. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaolu

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS) in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behav...

  7. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  8. "The Dirt Bike and American Off-road Motorcycle Culture in the 1970s"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Russell

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1960s were a time of dramatic change in America’s stated values, mores, and interests; of experimentation and expanding boundaries. As the 1960s passed into 1970, the availability of vast off-road areas, a lust for personal freedom, and the appearance of light-weight, purpose-built off-road motorcycles set the stage for a nationwide boom in off-road motorcycling. The author explores dirt bike design, 3 important phases of the 1970s dirt bike boom, American off-road motorcycling culture, and the beginnings and influence of the cultural voice of the movement—the irreverent, style-influencing, and comedic “DIRT BIKE Magazine”. The author concludes by examining who these Americans were, why they were drawn to the movement, and how the formative conditions enabling the movement changed over the decade.

  9. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Technology” company’s electric front wheel conversion kit MagicPie3 and 16 cell 10Ah LiFePO4 battery. After installation of the engine and other components, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the electric bike and check the manufacturer’s specifications.

  10. Mobile EEG on the bike: disentangling attentional and physical contributions to auditory attention tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Rob; Hunyadi, Borbála; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In the past few years there has been a growing interest in studying brain functioning in natural, real-life situations. Mobile EEG allows to study the brain in real unconstrained environments but it faces the intrinsic challenge that it is impossible to disentangle observed changes in brain activity due to increase in cognitive demands by the complex natural environment or due to the physical involvement. In this work we aim to disentangle the influence of cognitive demands and distractions that arise from such outdoor unconstrained recordings. Approach. We evaluate the ERP and single trial characteristics of a three-class auditory oddball paradigm recorded in outdoor scenario’s while peddling on a fixed bike or biking freely around. In addition we also carefully evaluate the trial specific motion artifacts through independent gyro measurements and control for muscle artifacts. Main results. A decrease in P300 amplitude was observed in the free biking condition as compared to the fixed bike conditions. Above chance P300 single-trial classification in highly dynamic real life environments while biking outdoors was achieved. Certain significant artifact patterns were identified in the free biking condition, but neither these nor the increase in movement (as derived from continuous gyrometer measurements) can explain the differences in classification accuracy and P300 waveform differences with full clarity. The increased cognitive load in real-life scenarios is shown to play a major role in the observed differences. Significance. Our findings suggest that auditory oddball results measured in natural real-life scenarios are influenced mainly by increased cognitive load due to being in an unconstrained environment.

  11. Pedelec, the electric assisted bike : market and product opportunities in Canada 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission statement of Airstream Technologies Corp. is to become the Canadian leader in marketing and distribution of advanced personal hybrid electric vehicles. This Power Point presentation describes the trends of the bicycle industry, with reference to environment, air pollution and urban transport. A new role is emerging for the bicycle as society ages and peoples' attitudes towards health awareness changes. A graph depicting the bicycle market size in major countries around the world showed that China is the world leader in market size, followed by the European Union, United States and Japan, with Canada ranking at number 12 out of 17 countries. The paper presented the Pedelec electric bike, a completely new class of vehicle which is neither a motorcycle nor a bicycle. The idea was first developed by Panasonic/National Bicycle Co. in 1978. Since then, the technology has evolved, enabling lightweight, long-range bikes. In a Pedelec, the motor is linked to muscle power, unlike a classic electric bike in which the motor is independent from pedalling. The pedal electric cycle helps the user by delivering aid when pedaling becomes strenuous. The electric motor augments the pedaling action and is only active while pedaling. The intelligent battery system allows for greater range and more precise readout of remaining charge. In major cities in Japan and China, there are currently many parking facilities with outlets for charging these bikes. The environmental benefits of these bikes include zero emission transportation and no noise. The bikes range in price from $1500 to $3000 CDN. They are perceived to be just as safe as regular bicycles. The market outlook for the bikes appears promising with potential buyers being enthusiastic baby boomers, retirees, and youth. The paper describes some of the current and future models suitable for the Canadian marketplace and describes a possible rental infrastructure. Pedelec is already federally legislated. The bikes are legal

  12. Characteristics and Control of the Motor System in E-bikes

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhya, Bhanu; Altoumaimi, Rasha; Altoumaimi, Thelal

    2014-01-01

    This study is based on e-bikes, mainly the ‘Pedelecs’ (under Swedish standards). Pedelecs* is the category of e-bikes which indicates electric bicycles only, that has specific standard in terms of motor power and speed limitations. We are concerned with respect to Sweden, in the analysis, especially because though it is already defined by EU for Europeans, it still varies in some countries, within Europe itself. In this research and experiment, we have brought useful revelations about its fea...

  13. Mobility Innovation Through a Combined System of Rapid Mass Transit and Bike Rental in Shanghai Suburbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Residents of the Shanghai suburbs find it hard to access transportation. This paper begins by introducing the context and features of the bike-rental rental system, and then describes the innovative mobility project combining Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and a public bike rental system jointly established and run by the Forever Group and local government through a PPP model. The project, which has many technical patents, is headed by Forever Group and run in cooperation with local government, providing bottom-up popularization and development of bike-rental services in the areas surrounding the main rail transit stations. On the basis of a case study on Minhang District and a questionnaire, the paper further demonstrates that the bike rental system improves travel conditions for residents of the suburbs, expands the effective service radius around the rail transit stations and provides possibilities for more wide-ranging restructuring of land-use, which will help to balance the unidirectional tidal flow of transportation.

  14. The effects of sunshields on red light running behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Changxu

    2013-03-01

    Bicycles held an important position in transportation of China and other developing countries. As accidents rate involving electronic and regular bicycles is increasing, the severity of the bicycle safety problem should be paid more attention to. The current research explored the effect of sunshields (a kind of affordable traffic facility built on stop line of non-motor vehicle lanes (According to National Standard in China, e-bikes share the non-motor vehicle lane with regular bikes.) which was undertaken to avoid riders suffering from sunlight and high temperature) on diminishing red light running behavior of cyclists and e-bike riders. An observational study of 2477 riders was conducted to record and analyze their crossing behaviors at two sites across the city of Hangzhou, China. Results from logistic regression and analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of sunshield on reducing red light infringement rate both on sunny and cloudy days, while this effect of sunshield was larger on sunny days than on cloudy days based on further analysis. The effect of intersection type in logistic regression showed that riders were 1.376 times more likely to run through a red light upon approaching the intersection without sunshields compared to with sunshields in general. The results of MANCOVA further confirmed that rates of running behaviors against red lights were significantly lower at the intersections with a sunshield than at intersections without sunshields when other factors including traffic flow were statistically controlled. To sum up, it is concluded that sunshields installed at intersections can reduce the likelihood of red light infringement of cyclists and e-bike riders on both sunny and cloudy days. For those areas or countries with a torrid climate, sunshield might be a recommended facility which offers an affordable way to improve the safety of cyclists and e-bike riders at intersections. Limitations of the current sunshield design and current

  15. Analytical and experimental assessment of heavy truck ride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, R.V. Jr.; Hurtado, J.E.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    This study is the second phase in a combined analytical and experimental effort to characterize and improve the ride quality of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer. The discussion includes a brief overview of the finite element model of the vehicle and experimental road and modal test results. A novel system identification approach is used, employing both lab-based modal tests, and modal data derived using the Natural Excitation Technique (NExT), a scheme that utilizes the roadway surface as a natural forcing function. The use of a cab isolation system is investigated with the computer model for purposes of improving the ride quality of the vehicle. To validate these analytical predictions, an engineering prototype vehicle was developed, which included a cab isolation system, to experimentally assess ride quality. Ride quality improvements due to the addition of the isolation system are then assessed both experimentally and analytically, and the results are compared.

  16. Ride comfort evaluation and suspension design using axiomatic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a theoretical formulation based on the axiomatic design (AD) approach to suspension systems for improving both ride comfort and static design factors (SDFs) of passenger vehicles. This approach was adapted to the kinematic design of suspension systems to create a decoupled or less coupled relationship between the functional requirements (FRs) and design parameters (DPs). SDFs related to wheel alignment and ride comfort are selected for FRs and suspension hardpoint positions are chosen for common DPs. A flexible commercial vehicle body model is used to mathematically express SDFs by defining the performance index and analyzing the dynamic characteristics for ride comfort evaluation. The sensitivity matrices are defined between the FRs and DPs. The SDF design sequences are proposed by using these matrices with the vehicle model. This study improves both ride comfort and SDFs by properly designing the kinematic DPs

  17. Bike to Work: On yer bike!

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Sign up now for "Bike to Work" initiative! It's the best way to combine a gesture for the environment with an action for your health!      This year CERN takes part again in the Swiss national campaign "Bike to Work", which is expected to attract more than 50,000 participants. In teams of four, colleagues will encourage each other to cycle to work throughout the month of June. Last year CERN was the organization in French-speaking Switzerland with the most participants; 126 teams pedaled some 97,462 kilometers. And several of the nice prizes were given to CERN participants. Let’s aim to keep our position at the top of the leaderboard in 2016!  Participating is easy! Simply get together with three of your colleagues and register your "Bike to Work" team online before 31 May. There are no fees for registering teams, there is no mi...

  18. Biking Is Booming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, William H.; Wicks, Carol A.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred thousand bicycle-motor vehicle accidents will occur this year. Close to 1,100 of the mishaps will result in death. Education is the first, last and best hope for cyclists and motorists alike and one facet of bike safety programs is teaching students to understand a machine they may take for granted. Here are some ideas for starters.…

  19. Bike to work safely

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird

    2016-01-01

    As the fine weather appears and CERN fills up with summer visitors, the number of people cycling to and from CERN and around the CERN campus rises dramatically – and so does the number of accidents involving bicycles. So far this summer, there have been 10 reported accidents, all of which could have been avoided. There are many things that road users of all kinds can do to make cycling safer and stop that number rising any further.   If you’re on a bike, make sure you’re visible by using lights and wearing high-visibility clothing. Wear a helmet, and remember that you are subject to the same rules of the road as any other vehicle. There’s also an online course in the SIR application on ‘Road traffic-bike riding’, which is freely available for you to follow. If you’re a motorised vehicle user, be sensitive to cyclists. Bike lanes and cycle paths are for cyclists, so leave them clear, and when overtaking a bike, leave plenty of room...

  20. Bike 2 Work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Are you a CERN cyclist? If so, join the Bike 2 Work competition that has just started! The more kilometres you travel by bike, the closer you’ll get to winning…   Yngve Inntjore Levinsen works at CERN, in the BE Department, and is one of the many people who travel to work by bike. Convinced by the benefits and the well-being that this mode of transport brings, he decided to promote it by running a competition. “Everyone working at CERN can participate,” says Yngve. “They just need to sign up on the competition website, or via their Facebook login. Then, participants simply have to report regularly the number of kilometres they cover by bike, travelling between home and work, or during the day between different points at CERN. ” The competition began on 1 March and will last all year long. The 2012 results will be announced at the end of the year. Of course, the winner will be the cyclist who has travelled the most kilometres during the ...

  1. Dancing on a Bike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢新

    2007-01-01

    The sport BMX was first started in California in the late 60s by kids who built their own tracks~* and jumped with their old 20-inch bikes. The kids held competitions on most Sundays. They named it"bicycle motocross",

  2. Spatial potential and limitations for the mountain bike turism in the municipalities of Tolmin and Kobarid

    OpenAIRE

    Ipavec, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    In the thesis we have analysed spatial possibilities for the development of mountainbiking tourism in municipalities of Tolmin and Kobarid. The development of the region, which has all natural, spatial and relief features, is currently slowed down by slovenian legislation. The main purpose of this thesis is to raise the awareness of the possibilities that mountain biking as a tourist product represents to the entire Soča Valley and to help developing this activity in the area. The focus wi...

  3. Validity of using functional threshold power and intermittent power to predict cross-country mountain bike race outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C Miller

    2014-01-01

    Validity of using functional threshold power and intermittent power to predict cross-country mountain bike race outcome. Purpose: Field tests are important for athletes and sport practitioners as they offer valuable information on performance without demanding the time and cost to visit a laboratory. This study tested the ability of relative functional threshold power (FTP) and intermittent power (IP) field-tests to be used as predictors of cross-country mountain bike (XC-MTB) race finishin...

  4. Insights in Public Health: Initiating Bicycle Sharing in Hawai‘i: Lessons Learned from a Small Pilot Bike Share Program

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observationa...

  5. BikeMaps.org: a global tool for collision and near miss mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A Nelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many public health benefits to cycling, such as chronic disease reduction and improved air quality. Real and perceived concerns about safety are primary barriers to new ridership. Due to limited forums for official reporting of cycling incidents, lack of comprehensive data is limiting our ability to study cycling safety and conduct surveillance. Our goal is to introduce BikeMaps.org, a new website developed by the authors for crowd-source mapping of cycling collisions and near misses. BikeMaps.org is a global mapping system that allows citizens to map locations of cycling incidents and report on the nature of the event. Attributes collected are designed for spatial modelling research on predictors of safety and risk, and to aid surveillance and planning. Released in October 2014, within two months the website had more than 14,000 visitors and mapping in 14 countries. Collisions represent 38% of reports (134/356 and near misses 62% (222/356. In our pilot city, Victoria, Canada, citizens mapped data equivalent to about one year of official cycling collision reports within two months via BikeMaps.org. Using report completeness as an indicator, early reports indicate that data are of high quality with 50% being fully attributed and another 10% having only one missing attribute. We are advancing this technology, with the development of a mobile App, improved data visualization, real-time altering of hazard reports, and automated open-source tools for data sharing. Researchers and citizens interested in utilizing the BikeMaps.org technology can get involved by encouraging citizen mapping in their region.

  6. Mountain biking. Breezy ups and traumatic downs; Mountainbiking. Luftige Hoehen und traumatische Tiefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing. The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided. (orig.) [German] Mountainbiking erfreut sich seit mehr als 2 Jahrzehnten sowohl im Breiten- als auch Wettkampfsport einer ungebrochenen Popularitaet. Die assoziierten Risiken werden allerdings nicht mit derselben Aufmerksamkeit beobachtet wie etwa jene des Skisports. Die Verletzungen beim Mountainbiking sind spezifisch und nicht mit den Verletzungen vergleichbar, die bei anderen Radsportarten entstehen. Dies ist z. T. durch die Besonderheiten des Terrains und z. T. durch eine im Vergleich zum Rennradfahren hoehere Risikobereitschaft zu erklaeren. Die Radiologie hat ihren Stellenwert besonders in der Akutdiagnostik. Hier beschaeftigt sie sich v. a. mit muskuloskelettalen Verletzungen und setzt in erster Linie auf die digitale Projektionsradiographie und die MRT. Zur Evaluierung schwerer Verletzungen des Kopfs, der Wirbelsaeule, des Thorax und des Abdomens wird die CT bevorzugt, insbesondere in dezidierten Traumazentren. Damit kann die Radiologie ihren Teil

  7. Modeling and validation of off-road vehicle ride dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazooki, Alireza; Rakheja, Subhash; Cao, Dongpu

    2012-04-01

    Increasing concerns on human driver comfort/health and emerging demands on suspension systems for off-road vehicles call for an effective and efficient off-road vehicle ride dynamics model. This study devotes both analytical and experimental efforts in developing a comprehensive off-road vehicle ride dynamics model. A three-dimensional tire model is formulated to characterize tire-terrain interactions along all the three translational axes. The random roughness properties of the two parallel tracks of terrain profiles are further synthesized considering equivalent undeformable terrain and a coherence function between the two tracks. The terrain roughness model, derived from the field-measured responses of a conventional forestry skidder, was considered for the synthesis. The simulation results of the suspended and unsuspended vehicle models are derived in terms of acceleration PSD, and weighted and unweighted rms acceleration along the different axes at the driver seat location. Comparisons of the model responses with the measured data revealed that the proposed model can yield reasonably good predictions of the ride responses along the translational as well as rotational axes for both the conventional and suspended vehicles. The developed off-road vehicle ride dynamics model could serve as an effective and efficient tool for predicting vehicle ride vibrations, to seek designs of primary and secondary suspensions, and to evaluate the roles of various operating conditions.

  8. Trails, Bike, Bike Paths; bikepaths10; This data set contains center lines for all bicycle paths, bicycle routes, and bicycle lane center lines for all statewide and local bikeways, bike routes, and bike lanes for the entire state of Rhode Island., Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as 'Bike...

  9. E-bike safety: Individual-level factors and incident characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    safety critical incident that they believed would not have happened on a conventional bike. The most frequent explanation offered for these situations was that other road users had underestimated the speed of the e-bike, followed by rider problems regulating e-bike speed. Older cyclists were more likely...

  10. Early Alpine mountain bike events

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Martin, Jean; Savre, Frédéric; Terret, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    During the 1980s, the diffusion of mountain biking in France underwent its first phase in mountain territories that discovered its socio-economic value. Over and beyond the structural and organisational aspects, the mountain bike also became a favoured medium for technological and social innovation. The aim here is to reflect upon the various underlying stakes of introducing, into Alpine territory, a new physical activity that required a two-wheeled vehicle and had its roots in the spirit and...

  11. Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console during the STS-2 simulation (33962); Dele Moore, remote manipulator system (RMS) specialist, stands beside Ride as they go over procedures (33963).

  12. Applying riding-posture optimization on bicycle frame design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee

    2015-11-01

    Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle. PMID:26154206

  13. Free riding and the provision of candy bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Kooreman, P.

    2002-01-01

    A wealth of experimental literature studies the effect of repetition and group size on the extent of free riding in the provision of public goods. In this paper, we use data from honor systems for candy bars in 166 firms to test whether such effects can be found outside the laboratory. We find that

  14. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  15. The Transition to Electric Bikes in China and its Effect on Travel Behavior, Transit Use, and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Ma, Chaktan; Yang, Xinmiao

    2006-01-01

    Despite rapid economic growth in China over the past decade and rise in personal car ownership, most Chinese still rely on two-wheeled vehicles (2WV) or public transport for commuting. The majority of these 2WVs are bicycles. In recent years, concern about poor air quality in urban areas and rising energy costs have caused cities to ban gasoline-powered scooters in city centers. Simultaneously, a new 2WV mode emerged to fill the void: the electric bike (e-bike). This shift from bicyc...

  16. The development of bike sharing : A comparison of the Stockholm and Hangzhou cases

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Qian

    2011-01-01

    Bike sharing is not a new concept in Europe, it’s getting more popular especially in recent years as a method to reduce the impacts of human traffic behaviours on environment, solve the problem of last mile to end a trip and provide an alternative way of travel mode. Speaking about China, although this country used to have a nickname “The Kingdom of Bicycles”, the mode share of traffic for bicycles is decreasing annually. Cars, on the other hand, a symbol of rich, is becoming more popular and...

  17. Trails, Bike, Middle Georgia Bike and Pedestrian Plan data sets for MGRC Service Region., Published in 2009, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'Middle Georgia...

  18. Exactly solving the Split Pickup and Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem on a bike-sharing system

    OpenAIRE

    Casazza, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We propose an exact methodology to solve the Split Pickup and Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem arising in bike-sharing systems: a bike-sharing system is a public service in which bicycles are stored in rack stations and made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis. However, during peak hours, flows along particular direction are registered, leading to high risk of empty racks in departure stations, and full racks at destination. One of the solutions chosen by many ...

  19. Disability, Riding, and Identity: A Qualitative Study on the Influence of Riding on the Identity Construction of People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist Wanneberg, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used to examine the influence of riding on the identity construction of people with disabilities. The 15 participants, three men and 12 women, were between 15 and 65 years old and have various physical disabilities. The data analysis derives from identity theory, a social-psychological theory that…

  20. "Hierarchies of Meaning and Value in the Classic British Bike Scene"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Ward

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Variations in market value for classic British motorcycles of the 1950s and 1960s have been shaped on the one hand by historical importance (relative rarity, engineering advances, competition successes and on the other by marque identification, desirability, and “image.” Using selected examples, the article argues that beyond the obvious factors influencing the prices traders can ask (and usually get, such intangible considerations as aesthetic appeal and cultural resonance are also important determinants. The skyrocketing market for Triumph Bonnevilles is a case in point. Other British bikes match the Bonneville in specifications and performance, but without the advantage provided by name recognition and an association with celebrity enthusiasts, they remain relative “bargains.” In particular, the products of Associated Motor Cycles Ltd (AMC, the maker of AJS and Matchless road bikes and racers, allow an exploration of the factors, some of them difficult to quantify, that condition how the market receives one piece of British iron versus another. The article also describes the work of a few builders and owners, who have found ways to “up” the recognition, and hence the value, of the AMC marques. Objective considerations may be most of what matters in fixing values in the marketplace; but the “meaning” of a particular motorcycle, based on more subtle calculations, can have a lot to do with how many thousands of pounds or dollars end up being exchanged.

  1. Validity and reliability of different kinematics methods used for bike fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Borut; Sarabon, Nejc; Li, François-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The most common bike fitting method to set the seat height is based on the knee angle when the pedal is in its lowest position, i.e. bottom dead centre (BDC). However, there is no consensus on what method should be used to measure the knee angle. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to compare three dynamic methods to each other and against a static method. The second aim was to test the intra-session reliability of the knee angle at BDC measured by dynamic methods. Eleven cyclists performed five 3-min cycling trials; three at different seat heights (25°, 30° and 35° knee angle at BDC according to static measure) and two at preferred seat height. Thirteen infrared cameras (3D), a high-speed camera (2D), and an electrogoniometer were used to measure the knee angle during pedalling, when the pedal was at the BDC. Compared to 3D kinematics, all other methods statistically significantly underestimated the knee angle (P = 0.00; η(2) = 0.73). All three dynamic methods have been found to be substantially different compared to the static measure (effect sizes between 0.4 and 0.6). All dynamic methods achieved good intra-session reliability. 2D kinematics is a valid tool for knee angle assessment during bike fitting. However, for higher precision, one should use correction factor by adding 2.2° to the measured value. PMID:24499342

  2. New gate for pedestrians and bikes on Prévessin site

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    On Wednesday 1 June, the SMB Department announced the opening of a new pedestrian and bike automated gate on the Prévessin site, near the “Déchetterie” of Saint-Genis-Pouilly, on the road “Chemin du Moulin des Ponts”.   The gate is open to all CERN personnel 24h/24h with their access card. (Find it here on the GIS website). This gate was generously financed with the help of the EN, BE and TE Departments, and the planning and construction were completed in record time by the team taking care of CERN site access. The timing is perfect for the start of the Bike2Work initiative, which started on 1 June. A record number of 136 teams signed up. If you want to participate, it is not too late, you can sign up here. We remind that safe commuting is imperative. It is now possible to cycle from the CERN hostel in Saint-Genis-Pouilly to the CERN Prévessin site using quiet back ...

  3. Free Riding and Sales Strategies for the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton, Dennis W; Judith A. Chevalier

    2001-01-01

    We examine manufacturers' decisions of whether and how to offer their products for sale over the internet. Manufacturers that rely on promotion of their products by brick and mortar retailers must consider the possibility that internet retailers can free ride off of that promotional effort. This creates an incentive for manufacturers to limit the availability of their products over the internet and to control the pricing of their products over the internet. We examine three categories of prod...

  4. Bikes and Movies: A Brief History Of Motorcycle In Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Martinez; Antonio Sanjuán

    2014-01-01

    Bikers, gangs, heroes and villains, cops, races... after an exhaustive compilation and categorization fo more than 2.500 movies, this article explores the biker image on films through the most representatives.This is a brief review of the motorcycle use from the Early Cinema to the end of the 20th century, highlighting the fifties and seventies. Some movies of those years marked the biker genre and the biker and gang aesthetics, both in costume and in the way they relate to the world. Also th...

  5. Service network design of bike sharing systems analysis and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a tactical planning approach for service network design in metropolitan areas. Designing the service network requires the suitable aggregation of demand data as well as the anticipation of operational relocation decisions. To this end, an integrated approach of data analysis and mathematical optimization is introduced. The book also includes a case study based on real-world data to demonstrate the benefit of the proposed service network design approach. The target audience comprises primarily research experts in the field of traffic engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  6. Aspects Regarding the Improving of Fitness and Health Issues by Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Octavian MĂNESCU

    2014-01-01

    This article is trying to explain all the benefits cycling has over fitness and specific health issues, the importance of a training plan, of a balanced diet and a good hydration during a training period of time and, also, presents the results of some studies regarding the importance of ride biking, generally, and exercising, particularly. Riding a bike is a healthy activity. Regular exercise in the form of cycling will make people fitter, stronger, will help them reduce fat levels and loo...

  7. Ubiquitous Integrity via Network Integration and Parallelism—Sustaining Pedestrian/Bike Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yen Hsu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the concern regarding environmental issues, establishing pedestrian/bike friendly urbanism is widely encouraged. To promote safety-assured, mobile communication environments, efficient, reliable maintenance, and information integrity need to be designed, especially in highly possibly interfered places. For busy traffic areas, regular degree-3 dedicated short range communication (DSRC networks are safety and information featured with availability, reliability, and maintainability in paths of multi-lanes. For sparsely populated areas, probes of wireless sensors are rational, especially if sensor nodes can be organized to enhance security, reliability, and flexibility. Applying alternative network topologies, such as spider-webs, generalized honeycomb tori, and cube-connected cycles, for comparing and analyzing is proposed in DSRC and cellular communications to enhance integrity in communications.

  8. Mechanical work and physiological responses to simulated cross country mountain bike racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul William; Stannard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the mechanical work and physiological responses to cross country mountain bike racing. Participants (n = 7) cycled on a cross country track at race speed whilst VO2, power, cadence, speed, and geographical position were recorded. Mean power during the designated start section (68.5 ± 5.5 s) was 481 ± 122 W, incurring an O2 deficit of 1.58 ± 0.67 L - min(-1) highlighting a significant initial anaerobic (32.4 ± 10.2%) contribution. Complete lap data produced mean (243 ± 12 W) and normalised (279 ± 15 W) power outputs with 13.3 ± 6.1 and 20.7 ± 8.3% of time spent in high force-high velocity and high force-low velocity, respectively. This equated to, physiological measures for %VO(2max) (77 ± 5%) and % HR(max) (93 ± 2%). Terrain (uphill vs downhill) significantly (P cadence (76 + 2 vs. 55 ± 4 rpm) but not heart rate (93.8 ± 2.3 vs. 91.3 ± 0.6% HR(max)) and led to a significant difference between anaerobic contribution and terrain (uphill, 6.4 ± 3.0 vs. downhill, 3.2 ± 1.8%, respectively) but not aerobic energy contribution. Both power and cadence were highly variable through all sections resulting in one power surge every 32 s and a supra-maximal effort every 106 s. The results show that cross country mountain bike racing consists of predominantly low velocity pedalling with a large high force component and when combined with a high oscillating work rate, necessitates high aerobic energy provision, with intermittent anaerobic contribution. Additional physical stress during downhill sections affords less recovery emphasised by physiological variables remaining high throughout. PMID:22876780

  9. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhou

    Full Text Available The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  10. Transference of 3D accelerations during cross country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Fink, Philip W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2014-06-01

    Investigations into the work demands of Olympic format cross country mountain biking suggest an incongruent relationship between work done and physiological strain experienced by participants. A likely but unsubstantiated cause is the extra work demand of muscle damping of terrain/surface induced vibrations. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between vibration mechanics and their interaction with terrain, bicycle and rider during a race pace effort on a cross country mountain bike track, on both 26″ and 29″ wheels. Participants completed one lap of a cross country track using 26″ and 29″ wheels, at race pace. Power, cadence, speed, heart rate and geographical position were sampled and logged every second for control purposes. Tri-axial accelerometers located on the bicycle and rider, recorded accelerations (128Hz) and were used to quantify vibrations experienced during the whole lap and over terrain sections (uphill and downhill). While there were no differences in power output (p=0.3062) and heart rate (p=0.8423), time to complete the lap was significantly (p=0.0061) faster on the 29″ wheels despite increased vibrations in the larger wheels (p=0.0020). Overall accelerometer data (RMS) showed location differences (p<0.0001), specifically between the point of interface of bike-body compared to those experienced at the lower back and head. The reduction in accelerations at both the lower back and head are imperative for injury prevention and demonstrates an additional non-propulsive, muscular, challenge to riding. Stress was greatest during downhill sections as acceleration differences between locations were greater when compared to uphill sections, and thus possibly prevent the recovery processes that may occur during non-propulsive load. PMID:24735505

  11. Biking to work in Miami. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, O.

    1982-08-01

    The objective of the project was to produce and distribute a guide to commuting by bicycle in the Miami metropolitan area. The area is uniquely suited to bicycling because of its pleasant year-round climate and relatively flat topography. Persuading even a small percentage of automobile commuters to try biking to work could result in substantial energy savings in Miami as in most other major metropolitan areas. Seven of the largest employment centers in the area were selected as major commuter destinations suitable for bicycle commuters. Safe and scenic ways of commuting to these areas by bicycle were mapped and described in a series of short narratives. Additional material on safe riding techniques and the choice of equipment was developed. The resulting 40 page booklet, Biking to Work in Miami, was printed and distributed by the author to local cycling groups, bicycle interests, and others. Copies were also sent to interested parties outside the Miami area. The initial reception has been very encouraging and a number of favorable reply cards have been received with useful comments and suggestions. A revised version aimed at stimulating bikers to avail of the soon-to-be-opened rapid transit system is being considered. A writer for the Miami Herald is interested in using parts of the Guide for a series in the newspaper.

  12. Trails, Bike, NCDOT Bike Routes- The bike routes shapefile contains lines representing North Carolina bike routes, as defined by the Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. (SHP), Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, NCDOT-GIS Unit.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'NCDOT...

  13. Vibration, noise and riding comfort; Jidosha gijutsu. Shindo / soon / norigokochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Y.; Umemura, T.; Kondo, T.; Hirata, T. [Honda Research and Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    As for road traffic noise, besides the measures of road structure, traffic flow and so forth, making severe noise regulation along with the noise reduction measures of a vehicle simple were carried out many times in the past. However, there is still bad situation regarding the fulfilling the environmental standard due to the increasing traffic volume. Regarding the vibration and noise of the engine, many researches using analysis technique with high frequency resolution are carried out for prediction technology or transient phenomena that are related to optimization. As for riding comfort, research of active/semiactive control is popular from the beginning. There is applicable research of active control with a purpose of achieving riding comfort and fatigue reduction of big truck drivers. As for vehicle body, there are many studies and optimization of experimental technique of related problems of structure and sound generating part. Subjective sound property is an important point for vehicle industry. As for evaluation of sound, most of them rely on the human judgement from the very past. 100 refs.

  14. To investigate the daily maintenance of mountain biking and maintenance program%山地自行车的日常保养及维护方案的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小强; 王月雷; 朱世鑫; 杨艳萍; 姜国平

    2014-01-01

    随着人类社会生活质量的不断提高,人们对低碳、环保的追求越来越强烈,自行车不仅成了人们出行旅游不可或缺的代步工具,而且对人的身心健康也有极大的益处。山地车作为特种自行车尤为被喜欢挑战勇气和毅力的年轻人们所亲睐,但在骑行中因道路坎坷不平,震动、碰撞等经常会发生,由此也会出现一些机械故障,可是往往大多数人对此束手无策,所以掌握一些山地自行车维修和保养的知识,已体现得越来越重要了,为此我们通过山地自行车的构造、工作特点结合一些前人们的经验以及机械传动的理论知识对山地自行车的维修和保养进行了研究探讨。%with the continuous improvement of the quality of life of human society, people of low carbon, environmental protection and the pursuit of more and more strongly, the bicycle has become an indispensable means of transport for people to travel, but also have great benefits to physical and mental health, physical health of people. Mountain bike as a special bicycle is being like to challenge the courage and perseverance of young people's concern, but in the riding by road is bumpy, vibration, collision occur frequently,so there may be some fault,but most people be at a loss what to do, so to master some mountain bike repair and maintenance of knowledge,has reflected more and more important, so we construct, the characteristics of mountain bike with some people experience and theoretical knowledge of mechanical transmission of mountain bike repair and maintenance are discussed.

  15. Towards confirmatory data analysis? Deriving and analysing routing information for an origin-destination bike share dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Beecham, R.; J. Wood

    2014-01-01

    Data collected from urban bike share schemes allow observed travel behaviours to be analysed on a uniquely large scale. Exploring such timed origin-destination (OD) data from the London Cycle Hire Scheme (LCHS), we previously generated detailed insights into spatiotemporal patterns of travel and suggested new hypotheses for their motivation. A limitation was that with only the origins and destinations of cycle journeys, little was known about the nature and context of likely cycled routes. In...

  16. Predictive Validity of Stated Preference Data: Evidence from Mountain Bike Park Visits Before and After Trail System Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Atkinson; John C. Whitehead

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of stated preference data for use in recreation demand estimation. We use stated preference and revealed preference data from users of a mountain bike park collected before and after an expansion of the trail system. The ex-ante stated preference data elicited before the change exhibits hypothetical bias, but, it would provide useful information for demand prediction. Key Words: hypothetical bias, recreation demand, revealed preference, stated preference

  17. Equestrian World : Riding Arena

    OpenAIRE

    Olson Ehn, Isa

    2015-01-01

    Once you have experienced the art of riding your life will never be the same, and for most riders it is a lifelong passion. Riding is the second largest youth sport in Sweden, but it is also an almost mythical sport for those who have never tried it. This project aims to create a stable to showcase the equestrian world to a greater audience, a National Riding Arena, designed form the perspective of horses, riders and visitors.

  18. A hazard-based duration model for analyzing crossing behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobao; Huan, Mei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hazard-based duration approach to investigate riders' waiting times, violation hazards, associated risk factors, and their differences between cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections. A total of 2322 two-wheeled riders approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. The data were classified into censored and uncensored data to distinguish between safe crossing and red-light running behavior. The results indicated that the red-light crossing behavior of most riders was dependent on waiting time. They were inclined to terminate waiting behavior and run against the traffic light with the increase of waiting duration. Over half of the observed riders cannot endure 49s or longer. 25% of the riders can endure 97s or longer. Rider type, gender, waiting position, conformity tendency and crossing traffic volume were identified to have significant effects on riders' waiting times and violation hazards. Electric bike riders were found to be more sensitive to the external risk factors such as other riders' crossing behavior and crossing traffic volume than cyclists. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity was examined in the proposed models. The finding of this paper can explain when and why cyclists and electric bike riders run against the red light at intersections. The results of this paper are useful for traffic design and management agencies to implement strategies to enhance the safety of riders. PMID:25463942

  19. Trails, Bike, Bike trails drawn as part of road transportation system and tagged as such in attributes, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Scott County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as 'Bike...

