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Sample records for bigeye tuna thunnus

  1. Physiological and behavioural thermoregulation in bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, K N; Brill, R W; Chang, R K; Sibert, J R; Fournier, D A

    1992-07-30

    Tuna are unique among teleost fishes in being thermoconserving. Vascular counter-current heat exchangers maintain body temperatures above ambient water temperature, thereby improving locomotor muscle efficiency, especially at burst speeds and when pursuing prey below the thermocline. Because tuna also occasionally swim rapidly in warm surface waters, it has been hypothesized that tuna thermoregulate to accommodate changing activity levels or ambient temperatures. But previous field experiments have been unable to demonstrate definitively short-latency, mammalian-type physiological thermoregulation. Here we show using telemetered data that free-ranging bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) can rapidly alter whole-body thermal conductivity by two orders of magnitude. The heat exchangers are disengaged to allow rapid warming as the tuna ascend from cold water into warmer surface waters, and are reactivated to conserve heat when they return into the depths. Combining physiological and behavioural thermoregulation expands the foraging space of bigeye tuna into otherwise prohibitively cold, deep water. PMID:1641023

  2. Autoxidation of myoglobin from bigeye tuna fish (Thunnus obesus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Y; Matsuoka, A; Kobayashi, N; Shikama, K

    1990-03-29

    Native oxymyoglobin (MbO2) was isolated directly from the skeletal muscle of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) with complete separation from metmyoglobin (metMb) on a CM-cellulose column. It was examined for its stability properties over a wide range of pH values (pH 5-12) in 0.1 M buffer at 25 degrees C. When compared with sperm whale MbO2 as a reference, the tuna MbO2 was found to be much more susceptible to autoxidation. Kinetic analysis has revealed that the rate constant for a nucleophilic displacement of O2- from MbO2 by an entering water molecule is 10-times higher than the corresponding value for sperm whale MbO2. The magnitude of the circular dichroism of bigeye tuna myoglobin at 222 nm was comparable to that of sperm whale myoglobin, but its hydropathy profile revealed the region corresponding to the distal side of the heme iron to be apparently less hydrophobic. The kinetic simulation also demonstrated that accessibility of the solvent water molecule to the heme pocket is clearly a key factor in the stability properties of the bound dioxygen. PMID:2317515

  3. Genetic diversity and historical demography of Atlantic bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Pilar; González, Elena G.; Castilho, Rita; Zardoya, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Bigeye (Thunnus obesus) is a large, pelagic, and migratory species of tuna that inhabits tropical and temperate marine waters worldwide. Previous studies based on mitochondrial RFLP data have shown that bigeye tunas from the Atlantic Ocean are the most interesting from a genetic point of view. Two highly divergent mitochondrial haplotype clades (I and II) coexist in the Atlantic Ocean. One is almost exclusive of the Atlantic Ocean whereas the other is also found in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Big...

  4. Movement patterns of large bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the open ocean determined using ultrasonic telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Dagorn, Laurent; Bach, Pascal; Josse, Erwan

    2000-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical movements of large bigeye tuna (#Thunnus obesus$ Lowe, 1839 ; 25 to 50 kg) captured in the south Pacific Ocean (French Polynesia) were determined using pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transmitters. Bigeye tuna swam within the first 100 m below the surface during the night-time and at depths between 400 and 500 m during the daytime. The fish exhibited clear relationships with the sound scattering layer (SSL). They followed its vertical movements at dawn and dusk, and ...

  5. Discrimination of Juvenile Yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and Bigeye (T. obesus) Tunas using Mitochondrial DNA Control Region and Liver Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrosa-Gerasmio, Ivane R.; Babaran, Ricardo P.; Santos, Mudjekeewis D.

    2012-01-01

    Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) and bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839) are two of the most economically important tuna species in the world. However, identification of their juveniles, especially at sizes less than 40 cm, is very difficult, often leading to misidentification and miscalculation of their catch estimates. Here, we applied the mitochondrial DNA control region D-loop, a recently validated genetic marker used for identifying tuna species (Genus Thunnus), ...

  6. Preliminary studies of age and growth of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the western Indian Ocean.

    OpenAIRE

    Stequert, B.; Conand, F.

    1998-01-01

    The age and growth of Bigeye tuna from the western Indian Ocean was investigated using both otolith and first dorsal spine. Microincrements, considered as daily depositions , were observed on transverse section of sagittal otoliths of 154 bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus); they were counted to determine age and establish growth curve. The von Bertalanffy growth curve is FL = 303.9 (1 – e-0.000397 ( t+167.15)), where FL is fork length in cm and t in days. The fish reaches 58 cm at 1 year, 91 cm at ...

  7. Temperature sensitivity of cardiac function in pelagic fishes with different vertical mobilities: yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Gina L J; Shiels, Holly A; Brill, Richard W

    2009-01-01

    We measured the temperature sensitivity, adrenergic sensitivity, and dependence on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) of ventricular muscle from pelagic fishes with different vertical mobility patterns: bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and a single specimen from swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Ventricular muscle from the bigeye tuna and mahimahi exhibited a biphasic response to an acute decrease in temperature (from 26 degrees to 7 degrees C); twitch force and kinetic parameters initially increased and then declined. The magnitude of this response was larger in the bigeye tuna than in the mahimahi. Under steady state conditions at 26 degrees C, inhibition of SR Ca(2+) release and reuptake with ryanodine and thapsigargin decreased twitch force and kinetic parameters, respectively, in the bigeye tuna only. However, the initial inotropy associated with decreasing temperature was abolished by SR inhibition in both the bigeye tuna and the mahimahi. Application of adrenaline completely reversed the effects of ryanodine and thapsigargin, but this effect was diminished at cold temperatures. In the yellowfin tuna, temperature and SR inhibition had minor effects on twitch force and kinetics, while adrenaline significantly increased these parameters. Limited data suggest that swordfish ventricular muscle responds to acute temperature reduction, SR inhibition, and adrenergic stimulation in a manner similar to that of bigeye tuna ventricular muscle. In aggregate, our results show that the temperature sensitivity, SR dependence, and adrenergic sensitivity of pelagic fish hearts are species specific and that these differences reflect species-specific vertical mobility patterns. PMID:19284308

  8. Genetic diversity and historical demography of Atlantic bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Pilar; González, Elena G; Castilho, Rita; Zardoya, Rafael

    2006-05-01

    Bigeye (Thunnus obesus) is a large, pelagic, and migratory species of tuna that inhabits tropical and temperate marine waters worldwide. Previous studies based on mitochondrial RFLP data have shown that bigeye tunas from the Atlantic Ocean are the most interesting from a genetic point of view. Two highly divergent mitochondrial haplotype clades (I and II) coexist in the Atlantic Ocean. One is almost exclusive of the Atlantic Ocean whereas the other is also found in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Bigeye tuna from the Atlantic Ocean is currently managed as a single stock, although this assumption remains untested at the genetic level. Therefore, genetic diversity was determined at the mitochondrial control region to test the null hypothesis of no population structure in bigeye tuna from the Atlantic Ocean. A total of 331 specimens were sampled from four locations in the Atlantic Ocean (Canada, Azores, Canary Islands, and Gulf of Guinea), and one in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively. The reconstructed neighbor-joining phylogeny confirmed the presence of Clades I and II throughout the Atlantic Ocean. No apparent latitudinal gradient of the proportions of both clades in the different collection sites was observed. Hierarchical AMOVA tests and pairwise phi(ST) comparisons involving Atlantic Ocean Clades I and II were consistent with a single stock of bigeye tuna in the Atlantic Ocean. Population genetic analyses considering phylogroups independently supported gene flow within Clade II throughout the Atlantic Ocean, and within Clade I between Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. The latter result suggests present uni-directional gene flow from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, mismatch analyses dated divergence of Clades I and II during the Pleistocene, as previously proposed. In addition, migration rates were estimated using coalescent methods, and showed a net migration from Atlantic Ocean feeding grounds towards the Gulf of Guinea, the best

  9. Size at Sexual Maturity of Bigeye Tuna Thunnus obesus (Perciformes: scombridae) in the Tropical Waters: a Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guoping, ZHU; Xiaojie, DAI; Liming, SONG; Liuxiong, 2 XU

    2011-01-01

    The size and proportions of bigeye tuna reach maturity in the stock is an important reference for decision making in fisheries management. The size at 50% sexual maturity (L50) of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus, was investigated, the data was taken from the 1,042 sampling fish caught from the tropical Atlantic Ocean (TAO), 1,313 from the west-central tropical Indian Ocean (WCTIO) and 391 from the Eastern and Central Tropical Pacific Ocean (ECTPO) and five c...

  10. Behavior of yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye (T-obesus) tuna in a network of fish aggregating devices (FADs)

    OpenAIRE

    Dagorn, Laurent; Holland, K. N.; Itano, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of multiple anchored fish aggregating devices (FADs) on the spatial behavior of yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye tuna (T. obesus) was investigated by equipping all thirteen FADs surrounding the island of Oahu (HI, USA) with automated sonic receivers ("listening stations") and intra-peritoneally implanting individually coded acoustic transmitters in 45 yellowfin and 12 bigeye tuna. Thus, the FAD network became a multi-element passive observatory of the residence and movem...

  11. Discrimination of juvenile yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye (T. obesus) Tunas using mitochondrial DNA control region and liver morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa-Gerasmio, Ivane R; Babaran, Ricardo P; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2012-01-01

    Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) and bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839) are two of the most economically important tuna species in the world. However, identification of their juveniles, especially at sizes less than 40 cm, is very difficult, often leading to misidentification and miscalculation of their catch estimates. Here, we applied the mitochondrial DNA control region D-loop, a recently validated genetic marker used for identifying tuna species (Genus Thunnus), to discriminate juvenile tunas caught by purse seine and ringnet sets around fish aggregating devices (FADs) off the Southern Iloilo Peninsula in Central Philippines. We checked individual identifications using the Neighbor-Joining Method and compared results with morphometric analyses and the liver phenotype. We tested 48 specimens ranging from 13 to 31 cm fork length. Morpho-meristic analyses suggested that 12 specimens (25%) were bigeye tuna and 36 specimens (75%) were yellowfin tuna. In contrast, the genetic and liver analyses both showed that 5 specimens (10%) were bigeye tuna and 43 (90%) yellowfin tuna. This suggests that misidentification can occur even with highly stringent morpho-meristic characters and that the mtDNA control region and liver phenotype are excellent markers to discriminate juveniles of yellowfin and bigeye tunas. PMID:22536417

  12. Spatiotemporal variability in bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) dive behavior in the central North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Evan A.; Hawn, Donald R.; Polovina, Jeffrey J.

    2010-07-01

    Data from 29 pop-up archival transmission (PAT) tags deployed on commercial-size bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the central North Pacific Ocean from 4°N to 32°N were analyzed to describe variability in their dive behavior across space and time. During the day, bigeye tuna generally spent time in the 0-50 m and 300-400 m depth ranges, with spatial and temporal variability in the deep mode. At night, bigeye tuna generally inhabited the 0-100 m depth range. Three daily dive types were defined based on the percentage of time tuna spent in specific depth layers during the day. These three types were defined as shallow, intermediate, and deep and represented 24.4%, 18.8%, and 56.8% of the total number of days in the study, respectively. More shallow and intermediate dive-type behavior was found in the first half of the year, and in latitudes from 14°N to 16°N and north of 28°N. A greater amount of deep-dive behavior was found in the regions south of 10°N and between 18°N and 28°N during the third and fourth quarters of the year. Dive-type behavior also varied with oceanographic conditions, with more shallow and intermediate behavior found in colder surface waters. Intermediate and deep-dive types were pooled to reflect the depths where bigeye tuna may have potential interactions with fishing gear. A Generalized Additive Model was used to quantify the effects of time, space, and sea surface temperature on this pooled dive type. Results from the model showed that while latitude and quarter of the year were important parameters, sea surface temperature had the most significant effect on the pooled intermediate and deep-dive behavior. Model predictions indicated that the largest percentage of potential interaction would occur in the fourth quarter in the region from 18°N-20°N, which corresponds to the time and place of the highest bigeye tuna catch rates by the Hawaii-based long-line fishery. These results suggest that a model framework using these three

  13. The potential use of time-area closures to reduce catches of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the purse-seine fishery of the eastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, Shelton J.; Suter, Jenny M.

    2007-01-01

    Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), and bigeye (Thunnus obesus) tunas are caught by purse-seine vessels in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). Although there is no evidence to indicate that current levels of fishing-induced mortality will affect the sustainability of skipjack or yellowfin tunas, fishing mortality on juvenile (younger than 5 years of age) bigeye tuna has increased, and overall fishing mortality is greater than that necessary to produce the maximum ...

  14. Transectional heat transfer in thermoregulating bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) - a 2D heat flux model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Jess; Musyl, Michael; Brill, Richard; Malte, Hans

    2009-11-01

    We developed a 2D heat flux model to elucidate routes and rates of heat transfer within bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe 1839 in both steady-state and time-dependent settings. In modeling the former situation, we adjusted the efficiencies of heat conservation in the red and the white muscle so as to make the output of the model agree as closely as possible with observed cross-sectional isotherms. In modeling the latter situation, we applied the heat exchanger efficiencies from the steady-state model to predict the distribution of temperature and heat fluxes in bigeye tuna during their extensive daily vertical excursions. The simulations yielded a close match to the data recorded in free-swimming fish and strongly point to the importance of the heat-producing and heat-conserving properties of the white muscle. The best correspondence between model output and observed data was obtained when the countercurrent heat exchangers in the blood flow pathways to the red and white muscle retained 99% and 96% (respectively) of the heat produced in these tissues. Our model confirms that the ability of bigeye tuna to maintain elevated muscle temperatures during their extensive daily vertical movements depends on their ability to rapidly modulate heating and cooling rates. This study shows that the differential cooling and heating rates could be fully accounted for by a mechanism where blood flow to the swimming muscles is either exclusively through the heat exchangers or completely shunted around them, depending on the ambient temperature relative to the body temperature. Our results therefore strongly suggest that such a mechanism is involved in the extensive physiological thermoregulatory abilities of endothermic bigeye tuna. PMID:19880733

  15. Total and organic mercury concentrations in the muscles of Pacific albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiee-Young; Lai, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Hsu, Chien-Chung; Hung, Chin-Chang; Chen, Meng-Hsien

    2014-08-30

    Muscles of 115 North Pacific albacore (ALB, Thunnus alalunga) and 75 Pacific bigeye tuna (BET, Thunnus obesus), collected from 2001 to 2006, were analyzed. No ALB, but 13 large BET had organic mercury (OH g) concentrations exceeding 1 μg g(-1) wet weight. For both ALB and BET, total mercury (THg) and OH g concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with fork length (FL) and body weight. The muscle Hg bioaccumulation rates of BET were higher than those of ALB, particularly in the adult fish. Moreover, the lines had crossover points among the two species that imply the young BET (FL<110 cm) contains lower muscle Hg concentrations than ALB of the same size. The suggested weekly dietary intake of ALB and small-BET meats is 340 g, and of BET meat it is 150 g for a 60-kg person based on the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of methylmercury set by the WHO. PMID:24559740

  16. Growth and mortality rates of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus (Perciformes: Scombridae) in the central Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoping; Xu, Liuxiong; Zhou, Yingqi; Chen, Xinjun

    2009-01-01

    Age and growth parameters were estimated for bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe, 1839 sampled from China longline fisheries in the central Atlantic Ocean from October 2002 to July 2003 and from August 2004 to March 2005. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L(infinity)=217.9 cm fork length, k=0.23 year(-1), and t(0)=-0.44 year. The total mortality rate (Z) was estimated to be from 0.82 to 1.02, the fishing mortality (F) and the natural mortality were 0.54 year(-1) and 0.39 year(-1), respectively. The exploitation ratio (E) was 0.35. This study provides the detailed estimates of growth and mortality rate for bigeye tuna in the central Atlantic Ocean, which can be used as biological input parameters in further stock evaluations in this region. However, age analysis, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are needed for future studies. PMID:19637690

  17. [Spatial-temporal distribution of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in the tropical Atlantic Ocean based on Argo data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-long; Jin, Shao-fei; Hua, Cheng-jun; Dai, Yang

    2015-02-01

    In order to analyze the correlation between spatial-temporal distribution of the bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) and subsurface factors, the study explored the isothermal distribution of subsurface temperatures in the bigeye tuna fishing grounds in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, and built up the spatial overlay chart of the isothermal lines of 9, 12, 13 and 15 °C and monthly CPUE (catch per unit effort) from bigeye tuna long-lines. The results showed that the bigeye tuna mainly distributed in the water layer (150-450 m) below the lower boundary depth of thermocline. At the isothermal line of 12 °C, the bigeye tuna mainly lived in the water layer of 190-260 m, while few individuals were found at water depth more than 400 m. As to the 13 °C isothermal line, high CPUE often appeared at water depth less than 250 m, mainly between 150-230 m, while no CPUE appeared at water depth more than 300 m. The optimum range of subsurface factors calculated by frequency analysis and empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) exhibited that the optimum depth range of 12 °C isothermal depth was 190-260 m and the 13 °C isothermal depth was 160-240 m, while the optimum depth difference range of 12 °C isothermal depth was -10 to 100 m and the 13 °C isothermal depth was -40 to 60 m. The study explored the optimum range of subsurface factors (water temperature and depth) that drive horizontal and vertical distribution of bigeye tuna. The preliminary result would help to discover the central fishing ground, instruct fishing depth, and provide theoretical and practical references for the longline production and resource management of bigeye tuna in the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:26094479

  18. Rare occurrence of a bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in British waters, with notes on other occurrences of sub-tropical tunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A; Parry, G S; Houghton, J D R; Herdson, D M

    2009-09-01

    A freshly dead bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus was washed ashore near Burry Port, Wales (51 degrees 40' N; 4 degrees 15' W) in August, 2006. This is only the third occasion that the species has been observed in British waters, and is the largest and most northerly recorded specimen. PMID:20738588

  19. Sensitivity analysis of catch-per-unit-effort of Atlantic bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) data series applied to production model

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Humber A.

    2015-01-01

    Different datasets and a Bayesian production model were used to assess the status of the Atlantic bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) stock. Several datasets convey little information hence estimations of parameters are imprecise unless a very restrictive prior is used. Modes of posteriors calculated for composite datasets are in between modes of the posteriors calculated for separated datasets. Most of the calculations indicate that biomass has decreased until the beginning of 1990's when the stock...

  20. Testing the Sensitivity of the Length-Converted Catch Method Using the Bigeye Tuna Thunnus obesus (Scombridae) Population Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    , Chia-Lung Shih

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates how sample size, length interval size, recruitment variation, and mortality over time influence total mortality, which is estimated by applying the length-converted catch method to the bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) population. Given the assumption of fish dynamics under an equilibrium state, an increasing sample size and decreasing length interval size can raise the accuracy of total mortality estimates, with a sample size of 3000 individuals and length class...

  1. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers indicate unidirectional gene flow of Indo-Pacific to Atlantic bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) populations, and their admixture off southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Collet, Adeline; Chow, S; Guinand, B.; Borsa, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    A sharp genetic break separates Atlantic from Indo-Pacific bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) populations, as the frequencies of two major mitochondrial (mt) DNA types (alpha and beta) found in this species are different across the tip of southern Africa. The level of nucleotide divergence between mtDNA types alpha and beta is of the same order as that between reproductively isolated taxa. To further investigate the genetic structure of bigeye tuna over its distribution range and in the contact zon...

  2. Evaluation of three harvest control rules for Bigeye Tuna ( Thunnus obesus) fisheries in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuhe; Chen, Xinjun; Kolody, Dale

    2014-10-01

    The stock of Bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean supports an important international fishery and is considered to be fully exploited. The responsible management agency, the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC), does not have an explicit management decision-making framework in place to prevent over-fishing. In this study, we evaluated three harvest control rules, i) constant fishing mortality (CF), from 0.2 to 0.6, ii) constant catch (CC), from 60000 to 140000 t, and iii) constant escapement (CE), from 0.3 to 0.7. The population dynamics simulated by the operating model was based on the most recent stock assessment using Stock Synthesis version III (SS3). Three simulation scenarios (low, medium and high productivity) were designed to cover possible uncertainty in the stock assessment and biological parameters. Performances of three harvest control rules were compared on the basis of three management objectives (over 3, 10 and 25 years): i) the probability of maintaining spawning stock biomass above a level that can sustain maximum sustainable yield (MSY) on average, ii) the probability of achieving average catches between 0.8 MSY and 1.0 MSY, and iii) inter-annual variability in catches. The constant escapement strategy ( CE=0.5), constant fishing mortality strategy ( F=0.4) and constant catch ( CC=80000) were the most rational among the respective management scenarios. It is concluded that the short-term annual catch is suggested at 80000 t, and the potential total allowable catch for a stable yield could be set at 120000 t once the stock had recovered successfully. All the strategies considered in this study to achieve a `tolerable' balance between resource conservation and utilization have been based around the management objectives of the IOTC.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of catch-per-unit-effort of Atlantic bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus data series applied to production model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humber A Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Different datasets and a Bayesian production model were used to assess the status of the Atlantic bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus stock. Several datasets convey little information hence estimations of parameters are imprecise unless a very restrictive prior is used. Modes of posteriors calculated for composite datasets are in between modes of the posteriors calculated for separated datasets. Most of the calculations indicate that biomass has decreased until the beginning of 1990's when the stock was overfished. Catches decreased after 1999 but there is doubt if the stock was recovering in 2000's. The answer depends on the dataset and on the prior distribution.

  4. Reproductive biology of female bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C L; Yeh, S Z; Chang, Y J; Chang, H Y; Chu, S L

    2013-08-01

    The reproductive biology of female bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus was assessed by examining 888 fish (ranging from 84·9 to 174·4 cm fork length, LF ) caught by Taiwanese offshore longliners in the western Pacific Ocean from November 1997 to November 1998 and November to December 1999 and 258 gonad samples from these fish. The overall sex ratio of the catch during the sampling differed significantly from 0·5, but males were predominant in sizes >140 cm LF . Reproductive activity (assessed by histology), a gonado-somatic index, and the size-frequency distributions of whole oocytes indicated that spawning occurred throughout the year and the major spawning season appeared to be from February to September. The estimated sizes at 50% maturity (LF50 ) of females was 102·85 cm (95% c.i.: 90·79-110·21 cm) and the smallest mature female was 99·7 cm LF . They are multiple spawners and oocytes develop asynchronously. The proportion of mature (0·63) and reproductively active (0·70) females with ovaries containing postovulatory follicles indicated that they spawn almost daily. Batch fecundity for 15 females with the most advanced oocytes (>730 µm) ranged from 0·84 to 8·56 million eggs (mean ± s.d. = 3·06 ± 2·09). The relationships between batch fecundity (FB , in millions of eggs) and LF (cm) and round mass (MR , kg) were FB=9·91×10-14LF6·38 (r(2)  = 0·84) and FB=8·89×10-4MR2·05 (r(2)  = 0·80), respectively. The parameters estimated in this study are key information for stock assessments of T. obesus in the western Pacific Ocean and will contribute to the conservation and sustainable yield of this species. PMID:23902305

  5. Age and growth estimation of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Teleostei: Scombridae in the southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Duarte-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to supply the first information on age and growth for Thunnus obesus caught in the equatorial south-western Atlantic using dorsal spines, an approach that has been successfully employed for ageing tuna species. The study was conducted using a multi-model inference based on information theory for back-calculated and observed length-at-age data. Uncertainty associated with the parameter estimation was verified and results were compared to other accounts on the species, considering both the statistical and methodological contexts. Samples were collected in Natal city (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil from February 1999 to January 2000, of tuna vessels and from surveys, aimed at providing information on the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ in the area around São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago. Validation using marginal increment indicated that one ring is deposited per year. Mean length-at-age ranged of 54.3 to 177.5 cm (fork length for ages 1 to 9 years. Von Bertalanffy, Richards, and Gompertz models were considered suitable for the bigeye tuna. Hence, the model-averaged asymptotic length ¯L∞ was estimated. The averaged model generated in the present study by back-calculation was considered appropriate for describing the growth of T. obesus.A proposta do presente estudo foi fornecer a primeira informação sobre idade e crescimento de Thunnus obesus, capturado no Atlântico sudoeste equatorial usando espinhos dorsais, uma abordagem que tem sido utilizada com sucesso na determinação de idade de espécies de atuns. O estudo foi conduzido usando uma inferência de multi-modelos baseada na teoria de informação avaliada para dados de comprimento por idade retrocalculados e observados. Incertezas associadas aos parâmetros foram verificadas e os resultados foram comparados aos de outros estudos realizados para esta espécie, considerando os contextos estatísticos e metodológicos. As amostras foram

  6. Forage fauna in the diet of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Teodoro Vaske Júnior; Paulo Eurico Travassos; Fábio Hissa Vieira Hazin; Mariana Travassos Tolotti; Taciana Martins Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    A total of 291 stomachs of bigeye tuna caught in the Western tropical Atlantic Ocean ranging between 60 and 195 cm fork length, were analyzed between October 2004 and November 2005. The vertical distribution of prey was studied in relation to their feeding strategies. A total of 83 prey items were identified of which 46 were fishes, represented mainly by brephoepipelagic, and meso-bathypelagic fishes; 20 cephalopods, 13 pelagic crustaceans, one tunicate, one heteropod and one pteropod. The Ca...

  7. Shifting from marine reserves to maritime zoning for conservation of Pacific bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sibert, John; Senina, Inna; Lehodey, Patrick; Hampton, John

    2012-01-01

    Over 50% of the total bigeye tuna (BET) landed in the Western Central Pacific Ocean is caught incidentally in the purse seine fishery and sold for canning at prices less than US$2/kg. The remainder is landed in longline fisheries directed at BET and sold as fresh or frozen tuna at prices greater than US$10/kg. The combined fishing mortality by all gears will soon reduce the BET biomass in the Pacific Ocean to less than that capable of producing maximum sustainable yield. Closure of the high-s...

  8. Shifting from marine reserves to maritime zoning for conservation of Pacific bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, John; Senina, Inna; Lehodey, Patrick; Hampton, John

    2012-10-30

    Over 50% of the total bigeye tuna (BET) landed in the Western Central Pacific Ocean is caught incidentally in the purse seine fishery and sold for canning at prices less than US$2/kg. The remainder is landed in longline fisheries directed at BET and sold as fresh or frozen tuna at prices greater than US$10/kg. The combined fishing mortality by all gears will soon reduce the BET biomass in the Pacific Ocean to less than that capable of producing maximum sustainable yield. Closure of the high-seas enclaves in 2009 was hailed as a conservation measure, but was not scientifically evaluated before implementation and appears to have had no beneficial effect on the BET stock. A spatially explicit age-structured ecosystem model, SEAPODYM, is used to simulate alternative area-based fishery management policies to conserve bigeye tuna in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. Closing the high-seas enclaves to purse seine fishing has negligible effect on the BET biomass. Fishery management policies that control mortality on both juveniles and adults, through prohibition of fish aggregation devices in the purse seine fishery and restrictions on longline fishing in spawning areas, are the most efficient conservation policies. Large-scale benefits from bigeye conservation measures will become apparent only in the 2030s, assuming timely implementation and minimal effects of climate change. PMID:23064639

  9. Effects of El Niño–Southern Oscillation events on catches of Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the eastern Indian Ocean off Java

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsuddin, Mega L.; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Hirawake, Toru; Bachri, Samsul; Harto, Agung B.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of El Niño–Southern Oscillation events on catches of Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) off Java were evaluated through the use of remotely sensed environmental data (sea-surface-height anomaly [SSHA], sea-surface temperature [SST], and chlorophyll a concentration), and Bigeye Tuna catch data. Analyses were conducted for the period of 1997–2000, which included the 1997–98 El Niño and 1999–2000 La Niña events. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) was ...

  10. Age and growth estimation of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Teleostei: Scombridae) in the southwestern Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Duarte-Neto; Fábio M. Higa; Rosangela P. Lessa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to supply the first information on age and growth for Thunnus obesus caught in the equatorial south-western Atlantic using dorsal spines, an approach that has been successfully employed for ageing tuna species. The study was conducted using a multi-model inference based on information theory for back-calculated and observed length-at-age data. Uncertainty associated with the parameter estimation was verified and results were compared to other accounts on t...