  20. Using functional traits to assess the resistance of subalpine grassland to trampling by mountain biking and hiking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Barros, Agustina

    2015-12-01

    Functional traits reflect plant responses to disturbance, including from visitor impacts. The impacts of mountain biking and hiking on functional composition were compared using a common experimental protocol in a subalpine grassland in the Australian Alps. The overlapping cover of all species was recorded two weeks after different intensities of hiking (200 and 500 passes) and mountain biking (none, 25, 75, 200 and 500 passes). Species' functional trait data were combined with their relative cover to calculate community trait weighted means for plant height, leaf area, percentage leaf dry matter content and Specific Leaf Area (SLA). Species such as Poa fawcettiae with larger leaves and SLA but lower dry weight content of leaves were more resistant to use, with differences between bikers and hikers only apparent at the highest levels of use tested. This differs from some vegetation communities in Europe where plants with smaller leaves were more resistant to hiking. More research using functional traits may account for differences in species responses to trampling. Managers of conservation areas used for hiking and biking need to minimise off trail use by both user groups. PMID:26363260

  1. Biking with Particles: Junior Triathletes' Learning about Drafting through Exploring Agent-Based Models and Inventing New Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Alon; Levy, Sharona T.

    2013-01-01

    The present research addresses a curious finding: how learning physical principles enhanced athletes' biking performance but not their conceptual understanding. The study involves a model-based triathlon training program, Biking with Particles, concerning aerodynamics of biking in groups (drafting). A conceptual framework highlights several…

  2. Test verification and design of the bicycle frame parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Xiang, Zhongxia; Luo, Huan; Tian, Guan

    2015-07-01

    Research on design of bicycles is concentrated on mechanism and auto appearance design, however few on matches between the bike and the rider. Since unreasonable human-bike relationship leads to both riders' worn-out joints and muscle injuries, the design of bicycles should focus on the matching. In order to find the best position of human-bike system, simulation experiments on riding comfort under different riding postures are done with the lifemode software employed to facilitate the cycling process as well as to obtain the best position and the size function of it. With BP neural network and GA, analyzing simulation data, conducting regression analysis of parameters on different heights and bike frames, the equation of best position of human-bike system is gained at last. In addition, after selecting testers, customized bikes based on testers' height dimensions are produced according to the size function. By analyzing and comparing the experimental data that are collected from testers when riding common bicycles and customized bicycles, it is concluded that customized bicycles are four times even six times as comfortable as common ones. The equation of best position of human-bike system is applied to improve bikes' function, and the new direction on future design of bicycle frame parameters is presented.

  3. Perception of Safety and Liking Associated to the Colour Intervention of Bike Lanes: Contribution from the Behavioural Sciences to Urban Design and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Segovia, Ariel; Rojo, Natalia; Moreno, Sandra; Oyarzo, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The perception of colour and its subjective effects are key issues to designing safe and enjoyable bike lanes. This paper addresses the relationship between the colours of bike lane interventions—in particular pavement painting and intersection design—and the subjective evaluation of liking, visual saliency, and perceived safety related to such an intervention. Utilising images of three real bike lane intersections modified by software to change their colour (five in total), this study recruited 538 participants to assess their perception of all fifteen colour-design combinations. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with the Bonferroni post hoc test was performed to assess the effect of the main conditions (colour and design) on the dependent variables (liking towards the intervention, level of visual saliency of the intersection, and perceived safety of the bike lane). The results showed that the colour red was more positively associated to the outcome variables, followed by yellow and blue. Additionally, it was observed that the effect of colour widely outweighs the effect of design, suggesting that the right choice and use of colour would increase the effectiveness on bike-lanes pavement interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27548562

  4. Urban Bike Scapes, New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Marie Bruun Jespersen, Line

    2016-01-01

    of the design as a framework for urban life and cultural interaction. A number of research questions have formed the basis for the analyses: What is an 'urban bike scape'? How is the analysis of the architecture, the urban spaces and the aesthetic urban environment unfolded? Which role do the...... serial experience of the architecture, spaces and cultures of the city. ⁃Urban bike scapes as a ' place of time related bearer of meaning'. That means the historical and cultural meaning of the place, as well as the significance of the new design as generator of changes and urban transformation. ⁃Urban......In recent years New York has developed a whole new web of bicycle routes through some of the most urbane and dense city areas in the world. The article explores what this new, urban typology, which is the result of 'mobility-design' consists of. The article suggests how these new cycle environments...

  5. The Theory of Dynamic Public Transit Priority with Dynamic Stochastic Park and Ride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transit priority is very important for relieving traffic congestion. The connotation of dynamic public transit priority and dynamic stochastic park and ride is presented. Based on the point that the travel cost of public transit is not higher than the travel cost of car, how to determine the level of dynamic public transit priority is discussed. The traffic organization method of dynamic public transit priority is introduced. For dynamic stochastic park and ride, layout principle, scale, and charging standard are discussed. Traveler acceptability is high through the analysis of questionnaire survey. Dynamic public transit priority with dynamic stochastic park and ride has application feasibility.

  6. Yard differences in training, management and orthopedic injury in showjumping, riding school, and thoroughbred race horses

    OpenAIRE

    Lönnell, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a major cause of wastage in Thoroughbred racing and equestrian sport. Epidemiological studies in racehorses have demonstrated that risk of injury vary between trainers and with differences in training regimens, but few havestudied such between-yard differences in riding horses. The aim of the thesis was to quantify and compare training regimes, management and measures of injury in racehorses, riding school horses and showjumping horses at herd level, and mea...

  7. Planning, implementing and evaluating a social and communication skills course for riding instructors

    OpenAIRE

    Seefeld, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Social and emotional skills are very important for effective coaching. As research in this field is still very limited, the purpose of this study was to plan, implement and evaluate a course teaching social and emotional skills to riding instructors. The objective of this research project was to analyse the usefulness and feasibility of a social and communication skills course for riding instructors. The present research study is an educational action research case study approa...

  8. Fast Coordinated Control of DFIG Wind Turbine Generators for Low and High Voltage Ride-Through

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Wang; Qiuwei Wu; Honghua Xu; Qinglai Guo; Hongbin Sun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fast coordinated control scheme of the rotor side converter (RSC), the Direct Current (DC) chopper and the grid side converter (GSC) of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine generators (WTGs) to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT) and high voltage ride through (HVRT) capability of the DFIG WTGs. The characteristics of DFIG WTGs under voltage sags and swells were studied focusing on the DFIG WTG stator flux and rotor voltages during the transient peri...

  9. Bicycle Riding: Impact on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Esther; Kam, Sin; Jung, Hee Chang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, reports in the mass media have implicated that bicycle riding increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and prostatic diseases. So, we evaluate the impact of bicycle riding on erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy general men. Methods From 26 June 2010 to 20 July 2010, we investigate degree of LUTS (voiding and storage symptoms), using International Continence Society-male Questionnaire (ICS-mQ) and erectile function using International Index ...

  10. Fault ride-through and voltage support of permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalke, G.; Hartkopf, T. [Darmstadt Technical Univ., Dept. of Renewable Energies (Germany); Hansen, A.D. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a control strategy of direct driven multipole PMSG wind turbines, which enhances the fault ride-through and voltage support capability of such wind turbines during grid faults. A dynamic simulation model of the turbine is implemented in the simulation software DIgSILENT. Simulation results approve the effectiveness of the developed control strategy. It is shown that PMSG wind turbines equipped with such control even enable nearby connected conventional wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. (au)

  11. Solitons riding on solitons and the quantum Newton's cradle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manjun; Navarro, R; Carretero-González, R

    2016-02-01

    The reduced dynamics for dark and bright soliton chains in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to study the behavior of collective compression waves corresponding to Toda lattice solitons. We coin the term hypersoliton to describe such solitary waves riding on a chain of solitons. It is observed that in the case of dark soliton chains, the formulated reduction dynamics provides an accurate an robust evolution of traveling hypersolitons. As an application to Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standard harmonic potential, we study the case of a finite dark soliton chain confined at the center of the trap. When the central chain is hit by a dark soliton, the energy is transferred through the chain as a hypersoliton that, in turn, ejects a dark soliton on the other end of the chain that, as it returns from its excursion up the trap, hits the central chain repeating the process. This periodic evolution is an analog of the classical Newton's cradle. PMID:26986326

  12. Bike Skills Training in PE Is Fun, Keeps Kids Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Judi Lawson; Sutton, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating bike skills into the elementary- and middle-school physical education curriculum encourages students to be physically active in a fun way while also learning bike safety skills. Winston-Salem's (NC) Safe Routes to School program demonstrates how collaboration with the public schools' health and physical education program…

  13. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations : a field experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlakveld, W.P. Twisk, D.A.M. Christoph, M.W.T. Boele, M.J. Sikkema, R. Remy, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for

  14. Video markers tracking methods for bike fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkiewicz, Piotr; Łepkowska, Katarzyna; Cygan, Szymon

    2015-09-01

    Sports cycling is becoming increasingly popular over last years. Obtaining and maintaining a proper position on the bike has been shown to be crucial for performance, comfort and injury avoidance. Various techniques of bike fitting are available - from rough settings based on body dimensions to professional services making use of sophisticated equipment and expert knowledge. Modern fitting techniques use mainly joint angles as a criterion of proper position. In this work we examine performance of two proposed methods for dynamic cyclist position assessment based on video data recorded during stationary cycling. Proposed methods are intended for home use, to help amateur cyclist improve their position on the bike, and therefore no professional equipment is used. As a result of data processing, ranges of angles in selected joints are provided. Finally strengths and weaknesses of both proposed methods are discussed.

  15. Pricing Decision under Dual-Channel Structure considering Fairness and Free-Riding Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under dual-channel structure, the free-riding behavior based on different service levels between online channel and offline channel cannot be avoided, which would lead to channel unfairness. This study implies that the dual-channel supply chain is built up by online channel controlled by manufacturer and traditional channel controlled by retailer, respectively. Under this channel structure, we rebuild the linear demand function considering free-riding behavior and modify the pricing model based on channel fairness. Then the influences of fair factor and free-riding behavior on manufacturer and retailer pricing and performance are discussed. Finally, we propose some numerical analysis to provide some valuable recommendations for manufacturer and retailer improving channel management performance.

  16. Mountain biking injuries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport. PMID:12076178

  17. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise. PMID:24668685

  18. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed. PMID:23036395

  19. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  20. The influence of speed, cyclists' age, pedaling frequency, and observer age on observers' time to arrival judgments of approaching bicycles and e-bikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleinitz, Katja; Petzoldt, Tibor; Krems, Josef F; Gehlert, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Given their potential to reach higher speed levels than conventional bicycles, the growing market share of e-bikes has been the reason for increased concerns regarding road safety. Previous studies have shown a clear relationship between object approach speed and an observers' judgment of when the object would reach a predefined position (i.e., time to arrival, TTA), with higher speed resulting in longer TTA estimates. Since TTA estimates have been linked to road users' decisions of whether or not to cross or turn in front of approaching vehicles, the higher potential speeds of e-bikes might result in an increased risk for traffic conflicts. The goal of the two experiments presented in this paper was to examine the influence of speed and a variety of other factors on TTA estimation for conventional bicycles and for e-bikes. In both experiments, participants from two age groups (20-45 years old and 65 years or older) watched video sequences of bicycles approaching at different speeds (15-25km/h) and were asked to judge the TTA at the moment the video was stopped. The results of both experiments showed that an increase in bicycle approach speed resulted in longer TTA estimates (measured as the proportion of estimated TTA relative to actual TTA) for both bicycle types (ηp(2)Exp.1=.489, ηp(2)Exp.2=.705). Compared to younger observers, older observers provided shorter estimates throughout (Exp. I: MDiff=0.35, CI [0.197, 0.509], ηp(2)=.332, Exp. II: MDiff=0.50, CI [.317, 0.682], ηp(2)=.420). In Experiment I, TTA estimates for the conventional bicycle were significantly shorter than for the e-bike (MDiff=0.03, CI [.007, 0.044], ηp(2)=.154), as were the estimates for the elder cyclist compared to the younger one (MDiff=0.05, CI [.025, 0.066], ηp(2)=.323). We hypothesized that the cause for this effect might lie in the seemingly reduced pedaling effort for the e-bike as a result of the motor assistance it provides. Experiment II was able to show that a high pedaling

  1. Stay Fit - Have Fun - Bike To Work

    CERN Multimedia

    Jens Vigen, CERN coordinator for Bike2Work

    2013-01-01

    This June, CERN will take part in the Swiss "Bike to Work" campaign once again. In this Swiss national campaign, which has attracted more than 50,000 participants, teams of four colleagues encourage each other to cycle to work throughout the month of June.   Participants of the “2012 Bike2CERN through the year” campaign - with the campaign winners, Tim Smith, Martial Dujardin and Mika Huhtinen - alongside the organisers and cycling enthusiasts. Participating is easy! Simply get together with three of your colleagues and register your Bike to Work team online before 31 May. There are no fees for registering teams, there is no minimum distance, and parts of the journey can be done using public transport. There is even an opening for non-cyclists: one member per team can be a pedestrian or a skateboarder or use any other means of transport that does not depend on an engine. In addition to the June event, CERN is also supporting "Bike to CERN throu...

  2. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations : a field experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Vlakveld, W.P. Twisk, D.A.M. Christoph, M.W.T. Boele, M.J. Sikkema, R. Remy, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for the electric pedal support system. Two groups were compared: elderly cyclists (65 years of age and older) and a reference group of cyclists in middle adulthood (between 30 and 45 years of age). Par...

  3. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  4. A Motion Simulator Ride Associated With Headache and Subdural Hematoma: First Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scranton, Robert A; Evans, Randolph W; Baskin, David S

    2016-02-01

    We report the first case report of symptomatic bilateral subdural hematomas (SDH) associated with riding a centrifugal motion simulator ride. A previously healthy 55-year-old male developed new onset daily headaches 1 week after going on the ride that were due to symptomatic bilateral SDH requiring operative intervention with a full recovery. There was no history of other trauma or other systemic or intracranial abnormality to account for the development of the SDH. We review the headaches and other clinical features associated with chronic SDH. Twelve cases of roller coaster headaches due to SDH associated with riding roller coasters have been reported. The pathophysiology is reviewed, which we believe is the same mechanism that may be responsible in this case. Although it is possible that this neurovascular injury is truly rare, it is also possible that this injury is underreported as patients and physicians may not make the association or physicians have not reported additional cases. The risk of this injury likely increases with age, as the size of the subdural space increases, and may support the maxim that "roller coasters and simulators are for kids." PMID:26581189

  5. Coordination between Fault-Ride-Through Capability and Overcurrent Protection of DFIG Generatorsfor Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Kawady, Tamer A.; Abdel-Rahman, Mansour H.

    2009-01-01

    , the Coor-dination between Fault Ride-Through Capability and Overcur-rent Protection of DFIG Wind Generators in MV Networks is in-vestigated. Simulation test cases using MATLAB-Simulink are implemented on a 345-MW wind farm in AL-Zaafarana, Egypt. The simulation results show the influence of FRT...... capability on protective relaying coordination in wind farms....

  6. Operation, emissions and fuel consumption of motor bikes. Fundamentals of realistic measuring and test methods; Betriebsweise, Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von Motorraedern. Grundlagen fuer realitaetsnahe Mess- und Pruefmethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, F.

    2000-07-01

    The state of the art of motor bikes is reviewed, and the legal regulations and methods of measurement for environmentally relevant aspects are presented. Methods of measurement had to be modified in order to make the existing regulations more practicable. The suggestions are based on driving experiments in normal traffic, the conditions of which were defined on the basis of an enquiry among bikers. Procedures for future exhaust, consumption and noise measurement were derived and tested experimentally. The result is a driving cycle with a typicla motor bike dynamics and a method of vehicle noise measurement which takes account of the rated speed of a vehicle. Strategies for reducing environmental pollution from motor bikes were discussed as well. The publication will provide a basis for the definition of future requirements on motor vehicles from the view of environmental compatibility. [German] Der Stand der Technik von Motorraedern sowie die gesetzlichen Bestimmungen und Messverfahren hinsichtlich umweltrelevanter Aspekte werden dargestellt. Veraenderte Messmethoden werden entwickelt, um die Praxisnaehe der bestehenden Vorschriften zu erhoehen. Die Vorschlaege basieren auf Fahrversuchen im oeffentlichen Strassenverkehr, deren Bedingungen anhand einer Motorrad-Umfrage definiert wurden. Es werden Prozeduren fuer zukuenftige Abgas-, Verbrauchs- und Geraeuschmessungen abgeleitet und experimentell erprobt. Hieraus resultieren ein Fahrzyklus mit motorradtypischer Dynamik sowie ein Messablauf fuer die Fahrgeraeuschmessung, der die Nenndrehzahl des jeweiligen Fahrzeugs beruecksichtigt. Daneben werden Moeglichkeiten zur Verringerung der Umweltbelastungen durch motorisierte Zweiraeder diskutiert. Die Arbeit stellt eine Grundlage fuer die Definition zukuenftiger Anforderungen an das Umweltverhalten von Motorraedern dar. (orig.)

  7. Paediatric ride-on mower related injuries and plastic surgical management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2011-05-01

    Lawnmower related injuries cause significant morbidity in children and young teenagers. The \\'ride-on\\' mowers which are more powerful than the \\'walk behind\\' mowers are becoming increasingly popular. The incidence and severity of injuries from either type of lawnmower appears to be steadily rising as is the burden placed on local plastic surgical and emergency services in managing the care of these patients. The aims of the study were to demonstrate changing trends in lawnmower-related injuries to children presenting to a single unit over a ten-year period and to identify any association between injury severity and machine subtype (\\'ride-on\\' versus \\'walk-behind\\'). Hospital databases, theatre records and medical case notes were reviewed retrospectively of all patients under the age of 16 treated for lawnmower related injuries over a 10 year period from July 1998 to June 2008. Data gathered included patient demographics, injury site and severity, management (type and number of surgical procedures), length of hospital stay and outcome. Injury severity score was also calculated for each case. Controlling for estimated regional population changes, there was a significant increase in the number of ride-on mower related accidents in the time period 2003-2008, compared to the time period 1998-2003. Ride-on injuries had significantly higher injury severity scores, longer hospital stays and were more likely to involve amputations as compared with walk-behind injuries. Children can sustain significant injuries with unsafe lawnmower use. The current study demonstrates the increasing incidence of ride-on mower related injuries in children and identifies a greater morbidity associated with such injuries. Such presentations place intense demands on local plastic surgical services.

  8. Bicycle Riding: Impact on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Esther; Kam, Sin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, reports in the mass media have implicated that bicycle riding increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and prostatic diseases. So, we evaluate the impact of bicycle riding on erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy general men. Methods From 26 June 2010 to 20 July 2010, we investigate degree of LUTS (voiding and storage symptoms), using International Continence Society-male Questionnaire (ICS-mQ) and erectile function using International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire (IIEF-5) in 5 work places (personnel of public office, hospital, university, etc.) of which bicycle riding club members were doing active club activities. Respondents, who participated in club activities for 6 months and longer, were classified as the bicycle club (142 men; age, 44.02±8.56). Ones who do not ride bicycles were classified as the control group (83 men; age, 42.13±7.85). People who were having the history of urological and other chronic diseases (diabetes, vascular disease, heart disease, etc) were excluded from both groups. Results Bicycle club is not significantly associated with increased prevalence of LUTS (bicycle club, 2.1 to 57.7% control, 4.8 to 73.5%) and erectile dysfunction (bicycle club, 46.1% control, 55.4%). The total mean score (storage/voiding/erectile function) of bicycle club (13.93±1.95/11.14±3.49/20.46±5.30) were not significantly different from control (14.35±2.49/11.52±3.38/20.40±4.07) (P=0.190 to 0.968). Conclusions These results suggested that bicycle riding as exercise or hobby has no negative effect on LUTS and erectile function in healthy general men, although this research data were limited to the questionnaire analysis. PMID:21811700

  9. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-06-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  10. Shikara ride, Jammu Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Khanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Shikara boats are often used in Kashmir as a means of transportation and for fishing. The poor sometimes convert these into shelters as floating homes. Shikaras are a big tourist attraction in the valley as foreigners flock to take a ride in the Dal Lake, fondly known as the "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir". It stretches to an area of 18 square kilometers, and is surrounded by parks and gardens built during the Mughal Area. This photograph was taken during a boat ride in 2013 in Srinagar, the summer capital of the state of Jammu Kashmir, India.Jannat-e-Kashmir (Heaven on Earth 

  11. The Environmental Impacts of Electric Bikes in Chinese Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, Christopher; Weinert, Jonathan; Ma, Chaktan

    2007-01-01

    Electric bikes have captured a large share of trips in many Chinese cities. They provide high levels of mobility and use little energy, two things that Chinese cities need to optimize. However, these benefits come at a cost, particularly emissions from primarily coal power plants and increased lead waste from battery use. Chinese policy makers are struggling with developing appropriate policy that maximizes modal options and mobility and minimizes environmental impacts. Electric bikes us...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  16. Relative vs. absolute physiological measures as predictors of mountain bike cross-country race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John; Johns, David P; Walls, Justin T

    2007-02-01

    The aims of this study were to document the effect terrain has on the physiological responses and work demands (power output) of riding a typical mountain bike cross-country course under race conditions. We were particularly interested in determining whether physiological measures relative to mass were better predictors of race performance than absolute measures. Eleven A-grade male cross-country mountain bike riders (VO2max 67.1 +/- 3.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed 2 tests: a laboratory-based maximum progressive exercise test, and a 15.5-km (six 2.58-km laps) mountain bike cross-country time trial. There were significant differences among the speed, cadence, and power output measured in each of 8 different terrain types found in the cross-country time trial course. The highest average speed was measured during the 10-15% downhill section (22.7 +/- 2.6 km x h(-1)), whereas the cadence was highest in the posttechnical flat sections (74.3 +/- 5.6 rpm) and lowest on the 15-20% downhill sections (6.4 +/- 12.1 rpm). The highest mean heart rate (HR) was obtained during the steepest (15-20% incline) section of the course (179 +/- 8 b x min(-1)), when the power output was greatest (419.8 +/- 39.7 W). However, HR remained elevated relative to power output in the downhill sections of the course. Physiological measures relative to total rider mass correlated more strongly to average course speed than did absolute measures (peak power relative to mass r = 0.93, p < 0.01, vs. peak power r = 0.64, p < 0.05; relative VO2max r = 0.80, p < 0.05, vs. VO2max r = 0.66, p < 0.05; power at anaerobic threshold relative to mass r = 0.78, p < 0.05, vs. power at anaerobic threshold r = 0.5, p < 0.05). This suggests that mountain bike cross-country training programs should focus upon improving relative physiological values rather than focusing upon maximizing absolute values to improve performance. PMID:17313256

  17. Motor ability of forelimb both on- and off-riding during walk and trot cadence of horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the motor ability of forelimb according to on- or off-riding during cadences (walk and trot) of horse. Horses and rider selected as subject consisted of total 37 heads of Jeju native horse and 1 female rider. The variables analyzed composed of 1 stride length, 1 step length, elapsed time of stance, elapsed time of swing, elapsed time of 1 step, and forward velocity (x-axis). Two-way analysis of variance of variables was employed for the statistical analysis with the level of significance set at 5% (P<0.05). Trot cadence showed significant difference with the faster and shorter during trot than that of walk in velocity and elapsed time. When analyzed interaction effect in stance and swing phase, the locomotion showed the shorter elapsed time in trot than that of walk, but more delayed in case of on-riding during stance phase, whereas the case of on-riding showed with the shorter during swing phase than that of the case of off-riding These result of horse’s analysis meant that there was very close relation among variables of rider’s weight-velocity-stride length-stride elapsed time. Next study will be necessary to analyze cadence variables added both stride length and rider’s weight for riding activity and rehabilitation during horse riding using Jeju native horse. PMID:26933662

  18. Fast Coordinated Control of DFIG Wind Turbine Generators for Low and High Voltage Ride-Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Xu, Honghua; Guo, Qinglai; Sun, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fast coordinated control scheme of the rotor side converter (RSC), the DC chopper and the grid side converter (GSC) of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine generators (WTGs) which is to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT) and high voltage ride through...... (HVRT) capability of the DFIG WTGs. The characteristics of DFIG WTGs under voltage sags and swells were studied focusing on the DFIG WTG stator flux and rotor voltages during the transient periods of grid voltage changes. The protection schemes of the rotor crowbar circuit and the dc chopper circuit...... were proposed considering the characteristics of the DFIG WTGs during voltage changes. The fast coordinated control of RSC and GSC were developed based on the characteristic analysis in order to realize efficient LVRT and HVRT of the DFIG WTGs. The proposed fast coordinated control schemes were...

  19. Fast Coordinated Control of DFIG Wind Turbine Generators for Low and High Voltage Ride-Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast coordinated control scheme of the rotor side converter (RSC, the Direct Current (DC chopper and the grid side converter (GSC of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG wind turbine generators (WTGs to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT and high voltage ride through (HVRT capability of the DFIG WTGs. The characteristics of DFIG WTGs under voltage sags and swells were studied focusing on the DFIG WTG stator flux and rotor voltages during the transient periods of grid voltage changes. The protection schemes of the rotor crowbar circuit and the DC chopper circuit were proposed considering the characteristics of the DFIG WTGs during voltage changes. The fast coordinated control of RSC and GSC were developed based on the characteristic analysis in order to realize efficient LVRT and HVRT of the DFIG WTGs. The proposed fast coordinated control schemes were verified by time domain simulations using Matlab-Simulink.

  20. The Geo Quick Ride (GQR) Program: Providing Inexpensive and Frequent Access to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Robert; Baniszewski, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines piggybacking NASA, university, and industry payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites. NASA's RSDO Office awarded Geo Quick Ride (GQR) study contracts in 1998 to spacecraft manufactures to examine the issues with flying secondary payloads. The study results were very promising. Commercial communication satellites have frequent flights and significant unused resources that could be used to fly secondary payloads. However, manifesting secondary payloads on a commercial revenue-generating satellite is a complex problem to solve. The solution requires multiple simultaneous approaches in order to be successful. There are business, economic, technical, schedule, and organizational issues to be resolved. This paper examines the Geo Quick Ride (GQR) concept, discusses the development issues, and describes how this concept solves many of these issues.

  1. Operational military helicopter interior noise and vibration measurements with comparisons to ride quality criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Balka (1981) has identified the attainment of a 'jet-smooth' ride as a primary goal of the helicopter industry for commercial and certain military helicopters. It was noted that criteria accounting for both multiple axis vibration and interior noise are needed. The present investigation has the objective to present a vibration and interior noise data base in a format suitable for direct evaluation of aircraft ride quality. The investigation is also concerned with an assessment of the measured environment against available criteria as an indication of the state-of-the-art for current machines. Interior noise and vibration measurements were obtained on eight military helicopters during routine operational flights. The data are presented in the form of a number of parameters.

  2. "Riding the Wave": Transforming Sport and Exercise Psychology within an Interdisciplinary Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2008-01-01

    A metaphor of "riding the wave" is used as a means of envisioning the future of sport and exercise psychology given what we know about past and present waves in the field. First, I review the waves of the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s to understand critical issues in the field and to evaluate the waves as smooth, choppy, or turbulent today. Second,…

  3. Evaluating cumulative ascent: Mountain biking meets Mandelbrot

    CERN Document Server

    Rapaport, D C

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determining total distance ascended during a mountain bike trip is addressed. Altitude measurements are obtained from GPS receivers utilizing both GPS-based and barometric altitude data, with data averaging used to reduce fluctuations. The estimation process is sensitive to the degree of averaging, and is related to the well-known question of determining coastline length. Barometric-based measurements prove more reliable, due to their insensitivity to GPS altitude fluctuations.

  4. Cardiovascular and ride time-to-exhaustion effects of an energy drink

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Michael T.; Biltz, George R; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there are few studies on the cardiovascular and fatigue effects of commercially available energy drinks. This study investigated the effects of Monster energy drink (Monster Beverage Corporation, Corona, California), on resting heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), ride time-to-exhaustion, peak exercise HR, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and peak rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods The study used a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossov...

  5. Sport cycling crashes on public roads, the influence of bunch riding and experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Gent, P. van

    2014-01-01

    Cycling is a popular but unsafe mode of transport in the Netherlands and the number of seriously injured bicyclists has increased significantly since 2006. A special subgroup is the population of sport cyclists who perform their sport on public roads. The number of road crashes with sport cyclists shows an increasing trend. The authors propose two factors which might contribute to this trend. First, bunch riding among sport cyclists, and second the inflow of cyclists with low experience. No e...

  6. Mountain biking: an opportunity to enhance economic development in Australian rural areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Mountain biking is assumed to have originated in California as a distinct recreational activity in the 1970s. By 2005, approximately 10 million Americans participated, and in 2006-2007 mountain/hybrid bikes represented 44% unit sales through speciality bicycle retailers. Subsequently, the popularity of the sport has continued on an upward trajectory. Such upward trend has also occurred in Australia. In other countries participation in mountain biking also continues to grow, and the Internatio...

  7. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  8. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  9. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  10. A heuristic algorithm for a single vehicle static bike sharing rebalancing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Fábio; Subramanian, Anand; Bruck, Bruno P.; Iori, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The static bike rebalancing problem (SBRP) concerns the task of repositioning bikes among stations in self-service bike-sharing systems. This problem can be seen as a variant of the one-commodity pickup and delivery vehicle routing problem, where multiple visits are allowed to be performed at each station, i.e., the demand of a station is allowed to be split. Moreover, a vehicle may temporarily drop its load at a station, leaving it in excess or, alternatively, collect more bikes from a stati...

  11. Bike-powered electricity generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFAN MOCANU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding new energy sources is an important challenge of our times. A lot of research focuses on identifying such sources that can also be exploited with relatively simple and efficient systems. These sources can be either new materials that can be used to generate energy, or solutions to scavenge already existing forms of energy. Part of the latter class of solutions, the system presented in this paper converts the energy consumed by many people in gyms (or even at home, during exercise into electric energy. This energy exists anyway, because people want to be healthier or to look better. Currently, this significant (in our opinion amount of energy is actually wasted and transformed into heat. Instead, in this study, a prototype scavenging system (dedicated to fitness/stationary bikes to collect and (reuse this energy is presented. Specifically, we depict the design of a low-budget system that uses existing, discrete components and is able to scavenge some of the energy spent by the biker. The experimental results show that the system is functional, but its efficiency is limited by (mechanical losses before the collection.

  12. Riding the Canadian yield curve

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yan; Yang, Xue

    2007-01-01

    Riding the yield curve, a trading strategy of buying long-term bills and sell them before maturity, has been a popular means to achieve excess returns over the buying-and-holding strategy. This paper looks at historic excess returns of Treasury Bill and Bond markets in Canada. Our empirical results indicate that, the riding yield curve strategy does offer very small excess returns, but these excess returns show that neither strategy stochastically dominates the other. Furthermore, these exces...

  13. Little Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2011-01-01

    你一定看过并知道小红帽(Little Red Riding Hood)的故事吧!下面是英语版的小红帽,你看过吗? Once upon a time,people liked a little girl very much.Her red hood(头巾 ) fit her, so people called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day,her mother said, "Take a piece of cake and a bottle ofwine to your grandmother.She is ill and weak.These will do her good.Donot run off the road,or you may fall and break the bottle,and then yourgrandmother will get nothing.OK! Go at once."

  14. Baseline Testing of The EV Global E-Bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption and reduce Operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done Linder the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W. electric hub motor and a 7-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  15. Development and application of ride-quality criteria. [considering vehicle vibration damping design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    Ride quality vibration criteria applicable to the design and evaluation of air and surface transportation systems are described. Consideration is given to the magnitude of vehicle vibration experienced by the passenger, the frequency of vibration, the direction of vibration measurements are presented for a variety of air and surface transportation systems. In addition, simulator data on seat dynamics and passenger response are presented. Results suggest the relative merits of various physical descriptors and measurement locations for characterizing the vibration in terms suitable for the design and/or evaluation of transportation systems.

  16. An Enhanced Search Technique for Managing Partial Coverage and Free Riding in P2P Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a Q-learning based scheme for managing the partial coverage problem and the ill-effects of free riding in unstructured P2P networks. Based on various parameter values collected during query routing, reward for the actions are computed and these rewards are used for updating the corresponding Q-values of peers. Thus, the routing is done through only nodes which have shown high performance in the past. Simulation experiments are conducted in several times and the results are plotted. Results show that the proposed scheme effectively manages free riders, generates high hit ratio, reduces network traffic and manages partial coverage problem.

  17. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kawasumi; M. Yamamoto; KOIDE, M; Okada, Y; Mori, N; Yamamoto, I.; Arai, T

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified ...

  18. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kawasumi; M. Yamamoto; KOIDE, M; Okada, Y; Mori, N; Yamamoto, I.; Arai, T

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 µg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 µg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified ...

  19. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  20. Discourage free riding in Peer-to-Peer file sharing systems with file migration and workload balancing approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yijiao; JIN Hai

    2007-01-01

    Free riding is a great challenge to the development and maintenance of Peer-to-Peer(P2P)networks.A file migration and workload balancing based approach (FMWBBA)to discourage free riding is proposed in this paper.The heart of our mechanism is to migrate some shared files from the overloaded peers to the neighboring free riders automatically and transparently,which enforces free riders to offer services when altruistic peers are heavily overloaded.File migration is a key issue in our approach,and some related strategies are discussed.A simulation is designed to verify this approach,and the results show that it can not only alleviate free riding,but also improve the Quality of Service(QoS)and robustness of P2P networks efficiently.

  1. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  2. Electric Bike Use in China and Their Impacts on the Environment, Safety, Mobility and Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Chinese cities have a long legacy of bicycle use due to relatively low incomes, dense urban development, and short trip lengths. Because of tremendous economic growth resulting in increased motorization and spatial expansion of cities, trips are becoming longer and more difficult to make by bicycle. As a result, electric powered twowheelers have risen in popularity over the past five years. Touted as environmentally friendly vehicles, they are capable of traveling 450 kilometers on a single c...

  3. Air cooling effect of fins on a Honda shine bike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhiyar Abhesinh J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main of aim of this work is to study various researches done in past to improve heat transfer rate of cooling fins by changing cylinder block fin geometry. Low rate of heat transfer through cooling fins is the main problem in this type of cooling. So efficiency of the engine is increase by increase the heat transfer. Examples of direct air cooling in modern automobiles are rare. The most common example is the commercials Automobile bike like a Honda Shine, Bajaj bike, Honda splendor etc. It is conclude about shape try to this fins is more effectively heat transfer in Honda shine bike compare to existing fins. After FEA Analysis it checking on fin whether efficiency of heat transfer increases or not. This work validation with Experimental and Mathematical.