  11. Genetic structuring and migration patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beerli Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large pelagic fishes are generally thought to have little population genetic structuring based on their cosmopolitan distribution, large population sizes and high dispersal capacities. However, gene flow can be influenced by ecological (e.g. homing behaviour and physical (e.g. present-day ocean currents, past changes in sea temperature and levels factors. In this regard, Atlantic bigeye tuna shows an interesting genetic structuring pattern with two highly divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades I and II, which are assumed to have been originated during the last Pleistocene glacial maxima. We assess genetic structure patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna at the nuclear level, and compare them with mitochondrial evidence. Results We examined allele size variation of nine microsatellite loci in 380 individuals from the Gulf of Guinea, Canary, Azores, Canada, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. To investigate temporal stability of genetic structure, three Atlantic Ocean sites were re-sampled a second year. Hierarchical AMOVA tests, RST pairwise comparisons, isolation by distance (Mantel tests, Bayesian clustering analyses, and coalescence-based migration rate inferences supported unrestricted gene flow within the Atlantic Ocean at the nuclear level, and therefore interbreeding between individuals belonging to both mitochondrial clades. Moreover, departures from HWE in several loci were inferred for the samples of Guinea, and attributed to a Wahlund effect supporting the role of this region as a spawning and nursery area. Our microsatellite data supported a single worldwide panmictic unit for bigeye tunas. Despite the strong Agulhas Current, immigration rates seem to be higher from the Atlantic Ocean into the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but the actual number of individuals moving per generation is relatively low compared to the large population sizes inhabiting each ocean basin. Conclusion Lack of congruence between mt and nuclear evidences, which

  12. Differential heating and cooling rates in bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus Lowe): a model of non-steady state heat exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malte, Hans; Larsen, Christina; Musyl, Michael; Brill, Richard

    2007-08-01

    We analyzed water temperature, visceral cavity temperature and depth data from archival tags retrieved from bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) at liberty in the central Pacific for up to 57 days using a mathematical model of heat exchange. Our model took into account the transfer of heat between the portions of the myotomes comprising red muscle fibers adjacent to the spinal column and served by vascular counter current heat exchanges (henceforth referred to as ;red muscle') and the water, as well as between the red muscle and the temperature sensor of the archival tags in the visceral cavity. Our model successfully predicted the recorded visceral cavity temperatures during vertical excursions provided that the rate constants for heat transfer between the ambient water and the red muscle during cooling (k(low)) and those during heating (k(high)) were very dissimilar. Least-squares fitting of k(low) and k(high) for the entire period that the fish were at liberty yielded values generally in the ranges 0.02-0.04 min(-1) and 0.2-0.6 min(-1) (respectively), with an average ratio k(high)/k(low) of approximately 12. Our results confirmed those from previous studies showing that bigeye tuna have extensive physiological thermoregulatory abilities probably exerted through changes of blood flow patterns that controlled the efficiency of vascular countercurrent heat exchanges. There was a small but significant negative correlation between k(low) and size, whereas there was no correlation between k(high) and size. The maximum swimming speeds during vertical excursions (calculated from the pressure data) occurred midway during ascents and averaged approximately 2 FL s(-1) (where FL=fork length), although speeds as high approximately 4-7 FL s(-1) were also noted. PMID:17644676

  13. Gonadal histology and serum vitellogenin levels of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus from the Northern Pacific Ocean--absence of endocrine disruption bio-indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shinya; Kurihara, Ryo; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Yamasaki, Tsugiko; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Hara, Akihiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi

    2003-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals such as organochlorines have been detected in a large number of marine fish. Histological observation of the gonads, measurement of serum vitellogenin (VTG) level and of liver polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content were performed to evaluate the reproductive health and the contamination with endocrine disruptors in bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus, collected in the northern Pacific Ocean in 1999 and 2000. Abnormalities commonly found in species affected by endocrine disruptors such as the presence of oocytes in the testis or elevated serum VTG levels were not found in any of males examined. Both males and females had only small amounts of liver PCB content. The results suggest that currently there is little if any risk of organochlorine contamination or endocrine disruption of gonadal function in bigeye tuna from the northern Pacific Ocean. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the health status of the open sea fishery resources. PMID:12705919

  14. 76 FR 74747 - Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species; 2011 Bigeye Tuna Longline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... tons (mt) of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) for calendar year 2011 (74 FR 63999, December 7, 2009, and... Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species; 2011 Bigeye Tuna Longline Fishery Closure AGENCY: National Marine.... pelagic longline fishery for bigeye tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean as a result of...

  15. Organic and total mercury levels in bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus, harvested by Taiwanese fishing vessels in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M H; Teng, P Y; Chen, C Y; Hsu, C C

    2011-01-01

    Muscle samples of 121 and 110 bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) caught by Taiwanese long-line fishing vessels in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, respectively, were used to analyze total mercury (THg) and organic mercury (OHg) content. The overall THg and OHg concentrations were 0.786 ± 0.386 (0.214-3.133) and 0.595 ± 0.238 (0.143-2.222) mg kg⁻¹ wet weight, respectively, similar to the results of previous studies. Our findings, however, reflected the highest THg and OHg concentrations for the species in each ocean among the published data. Mean THg and OHg concentrations in Atlantic tuna were significantly (p tuna. Two of 121 samples of tuna from the Atlantic Ocean, but no samples from the Indian Ocean, had levels of OHg above 2 mg kg⁻¹ wet weight set by the Department of Health Taiwan, and 13 of 121 samples of tuna from the Atlantic Ocean and three of 110 samples from the Indian Ocean had levels of OHg above 1 mg kg⁻¹ wet weight set by US FDA and WHO. Accordingly, for adult Taiwanese men and women with average body weight of 65 and 55 kg, respectively, the maximum allowable weekly intake of bigeye tuna is suggested to be 170 and 145 g, respectively. PMID:24779657

  16. Forage fauna in the diet of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Vaske Júnior

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 291 stomachs of bigeye tuna caught in the Western tropical Atlantic Ocean ranging between 60 and 195 cm fork length, were analyzed between October 2004 and November 2005. The vertical distribution of prey was studied in relation to their feeding strategies. A total of 83 prey items were identified of which 46 were fishes, represented mainly by brephoepipelagic, and meso-bathypelagic fishes; 20 cephalopods, 13 pelagic crustaceans, one tunicate, one heteropod and one pteropod. The Caribbean pomfret Brama caribbea was the most important food item, followed by other mesopelagic fishes such as Alepisaurus ferox, Omosudis lowei, Gempylus serpens, Brama brama and Diretmus argenteus. The squid Ornithoteuthis antillarum was the main preyed-on cephalopod, and the crustaceans Caridea and Brachyuran megalopae were also important food items. The feeding may occur continuously, all the time, or at least during the greater part of the day or night, as part of the feeding strategy to prey upon a vertically scattered small prey distributed in the water column. The relative equality in the proportions of surface, mid-water and deep-water prey organisms reflects the behavior of constant vertical displacement in the search for prey. Although the bigeye tuna prefers subthermocline layers, most of its prey items perform diel migrations and can be preyed on both near the surface and in deeper waters.Um total de 291 estômagos de albacoras-bandolins capturadas no oceano Atlântico tropical oeste variando entre 60 e 195 cm de comprimento furcal, foram analisados entre outubro de 2004 e dezembro de 2005. A distribuição vertical das presas foi estudada em relação às estratégias alimentares. Um total de 83 itens alimentares foi identificado dos quais 46 foram peixes representados principalmente por peixes brefoepipelágicos e mesopelágicos, 20 cefalópodes, 13 crustáceos pelágicos, um tunicado, um heterópode e um pterópode. A palombeta

  17. Genetic divergence between Atlantic and Indo-Pacific stocks of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and admixture around South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, S; Okamoto, H; Miyabe, N; Hiramatsu, K; Barut, N

    2000-02-01

    Two mitochondrial DNA segments of the bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of these segments were used for the genetic stock study. The variation in a segment flanking the ATPase and COIII genes was low; only two genotypes (alpha and beta) were detected by RsaI digestion. Yet a large difference in the genotype distribution was observed between ocean basin samples. The alpha type predominated in four Atlantic samples, where 178 of 244 individuals were the alpha type. In contrast, only one of 195 individuals collected in the Indo-Pacific was the alpha type? The frequency of the alpha type varied considerably from 0 to 80% among seven samples collected off the Cape of Good Hope. The variation found in the other segment, containing the D-loop region, was much higher; two endonucleases (DpnII and RsaI) detected five genotypes each and 15 composite genotypes. A highly significant difference in genotype frequencies was observed between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific samples, but no heterogeneity was observed among the four Atlantic or among four Indo-Pacific samples. These results clearly indicate that not only gene flow, but also fish migration, between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans are severely restricted, and that fishes from these distinct stocks are intermingling around South Africa. The simple and diagnostic genetic marker found in this study can be used to estimate mixing ratios between Atlantic and Indian stocks around South Africa. PMID:10672166

  18. Dynamics of bigeye (Thunnus obesus) and yellowfin (T. albacares) tuna in Hawaii’s pelagic fisheries: analysis of tagging data with a bulk transfer model incorporating size-specific attrition

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, M. Shiham; Sibert, John; Itano, David; Holland, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Tag release and recapture data of bigeye (Thunnus obesus) and yellowfin tuna (T. albacares) from the Hawaii Tuna Tagging Project (HTTP) were analyzed with a bulk transfer model incorporating size-specific attrition to infer population dynamics and transfer rates between various fishery components. For both species, the transfer rate estimates from the offshore handline fishery areas to the longline fishery area were higher than the estimates of transfer from those same areas into the inshore ...

  19. Genetic structuring and migration patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839)

    OpenAIRE

    Beerli Peter; Gonzalez Elena G; Zardoya Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Large pelagic fishes are generally thought to have little population genetic structuring based on their cosmopolitan distribution, large population sizes and high dispersal capacities. However, gene flow can be influenced by ecological (e.g. homing behaviour) and physical (e.g. present-day ocean currents, past changes in sea temperature and levels) factors. In this regard, Atlantic bigeye tuna shows an interesting genetic structuring pattern with two highly divergent mitoc...

  20. Comment on "clarification regarding the distribution of bigeye tuna #Thunnus obesus$ in the Atlantic Ocean, including bristish waters

    OpenAIRE

    Chassot, Emmanuel; Kaplan, David; Ortiz De Zarate, V.; Romanov, Evgeny; Fonteneau, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Powell et al. (2009) recently reported the occurrence of a specimen of Thunnus obesus (Lowe) found stranded on 24 August 2006 near Burry Port, Wales, U.K. (51◦ 40 N; 4◦ 15 W). The authors describe the biological characteristics of the fish such as morphometric measurements and stomach contents, the diagnostic anatomical features for identifying T. obesus and discuss the past occurrences of tropical and temperate tunas in the Celtic Sea and adjacent areas.

  1. Form and function of the bulbus arteriosus in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans): static properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Marvin H; Brill, Richard W; Gosline, John M; Jones, David R

    2003-10-01

    The juxtaposition of heart and gills in teleost fish means that the Windkessel function characteristic of the whole mammalian arterial tree has to be subserved by the extremely short ventral aorta and bulbus arteriosus. Over the functional pressure range, arteries from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) have J-shaped pressure-volume (P-V) loops, while bulbi from the same species have r-shaped P-V loops, with a steep initial rise followed by a compliant plateau phase. The steep initial rise in pressure is due to the geometry of the lumen. The interactions between radius, pressure and tension require a large initial pressure to open the bulbar lumen for flow. The plateau is due to the unique organization of the bulbar wall. The large elastin:collagen ratio, limited amount of collagen arranged circumferentially, lack of elastin lamellae and low hydrophobicity of the elastin itself all combine to lower stiffness, increase extensibility and allow efficient recoil. Even though the modulus of bulbus material is much lower than that of an artery, at large volumes the overall stiffness of the bulbus increases rapidly. The morphological features that give rise to the special inflation characteristics of the bulbus help to extend flow and maintain pressure during diastole. PMID:12939364

  2. Movements, behavior, and habitat selection of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the eastern equatorial Pacific, ascertained through archival tags

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Kurt M.; Fuller, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    Ninety-six bigeye tuna (88– 134 cm fork length) were caught and released with implanted archival (electronic data storage) tags near fish-aggregating devices (FADs) in the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) during April 2000. Twenty-nine fish were recaptured, and the data from twenty-seven tags were successfully downloaded and processed. Time at liberty ranged from 8 to 446 days, and data for 23 fish at liberty for 30 days or more are presented. The accuracy in geolocation estimates, deri...

  3. Purification and antioxidant properties of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) dark muscle peptide on free radical-mediated oxidative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Jae-Young; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Byun, Hee-Guk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2008-12-01

    To produce bioactive peptides from by-products of fish processing, bigeye tuna dark muscle was hydrolyzed using various enzymes (alcalase, alpha-chymotrypsin, neutrase, papain, pepsin, and trypsin), and the hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Considering the results of degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activities, peptic hydrolysate was used for further studies to identify a potent antioxidant peptide. Antioxidant peptide was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods and was identified as being H-Leu-Asn-Leu-Pro-Thr-Ala-Val-Tyr-Met-Val-Thr-OH (MW 1,222 Da) by quantitative time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Purified antioxidant peptide from bigeye tuna dark muscle (APTDM) was investigated for its antioxidant activities using both free radical scavenging effects and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation inhibitory activity. The results showed that APTDM effectively quenched with low 50% inhibitory concentration values compared to vitamin C as a positive control against four different free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide, and alkyl radical. APTDM also inhibited PUFA peroxidation in a linoleic acid emulsion system, and the activity was similar to that of alpha-tocopherol. We further investigated its antioxidant activities on cellular systems, and the results showed that APTDM significantly scavenged cellular radicals and enhanced the viability of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cytotoxicity. These results indicate that APTDM or a peptide fraction containing APTDM would be a beneficial ingredient for functional food and/or pharmaceuticals. PMID:19053853

  4. The Distribution of Bigeye Tuna, Thunnus Obesus, and Three-Dimensional Thermal Structures Estimated from Satellite Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, A.; Yamazaki, H.

    2006-07-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of estimation of fish distribution, one needs to know real-time oceanographic conditions where fish concentrate. In this contribution, we propose an empirical approach to estimate three-dimensional thermal structure in near real time using satellite altimeter data. Making use of a two-layer system model (Goni et al, 1996), an empirical regression model for three-dimensional thermal structure is derived combining absolute dynamic topography (ADT) by AVISO, in-situ data of temperature and salinity measured by Argo profiling floats, and monthly mean objective analysis data of temperature and salinity. We have applied the proposed technique to estimate three-dimensional thermal structure of the western part of the North Pacific subtropical gyre. We show a good agreement between the model result and observed temperature profiles taken from XBT. We also demonstrate that the location of bigeye tuna (Tunnus obesus) fishing ground appears where deep thermocline shallows. This procedure makes it possible to improve the accuracy of estimation for the distribution of bigeye tuna.