  4. Physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted bicycle versus a classical bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurel, J; Theurel, A; Lepers, R

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the physiological responses and the subsequent cognitive performance when riding an electrically assisted (EB) versus a classical (CB) bicycle. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and leg extensor muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded in 10 subjects during a 30-min intermittent cycling exercise performed with EB versus CB. Cognitive performance was evaluated by a mail sorting test, performed at rest and after each cycling session. Averaged oxygen uptake and heat rate were significantly (P cycling than during CB cycling. The EMG activities of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscles were significantly (P cycling than during EB cycling. The time to complete the mail sorting test was significantly (P cycling than after CB cycling. Because EB cycling reduced muscle strains and physiological stress, it might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study compared physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted versus a classical bicycle. The results showed that the electrically assisted bicycle led to reduced muscle strains and physiological stress and, therefore, might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. PMID:22506555

  5. Copyright infringement, 'free-riding' and the lifeworld

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The dominant explanatory/justificatory framework informing scholarly commentary on copyright law, policy and theory today – certainly in the US – is law and economics. From this perspective, copyright law exists to underpin markets in certain categories of ‘information good’ (copyright works). These markets in turn function to ensure that the private costs and benefits of information production and consumption line up (more or less) with the social costs and benefits of these activities, ie t...

  6. Riding the supercontinent cycle: Paleoproterozoic basins and their metal endowment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, A.; Pehrsson, S. J.; Jefferson, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Paleoproterozoic period of Earth history was a time of major change in numerous factors that influence basin development and mineralizing systems, including atmosphere-hydrosphere composition, lithospheric architecture, and critically, tectonic processes. The latter were profoundly influenced by the supercontinent cycle, dominated in this time period by the assembly of Earth's first true supercontinent, Nuna. Nuna involved the amalgamation of nearly 35 cratons, that themselves were the diaspora of at least two latest Neoarchean supercratons: Superia and Nunavutia. Superia amalgamated by ca. 2.7-2.65 Ga, and was relatively long lived, with initial cover and rift sequences forming by the earliest Paleoproterozoic, ca. 2.5 Ga and lasting to nearly 2.1 Ga. Superia-related cratonic cover and passive margin sequences were deposited before world-wide oxygenation of the atmosphere and are world class repositories of Paleoplacer gold, uranium and Iron. Nunavutia by contrast was assembled over a more protracted time period, between 2.6 and 2.45-2.3 Ga and began to break up by ca 2.2 Ga. Its resulting cover and passive margin sequences formed around the time of major oxygenation and host significant unconformity uranium districts and sediment-hosted copper deposits. The global ocean Manikewan reached its zenith and began to contract by 2.1 Ga with progressive amalgamation of the early Paleoproterozoic cratons up to 1.7 Ga. Crustal growth was limited between 2.1 and 1.9 Ga, but increased dramatically thereafter, with time period 1.9-1.8 Ga seeing accretion of numerous arcs and microcontinents and attendant preservation of sequences hosting major volcanic-hosted massive sulphide districts. The major global magmatic nickel metallotect at ca. 1.88 Ga formed where mantle-derived magmatism invaded sulphidic marine shales of the older passive margin sequences and late stage syncollisional transtensional basins. As amalgamation of Nuna proceeded Sedex, stratiform copper and MVT

  7. Off grid charging station for electric bike

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Martín, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to design and understand a system for charging the battery of an electric bike in an off-grid station which obtains this energy from the sun the wind and human work. To make possible the fact of using these sources of energy the system will consist on the integration of three different parts which are the solar panel the wind turbine and a motor used as generator that transforms the movement coming from legs into electricity. Eventually the three p...

  8. Does Bicycle Riding Impact the Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Sexual Dysfunction in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Gon; Kim, Dae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to determine whether men who engaged in recreational bicycle riding are more likely to be affected by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction than are man who exercised by amateur marathon running with less perineal impact. Materials and Methods A total of 22 healthy male amateur bicyclists and 17 healthy male amateur marathoners were enrolled in the study. We evaluated questionnaires including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), uroflowmetric values, postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate in all subjects. We also compared the prevalence of urination disorders (UD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, comorbidities, or exercise habits (p>0.05). Mean total and subscale scores of the IPSS and IIEF and the prevalence of UD (8/22 vs. 4/17, p=0.494) and ED (11/22 vs. 10/17, p=0.748) were not significantly different between the two groups. Also, there were no significant differences between the two groups in uroflowmetric parameters such as peak urinary flow rates, voided urine volume, PVR urine volume, prostate volume, or serum PSA level. Conclusions Bicycle riding seems to have no measurable hazardous effect on voiding function or sexual function in men who cycled recreationally. PMID:21687396

  9. Nutrigenetics and nutraceuticals: the next wave riding on personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, M T Ravi

    2007-02-01

    The Human Genome Project and subsequent identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within populations has played a major role in predicting individual response to drugs (pharmacogenetics) leading to the concept of "personalized medicine." Nutritional genomics is a recent off-shoot of this genetic revolution that includes (1) nutrigenomics: the study of interaction of dietary components with the genome and the resulting proteonomic and metabolomic changes; and (2) nutrigenetics: understanding the gene-based differences in response to dietary components and developing nutraceuticals that are most compatible with health based on individual genetic makeup. Despite the extensive data on genetic polymorphisms in humans, its translation into medical practice has been slow because of the time required to accumulate population data on SNP incidence, understand the significance of a given SNP in disease, and develop suitable diagnostic tests. Nutrigenomics revitalized the field by showing that nutrients and botanicals can interact with the genome and modify subsequent gene expression, which has provided a great impetus for nutrigenetic research and nutraceutical development based on nutrigenetics. Polymorphisms in methlyene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (involved in folate metabolism), apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and ApoA1 (in cardiovascular disease), and leptin/leptin receptor (obesity) genes are some good examples for understanding basic nutrigenetics. Developing nutraceuticals to prevent and manage thrombosis risk in women with thrombophilic gene mutations are discussed in the context of the opportunities that exist at the nutrigenetic/pharmacogenetic interphase leading to "personalized nutrition." Further research on individual differences in genetic profiles and nutrient requirements will help establish nutrigenetics as an essential discipline for nutrition and dietetics practice. PMID:17240315

  10. The Year in Gaming: Titles and Trends of 2002%2002游戏盘点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George

    2003-01-01

    @@ This year's biggest phenomcnons 1. Sex and Violence(性和暴力): Mature content in console games created controversy(论战).Grand Theft Auto: Vice City returned to give lawmakers nightmares, and Sony censors the PS2 version of BMX XXX. Strangely, we have yet to see dramatic increases in car-jacking and topless bike-riding in the real world.

  11. Time Consistency and Free-Riding in a Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, V. V.; Patrick J. Kehoe

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the setting of monetary and nonmonetary policies in monetary unions. We show that in these unions a time inconsistency problem in monetary policy leads to a novel type of free- rider problem in the setting of nonmonetary policies, such as labor market policy, fiscal policy, and bank regulation. The free-rider problem leads the union's members to pursue lax nonmonetary policies that induce the monetary authority to generate high inflation. The free-rider problem can be mitigated by ...

  12. Dynamics of Social Systems: Cooperation and Free-Riding

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Y; Nadal, J P; Gordon, Mirta B.; Ma, Yiping; Nadal, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    We study the mean field dynamics of a model introduced by Phan et al [Wehia, 2005] of a polymorphic social community. The individuals may choose between three strategies: either not to join the community or, in the case of joining it, to cooperate or to behave as a free-rider. Individuals' preferences have an idiosyncratic component and a social component. Cooperators bear a fixed cost whereas free-riders support a cost proportional to the number of cooperators. We study the dynamics of this model analytically in the mean field approximation for both parallel and sequential updating. As we vary one of the parameters while keeping the other parameters fixed, the phase diagram experiences a rich class of bifurcations. Noticeably, a limit cycle is shown to exist in both parallel and sequential updating, under certain parameter settings. A comparison of the analytical predictions with computer simulation is also included.

  13. Time inconsistency and free-riding in a monetary union

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, V. V.; Patrick J. Kehoe

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the setting of monetary and nonmonetary policies in monetary unions. We show that in these unions a time inconsistency problem in monetary policy leads to a novel type of free-rider problem in the setting of nonmonetary policies, such as labor market policy, fiscal policy, and bank regulation. The free-rider problem leads the union’s members to pursue lax nonmonetary policies that induce the monetary authority to generate high inflation. The free-rider problem can be mitigated by i...

  14. Improving Vehicle Ride and Handling Using LQG CNF Fusion Control Strategy for an Active Antiroll Bar System

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain, N.; H. Zamzuri; Y. M. Sam; Mazlan, S. A.; S. M. H. F. Zainal

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses a comparison of performance for an active antiroll bar (ARB) system using two types of control strategy. First of all, the LQG control strategy is investigated and then a novel LQG CNF fusion control method is developed to improve the performances on vehicle ride and handling for an active antiroll bar system. However, the ARB system has to balance the trade-off between ride and handling performance, where the CNF consists of a linear feedback law and a nonlinear feedback ...

  15. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasumi, K; Yamamoto, M; Koide, M; Okada, Y; Mori, N; Yamamoto, I; Arai, T

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 µg mL(-1) vs, 10.9±1.7 µg mL(-1), Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses. PMID:26623382

  16. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawasumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years and aged (11-18 years. They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses.

  17. Riding comfort optimization of railway trains based on pseudo-excitation method and symplectic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, You-Wei; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Jia-Hao; He, Xing-Wen

    2013-10-01

    This research is intended to develop a FEM-based riding comfort optimization approach to the railway trains considering the coupling effect of vehicle-track system. To obtain its accurate dynamic response, the car body is modeled with finite elements, while the bogie frames and wheel-sets are idealized as rigid bodies. The differential equations of motion of the dynamic vehicle-track system are derived considering wheel-track interaction, in which the pseudo-excitation method and the symplectic mathematical method are effectively applied to simplify the calculation. Then, the min-max optimization approach is utilized to improve the train riding comfort with related parameters of the suspension structure adopted as design variables, in which 54 design points on the car floor are chosen as estimation locations. The K-S function is applied to fit the objective function to make it smooth, differentiable and have superior integrity. Analytical sensitivities of the K-S function are then derived to solve the optimization problem. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through numerical examples and some useful discussions are made.

  18. Measuring Engagement as Students Learn Dynamic Systems and Control with a Video Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, B. D.; Shernoff, David J.; Strati, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents results of a multi-year quasi-experimental study of student engagement during which a video game was introduced into an undergraduate dynamic systems and control course. The video game, "EduTorcs", provided challenges in which students devised control algorithms that drive virtual cars and ride virtual bikes through a…

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Therapeutic Horse Riding on the Quality of Life, Health, and Function of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E.; Davies, B.; Wolfe, R.; Raadsveld, R.; Heine, B.; Thomason, P.; Dobson, Fiona; Graham, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined whether therapeutic horse riding has a clinically significant impact on the physical function, health and quality of life (QoL) of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Ninety-nine children aged 4 to 12 years with no prior horse riding experience and various levels of impairment (Gross Motor Function…

  20. Mountain Biking in India: a New Definition to Adventure Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta TANWAR

    2009-01-01

    Mountain biking is one of most prominent and widely used adventure tourism. It is a way for challenging ones‘ own self and testing in times of great danger. When we talk in terms of India, this mountain biking tourism becomes all the more important. As India is a land of diverse geographical area. It provides a lot of different experiences in the terrain of Himalayas. This tourism is a feast for eyes and at the same time a test for the physical fitness. It is very dangerous as the hilly regio...

  1. Research into the Impact of Bikeability Training on Children's Ability to Perceive and Appropriately Respond to Hazards When Cycling on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Claire; Worth, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Bikeability (2014) is described as "cycling proficiency for the 21st century". The training is practical, skill-based, outcome-led and designed to "boost the confidence of the trainee and to minimise risk". There are three levels of training and children typically start Bikeability lessons once they have learned to ride a bike.…

  2. A tale of 2 continents and 4 cities about the inuence of demographics and social constraints on ride-sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Cici, Blerim; Laoutaris, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    Ride-sharing on the daily home-work-home commute can help individuals save on gasoline and other car-related costs, while at the same time reduce traffic and pollution. This paper presents a quantitative study of the potential of ride-sharing in two European and two US cities based on mobility data extracted from 3G Call Description Records (CDRs) and Online Social Networks (OSN) geo-tagging. We start with ride-sharing among neighbors for which we derive up- per bounds based on the assumption that commutes occur synchronously and that any passenger can be matched with any driver. We show that a small detour distance of 0.8 Km leads to an impressive 55% reduction of traffic. This value reduces to 26% for asynchronous commutes and a pick-up tolerance of 10 minutes. The latter result can be improved to 47% by permitting additional passengers to be picked-up en-route using e.g., smartphone apps. We then introduce social constraints on the relationship between drivers and passengers. Riding only with immediate fri...

  3. An MCDA approach for the selection of bike projects based on structuring and appraising activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an MCDA approach for the structuring and appraising activities of a large and complex decision problem. More specifically, the paper makes use of the three-step structuring process for decision analysis proposed by von Winterfeldt and Edwards: 1) identifying the problem; 2...

  4. 75 FR 32806 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Upright and Recumbent Exercise Bikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... identity and became an integral part of a new article of commerce, a bicycle. In the instant case, the... substantially transformed in the U.S., such that the U.S. is the country of origin of the finished article for... advisory rulings and final determinations as to whether an article is or would be a product of a...

  5. Challenging the 'King of the Road' - exploring mobility battles between cars and bikes in the USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre Mikkelsen, Jacob; Smith, Shelley; Jensen, Ole B.

    an emerging alternative mode of mobility in American cities, there is a call for a re-evaluation of the automotive dominance of the street. The bicycle is often presented as the ‘caveman’ in the history of urban mobility, though some scholars argue it ought to have a more constitutional role in...... contemporary mobility practices (Furness 2010). In a contribution to the repositioning of the bicycle, the qualities and positive impacts of bicycling on urban life are discussed (Jensen 2007, Petersen, 2007). Repositioning and reevaluating the car in American society implies examination and discussion of the...

  6. Effect of deceptively aggressive bike pacing on sprint-distance triathlon performance and associated perceptual responses

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Danny; Smith, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cycling at the highest sustainable intensity (i.e. isolated time-trial power output) is suggested as the best strategy to optimise sprint-distance triathlon performance (Suriano & Bishop, 2010, Eur J Appl Physiol, 110, 4:753-760). However, it is unclear how expectations, beliefs and perceptions influence the effectiveness of aggressive mid-event pacing during multi-modal endurance events. Taylor & Smith (2014, Physiol Behav, 133:45-52) suggest meaningful changes in triathlon per...

  7. A cross-sectional survey of the relationship between walking, biking, and the built environment for adults aged over 70 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi1, Mitzi A Baker3, Stephan Cha2, Paul V Targonski11Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, 3Planning Department, Olmsted County, Rochester, MN, USAPurpose: Determine the relationship between walkability scores (using the Walk Score® and activity levels (both bicycle and walking in adults aged between 70 and 85 years in Rochester, Minnesota.Patients and methods: This was a self-reported cross-sectional survey in adults aged over 70 years living in Rochester, Minnesota. Analysis used t-tests or chi-square analysis as appropriate. The primary endpoint was bicycle use or walking. The predictor variables were the Walk Score® as determined by their address, Charlson index, Duke Activity Status Index (DASI, and a 12-item short-form survey (SF-12 scores. Secondary analysis used an outcome of functional status (using the DASI and walkability scores.Results: Fifty-three individuals completed the surveys (48% return rate. The average age in the overall cohort was 77.02 years. Eighty-nine percent of individuals could walk at least a block and 15.1% rode their bicycles. The Walk Scores® did not differ between those who walked (38.9 ± 27.4 and those that did not (40.0 ± 36.08; P = 0.93. In a similar fashion, the Walk Scores® were not different for those who biked (36.38 ± 27.68 and those that did not (39.44 ± 28.49; P = 0.78. There was no relationship between Walk Scores® and DASI; however, a decreased DASI score was associated with increased age and comorbid illness (Charlson Score.Conclusion: In this small pilot survey, there was no difference in Walk Scores® between those older adults who walked or biked, compared to those that did not. The Walk Scores® were low in both groups, which may indicate the lack of accessibility for all older adults living in Rochester, Minnesota. The functional status seemed to be more related to age or comorbid conditions than the built environment

  8. Effects of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 normal adults and divided them into two groups: an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n = 12) and a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n = 12). [Methods] IHREG exercised on indoor horseback riding equipment and VREG exercised using the Nintendo Wii Fit three times a week for six weeks. The Biodex Balance System was used to analyze dynamic balance as measured by the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). [Results] In the within-group comparison, IHREG and VERG both showed significant decreases in the dynamic balance indexes of OSI, APSI, and MLSI after the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the groups. [Conclusion] Both indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises were effective at improving the subjects' dynamic balance ability as measured by OSI, APSI, and MLSI, and can be used as additional exercises for patients with conditions affecting postural control. PMID:25540494

  9. Effects of therapeutic horse riding on gait cycle parameters and some aspects of behavior of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, H; Kertesz, Zs

    2015-09-01

    We studied effects of therapeutic riding on the development of children with autism. Experiments in walking is appropriate for assessing the coordination of movement and for following the changes. We found that therapeutic riding should be considered as a new form of rehabilitation. Twenty-six pupils (12 boys and 14 girls) of a special needs school participated in therapeutic riding. We analyzed walking twice during a school-term: full body analyses each time before and after one-month therapy. The research included a non-riding control group. All together 104 analyses were performed. We measured mental skills using Pedagogical Analysis and Curriculum (PAC) test consisting of four parts being communication, self care, motor skills and socialization. The Gait Cycle Analysis consists of the time-series analysis, the analysis of part of the gait cycle and the measurement of joint angles in each plane. We found significant differences between before and after the therapy in the length of the gait cycle that became more stable in the sagital plane and concluded that our results proved that horse therapy may be successfully used as an additional therapy for children with autism, and it may be a form of rehabilitation in cases when other therapies are not successful. PMID:26551748

  10. Decoding covert motivations of free riding and cooperation from multi-feature pattern analysis of EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dongil; Yun, Kyongsik; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-09-01

    Cooperation and free riding are among the most frequently observed behaviors in human social decision-making. In social interactions, the effects of strategic decision processes have been consistently reported in iterative cooperation decisions. However, the neural activity immediately after new information is presented, the time at which strategy learning potentially starts has not yet been investigated with high temporal resolution. Here, we implemented an iterative, binary public goods game that simulates cooperation/free riding behavior. We applied the multi-feature pattern analysis method by using a support vector machine and the unique combinatorial performance measure, and identified neural features from the single-trial, event-related spectral perturbation at the result-presentation of the current round that predict participants' decisions to cooperate or free ride in the subsequent round. We found that neural oscillations in centroparietal and temporal regions showed the highest predictive power through 10-fold cross-validation; these predicted the participants' next decisions, which were independent of the neural responses during their own preceding choices. We suggest that the spatial distribution and time-frequency information of the selected features represent covert motivations to free ride or cooperate in the next round and are separately processed in parallel with information regarding the preceding results. PMID:25688097

  11. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour...... of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....

  12. Use of salivary cortisol to evaluate the influence of rides in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Korver, Wendy; Burness, Gary

    2015-01-15

    Animals in captivity and in the wild face numerous challenges, including the risk of enduring acute or chronic stress. In captivity, facilities attempt to alleviate the risk of chronic stress by providing environmental enrichment, shown to minimize behavioral disorders and stress in several species. One potential form of enrichment in zoos is training animals to provide rides for guests, however, the effect of this activity on the welfare of individual animals has never been examined. We validated the use of saliva for assessing stress in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), an animal commonly used for rides. We then measured variation in salivary cortisol in four male camels while providing rides of differing frequency for guests at the Toronto Zoo. The camels were sampled during the ride season (June to September) using four treatments: (1) in their pasture, (2) at the ride area when not performing rides, (3) while providing a low number of rides (n=50/day) and (4) while providing a high number of rides (n=150/day). Furthermore, samples were taken before and after the ride season for comparison. There was a significant difference between the post-ride season treatment and the three treatments involving guest presence during the ride season (ride area, low rides, high rides). In general, cortisol concentrations were lower during the ride season and higher during the non-ride season. Based on the metrics we used, performing rides is not a stressful experience for these dromedary camels and suggests that rides may be a form of enrichment. PMID:25452030

  13. Long distance bicycle riding causes prostate-specific antigen to increase in men aged 50 years and over.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Mejak

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether bicycle riding alters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA serum concentrations in healthy older men. METHODS: 129 male participants, ranging in age from 50 to 71 years (mean 55 years, rode in a recreational group bicycle ride of between 55 and 160 kilometers. Blood samples for tPSA analysis were drawn within 60 minutes before starting, and within 5 minutes after completing the ride. The pre-cycling and post-cycling tPSA values were log transformed for normality and compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between changes in tPSA with age and distance cycled. RESULTS: Bicycle riding caused tPSA to increase by an average of 9.5% (95% CI = 6.1-12.9; p<0.001 or 0.23 ng/ml. The number of participants with an elevated tPSA (using the standard PSA normal range cut-off of 4.0 ng/ml increased from two pre-cycle to six post-cycle (or from five to eight when using age-based normal ranges. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that the change in tPSA was positively correlated with age and the distance cycled. CONCLUSIONS: Cycling causes an average 9.5% increase in tPSA, in healthy male cyclists ≥50 years old, when measured within 5 minutes post cycling. We considered the increase clinically significant as the number of participants with an elevated PSA, according to established cut-offs, increased post-ride. Based on the research published to date, the authors suggest a 24-48 hour period of abstinence from cycling and ejaculation before a PSA test, to avoid spurious results.

  14. Long Distance Bicycle Riding Causes Prostate-Specific Antigen to Increase in Men Aged 50 Years and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejak, Sandra L.; Bayliss, Julianne; Hanks, Shayne D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether bicycle riding alters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) serum concentrations in healthy older men. Methods 129 male participants, ranging in age from 50 to 71 years (mean 55 years), rode in a recreational group bicycle ride of between 55 and 160 kilometers. Blood samples for tPSA analysis were drawn within 60 minutes before starting, and within 5 minutes after completing the ride. The pre-cycling and post-cycling tPSA values were log transformed for normality and compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between changes in tPSA with age and distance cycled. Results Bicycle riding caused tPSA to increase by an average of 9.5% (95% CI = 6.1–12.9; p<0.001) or 0.23 ng/ml. The number of participants with an elevated tPSA (using the standard PSA normal range cut-off of 4.0 ng/ml) increased from two pre-cycle to six post-cycle (or from five to eight when using age-based normal ranges). Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that the change in tPSA was positively correlated with age and the distance cycled. Conclusions Cycling causes an average 9.5% increase in tPSA, in healthy male cyclists ≥50 years old, when measured within 5 minutes post cycling. We considered the increase clinically significant as the number of participants with an elevated PSA, according to established cut-offs, increased post-ride. Based on the research published to date, the authors suggest a 24–48 hour period of abstinence from cycling and ejaculation before a PSA test, to avoid spurious results. PMID:23418500

  15. Trails, Hiking, Bike trails in Johnson County maintained by Johnson County Parks and Recreation Department, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Hiking dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. It is described as 'Bike trails in Johnson County...

  16. Generation of ride comfort index

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Solano, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to obtain a ride comfort index of a vehicle. This parameter shall be representative of the vibration received by the human body during the ride. The comfort, as we understand, is the sensation which comes from vehicle dynamics and not from the luxury cabin. Initially the comfort evaluation of the cars was done subjectively. The driver-tester exposed his own feelings when he tested the car on a random circuit and compared with other vehicles that he tes...

  17. Using Video Feedback to Improve Horseback-Riding Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Heather; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study used video feedback to improve the horseback-riding skills of advanced beginning riders. We focused on 3 skill sets: those used in jumping over obstacles, dressage riding on the flat, and jumping position riding on the flat. Baseline consisted of standard lesson procedures. Intervention consisted of video feedback in which a recorded…

  18. Team Size and Effort in Start-Up-Teams – Another Consequence of Free-Riding and Peer Pressure in Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Uschi Backes-Gellner; Arndt Werner; Alwine Mohnen

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether effort provision in entrepreneurial teams depends on the size of the team, assuming that size determines the strength of free-riding and peer pressure effects in entrepreneurial teams. We provide a theoretical model and empirical analyses to explain the joint effect of free-riding and peer pressure on effort in start-up teams. We begin with an economic model by Kandel and Lazear (1992) and enrich it using insights from entrepreneurship research. Based on our model,...

  19. Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törn, A; Tolvanen, A; Norokorpi, Y; Tervo, R; Siikamäki, P

    2009-03-01

    Nature-based tourism in protected areas has increased and diversified dramatically during the last decades. Different recreational activities have a range of impacts on natural environments. This paper reports results from a comparison of the impacts of hiking, cross-country skiing and horse riding on trail characteristics and vegetation in northern Finland. Widths and depths of existing trails, and vegetation on trails and in the neighbouring forests were monitored in two research sites during 2001 and 2002. Trail characteristics and vegetation were clearly related to the recreational activity, research site and forest type. Horse trails were as deep as hiking trails, even though the annual number of users was 150-fold higher on the hiking trails. Simultaneously, cross-country skiing had the least effect on trails due to the protective snow cover during winter. Hiking trail plots had little or no vegetation cover, horse riding trail plots had lower vegetation cover than forest plots, while skiing had no impact on total vegetation cover. On the other hand, on horse riding trails there were more forbs and grasses, many of which did not grow naturally in the forest. These species that were limited to riding trails may change the structure of adjacent plant communities in the long run. Therefore, the type of activities undertaken and the sensitivity of habitats to these activities should be a major consideration in the planning and management of nature-based tourism. Establishment of artificial structures, such as stairs, duckboards and trail cover, or complete closure of the site, may be the only way to protect the most sensitive or deteriorated sites. PMID:18930578

  20. Bike Racing Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  1. Bike2Work 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Herterich, Patricia Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    To celebrate the success of the 97 CERN teams, the participants gathered on Thursday 19th June at lunchtime for a "CERN critical mass". The bicyclists started at Restaurant 2 and cruised around the Meyrin site terminating with a photo session outside Restaurant 1. The colleagues based in Prevessin made a "pre-parade" to join their colleagues in Meyrin.

  2. Bike2Work 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)439147

    2015-01-01

    To celebrate the success of the 126 CERN teams (to be compared to the 97 teams of the year before), the participants gathered on Tuesday 23rd June at lunchtime for a "CERN critical mass". The bicyclists started at Restaurant 2 and cruised around the Meyrin site terminating with a photo session outside Restaurant 1. The colleagues based in Prevessin made a "pre-parade" to join their colleagues in Meyrin. The parade was escorted by the CERN Fire Brigade.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  4. IMPORTANT INFORMATION - Flagstaff Car-Park and Park-and-Ride (P+R)

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    As part of the new arrangements following the arrival of the tram-line at CERN, an Automatic Number-Plate Recognition (ANPR) system has been installed restricting access to the Flagstaff Car-park and the Park-and-Ride (P+R) zone according to the conditions set out below: Holders of a valid P+R user card may enter the car-park at all hours but may only park in the area specifically designated as the P+R zone. P+R user cards can be purchased from the Fondation des Parkings de Genève (http://www.ge.ch/parkings/abonnements.html)   Members of CERN personnel and of contractors' personnel, whatever their status, may freely access the Flagstaff Car-Park at all hours, as long as their vehicle is duly registered with CERN, but they may not use the P+R zone, which is reserved for holders of P+R user cards. Please check that your vehicle number-plates are properly registered via AdaMS (http://cern.ch/adams). If this is not the case, the following action must be taken: - for private or co...

  5. Genetic correlations between performance traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2007-01-01

    Results of mare performance tests in the field (MPT-F) of 10,949 mares, mare performance tests at station (MPT-S) of 1,712 mares, and inspections of horses intended for sale at riding horse auctions (AU) of 4,772 horses were used to investigate genetic correlations between corresponding performance traits. Mare performance tests were held in 1995 to 2004 and auction inspections in 1999 to 2004. Scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for gaits under rider (walk, trot, canter), rideability (evaluated by judging commission and test rider), free-jumping (ability, style, total), and character. Radiography results of 5,102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used to investigate genetic correlations between performance traits and particular radiographic findings. The radiographic findings included osseous fragments in fetlock and hock joints, deforming arthropathy in hock joints, and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones, which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones, which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on the horses radiographed and their contemporaries (n = 18,609). Heritability of performance traits ranged between 0.14 and 0.61, and heritability of radiographic findings between 0.14 and 0.33. Additive genetic correlations between corresponding performance traits were close to unity for MPT-F and MPT-S, ranged from 0.81 to 0.90 for MPT-F and AU, and were 0.75 to 0.92 for MPT-S and AU. Genetic correlations between performance and radiography results were mostly close to zero. Indications of negative additive genetic correlations were observed for deforming arthropathy in hock joints and canter, rideability evaluated by test rider, jumping traits and character, and osseous fragments in hock joints and character. Selection of horses for radiological health of their limbs will assist further genetic

  6. The force output of handle and pedal in different bicycle-riding postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Wu, Yu-Kuang; Chan, Ming-Sheng; Shih, Yo; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the force output of handle and pedal as well as the electromyography (EMG) of lower extremity in different cycling postures. Bilateral pedalling asymmetry indices of force and EMG were also determined in this study. Twelve healthy cyclists were recruited for this study and tested for force output and EMG during steady state cycling adopting different pedalling and handle bar postures. The standing posture increased the maximal stepping torque (posture 1: 204.2 ± 47.0 Nm; posture 2: 212.5 ± 46.1 Nm; posture 3: 561.5 ± 143.0 Nm; posture 4: 585.5 ± 139.1 Nm), stepping work (posture 1: 655.2 ± 134.6 Nm; posture 2: 673.2 ± 116.3 Nm; posture 3: 1852.3 ± 394.4 Nm; posture 4: 1911.3 ± 432.9 Nm), and handle force (posture 1: 16.6 ± 3.6 N; posture 2: 16.4 ± 3.6 N; posture 3: 26.5 ± 8.2 N; posture 4: 41.4 ± 11.1 N), as well as muscle activation (posture 1: 13.6-25.1%; posture 2: 13.0-23.9%; posture 3: 23.6-61.8%; posture 4: 22.5-65.8%) in the erector spine, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and soleus. However, neither a sitting nor a standing riding posture affected the hamstring. The riding asymmetry was detected between the right and left legs only in sitting conditions. When a cyclist changes posture from sitting to standing, the upper and lower extremities are forced to produce more force output because of the shift in body weight. These findings suggest that cyclists can switch between sitting and standing postures during competition to increase cycling efficiency in different situations. Furthermore, coaches and trainers can modify sitting and standing durations to moderate cycling intensity, without concerning unbalanced muscle development. PMID:26967311

  7. Buffer scheme with battery energy storage capability for enhancement of network transient stability and load ride-through

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.Y.; Vilathgamuwa, D.M.; Choi, S.S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2008-05-01

    This paper examines a buffer scheme to mitigate the negative impacts of power-conditioned loads on network voltage and transient stabilities. The scheme is based on the use of battery energy-storage systems in the buffers. The storage systems ensure that protected loads downstream of the buffers can ride through upstream voltage sags and swells. Also, by controlling the buffers to operate in either constant impedance or constant power modes, power is absorbed or injected by the storage systems. The scheme thereby regulates the rotor-angle deviations of generators and enhances network transient stability. A computational method is described in which the capacity of the storage systems is determined to achieve simultaneously the above dual objectives of load ride-through and stability enhancement. The efficacy of the resulting scheme is demonstrated through numerical examples. (author)

  8. Trails, Bike, This would include mountain bike trails, designated bike trails & bike routes., Published in 2012, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2012. It is described as 'This...

  9. Free Riding or Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Nilsson, Jerker

    2011-01-01

    It is often observed that members have little interest in monitoring their cooperatives. One explanation is that the members are free-riders, hoping that others will perform the task. Another explanation is that the weak member interest is a consequence of members having trust in the leadership....... These competing explanations refer to the theory of collective action and the social capital paradigm, respectively, and may be linked to the classical Gesellschaft and Gemeinschaft concepts. Hence, one may expect free-rider behavior when conditions of Gesellschaft exist and trustful behavior when...... Gemeinschaft conditions rule. These propositions get support from five studies of members’ readership of their cooperatives’ annual reports. In large and heterogeneous memberships there is free-riding behavior, which explains the members’ low interest in governing their cooperatives. To a limited extent a...

  10. The choice of park and ride facilities: an analysis using a context-dependent hierarchical choice experiment

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Park and ride (P & R) facilities have been proposed in several countries to alleviate the accessibility problems in cities. Despite growing accessibility problems, these facilities do not seem to attract the expected number of car drivers and are underused. In an attempt to measure consumer evaluations of the attributes of P & R facilities, a stated choice experiment, based on the method of hierarchical information integration, was conducted in the city of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. This pape...

  11. Evaluation of performance of a smartphone application for measuring bike paths’ condition

    OpenAIRE

    Erlandsson, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    There are several methods to measure surface evenness for car roads, but almost none for bike paths. Accordingly, VTI (the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute) have created a smartphone application which uses the accelerometers in the phone to measure the vibration from the road. This report’s aim is to analyze the data collected using this application, investigate if the data is repeatable, to find factors that are important for evenness and perform classification of bike ...

  12. The Development of the Model for the Park and Ride System in the Major Lithuanian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Palevičius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Park and Ride (P&R is the original transport system of public passengers, acting as a traditional supplement of public transport. The system is becoming widely popular in European cities. The central core of this system is composed of parking facilities in the specified parking areas at the approaches to the city with connections to public transport or special buses that allow people reach the city centre. The P&R system is based on a reduction in car density in the city centre as well as on a decrease in traffic noise, air and visual pollution. Furthermore, the P&R system is an economical and time-saving way to travel. This article has been prepared according to structural support provided by the European Union (EU for the purpose of developing the P&R system in five major Lithuanian cities – Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda, Siauliai and Panevezys. Therefore, this paper is aimed at the development and application of the theoretical model of the P&R system to Lithuanian cities according to external good and bad practice.

  13. Factors of the safety in bicycle traffic in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in underlying factors of Zagreb cycling, compared to the "types of cyclists" (driving style, i.e. different ways of using bicycles as a means of transport. The study included over 3,000 frequent participants in urban traffic cycling, sample of members of the association Cyclist Union (N = 1259 and snowball sample of "typical" of cyclists, i.e. people who are using the bike, but are not the members of the Cyclist Union (N = 1831, using the conveniently assembled questionnaire. Study participants who bike used in various applications prefer the safest driving style (only on sidewalks and bike paths / lines. Barriers of the weather conditions are ubiquitous in the safest driving style. Daily, weekly and yearly riding a bicycle are more often found in those who prefer the safest driving style. Cyclists who drive with medium secure style (roads with less traffic and lower speeds, more often ride a bike, as compared with those who prefer the safest driving style. Having a better bike line / track and other infrastructure is the most often considered at those with the highest risk driving style. The results provide the guidance for local authorities and for the cyclists to improve the conditions for a safer and more often by bicycle circulation in the City of Zagreb and its surroundings.