  5. Evaluation of FAD-associated purse seine fishery reduction strategies for bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuhe; Chen, Xinjun; Xu, Liuxiong; Chen, Yong

    2013-07-01

    In the Indian Ocean, bigeye tuna supports one of the most important fisheries in the world. This fishery mainly consists of two components: longline and purse seine fisheries. Evidence of overfishing and stock depletion of bigeye tuna calls for an evaluation of alternative management strategies. Using an age-structured operating model, parameterized with the results derived in a recent stock assessment, we evaluated the effectiveness of applying constant fishing mortality (CF) and quasi-constant fishing mortality (QCF) strategies to reduce fishing effort of purse seining with fish aggregating devices (FADs) at different rates. Three different levels of productivity accounted for the uncertainty in our understanding of stock productivity. The study shows that the results of CF and QCF are similar. Average SSB and catch during simulation years would be higher if fishing mortality of FAD-associated purse seining was reduced rapidly. The banning or rapid reduction of purse seining with FAD resulted in a mean catch, and catch in the last simulation year, higher than that of the base case in which no change was made to the purse seine fishery. This could be caused by growth overfishing by purse seine fisheries with FADs according to the per-recruit analysis. These differences would be more obvious when stock productivity was low. Transferring efforts of FAD-associated purse seining to longline fisheries is also not feasible. Our study suggests that changes are necessary to improve the performance of the current management strategy.

  6. Feeding partitioning among tuna taken in surface and mid-water layers : the case of yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye (T.obesus) in the western tropical Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatié, R.; Marsac, F.; Hallier, J.P.; Potier, M.; Lucas, V.; Ménard, F.

    2004-01-01

    The trophic relations of two apex predators, yellowfin and bigeye tuna (Thunnus albacares and T. obesus), and their prey were investigated in the western tropical Indian Ocean. The contents of 173 non-empty stomachs were analysed from specimens caught with longlines and purse seine during scientific and fishing cruises. Diet data were processed by occurrence, by number, and by wet weight and a comparison of diets between surface and deep swimmers made. Crustaceans were the almost exclusive fo...

  7. Evaluation of FAD-associated purse seine fishery reduction strategies for bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Yuhe; CHEN Xinjun; XU Liuxiong; CHEN Yong

    2013-01-01

    In the Indian Ocean,bigeye tuna supports one of the most important fisheries in the world.This fishery mainly consists of two components:longline and purse seine fisheries.Evidence of overfishing and stock depletion of bigeye tuna calls for an evaluation of alternative management strategies.Using an age-structured operating model,parameterized with the results derived in a recent stock assessment,we evaluated the effectiveness of applying constant fishing mortality (CF) and quasi-constant fishing mortality (QCF) strategies to reduce fishing effort of purse seining with fish aggregating devices (FADs) at different rates.Three different levels of productivity accounted for the uncertainty in our understanding of stock productivity.The study shows that the results of CF and QCF are similar.Average SSB and catch during simulation years would be higher if fishing mortality of FAD-associated purse seining was reduced rapidly.The banning or rapid reduction of purse seining with FAD resulted in a mean catch,and catch in the last simulation year,higher than that of the base case in which no change was made to the purse seine fishery.This could be caused by growth overfishing by purse seine fisheries with FADs according to the per-recruit analysis.These differences would be more obvious when stock productivity was low.Transferring efforts of FAD-associated purse seining to longline fisheries is also not feasible.Our study suggests that changes are necessary to improve the performance of the current management strategy.

  8. Catch-effort relationship in Pacific bigeye tuna fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Srinath, M

    1992-01-01

    Some problems associated with fitting surplus production models to unsuitable data are discussed. This is illustrated by an application of the Schaefer, Fox and PRODFIT models to Pacific Ocean bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus ) catch and effort data for 1952-1987, which appear to be better described by purely empirical models.

  9. One-step triplex-polymerase chain reaction assay for the authentication of yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (Thunnus obesus), and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) tuna DNA from fresh, frozen, and canned tuna samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Elisa; Cevenini, Luca; Mezzanotte, Laura; Simoni, Patrizia; Baraldini, Mario; De Laude, Luca; Roda, Aldo

    2007-09-19

    A one-step triplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was developed to discriminate between three tuna species, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus obesus, and Katsuwonus pelamis, even in highly processed food samples such as canned or cooked tuna. Diagnostic nucleotides were identified by direct sequencing and alignment of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 30 authenticated exemplars, which allowed us to evaluate intraspecific variation and the genetic distance between three tuna species. The assay relies on a one-step triplex-PCR reaction in which in a single tube species-specific amplification products are generated only in the presence of the correct template nucleic acid and the species of origin of the DNA is indicated by the distinctive size of the PCR product. The identification of tuna species can be performed with a good accuracy, low cost, and with potential automation for large-scale high-throughput screenings in small in-house laboratories. PMID:17711337

  10. Antihypertensive effect of angiotensin i converting enzyme-inhibitory peptide from hydrolysates of Bigeye tuna dark muscle, Thunnus obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhong-Ji; Je, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2007-10-17

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide was isolated from tuna dark muscle hydrolysate prepared by alcalase, neutrase, pepsin, papain, alpha-chymotrypsin, and trypsin, respectively. Among hydrolysates, the pepsin-derived hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE I inhibitory activity versus those of other enzyme hydrolysates. The structure of the peptide was identified to be Trp-Pro-Glu-Ala-Ala-Glu-Leu-Met-Met-Glu-Val-Asp-Pro (molecular weight 1581 Da) by time of flight mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, and the IC 50 value of the peptide was 21.6 microM. The Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that the peptide acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor, and the inhibitor constant ( K i) was calculated as 26.6 microM using the secondary plots. The peptide had an antihypertensive effect according to the time-course measurement after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats. Maximal reduction was detected 3 h after oral administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight. These results suggest that the peptide derived from tuna dark muscle would be a beneficial ingredient for functional food or pharmaceuticals against hypertension and its related diseases. PMID:17894458

  11. Factors that determine the quality of bigeye tuna, caught in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    C.C. Nóbrega; P.P. Mendes; E.S. Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Tuna are highly prized in Oriental cuisine, and the bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) is of great commercial importance. Quality is assessed by the tuna meat quality, freshness, texture and fat, which can be altered by factors inherent to capture, such as days of onboard storage, months of the year, whether the catch was living or dead, fish weight and year. These factors were correlated to identify those that affect quality. We obtained data from nine vessels, from January 2007 to April 2010, cre...

  12. Effects of release factors affecting the recovery rates of tagged tunas : application to bigeye tuna

    OpenAIRE

    Gaertner, Daniel; Kebe, P.; C. Palma

    2008-01-01

    The tagging data base compiled since the 1960s by the secretariat of ICCAT was used to assess the effects of several release factors on the recovery rate of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus). The release factors considered were the length of the fish, the latitude, the longitude, the gear used during the tagging operation, the kind of tag used, the year and the month as well as the interactions between the length and the tag type and the length and the year. It was showed that all of these explana...

  13. Factors that determine the quality of bigeye tuna, caught in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Nóbrega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuna are highly prized in Oriental cuisine, and the bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus is of great commercial importance. Quality is assessed by the tuna meat quality, freshness, texture and fat, which can be altered by factors inherent to capture, such as days of onboard storage, months of the year, whether the catch was living or dead, fish weight and year. These factors were correlated to identify those that affect quality. We obtained data from nine vessels, from January 2007 to April 2010, creating an information bank of 21,908 bigeye tuna. Fish quality and parameters were related using multiple linear regression analysis, in which the variables were included in the model by a stepwise procedure (F>4. We found that live catch, heavier fish and fewer days of storage positively affected the quality, and that there is a seasonality of quality related to biological factors, which are not amenable to control.

  14. Catches per unit of effort of bigeye tuna: a new analysis with regression trees and simulated annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Watters, Richard; Deriso, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    ENGLISH: We analyzed catches per unit of effort (CPUE) from the Japanese longline fishery for bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) with regression tree methods. Regression trees have not previously been used to estimate time series of abundance indices fronl CPUE data. The "optimally sized" tree had 139 parameters; year, month, latitude, and longitude interacted to affect bigeye CPUE. The trend in tree-based abundance indices for the EPO was similar to t...

  15. 吉尔伯特群岛海域大眼金枪鱼(Thunnus obesus)栖息环境综合指数%AN INTEGRATED HABITAT INDEX OF BIGEYE TUNA THUNNUS OBESUS IN WATERS NEAR GILBERT ISLANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋利明; 杨嘉樑; 武亚苹; 惠明明; 吕凯凯

    2012-01-01

    根据2010年10月~2011年1月在吉尔伯特群岛海域利用金枪鱼延绳钓调查所取得的32个站点的大眼金枪鱼渔获数据,以及测得的温度、盐度、叶绿素、溶解氧浓度、水平海流及垂直海流数据,采用分位数回归的方法研究了各水层(80—240m,每40m为一层)中各环境因子与大眼金枪鱼渔获率的关系,建立“栖息环境综合指数(integratedhabitatindex,IHI)模型”,并利用另外8个站点的数据验证研究结果。结果表明,(1)IHI模型的预测能力较好;(2)不同的水层影响大眼金枪鱼分布的环境因子不同,在较浅的水层(80--200m),大眼金枪鱼的渔获率与溶解氧浓度和海流相关,而在较深水层(〉200m)则仅与温度相关;(3)大眼金枪鱼较适宜的栖息水层为120—160m;(4)大眼金枪鱼删指数分布较高的两个海域分别为2—3°S,169一175°E与l~3°S,178—180°E,建议在上述两个海域作业时,尽可能使钓具沉降到120—160m的水层,以达到减少兼捕渔获物,同时提高生产效率。%On the basis of the survey data at 32 sampling stations in waters near Gilbert Islands from Oct., 2010 through Jan., 2011, the vertical profile data of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen concentration, hori- zontal current, vertical current and the catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of bigeye tuna were applied to develop the “Inte- grated Habitat Index (IHI)” models by the quantile regression method. Models were developed for six water strata from 40m to 280m (40m per stratum) and the entire water column to understand the relationship between the bigeye tuna CPUE and the environmental variables. The measured environmental variables at the other eight sampling stations were used to validate the models' predictive power. The results showed: (1) the models' predictive power was good; (2) the key envi- ronmental parameters in the IHI models

  16. Characterization of bigeye tuna habitat in the Southern Waters off Java-Bali using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Martiwi Diah; Sambah, Abu Bakar; Miura, Fusanori; Tanaka, Tasuku; As-syakur, Abd. Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) habitat was investigated based on catch data and environmental satellite data, such as sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface chlorophyll (SSC), and sea surface height deviation (SSHD) data in the Southern Waters off Java and Bali. First, we obtained daily fish catch data and monthly satellite data for SST, SSC, and SSHD for 2006-2010. Then, we analyzed the relationship between daily catch data and satellite data by combining the statistical method of generalized additive model (GAM) and geographic information system (GIS). Seven GAM models were generated with the number of bigeye tuna as a response variable, and SST, SSC, and SSHD as predictor variables. All of the predictors of SST, SSC, and SSHD were highly significant (P bigeye tuna. Values of SST, SSHD, and SSC in bigeye tuna habitat ranged from 24.8 to 28.7 °C, -3 to 7 cm, and 0.05 to 0.17 mg/m3, respectively. Validation of the predicted number of bigeye tuna with the observed value was significant (P bigeye tuna caught, followed by SSHD and SSC.

  17. Preliminary forecasts of Pacific bigeye tuna population trends under the A2 IPCC scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Sibert, J.; Bopp, L.; Calmettes, B.; Hampton, J.; Murtugudde, R.

    2010-07-01

    An improved version of the spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model SEAPODYM was used to investigate the potential impacts of global warming on tuna populations. The model included an enhanced definition of habitat indices, movements, and accessibility of tuna predators to different vertically migrant and non-migrant micronekton functional groups. The simulations covered the Pacific basin (model domain) at a 2° × 2° geographic resolution. The structure of the model allows an evaluation from multiple data sources, and parameterization can be optimized by adjoint techniques and maximum likelihood using fishing data. A first such optimized parameterization was obtained for bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the Pacific Ocean using historical catch data for the last 50 years and a hindcast from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model driven by the NCEP atmospheric reanalysis. The parameterization provided very plausible biological parameter values and a good fit to fishing data from the different fisheries, both within and outside the time period used for optimization. We then employed this model to forecast the future of bigeye tuna populations in the Pacific Ocean. The simulation was driven by the physical-biogeochemical fields predicted from a global marine biogeochemistry - climate simulation. This global simulation was performed with the IPSL climate model version 4 (IPSL-CM4) coupled to the oceanic biogeochemical model PISCES and forced by atmospheric CO 2, from historical records over 1860-2000, and under the SRES A2 IPCC scenario for the 21st century (i.e. atmospheric CO 2 concentration reaching 850 ppm in the year 2100). Potential future changes in distribution and abundance under the IPCC scenario are presented but without taking into account any fishing effort. The simulation showed an improvement in bigeye tuna spawning habitat both in subtropical latitudes and in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) where the surface temperature becomes optimal for

  18. Dynamic optimal foraging theory explains vertical migrations of bigeye tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Sommer, Lene; Evans, Karen;

    2016-01-01

    Bigeye tuna are known for remarkable daytime vertical migrations between deep water, where food is abundant but the water is cold, and the surface, where water is warm but food is relatively scarce. Here we investigate if these dive patterns can be explained by dynamic optimal foraging theory...... dynamic programming. With little calibration of model parameters, our results are consistent with observed data on vertical movement: we find that small tuna should display constant-depth strategies while large tuna should display vertical migrations. The analysis supports the hypothesis that the tuna...