  14. Preliminary Results of a Spatial Analysis of Dublin City’s Bike Rental Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Peter; Corcoran, Paul; Winstanley, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We present some initial observations on the usage and flow patterns of the DublinBikes (DB) bicycle rental scheme across Dublin city. In September 2009 Dublin City in conjunction with outdoor advertising company JC Decaux made 450 bicycles publicly available from 40 locations around the city in a scheme called DublinBikes (DB). Cycling, as a commuting mode forms an important part of the Irish Government's Transport policy for Ireland up to 2020 stating that "a culture of cycling w...

  15. Self-service bike sharing systems: simulation, repositioning, pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Chemla, Daniel; Meunier, Frédéric; Pradeau, Thomas; Wolfler Calvo, Roberto; Yahiaoui, Houssame

    2013-01-01

    Self-service bike sharing systems experience often imbalance problems: in some stations there is a lack of bikes while in others there are too many bikes, leaving no empty rack for a user willing to park his bike. Imbalance problems can be partially settled by the actions of vehicles moving bikes during the night in order to prepare the forthcoming day. We speak then of static regulation, since bikes can be assumed to be not moving. These problems can also be partially countered by actions of...

  16. Acceleration and Rotation in a Pendulum Ride, Measured Using an iPhone 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rohlen, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Many modern cell phones have built-in sensors that may be used as a resource for physics education. Amusement rides offer examples of many different types of motion, where the acceleration leads to forces experienced throughout the body. A comoving 3D-accelerometer gives an electronic measurement of the varying forces acting on the rider, but a…

  17. Genetic correlations between conformation traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Distl Ottmar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studbook inspection (SBI data of 20 768 German Warmblood mares and radiography results (RR data of 5102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used for genetic correlation analyses. The scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for conformation and basic quality of gaits, resulting in 14 SBI traits which were used for the correlation analyses. The radiographic findings considered included osseous fragments in fetlock (OFF and hock joints (OFH, deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones (RNB which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on 24 448 horses with SBI and/or RR records. The ranges of heritability estimates were h2 = 0.14–0.34 for the RR traits and h2 = 0.09–0.50 for the SBI traits. Negative additive genetic correlations of rg = -0.19 to -0.56 were estimated between OFF and conformation of front and hind limbs and walk at hand, and between DNB and hind limb conformation. There were indications of negative additive genetic correlations between DAH and all SBI traits, but because of low prevalence and low heritability of DAH, these results require further scrutiny. Positive additive genetic correlations of rg = 0.37–0.52 were estimated between OFF and withers height and between OFH and withers height, indicating that selection for taller horses will increase disposition to develop OFF and OFH. Selection of broodmares with regards to functional conformation will assist, but cannot replace possible selection against radiographic findings in the limbs of young Warmblood riding horses, particularly with regards to OFF.

  18. Genetic correlations between conformation traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Kathrin Friederike; Distl, Ottmar

    2006-01-01

    Studbook inspection (SBI) data of 20 768 German Warmblood mares and radiography results (RR) data of 5102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used for genetic correlation analyses. The scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for conformation and basic quality of gaits, resulting in 14 SBI traits which were used for the correlation analyses. The radiographic findings considered included osseous fragments in fetlock (OFF) and hock joints (OFH), deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH) and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB) which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones (RNB) which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on 24 448 horses with SBI and/or RR records. The ranges of heritability estimates were h2 = 0.14-0.34 for the RR traits and h2 = 0.09-0.50 for the SBI traits. Negative additive genetic correlations of r(g) = -0.19 to -0.56 were estimated between OFF and conformation of front and hind limbs and walk at hand, and between DNB and hind limb conformation. There were indications of negative additive genetic correlations between DAH and all SBI traits, but because of low prevalence and low heritability of DAH, these results require further scrutiny. Positive additive genetic correlations of r(g) = 0.37-0.52 were estimated between OFF and withers height and between OFH and withers height, indicating that selection for taller horses will increase disposition to develop OFF and OFH. Selection of broodmares with regards to functional conformation will assist, but cannot replace possible selection against radiographic findings in the limbs of young Warmblood riding horses, particularly with regards to OFF. PMID:17129565

  19. Bringing Bike Share to a Low-Income Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-14

    This podcast is an interview with Sarah Kretman Stewart, MPH, MEd, Healthy Living Minneapolis Project Specialist at the Minneapolis Health Department. In this program, Sarah talks about the impact a bike share program had on the low-income town of Near North, Minnesota.  Created: 8/14/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/14/2013.

  20. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenherg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX as an update of the state of the art in hybrid electric bicycles. The E-bike is seen as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The SX is a high performance, state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the SX's 36 V power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W, electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the SX, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the SX provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  1. Trails, Bike, This layer contains data for existing & proposed on-street bicycle facilities, such as bike lanes, sharrows, and signed routes. The layer is derived from the Baltimore City street centerline., Published in 2010, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, City of Baltimore.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale as of 2010. It is described as 'This layer contains data for existing in a Not Sure projection;...

  2. Bike to work”, a successful motto

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2012-01-01

    In June 2012, Switzerland launched a “Bike to work” campaign in which several tens of thousands took part. CERN personnel also took up the challenge.   "Bike to work" participants, 21 June 2012. The purpose of the campaign was to encourage the employees of Swiss companies to bike to work in June. Grouped into teams of four, no fewer than 50,000 cyclists accepted the challenge and clocked up a total of 6.8 million kilometres, 171 times the circumference of the Earth, thereby reducing CO2 emissions by 1088 tonnes (calculation basis: 160g CO2/km, for a small-cylinder car). At CERN, 316 people took part in this initiative, which was supported by the Medical Service. With their car left in the garage and their feet on the pedals, the CERN participants alone clocked up over  58,000 kilometres. The result was less stress - fortunately no accidents - less pollution, and a strong request for more cycle lanes! To build on this promising initial enthusia...

  3. Bike2Work 2016 is over – keep on pedalling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Kathryn Coldham

    2016-01-01

    142 CERN teams cycled more than twice around the Earth in the thirteenth year of Switzerland’s Bike2Work initiative.   Teams cycle to work at CERN’s Meyrin site in June, as part of Bike2Work 2016. (Image: Sophia Bennett/CERN) A record number of 142 CERN teams battled June rain to achieve ninth place in this year’s SwissBike2Work competition, in terms of the number of participating teams. Close to 54,000 employees from more than 1700 companies and organisations took part in this annual, national campaign, launched in 2004. It aims to encourage commuters to grab a helmet and travel on two wheels, improving fitness and reducing congestion on the roads. Overall, the CERN teams cycled 97,091 kilometres; amounting to a 15,000 kg reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, compared to what would have been produced by cars. A 15% participation rate also placed us third among companies with 1000-5000 employees. Both the École polytechnique féd&e...

  4. Reminder: Bike safety – e-learning module still available!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    The “Safe bike riding” e-learning module offered by the Safety Training Section of the HSE Unit is designed for anyone who uses a bike on the CERN site.   The course, which takes around 10 minutes to complete, can be accessed via the SIR application. It presents safety information, such as the road traffic rules, and practical advice, such as the appropriate safety equipment to wear and to have fitted to your bike. Regarding the rules, we would like to remind you that CERN's Safety Code A7 applies to cyclists as well as motorists.  The training module was created by the accident prevention service of the HSE Unit after it was noticed that the number of occupational accidents involving cyclists had been constantly increasing since 2008, with a rise from about 20 in 2009 to about 50 in 2013. Since its launch in September 2013, the course has been taken by more than 670 people. It can be completed at any time, in either English or French. The Safety T...

  5. Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

  6. Preparation for the industrial production of the Velocity Dolphin Power e-bike; Vorbereitungen zur Industrialisierung des Velocity Dolphin Power E-Bikes - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutter, M.

    2002-06-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the iterative process used in the development of this electrically-powered bicycle. The report covers the design-principles involved as far as appearance, operation and servicing are concerned. The report also describes the development and production of the various components such as the bike's frame, its special gearing system and the charger unit for the bike's accumulators as well as the motor and its control system. The programming of the controller and the interface to the bike's user are discussed. Finally, prototypes presented at an exhibition are looked at.

  7. Fancy a ride?

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    This Sunday 7 September, don’t miss your chance to climb into a supercar, one of those exceptional machines that tear up the tracks and that you sometimes hear revving their engines on the motorway. The 2014 supercar experience day, organised by members of CERN, will allow car lovers to go for a ride in style and all for a good cause!   Supercars at the 2013 experience day. Photo: Kevin Mazzilli. If you have always dreamt of sitting in a Ferrari, feeling the vibrations of a Lamborghini, or losing yourself in the hushed calm of a classic car, don’t miss the supercar experience day taking place on Sunday, 7 September! This event has been organised by CERN’s own car enthusiasts, in collaboration with the charity Kumansansa – Children of Zambia, founded by two CERN members. It will take place for the third consecutive year in the car park of the Macumba leisure centre in Saint-Julien-en-Genevois (France). From 9.30 a.m. to 6 p.m., visitors old and young (c...

  8. Coordination between Fault-Ride-Through Capability and Over-current Protection of DFIG Generators for Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Kawady, T.A.; Abdel-Rahman, Mansour Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Fault Ride-Through (FRT) capabilities set up according to the grid codes may affect the performance of related protective elements during fault periods. Therefore, in this paper the coordination between the FRT capability and over-current protection of DFIG Wind Generators in MV networks is...... investigated. Simulation test cases using MATLAB-Simulink are implemented on a 365-MW wind farm in AL-Zaafarana, Egypt. The simulation results show the influence of the FRT capability on the protective relaying coordination in wind farms, showing that the FRT may work in situations where is were expected not...

  9. Talk, Mobility and Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    The intersection of the quotidian practices of social interaction, learning and mobility outside of the classroom – for example, the ways in which talk shapes how children learn to be actively mobile – has been little studied until recently. This paper develops a social interactional approach to...... analysing talk and mobile action in what are arguably two quintessentially Nordic mobility practices, namely cycling and skiing. More specifically the focus is on investigating and comparing how a child learns to cycle in a bike-friendly urban infrastructure, and how a child learns to ski cross......-country, both within the context of familial social interaction. Audiovisual data was collected with mobile video cameras from family bike rides in Denmark and family skiing in Finland, in which among other things a parent instructs and guides a child to bike or to ski. Using an EMCA approach, the analysis...

  10. It Wasn't Me! Visibility and Free Riding in Waste Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Bucciol; Natalia Montinari; Marco Piovesan; Jean-Robert Tyran

    2014-01-01

    Free riding problems can be more severe in multiple-person social dilemmas than in two-person dilemmas, since agents can hide their actions behind the veil of anonymity. In this paper, we use field data on waste sorting to study the effect of visibility in social dilemmas. We compare the sorting behavior of households sharing (or not) their bin for unsorted waste. Since households have to pay a fee proportional to their unsorted waste production, sharing the bin means sharing the fee. We find...

  11. A Novel Wind Turbine Concept Based on an Electromagnetic Coupler and the Study of Its Fault Ride-through Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui You

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel type of variable speed wind turbine with a new drive train different from the variable speed wind turbine commonly used nowadays. In this concept, a synchronous generator is directly coupled with the grid, therefore, the wind turbine transient overload capability and grid voltage support capability can be significantly improved. An electromagnetic coupling speed regulating device (EMCD is used to connect the gearbox high speed shaft and synchronous generator rotor shaft, transmitting torque to the synchronous generator, while decoupling the gearbox side and the synchronous generator, so the synchronous generator torque oscillations during a grid fault are not transmitted to the gearbox. The EMCD is composed of an electromagnetic coupler and a one quadrant operation converter with reduced capability and low cost. A control strategy for the new wind turbine is proposed and a 2 MW wind turbine model is built to study the wind turbine fault ride-through capability. An integrated simulation environment based on the aeroelastic code HAWC2 and software Matlab/Simulink is used to study its fault ride-through capability and the impact on the structural loads during grid three phase and two phase short circuit faults.

  12. Preference of e-Bike by Women in India–a Niche Market for Auto Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Alamelu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing urbanization with climate change, global warming issues and the related need to decarbonize the economy, is forcing urgency for identifying the alternate source for the global adoption and sustainable scalable solutions. The country’s demographic and road patterns and its natural resources availability provide enormous scope for the electric bike industry. As per the “Navigant Research Report”, it is predicted that by 2018, the sales of electric vehicles in India will shoot up by 17 percent. 1.1 million electric vehicles will be targeted within next five years. A recent study on the environment impact of e-bikes with other forms of transportation found that e-bikes are about 18 times more energy consumption than SUV, 13 times than a sedan, 6 times more than rail transit, and it is having considered as an innovated conventional bicycle. It is a frugal innovation strategy which provide safe carbon free environment, and moreover a part of health rehabilitation programmes. It is required that societal, economic and political and infrastructure systems integrate together to balance the energy environment. With this potential, the era of electric bike started its new avenues on the roads of India specifically focusing on Indian women. To develop this viewpoint, the present study focuses on the preference of e-bike among the women in Madurai city.

  13. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike with Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX with ultracapacitors as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The E-Bike provides an inexpensive approach to advance the state of art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electrical bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  14. Landscape complexity and vegetation dynamics in Riding Mountain National Park, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David John

    The primary focus of landscape ecology is the interrelationship between spatial pattern and processes within an ecosystem. It is through their mutual interaction that landscape structure and complexity are ultimately determined. Complexity, which includes both the horizontal and vertical arrangement of vegetation structure on the landscape, is an emergent property of dynamic systems. In the boreal forest, landscape complexity is a product of successional dynamics, physiography and environmental variability. The objective of this study was to examine spatial and temporal changes to landscape complexity in the boreal mixedwood of Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP), Canada. Using remotely sensed Landsat data and scale invariant fractal measures of spatial pattern, change in landscape complexity under natural and human induced fragmentation regimes was examined. The importance of structure as an emergent property of boreal canopies and its influence on landscape mapping using satellite data was addressed. It was found that landscape-level spatial pattern became increasingly entropic during succession. Old landscapes (120 years post-fire) were typified by a landscape matrix dominated by small scale patches and low spatial persistence. Physiography was also found to influence scale invariant landscape complexity. Landscapes typified by simple physiographies (well-drained, topographically simple sites) were characterized by a few dominant over-dispersed land-cover classes. Complex landscapes (variably drained, topographically complex sites), patches were under-dispersed and contagious, however complex gradients resulted in high pattern complexity (increased juxapositioning of landscape elements). It is suggested that the accumulation of small-scale disturbances over time and species turnover along complex environmental gradient affect high landscape complexity in the boreal forest. In contrast, human driven disturbance processes in the boreal forest resulted in lower

  15. Aspects Regarding the Improving of Fitness and Health Issues by Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Octavian MĂNESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is trying to explain all the benefits cycling has over fitness and specific health issues, the importance of a training plan, of a balanced diet and a good hydration during a training period of time and, also, presents the results of some studies regarding the importance of ride biking, generally, and exercising, particularly. Riding a bike is a healthy activity. Regular exercise in the form of cycling will make people fitter, stronger, will help them reduce fat levels and look in better shape, boost their energy and generally improve their mood. For many people, cycling is the first step to independence and exploration. Good planning and preparation are essential to ensure that cycling is a positive experience to everybody.

  16. The effects of performing the YMCA Bike protocol on general brain function in athletes with and without mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Michael

    Research into concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has increased significantly within the past decade. In the literature some researchers are reporting 1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occurring in sports (Langlois, 2006), mTBI accounts for 80% of all reported traumatic brain injuries (Ruff, 2011). With these alarming statistics and an increasing number of athletes suffering a concussion there has been an increased emphasis for sports medicine practitioners to properly diagnose and treat those recovering from brain injury so that they may return safely to school, sports or work. Current clinical tools available to practitioners give them the ability to assess functional recovery in clinical measures of personality change; patient self reported symptom scales; functional cognitive domains (computer based neuropsychological batteries) and clinical balance measures. These current methods of clinical measurement, diagnosis and return to play protocols have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years. In addition, there is some controversy into the application of these clinical measures within repeated measure testing as improvement does not necessarily reflect post-traumatic recovery but may instead reflect practice or "ceiling effects" of measurement. Therefore, diagnostic platforms that measure structural physiologic recovery must be implemented to assist the clinician in the 'Return to Play' process for athletic participation. In this study quantitative EEG (qEEG) analysis using a 128-lead dense array system during the first aerobic challenge in a 'Return to Play' protocol was performed. Subjects recovering from concussion and normal volunteers with no history of concussion were included and their neuroelectric activity recorded before, during, after and 24 hours post light aerobic exercise on a stationary bike. Subjects recovering from concussion demonstrated altered spectral absolute power across relevant regions of interest in the frontal, central

  17. Bike sharing system: solving the static rebalancing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Chemla, Daniel; Meunier, Frédéric; Wolfler Calvo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a new problem that is a generalization of the many to many pickup and delivery problem and which is motivated by operating self-service bike sharing systems. There is only one commodity, initially distributed among the vertices of a graph, and a capacitated single vehicle aims to redistribute the commodity in order to reach a target distribution. Each vertex can be visited several times and also can be used as a buffer in which the commodity is stored for a later visit. ...

  18. Riding Gravity Away from Doomsday

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that most of the energy density in the universe is stored in the form of dark energy has profound consequences for our future. In particular our current limited understanding of quantum theory of gravity indicates that some time in the future our universe will undergo a phase transition that will destroy us and everything else around us instantaneously. However the laws of gravity also suggest a way out -- some of our descendants could survive this catastrophe by riding gravity away from the danger. In this essay I describe the tale of this escape from doomsday.

  19. Augmented Exercise Biking with Virtual Environments for Elderly Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Serafin, Stefania; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to function well as an assistive technology to physical therapy for elderly users. Elderly users, and more specifically retirement home residents, form a unique user group in this field, due to their characteristics and demands. In a case study, retirement home...... residents used an audio-visual virtual environment (VE) augmentation for an exercise bike. Besides a visual display, a soundscape was played to the subjects using headphones. The soundscape was not no- ticed wand the headphones were found to be obtrusive. In this paper, we consider and discuss possible...

  20. Analýza positioningu značky jízdních kol Race bike

    OpenAIRE

    Sameš, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis "Analysis of positioning bicycle brand Bike Race" offers a look at the brand in a highly competitive Czech bicycle market, which presents more than 100 different bicycle manufacturers. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the current brand positioning bicycles Bike Race in the main target group of customers and a draft set of recommendations for effective marketing impact of the selected main target group of customers. We start from the results of both its own market research (...

  1. Bike path Dravograd - Muta on the south side of Drava

    OpenAIRE

    Vožič, Andraž

    2013-01-01

    Thesis deals with approximately 13 km long stretch of the Drava cycle trail from Dravograd to Muta. Cycling connection has been established on a temporary basis on the regional road of the third order R3-702, which in turn means less security and less attraction for users. So I decided for a separate bike path that will as a result of the favourable longitudinal gradient take place between the railroad and the river Drava. In the thesis is presented layout of the new cycling connection, which...

  2. Analyzing Forces on Amusement Park Rides with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Rebecca E.; Vieyra, Chrystian

    2014-01-01

    Mobile device accelerometers are a simple and easy way for students to collect accurate and detailed data on an amusement park ride. The resulting data can be graphed to assist in the creation of force diagrams to help students explain their physical sensations while on the ride. This type of activity can help students overcome some of the…

  3. FUNCTIONAL NEUROLOGICAL TREATMENT OF A 12 YEAR OLD GIRL WITH ATAXIA AND POOR POSITION SENSE

    OpenAIRE

    BEATRICE TAPIA-BORGES

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The patient is a 12 year old girl with a history of occasional hand tremors bilaterally. She also complained of “pigeon toes”. She had difficulty riding a bike and considered herself “clumsy” because she occasionally dropped objects. METHODS: Examination revealed reduced right arm swing with dual task. Decomposition of movement with finger to nose test bilaterally. Excessive foot pronation, pes planus, and calcaneus valgus was observed bilaterally during gait and ...

  4. A co-modelling process of social and natural dynamics on the isle of Ouessant: Sheep, turf and bikes

    OpenAIRE

    Rouan, Mathias; Kerbiriou, Christian; Levrel, Harold; Etienne, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Thematic issue : Modelling with Stakeholders International audience An interdisciplinary team has applied the multi-agent system formalism to study shrub encroachment in the Biosphere Reserve on the isle of Ouessant. The main goals were (1) to understand vegetation dynamics, and (2) to represent how main agents, or actors view the dynamics of natural resources in relation to their own living practices. The management strategies established for each type of stakeholders were formalised a...

  5. Comparison of Road Safety Behaviour of Rented Dublin Bike Users With That of Owner Cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Deegan, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Cycling is a unique way of travelling and exercising. The Irish Heart Foundation recommends thirty minutes of exercise most days in the week to maintain a healthy heart (IHF, 2008). The introduction of the Dublin-bike scheme by Dublin city Council in connection with JCDecaux on the 13th of September 2009 has encouraged and allowed more people to cycle around the city of Dublin. Since their introduction, Dublin-bikes have grown rapidly in popularity. By the 31st of December 2009 24,016 people ...

  6. 76 FR 26923 - 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-11488 Filed 5-6-11; 11:15 am... 9, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8668--50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides #0; #0; #0... Freedom Rides By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Fifty years ago, America...

  7. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    OpenAIRE

    Choon Wah Yuen; Mohamed Rehan Karim; Ahmad Saifizul

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as...

  8. Health impact assessment and urban transport policy: E bike – silent killer or new urban transport ipod?

    OpenAIRE

    Brent Powis

    2013-01-01

    The growth in Asia of motorised vehicles posesa major public health threat in terms of the healtheffects of emissions, road safety and climate change.Future transport policy needs to come to terms withthese issues and at the same time address the growingsocial and economic needs of cities to provide transportsystems which are both economically viable and meetcommunities’ needs for access and mobility. Our rapidlyurbanising community’s demand for greater mobilityhas the potential to lead to po...

  9. EFFECT OF GASOLINE - ETHANOL BLENDS ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A SINGLE CYLINDER AIR COOLED MOTOR BIKE SI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SAMUEL RAJA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of using gasoline-ethanol (GE blends on performance and exhaust emission of a four stroke 150 cc single cylinder air cooled spark ignition (SI engine, without any modifications. Experiments were conducted at part load and different engine speeds ranging from 3000 to 5000 rpm, without and with catalytic converter. Ethanol content was varied from 5 percentage to 20 percentage by volume and four different blends (E5, E10, E15 and E20 were tested. Fuel consumption, engine speed, air fuel ratio, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust emissions were measured during each experiment. Brake thermal efficiency (ηb,th, volumetric efficiency (ηvol, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and excess air factor were calculated for each test run. Brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency and excess air factor increased with ethanol percentage in the blend. Carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbon (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx emissions decreased with blends.

  10. Health impact assessment and urban transport policy: E bike – silent killer or new urban transport ipod?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Powis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth in Asia of motorised vehicles posesa major public health threat in terms of the healtheffects of emissions, road safety and climate change.Future transport policy needs to come to terms withthese issues and at the same time address the growingsocial and economic needs of cities to provide transportsystems which are both economically viable and meetcommunities’ needs for access and mobility. Our rapidlyurbanising community’s demand for greater mobilityhas the potential to lead to poorly considered transportpolicy lest we ensure that the environment and healthimpacts of new transport technologies and policiesare fully assessed. The rapid and currently largelyunregulated emergence of the electric ‘bicycle’ (E Bikein China, now extending globally, serves to illustrate thecase for more extensive transport policy research.

  11. Taking the tyke on a bike: mothers’ and childless women’s space–time geographies in Amsterdam compared

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Eyer; Antonio Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between cycling and mothers’ mobility in Amsterdam. Considering that mothers (still) tend to be responsible for transporting children and doing so on a bicycle may increase the difficulties of travel, the city’s push for cycling may not suit mothers’ mobility needs. Hence, this research aimed to uncover whether mothers’ physical levels and experience of mobility by bicycle are by any means inferior to childless women’s in Amsterdam. Activity–travel dat...

  12. On your bike! a cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapp Georgina SA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active school transport (AST has declined rapidly in recent decades. While many studies have examined walking, cycling to school has received very little attention. Correlates of cycling are likely to differ to those from walking and cycling enables AST from further distances. This study examined individual, social and environmental factors associated with cycling to school among elementary school-aged children, stratified by gender. Methods Children (n = 1197 attending 25 Australian primary schools located in high or low walkable neighborhoods, completed a one-week travel diary and a parent/child questionnaire on travel habits and attitudes. Results Overall, 31.2% of boys and 14.6% of girls cycled ≥ 1 trip/week, however 59.4% of boys and 36.7% of girls reported cycling as their preferred school transport mode. In boys (but not girls, school neighborhood design was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., boys attending schools in neighborhoods with high connectivity and low traffic were 5.58 times more likely to cycle (95% CI 1.11-27.96 and for each kilometer boys lived from school the odds of cycling reduced by 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.99. Irrespective of gender, cycling to school was associated with parental confidence in their child's cycling ability (boys: OR 10.39; 95% CI 3.79-28.48; girls: OR 4.03; 95% CI 2.02-8.05, parental perceived convenience of driving (boys: OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.74; girls: OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.82; and child's preference to cycle (boys: OR 5.68; 95% CI 3.23-9.98; girls: OR 3.73; 95% CI 2.26-6.17. Conclusion School proximity, street network connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods was associated with boys (but not girls cycling to school. Irrespective of gender, parents need to be confident in their child's cycling ability and must prioritize cycling over driving.

  13. On your bike! a cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school

    OpenAIRE

    Trapp Georgina SA; Giles-Corti Billie; Christian Hayley E; Bulsara Max; Timperio Anna F; McCormack Gavin R; Villaneuva Karen P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Active school transport (AST) has declined rapidly in recent decades. While many studies have examined walking, cycling to school has received very little attention. Correlates of cycling are likely to differ to those from walking and cycling enables AST from further distances. This study examined individual, social and environmental factors associated with cycling to school among elementary school-aged children, stratified by gender. Methods Children (n = 1197) attending ...

  14. Innovative Bike-Sharing Design as a Research and Educational Platform for Promoting More Livable Urban Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitas, Alexandros; Rahe, Ulrike; Karjalainen, Toni-Matti

    2013-01-01

    Studying the viability of innovative urban access design is the key in achieving optimum results when attempting to transform dogmatism referring to conventional car-orientation into a meaningful driver of modal change founded on the actual societal needs for future transportation. An efficient public bicycle scheme could be the very definition of a system that could encourage and even facilitate, in real terms, such a transition. This paper is discussing how a post-graduate course embraced, ...

  15. Implementing the connected e-bike: challenges and requirements of an IoT application for urban transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Flüchter, Kristina; Wortmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    As local transportation systems are facing enormous challenges in consequence of extensive urban growth, technological advancements are creating unprecedented opportunities as the Internet is extending into the real world, connecting physical items to the virtual world and creating an Internet of Things (IoT). While many activities are exploring corresponding applications, e.g. connecting bicycles to the Internet, widespread economic success of a truly connected device is still outstanding. F...

  16. Riding Third: Social Work in Ambulance Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Hilary; Rasmussen, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the possible role of social work alongside emergency ambulance services. An ethnographic study included semistructured interviews and direct observations collected over 300 hours while riding in ambulances in an urban setting. The data suggest that social work could play a role by providing needed psychosocial care during…

  17. Industrial Education. Mini-Course Cluster: Bikes, Electricity, Small Engines. [Grade 9].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides three units to be used in a one semester course in grade 9 on the subjects of bikes, electricity, and small engines. The section on bicycles is divided into two parts, mechanical and power (i.e. motorcycles) and covers the topics of…

  18. The bike is back with a battery

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2009-01-01

    The attention the electric car receives as a promising means of sustainable transportation seems at times to overshadow the rise of that other electric vehicle: the pedelec or electric bicycle. For those who don't know yet: a pedelec is a bicycle assisted by an electric motor. That motor is powered by a rechargeable (lithium-ion) battery. The motor is intended to assist pedaling, not to replace it. It is the newest evolution of the bike. Its numbers are growing fast. This paper assumes that t...

  19. Finanční analýza podniku Master Bike, s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Krátká, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on financial analysis of Master Bike, s.r.o., company. There were used public data from period 2009 -- 2013. In the theoretical part of this thesis are introduced indicators of financial analysis which are used in the practical part. At the end of this thesis there are outputs of this financial analysis and my own recommendations.

  20. Solving a static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems using iterated tabu search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints. The...

  1. User-based solutions for increasing level of service in bike-sharing transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Raimbault, Juste

    2016-01-01

    Bike-sharing transportation systems have been well studied from a top-down viewpoint, either for an optimal conception of the system, or for a better statistical understanding of their working mechanisms in the aim of the optimization of the management strategy. Yet bottom-up approaches that could include behavior of users have not been well studied so far. We propose an agent-based model for the short time evolution of a bike-sharing system, with a focus on two strategical parameters that are the role of the quantity of information users have on the all system and the propensity of user to walk after having dropped their bike. We implement the model in a general way so it is applicable to every system as soon as data are available in a certain format. The model of simulation is parametrized and calibrated on processed real time-series of bike movements for the system of Paris. After showing the robustness of the simulations by validating internally and externally the model, we are able to test different user...

  2. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H

    2009-12-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides. PMID:19901817

  3. Bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections with retinal artery occlusion after a roller coaster ride - case report and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan Arat, Yonca; Volpi, John; Arat, Anıl; Klucznik, Richard; Diaz, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    We present the first case of a woman with no significant medical history who developed dissections of bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries, as well as a retinal artery occlusion, after a roller coaster ride. A 35-year-old woman developed right-sided neck pain followed by a frontal headache immediately after a roller coaster ride. Five days after the incident, she developed complete loss of vision in her right eye for two hours. Subsequently, the vision improved but remained significantly decreased. On presentation, her visual acuity was 20/200 in the right and 20/20 in the left eye. Her fundus exam revealed retinal edema in the superotemporal retinal artery distribution without any visible emboli. Her neurological exam was otherwise normal. The cerebral angiogram showed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. The patient remained stable with conservative therapy without further worsening of vision or any new neurological deficits. Outcomes for cervicocephalic arterial dissection are usually favorable, but early diagnosis is critical for initiation of appropriate treatment of possible complications. Physicians must have a high index of suspicion for arterial dissection when patients note any headache, neck pain or vertigo triggered by violent motion after leisure activities such as roller coaster rides. PMID:21341139

  4. Cyclist's nodule: no smooth ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Adam; Thway, Khin; Messiou, Christina; Smith, Myles

    2016-01-01

    A fit and active amateur cyclist was referred by his general practitioner to a surgical oncology outpatient clinic with a slowly-growing perineal mass. Following clinical examination, the patient underwent imaging and biopsy at a tertiary soft tissue tumour centre, which diagnosed perineal nodular induration: a rare, benign tumour caused by repetitive trauma associated with 'saddle sports' such as cycling or horse riding. It is important to consider soft tissue tumours in patients who present with 'lumps and bumps'; they can occur anywhere in the body including the groin or perineum, where it is sometimes referred to as a 'third' or 'accessory' testicle in men. Although unusual, the case emphasises the importance of rapid specialist referral from primary care, and consideration of a patient's occupation and hobbies when formulating diagnoses. PMID:26965405

  5. Effects of oral powder electrolyte administration on packed cell volume, plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating in a 6-day 162-km trail ride

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Wade T.; Callan, Robert J.; Hill, Ashley E.; Tisher, Kelly B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of administering oral powder electrolytes on packed cell volume (PCV), plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating on a 6-day 162-km trail ride in which water was not offered ad libitum. Twenty-three horses received grain with powder electrolytes daily while 19 control horses received grain only. Horses were ridden approximately 32 km a day at a walk or trot. Packed cell volume and plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed daily...

  6. A Novel Method on Fault Ride-Through of a DFIG Wind Turbine using a Dynamic Voltage Restorer During Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radha Krishna Reddy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR connected to a wind-turbine-driven doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is investigated. The setup allows the wind turbine system an uninterruptible fault ride-through of voltage dips. The DVR can compensate the faulty line voltage, while the DFIG wind turbine can continue its nominal operation as demanded in actual grid codes. Simulation results for a 2 MW wind turbine and measurement results on a 22 kW laboratory setup are presented, especially for asymmetrical grid faults. They show the effectiveness of the DVR in comparison to the low-voltage ride-through of the DFIG using a crowbar that does not allow continuous reactive power production.

  7. Analýza využitelnosti bike-sharingu v hlavním městě Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbachová, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse a bike-sharing in Prague, especially its usability and future potential. The thesis answers questions whether a bike-sharing can prosper in Prague and if so whether it can contribute to the solution of a problematic traffic situation. In a theoretical part of the thesis there are firstly described concepts of economics theories which are closely related with the concept of bike-sharing. The thesis also characterises fields of the collaborative economy, col...

  8. ICTM Sub-Study Group on Field Research Theory and Methods in Vlčnov: The Ride of the Kings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stavělová, Daniela

    Limerick: The Irish World Academy of Music and Dance , University of Limerick, 2014 - (Dunin, E.; Foley, C.), s. 307-310 ISBN 9781905952533. [Symposium of the Internacional Council for Traditional Music (ICTM) /27./. Limerick (IE), 22.07.2012-29.07.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : The Ride of the Kings * qualitative research * fieldwork * Vlčnov * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karina Mallardo; Sandra Nizza; Filomena Fiorito; Ugo Pagnini; Luisa De Martino

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Methods:A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. Results: MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95%CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95%CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusions:It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses.

  10. Investigation on Fault-ride Through Methods for VSC-HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farms - Overview and New Proposal for Fault Ride Through

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Wenye

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a fast development and deployment of wind energy to meet the increasing electrical power demand and to limit the use of fossil fuels. More and more wind farms are planned far from shore because of good wind condition and less visual impact. This is so called offshore wind farm (OWF). In such a situation, high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission is a favorable option for integrating these OWFs to the onshore grid, because HVDC, compared with high voltage alterna...

  11. VRACK: measuring pedal kinematics during stationary bike cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjadian, Amir B; Kong, Qingchao; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2013-06-01

    Ankle impairment and lower limb asymmetries in strength and coordination are common symptoms for individuals with selected musculoskeletal and neurological impairments. The virtual reality augmented cycling kit (VRACK) was designed as a compact mechatronics system for lower limb and mobility rehabilitation. The system measures interaction forces and cardiac activity during cycling in a virtual environment. The kinematics measurement was added to the system. Due to the constrained problem definition, the combination of inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Kalman filtering was recruited to compute the optimal pedal angular displacement during dynamic cycling exercise. Using a novel benchmarking method the accuracy of IMU-based kinematics measurement was evaluated. Relatively accurate angular measurements were achieved. The enhanced VRACK system can serve as a rehabilitation device to monitor biomechanical and physiological variables during cycling on a stationary bike. PMID:24187270

  12. Trails, Bike, Bike Lanes within City of Ashland, WI, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Ashland.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Bike Lanes within...