  19. Antioxidative activities of mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract added to bigeye tuna meat: dose-dependent efficacy and comparison with other biological antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H N D; Ushio, H; Ohshima, T

    2009-03-01

    The ability of a hydrophilic extract prepared from edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) to stabilize fresh color of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) meat was evaluated to compare it with certain other antioxidants. The fresh color shelf life of bigeye tuna meats, to which were added as 1, 3, or 5 mL of mushroom extract to 100 g of minced bigeye tuna meat, prolonged duration of ice storage by more than 2, 4, and 6 d, respectively, in comparison with the control tuna meat without mushroom extract. The addition of 5 mL of mushroom extract to 100 g of minced bigeye tuna meat was more effective than adding ascorbic acid sodium salt (500 ppm) or alpha-tocopherol (500 ppm) with regard to oxidation of lipid in the tuna meat. The color changes significantly correlated with lipid oxidation as well as metmyoglobin formation in the tuna meat. These results clearly show that the mushroom extract is a potential antioxidant, which has the ability to stabilize fresh color of tuna meat during ice storage. PMID:19323731

  20. Analysis of the genetic structure and life history of albacore tuna in terms of diversity, abundance and migratory range at the spatial and time scales: Project GERMON (GEnetic stRucture and Migration Of albacore tuNa)

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, Natacha; Bourjea, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Tunas are important commercial species that represent a share of about 8 percent of total fish exports. In 2010, the total catch of tuna in three oceans was about 6.6 million tons, 4.3 million tons for the most marketed species, a level roughly stable since 2002 (FAO 2012). Among these tuna species, there are in descending order of capture: skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) and bluefin tuna...

  1. 76 FR 68332 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the Convention Area over the period 2011-2013. NMFS is reducing the... IATTC based on the 2011 bigeye and yellowfin tuna stock assessments. NMFS is also giving applicable... 2009. In addition, NMFS is extending in 2012 and 2013 the annual bigeye tuna quota of 500 metric...

  2. Global spatio-temporal patterns in tropical tuna purse seine fisheries on drifting fish aggregating devices (DFADs) : taking a historical perspective to inform current challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Fonteneau, Alain; Chassot, Emmanuel; Bodin, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a historical overview of the use of drifting fish aggregating devices (DFADs) in purse seine fisheries since the early 1990s, using global tuna fisheries datasets from the four tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs). Tropical tuna purse seine fisheries typically target large yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye (Thunnus obesus) tunas on free-swimming schools and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) and juveniles of yellowfin and bigeye associated with drifti...

  3. DNA barcodes reveal species-specific mercury levels in tuna sushi that pose a health risk to consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Lowenstein, Jacob H.; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian W.; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Excessive ingestion of mercury—a health hazard associated with consuming predatory fishes—damages neurological, sensory-motor and cardiovascular functioning. The mercury levels found in Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, and Thunnus thynnus), exceed or approach levels permissible by Canada, the European Union, Japan, the US, and the World Health Organization. We used DNA barcodes to identify tuna sushi samples analysed for mercury and ...

  4. Habitat and behaviour of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the Gulf of Mexico determined using pop-up satellite archival tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, K C; Stokesbury, M J W; Boustany, A M; Seitz, A C; Teo, S L H; Miller, S K; Block, B A

    2009-05-01

    This study presents the first data on movement, habitat use and behaviour for yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the Atlantic Basin. Six individuals were tracked in the Gulf of Mexico using pop-up satellite archival tags. Records up to 80 days in length were obtained, providing information on depth and temperature preferences as well as horizontal movements. Thunnus albacares in the Gulf of Mexico showed a strong preference for the mixed layer and thermocline, consistent with findings for this species in other ocean basins. Fish showed a diel pattern in depth distribution, remaining in surface and mixed layer waters at night and diving to deeper waters during the day. The vertical extent of T. albacares habitat appeared to be temperature limited, with fish generally avoiding waters that were >6 degrees C cooler than surface waters. The vertical and thermal habitat usage of T. albacares differs from that of bigeye Thunnus obesus and bluefin Thunnus thynnus, Thunnus orientalis and Thunnus maccoyii tunas. These results are consistent with the results of earlier studies conducted on T. albacares in other oceans. PMID:20735644

  5. Comparative study of muscle proteins in relation to the development of yake in three tropical tuna species yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), big eye (Thunnus obesus) and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaide, Oihane; Lekube, Xabier; Olsen, Ragnar L; Ganzedo, Unai; Martinez, Iciar

    2016-06-15

    Burnt tuna (BT), or yake-niku, is a quality flaw of the muscle characterised by a pale colour and grainy and exudative texture. Cathepsin-L, water soluble and total protein components from normal and BT muscles, from three tropical tuna species - yellowfin (YFT, Thunnus albacares), bigeye (BET, Thunnus obesus) and skipjack (SKJ, Katsuwonus pelamis) - were compared by electrophoretic and western blot analyses to identify biomarkers for BT. As expected, SDS-PAGE patterns were species-specific but differences, due to BT, were observed only between some low ionic strength extracts of BET and YFT. Protein oxidation and cell proliferation analysed by immunoblotting did not show differences between BT and normal muscles. Gelatine zymography revealed different gelatinase activity patterns that, although not linked to BT, may affect the final texture of the muscle. A 43 kDa band, identified as creatine kinase by proteomic analysis, showed the potential to be a good indicator for BT in BET and YFT. PMID:26868578

  6. Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of 1 ku fraction by ultrafiltration of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) head protein hydrolysate%大眼金枪鱼头蛋白酶解物1ku超滤组分的抗氧化活性及其理化性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 柯虹乔; 章超桦; 洪鹏志

    2012-01-01

    研究大眼金枪鱼头蛋白酶解物1 ku超滤组分体外的还原力、自由基清除能力及对衰老小鼠体内抗氧化能力的影响,分析1 ku超滤组分的一般成分、氨基酸组成及分子量分布,为进一步分离纯化金枪鱼头抗氧化肽提供基础.体外结果显示,1ku超滤组分对羟基自由基、超氧阴离子和DPPH自由基的清除活性随浓度的增加而增强,IC50分别为1.38、0.73与0.93mg/mL,还原力也随浓度的增加而增大,在浓度为12.5 mg/mL时为0.763;体内结果显示,灌胃30 mg/kg的1 ku超滤组分连续42 d,D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠肝组织的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、肝组织和血清的谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活性显著提高(P<0.05),血清丙二醛(MDA)含量显著降低(P<0.01);理化分析结果显示,1 ku超滤组分(干基计)蛋白质含量为96.40%,脂肪0.11%,灰分4.86%,疏水性氨基酸占氨基酸总量的35.8%,活性组分分子量在1 802~2 519 u和422~922 u.%To produce bioactive peptides from the by-products of fish processing, bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) head was hydrolyzed by alcalase, and the tuna head protein hydrolysate (THPH) was fractionated through ultrafiltration membranes with a range of molecular weight cutoffs (MWCO) of 8, 5, 3 and 1 ku, respectively, to yield the fraction THPH-1 with MW distribution<1 ku. The antioxidant activities of THPH-1 were evaluated using reducing power, free radical scavenging and aged model mice induced by D-galactose. The physicochemical properties of THPH-1 were analysed also. THPH-1 showed evident radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 values for hydroxyl radical, superox-ide radical and l,l-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical being 1.38, 0.73 and 0.93 mg/mL respectively. The reducing power of THPH-1 was 0.763 at 12.5 mg /mL. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) of liver and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of liver and serum in aged

  7. Report of the first session of the IOTC Working Party on Tropical Tunas.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The emphasis of the meeting was placed on bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), but a number of the conclusions and recommendations reached apply equally to all tropical tunas. A review of fisheries and available data confirmed that both longline and purse seine fisheries for bigeye tuna have been expanding rapidly over the current decade. There are however major gaps in catch and effort data available, in particular major longline fleets operating from Indonesia and several eastern Indian Ocean port...

  8. Reproductive potential of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Zudaire, Iker; Murua, Hilario; Grande, Maitane; Bodin, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive biology of Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the western Indian Ocean was investigated from samples collected in 2009 and 2010. In our study, 1012 female Yellowfin Tuna were sampled: 320 fish on board a purse seiner and 692 fish at a Seychelles cannery. We assessed the main biological parameters that describe reproductive potential: maturity, spawning seasonality, fish condition, and fecundity. The length at which 50% of the female Yellowfin Tuna population matures (L50) ...

  9. Determining the age of tropical tunas in the Indian Ocean from otolith microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Sardenne, Fany; Dortel, Emmanuelle; Le Croizier, G.; Million, J.; Labonne, Maylis; Leroy, B.; Bodin, Nathalie; Chassot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Tuna Tagging Program (IOTTP) provided a unique opportunity to assess the viability of estimating the age of tropical tunas from the micro-structural features of otoliths. Here, we analyzed the length measurements and micro-increment counts collected for 506 sagittal otoliths, of which 343 were chemically marked with oxytetracycline, for bigeye (Thunnus obesus), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Our results show that the otoliths of tropica...

  10. DNA barcodes reveal species-specific mercury levels in tuna sushi that pose a health risk to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jacob H; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian W; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-10-23

    Excessive ingestion of mercury--a health hazard associated with consuming predatory fishes--damages neurological, sensory-motor and cardiovascular functioning. The mercury levels found in Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, and Thunnus thynnus), exceed or approach levels permissible by Canada, the European Union, Japan, the US, and the World Health Organization. We used DNA barcodes to identify tuna sushi samples analysed for mercury and demonstrate that the ability to identify cryptic samples in the market place allows regulatory agencies to more accurately measure the risk faced by fish consumers and enact policies that better safeguard their health. PMID:20410032

  11. Morphometric analysis of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, from the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Kurt M.

    1989-01-01

    ENGLISH: Morphometric data from yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, were collected from various locations in the eastern Pacific Ocean during 1974 to 1976, to assess geographic and temporal variation of morphometric characters. The data were statistically adjusted, using allometric formulae to partition size. Discriminant analyses were applied to the adjusted morphometric characters. Yellowfin sampled from north of 15°N-20oN were different from those sampled from south of 15°N-20oN. The absenc...

  12. ESTIMATION OF PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY FOR TUNA IN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ende Kasma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundant fisheries potency, one of fisheries potency in Indian Ocean is tuna fish. Primary productivity data used as indicator of tuna fisheries potency in Idian Ocean.Research location is in Indian Ocean 070 - 210 S and 1070 - 1210 E. Weekly satellite data in 2007 used are chlorophyl, sea surface temperature, Photosynthetic Available Radiation (PAR and euphotic zone (Zeu data. Daily fisheries data is from tuna fish catching data 2007 in PT. Perikanan Samudera Besar (PT. PSB. Satellite data is processed by Vertically Generalized Production Model (VGPM formula to obtained primary productivity. Tuna fish catching data correlated to satellite data to know correlation of primary productivity value to fish catching data.Result of this research is there four species of tuna fish catch in Indian Ocean, that are Madidihang or Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores, Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus, Southtern Bluefin tuna (Thunnus macoyii, and Albacore (Thunnus alalunga. Where 73% tuna fish is Bigeye tuna. Bigeye, Albacore and Yellowfin tuna are produced annually, while Southern Bluefin tuna in northwest monsoon is no fish production. Chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and primary productivity value in research location are from 0,06 mg/m3 to 0,38 mg/m3, from 24,640C to 31,820C, and from 73,22mgC/m2 to 658,57 mgC/m2 respectively. Coefficient correlation in primary productivity and fish catching in fishing ground area is small (r = 0.008, its explained that, fish catching number is not influenced by primary productivity. In high or low primary productivity condition tuna fish catched in Indian Ocean area. Potential fishing ground area of Bigeye tuna, Albacore, Yellowfin and Southern Bluefin tuna in Indian Ocean are in 110 – 160 S and 1060 – 1210 E, the primary productivity value is from 73 mgC/m2day to 732 mgC/m2day and differences of sea surface temperature value of tuna fish are from 240 C to 310 C, 240 C to 300 C, and 250 C to 310 C for

  13. A validated methodology for genetic identification of tuna species (genus Thunnus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Viñas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuna species of the genus Thunnus, such as the bluefin tunas, are some of the most important and yet most endangered trade fish in the world. Identification of these species in traded forms, however, may be difficult depending on the presentation of the products, which may hamper conservation efforts on trade control. In this paper, we validated a genetic methodology that can fully distinguish between the eight Thunnus species from any kind of processed tissue. METHODOLOGY: After testing several genetic markers, a complete discrimination of the eight tuna species was achieved using Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing based primarily on the sequence variability of the hypervariable genetic marker mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR, followed, in some specific cases, by a second validation by a nuclear marker rDNA first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1. This methodology was able to distinguish all tuna species, including those belonging to the subgenus Neothunnus that are very closely related, and in consequence can not be differentiated with other genetic markers of lower variability. This methodology also took into consideration the presence of introgression that has been reported in past studies between T. thynnus, T. orientalis and T. alalunga. Finally, we applied the methodology to cross-check the species identity of 26 processed tuna samples. CONCLUSIONS: Using the combination of two genetic markers, one mitochondrial and another nuclear, allows a full discrimination between all eight tuna species. Unexpectedly, the genetic marker traditionally used for DNA barcoding, cytochrome oxidase 1, could not differentiate all species, thus its use as a genetic marker for tuna species identification is questioned.

  14. Fifty years of dart tag recoveries for tropical tuna: A global comparison of results for the western Pacific, eastern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Fonteneau, Alain; Hallier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, numerous dart tagging programs have been conducted on tropical tunas worldwide. Through these programs more than 1.4 million tunas have been tagged across the Pacific, Atlantic, and, most recently, Indian Oceans with the majority of individuals tagged being skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis, 858,000 individuals) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, 360,000 individuals). The subsequent recovery of 173,574 tagged tunas (skipjack: 94,835, yellowfin: 49,079, and bigeye, Thunn...

  15. Investigating relationships between albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) CPUE and prey distribution in the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa; Boyra, Guillermo; Goñi, Nicolas; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2010-07-01

    The Bay of Biscay in the northeast Atlantic is an important feeding zone for juvenile albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) during their summer migration northwards. Spatial distribution and abundance of their potential prey [planktonic organisms, anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) and other small pelagics] were investigated in the southeast Bay of Biscay during acoustic surveys in autumn from 2003 to 2005. The relationships between albacore tuna catch per unit of effort (CPUE), and prey abundance and sea surface temperature (SST) were studied at different spatiotemporal scales. We observed positive and significant correlations between albacore tuna CPUE and anchovy abundance and total prey abundance, at different spatial scales. However, in 2003, a year characterised by extreme temperatures compared to the other years of this study, the relationship between CPUE and prey abundance was much weaker. Instead, we found a significant negative correlation with SST.

  16. An Evaluation of the area stratification used for sampling tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean and implications for estimating total annual catches

    OpenAIRE

    Suter, Jenny M.

    2010-01-01

    The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) staff has been sampling the size distributions of tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) since 1954, and the species composition of the catches since 2000. The IATTC staff use the data from the species composition samples, in conjunction with observer and/or logbook data, and unloading data from the canneries to estimate the total annual catches of yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and bigeye (Thunnus obes...