  13. Evaluation of ride quality prediction methods for operational military helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a simulator study conducted to compare and validate various ride quality prediction methods for use in assessing passenger/crew ride comfort within helicopters are presented. Included are results quantifying 35 helicopter pilots' discomfort responses to helicopter interior noise and vibration typical of routine flights, assessment of various ride quality metrics including the NASA ride comfort model, and examination of possible criteria approaches. Results of the study indicated that crew discomfort results from a complex interaction between vibration and interior noise. Overall measures such as weighted or unweighted root-mean-square acceleration level and A-weighted noise level were not good predictors of discomfort. Accurate prediction required a metric incorporating the interactive effects of both noise and vibration. The best metric for predicting crew comfort to the combined noise and vibration environment was the NASA discomfort index.

  14. Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on these knee replacements, but you can play tennis. You can actually ride bikes. You can play ... swim. But you cannot jog. You cannot play tennis on them or you’ll destroy them earlier. ...

  15. Augmented exercise biking with virtual environments for elderly users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Pedersen, Kasper Søndergaard; Serafin, Stefania;

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to function well as an assistive technology to physical therapy for elderly users. Elderly users are a unique user group in this field, due to their characteristics and demands. They are also a user group that can definitely benefit from VR technology, which...... is unfortunately a perspective that seems elude the VR community. This study explores how augmenting a manuped exercise (chair-based exercise bike), using an interactive screen-based virtual environment (VE), can change the exercise experience for retirement home residents. It is the first study in a series...... of studies, initiating an investigation into how to use VR to augment conventional exercise experiences, specifically for the retirement home resident audience. In a larger scope, the ambition is longterm to use VR technology to increase motivation with retirement home residents, to uphold a regular exercise...

  16. Time Walk Bike To Work, 2001-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the percent of population aged 16 years or older whose commute to work is 10 or more minutes/day by walking or biking for California,...

  17. Feasibility testing for dial-a-ride problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue ...... a simple example, we show in this work that their algorithm is incorrect. We also prove that by increasing the time complexity by only a logarithmic factor, a correct algorithm is obtained....

  18. Feasibility Testing for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    2010-01-01

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue ...... a simple example, we show in this work that their algorithm is incorrect. We also prove that by increasing the time complexity by only a logarithmic factor, a correct algorithm is obtained....

  19. Feasibility Checking for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue ...... a simple example, we show in this work that their algorithm is incorrect. We also prove that by increasing the time complexity by only a logarithmic factor, a correct algorithm is obtained....

  20. Air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  1. Head motions while riding roller coasters: Implications for brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pfister, Bryan J.; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI betw...

  2. BIOMECHANICS OF THERAPEUTIC RIDING DURING THE DISEASES OF I-II DEGREE DYSPLASTIC LUMBAR AND STATIC (SHORT LEG) SCOLIOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshaberidze, E; Merabishvili, I; Loria, M

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the paper is to substantiate the essence of ridetherapy biomechanics as the pathogenetic therapeutic and prophylactic method at lumbar dysplastic (the I and II degrees) and static (short-legged induced) scoliosis. Uneven lower extremities caused by any reason and asymmetric support induce the change in the arrangement of trochantin to the vertebra and correspondingly the uneven loading of lumbar muscles. The asymmetric strength of lumbar muscles evoked by the change in rotator condition becomes the cause of the formation of scoliosis primary arc which, in its turn, causes a compensatory spinal curvature. In case of dysplastic scoliosis a leading role belongs to the beginning of dystrophic changes in intervertebral discs and its further decentration. At riding position the lower extremities are completely disengaged from the antigravity redistribution, the child is in direct contact with vibrations and jolts coming from the horseback; the antigravity loading is distributed on the muscles of the torso and thus, it creates an opportunity to purposefully affect the correction of the spine. During scoliosis the pathogenic essence of ridetherapy is due to the comprehensiveness of its procedures, expressed in the fact that during one procedure several factors are influenced simultaneously: nucleus pulpous, the torso and iliopsoas muscles, the antigravity system, etc. According to the clinical-functional and radiographic studies carried out in the dynamics on 11-16 years old adolescents it has been established that in those groups where the rehabilitation was conducted in a complex with ridetherapy the authentically higher results were obtained as compared to the groups where the rehabilitation was held using therapeutic exercises and massage. PMID:26656557

  3. Calming the Waters or Riding the Waves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydén, Pernille; Kottika, Efthymia; Hossain, Muhammad Ismail;

    Traditional consumer anger management tends to be compromising rather than empowering the brand. This paper conceptualizes and provides a case example on how consumer empowerment and negative emotions can in fact create opportunities for companies to ride the waves of consumer anger in a way....... This calls for a reconsideration of assumptions that empowerment is like a seesaw swinging in favor of either the consumer or the company, and that negative emotions can only be destructive....

  4. Smart Ride Seeker (SRS) An Introductory Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Naby, Sameh; Giorgini, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A diverse range of architectures and concepts was proposed by scholars within the theme of Car Pooling Problem solving. Most of these scholars have attempted to put together two major elements: the need for people to move from a place to another, and the resources used to accomplish this action. Based on the use of location and available car seats, Car sharing systems allowed a substantial number of people to share car rides. These systems would, among other advantages, rationalize energy con...

  5. Recreational Demand for Equestrian Trail-Riding

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, Melanie; Pagoulatos, Angelos; Hu, Wuyang; Auchter, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected from a combination of on-site and on-line surveys, this study examines recreational demand for equestrian trail-riding in Kentucky. A truncated, negative binomial regression is applied to analyze individuals’ visitation behavior consistent with a travel cost model. Results suggest that distance is the most significant determinant of average annual visits to a particular site. Various trail site characteristics, such as trail length, scenic overlooks, and trail markers, ...

  6. Trails, Bike, Bike trails, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described...

  7. Fault ride-through and grid support of permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind farms with HVAC and VSC-HVDC transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes fault ride-through and grid support of offshore wind farms based on permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbines connected to the onshore AC network through two alternative transmission systems: high voltage AC (HVAC) or high voltage DC (HVDC) based on voltage...... source converters (VSC). The proposed configurations of the PMSG-based offshore wind farm and VSC-based HVDC are given as well as their control strategies under both steady state and fault state. The PMSG-based offshore wind farm is integrated into a test power transmission system via either HVAC or VSC...

  8. Bull Riding Injuries In Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan James Livingston

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Bull riding is an increasingly popular and growing professional sport in Australia. This is the first national study that investigates bull riding-related injuries. Method A six-year retrospective study of patients admitted to Rockhampton Base Hospital with acute injuries sustained whilst bull riding. Patients were identified from the Rockhampton Hospital international coding system and surgical audit excel databases. Supporting information was found from patient chart review. Results Thirty-eight patients were admitted during the study. Injuries increased from 2008. The most common injuries were to limbs (52%, chest (15% and brain (10%. Life-threatening injuries were all caused by a direct kick or trampling by the bull; 5% of patients needed air transfer to Brisbane, and 10% to Rockhampton for their acute care. The only complication was infection of open wounds. The average hospital stay was 2.2 (range= 1-5, SD= 1.1 days and 64% of patients required operative intervention. Conclusion Patients that had been kicked or trampled should be identified as having potentially life-threatening injuries, and transferred for review at an appropriate facility. Due to the high risk of infection all contaminated wounds should be washed out formally and receive antibiotics. Protective equipment should be encouraged among riders.

  9. Riding Tandem: An Organic and Collaborative Approach to Research in Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Cathy; Dyer, Alec; Thompson, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to explore the use of the Internet in peer-to-peer learning environments within vocational education and training and to investigate whether this approach could replace traditional teaching and learning. A mixed methods design, including classroom observations, design experiments, interviews and questionnaires was adopted.…

  10. Research on integration of visual and motion cues for flight simulation and ride quality investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Curry, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vestibular perception and integration of several sensory inputs in simulation were studied. The relationship between tilt sensation induced by moving fields and those produced by actual body tilt is discussed. Linearvection studies were included and the application of the vestibular model for perception of orientation based on motion cues is presented. Other areas of examination includes visual cues in approach to landing, and a comparison of linear and nonlinear wash out filters using a model of the human vestibular system is given.

  11. Investigation on motorcyclist riding behaviour at curve entry using instrumented motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Choon Wah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Saifizul, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables. PMID:24523660

  12. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Wah Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables.

  13. Interior noise and vibration measurements on operational military helicopters and comparisons with various ride quality criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The results of physical measurements of the interior noise and vibration obtained within eight operational military helicopters are presented. The data were extensively analyzed and are presented in the following forms: noise and vibration spectra, overall root-mean-square acceleration levels in three linear axes, peak accelerations at dominant blade passage frequencies, acceleration exceedance data, and overall and ""A'' weighted sound pressure levels. Peak acceleration levels were compared to the ISO 1-hr reduced comfort and fatigue decreased proficiency boundaries and the NASA discomfort criteria. The ""A'' weighted noise levels were compared to the NASA annoyance criteria, and the overall noise spectra were compared to MIL-STD-1294 (""Acoustical Noise Limits in Helicopters''). Specific vibration components at blade passage frequencies for several aircraft exceeded both the ISO reduced comfort boundary and the NASA passenger discomfort criteria. The ""A'' weighted noise levels, corrected for SPH-4 helmet attenuation characteristics, exceeded the NASA annoyance threshold for several aircraft.

  14. Sit Back and Enjoy The Ride: Financial planners and the symbolic domination of clients.

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick F. Parnaby

    2009-01-01

    Borrowing from Bourdieu’s theory of practice, specifically, the relationship between forms of capital and discourse on the one hand and the nature of symbolic violence and thus control on the other (see Bourdieu 1998; 1991), this paper seeks to answer the following question: what discursive strategies do personal financial planners use to facilitate desirable client behaviour vis-à-vis market investment? On the basis of 32 semistructured interviews with financial planners and textual analyses...

  15. Sit Back and Enjoy The Ride: Financial planners and the symbolic domination of clients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick F Parnaby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Borrowing from Bourdieu’s theory of practice, specifically, the relationship between forms of capital and discourse on the one hand and the nature of symbolic violence and thus control on the other (see Bourdieu 1998; 1991, this paper seeks to answer the following question: what discursive strategies do personal financial planners use to facilitate desirable client behaviour vis-à-vis market investment? On the basis of 32 semistructured interviews with financial planners and textual analyses of relevant industry materials, I argue that planners use three essential discursive strategies: the naturalization of market volatility, the establishing of reasonable expectations, and the managing of external discourses.Together, these discursive strategies constitute the exercising of symbolic violence which, in turn, controls clients so as to cultivate a professional relationship amenable to long-term investment and profitability.

  16. The science of vehicle dynamics handling, braking, and ride of road and race cars

    CERN Document Server

    Guiggiani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics is often perceived as a quite intuitive subject. As a matter of fact, lots of people are able to drive a car. Nevertheless, without a rigorous mathematical formulation it is very difficult to truly understand the physical phenomena involved in the motion of a road vehicle. In this book, mathematical models of vehicles are developed, always paying attention to state the relevant assumptions and to provide explanations for each step. This approach allows for a deep, yet simple, analysis of the dynamics of vehicles, without having to resort to foggy concepts. The reader will soon achieve a clear understanding of the subject, which will be of great help both in dealing with the challenges of designing and testing new vehicles and in tackling new research topics. The book covers handling and performance of both road and race cars. A new approach, called MAP (Map of Achievable Performance), is presented and thoroughly discussed. It provides a global and intuitive picture of the handling features of...

  17. Car- and ride sharing: The current state and future possibilities in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Ásta Karen Helgadóttir 1992

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy has been gaining momentum in the world over the past decade or so. The sharing economy has been defined as the value in taking underutilized assets and making them accessible online to a community, leading to a reduced need for ownership of those assets. Iceland has only become familiar with the term in the last couple of years, and the sharing economy is slowly, but steadily gaining a foothold in Iceland, with Icelanders‘ increased use and acceptance of the sharing econom...

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Dial-a-Ride and Integrated Public Transport Services

    OpenAIRE

    Häll, Carl Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Traditional public transport systems are most often insufficient to provide a good transport service to everyone. Especially, it is not always possible for elderly and disabled persons to use the regular system consisting of timetabled services operating along fixed routes. Normally there is some specific service, often called paratransit, offered to these groups of customers. Such transport services provide better service to these customers, but to a higher cost. This thesis considers planni...

  19. Framing and Free Riding: Emotional Responses and Punishment in Social Dilemma Games

    OpenAIRE

    Robin P. Cubitt; Michalis Drouvelis; Simon Gächter

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report an experimental investigation of the effect of framing on social preferences, as revealed in a one-shot linear public goods game. We use two indicators to measure social preferences: self-reported emotional responses; and, as a behavioural indicator of disapproval, punishment. Our findings are that, for a given pattern of contributions, neither punishment nor emotion depends on the Give versus Take framing that we manipulate. To this extent, they suggest that the soci...

  20. Riding a Trail of Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the comet Encke riding along its pebbly trail of debris (long diagonal line) between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This material actually encircles the solar system, following the path of Encke's orbit. Twin jets of material can also be seen shooting away from the comet in the short, fan-shaped emission, spreading horizontally from the comet. Encke, which orbits the Sun every 3.3 years, is well traveled. Having exhausted its supply of fine particles, it now leaves a long trail of larger more gravel-like debris, about one millimeter in size or greater. Every October, Earth passes through Encke's wake, resulting in the well-known Taurid meteor shower. This image was captured by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer when Encke was 2.6 times farther away than Earth is from the Sun. It is the best yet mid-infrared view of the comet at this great distance. The data are helping astronomers understand how rotating comets eject particles as they circle the Sun.

  1. Modeling and simulation on ride comfort of a self-propelled gun%某型自行火炮行驶平顺性仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向涛波; 刘重发; 赵凌; 陈伟

    2011-01-01

    Ride comfort is a key index of a self-propelled gun.A good ride comfort ensures the high reliability of the weapon system,and can reduce the intensity of labor.lt presents a dynamic model of a self-propelled gun.An impulse road input simulation was carried out to verify the correctness of the model.The simulation results fit the experiment data very well,and illustrated the correctness of the model.The vehicle was evaluated based on the simulation results of the random road input simulation, and the optimization was carried out to get a better performance.The simulation result shows that,the self-propelled gun gains a good ride comfort.%平顺性是自行火炮的一项重要性能指标.良好的平顺性能保证武器系统的可靠性,而且能降低驾驶员的劳动强度.以某型自行火炮为研究对象,建立了某型自行火炮的动力学模型,并采用脉冲输入平顺性试验进行了模型验证.仿真分析结果与试验数据吻合度较好,验证了模型的可靠性及有效性.对该自行火炮进行了随机路面行驶平顺性仿真分析,并进行了评价.仿真及评价结果表明,该火炮系统的平顺性较好.

  2. On the Use of City Bikes to Make the City Even Smarter

    OpenAIRE

    Mitton, Nathalie; Rivano, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    International audience These last years have witnessed the riseof the smart cities and several mechanisms to renderthe cities more sustainable and more energy-efficient.Among all different aspects is transportation and urbanbike development. Besides the growing enthusiast provokedby bicycles and the benefit for health they bring,there still exists some reluctance in using bikes becauseof safety, road state, weather, etc. To counter-balancethese feelings, there is a need to better understan...

  3. Preference of e-Bike by Women in India–a Niche Market for Auto Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran Alamelu; Chandrasekaran Sivasundaram Anushan; Sivasankara Gandhi Selvabaskar

    2015-01-01

    The increasing urbanization with climate change, global warming issues and the related need to decarbonize the economy, is forcing urgency for identifying the alternate source for the global adoption and sustainable scalable solutions. The country’s demographic and road patterns and its natural resources availability provide enormous scope for the electric bike industry. As per the “Navigant Research Report”, it is predicted that by 2018, the sales of electric vehicles in India will shoot up ...

  4. Short paper: From streaming data to linked data. A case study with bike sharing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Calbimonte, JP.; García-Castro, Raúl; Corcho, Oscar; Ruckhaus, Edna

    2012-01-01

    Current methods and tools that support Linked Data publication have mainly focused so far on static data, without considering the growing amount of streaming data available on the Web. In this paper we describe a case study that involves the publication of static and streaming Linked Data for bike sharing systems and related entities. We describe some of the challenges that we have faced, the solutions that we have explored, the lessons that we have learned, and the opportunities that lie in ...

  5. Bike2Work celebration in honour of the colleagues who registered most kilometers in 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    Vigen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Before the 2014 season was officially launched, the CERN bikers took time to celebrate the strong commitment of biking to work in 2013. The celebration took place in front of Restaurant 1. The president of the CERN Bike Club, Henrik Nissen, was the master of ceremonies and presented a set of prizes: The three first prizes, all corresponding to the so-called "Karma Level Sexy Bottom", went to Tim Smith (7182 km), Martial Dujardin (5109 km) and Gabriele Thiede (4326 km). For the remaining group of participants there were seven extra prizes, attributed from a prize draw - where each of their registered kilometers was used as lottery ticket. In addition all got a diploma stating their karma level .

  6. Effect of deceptively aggressive bike pacing on sprint-distance triathlon performance

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Daniel; Smith, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Whilst aggressive bike pacing has been found to impair subsequent run performance during triathlon, this strategy appears to enhance total cycle-run time over the sprint-distance format (Suriano & Bishop, 2010). As such, cycling at the highest sustainable intensity (i.e. isolated TT power output) is suggested as the best strategy to optimise overall performance time in the event. However, it is unclear how an athlete’s expectations, beliefs and perceptions influence the effectiv...

  7. Predicting Whole Body Vibration Exposure from Occupational Quad Bike Use in Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Lynne; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Trask, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure is recognised as a risk factor to the high prevalence of spinal musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) experienced by farmers. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported predictors that could be used to develop statistical models for WBV exposure (expressed as A8rms and VDV) in farmers operating agricultural quad bikes. Data were collected in the field from 130 farmers. Linear mixed effects modeling was used to determine the models of best fit. The p...

  8. Solving a static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems using iterated tabu search

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, SC; Szeto, WY

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the static bike repositioning problem where the problem consists of selecting a subset of stations to visit, sequencing them, and determining the pick-up/drop-off quantities (associated with each of the visited stations) under the various operational constraints. The objective is to minimize the total penalties incurred at all the stations. We present an iterated tabu search heuristic to solve the described problem. Experimental results show that this simple heuristic ...

  9. Pedaling into high gear for bicycle policy in Canada : lessons from bike summit 2008 in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2008 bike summit provided a forum for the discussion of international and Canadian best practices related to bicycles and bicycling policy. The aim of the summit was to assist communities across Canada to improve conditions for cycling in the urban environment and help to generate a cultural shift towards greater acceptance of cycling on roads. This paper discussed lessons learned during the summit and outlined new methods of improving cycling in communities. The City of London has recently increased the amount of cyclists using its roads by 200 per cent. Cycling infrastructure is more affordable than constructing major public transit or road infrastructure. Savings in healthcare costs will be accrued over time as a result of the healthier lifestyles promoted by regular cycling activity. Bicycle trips can help to alleviate over-demand on heavy transit routes. Encouraging commuters to cycle will also reduce the amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in urban areas. Lane width reductions will help to reduce speeds as drivers are forced to pay more attention when driving. Public bike sharing programs and bike stations are now being used in many North American cities. It was concluded that strong advocacy is needed to ensure the growth and acceptance of cycling in urban centres. 23 figs

  10. A Joyful and Exhilarating Ride: An Interview with Frank J. Vattano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bryan J.

    2008-01-01

    Frank J. Vattano is Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Emeritus University Distinguished Teaching Scholar at Colorado State University (CSU), his undergraduate alma mater. He earned his PhD in experimental psychology from The Ohio State University and served as Associate Dean of Arts and Sciences and Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs at the…

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Media Crises - How to ride off a CSR-related shitstorm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette; Schmeltz, Line

    the case of the Norwegian chocolate brand Freia is used to illustrate how CSR-related issues are particularly vulnerable and thus potentially responsible for creating a social media crisis. The case furthermore serves to illustrate the importance of social media readiness, responsiveness and not least...... strategy and communicative skills during a CSR-related social media crisis.......This paper aims to explore and offer insights into the phenomenon of social media crises in a CSR-related context by reflexively merging theoretical and case insights (Alvesson & Kärreman, 2007, p. 2011). The phenomenon and the components of a social media crisis are theoretically identified, and...

  12. Study on the energy-efficiency of 'park and ride' systems (French version); Efficience energetique des P et R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume-Gentil, S.; Camandona, Ch.; Stucki, M. [Transitec Ingenieurs Conseils, Lausanne (Switzerland); Baumgartner, P.; Lippuner, Ch. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the efficiency of 'park and ride' (P+R) systems from the energy-efficiency point of view. 'Park and ride' means: 'Leave your car on a parking area and travel by public transport services for the second part of your journey'. Five hypotheses are examined: that P+R helps improve the general energy-efficiency of traffic, P+R installations are not an economically advantageous measure for improving the energy-efficiency of traffic, that they are not cost-effective, that they are financed by other public transport services and that their contribution to energy efficiency is dependent on the characteristics of their particular locations. The study looks at the positive and negative effects of P+R on energy efficiency and develops criteria for choosing locations. Three typical P+R installations are looked at - at a main station in a city centre, on the edge of a city and on a main city access road. These locations are analysed with respect to their energy and financial balances and their cost-effectiveness. Also, the use of P+R installations is analysed and the importance of the results of the study for traffic planning is discussed.

  13. Study on the energy-efficiency of 'park and ride' systems (French/German version); Efficience energetique des P et R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume-Gentil, S.; Camandona, Ch.; Stucki, M. [Transitec Ingenieurs Conseils, Lausanne (Switzerland); Baumgartner, P.; Lippuner, Ch. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the efficiency of 'park and ride' (P+R) systems from the energy-efficiency point of view. 'Park and ride' means: 'Leave your car on a parking area and travel by public transport services for the second part of your journey'. Five hypotheses are examined: that P+R helps improve the general energy-efficiency of traffic, P+R installations are not an economically advantageous measure for improving the energy-efficiency of traffic, that they are not cost-effective, that they are financed by other public transport services and that their contribution to energy efficiency is dependent on the characteristics of their particular locations. The study looks at the positive and negative effects of P+R on energy efficiency and develops criteria for choosing locations. Three typical P+R installations are looked at - at a main station in a city centre, on the edge of a city and on a main city access road. These locations are analysed with respect to their energy and financial balances and their cost-effectiveness. Also, the use of P+R installations is analysed and the importance of the results of the study for traffic planning is discussed.

  14. Ride On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Public Transportation for Grades 6 through 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the public transportation topic for grades 6-9. It contains forty-two learning activities grouped…

  15. Ride On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Public Transportation for Grades 9 through 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the public transportation topic for grades 9-12. It contains forty-nine learning activities grouped…

  16. Influence Of Specialisation On Connectedness And Genetic Parameters In Dutch Warmblood Riding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise; Arendonk, Johan A M; Ducro, Bart J

    During the last decades, a process of specialisation into show jumping (JH) and dressage (DH) has been taking place in the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN). The objectives of this paper were to describe the evolution of the connectedness between JH and DH over the last 15 years and to analyse the...

  17. Stirrup forces during horse riding: a comparison between sitting and rising trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E; de Cocq, Patricia; Timmerman, Mark; Muller, Mees

    2012-07-01

    Injuries of horses might be related to the force the rider exerts on the horse. To better understand the loading of the horse by a rider, a sensor was developed to measure the force exerted by the rider on the stirrups. In the study, five horses and 23 riders participated. Stirrup forces measured in sitting trot and rising trot were synchronised with rider movements measured from digital films and made dimensionless by dividing them by the bodyweight (BW) of the rider. A Fourier transform of the stirrup force data showed that the signals of both sitting and rising trot contained 2.4 and 4.8 Hz frequencies. In addition, 1.1 and 3.7 Hz frequencies were also present at rising trot. Each stride cycle of trot showed two peaks in stirrup force. The heights of these peaks were 1.17±0.28 and 0.33±0.14 in rising and 0.45±0.24 and 0.38±0.22 (stirrup force (N)/BW of rider (N)) in sitting trot. A significant difference was found between the higher peaks of sitting and rising trot (Pstirrups during rising than sitting trot. A combination of stirrup and saddle force data can provide additional information on the total loading of the horse by a rider. PMID:22100209

  18. Flexible fault ride through strategy for wind farm clusters in power systems with high wind power penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A flexible fault ride through strategy is proposed. • The strategy comprises of grid code requirements and power restrictions. • Slight faults and moderate faults are the main defending objectives. • Temporary overloading capability of the doubly fed induction generator is considered. - Abstract: This paper investigates a flexible fault ride through strategy for power systems in China with high wind power penetration. The strategy comprises of adaptive fault ride through requirements and maximum power restrictions of the wind farms with weak fault ride through capabilities. The slight faults and moderate faults with high probability are the main defending objective of the strategy. The adaptive fault ride through requirement in the strategy consists of two sub fault ride through requirements, a temporary slight voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a slight fault incident, with a moderate voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a moderate fault. The temporary overloading capability of the wind farm is reflected in both requirements to enhance the capability to defend slight faults and to avoid tripping when the crowbar is disconnected after moderate faults are cleared. For those wind farms that cannot meet the adaptive fault ride through requirement, restrictions are put on the maximum power output. Simulation results show that the flexible fault ride through strategy increases the fault ride through capability of the wind farm clusters and reduces the wind power curtailment during faults

  19. Riding the tide of emotions with mindfulness: Mindfulness, affect dynamics, and the mediating role of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tong, Eddie M W

    2016-08-01

    Little research has examined ways in which mindfulness is associated with affect dynamics, referring to patterns of affect fluctuations in daily life. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), the present study examined the associations between trait mindfulness and several types of affect dynamics, namely affect variability, affect inertia, affect switch, and affect instability. Three hundred ninety undergraduate students from Singapore reported their current emotions and coping styles up to 19 times per day across 2 days. Results showed that trait mindfulness correlated negatively with variability, instability, and inertia of negative affect and positively with negative-to-positive affect switch. These relationships were independent of openness, habitual reappraisal, habitual suppression, depression, and self-esteem. Importantly, lower maladaptive coping was found to mediate these relationships. The study suggests that trait mindfulness independently promotes adaptive patterns of affective experiences in daily life by inhibiting maladaptive coping styles. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27064290

  20. Free riding, contribution behavior, and public goods : the case of the Virginia nongame wildlife tax checkoff

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, James Montgomery

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the free rider effect and other voluntary contribution behavior in an actual public goods funding situation. Because the traditional neoclassical economic model of consumption behavior does not adequately explain behavior with respect to voluntary contribution to the funding of public goods. A model is developed that expands upon the traditional model and which incorporates several aspects of behavior. These aspects include strategic behavior such as strong and weak f...

  1. HETEROGENEOUS SOCIAL PREFERENCES AND THE DYNAMICS OF FREE RIDING IN PUBLIC GOOD EXPERIMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    URS FISCHBACHER; SIMON GAECHTER

    2008-01-01

    We provide a direct test of the role of social preferences and beliefs in voluntary cooperation and its decline. We elicit individuals’ cooperation preference in one experiment and use them – as well as subjects’ elicited beliefs – to make predictions about contributions to a public good played repeatedly. We find substantial heterogeneity in people’s preferences. With simulation methods based on this data, we show that the decline of cooperation is driven by the fact that most people have a ...

  2. Social Preferences, Beliefs, and the Dynamics of Free Riding in Public Good Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbacher, Urs; Gächter, Simon

    2008-01-01

    We provide a test of the role of social preferences and beliefs in voluntary cooperation and its decline. We elicit individuals’ cooperation preferences in one experiment and use them – as well as subjects’ elicited beliefs – to explain contributions to a public good played repeatedly. We find substantial heterogeneity in people’s preferences. With simulation methods based on this data, we show that the decline of cooperation can be driven by the fact that most people have a preference to con...

  3. Maintaining stability of standalone Micro-Grid by employing electrical and mechanical fault ride through techniques upon fixed speed wind generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper presented two fault ride through techniques for fixed speed wind systems. • The first technique is implemented by inserting a series resistance with the terminals of wind generator. • Second technique is performed by adapting the gear ratio to spill some mechanical power. - Abstract: This study presents two different Fault Ride Through (FRT) techniques to keep and restore stability of Fixed Speed Wind Generation system (FSWGs) installed in standalone Micro-Grid (MG). The first technique is an electrical FRT and is implemented by inserting a series resistance with the terminals of FSWGs during fault to maintain reasonable value of terminal voltage and consequently help stability restoration. The second controller is a mechanical FRT controller and is performed by change the gear ratio of wind generation systems to spill part of extracted mechanical power and consequently improving stability issue. Obtained results proved that each controller able to maintain the stability of FSWGs under the most severe disturbance conditions (400 ms three phase fault at FSWGs terminals). The first controller is faster than the second controller in restoring FSWGs stability. Superior results and performances are obtained when the two FRT techniques are employed simultaneously. Without employing any one of the two FRT techniques, FSWGs is not able to maintain or restore its stability after fault clearing. Consequently, MG will lose one of its micro-sources and cannot keep its stability during the standalone mode, unless load shedding strategy is activated. The two proposed controllers are simple, effective, and economical attractive

  4. On the Complexity of Computing Optimal Private Park-and-Ride Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    folklore belief may not be fully accurate. In this work, we initiate a theoretical study of input-size hiding secure computation, and focus on the two-party case. We present definitions for this task, and deal with the subtleties that arise in the setting where there is no a priori polynomial bound on the...... parties’ input sizes. Our definitional study yields a multitude of classes of input-size hiding computation, depending on whether a single party’s input size remains hidden or both parties’ input sizes remain hidden, and depending on who receives output and if the output size is hidden from a party in the...

  5. Riding the wave: reconciling the roles of disease and climate change in amphibian declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Karen R; Diffendorfer, Jay; Mendelson, Joseph R; Sears, Michael W

    2008-03-25

    We review the evidence for the role of climate change in triggering disease outbreaks of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. Both climatic anomalies and disease-related extirpations are recent phenomena, and effects of both are especially noticeable at high elevations in tropical areas, making it difficult to determine whether they are operating separately or synergistically. We compiled reports of amphibian declines from Lower Central America and Andean South America to create maps and statistical models to test our hypothesis of spatiotemporal spread of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and to update the elevational patterns of decline in frogs belonging to the genus Atelopus. We evaluated claims of climate change influencing the spread of Bd by including error into estimates of the relationship between air temperature and last year observed. Available data support the hypothesis of multiple introductions of this invasive pathogen into South America and subsequent spread along the primary Andean cordilleras. Additional analyses found no evidence to support the hypothesis that climate change has been driving outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis, as has been posited in the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis. Future studies should increase retrospective surveys of museum specimens from throughout the Andes and should study the landscape genetics of Bd to map fine-scale patterns of geographic spread to identify transmission routes and processes. PMID:18366257

  6. Riding the wave: reconciling the roles of disease and climate change in amphibian declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R Lips

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the evidence for the role of climate change in triggering disease outbreaks of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. Both climatic anomalies and disease-related extirpations are recent phenomena, and effects of both are especially noticeable at high elevations in tropical areas, making it difficult to determine whether they are operating separately or synergistically. We compiled reports of amphibian declines from Lower Central America and Andean South America to create maps and statistical models to test our hypothesis of spatiotemporal spread of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, and to update the elevational patterns of decline in frogs belonging to the genus Atelopus. We evaluated claims of climate change influencing the spread of Bd by including error into estimates of the relationship between air temperature and last year observed. Available data support the hypothesis of multiple introductions of this invasive pathogen into South America and subsequent spread along the primary Andean cordilleras. Additional analyses found no evidence to support the hypothesis that climate change has been driving outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis, as has been posited in the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis. Future studies should increase retrospective surveys of museum specimens from throughout the Andes and should study the landscape genetics of Bd to map fine-scale patterns of geographic spread to identify transmission routes and processes.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF TRACTION AND BRAKING FORCES ON VEHICLE’S UNDER DIFFERENT RIDING CYCLES

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, A; А. Timkov

    2011-01-01

    The method calculation wich can been used to determine the distribution of traction and braking force of the vehicle in different driving cycles and use it when choosing characteristics of a hybrid vehicle deviced. The differential equation of vehicle’s motion basis of Newton’s second law lies in the basis of the given methodology.

  8. High Tech Hunks of Steel: Fixed-Site Amusement Rides and Safety Under State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kingsley

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  Tomorrow is the big day! Little Bobby Missoula is going to turn ten tomorrow and his parents have promised to take him to Outlandish Adventures, an amusement park that Bobby has seen advertised on television. As Bobby drifts off to sleep, he begins to dream about the fun that he will have on his birthday. He dreams about the smell of cotton candy and the yells of carnies soliciting people in to play their games, but most of all, he dreams about the Lightning Bolt - the tallest, fastest, and scariest roller coaster that little Bobby has ever seen. In his dream, the Lightning Bolt whips Bobby around sharp angles, through upside down loops so close to water that Bobby’s hair and face get wet, down vertical descents at speeds over 100 miles per hour, and finally to an abrupt stop where Bobby rushes to the end of the line to do it all over again.

  9. The last ride of Henry II of France: orbital injury and a king's demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Kian; Choe, Christina H; Vagefi, M Reza; Eckstein, Lauren A

    2015-01-01

    Jousting was a popular pastime for royalty in the Renaissance era. Injuries were common, and the eye was particularly at risk from the splinters of the wooden lance. On June 30, 1559, Henry II of France participated in a jousting tournament to celebrate two royal weddings. In the third match, Gabriel de Montgomery struck Henry on the right shoulder and the lance splintered, sending wooden shards into his face and right orbit. Despite being cared for by the prominent physicians Ambroise Paré and Andreas Vesalius, the king died 10 days later and was found to have a cerebral abscess. The wound was not explored immediately after the injury; nevertheless, wooden foreign bodies were discovered in the orbit at the time of autopsy. The dura had not been violated, suggesting that an infection may have traveled from the orbit into the brain. Nostradamus and Luca Guarico, the astrologer to the Medici family, had prophesied the death of Henry II of France, but he ignored their warnings and thus changed the course of history in Renaissance Europe. PMID:25890627

  10. Who rides the glass escalator? Gender, race and nationality in the national nursing assistant study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Price-Glynn; Carter Rakovski

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for Christine Williams’s ‘glass escalator’ effect documents how professional men entering female-dominated occupations may advance more quickly toward authority positions and higher salaries. However, studies of men’s benefits from occupational segregation have neglected low-wage and diverse groups of workers. Using the representative US National Nursing Assistant Study (NNAS), the article examines organizational measures of inequality and discrimination – wages, benefits a...