  17. The effect of temperature on postprandial metabolism of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Dane H; Dale, Jonathan J; Gleiss, Adrian C; Brandt, Tyler; Estess, Ethan E; Gardner, Luke; Machado, Benjamin; Norton, Alex; Rodriguez, Luis; Stiltner, James; Farwell, Charles; Block, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the increase in metabolic expenditure associated with consumption of a meal, represents a substantial portion of fish energy budgets and is highly influenced by ambient temperature. The effect of temperature on SDA has not been studied in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, Bonnaterre 1788), an active pelagic predator that occupies temperate and subtropical waters. The energetic cost and duration of SDA were calculated by comparing routine and post-prandial oxygen consumption rates. Mean routine metabolic rates in yellowfin tuna increased with temperature, from 136mgO2kg(-1)h(-1) at 20°C to 211mgO2kg(-1)h at 24°C. The mean duration of SDA decreased from 40.2h at 20°C to 33.1h at 24°C, while mean SDA coefficient, the percentage of energy in a meal that is consumed during digestion, increased from 5.9% at 20°C to 12.7% at 24°C. Digestion in yellowfin tuna is faster at a higher temperature but requires additional oxidative energy. Enhanced characterization of the role of temperature in SDA of yellowfin tuna deepens our understanding of tuna physiology and can help improve management of aquaculture and fisheries. PMID:26794613

  18. Microarray gene expression profiles from mature gonad tissues of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner Luke D; Jayasundara Nishad; Castilho Pedro C; Block Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bluefin tunas are highly prized pelagic fish species representing a significant economic resource to fisheries throughout the world. Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) populations have significantly declined due to overexploitation. As a consequence of their value and population decline, T. thynnus has been the focus of considerable research effort concerning many aspects of their life history. However, in-depth understanding of T. thynnus reproductive biology is stil...

  19. [Efficacy of the protein of canned tuna (Thunnus alalunga) in animal growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M P; Castrillón, A M; Ortega, R M; Varela, G

    1986-03-01

    The effect of the manufacturing process on canned tuna (Thunnus alalunga) by the sterilization procedure at 115 degrees C for 60 and 90 minutes on its protein quality was studied. Protein quality was mainly evaluated according to its efficiency for animal growth. Protein from food obtained by the sterilization procedure at 115 degrees C for 60 minutes was similar for animal growth to that from a standard casein-methionine diet. No changes in digestibility and biological values were found between both proteins. Nevertheless, when the sterilization procedure was prolonged up to 90 minutes, the protein suffered modifications. Thus, protein digestibility decreased in spite of the fact that protein digestibility remained unmodified. On the other hand, introduction of the mixed protein into a diet based on flour plus tuna sterilized at 115 degrees C for 90 minutes, was not capable of maintaining the optimum patterns for weight evolution. PMID:3632194

  20. Comparative distributions of alkalies, alkaline earths and lead among major tissues of the tuna Thunnus alalunga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, C.; Settle, D.

    1977-01-01

    The occurrences of K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb have been determined in various tissues of the tuna fish Thunnus alalunga. K, Rb, and Cs are distributed uniformly throughout the organs of the fish; 95 percent of the Ca and Sr, and 70 percent of the Ba and Pb are contained in the skeleton. It is found that there are smaller amounts of Cs, Ba and Pb associated with the nutrient metals K and Ca in a marine animal compared to a terrestrial animal. This difference is a result of the purity of K and Ca in seawater and the smaller amounts of trace metals associated with them compared to the impurity of K and Ca in terrestrial rocks. Food-chain enhancement and depletion of metals can be evaluated by comparing ratios of trace metals to abundant nutrient metals in seawater and tuna. Cs in enriched relative to K in going from seawater to tuna by a factor of 13. Sr and Ba are both depleted by factors of 5 relative to Ca in going from seawater to tuna, while Pb is enriched relative to Ca by a factor of 14. Special clean laboratory procedures were used to prepare samples for accurate analysis by stable isotope dilution mass spectrometric techniques.

  1. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.;

    1998-01-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole- body hematocrit eq...

  2. Retinal ganglion cell topography in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck and Schlegel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Taeko

    2014-02-01

    The retinal ganglion cell distribution, which is known to reflect fish feeding behavior, was investigated in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis. During the course of examination, regularly arrayed cells with a distinctive larger soma, which may be regarded as motion-sensitive cells, were found. The topographical distribution of ordinary-sized ganglion cells, which is usually utilized to estimate fish visual axis and/or visual field characteristics, showed that the highest-density area, termed the area centralis, was localized in the ventral-temporal retina. The retinal topography of ordinary-sized ganglion cells seems to reflect the bluefin tuna's foraging behavior; while cruising, cells in the area centralis may signal potential prey, such as small schooling pelagic fishes or squids, that are present in the upward-forward direction. Judging from morphological characteristics, the large ganglion cells localized in the small temporal retinal area seem to be equivalent to physiologically categorized off-center Y-cells of cat, which are stimulated by a transient dark spot in a bright visual field. It was inferred that presumed large off-center cells in the temporal retina detect movements of agile prey animals escaping from bluefin tuna as a silhouette against environmental light. PMID:23775518

  3. Geographical approaches the bluefin Tuna (thunnus thynnus farmers and farm of Musellim passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüştü Ilgar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The study area is important strait of our country and Lesvos Island between on the where the Biga Peninsula and Lesvos Island approach. Greenpeace, Southeast ANSE (Asociacion de Naturalistas del Sureste, WWF (World Wildlife Fund. As a result of these attempts, on April 15-19, 2002 ICCAT (International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna and GFCM (Genaral Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean gathered in Malta and studied on fish stocks and statistic values. At last, on April 29, 2002 they published a moratorium aimed at European Community Ministries in Cartagena. The objective of this work is to tourism process affecting life and safety aquatic biosphere, which the intensive interactions take places and discusses optimization proposals for Thunnus thynnus farmers.

  4. The sequence and organization of complete mitochondrial genome of the yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jiaohui; Cheng, Qiqun; Sun, Dandan; Zhang, Heng; Jin, Shaofei

    2016-09-01

    Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is one of the most important economic fishes around the world. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence and organization of T. albacares. The entire mitochondrial genome is a circular-molecule of 16,528 bp in length, which encodes 37 genes in all. These genes comprise 13 protein-coding genes (ATP6 and 8, COI-III, Cytb, ND1-6 and 4 L), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and 2 ribosomal RNA genes (12S and 16S rRNAs). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of T. albacares can provide basic information for the studies on molecular taxonomy and conservation genetics of teleost fishes. PMID:25707413

  5. Kudoa thunni from blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus) harvested off the island of St. Kitts, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt; Quiniou, Sylvie; Ware, Cynthia; Bogdanovic, Lewis; Soto, Esteban

    2014-02-01

    Numerous myxozoan cysts (∼ 1 mm) were found in the musculature of blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus) harvested off the Caribbean island of St. Kitts. Myxospores were consistent with quadrate members of the Kudoidae, measuring 8.8 (8.2-9.4) μm wide, 7.3 (6.6-8.3) μm thick, and 6.2 (5.8-6.9) μm long with 4 uniform drop-like polar capsules measuring 2.7 (2.2-3.2) μm long and 2.0 (1.7-2.2) μm wide. The 18S small-subunit (SSU) and 28S large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequences did not result in direct matches to any published sequences. However, the SSU sequences (1,786 base pairs [bp]) obtained from 6 individual cysts were identical and demonstrated high homology to Kudoa thunni (99.0%) from albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Alternatively, 33 unique sequences were obtained for the LSU (∼ 800 bp), demonstrating 0.1 to 5.0% variability between them, although a majority of these sequences (60%) demonstrated high homology (>99%) to K. thunni. Morphologically, the case isolate was smaller than published descriptions of K. thunni; however, rDNA sequence homology, and phylogenetic placement based on concatenated SSU and LSU rDNA sequences suggests this case isolate and K. thunni are conspecific. To our knowledge this is the first report of K. thunni infection in blackfin tuna from the Caribbean. PMID:23984875

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starry triggerfish (Abalistes stellaris) muscle using liver proteinase from albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripokar, P; Chaijan, M; Benjakul, S; Kishimura, H; Klomklao, S

    2016-02-01

    Proteinases from liver extract from albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were used to produce protein hydrolysate from starry triggerfish (Abalistes stellaris) muscle. Hydrolysis conditions for preparing protein hydrolysate from starry triggerfish muscle were optimized. Enzyme level, reaction time and fish muscle/buffer ratio significantly affected the hydrolysis (p < 0.05). Optimum conditions for triggerfish muscle hydrolysis were 5.5 % liver extract, 40 min reaction time and fish muscle/buffer ratio of 1:3 (w/v). The freeze-dried protein hydrolysate was characterized with respect to chemical composition, amino acid composition and color. The product contained 91.73 % protein, 2.04 % lipid and 6.48 % ash. The protein hydrolysate exhibited high amount of essential amino acids (45.62 %). It was light yellow in color (L (*) = 82.94, a (*) = 0.84, b (*) = 22.83). The results indicate that the extract from liver of albacore tuna could be used to produce fish protein hydrolysate and protein hydrolysate from starry triggerfish muscle may potentially serve as a good source of desirable peptide and amino acids. PMID:27162384

  7. Pericardial and vascular pressures and blood flow in the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, N C; Graham, J B; Lowell, W R; Laurs, R M

    1987-01-01

    Pericardial, ventricular, and dorsal aortic pressures, and blood flow were measured in tabled, anesthetized albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga (7.8-10.7 kg) captured at sea off Monterey, California (USA) during August 1985. Mean pericardial pressure was -10.0/-2.6 cm H2O (Systolic/Diastolic, [S/D]) and mean pericardial pulse pressure was 7.5. Heart rate averaged 87 beats per minute. Mean ventricular pressure was 97.0/12.9 cm H2O [S/D] and mean dorsal aortic pressure was 64. High ventricular and dorsal aortic pressures of albacore reflect the perfusion requirement of its metabolically active tissues and compensate for the energy losses resulting from blood flow through the gills to arterial heat exchanger to capillaries and again back to the venous heat exchanger. As in elasmobranchs, the remarkably high pericardial pulse pressure, large pericardial volume, and negative pericardial pressure in the albacore suggest that its pericardium is more rigid than that of most teleosts and thus facilitates cardiac filling. Published cardiac output values for most non-tunas, when corrected for body size differences, are less than the mean weight specific cardiac output of albacore (29.4 ml/kg per min, range 12.9-51.9). PMID:3582589

  8. Comparative analysis of male germ cell proliferation and apoptosis in wild and captive Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zupa, R.; FAUVEL, Christian; Mylonas, C. C.; Santamaria, N.; Valentini, L.; Pousis, C.; Papadaki, M.; Suquet, Marc; De La Gandara, F.; Bello, G; G De Metrio; A. CORRIERO

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly observed reproductive dysfunction in male fishes reared in captivity is reduction in sperm volume and quality. The Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) is one of the few large pelagic and migratory marine fishes maintained in captivity with the purpose of establishing breeding populations to support an aquaculture industry. The objectives of the present study were to compare male germ cell proliferation and apoptosis between wild and captive indiv...

  9. Aggregations of wild Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) at Mediterranean offshore fish farm sites: Environmental and management considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Borg, Joseph A.; Ŝegvić-Bubić, Tanja; TOMASSETTI, PAOLO; Özgül, Aytaç; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is being observed to increasingly and more frequently aggregate around Mediterranean offshore fish farms. In the present work, potential interactions between aggregations of this important pelagic species and offshore fish farms and local fisheries were assessed through a questionnaire survey aimed at fish farmers, divers and stakeholders in the Mediterranean. Since the interactions may have implications for aquaculture and marine ecolo...

  10. Next-generation sequencing of the yellowfin tuna mitochondrial genome reveals novel phylogenetic relationships within the genus Thunnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Mingming; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has become a powerful tool for sequencing the teleost mitochondrial genome (mitogenome). Here, we used this technology to determine the mitogenome of the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). A total of 41,378 reads were generated by Illumina platform with an average depth of 250×. The mitogenome (16,528 bp in length) contained 37 mitochondrial genes with the similar gene order to other typical teleosts. These mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The result of phylogenetic analysis supported two distinct clades dividing the genus Thunnus, but the tuna species of these two genetic clades were different from that of two recognized subgenus based on anatomical characters and geographical distribution. Our results might help to understand the structure, function, and evolutionary history of the yellowfin tuna mitogenome and also provide valuable new insights for phylogenetic affinity of tuna species. PMID:25418629

  11. The potential impact of ocean acidification upon eggs and larvae of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhead, Don; Scholey, Vernon; Nicol, Simon; Margulies, Daniel; Wexler, Jeanne; Stein, Maria; Hoyle, Simon; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy; Williamson, Jane; Havenhand, Jonathan; Ilyina, Tatiana; Lehodey, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are resulting in increasing absorption of CO2 by the earth's oceans, which has led to a decline in ocean pH, a process known as ocean acidification (OA). Evidence suggests that OA may have the potential to affect the distribution and population dynamics of many marine organisms. Early life history processes (e.g. fertilization) and stages (eggs, larvae, juveniles) may be relatively more vulnerable to potential OA impacts, with implications for recruitment in marine populations. The potential impact of OA upon tuna populations has not been investigated, although tuna are key components of pelagic ecosystems and, in the Pacific Ocean, form the basis of one of the largest and most valuable fisheries in the world. This paper reviews current knowledge of potential OA impacts on fish and presents results from a pilot study investigating how OA may affect eggs and larvae of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares. Two separate trials were conducted to test the impact of pCO2 on yellowfin egg stage duration, larval growth and survival. The pCO2 levels tested ranged from present day (~400 μatm) to levels predicted to occur in some areas of the spawning habitat within the next 100 years (<2500 μatm) to 300 years (~<5000 μatm) to much more extreme levels (~10,000 μatm). In trial 1, there was evidence for significantly reduced larval survival (at mean pCO2 levels≥4730 μatm) and growth (at mean pCO2 levels≥2108 μatm), while egg hatch time was increased at extreme pCO2 levels≥10,000 μatm (*intermediate levels were not tested). In trial 2, egg hatch times were increased at mean pCO2 levels≥1573 μatm, but growth was only impacted at higher pCO2 (≥8800 μatm) and there was no relationship with survival. Unstable ambient conditions during trial 2 are likely to have contributed to the difference in results between trials. Despite the technical challenges with these experiments, there is a need for future empirical work which

  12. Amino acid isotope incorporation and enrichment factors in Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christina J; Madigan, Daniel J; Block, Barbara A; Popp, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days) laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT), a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle δ(15)N∼11.5‰) were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC) where they were fed a controlled diet with high δ(15)N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet δ(15)N∼13.9‰). Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the δ(15)N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic (15)N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid δ(15)N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of (15)N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies. PMID:24465724

  13. Effect of Temperature on Isolation and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite from Tuna (Thunnus obesus Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on isolation and characterization of hydroxyapatite (HAp from tuna bone was evaluated at different temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 1200 °C. The calcined bones were characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and cytotoxicity assay. The FTIR and TGA results revealed the presence of inorganic and organic matrices in raw bone and a preserved carbonated group in the derived HAp. The XRD results of the derived HAp were coherent with the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS-09-0432/1996 data. In addition, FE-SEM results revealed the formation of nanostructured HAp (80–300 nm at 600 °C and crystal agglomeration was observed with an increase in temperature. The calcium to phosphorous weight ratio was determined by EDX results of treated bones. Derived HAp with various crystal sizes had no cytotoxicity on the MG 63 cell line. Based on the analysis, we conclude that varying the isolation temperature between 600–900 °C has tremendous impact on the production of HAp from Thunnus obesus with required properties.