  11. HIV and mature dendritic cells: Trojan exosomes riding the Trojan horse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Izquierdo-Useros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are secreted cellular vesicles that can induce specific CD4(+ T cell responses in vivo when they interact with competent antigen-presenting cells like mature dendritic cells (mDCs. The Trojan exosome hypothesis proposes that retroviruses can take advantage of the cell-encoded intercellular vesicle traffic and exosome exchange pathway, moving between cells in the absence of fusion events in search of adequate target cells. Here, we discuss recent data supporting this hypothesis, which further explains how DCs can capture and internalize retroviruses like HIV-1 in the absence of fusion events, leading to the productive infection of interacting CD4(+ T cells and contributing to viral spread through a mechanism known as trans-infection. We suggest that HIV-1 can exploit an exosome antigen-dissemination pathway intrinsic to mDCs, allowing viral internalization and final trans-infection of CD4(+ T cells. In contrast to previous reports that focus on the ability of immature DCs to capture HIV in the mucosa, this review emphasizes the outstanding role that mature DCs could have promoting trans-infection in the lymph node, underscoring a new potential viral dissemination pathway.

  12. The "Ticket to Ride" Formative Assessment Ritual: Collaboration and Festivity in High School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawiter, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry taught in high schools typically has group interaction components designed to provide opportunities for groups of two or more students to collaborate. Such opportunities, however, can lead to diminished learning among some students, as domination, group dissonance, and/or non-participation among group members can derail the collaborative…

  13. Dvandvas, Blocking, and the Associative: The Bumpy Ride from Phrase to Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparsky, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The oldest form of Sanskrit has a class of expressions that are in some respects like asyndetically coordinated syntactic phrases, in other respects like single compound words. I propose to resolve the conflicting evidence by drawing on prosodic phonology, stratal optimality theory, and the lexicalist approach to morphological blocking. I then…

  14. Sport cycling crashes on public roads, the influence of bunch riding and experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. Gent, P. van & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    Cycling is a popular but unsafe mode of transport in the Netherlands and the number of seriously injured bicyclists has increased significantly since 2006. A special subgroup is the population of sport cyclists who perform their sport on public roads. The number of road crashes with sport cyclists s

  15. Effects of oral powder electrolyte administration on packed cell volume, plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating in a 6-day 162-km trail ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wade T; Callan, Robert J; Hill, Ashley E; Tisher, Kelly B

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of administering oral powder electrolytes on packed cell volume (PCV), plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating on a 6-day 162-km trail ride in which water was not offered ad libitum. Twenty-three horses received grain with powder electrolytes daily while 19 control horses received grain only. Horses were ridden approximately 32 km a day at a walk or trot. Packed cell volume and plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed daily. Episodes of colic were diagnosed and treated by a veterinarian unaware of treatment group allocation. Blood parameters and incidence of colic were compared between treatment groups. Electrolyte administration did not alter PCV or plasma chemistry parameters compared to controls. The incidence of colic was significantly higher in treated horses (P = 0.05). Oral powder electrolytes did not enhance hydration status or electrolyte homeostasis and may be associated with colic in horses participating on long distance trail rides similar to this model. PMID:25082992

  16. Heterogeneous social preference and the dynamics of free riding in public goods

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbacher, Urs; Gächter, Simon

    2006-01-01

    We provide a direct test of the role of social preferences in voluntary cooperation. We elicit individuals' cooperation preference in one experiment and make a point prediction about the contribution to a repeated public good. This allows for a novel test as to whether there are types of players who behave consistently with their elicited preferences. We find clear-cut evidence for the existence of types. People who express free rider preferences show the most systematic deviation from the pr...

  17. Free Riding and Energy Use : Empirical evidence from residential electricity demand in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Petré, Ingel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focus on the free rider problem, well known in the field of economics. It is an unwanted situation that gives rise to unnecessary deadweight costs. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the free rider problem that occur when rent include housing utilities and especially when electricity is billed collectively. A Difference-in-Differences design has been applied on two different sets of panel data covering tenants electricity consumption. The results show that tenants use 21.3 perce...

  18. Heterogeneous social preferences and the dynamics of free riding in public goods

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbacher, Urs; Gächter, Simon

    2005-01-01

    "We provide a direct test of the role of social preferences in voluntary cooperation. We elicit individuals’ cooperation preference in one experiment and make a point prediction about the contribution to a repeated public good. This allows for a novel test as to whether there are ""types"" of players who behave consistently with their elicited preferences. We find clear-cut evidence for the existence of ""types"". People who express free rider preferences show the most systematic deviation fr...

  19. Solid state transformer with low-voltage ride-through and current unbalance management capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Alepuz Menéndez, Salvador; González, Francisco; Martín-Arnedo, Jacinto; Martínez Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The solid state transformer is an emerging technology which aims at replacing the conventional lowfrequency power transformer by means of a high-frequency transformer driven by a proper AC/AC power electronics conversion system, at both transformer sides. In comparison with the conventional power transformer, the solid state transformer provides extended and enhanced operating capabilities that can be achieved with an appropriate controller design for the power electronics converters. I...

  20. HIV and mature dendritic cells : Trojan exosomes riding the Trojan horse?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria Izquierdo-Useros; Mar Naranjo-Gómez; Itziar Erkizia; Maria Carmen Puertas; Francesc E Borràs; Julià Blanco; Javier Martinez-Picado

    2010-01-01

    Exosomes are secreted cellular vesicles that can induce specific CD4(+) T cell responses in vivo when they interact with competent antigen-presenting cells like mature dendritic cells (mDCs). The Trojan exosome hypothesis proposes that retroviruses can take advantage of the cell-encoded intercellular vesicle traffic and exosome exchange pathway, moving between cells in the absence of fusion events in search of adequate target cells. Here, we discuss recent data supporting this hypothesis, whi...

  1. Riding High - Success in Sports and the Rise of Doping Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Strulik, Holger

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a socio-economic model that analyzes the doping decision of professional athletes. In their decision to use performance enhancing drugs athletes do not only evaluate the costs and benefits (in terms of potential rank improvement). They also take into account peer-group approval of using drugs. Peer-group approval is modelled as a lagged endogenous variable that depends on the share of drug using athletes in the history of a sport. This way, the model can explain multiple...

  2. Air cooling effect of fins on a Honda shine bike

    OpenAIRE

    Padhiyar Abhesinh J; Vasim G Machhar

    2015-01-01

    The main of aim of this work is to study various researches done in past to improve heat transfer rate of cooling fins by changing cylinder block fin geometry. Low rate of heat transfer through cooling fins is the main problem in this type of cooling. So efficiency of the engine is increase by increase the heat transfer. Examples of direct air cooling in modern automobiles are rare. The most common example is the commercials Automobile bike like a Honda Shine, Bajaj bike, Honda sp...

  3. Neurologic complication after a roller coaster ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa Leitao, Davi; Mendonca, Dercio; Iyer, Harish; Kao, Cheng-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Neurologic complications after roller coaster rides are uncommon but potentially catastrophic. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion and prompt appropriate investigation. A 22-year-old healthy African American man presented with a 2-day history of constant occipital headache associated with vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and ambulatory dysfunction. Physical examination showed gait ataxia, slight dysmetria, and vertical nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed early subacute ischemic infarct in the right cerebellum in the distribution of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Magnetic resonance angiography of the neck showed focal dissection of the right vertebral artery at C1 through C2 level. On subsequent questioning, the patient recollected riding a roller coaster 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms. Anticoagulation with heparin was started, and the patient was bridged to oral warfarin. After a 5-day uneventful hospital course, symptoms improved and patient was discharged on oral anticoagulation. Cervicocephalic arterial dissections after roller coaster rides are rarely described in literature. The acceleration and abrupt changes of direction might lead to indirect trauma that is applied to mobile portions of the cervicocephalic arteries leading to intimal tears. Magnetic resonance angiography combined with axial T1-weighted cervical MRI is preferred because it is a high-sensitive, noninvasive test. The rationale for the use of anticoagulants or antiplatelets in patients with cervicocephalic arterial dissection is to prevent early recurrence and infarction. However, a meta-analysis failed to show significant difference in the rates of disability or death between both groups. Therefore, the decision for medical treatment should be made in a case-by-case basis. PMID:20980120

  4. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  5. Riding the Yield Curve: A Spanning Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galvani, Valentina; Landon, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The average return on long-term bonds exceeds the return on short-term bills by a large amount over short investment horizons. A riding-the-yield-curve investment strategy takes advantage of the higher returns on longer term bonds. This strategy involves the purchase of bonds with maturities longer than the investment horizon and the sale of these bonds, before they mature, at the end of the investment horizon. Most of the literature that evaluates this strategy compares only ex post average ...

  6. Autonomous Bicycle: The First Self Balanced Ride

    OpenAIRE

    Ånnestad, Dag Christian

    2011-01-01

    The idea of an autonomous bicycle originates from Jens G. Balchen who wanted to make an unmanned autonomous bicycle. The idea was picked up by Amund Skavhaug who extended the idea with the concept of using an inverted pendulum to simulate a leaning rider. The previous attempts to develop a bicycle capable of performing an autonomous ride has so far all ended in failure. The main reason for the Department of Engineering Cybernetics is to develop such a bicycle is for use in recruitment and mot...

  7. A review of ride comfort studies in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    United Kingdom research which is relevant to the assessment of vehicle ride comfort was reviewed. The findings reported in approximately 80 research papers are outlined, and an index to the areas of application of these studies is provided. The data obtained by different research groups are compared, and it is concluded that, while there are some areas of general agreement, the findings obtained from previous United Kingdom research are insufficient to define a general purpose ride comfort evaluation procedure. The degree to which United Kingdom research supports the vibration evaluation procedure defined in the current International Standard on the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration is discussed.

  8. The Medical Staff Ride: an education tool for military medical leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Martin C M

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a description of the Medical Staff Ride as an educational tool for military medical leadership. It is based upon two Medical Staff Rides covering the Somme Campaign 1916 and the Normandy Campaign 1944. It describes the key educational activity 'The Stand' at which history and current issues are brought together through study of a particular location on the historical battlefield. The Medical Staff Ride can be divided into six distinct phases, each of which have common question sets for analysis by attendees. The Medical Staff Ride can be shown to have valuable educational outcomes that are efficient in time and cost, and effective in achieving personal learning. The supporting Readers for the two Medical Staff Rides covered by this paper are available as electronic supplement to this edition of the journal. PMID:26115999

  9. Loss and thermal redistributed modulation methods for three-level neutral-point-clamped wind power inverter undergoing Low Voltage Ride Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    investigates the loss and thermal performances of a 10 MW 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) operation. A series of new space vector modulation methods are then proposed to relocate the thermal loading among the power switching devices. It is concluded that, with the proposed......The three-level neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) converter is a promising multilevel topology in the application of mega-watts wind power generation system. However, the growing requirements by grid codes may impose high stress and even give reliability problem to this converter topology. This paper...... modulation methods, the thermal distribution in the 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing LVRT becomes more equal, and the junction temperature of the most stressed devices can be also relieved. Also the control ability of DC-bus neutral point potential, which is one of the crucial considerations for the 3L...

  10. Modulation Methods for Neutral-Point-Clamped Wind Power Converter Achieving Loss and Thermal Redistribution Under Low-Voltage Ride-Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    paper investigates the loss and thermal performances of a 10-MW 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) operation. A series of new space vector modulation methods is then proposed to relocate the thermal loading among the power switching devices. It is concluded that, with......The three-level neutral-point (NP)-clamped (3L-NPC) converter is a promising multilevel topology in the application of megawatt wind power generation systems. However, the growing requirements by grid codes may impose high stress and even give reliability problem to this converter topology. This...... the proposed modulation methods, the thermal distribution in the 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing LVRT becomes more equal, and the junction temperature of the most stressed devices can be also relieved. Also, the control ability of the dc-bus NP potential, which is one of the crucial...

  11. Dial a Ride from k-forest

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Anupam; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R

    2007-01-01

    The k-forest problem is a common generalization of both the k-MST and the dense-$k$-subgraph problems. Formally, given a metric space on $n$ vertices $V$, with $m$ demand pairs $\\subseteq V \\times V$ and a ``target'' $k\\le m$, the goal is to find a minimum cost subgraph that connects at least $k$ demand pairs. In this paper, we give an $O(\\min\\{\\sqrt{n},\\sqrt{k}\\})$-approximation algorithm for $k$-forest, improving on the previous best ratio of $O(n^{2/3}\\log n)$ by Segev & Segev. We then apply our algorithm for k-forest to obtain approximation algorithms for several Dial-a-Ride problems. The basic Dial-a-Ride problem is the following: given an $n$ point metric space with $m$ objects each with its own source and destination, and a vehicle capable of carrying at most $k$ objects at any time, find the minimum length tour that uses this vehicle to move each object from its source to destination. We prove that an $\\alpha$-approximation algorithm for the $k$-forest problem implies an $O(\\alpha\\cdot\\log^2n)$-ap...

  12. RIDE: the Research Infrastructure Database for EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, Daniele; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Jeffery, Keith G.; Clemenceau, Alice; Hoffmann, Thomas L.

    2013-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is a European initiative which aims to promote and make possible innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes laying behind natural events and geo-science phenomena (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes and tsunamis etc.) by integrating existing national and trans-national Research Infrastructures (RIs). Such integration will increase access and use of the multidisciplinary data recorded by solid Earth monitoring networks, acquired in laboratory experiments and/or produced by computational simulations. Here we present the Research Infrastructures Database for EPOS (RIDE), a database containing technical information about the different RIs declared by EPOS partners and EPOS associate partners, which will eventually compose the EPOS distributed Research Infrastructure. The main goals of RIDE are (i) to allow the EPOS RI to be organized, with interactive access and information mining available to a broad community of users and stakeholders, (ii) to have a first set of information to be stored in the EPOS catalogue, which will be used as a basis for the development of EPOS Core Services, (iii) to enable EPOS partners to revise and update the current RI information, (iv) to show the contents of the EPOS integration plan to all stakeholders, (v) to facilitate the dissemination of existing data infrastructures to different communities and to promote a discussion within the community to implement the present data infrastructures. RIDE - whose driving technology is Apache CouchDB - contains at the current status detailed information on more than 200 Research Infrastructures. It enables any user to visualize RIs and sensors on a map, to carry out statistics on the stored data and to browse through the details of any RI. Based on the content of RIDE it is now possible to estimate the potential size of the new EPOS distributed RI: EPOS is going to integrate more than 7000 sensors (seismic

  13. Exploring Circumstances Involving Voluntary Invitation and Involuntary Invitation in Bona Fide Free Ride%善意同乘中主被动情形的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洋

    2015-01-01

    善意同乘作为好意施惠行为,在间接侵权责任的法律关系中,其应当以过错责任为标准衡量机动车驾驶者的责任,但是除此之外,法律和理论并未论述到善意同乘建立时的不同:是驾车者主动要求搭载第三人;还是驾车者受第三人所邀,被动搭载第三人。不论是从法理上还是社会情理上,这两种情形在法律关系建立时所起的效果明显完全不同,因此本文尝试论述这两种情形的差异以及事后相关侵权责任的划分,以完善整个交通事故侵权责任理论。%As a beneficent act of bestowing favor , bona fide free ride , if resulting in legal actions , should be trea-ted with the principle of fault liability .However , the existing legal documents and theoretical stipulations have yet fallen short of mentioning the differences between voluntary invitation and involuntary invitation in dealing with bona fide free ride disputes .The two situations might result in distinct legal outcomes either from legal or social-moral perspectives .Therefore , this paper attempts a distinction between these two circumstances and their resultant liabil-ities with a view to perfecting the tort liability theory in cases involving traffic accidents .

  14. Riding the cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of the Canadian oil and natural gas industry is reviewed as part of a discussion of economic cycles focusing in particular on the most recent cycle and the impact it has had on the industry. The review of the state of the industry includes discussion of production, exports, commodity prices, the stimulating effect of price increases on the number of oil and natural gas wells drilled, drilling rig operating days. Also discussed are the effect of foreign exchange rates, capital spending, industry financial performance in terms of return on capital employed, the impact of oil and gas prices on Alberta provincial revenues, estimates of Canada's ultimate crude oil and natural gas resources potential, pipelines and pipeline proposals for northern gas, and projection of crude oil and natural gas production in Canada to 2010

  15. Renewable Energy Riding High

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is putting greater emphasis on green energy as it tries to clean up industry and meet target for cuts in carbon emissions over the past two years, China has already leapfrogged competitors from Denmark, Germany, Spain and the United States to become the world's largest maker of wind turbines and solar panels. At the same time, the country is also taking steps to build more nuclear reactors and energy-efficient coal power plants.

  16. Magic Carpet Ride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2007-01-01

    Last month cabin fever overwhelmed me. I desperately needed a break: from my polite but wily students, from my unsatisfactory yet demanding lover, and from my overpopulated and mundane Chinese city. But going abroad took too much time, money and planning

  17. Riding the Rails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRANDON TAYLOR

    2010-01-01

    My seat was in the full, upright position as one of the atten-dants came by. I showed her my ticket, to which she smiled and said, "Enjoy your trip." The seat was spacious and comfortable. I'd paid extra for business class. And I had a window seat.

  18. Riding the MOOC Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have the potential to revolutionize teaching and learning at universities. It is even conceivable that MOOCs can endanger the basic business model of higher education, because they have the potential to erase traditional brick-and-mortar advantages. I will discuss our experiences with 15 years of offering online physics courses at Michigan State University, and lessons learned in doing so.

  19. Pimp My Ride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EVELINE CHAO

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cars 'n' guns. For as long as he can remember, Jason Wang has been obsessed with both. And as a co-partner in ACE Auto, a garage near Beijing's South Fourth Ring Road that repairs and soups up luxury cars, Wang now gets to be around at least one of his obsessions full-time.

  20. Riding the rails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Lynda

    2011-09-15

    Railway was the principal means of transporting crude oil until the apparition of pipelines in the late 1800s; it is now mainly used as an alternative where there is no pipeline. However the use of rail by Canadian companies has been rising recently with about 5,000 barrels shipped every day by rail from western Canada and the aim of this article is to explain the reasons for this phenomenon. The use of rail transportation has several advantages over pipelines. First, it can reach markets that pipelines do not access, such as the United States Gulf coast, and thus permit prices there to be adapted. Rail is also a quicker and cheaper transportation means than pipelines and it does not require important investments or dilution of bitumen before shipping. Rail transportation for oil presents several advantages over pipeline transportation and Canadian companies are starting to use it as an alternative.

  1. Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    2003-01-01

    developed software by use of MapX, which is a program developed and sold by MapInfo Corporation. MapX handles the visualization of the map layers, selections, and labels. The road network is read from MapX into a different network structure in memory to allow for a more intelligent calculation of shortest...... and linked with a digitized road network. The user interface is developed as generically as possible making it reuseable in all sorts of Vehicle Routing problems. The foundation of the user interface is a database for storing customers, requests, routes etc. The digitized road map is included in the...

  2. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A.

    1998-04-01

    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  3. RIDING IN STYLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing is upgrading its bus fleet to make commuting more comfortable and environmentally friendly As part of the Beijing Municipal Government's efforts to promote public transportation, the city is upgrading its fleet of buses to provide the latest in comfort and to meet more stringent pollution emission standards. People may remember a line from the American sitcom Friends describing Beijing buses in 1996 as "easily 200 years old...200 at least." If the cast of the television show paid a visit to China...

  4. Riding on irrelevant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the stability of a class of derivative theories known as P(X) and Galileons against corrections generated by quantum effects. We use an exact renormalisation group approach to argue that these theories are stable under quantum corrections at all loops in regions where the kinetic term is large compared to the strong coupling scale. This is the regime of interest for screening or Vainshtein mechanisms, and in inflationary models that rely on large kinetic terms. Next, we clarify the role played by the symmetries. While symmetries protect the form of the quantum corrections, theories equipped with more symmetries do not necessarily have a broader range of scales for which they are valid. We show this by deriving explicitly the regime of validity of the classical solutions for P(X) theories including Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) models, both in generic and for specific background field configurations. Indeed, we find that despite the existence of an additional symmetry, the DBI effective field theory has a regime of validity similar to an arbitrary P(X) theory. We explore the implications of our results for both early and late universe contexts. Conversely, when applied to static and spherical screening mechanisms, we deduce that the regime of validity of typical power-law P(X) theories is much larger than that of DBI

  5. Riding a tiger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy, which has become somewhat shady by now, seems to be the evil demon of this age to many people. Therfore the author is striving for comprehensive information on nuclear energy, its technical aspects, its safety risks and its social accompaniments. With the help of this comprehensible and well-grounded basic knowledge on this complex of problems the reader might be able to make up his own mind. Nuclear energy remains a challenge to mankind by which it may fail but does not necessarily have to fail if it is aware of the social requirements of the Atomic age. (GL)

  6. Riding the Internet Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brendan; McGauley

    2007-01-01

    The days before Internet (BI) seem very distant now like another time in history. At that time, I avoided computers and never thought I would use them. My passion was selling musical gear. Not a very scholarly pursuit, I know, but it kept me out of trouble.

  7. About the Little Red Riding Hood, Durex and anger: production, meaning and reception of one fairy tale and one commercial ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By applying the semiological analysis, this paper considers planned and unplanned readings of a provocative domestic commercial, which, in order to convey its message, transposed the Little Red Riding Hood’s character in accordance with the advertised product – Durex condoms. This commercial caused furious reactions of parents who took legal action for breaching the Law on public advertising and, especially, "harming children’s sensibility and integrity". Provocative billboards also caused numerous comments in the daily newspapers, in the Internet chat rooms, with some considering the commercial vulgar and offensive and others having no problem with it, adding that the ones who took offence belonged to those puritan and conservative layers of the society. In order to discover the reasons to this kind of reactions, I started with researching how the commercial was made and what kind of message it offered. Next, I reconsidered the meaning of the very fairy tale "The Red Riding Hood". Its original version, which contains open sexual allusions, is quite different to the changed versions offered by Charles Perrault and the Grimm brothers. Their versions can be seen as fakelore, since they outrageously intervened on the plot and the meaning of the original fairy tale. However, since the Grimm brothers’ version is the most popular, it is a fact that our public reacted with such anger led by the meaning of their version, which accentuates overeating and cannibalism, and not sexual development of girls, which is the basic message of the original version. This is where the "communicational noise" that led to those negative reactions came from. By discovering the true meaning of the tale, the answer is given to the question whether the advertising agency made a slip up, or it had actually found the right way to communicate the hidden message of the tale, and at the same time ruin the advertising campaign for which it was used. In the end, range and

  8. 78 FR 40632 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Trent River, New Bern, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... consecutive days to accommodate the annual Bike Multiple Sclerosis: Historic New Bern Bike Ride. DATES: This... out in 33 CFR 117.843(a) to accommodate a safe passage for cyclists during the Bike Multiple Sclerosis..., 2013 and from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. on Sunday, September 8, 2013 to accommodate the Bike Multiple...

  9. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ghekiere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10-12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. METHODS: Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi- urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (indirectly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. CONCLUSION: Road safety is of major concern in this 10-12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport.

  10. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  11. Accreditation's Alchemy Hour: Riding the Wave of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    This article was adapted from Paul L. Gaston's address to the 2014 annual meeting of the "Association of American Colleges and Universities." The panel session talk "Accreditation: Riding the Wave of Innovation--or Going Under?" addressed issues surrounding the many proposals for demolishing and rebuilding higher education…

  12. Hardness of Preemptive Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2006-01-01

    In the Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride problem the input is a metric space, a set of objects, each specifying a source and a destination, and an integer k---the capacity of the vehicle used for making the deliveries. The goal is to compute a shortest tour for the vehicle in which all objects can be...

  13. Biking in the Land of the Car:clashes of mobility cultures in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is theoretical in its attempt to articulate and theorize the notion of ‘mobility culture'. It is empirical in its choice of cases illustrating the notion of mobility culture. The paper explores three cases in the USA; The East Coast Greenway bicycle corridor and the contemporary tensions and conflicts over bikes on Manhattan, NYC. The latter case is particularly scoped in relation to the ‘critical mass' event and the NGO ‘Transportation Alternatives'. Based upon the theoretical fra...

  14. Physiological responses to pedaling on a water stationary bike at different immersion heights

    OpenAIRE

    Benelli, P; Giacomini, F; Colasanti, F; Cuesta Vargas, Antonio; Ditroilo, M; Gervasi, M.; Lucertini, F

    2013-01-01

    Only a few studies[1-4] have investigated oxygen consumption (V’O2) and heart rate (HR) responses to pedaling on a stationary bike in water (WSB), while literature is still lacking on the effects elicited by variations in immersion depth. 14 subjects (8 M, 6 F, age 30±6y, weight 67±14kg, BMI 22.8±2.3kg/m2, fat mass 21,4±3%) performed 2 testing sessions and 2 exercise sessions: i) dry-land incremental exercise test (cycle-ergometer) to age-predicted maximum HR (HR); ii) underwater (hip-height)...

  15. Motivating Elderly To Exercise – Recreational Virtual Environment for Indoor Biking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Serafin, Stefania; Kofoed, Lise

    2016-01-01

    For most nursing home residents, regular physical exercise is a necessity to keep standard motor-function and strength. Meanwhile, many nursing home residents do not pursue this actively. This paper examines if augmenting a conventional chair-based bike exercise, with a suite of four recreational...... virtual environments, will increase the intrinsic motivation with a group of nursing home residents. After 4- months of availability, results suggest that the augmentation has increased the intrinsic motivation to exercise, by comparing results from before and after, using measurement scales from the...

  16. Corneal Opacity in a Participant of a 161-km Mountain Bike Race at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Torres, David R

    2016-06-01

    Visual dysfunction is a relatively uncommon complaint among athletes during ultraendurance races. The pathophysiology of most of these cases is unknown. Corneal opacity has been speculated as the etiology for most of reported cases. We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old man with a partial unilateral corneal opacity and edema at kilometer 150 of a 161-km mountain bike race in high altitude. He was not able to finish the race (12-hour cutoff) because of his visual symptoms. He completely recovered in 3 days with no sequelae. PMID:27095539

  17. Why Exercise Is Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... roller hockey, jogging (or walking quickly), inline skating, soccer, cross-country skiing, biking, or rowing. And don' ... push-ups pull-ups tug-of-war rowing running inline skating bike riding continue Exercise Makes You ...

  18. Use of Photovoltaic on an E-bike? : A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schnabel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the number of bicycles with e-motors has been increased steadily. Within the pedelec – bikes where an e-motor supports the pedaling – a special group of transportation bikes has developed. These bikes have storage boxes in addition to the basic parts of a bike. Due to the space available on top of those boxes it is possible to install a PV system to generate electricity which could be used to recharge the battery of the pedelec. Such a system would lead to grid independent cha...

  19. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries. PMID:25923496

  20. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from national horse racetracks and private horse-riding courses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon Soo; Song, Jae Won; Kim, Dae Ho; Shin, Sook; Park, Young Kyung; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Suk Kyung; Park, Kun Taek; Park, Yong Ho

    2016-06-30

    Limited information is available regarding horse-associated antimicrobial resistant (AR) Escherichia (E.) coli. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and characterize the pattern of AR E. coli from healthy horse-associated samples. A total of 143 E. coli (4.6%) were isolated from 3,078 samples collected from three national racetracks and 14 private horse-riding courses in Korea. Thirty of the E. coli isolates (21%) showed antimicrobial resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, and four of the AR E. coli (13.3%) were defined as multi-drug resistance. Most of the AR E. coli harbored AR genes corresponding to their antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Four of the AR E. coli carried class 1 integrase gene (intI1), a gene associated with multi-drug resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis showed no genetic relatedness among AR E. coli isolated from different facilities; however, cross-transmissions between horses or horses and environments were detected in two facilities. Although cross-transmission of AR E. coli in horses and their environments was generally low, our study suggests a risk of transmission of AR bacteria between horses and humans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the risk of possible transmission of horse-associated AR bacteria to human communities through horse riders and horse-care workers. PMID:26645344

  1. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from national horse racetracks and private horse-riding courses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon Soo; Song, Jae Won; Kim, Dae Ho; Shin, Sook; Park, Young Kyung; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Suk Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding horse-associated antimicrobial resistant (AR) Escherichia (E.) coli. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and characterize the pattern of AR E. coli from healthy horse-associated samples. A total of 143 E. coli (4.6%) were isolated from 3,078 samples collected from three national racetracks and 14 private horse-riding courses in Korea. Thirty of the E. coli isolates (21%) showed antimicrobial resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, and four of the AR E. coli (13.3%) were defined as multi-drug resistance. Most of the AR E. coli harbored AR genes corresponding to their antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Four of the AR E. coli carried class 1 integrase gene (intI1), a gene associated with multi-drug resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis showed no genetic relatedness among AR E. coli isolated from different facilities; however, cross-transmissions between horses or horses and environments were detected in two facilities. Although cross-transmission of AR E. coli in horses and their environments was generally low, our study suggests a risk of transmission of AR bacteria between horses and humans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the risk of possible transmission of horse-associated AR bacteria to human communities through horse riders and horse-care workers. PMID:26645344

  2. Performance and combustion characteristics of a typical motor bike engine operated on blends of CNG and hydrogen using electronically controlled solenoid actuated injection system

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, S S; M. K. G. Babu; Das, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an electronically controlled gas injection system for hydrogen supplemented single cylinder Enfield engine. In view of its typical combustion characteristics, the fuel induction technique plays a very dominant and sensitive role in the performance as well as the combustion characteristics of hydrogen supplemented CNG engine. The designed system should have adequate flexibility to provide the appropriate mixture into the engine at the appropriate point i...

  3. The effects of riding therapy from client’s point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Koivuniemi, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to find out what kind of effects riding therapy clients experience and how those effect on their everyday lives. This thesis also aims to ex-plain the concept of riding therapy and its benefits from the physiotherapy point of view. Its implementation and requirements are also explained. This study’s main aim was to figure the clients’ point of view about the effects of riding therapy, and to gain knowledge of how they experience them, via a question-naire. ...

  4. Tracking of a dynamic graph using a signal theory approach : application to the study of a bike sharing system

    OpenAIRE

    Hamon, Ronan; Borgnat, Pierre; Flandrin, Patrick; Robardet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic graphs are useful objects to describe a network which evolves over time. We propose a signal theory approach to analyze them which consists of transforming the graph at each time step into a collection of signals and analyze these signals using spectral decomposition. An inverse transformation is also proposed and makes it possible to reduce the dimension of the graph and select the most significant edges. The method is applied on a real dynamic graph based on data about the bike shar...

  5. Control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator to Ride-Through Recurring Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wenjie; Xu, Dehong; Zhu, Nan; Chen, Min; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    The wind turbine system (WTS) is required to ride-through recurring grid faults by the new grid codes. Under single grid faults, the fault ride-through (FRT) strategy with rotor-side crowbar is normally used for the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) WTS. However, under recurring faults, larger...... transient current and voltage may be produced, and the DFIG may fail to ride-through the second fault even with the rotor-side crowbar. The crowbar can be active again during the voltage recovery, but large electromagnetic torque (EM-torque) fluctuations will be introduced. The reliability of the mechanical...

  6. Bike-Sharing: Is Safety an Issue Adversely Affecting its Potential for Being Embraced by Urban Societies?

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitas, Alexandros; Michalakopoulos, Nikitas; Wallgren, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    Using bicycles on an ‘as-needed’ basis, usually for a small rental fee and without the externalities and obligations linked to bicycle ownership, is what makes public bicycles a societally affordable medium to enhance the transition to a more sustainable urban transport paradigm. However, despite its distinctive character in terms of its potential to be a mechanism transforming in some degree urban mobility to a shared responsibility regime, bike-sharing still faces some of the same safety co...

  7. The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike World Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbiss, Chris R; Ross, Megan L R; Garvican, Laura A; Ross, Neil; Pottgiesser, Torben; Gregory, John; Martin, David T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of pace self-selected by cyclists of varying ability, biological age and sex performing in a mountain bike World Championship event. Data were collected on cyclists performing in the Elite Male (ELITEmale; n = 75), Elite Female (ELITEfemale; n = 50), Under 23 Male (U23male; n = 62), Under 23 Female (U23female; n = 34), Junior Male (JNRmale; n = 71) and Junior Female (JNRfemale; n = 30) categories of the 2009 UCI Cross-Country Mountain Bike World Championships. Split times were recorded for the top, middle and bottom 20% of all finishers of each category. Timing splits were positioned to separate the course into technical and non-technical, uphill, downhill and rolling/flat sections. Compared with bottom performers, top performers in all male categories (ELITEmale, U23male, JNRmale) maintained a more even pace over the event as evidenced by a significantly lower standard deviation and range in average lap speed. Top performers, males, and ELITEmale athletes spent a lower percentage of overall race time on technical uphill sections of the course, compared with middle and bottom placed finishers, females, and JNRmale athletes, respectively. Better male performers adopt a more even distribution of pace throughout cross-country mountain events. Performance of lower placed finishers, females and JNRmale athletes may be improved by enhancing technical uphill cycling ability. PMID:23521618

  8. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study uUsing bike-along interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10-12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. Methods: Purposeful convenience sampling...

  9. Augmented exercise biking with virtual environments for elderly users:A preliminary study for retirement home physical therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Pedersen, Kasper Søndergaard; Serafin, Stefania; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to function well as an assistive technology to physical therapy for elderly users. Elderly users are a unique user group in this field, due to their characteristics and demands. They are also a user group that can definitely benefit from VR technology, which is unfortunately a perspective that seems elude the VR community. This study explores how augmenting a manuped exercise (chair-based exercise bike), using an interactive screen-based virtual environment...

  10. Travel demand management in the context of promoting bike trips, an overview of solutions implemented in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna NOSAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Car traffic in cities causes a decrease in travel speed, irregularity of public transport operation and, as a consequence for travellers, significant time losses. Because of congestion the accessibility to the destination points, especially those that are located in the city centre, is threatened. Other difficulties concern: road safety, increasing air pollution, traffic noise and global warming. Construction of new roads and transport facilities requires large financial resources and covers large areas. City authorities implement many solutions to reduce these negative effects of car transport, including strategies which aim towards change in travel patterns. Inhabitants are encouraged to travel by more sustainable transport modes, including bikes. The concept is called travel demand management and in Poland is still a new approach to the passenger transport. This paper presents examples of instruments that are most commonly used abroad to encourage bike travels and an overview of the activities carried out to promote bike usage in Cracow. The paper also identifies Best Practices implemented in the area of Cracow and significant deficiencies in the basic issues and actions necessary to be undertaken in the future.

  11. Biking, Buying and Belonging: An Exploration of how an Irish Subculture of Consumption’s Socialisation Process Equips its Members to Critically Filter Marketing Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Sherlock, Roger; Weller, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies how members of an Irish biker subculture of consumption critically decode marketing messages, brands and products using a subcultural filter (peculiar to the subculture) learnt through localised socialisation. This critical filter develops through prolonged subcultural immersion and is influenced by the word-ofmouth purchase advice and product judgement of other members of the subculture of consumption; with a parallel between its development and use, and the development...

  12. Paris to Beijing by bike: they made it!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The challenge, a 12,623 km cycle trip to Beijing for the inauguration of the Olympic Games, was no easy ride, but they made it there on time. "I can do nothing for those who do not ask themselves questions" (Confucius -551-479 BC) CERN’s Raymond Cambarrat and Peter Dreesen arrived in the Chinese capital on 3 August after an incredible human and sporting adventure that began in Paris on 16 March (see Bulletin No. 20 & 21, 8 May 2008). The two cyclists, who set off on their journey with 102 other enthusiasts, rode for a total of 120 days with only ten days’ rest along the way. The greatest distance they covered in a single day was a 192 km leg in Russia, one of 12 countries their expedition took them through. From the arid steppes of Kirghizstan through the fog of Mount Hua to the snowy wind-swept pass of Kampa, the group covered roads of varying quality, some of them untarmacked, notchi...

  13. Trails, Bike, Local Bike Route in Tift County, GA, Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'Local...

  14. Motorcycle riding under the influence of alcohol: results from the SARTRE-4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George; Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami

    2014-09-01

    Riding a motorcycle under the influence of alcohol is a dangerous activity, especially considering the high vulnerability of motorcyclists. The present research investigates the factors that affect the declared frequency of drink-riding among motorcyclists in Europe and explores regional differences. Data were collected from the SARTRE-4 (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) survey, which was conducted in 19 countries. A total sample of 4483 motorcyclists was interviewed by using a face-to-face questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of multilevel ordered logit models. The results revealed significant regional differences (between Northern, Eastern and Southern European countries) in drink-riding frequencies in Europe. In general, declared drinking and riding were positively associated with gender (males), increased exposure, underestimation of risk, friends' behaviour, past accidents and alcohol ticket experience. On the other hand, it was negatively associated with underestimation of the amount of alcohol allowed before driving, and support for more severe penalties. PMID:24713220

  15. Ride Control Systems - Reduced Motions on the Cost of Increased Sectional Forces ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folsø, R.; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Torti, F.

    Implementation of passive and active ride control systems into both linear frequency and non-linear time domain strip theories is described. The ride control systems considered can consist of T-foils, fins or a combination of these. These appendages are taken into account by considering the lift...... adding the lift forces to the exciting forces in the equations of motion. One of the advantages in the time domain is that the angle of attack can be limited easily, as is often the case in real full scale ride control systems. This way cavitation and finally stalling can be avoided. In the frequency...... domain limits on the angle of attack cannot be set. Since the lift coefficient is treated linearly the calculated lift force is severely overestimated in rough sea. Secondly the effect of including ride control systems in the calculations is demonstrated through comparisons of RMS values and of response...

  16. The Choice of Park & Ride Facilities: An Analysis Using a Context-Dependent Hierarchical Choice Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, D.M.; R E C M van der Heijden; Molin, E.J.E.; H.J.P. Timmermans

    2004-01-01

    Park and Ride facilities have been proposed in several countries to alleviate the accessibility problems in cities. Despite growing accessibility problems, these facilities do not seem to attract the expected number of car drivers and are under-used. In an attempt to measure consumer evaluations of the attributes of Park and Ride facilities, a stated choice experiment, based on the method of hierarchical information integration, was conducted in the city of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. This pap...

  17. Outcomes of Home-Support Consultation on the Maintenance of Bicycle-Riding Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Pitchford, E. Andrew; Hauck, Janet L.; Ketcheson, Leah R.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle riding is a functional motor skill that increases physical activity opportunities, social interaction, and independence. However, bicycle riding is difficult for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to learn. This study examined the effectiveness of home-support consultation (HSC) on increasing the maintenance of independent bicycle…

  18. Ride control of surface effect ships using distributed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgeir J. Sørensen

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A ride control system for active damping of heave and pitch accelerations of Surface Effect Ships (SES is presented. It is demonstrated that distributed effects that are due to a spatially varying pressure in the air cushion result in significant vertical vibrations in low and moderate sea states. In order to achieve a high quality human comfort and crew workability it is necessary to reduce these vibrations using a control system which accounts for distributed effects due to spatial pressure variations in the air cushion. A mathematical model of the process is presented, and collocated sensor and actuator pairs are used. The process stability is ensured using a controller with appropriate passivity properties. Sensor and actuator location is also discussed. The performance of the ride control system is shown by power spectra of the vertical accelerations obtained from full scale experiments with a 35 m SES.

  19. Coordination of Advertising Free Riding in Hybrid Channel Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Jin; Wang, Aihu; Lv, Ting; Wu, Wenling

    2016-01-01

    Advertising is a crucial tool for demand creation and market expansion; enterprises in supply chain use it widely to increase sales and improve profits. But the homogeneity of products sold in hybrid channel supply chain magnifies the positive externalities of advertising and leads to serious free-riding problem. To coordinate the supply chain effectively, firstly, this paper classifies hybrid channel supply chain based on the relationship between members and selects horizontally integrated, ...

  20. The Woodcutter, a Review of Little Red Riding Hood

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Rosângela Fachel de

    2011-01-01

    This paper, in the tradition of comparative interdisciplinary studies, analyses the film The Woodsman as a re-reading and recreating of the fairy tale Little Red Riding Hood, analyzing the inter-textual dialogue that establishes with the two most famous versions of the children's story, by Charles Perrault and by the Grimm Brothers. The investigation of these crossovers focus on the issue of pedophilia that is openly treated in the movie and symbolically in the tales. With this purpose it is ...

  1. Does MFN Free Riding Plague the Information Technology Agreement?

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Information Technology Agreement (ITA), enacted in 1997 as one of a few World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements realized after the Uruguay Round, lifted tariffs on a broad range of IT products such as telecommunication equipment and computers. As part of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/WTO system, the ITA is built on the most-favored nation (MFN) principle. However, since participation is not mandatory, any WTO member country can potentially free ride on the agreement....

  2. The effect of alcohol hangover on the ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Mindiashvili, Nona; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on the ability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests were carried out at different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). For this purpose, various alcoholic beverages could be consumed from around 2 p.m. until 11 p.m. Afterwards, the test persons spent the night on the trial site and were provided with dormitory sleeping accommodation. On the following morning, beginning at around 8 a.m., a final cycling test was performed. The performances of those test persons who had returned to state of soberness and of those with residual blood alcohol levels were compared to the performances on the day before. The practical ability to ride a bicycle was significantly reduced in the postalcoholic state compared to the rides of the day before. The relative cycling performance in the postalcoholic state was comparable to the rides under the influence of BAC of around 0.30 g/kg. There were no remarkable differences between the groups with and without residual blood alcohol levels regarding the rides on the next morning. Therefore, it can be assumed that the direct influence of residual blood alcohol levels plays a minor role for the ability to ride a bicycle in the postalcoholic state. Instead, the side effects of the high amounts of alcohol that were consumed the night before are crucial. PMID:25940454

  3. Fault ride-through enhancement using an enhanced field oriented control technique for converters of grid connected DFIG and STATCOM for different types of faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, D V N; Nagesh Kumar, G V

    2016-05-01

    With increase in electric power demand, transmission lines were forced to operate close to its full load and due to the drastic change in weather conditions, thermal limit is increasing and the system is operating with less security margin. To meet the increased power demand, a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind generation system is a better alternative. For improving power flow capability and increasing security STATCOM can be adopted. As per modern grid rules, DFIG needs to operate without losing synchronism called low voltage ride through (LVRT) during severe grid faults. Hence, an enhanced field oriented control technique (EFOC) was adopted in Rotor Side Converter of DFIG converter to improve power flow transfer and to improve dynamic and transient stability. A STATCOM is coordinated to the system for obtaining much better stability and enhanced operation during grid fault. For the EFOC technique, rotor flux reference changes its value from synchronous speed to zero during fault for injecting current at the rotor slip frequency. In this process DC-Offset component of flux is controlled, decomposition during symmetric and asymmetric faults. The offset decomposition of flux will be oscillatory in a conventional field oriented control, whereas in EFOC it was aimed to damp quickly. This paper mitigates voltage and limits surge currents to enhance the operation of DFIG during symmetrical and asymmetrical faults. The system performance with different types of faults like single line to ground, double line to ground and triple line to ground was applied and compared without and with a STATCOM occurring at the point of common coupling with fault resistance of a very small value at 0.001Ω. PMID:25840675

  4. Unrestricted riding in pickup truck cargo beds poses significant hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, R C

    2000-02-01

    Individuals riding in the beds of pickup trucks face significant risks of debilitating injury or death, yet Mississippi currently has no legislation restricting ridership in truck beds. Data collection on accidents involving truck bed passengers indicates that children make up the majority of victims. Such accidents impose a heavy burden on society in terms of both medical expenses and impaired quality of life for the victims. PMID:10710895

  5. Roadway deformation during riding mining in soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guozhen; Ma Zhanguo; Zhu Qinghua; Mao Xianbiao; Feng Meimei

    2012-01-01

    "Riding mining" is a form of mining where the working face is located above the roadway and advances parallel to it.Riding mining in deep soft rock creates a particular set of problems in the roadway that include high stresses,large deformations,and support difficulties.Herein we describe a study of the rock deformation mechanism of a roadway as observed during riding mining in deep soft rock.Theoretical analysis,numerical simulations,and on site monitoring were used to examine this problem.The stress in the rock and the visco-elastic behavior of the rock are considered.Real time data,recorded over a period of 240 days,were taken from a 750 transportation roadway.Stress distributions in the rock surrounding the roadway were studied by comparing simulations to observations from the mine.The rock stress shows dynamic behavior as the working face advances.The pressure increases and then drops after peaking as the face advances.Both elastic and plastic deformation of the surrounding rock occurs.Plastic deformation provides a mechanism by which stress in the rock relaxes due to material flow.A way to rehabilitate the roadway is suggested that will help ensure mine safety.

  6. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  7. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

  8. How Does Free Riding on Customer Service Affect Competition?

    OpenAIRE

    Jiwoong Shin

    2007-01-01

    The free-riding problem occurs if the presales activities needed to sell a product can be conducted separately from the actual sale of the product. Intuitively, free riding should hurt the retailer that provides that service, but the author shows analytically that free riding benefits not only the free-riding retailer, but also the retailer that provides the service when customers are heterogeneous in terms of their opportunity costs for shopping. The service-providing retailer has a postserv...

  9. Kick back and destroy the ride: Alcohol-related violence and associations with drinking patterns and delinquency in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Stafström Martin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Aim To assess how drinking patterns and delinquency are associated with self-reported experiences of alcohol-related violence in an adolescent population. Population and research design Cross-sectional data were acquired from the Scania drug use survey 2005, consisting of 3847 students in 9th grade. Abstainers were omitted and 1873 responses analyzed, with binary and multi-variable logistic regression modeling. Results All drinking pattern indicators were statistically significantly ...

  10. Selections Prom the Writing of Laura (Riding Jackson Selections Prom the Writing of Laura (Riding Jackson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebelo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available I swear to strive for a perfect impartiality. . . not to hate or do malice to the hating. . ." chirps "dove of peace" Laura (Riding Jackson in her "Conclusory letter for Everyone" - she has just preached against eud's "longwindedness" anespeculation", chastised "A Young Scholastic" for calling her a genius, (This kind of categorization belongs to a market-place. . . caustically labell ed D. H. Lawrence's writings as being "reference-to-himself". . . which in the end contributes nothing to the,reader", and sweetly belittled and debunked her ex-"pal" Hart Crane, atributing". . . habitual disorganized private behavior, a crazy-pattern dominated by drunken exuberance verging on hysteria and desperately wilful excursions into homosexual experience. . . to be a consequence of gradual resort to forced spontaneity. . ."

  11. ALIVE OPTIMIZATION ON USED VEHICLE BIKE SALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. MATHEVAN PILLAI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the basic properties involving the sojourn time and the transition rate between two states and the first passage time for a Continuous Time Markov Chain (CMTC the applicability for optimizing the second sales used two wheelers in a showroom. Only the basic properties of the CTMC and the properties of rate matrix we are able to obtain a solution for maximum profit.

  12. Biking as an Alternative Mode of Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Brain, Roslynn; Stapp, Jared

    2013-01-01

    With this fact sheet, you can overcome common barriers keeping you from becoming your own mode of transportation, and bettering your life because of it. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, “creating new infrastructure and altering existing infrastructure to accommodate bicycling and walking has become a goal for several metropolitan planning organizations across the United States” (McKenzie & Rapino, 2011). Now is a great time to take advantage of this shifting focus away from vehicle commut...

  13. Biking in the Land of the Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is theoretical in its attempt to articulate and theorize the notion of ‘mobility culture'. It is empirical in its choice of cases illustrating the notion of mobility culture. The paper explores three cases in the USA; The East Coast Greenway bicycle corridor and the contemporary tensio...

  14. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  15. Dieta vegetariana e níveis de colesterol e triglicérides Vegetarian diet and cholesterol and triglycerides levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Grigoletto De Biase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores de triglicérides (TG, colesterol total (CT, lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL entre indivíduos vegetarianos e onívoros. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras sangüíneas de 76 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, que foram separados em quatro grupos de dieta: onívoro, ovolacto, lacto e vegetariano restrito (ou "vegan". Foram dosados: CT, LDL, HDL e TG. RESULTADOS: Para as taxas de CT, LDL e TG, observa-se diferença significante entre as amostras, sendo o maior valor nos onívoros, havendo decréscimo nos vegetarianos, de acordo com o grau de restrição de produtos de origem animal, sendo a menor taxa observada nos "vegans". A média e o desvio padrão do CT foram de 208,09 ± 49,09 mg/dl no grupo de onívoros, e 141,06 ± 30,56 mg/dl no de vegan (p OBJECTIVE: Compare levels of triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL among vegetarians and omnivores. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 76 individuals - both males and females - separated in four different diet groups: omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and restricted vegetarians (or vegans. Dosing was done for: TC, LDL, HDL and TG. RESULTS: Significant difference was reported for TC, LDL and TG levels among the samples. Higher levels were reported by omnivores, with decreased levels for vegetarians as animal products were restricted, with lowest levels having been reported by vegans. Mean and standard deviation for TC were 208.09 ± 49.09 mg/dl in the group of omnivores, and 141.06 ± 30.56 mg/dl in the group of vegans (p < 0.001. LDL values for omnivores and vegans were respectively: 123.43 ± 42.67 mg/dl and 69.28 ± 29.53 mg/dl (p < 0.001. As for TG, those values were 155.68 ± 119.84 mg/dl and 81.67 ± 81.90 mg/dl (p < 0.01. As for HDL level no difference was reported between the samples, but HDL/TC ratio was significantly higher in

  16. Aspectos fisiológicos do mountain biking competitivo

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Dantas De Lucas; Carlos Eduardo Polazzo Machado; Kristopher Mendes de Souza; Mariana Fernandes Mendes de Oliveira; Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo; Veronica Vleck; Benedito Sérgio Denadai

    2010-01-01

    A prática do ciclismo off-road (mountain biking - MTB), cresceu muito nas últimas duas décadas, sendo incluído como esporte olímpico, nos Jogos de Atlanta em 1996, na modalidade Cross Country. Na última década, houve um aumento no número de publicações científicas que verificaram a demanda fisiológica durante competições, assim como o estudo de possíveis preditores da performance nesta modalidade. O objetivo deste estudo de revisão foi descrever alguns aspectos fisiológicos específicos do MTB...

  17. Urban growth and subcenter formation: A trolley ride from the Staples Center to Disneyland and the Rose Bowl

    OpenAIRE

    Berliant, Marcus; Wang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    There have been long-term trends of urbanization and sustained growth across developed and developing countries over the past two centuries. Not only have more cities formed, but the leading metropolises have grown larger, with a number of peripheral subcenters developing over time. Conventional models of urban growth are limited, in that commuting cost and congestion eventually result in decreasing returns in a monocentric city as population becomes very large. In our paper, we construct an ...

  18. Riding the Sea and Chasing the Wave Chinese Ceramics Sold to Europe in the Ming and Qing Dynasties(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Orders from Europe: Features of Chinese Export Porcelain Chinese porcelain was first imported to Europe by Portuguese traders. However, the glossy ware was not supposed to be profitable and was bought as ballast for silk, lacquer ware, spice, and other dearly cargos.

  19. Riding the ‘O' Train: Comparing the Effects of Ostracism and Verbal Dispute on Targets and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Zadro, Lisa; Williams, Kipling D.; Richardson, Rick

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In the present study we examined the effects of social ostracism (being excluded and ignored in the presence of others) on those who ostracize (sources) and those who are ostracized (targets). Unlike previous research that compared ostracism to social inclusion, the present study also compared ostracism to verbal dispute (i.e. an argument). A role-play method was used such that participants acted o...

  20. Dieta vegetariana e níveis de colesterol e triglicérides Vegetarian diet and cholesterol and triglycerides levels

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Grigoletto De Biase; Sabrina Francine Carrocha Fernandes; Reinaldo José Gianini; João Luiz Garcia Duarte

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores de triglicérides (TG), colesterol total (CT), lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL) e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL) entre indivíduos vegetarianos e onívoros. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras sangüíneas de 76 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, que foram separados em quatro grupos de dieta: onívoro, ovolacto, lacto e vegetariano restrito (ou "vegan"). Foram dosados: CT, LDL, HDL e TG. RESULTADOS: Para as taxas de CT, LDL e TG, observa-se diferença significante ...

  1. The phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Jamshid J

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into "international types" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives. PMID:24236061

  2. The phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid J Tehrani

    Full Text Available Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into "international types" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives.

  3. E-bikes in the Mainstream:Reviewing a Decade of Research%电动自行车交通发展的主要趋势——近10年文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elliot Fishman; Christopher Cherry; 秦维

    2016-01-01

    Electric bicycles (e-bikes) represent one of the fastest growing segments of the transport market. Over 31 million e-bikes were sold in 2012. Research has followed this growth and this paper provides a synthesis of the most pertinent themes emerging over the past on the burgeoning topic of e-bikes. The fo-cus is transport rather than recreational e-bike research, as well as the most critical research gaps requiring attention. China leads the world in e-bike sales, followed by the Netherlands and Germany. E-bikes can maintain speed with less effort. E-bikes are found to increase bicycle usage. E-bikes have the potential to displace conventional motorised (internal combustion) modes, but there are open questions about their role in displacing traditional bicycles. E-bikes have been shown to provide health benefits and an order of mag-nitude less carbon dioxide than a car travelling the same distance. Safety issues have emerged as a policy issue in several jurisdictions and e-bike numbers are now approaching levels in which adequate safety data are able to be collected. Research on e-bikes is still in its infancy. As e-bike usage continues to grow, so too will theneed for further research, in order to provide the necessary data to inform policy-makers and indus-try.%电动自行车是交通市场增长最快的领域之一,2012年总销售量超过3100万辆.相关研究的数量不断上升,鉴于此,对过去蓬勃发展的与电动自行车最相关的主题进行综合分析.将研究重点放在电动自行车交通及需要注意的最关键的研究缺口方面,而非休闲娱乐.中国的电动自行车销量在世界占领先地位,荷兰、德国紧随其后.电动自行车能够以较少能耗保持一定速度,也有研究发现电动自行车能增加自行车使用率.电动自行车有潜力取代传统机动交通方式(内燃式),但在取代传统自行车方面所扮演的角色仍存在争议.电动自行车不仅有益身体健康,并且相同行

  4. Intentions to use bike-sharing for holiday cycling: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Manca, Francesco; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the behavioral factors underlying tourist intentions to use urban bike-sharing for cycling while on holiday. The analytical framework relied on the Theory of Planned Behavior relating tourist intentions to favorable attitudes toward cycling, interest in bicycle technology......-sharing, frequently and for multiple purposes; (ii) a relation between holiday cycling and living in a cyclingfriendly country, past cycling experience, and habitual transport mode choice during daily life; (iii) an appeal of electric bicycles to tourists with high interest in bicycle technology, low perceived...

  5. MADE CLEAR: Riding the waves of new science standards and environmental literacy requirements to enhance climate change education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, D. F.; Griswold, M.; Targett, N. M.; Stylinski, C.; Merrill, J. Z.

    2012-12-01

    The ongoing development of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to engage K-12 educators in climate change education. In particular, scientists and educators can collaborate on NGSS performance expectations, materials and interpretation for instruction and assessment. This could include working together to incorporate real world science and engineering practices, such as data analysis, model development and interpretation, arguments from evidence and critical evaluation of solutions. NGSS learning progressions allow the ramping up of science relevant to climate change starting from a broad foundation in elementary school to a focus on the interdisciplinary concepts in high school. The Maryland-Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment and Research (MADE CLEAR) partnership is fostering such an integrated approach through collaborations among environmental scientists, learning scientists, K-12 educators, and informal educators in our states. First, we are engaging and assisting the state departments of education in Maryland and Delaware to inform the development and implementation of climate change science in curricula not only for inclusion in the NGSS, but also new environmental literacy requirements. Second, we are convening informal and formal educators to refine approaches and address gaps in teaching about climate change science, with a particular focus on regional consequences. Lastly, K-12 and informal educators are provided access to experts in the fields of climate science, adaptation, and energy production and conservation. This will be achieved through professional development and creation of regionally focused resources in an iterative approach, assessed and guided by learning scientists. When fully implemented, we believe that our frameworks, curricula, processes and lessons learned can serve as models for other states in developing strategies for implementing science standards that also improve literacy in

  6. The challenge of multiculturalism : between the identity and the recognition : a riding based on the works of Charles Taylor

    OpenAIRE

    Raguso, Fabrizia

    2006-01-01

    Multiculturalism constitutes a challenge while it opens the construction of our own identity when we are confronted with the image that others have of us, and that they transmit. In this way between the demand of recognition peculiarity and preciousness of each culture and the necessity of re-understanding the stereotypes that do not allow a true encounter, multiculturalism challenges us to re-read the roots of our occidental identity and its crises that is revealed in a post-m...

  7. Multiple-trait selection for radiographic health of the limbs, conformation and performance in Warmblood riding horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2008-12-01

    Information on 26 434 German Warmblood horses born between 1992 and 2001 was used for multivariate genetic analyses of radiographic health, conformation and performance traits to compare different modes of single- and multiple-trait selection of sires. Results of standardized radiological examinations of 5155 Hanoverian Warmblood horses, conformation evaluations from studbook inspections of 20 603 mares, and performance evaluations from mare performance tests and auction horse inspections of 16 098 horses were used for multivariate genetic analyses. Genetic parameters were estimated with restricted maximum likelihood (REML), and relative breeding values (RBV) were predicted with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) in multivariate linear animal models for four radiographic health traits, three conformation traits and five performance traits. Heritability estimates for osseous fragments in fetlock joints (OFF), osseous fragments in hock joints (OFH), deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH) and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB) ranged between 0.15 and 0.35 after transformation to the liability scale. Front limb conformation, hind limb conformation, withers height, walk, trot, canter, rideability and free jumping showed heritabilities between 0.09 and 0.49 and additive genetic correlations with OFF, OFH, DAH and DNB ranging between -0.53 and +0.52. Selection of sires was based on RBV or combinations of RBV, with selection for individual traits or traits from one of the three considered trait groups being considered as single-trait selection, and selection for traits from more than one trait group being considered as multiple-trait selection. The selection modes were compared by means of the expected selection response after one generation, calculated as the relative change in the prevalences of the radiographic findings or the mean conformation or performance scores in the offspring of the selected sires when compared with the offspring

  8. Hyper-competition, collusion, free riding or coopetition: basins of attraction when firms simultaneously compete and cooperate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Surya; Pokharel, Mohan P; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2013-01-01

    Using a dyad in a homogeneous market, facing investment decisions, we investigate simultaneous competition and cooperation behavior of firms under the effects of (a) government policies that send signals regarding incentives for different levels of competition and cooperation and (b) two different 'states of nature' for the market, i.e., one that rewards firms for building on their existing strategic path and another that rewards firms for exploring new strategies. We conceptualize the dyad and the external environment as a complex adaptive system and formulate simultaneous competition and cooperation as a dynamic duopoly game with variable demand and supply curves. Employing a simulation-based methodology, we investigate the attractors of this two-firm system. We find that in markets that reward firms for building on their existing strategic path, coopetition (sustained simultaneous competition and cooperation) is a common attractor and the system is not affected by imbalances in governmental policies. On the other hand, in markets that reward firms for exploring new strategy, competition is rare; rather, the system frequently exhibits hyper-coopetition, collusion or freeridership. Additionally, we find that the market share of firms as well as a firm's initial disposition toward competition and cooperation are important factors that affect the outcome. PMID:23244753

  9. Riding the globalization wave (1974-2004: islandness and strategies of economic development in two post-colonial states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Karides

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1974, the Republic of Cyprus and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, both former British colonies, experienced significant events that permanently altered their economic and social realities. The coincidence of these occurrences offers an opportunity for a historical comparison of island development. In effect, this paper argues that the economic paths of these islands were shaped largely by their responses to neo-liberalism. Cyprus’ support for domestic enterprises and resistance to neo-liberal policies throughout the early 1990s compared to Trinidad and Tobago’s forced acquiescence to them and reliance on its energy sector explain the difference in their economic trajectories. Analytically, I argue that island nations can chart a course for economic strategies that benefit more of the population despite neo-liberal pressure to adopt policies that advantage global capital. This comparison supports the island studies position that islands have distinct place-based and/or historical capacities for resourceful and creative tactics towards economic autonomy and development.

  10. Lack of pupils in German riding schools? A causal-analytical consideration of customer satisfaction in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Maike; Gille, Claudia; Suttorp, Katrin; Spiller, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Not only the horse as a living creature, but also equestrian sport, has a positive influence on the general upbringing and development of young people. Although equestrian sport still exerts a strong fascination, it is becoming more difficult to inspire young people to take part in this time-consuming and costly sport. It is not only the equestrian sport which is affected by this – the majority of sport clubs offering different types of sport have registered diminishing member numbers. Especi...

  11. Interactions between tectonic and sedimentation related to the Rides Prérifaines in the Volubilis basin (Rif front, Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán García, F. J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Chalouan, Ahmed; Anahnah, Farida; Ahmamou, M.; Ruano, P.; Constán, Ana Ruiz; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Benmakhlouf, M.; Marín-Lechado, C.; López-Garrido, A. C.; Pedrera, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Volubilis Neogene basin (Morocco) was part of the South Rif Corridor that connected the Atlantic Ocean with the Mediterranean. This basin recorded the tectonic - sedimentary interactions of a foreland basin subjected to the progressive advance of the Rif mountain range front. Since the Miocene, the displacement of the Prerif to the WSW, caused the detachment of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover from the Variscan basement and the compartimentation of Saïss Basin. Simultaneously, ...

  12. The top 100: hanging on for another wild oil price ride with new survival skills and help from hired hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A forecast of industry performance in 1998 predicts that despite the heavy plunge of prices in 1997 that resulted in an increase in the TSE oil and gas index of only 2.8 per cent compared to 36.6 per cent in 1996, the Canadian oil and gas industry will be able to hang on. This is due to new technology, overhauled companies, improved management, a more diverse mix of products, better access to export outlets and new expertise in marketing, trading, hedging and risk assessment. Industry forecasts call for 12,000 new wells in 1998 which, if realized, will be the second best performance for the industry since 1986. Takeovers by the likes of Renaissance Energy, the merger by Nova Corporation and TransCanada Pipelines and the prospect of new competition to the Nova-TransCanada System by the Alliance Pipeline Project, are just some of the twists and turns that help maintain the buoyancy of the industry. Heavy oil developments are likely to remain dormant during 1998, although the long term prospects look strong. Husky Oil's $ 500 million expansion of its Lloydminster upgrader is seen as the lone bright spot in 1998. The natural gas sector has kept the industry going in 1997, but with the heating season over, the immediate prospects are not very bright. Gas prices are likely to decline during the summer, but with new pipeline capacity coming on-stream soon, the artificially low gas prices in Alberta should begin to ease later in the year. Conventional oil prices are expected to rise, provided OPEC members can keep recalcitrant members in check. If light oil prices do not rise soon, the forecast calls for several oil companies to end up on the auctioneer's block

  13. Riding the Banzai Pipeline at Jupiter: Balancing Low Delta-V and Low Radiation to Reach Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrath, Timothy P.; Campagnola, Stefano; Strange, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Europa's tantalizing allure as a possible haven for life comes cloaked in a myriad of challenges for robotic spacecraft exploration. Not only are the propulsive requirements high and the solar illumination low, but the radiation environment at Jupiter administers its inexorable death sentence on any electronics dispatched to closely examine the satellite. So to the usual trades of mass, delta-V, and cost, we must add radiation dose, which tugs the trajectory solution in a contrary direction. Previous studies have concluded that adding radiation shielding mass is more efficient than using ?V to reduce the exposure time, but that position was recently challenged by a study focusing on delivering simple landers to the Europa surface. During this work, a new trajectory option was found to occupy a strategic location in the delta-V/radiation continuum - we call it the "Banzai pipeline" due to the visual similarity with the end-on view down a breaking wave, as shown in the following figures.

  14. 对等网络中的搭便车行为分析与对策研究%Analysis of Free-Riding Behaviors and Countermeasures Research on Peer-to-Peer Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙江

    2013-01-01

      传统的P2P网络都假设每个用户能积极共享自己的资源,这导致大量免费搭车者的出现。搭便车行为在对等网络中日趋严重,它对网络健壮性、可用性和生命周期等造成负面影响。介绍各类激励机制模型,指出其优缺点,分析现有激励机制算法,对未来的研究方向进行展望。%Traditional P2P networks consider that each user (or node) can actively share their own re-sources, which will lead to a large number of free-riders. free riding is prevalent in almost all networks, which reduces the robustness,availability and lifetime of the P2P networks. Intro-duces all kinds of the incentive mechanism model, points out their advantages and weaknesses, analyzes the existing incentive mechanism algorithm. Outlines the future research direction about the mechanisms discouraging free riding in P2P networks.

  15. Ride-through for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Aaron; Koopman, Philip

    2013-01-01

    * This research was funded in part by General Motors through the GM-Carnegie Mellon Vehicular Information Technology Collaborative Research Lab International audience Safety critical systems often have shutdown mechanisms to bring the system to a safe state in the event of a malfunction. We ex- amine the use of ride-through, a technique to reduce the frequency of safety shutdowns by allowing small transient violations of safety rules. An illustrative example of enforcing a speed limit f...

  16. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Perkins, Noel C.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calcula...

  17. Adaptive ride hydraulic damper with piston rod dress cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spisak, A.M.; Adduci, R.L.

    1987-04-28

    A hydraulic damper is described for connection between sprung and unsprung portions of a wheeled vehicle and operative to dampen the ride motions of the vehicle comprising: an outer support tube operatively connected to one of the portions. A cylinder tube is supported within the outer tubular member having a hydraulic fluid therein. A piston operatively is mounted in the cylinder tube and has means movable to varying positions to selectively vary and control the flow of fluid when stroking within the cylinder tube.

  18. Compression fractures of the vertebrae during a "bumpy" boat ride.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chukwunyerenwa, C K

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Compression fracture of the vertebrae is common, often the result of falls from height and motor vehicle accidents in the younger age groups. It can occur following minor trauma in the elderly and in those with osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present an interesting case of compression fracture of the vertebral bodies occurring simultaneously in a couple during a boat ride while on holiday. One individual had fracture of the T8, while the other fractured the L1 vertebrae. Both injuries were treated conservatively with Taylor braces. CONCLUSION: We highlight one of the potential hazards of this recreational activity, and the almost identical fracture pattern in this couple.

  19. Learning To Be Vélomobile

    OpenAIRE

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There are few qualitative studies to date of how children learn to become vélomobile, and of how parents and caregivers talk and interact with children to instruct them how to ride safely. This paper reports on a study of how children learn to sit in a carrier bike as a passenger and to ride their own bike. In my data from Denmark, these activities take place in urban areas with good biking infrastructure, including separate bike lanes and dedicated cycle paths, as well as bike-only traffic l...

  20. Split ring floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A

    2015-11-03

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, and a central passage connecting the annular cavity to the annular piston chamber to supply compressed air to the seal face, where the annular piston assembly is a split piston assembly to maintain a tight seal as coning of the rotor disk occurs.

  1. Carter’s Rewriting of Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文诣

    2014-01-01

    "Little Red Riding Hood" is known worldwide and almost every child in China has heard this story. The Chinese one(Xiao Hongmao) is mainly derived from the Brothers Grimm’s version, while a less known version in China, called "The Company of Wolves", is written by a British female writer, Angela Carter. By putting different revisions of the same materials side by side, Carter makes a talk with herself. In this article, the author will mainly talk about what Carter learns from the previous version and what she wants to tell us from this exotic short story.

  2. Carter’s Rewriting of Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文诣

    2014-01-01

    "Little Red Riding Hood" is known worldwide and almost every child in China has heard this story. The Chinese one (Xiao Hongmao) is mainly derived from the Brothers Grimm’s version, while a less known version in China, called“The Company of Wolves”, is written by a British female writer, Angela Carter. By putting different revisions of the same materials side by side, Carter makes a talk with herself. In this article, the author will mainly talk about what Carter learns from the previous version and what she wants to tell us from this exotic short story.

  3. Osteoarthrosis of the Antebrachiocarpal Joint of 7 Riding Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman S

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthrosis (OA of the antebrachiocarpal joint from 7 riding horses is described. The horses were old mares and developed severe OA, with ankylosis in some of the joints. The lesions were bilateral, and the owners noticed the lameness in a late event. The cause of severe OA in these mares is not clear. The fact that OA was bilateral indicates that a single traumatic injury is unlikely as an etiologic factor. Considering the severe joint lesions it took long time before the horse-owners noticed the lameness. It is discussed if the threshold of pain is higher in the antebrachiocarpal joint compared with the middle carpal joint.

  4. Building the BIKE: Development and Testing of the Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Izci, Kemal; McClure, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Identifying students' conceptual scientific understanding is difficult if the appropriate tools are not available for educators. Concept inventories have become a popular tool to assess student understanding; however, traditionally, they are multiple choice tests. International science education standard documents advocate that assessments…

  5. Fuzzy rules incorporated skyhook theory based vehicular suspension design for improving ride comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munaim Akhtar,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle suspension system supports and isolate the vehicle body and payload from road vibrations due to surface roughness by maintaining a controllable damping traction force between tires and road surface. In modern luxury vehicles semi active suspension system are offering both the reliability and accuracy that has enhanced the passenger ride comfort with less power demand. In this paper we have proposed the design of a hybrid control system having a combination of skyhook theory with fuzzy logic control and applied on a semiactive vehicle suspension system for its ride comfort enhancement. A two degree of freedom dynamic model is simulated using Matlab/Simulink for a vehicle equipped with semi-active suspension system with focused on the passenger‟s ride comfort performance.