  14. Behaviour and vulnerability of target and non-target species at drifting fish aggregating devices (FADs) in the tropical tuna purse seine fishery determined by acoustic telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Forget, F. G.; Capello, Manuela; Filmalter, J.D.; Govinden, R.; Soria, Marc; Cowley, P. D.; Dagorn, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the vulnerability of both target and non-target (bycatch) species to a fishing gear is a key step towards an ecosystem-based fisheries management approach. This study addresses this issue for the tropical tuna purse seine fishery that uses fish aggregating devices (FADs). We used passive acoustic telemetry to characterize, on a 24 h scale, the associative patterns and the vertical distribution of skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), and bigeye tuna (Thu...

  15. 210Po, Cd and Pb distribution and biomagnification in the yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares and skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis from the Eastern Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mean 210Po activity (Bq kg−1) in liver was 119 in K. pelamis and 157 in T. albacares. • Trophic position of T. albacares (4.60) was higher than K. pelamis (3.94). • Pb was biomagnified between stomach content and muscle of T. albacares. - Abstract: We measured Cd and Pb in the muscle and stomach contents of Thunnus albacares and Katsuwonus pelamis to define the distribution of the elements in the tissues and their degrees of biomagnification. 210Po was measured in the livers of both species and compared to the results of similar studies. The trophic position of the tuna species was determined by N isotope measurements. The average activity of 210Po in the liver ranged from 119 to 157 (Bq kg−1 wet weight) in K. pelamis and T. albacares. The trophic position of T. albacares (4.60) was higher than that of K. pelamis (3.94). The Cd content of the muscle increased significantly with the trophic position of the tuna. δ13C in T. albacares and K. pelamis varied, with values of 3.13 and 1.88‰, respectively. The δ15N values in yellowfin tuna were higher than in skipjack tuna. The trophic position of T. albacares (4.60 ± 0.67) was therefore more elevated than that of K. pelamis (3.94 ± 1.06). Pb was biomagnified in T. albacares (transfer factor = 1.46)

  16. Preliminary approach on early post mortem stress and quality indexes changes in large size bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ugolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is very appreciated on Japan and USA market for the preparation of sushi and sahimi. The market price of the fresh product can vary from 8 to 33 Euro/kg (gate farm/producers prices according to size, shape, fat level, meat colour, consistency and freshness (absence of “hyake”, all parameters strictly connected to feeding quality and quantity, rearing and killing stress factors and refrigeration times and conditions after death. Excessive levels of stress during the slaughtering can affect meat quality, contributing to significantly decrease of tuna’s price. The present trial was carried out to evaluate the possible harvesting/slaughtering stress effect on reared bluefin tuna meat quality, starting from the examination of the most important stress and quality parameters changes during the early post mortem period.

  17. Blood volume, plasma volume and circulation time in a high-energy-demand teleost, the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill; Cousins; Jones; p

    1998-06-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole-body hematocrit equal to the hematocrit measured at the ventral aortic sampling site and no significant sequestering of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells by the spleen, blood volume was 46. 7+/-2.2 ml kg-1. This is within the range reported for most other teleosts (30-70 ml kg-1), but well below that previously reported for albacore (Thunnus alalunga, 82-197 ml kg-1). Plasma volume within the primary circulatory system (calculated from the 51Cr-labeled red blood cell data) was 32.9+/-2.3 ml kg-1. Dextran space was 37.0+/-3.7 ml kg-1. Because 500 kDa FITC-dextran appeared to remain within the vascular space, these data imply that the volume of the secondary circulatory system of yellowfin tuna is small, and its exact volume is not measurable by our methods. Although blood volume is not exceptional, circulation time (blood volume/cardiac output) is clearly shorter in yellowfin tuna than in other active teleosts. In a 1 kg yellowfin tuna, circulation time is approximately 0.4 min (47 ml kg-1/115 ml min-1 kg-1) compared with 1. 3 min (46 ml kg-1/35 ml min-1 kg-1) in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and 1.9 min (35 ml kg-1/18 ml min-1 kg-1) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In air-breathing vertebrates, high metabolic rates are necessarily correlated with short circulation times. Our data are the first to imply that a similar relationship occurs in fishes. PMID:9450974

  18. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  19. Reproductive dynamics and potential annual fecundity of South Pacific albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jessica H; Williams, Ashley J; Hoyle, Simon D; Davies, Campbell R; Nicol, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the South Pacific Ocean was investigated with samples collected during broad-scale sampling between 2006 and 2011. Histology was done in a single laboratory according to standard protocols and the data analysed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. The sex ratio of albacore was female biased for fish smaller than approximately 60 cm FL and between 85 and 95 cm, and progressively more male biased above 95 cm FL. Spawning activity was synchronised across the region between 10°S and 25°S during the austral spring and summer where sea surface temperatures were ≥24 °C. The average gonad index varied among regions, with fish in easterly longitudes having heavier gonads for their size than fish in westerly longitudes. Albacore, while capable of spawning daily, on average spawn every 1.3 days during the peak spawning months of October to December. Spawning occurs around midnight and the early hours of the morning. Regional variation in spawning frequency and batch fecundity were not significant. The proportion of active females and the spawning fraction increased with length and age, and mature small and young fish were less active at either end of the spawning season than larger, older fish. Batch fecundity estimates ranged from 0.26 to 2.83 million oocytes with a mean relative batch fecundity of 64.4 oocytes per gram of body weight. Predicted batch fecundity and potential annual fecundity increased with both length and age. This extensive set of reproductive parameter estimates provides many of the first quantitative estimates for this population and will substantially improve the quality of biological inputs to the stock assessment for South Pacific albacore. PMID:23565258

  20. Molecular and morphological identification of Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) eggs in hatchery-reared and migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forte-Gil, D.; Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hana; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Peñalver, J.; Dolores, E.M.; Muñoz, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 450, JAN 1 2016 (2015), s. 58-66. ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aquaculture * Atlantic bluefin tuna * Blood fluke * Cardicola * Migration * Thunnus thynnus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.878, year: 2014

  1. Vertical behavior and diet of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) vary with latitude in the South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Allain, Valerie; Nicol, Simon J.; Evans, Karen J.; Hoyle, Simon D.; Dupoux, Cyndie; Vourey, Elodie; Dubosc, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) are an important upper tropic-level oceanic predator with a circum-global distribution. Little is known of the movements and diet of albacore tuna in the South Pacific Ocean and how variability in both might influence the vulnerability of albacore tuna to fisheries across their range. We coupled data derived from satellite-tagged albacore tuna with stomach samples collected from individuals at the same locations to characterize the vertical behavior, thermal and dietary habits of albacore tuna at tropical (New Caledonia and Tonga) and temperate (New Zealand) latitudes. A total of 18 pop-up satellite archival tags deployed on albacore tuna remained attached for 0-50 days. Position estimates, calculated from 11 tags, described short-term movements of predominantly less than 500 km, although one fish moved more than 1000 km over a period of 50 days. Vertical behavior and diet differed substantially between tropical and temperate latitudes. At tropical latitudes, albacore tuna showed a distinct diel pattern in vertical habitat use, occupying shallower, warmer waters above the mixed layer depth (MLD) at night, and deeper, cooler waters below the MLD during the day. In contrast, there was little evidence of a diel pattern of vertical behavior in albacore tuna at temperate latitudes, with fish limited to shallow waters above the MLD almost all of the time. Spatial patterns of species composition in stomach contents were consistent with vertical movement patterns, with significantly more deepwater prey species consumed in tropical waters than in temperate waters. Albacore in tropical waters also consumed significantly greater diversities of prey than in temperate waters, predominately preying on fish species, whereas those in temperate waters predominately preyed on crustacea. Our results indicate that the vertical distribution of albacore is constrained either by thermal preferences with diet reflecting these preferences, by the vertical

  2. Persistent Organic Pollutants in albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) from Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean) and South Africa in relation to biological and trophic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munschy, C; Bodin, N; Potier, M; Héas-Moisan, K; Pollono, C; Degroote, M; West, W; Hollanda, S J; Puech, A; Bourjea, J; Nikolic, N

    2016-07-01

    The contamination of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) by Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), was investigated in individuals collected from Reunion Island (RI) and South Africa's (SA) southern coastlines in 2013, in relation to biological parameters and feeding ecology. The results showed lower PCB and DDT concentrations than those previously reported in various tuna species worldwide. A predominance of DDTs over PCBs was revealed, reflecting continuing inputs of DDT. Tuna collected from SA exhibited higher contamination levels than those from RI, related to higher dietary inputs and higher total lipid content. Greater variability in contamination levels and profiles was identified in tuna from RI, explained by a higher diversity of prey and more individualistic foraging behaviour. PCB and DDT contamination levels and profiles varied significantly in tuna from the two investigated areas, probably reflecting exposure to different sources of contamination. PMID:27084988

  3. Review and research plan on the stock structure of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, T; Chow, S; Grewe, P.

    1998-01-01

    Research Group: National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries (NRIFSF), Shimizu, Shizuoka, Japan - 2 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

  4. Physicochemical evaluation of the effects of irradiation and evisceration on the conservation of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Maria L.G.; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: marialuciaguerra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Tuna is among the most traded fishes in Brazil, however efficiently delaying its fast deterioration is still a major practical challenge. Irradiation has been proposed as a safe and powerful alternative tool for conservation of seafood. This work investigated the effects of irradiation on the physicochemical quality of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus). Analyses of pH, total volatile bases (TVB-N), ammonia and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) were performed in order to determine the degree of conservation. The samples were subjected to four different treatments aiming at evaluating the efficiency of irradiation, evisceration and both combined. The figures measured for those parameters, all of them related to the degree of conservation, were found to increase with time regardless of the treatment. In addition, data for irradiated samples remained consistently lower than for unirradiated ones, indicating a better level of preservation that led to an extended shelf life of 14 days. In contrast, excessive levels of those indicators of degradation were found in unirradiated samples after 7 to 10 days of storage. In addition, some evidence was found that evisceration slightly increased quality, consequently promoting a small extension in shelf life of unirradiated samples. Finally, it can be concluded with basis on the results of the physicochemical parameters studied that treatment of fresh refrigerated blackfin tuna by irradiation with 2.5 kGy efficiently preserved freshness and extended the shelf life of the product from 7 to 14 days. (author)

  5. Physicochemical evaluation of the effects of irradiation and evisceration on the conservation of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuna is among the most traded fishes in Brazil, however efficiently delaying its fast deterioration is still a major practical challenge. Irradiation has been proposed as a safe and powerful alternative tool for conservation of seafood. This work investigated the effects of irradiation on the physicochemical quality of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus). Analyses of pH, total volatile bases (TVB-N), ammonia and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) were performed in order to determine the degree of conservation. The samples were subjected to four different treatments aiming at evaluating the efficiency of irradiation, evisceration and both combined. The figures measured for those parameters, all of them related to the degree of conservation, were found to increase with time regardless of the treatment. In addition, data for irradiated samples remained consistently lower than for unirradiated ones, indicating a better level of preservation that led to an extended shelf life of 14 days. In contrast, excessive levels of those indicators of degradation were found in unirradiated samples after 7 to 10 days of storage. In addition, some evidence was found that evisceration slightly increased quality, consequently promoting a small extension in shelf life of unirradiated samples. Finally, it can be concluded with basis on the results of the physicochemical parameters studied that treatment of fresh refrigerated blackfin tuna by irradiation with 2.5 kGy efficiently preserved freshness and extended the shelf life of the product from 7 to 14 days. (author)

  6. Temporal distribution of size and weight of fattened Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus l. from Tunisian farms: (2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. HATTOUR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analysis size and weight-frequency composition of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus fattened in Tunisian farms for the period 2005-2010 and compare these morphometric parameters with those from wild bluefin tuna landed on 2001 at Sfax port (Tunisia. A total of 6,757 wild and fattened bluefin tuna were measured as straight-line fork length and 49,962 were weighted. Average value of K for wild BFT was 1.59 and respectively 2.43, 2.32, 2.15, 1.61, 1.79 and 1.90 for Fattened BFT after 5-6 months from 2005 to 2010. Length frequency of fattened bluefin showed clearly a substantial increase in juvenile rate. The percentage which was 21.4% in 2005 reached 31.3% in 2009. For weight distribution, 73.3% of the fish caught in 2001 are below the annual mean (75.7 kg, while means 71 to 72% of fattened fish were under annual mean weight. Year 2009 is exceptional because only 57% of fattened fish were under the mean weight. This demonstrates that the fish caught are becoming increasingly small. Mean weight for fattening period (77 to 124 kg are obviously higher than those of the wild fish (75,7kg.This study showed an increment in the amount of specimen under first sexual maturity which will not have the chance to spawn.

  7. Tissue turnover rates and isotopic trophic discrimination factors in the endothermic teleost, pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis.

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    Daniel J Madigan

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, Thunnus orientalis, 1-2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for (15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for (13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for δ(15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for δ(13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of (15N and (13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. (15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle δ(15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology.