  6. A veterinary review of endurance riding as an international competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Annamaria; Dyson, Sue J; Murray, Jane K

    2012-12-01

    The popularity of competitive endurance riding is growing worldwide and this has led to considerable changes in the discipline (e.g., fitter and faster horses and different types of injuries), which create challenges to all involved in the sport, including veterinarians. During endurance competitions, horses are closely monitored by veterinarians throughout the ride, with the aim of removing from the competition animals whose welfare appears to be endangered. This close monitoring provides veterinarians with an insight into problems during competitions. However, there is a relatively small amount of clinically relevant, evidence-based data published on endurance horses, and this article reviews the evolution of the discipline, the published information on epidemiological data on endurance rides, the problems veterinarians face at competitions, and highlights those areas where research is warranted. PMID:22819800

  7. Ride comfort characteristics with different tire pressure of passenger vehicle featuring MR damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents ride comfort characteristics of a quarter-vehicle magneto-rheological (MR) suspension system with respect to different tire pressure. As a first step, controllable MR damper is designed and manufactured based on the optimized damping force levels and mechanical dimensions required for a commercial mid-sized passenger vehicle. After experimentally evaluating dynamic characteristics of the manufactured MR damper, the quarter-vehicle suspension system consisting of sprung mass, spring, tire and the MR damper is constructed in order to investigate the ride comfort. After deriving the equations of the motion for the proposed quarter-vehicle MR suspension system, vertical tire stiffness with respect to different tire pressure is experimentally identified. The skyhook controller is then implemented for the realization of quarter-vehicle MR suspension system. Ride comfort characteristics such as vertical acceleration RMS of sprung mass are evaluated under bump road condition and presented in time domain.

  8. Travel Cost Model for an Agrifarm Specialised in Horse Riding Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antoušková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agritourism, as a form of tourism, brings tourists a valuable contact with nature. To assess such a value, several methods can be used. One of these methods is the travel cost method, which is used in conducted research. Especially, a single site model is applied to recreation in a farm specialised in horse riding activities. It is not only tourists staying in the farms that take part in horse riding activities, these are also visitors staying in other places and coming to farms for horse riding as an accompanying activity to their recreation. Therefore, two separate travel cost models are estimated, for tourists and for visitors. Results show that the parameter of travel costs has a negative influence on the number of visits, which confirms the economic theory. The parameters involved in the estimated models for visitors and tourists show similar tendencies, except for the parameter of education.

  9. Model-based count series clustering for Bike Sharing System usage mining, a case study with the Velib system of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    COME, Etienne; Oukhellou, Latifa

    2014-01-01

    Today, more and more bicycle sharing systems (BSS) are being introduced in big cities. These transportation systems generate sizable transportation data, the mining of which can reveal the underlying urban phenomena linked to city dynamics. This paper presents a statistical model to automatically analyze the trips data of a bike sharing system. The proposed solution partitions (i.e. cluster) the stations according to their usage profiles. To do so, count series describing the stations' usage ...

  10. CONCRETE-RUBBER TYRES USED IN BIKE PATH = CONCRETO COM BORRACHA DE PNEUS APLICADO EM CICLOVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Franklin Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Automotive tires have indefinite decomposition in nature and represent great concern about the environmental impacts. The tires disposed of improperly can cause many problems to accumulate water and enhance the proliferation of disease vectors. When directed to landfills can cause instability due to massive voids generated between them. In the case of incineration generate particulate matter and toxic gases becoming a health risk. The constituents of tires as, rubber, nylon and steel may constitute raw material for other uses. Thus, the final destination and environmentally correct, appropriate and safe reuse are challenges to be met in all segments. The construction impacts the environment, but you can use waste with the appropriate technical evidence. For the use of waste in construction are barriers, both technological and political, making this burgeoning practice. This work is an account of a joint experience between city government, construction company and educational institution, for the application of rubber originated automotive tires on a bike path. We used a concrete with addition of tire rubber, replacing the aggregate, for running a bike path and found to their possible application in replacement to conventional concrete. The bike path option offers mobility, fosters habits healthier life and leisure for the population served, and can contribute to sustainability. = Os pneus automotivos apresentam tempo indeterminado de decomposição na natureza representando grande preocupação quanto aos impactos ambientais. Os pneus descartados de forma inadequada podem causar muitos problemas ao acumular água e potencializar a proliferação de vetores de doenças. Quando direcionados aos aterros podem causar instabilidade no maciço devido aos vazios gerados entre eles. No caso da incineração geram material particulado e gases tóxicos tornando-se um risco à saúde. Como parte da constituição dos pneus, a borracha, o nylon e o a

  11. 非线性油气悬架系统平顺性仿真与参数优化设计%Ride comfort simulation and parameters optimization design of nonlinear hydro-pneumatic suspension system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玲玲; 谷正气; 李伟平; 梁小波; 彭国谱

    2011-01-01

    Based on the bench test of hydro-pneumatic suspension, the model of engineering dump truck with eight degrees of freedom was set up, including five square stiffness and cubic damping characteristics. The simulation model was established by SIMULINK and validated by test. The most suitable optimized parameters were achieved according to sensitivity analysis, and then the optimal design model was established by taking ride comfort as optimization objective. The optimal stiffness and damping curves were obtained after the combined optimization design between SIMULINK and GA algorithm. The results show that the stiffness and damping characteristics of hydro-pneumatic suspension need to be optimized to improve ride comfort. The root mean square values of different seat accelerations are brought down by 17.3%, 18.8%, 25.8%, and the vehicle ride comfort can be significantly improved.%基于油气悬架台架实验,建立工程自卸车八自由度数学模型,该模型包含刚度五次方非线性和阻尼立方非线性.在此基础上利用SIMULINK建立仿真模型,并用实验验证仿真模型的正确性.通过对油气悬架参数的灵敏度分析,确定优化变量,然后以行驶平顺性为优化目标,建立油气悬架参数优化模型,利用SIMULINK、遗传算法对油气悬架参数进行联合优化设计,得到油气悬架理想的非线性刚度和阻尼特性曲线.仿真分析与实验结果表明:油气悬架的减振特性需要进一步优化设计.优化后,各车速下座椅的加权加速度均方根值分别降低了约17.3%,18.8%,25.8%,油气悬架的减振性能和整车行驶平顺性得到明显改善.

  12. Are riding club members willing to pay or work for an overall quality improvement?

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the willingness-to-pay (WTP) and the willingness-to-work (WTW) of German riding club members for an overall quality improvement. Therefore, German riding club members were asked via an online questionnaire. As far as the author knows, this study is the first to include the concept of WTW in the amateur sport context. The results show that on average the participants would be willing to pay €117.39 and would be willing to work 30.39 hours per year if the quality were improv...

  13. Perceived risk in bike-car interactions: are bikes really perceived less safe than cars?

    OpenAIRE

    Delhomme, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Many countries face an increase in the number of cyclists, introducing a change in the interactions to be handled by road users, and thus a change in risks. Interestingly, although a lot of studies focus on perceived risk by car drivers, none investigates perceived risk by cyclists, or compares cyclists’ and drivers’ perception of risk. Our aim was to explore, in risky road situations, subjective risk in 3 different interaction types: cyclist vs cyclist, cyclist vs driver, driver ...

  14. Balance Food and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instead of whole eggs Use tuna canned in water (6-ounce can), instead of oil Here are some ways to burn 150 calories (ENERGY OUT), in just 30 minutes (for a 150 pound person): Shoot hoops Walk two miles Do yard work (gardening, raking leaves, etc.) Go for a bike ride ...

  15. Learning to Be Mobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    As an antidote to the fixation with automobility, cycling and other such highly mobile ‘carbon neutral’ leisure activities are the focus of recent studies that use mobile ‘travelling with’ methods such as the ‘ride along’ or headcam POV video technology with post-ride debriefing. Much of this...... creative cyclomobility research focuses on adult cycling or more extreme sports, such as BMX trials or mountain biking. There is, however, little qualitative research to date on family bike rides, eg. how children learn to sit in or ride a bike and how parents or caregivers talk and interact with children...

  16. It's a Wild Ride. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Educational Technology Consortium, Portland, OR.

    This 15-minute VHS videotape introduces an interdisciplinary math, science, and language arts project for eighth grade. Students learn about and apply laws of motion, linear functions, and technical reporting as they design and present an ultimate roller coaster. The project is organized in five phases that generate knowledge about design…

  17. Riding the lines of flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Usher

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thinking about the future of educational research requires a conceptual resource that is itself both imaginative and multiple and at the same time articulates a world with those self-same characteristics. This is provided by the work of Deleuze and Guattari. Discussion of the future of research is located in a context of lifelong learning in the contemporary moment of ubiquitous electronic communication. I argue that the research process, contrary to the model of science, can be better understood as rhizomatic rather than arborescent and powered by desire rather than objectivity. Lifelong learning is a rhizome and requires a rhizomatic approach and sensibility on the part of the researcher. The hyper-connectivity of the Internet reinforces this development influencing the way research is carried out and the way its knowledge outcomes are distributed and used – a research without hierarchy and authority.

  18. Ride on a bullet train

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan.

    2004-01-01

    On a journey on the bullet train from Toyo to Osaka, Alan Macfarlane reflects on the role of the wheel in western and Japanese civilization. He also talks about the origins of the industrial revolution, east and west.

  19. Second Thoughts on Free Riding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2014-01-01

    We use the strategy method to classify subjects into cooperator types in a large-scale online Public Goods Game and find that free riders spend more time on making their decisions than conditional cooperators and other cooperator types. This result is robust to reversing the framing of the game and...

  20. Second Thoughts on Free Riding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We use the strategy method to classify subjects into cooperator types in a largescale online Public Goods Game and nd that free riders spend more time on making their decisions than conditional cooperators and other cooperator types. This result is robust to reversing the framing of the game and is...... not driven by free riders lacking cognitive ability, confusion, or natural swiftness in responding. Our results suggest that conditional cooperation serves as a norm and that free riders need time to resolve a moral dilemma...

  1. Riding out a Financial Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randy C.

    2012-01-01

    After two decades of steady growth and financial stability in the Rio Rancho Public Schools, New Mexico's fastest-growing school district found itself face to face with a $3.8 million budget deficit going into the 2008-09 school year. Because people in the district hesitated to change anything that would cut into student programming, and nobody…

  2. Analysis of Passenger Ride Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagiz N.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of vehicle vibrations on human beings is investigated. The computations were made with the help of a simulation program using a full vehicle model with driver and the results were evaluated using international ISO 2631 standard. The physical model of the investigated system is formed by a full-vehicle model and a driver. The road roughness is used as an input to the system and the responses are compared with the related standard. Finally, the results are discussed.

  3. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56.19074 Section 56.19074 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57.19074 Section 57.19074 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  5. The Dynamics of Plant Closings: An Extended Emotional Roller Coaster Ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Joe B.; Shepard, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Millions of United States' workers are unemployed, many of them dislocated from their jobs and careers by extended layoffs, drastic manpower reductions, and plant closings. Describes a model of the emotional roller coaster ride taken by employees displaced by a plant closing and suggests approaches to helping them and their families. (Author/ABB)

  6. The influence of tyre characteristics on measures of rolling performance during cross-country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul William; Fink, Philip W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sets out to assess the effect of five different models of mountain bike tyre on rolling performance over hard-pack mud. Independent characteristics included total weight, volume, tread surface area and tread depth. One male cyclist performed multiple (30) trials of a deceleration field test to assess reliability. Further tests performed on a separate occasion included multiple (15) trials of the deceleration test and six fixed power output hill climb tests for each tyre. The deceleration test proved to be reliable as a means of assessing rolling performance via differences in initial and final speed (coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.52%). Overall differences between tyre performance for both deceleration test (P = 0.014) and hill climb (P = 0.032) were found, enabling significant (P tyre performance prediction based on tyre characteristics. The ideal tyre for rolling and climbing performance on hard-pack surfaces would be to decrease tyre weight by way of reductions in tread surface area and tread depth while keeping volume high. PMID:25073042

  7. Computer-assisted upper extremity training using interactive biking exercise (iBikE) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In Cheol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Upper extremity exercise training has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in different chronic health conditions. Arm-operated bicycles are frequently used to facilitate upper extremity training however effective use of these devices at patient homes is hampered by lack of remote connectivity with clinical rehabilitation team, inability to monitor exercise progress in real time using simple graphical representation, and absence of an alert system which would prevent exertion levels exceeding those approved by the clinical rehabilitation team. We developed an interactive biking exercise (iBikE) platform aimed at addressing these limitations. The platform uses a miniature wireless 3-axis accelerometer mounted on a patient wrist that transmits the cycling acceleration data to a laptop. The laptop screen presents an exercise dashboard to the patient in real time allowing easy graphical visualization of exercise progress and presentation of exercise parameters in relation to prescribed targets. The iBikE platform is programmed to alert the patient when exercise intensity exceeds the levels recommended by the patient care provider. The iBikE platform has been tested in 7 healthy volunteers (age range: 26-50 years) and shown to reliably reflect exercise progress and to generate alerts at pre-setup levels. Implementation of remote connectivity with patient rehabilitation team is warranted for future extension and evaluation efforts. PMID:23367319

  8. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  9. Economic analysis of the organisation of a riding centre; application of the linear programming approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka ŽGAJNAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the economics of an equestrian centre, which in addition to a variety of riding school activities also includes breeding and livery, are analysed. We consider the conditions for a hypothetical holding operating in central Slovenia. Methods of mathematical programming are applied in order to attempt to optimise the holding’s activities. Their use may in the given situation facilitate the evaluation of development prospects from different perspectives and indicate the opportunities of increasing value-added. On the basis of maximizing the gross margin, we try to address the various questions and challenges that arise in managing and planning for such an equestrian centre. The obtained results indicate that breeding is unfavourable in the given price-cost ratio, both for the renewal of the working horses herd and for sale. This reflects the current adverse situation in the field of horse breeding. Livery is an important activity on such holdings and through opportunity perspective provides an optimal set of activities. Activities of the riding school for children are interesting in terms of income diversification, as well as an additional source of revenue. A riding school with one riding instructor and an indoor arena needs 4.6 horses in order to cover the costs of full-time employment.

  10. Aspectos fisiológicos do mountain biking competitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dantas de Lucas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A prática do ciclismo off-road (mountain biking - MTB, cresceu muito nas últimas duas décadas, sendo incluído como esporte olímpico, nos Jogos de Atlanta em 1996, na modalidade Cross Country. Na última década, houve um aumento no número de publicações científicas que verificaram a demanda fisiológica durante competições, assim como o estudo de possíveis preditores da performance nesta modalidade. O objetivo deste estudo de revisão foi descrever alguns aspectos fisiológicos específicos do MTB Cross Country (MTB CC competitivo (intensidade de provas, perfil fisiológico de atletas de elite, uso de suspensões e determinantes da performance em subidas. Observa-se na literatura analisada que as provas de MTB CC parecem impor uma sobrecarga fisiológica maior, quando analisada através da frequência cardíaca, do que provas de ciclismo de estrada com duração semelhante. Entretanto, quando analisada pela potência de pedalada, observa-se claramente a característica intermitente da modalidade, com variações de potência durante a prova entre zero e 500W, e potência média relativamente baixa em comparação aos valores de FC encontrados. Outro fator importante levantado neste estudo são as alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do uso de suspensões nas bicicletas de MTB CC. O uso deste equipamento reduz o estresse muscular provocado pelo terreno acidentado, embora pareça não afetar o gasto energético total, tanto em percurso plano como em subidas. Entretanto, é fato que o desempenho em circuitos acidentados é melhorado com o uso das suspensões. Com base nos estudos abordados nessa revisão, conclui-se que o MTB CC enquanto modalidade competitiva apresenta uma grande variação de intensidade (avaliada através da potência, sendo esta atribuída principalmente ao tipo de terreno (irregular e com muitas aclives e declives acentuados em que as provas de MTB CC acontecem.

  11. Therapist-Designed Adaptive Riding in Children With Cerebral Palsy : Results of a Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angsupaisal, Mattana; Visser, Baudina; Alkema, Anne; Meinsma-van der Tuin, Marja; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is debatable whether adaptive riding (AR) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) improves postural control and gross motor development. Objective. The study aim was to explore the feasibility of an extensive assessment protocol for a randomized controlled trial of therapist-designed ada

  12. Electromagnetic validation of fault-ride through capabilities of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Sharma, Ranjan; Rodakis, G; Jensen, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Scope of the present project is the development and validation of electro-magnetic transient model of fixed-speed wind turbines. The research work is focused on the development of a fixed-speed wind turbine model with fault-ride through capabilities during transient over-voltages. The model is...

  13. Low Voltage Ride-Through of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Yue;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and a full-scale converter developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. The low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of the wind turbine is investigated. A new...

  14. Horse Riding 101: The Role of Experience in Reframing Teacher Education Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    For this self-study of my teacher education practice, I positioned myself as a novice in the unfamiliar context of learning to ride a horse. This gave me an opportunity to re-experience being an authentic learner and thereby to deepen my understanding of how an individual learns to teach. I recorded my experiences in an electronic journal and…

  15. The Effectiveness of Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Wang, Chih-Chung; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 20-week Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program (SDHRP) by using an innovative exercise equipment (Joba[R]) on the motor proficiency and sensory integrative functions in 60 children with autism (age: 6 years, 5 months to 8 years, 9 months). In the first phase of 20 weeks, 30 children received the…

  16. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Heger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA, free PSA (fPSA and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49–57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively, lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0–0.01 mg/L. It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL. Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine. Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa—sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA.

  17. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Ondrak, Ales; Skoda, Jan; Zitka, Zdenek; Cernei, Natalia; Masarik, Michal; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km) bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49-57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m) and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively), lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0-0.01 mg/L). It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively) and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL). Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine). Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa-sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA. PMID:26999116

  18. Orthopaedic health status of horses from 8 riding schools - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egenvall Agneta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthopaedic injury is the most common reason for lameness and wastage in sport and leisure horses. Studies on racehorses have shown differences in injury risk between trainers and training strategies. The aim was to study between riding school variation in orthopaedic health status by clinical examination and horses age, and control for change of examiner, in schools with previous high (n = 4 and low (n = 4 insurance utilisation. Methods Horses (n = 99 at 8 riding schools were examined for conformation, movement in all gaits, standing flexion tests and palpation by two veterinary surgeons (in some schools only one. Indexes of findings were created for total health, movements, limbs, conformation and back palpation. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that findings increased with age (walk, trot, canter, conformation left hind limb, palpation fore limbs, hooves and flexion tests or decreased with age (conformation right fore limb. Significant differences in findings were found between riding schools and examiner for seven and eight criteria each (partly overlapping. Increasing indexes were significantly associated with one examiner (total health, movements, back palpation, increasing age (total health, movements or more time at the school (limbs. The back palpation index was highest at 5 Conclusion The age distribution differed markedly between riding schools and age affected several types of findings. This, combined with the two opposite groups of insurance use, shows that schools with low insurance utilisation had previously been able to "avoid" using the insurance, maybe even on similar types of cases if these were more promptly/differently handled indicating differential coverage of disease data in the insurance database. The examiner effect was clearly demonstrated. For some findings, the amount of clinical observations differed by school, even when examiner and age was adjusted for. Most findings were of minor

  19. The study of laser beam riding guided system based on 980nm diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Xu, Haifeng; Sui, Xin; Yang, Kun

    2015-10-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  20. Coordination of Advertising Free Riding in Hybrid Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a crucial tool for demand creation and market expansion; enterprises in supply chain use it widely to increase sales and improve profits. But the homogeneity of products sold in hybrid channel supply chain magnifies the positive externalities of advertising and leads to serious free-riding problem. To coordinate the supply chain effectively, firstly, this paper classifies hybrid channel supply chain based on the relationship between members and selects horizontally integrated, vertically integrated, and decentralized hybrid channel supply chains as research objects. Then, a demand function considering the common effect of price and advertising is proposed and coordination schemes for different types of supply chains are designed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impact of parameters on coordination using orthogonal experiment.

  1. Riding the waves of culture understanding cultural diversity in business

    CERN Document Server

    Trompenaars, Fons

    1993-01-01

    The definitive guide to cross-cultural management--updated to help you lead effectively during a time of unprecedented globalization First published nearly 20 years ago, Riding the Waves of Culture became the standard guide to conducting business in an international context. Now, the third edition provides you with important new information and groundbreaking methods for leading effectively in the most globalized business landscape ever. Fons Trompenaars is a world expert on international management and founder and director of Trompenaars Hampden-Turner (THT), a consulting firm in the field of intercultural management. Charles Hampden-Turner is a Senior Research Associate at the Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge and cofounder and Director of Research and Development at the Trompenaars-Hampden-Turner Group.

  2. A parametric investigation of ride quality rating scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and the mathematical relationships that allow for transformations of subjective data from one scale to another scale were determined. A total of 16 category scales were studied and these represented various parametric combinations of polarity, scale type, and number of scalar points. Sixteen subject groups were used and each subject group evaluated its comfort/discomfort to vertical sinusoidal vibration using one of the rating scales. The passenger ride quality apparatus which can expose six subjects simultaneously to predetermined vibrations was utilized. The vibration stimuli were composed of repeats of selected sinusoidal frequencies applied at each of nine peak floor acceleration levels. A higher degree of reliability and discriminability was generally obtained from unipolar continuous type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points as opposed to the other scales investigated.

  3. Solving the Dial-a-Ride Problem using Genetic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergvinsdottir, Kristin Berg; Larsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    In the Dial-a-Ride problem (DARP) customers send transportation requests to an operator. A request consists of a specified pickup location and destination location along with a desired departure or arrival time and demand. The aim of DARP is to minimize transportation cost while satisfying custom...... routing problems for the vehicles using a routing heuristic. The algorithm is implemented in Java and tested on publicly available data sets....... service level constraints (Quality of Service). In this paper we present a genetic algorithm for solving the DARP. The algorithm is based on the classical cluster-first route-second approach, where it alternates between assigning customers to vehicles using a genetic algorithm and solving independent...

  4. Solving the Dial-a-Ride Problem using Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene Munk; Larsen, Jesper; Bergvinsdottir, Kristin Berg

    2007-01-01

    In the Dial-a-Ride problem (DARP), customers request transportation from an operator. A request consists of a specified pickup location and destination location along with a desired departure or arrival time and capacity demand. The aim of DARP is to minimize transportation cost while satisfying ...... routing problems for the vehicles using a routing heuristic. The algorithm is implemented in Java and tested on publicly available data sets. The new solution method has achieved solutions comparable with the current state-of-the-art methods....... customer service level constraints (Quality of Service). In this paper, we present a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the DARP. The algorithm is based on the classical cluster-first, route-second approach, where it alternates between assigning customers to vehicles using a GA and solving independent...

  5. Analysis and Modeling of Park and Ride Choice Behavior in Commuting Travel%通勤出行中停车换乘选择行为分析与建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云美萍; 刘贤玮; 陈震寰; 杨晓光

    2012-01-01

    针对通勤出行研究驾车者的停车换乘选择行为,选取上海市典型停车换乘站对驾车通勤者与公共交通通勤者进行了RP(revealed preference)调查与SP(stated preference)调查,基于调查数据分析了选择停车换乘与否的影响因素,并针对道路交通通畅、堵塞2种状态分别建立了是否停车换乘的二项Logit模型.模型结果显示低收入的年轻人更倾向于选择停车换乘;交通状态堵塞时是否有老人或小孩等家庭特征显著影响停车换乘选择行为;模型还揭示了通畅时通勤者更关注出行费用,而堵塞时通勤者更关注出行时耗和舒适性,并分析了时间和费用敏感度对停车换乘选择概率的影响及其差异.%This paper focuses on travelers' choice behavior of park and ride or driving alone in commuting trips. Revealed preference (RP) and stated preference (SP) surveys of car drivers' and public passengers' mode choice behaviors are performed in typical park of ride (PR) transfer station in Shanghai. Based on survey data, influencing factors of PR choice are analyzed. Two individual binary logit models are established under smooth traffic state and congested state respectively on whether car drivers will park and transfer to metro. Model results show that young commuters with lower income are more likely to choose PR. Whether a household has elders or children influences PR choice significantly under congested traffic. The results also indicate that commuters put more attention on travel cost when traffic is fluent. However, they care more about time consumption and comfortableness when traffic is congested. Furthermore, the influence of time and cost sensitivity on PR choice behavior is presented.

  6. Frequency weighting filter design for automotive ride comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low- and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m • s-2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  7. ¿Conduciendo las ruedas del cambio? Jóvenes motociclistas y la “crisis de la juventud” en Sierra Leona | Riding the wheels of change? Young bike riders and the “crisis of youth” in Sierra Leona

    OpenAIRE

    Bürge, Michael; Peters, Krijn

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo consideramos el conflicto armado (1991-2002) en Sierra Leona como el resultado violento de la “crisis de la juventud” (crisis of youth) generada por un estado patrimonial en colapso y las habituales prácticas de explotación por parte de las autoridades tradicionales en las áreas rurales, que afectaban particularmente a la población joven procedentes de linajes débiles. El rápido aumento en la posguerra del número de “mototaxis” –un sector dominado por excombatientes inmediata...

  8. Minimum Makespan Multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R.

    -vehicle Dial-a-Ride problem, there are q vehicles each having capacity k and where each vehicle j is an element of [q] has its own depot-vertex r(j) is an element of V. A feasible schedule consists of a capacitated route for each vehicle (where vehicle j originates and ends at its depot r(j)) that together...... move all objects from their sources to destinations. The objective is to find a feasible schedule that minimizes the maximum completion time (i.e. makespan) of vehicles, where the completion time of vehicle j is the time when it returns to its depot r(j) at the end of its route. We consider the...

  9. Trails, Bike, Where statewide bike routes run through 9 county region in South Georgia, Published in 2002, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Where statewide...

  10. Roller-Coaster Ride to Relief from TMJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: TMJ Roller-coaster Ride to Relief From TMJ Past Issues / Winter ... two decades, TMJ has made her life a roller coaster of constant pain. Since the late 1980s, Patricia (" ...

  11. The Addition of a Video Game to Stationary Cycling: The Impact on Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Bryan L; Siegel, Shannon R; Wikin, Linda D

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity in children has reached epidemic proportions with over 37% of children aged 6-11 years in the U.S. being classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight." Utilization of active video games has been proposed as one possible mechanism to help shift the tide of the obesity epidemic. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if riding a stationary bike that controlled a video game would lead to significantly greater energy expenditure than riding the same bike without the video game connected. METHODS: Twenty children, 7-14 years old, with a BMI classification of "at risk for overweight" or "overweight" participated in this study. Following familiarization, energy expenditure was evaluated while riding a stationary bike for 20 minutes. One test was performed without the addition of a video game and one test with the bike controlling the speed of a car on the video game. RESULTS: Oxygen consumption and energy expenditure were significantly elevated above baseline in both conditions. Energy expenditure was significantly higher while riding the bike as it controlled the video game (4.4 ± 1.2 Kcal·min(-1)) than when riding the bike by itself (3.7 ± 1.1 Kcal·min(-1)) (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Using a stationary bike to control a video game led to greater energy expenditure than riding a stationary bike without the video game and without a related increase in perceived exertion. PMID:19946380

  12. “I Am the Wolf: Queering ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ and ‘Snow White and Rose Red’ in the Television Show Once Upon a Time”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Warman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In season one, episode 15 of the television show Once Upon a Time, viewers are given a glimpse into the history of Ruby/Red, the series’ version of Red Riding Hood. The episode reveals that, contrary to most oral and written versions of the ATU 333 tale, Red herself is the wolf: a werewolf who must wear an enchanted red cloak in order to keep from turning into a monster. The episode also features the beginnings of the close friendship between Red and Snow White. The sisterly bond that quickly forms between the two women, combined with the striking images of their respective red and white cloaks, easily calls to mind a less familiar fairy tale not explicitly referenced in the series: “Snow White and Rose Red” (ATU 426. Taking queer readings of this text as starting points, I argue that this allusion complicates the bond between the two women, opening up space for a compelling reading of Red’s werewolf nature as a coded depiction of her then latent but later confirmed bisexuality.

  13. Living and Dying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2008-01-01

    "See that shop we just passed with the traditional silk clothes on those mannequins? Such shops only sew outfits for dead people. I bet you don’t do that in the West,"com- mented Mr.Yang,my erstwhile colleague. We were riding our bikes around the city after teaching a special course together."Well,we spend huge sums to embalm people,make them look like they’re still alive and in the peak of health.We do dress our dead up well,butⅠdoubt anyone orders special suits from exclusive shops for the journey to the netherworld.Do you believe in any afterlife or have a religion,Yang?"I asked,craning my head to look at him.With

  14. Coordinated Control of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Farm and a Static Synchronous Compensator for Low Voltage Ride-through Grid Code Compliance during Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Geng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore a viable solution for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind farm to meet the reactive support requirement of the low voltage ride-through (LVRT grid code with safe grid-connected operation during asymmetrical grid faults. First, the control scheme for the DFIG-based wind energy conversion system (WECS is designed. Then, the controllability issue is analyzed by means of an optimal method, and the derived controllable regions indicate that the DFIG-based WECS can only remain controllable under mild asymmetrical fault situations. Afterwards, the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is introduced as extra equipment to ensure that the DFIG-based wind farm remains controllable under severe asymmetrical fault situations. For this purpose, a voltage compensation control scheme and a corresponding capacity matching method for the STATCOM are proposed. The simulation results verify that, with the proposed coordinated control between the DFIG-based wind farm and the STATCOM, the required positive-sequence reactive current can be supplied to support the power grid. The oscillations on the electromagnetic torque and direct current (DC-link voltage of the DFIG-based WECS can also be eliminated. Therefore, the control scheme can be helpful to improve the reliability of both the wind farm and the power system during grid faults.

  15. GRASP with path-relinking for the selective pickup and delivery problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Szeto, W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bike sharing systems are very popular nowadays. One of the characteristics is that bikes are picked up from some surplus bike stations and transported to all deficit bike stations by a repositioning vehicle with limited capacity to satisfy the demand of deficit bike stations. Motivated by this real...... world bicycle repositioning problem, we study the selective pickup and delivery problem, where demand at every delivery node has to be satisfied by the supply collected from a subset of pickup nodes. The objective is to minimize the total travel cost incurred from visiting the nodes. We present a GRASP...

  16. Second-order sliding mode control for DFIG-based wind turbines fault ride-through capability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbouzid, Mohamed; Beltran, Brice; Amirat, Yassine; Yao, Gang; Han, Jingang; Mangel, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the fault ride-through capability assessment of a doubly fed induction generator-based wind turbine using a high-order sliding mode control. Indeed, it has been recently suggested that sliding mode control is a solution of choice to the fault ride-through problem. In this context, this paper proposes a second-order sliding mode as an improved solution that handle the classical sliding mode chattering problem. Indeed, the main and attractive features of high-order sliding modes are robustness against external disturbances, the grids faults in particular, and chattering-free behavior (no extra mechanical stress on the wind turbine drive train). Simulations using the NREL FAST code on a 1.5-MW wind turbine are carried out to evaluate ride-through performance of the proposed high-order sliding mode control strategy in case of grid frequency variations and unbalanced voltage sags. PMID:24530194

  17. The Australian Movement against Uranium Mining: Its Rationale and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Branagan

    2014-09-01

    The paper then describes how the movement evolved between the Roxby and Jabiluka blockades, with changes to the movement’s philosophy, strategy, tactics and internal dynamics. This analysis includes a comparison between two anti-nuclear bike rides, one a year after the 1984 Roxby blockade and involving some of the same activists, and another at the time of the Jabiluka blockade. This author was present at all these events, and provides an emic (insider perspective within a longitudinal participant-observation methodology. Although this perspective obviously has a subjective element, the paper fills a gap in that there is little written history of these blockades (particularly Roxby and more generally of Australian resistance to uranium mining, let alone the aspects of nonviolence and movement evolution. It is an introductory history of these campaigns, examining the direct action components, the practicalities of nonviolent campaigning, and the evolution of Australian anti-uranium activism.

  18. Experimental Study on the Ride Comfort of a Crawler Power Chassis Scale Model Based on the Similitude Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianzhu; WANG Fengchen; YU Bin; TONG Pengcheng; CHEN Kuifu

    2015-01-01

    The ride comfort experimental assessment of crawler off-road vehicle is relatively overlooked, and is expensive and difficult to execute with higher and higher ride comfort performance requirements. To trade off between precise and cost, an experimental method based on the similitude theory is proposed. Under the guidance of the similitude theory, a 1:5 crawler power chassis scale model equipped with a kind of variable stiffness suspension system is used. The power spectrum density(PSD), the root mean square(RMS) of weighed acceleration, peak factor, average absorbed power(AAP) and vibration dose value(VDV) are selected as ride comfort evaluation indexes, and tests results are transformed via similarity indexes to predict the performance of full-scale power chassis. PSD shows that the low-order natural frequency of the vertical natural frequency(z axis) is 1.1 Hz, and the RMS, AAP and VDV values indicate the ride comfort performance of this kind of power chassis is between the“A little uncomfortable”and“Rather uncomfortable”. From the results, low-order vertical natural frequency, obtalned by PSD, validates that the similarity relationship between two models is satisfied, and 1:5 scale model used in experiment meets the similarity relationship with the full-scale model; consequently, the ride comfort prophase evaluation with the 1:5 scale model is feasible. The attempt of applying the similitude theory to crawler vehicle ride comfort test study decreases the cost and improves the test feasibility with sufficient test precise.

  19. Dyspraxia series: part one. At sixes and sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia in the UK, is a common disorder affecting motor co-ordination in children and for many continues into adulthood. This condition is formally recognised by international organisations including the World Health Organisation. DCD is distinct from other motor disorders such as cerebral palsy and stroke. The range of intellectual ability is in line with the general population. Individuals may vary in how their difficulties present. The co-ordination difficulties may affect participation and functioning of everyday life skills in education, work and employment. Children may present with difficulties in writing, typing, riding a bike, self care tasks, and recreational activities. In adulthood many of these difficulties will continue, as well as learning new skills at home and work such as planning, organisation, driving a car and DIY. PMID:21980693

  20. Epidemiological pattern of motorcycle injuries with focus on riding purpose: Experience from a middle-income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leili Abedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death worldwide which usually occurs among people aged between15-29 years. In most LAMICs, half of fatal road traffic injuries occur among motorcyclists, which little is known about purpose of riding among motorcycle riders. Objectives: To map out epidemiological aspects of motorcycle traffic injuries with a focus on purpose of riding among victims admitted to referral centers, Tabriz, Iran. Materials/Patients and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 200 motorcycle traumatic patients admitted to Shohada and Imam Reza trauma centers in Tabriz((because these two hospitals are referral for trauma in East Azarbyjan Province, Iran from April till November 2013. A questionnaire was filled out through face to face interview for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11. Results: All subjects were male with mean age of 29 years old. Among injured riders, 70% and 22% of them used helmet and had a riding license, respectively. About 23% of motorcycle riders stated that their main purpose of motorcycle riding was only for fun. Among motorcycle riders who used the motorcycle for fun purposes, the rate of helmet wearing was 43.5% versus 78% among those riding for other purposes (P 0.05; Odd ratio=1. 56, 95% CI: 0. 67-3.4. Crashes have happened more in the summer and during the afternoon times. Conclusion: Motorcyclists who rode motorcycles for fun and amusement, not having rider licenses and helmets wearing were less than other motorcycle riders. Since motorcyclists are mainly young, the rate of risky behavior in this group is higher. Therefore, it is suggested that young motorcycle riders who ride for fun, needs the priority for safety promotion intervention.