  8. Microarray gene expression profiles from mature gonad tissues of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Luke D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bluefin tunas are highly prized pelagic fish species representing a significant economic resource to fisheries throughout the world. Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus populations have significantly declined due to overexploitation. As a consequence of their value and population decline, T. thynnus has been the focus of considerable research effort concerning many aspects of their life history. However, in-depth understanding of T. thynnus reproductive biology is still lacking. Knowledge of reproductive physiology is a very important tool for determining effective fisheries and aquaculture management. Transcriptome techniques are proving powerful and provide novel insights into physiological processes. Construction of a microarray from T. thynnus ESTs sourced from reproductive tissues has provided an ideal platform to study the reproductive physiology of bluefin tunas. The aim of this investigation was to compare transcription profiles from the ovaries and testes of mature T. thynnus to establish sex specific variations underlying their reproductive physiology. Results Male and females T. thynnus gonad tissues were collected from the wild and histologically staged. Sub-samples of sexually mature tissues were also measured for their mRNA differential expression among the sexes using the custom microarray design BFT 4X44K. A total of 7068 ESTs were assessed for differential expression of which 1273 ESTs were significantly different (p2 fold change in expression according to sex. Differential expression for 13 of these ESTs was validated with quantitative PCR. These include genes involved in egg envelope formation, hydration, and lipid transport/accumulation more highly expressed in ovaries compared with testis, while genes involved in meiosis, sperm motility and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in testis compared with ovaries. Conclusions This investigation has furthered our knowledge of bluefin tunas

  9. Statistical validation of the identification of tuna species: bootstrap analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Mascarell, Rosario; Fernandez-Pedrosa, Victoria; Pérez-Alonso, Manuel

    2002-02-27

    Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene has been used to differentiate three tuna species: Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Thunnus obesus (bigeye tuna), and Katsuwonus pelamis (skipjack). A PCR amplified 528 bp fragment from 30 frozen samples and a 171 bp fragment from 26 canned samples of the three species were analyzed to determine the intraspecific variation and the positions with diagnostic value. Polymorphic sites between the species that did not present intraspecific variation were given a diagnostic value. The genetic distance between the sequences was calculated, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed, showing that the sequences belonging to the same species clustered together. The bootstrap test of confidence was used to determine the statistical validation of the species assignation, allowing for the first time a quantification of the certainty of the species assignation. The bootstrap values obtained from these results indicate that the sequencing of the cytochrome b fragments allows a correct species assignation with a probability > or =95%. PMID:11853465

  10. Metal Concentrations in Two Commercial Tuna Species from an Active Volcanic Region in the Mid-Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paulo; Rodrigues, Armindo; Soares, Lília; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead [Pb (µg g(-1) wet weight)] were determined in liver and muscle samples of 15 bigeye (Thunnus obesus) and 15 skipjack tunas (Katsuwonus pelamis) caught over an active volcanic region in the Mid-Atlantic Ocean (Azores, Portugal) and evaluated regarding consumption safety. None of the muscle samples (edible part) exceeded the European Union (EU) maximum limits (MLs) for Hg and Pb. Cd concentrations in muscle were much greater than EU MLs with 53 and 26 % of the bigeye tuna and skipjack tuna, respectively, in exceedance of the limits. Results obtained in this work, together with other studies in the same region, support the existence of an important volcanic source of Cd in waters of the Mid-Atlantic region, which should be carefully monitored given the importance of many commercial marine species for human consumption, mainly in Europe. PMID:26681184

  11. Discovery of a spawning ground reveals diverse migration strategies in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Marancik, Katrin E.; Guyon, Jeffrey R.; Lutcavage, Molly E.; Galuardi, Benjamin; Lam, Chi Hin; Walsh, Harvey J.; Wildes, Sharon; Yates, Douglas A.; Hare, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna are a symbol of both the conflict between preservationist and utilitarian views of top ocean predators, and the struggle to reach international consensus on the management of migratory species. Currently, Atlantic bluefin tuna are managed as an early-maturing eastern stock, which spawns in the Mediterranean Sea, and a late-maturing western stock, which spawns in the Gulf of Mexico. However, electronic tagging studies show that many bluefin tuna, assumed to be of a mature size, do not visit either spawning ground during the spawning season. Whether these fish are spawning in an alternate location, skip-spawning, or not spawning until an older age affects how vulnerable this species is to anthropogenic stressors including exploitation. We use larval collections to demonstrate a bluefin tuna spawning ground in the Slope Sea, between the Gulf Stream and northeast United States continental shelf. We contend that western Atlantic bluefin tuna have a differential spawning migration, with larger individuals spawning in the Gulf of Mexico, and smaller individuals spawning in the Slope Sea. The current life history model, which assumes only Gulf of Mexico spawning, overestimates age at maturity for the western stock. Furthermore, individual tuna occupy both the Slope Sea and Mediterranean Sea in separate years, contrary to the prevailing view that individuals exhibit complete spawning-site fidelity. Overall, this complexity of spawning migrations questions whether there is complete independence in the dynamics of eastern and western Atlantic bluefin tuna and leads to lower estimates of the vulnerability of this species to exploitation and other anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26951668

  12. Discovery of a spawning ground reveals diverse migration strategies in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E; Marancik, Katrin E; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Lutcavage, Molly E; Galuardi, Benjamin; Lam, Chi Hin; Walsh, Harvey J; Wildes, Sharon; Yates, Douglas A; Hare, Jonathan A

    2016-03-22

    Atlantic bluefin tuna are a symbol of both the conflict between preservationist and utilitarian views of top ocean predators, and the struggle to reach international consensus on the management of migratory species. Currently, Atlantic bluefin tuna are managed as an early-maturing eastern stock, which spawns in the Mediterranean Sea, and a late-maturing western stock, which spawns in the Gulf of Mexico. However, electronic tagging studies show that many bluefin tuna, assumed to be of a mature size, do not visit either spawning ground during the spawning season. Whether these fish are spawning in an alternate location, skip-spawning, or not spawning until an older age affects how vulnerable this species is to anthropogenic stressors including exploitation. We use larval collections to demonstrate a bluefin tuna spawning ground in the Slope Sea, between the Gulf Stream and northeast United States continental shelf. We contend that western Atlantic bluefin tuna have a differential spawning migration, with larger individuals spawning in the Gulf of Mexico, and smaller individuals spawning in the Slope Sea. The current life history model, which assumes only Gulf of Mexico spawning, overestimates age at maturity for the western stock. Furthermore, individual tuna occupy both the Slope Sea and Mediterranean Sea in separate years, contrary to the prevailing view that individuals exhibit complete spawning-site fidelity. Overall, this complexity of spawning migrations questions whether there is complete independence in the dynamics of eastern and western Atlantic bluefin tuna and leads to lower estimates of the vulnerability of this species to exploitation and other anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26951668

  13. Levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in a random sample of Australian aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, D.; Madigan, T.; Kiermeier, A.; Daughtry, B.; Pointon, A. [South Australian Research and Development Inst. (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    To date there has been no published information available on the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in Australian aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii). Southern Bluefin Tuna are commercially farmed off the coast of Port Lincoln in the state of South Australia, Australia. This paper reports the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in muscle tissue samples from 11 randomly sampled aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna collected in 2003. Little published data exists on the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in Australian aquacultureproduced seafood. Wild tuna are first caught in the Great Australian Bight in South Australian waters, and are then brought back to Port Lincoln where they are ranched in sea-cages before being harvested and exported to Japan. The aim of the study was to identify pathways whereby contaminants such as dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs may enter the aquaculture production system. This involved undertaking a through chain analysis of the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in wild caught tuna, seafloor sediment samples from the marine environment, levels in feeds and final harvested exported product. Detailed study was also undertaken on the variation of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs across individual tuna carcases. This paper addresses the levels found in final harvested product. Details on levels found in other studies will be published elsewhere shortly.

  14. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Palmieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (sGnRH, chicken (cGnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6 and sea bream (sbGnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRHimmunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed.

  15. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, G; Acone, F; Desantis, S; Corriero, A; Ventriglia, G; Addis, P; Genovese, S; Aprea, A; Spedicato, D; Losurdo, M; Deflorio, M; Di Summa, A; De Metrio, G

    2008-01-01

    The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions) as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE) similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (s)GnRH, chicken (c)GnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6) and sea bream (sb)GnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRH-immunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed. PMID:18502719

  16. Quality assessment of ice-stored tropical yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and influence of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbande, Adèle; Adenet, Sandra; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Rochefort, Katia; Leroi, Françoise

    2016-12-01

    Metagenomic, microbial, chemical and sensory analyses of Thunnus albacares from Martinique stored in ice (AIR - 0 °C), vacuum (VP - 4/8 °C) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP - 4/8 °C) (70% CO2 - 30% O2) were carried out. The organoleptic rejection of AIR tuna was observed at day 13 when total bacterial counts equaled 10(6)-10(7) CFU g(-1). No extension of shelf-life was provided by VP and MAP. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analyzed by Illumina MiSeq and PCR-TTGE, Rhodanobacter terrae was the main species of the freshly caught tuna. At the sensory rejection time, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas dominated the AIR products while B. thermosphacta alone or a mix of B. thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated the microbiota of MAP and VP products, respectively. The pH value remained stable in all trials, ranging from 5.77 to 5.97. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA-N) concentrations were weak and not significantly different between batches. Lipid oxidation increased in the samples containing O2 (MAP > AIR). The initial concentration of histamine was high (75-78 mg kg(-1)) and stable up to 8 days but then significantly decreased in all trials to reach 25-30 mg kg(-1), probably due to the presence of histamine-decomposing bacteria. PMID:27554147

  17. [Association of the abundance and vertical distribution of tuna and beakfish in the southeast of the Caribbean sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W; Gaertner, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    The longline hooks suspension depth was estimated using the Mechanic Imitation of Flexible Systems method. The vertical distribution of tunas and billfish was determined by the relative abundance index, obtained from the catch by 11 to 25 m -long longline vessels, -based at Cumaná, Venezuela, South-eastern Caribbean Sea in depths of 65 to 142 m. The CPUE was evaluated per species, according to depth. High values were found for most of the captured species in the layer from 105 to 125 m. Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) showed the highest yield (3.37 fish/100 hooks) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) the lowest (0.04 fish/100 hooks). However, the statistical comparison did not allow to reject the hypothesis of lack of depth efect (Kruskal-Wallis p > .05), and demonstrated a homogeneous distribution of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), sailfish (Istiophorus albicans), white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the water column. The conclusion is that fish concentration in the Southern border of the Caribbean Sea is possibly due to several hydroclimatic factors--which affect tuna and billfish catching--such as water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration which limit the distribution according to depth. PMID:15162696

  18. Estimating growth of tropical tunas in the Indian Ocean using tag-recapture data and otolith-based age estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Eveson, J.P.; Million, J.; Sardenne, Fany; Le Croizier, G.

    2015-01-01

    A growth model from which the expected age of a fish can be estimated based on its length is a key component to most stock assessments. For the three tropical tuna species in the Indian Ocean - yellowfin (YET; Thunnus albacares), bigeye (BET; T. obesus) and skipjack (SKJ; Katsuwonus pelamis) - information about growth has been very limited until recently, when data from a large-scale Indian Ocean tuna tagging program became available. In this paper, parametric growth models were fit to tag-re...

  19. Spatial and sex-specific variation in growth of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) across the South Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley J; Farley, Jessica H; Hoyle, Simon D; Davies, Campbell R; Nicol, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Spatial variation in growth is a common feature of demersal fish populations which often exist as discrete adult sub-populations linked by a pelagic larval stage. However, it remains unclear whether variation in growth occurs at similar spatial scales for populations of highly migratory pelagic species, such as tuna. We examined spatial variation in growth of albacore Thunnus alalunga across 90° of longitude in the South Pacific Ocean from the east coast of Australia to the Pitcairn Islands. Using length-at-age data from a validated ageing method we found evidence for significant variation in length-at-age and growth parameters (L(∞) and k) between sexes and across longitudes. Growth trajectories were similar between sexes up until four years of age, after which the length-at-age for males was, on average, greater than that for females. Males reached an average maximum size more than 8 cm larger than females. Length-at-age and growth parameters were consistently greater at more easterly longitudes than at westerly longitudes for both females and males. Our results provide strong evidence that finer spatial structure exists within the South Pacific albacore stock and raises the question of whether the scale of their "highly migratory" nature should be re-assessed. Future stock assessment models for South Pacific albacore should consider sex-specific growth curves and spatial variation in growth within the stock. PMID:22723993

  20. Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of longline catches of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the Tasman sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, James T.; Wilcox, Chris; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2015-03-01

    The spatial distribution of living marine resources in the Tasman Sea is expected to shift due to the impacts of global climate change. Understanding the most likely future locations of valuable pelagic species will inform the sustainable harvest and management of species such as yellowfin tuna (YFT; Thunnus albacares). We estimate future upper ocean structure in the Tasman Sea, using both historical data and dynamically downscaled ocean projections for the 2060s, and apply a catch distribution model to estimate possible changes to the YFT catch in the eastern Australia domestic longline fishery. Both approaches project that locations with concentrated YFT catch in the Tasman Sea will shift poleward in response to likely climate change. By the 2060s, the core fishing areas are projected to have shifted both poleward and offshore of existing high catch areas. Shifts in the distribution and hence availability of this species may require future domestic fishing vessels to modify their fishing behaviors, which in turn may require social and economic adjustments.

  1. Infection of Anisakids Larvae in Long Tail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol In North Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper was to study the prevalence and intensity of Anisakids lar­vae in the long tail tuna fish captured from Iranian shores of Persian Gulf.Methods: Different organs including skin, abdominal cavity, stomach and intestinal contents, stom­ach sub serous tissues, liver, spleen, gonads and 20 grams of muscles of 100 long tail tuna fish (Thannus tonggol caught from waters of the north parts of Persian Gulf were searched for anisakid nematodes larvae. Twenty grams of around the body cavity muscles were digested in artificial gastric juice. Different organs and digested muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of anisakids larvae. The collected larvae were preserved in 70% alcohol containing 5% glycerin, and cleared in lactophenol for identification.Results: Our findings revealed that 89% of fish harbored 3rd stage larvae of Anisakis sp. of which 2% were infected with both Anisakis and Raphidascaris. All inspected organs except that of skin were found to be infected, while stomach sub serous tissues were the most infected organ (80% followed by abdominal cavity (10%, liver (4%, testicle (3%, stomach contents and spleen (2% and intestinal contents (1%. Intestine and abdominal cavity were the organs har­bored Raphidascaris sp. Digested muscles were free of parasite. Mean intensity was low for both spe­cies and ranged between 1.5 for Raphidascaris sp. and 3.67 for Anisaki sp.Conclusion: Anisakids larvae especially Anisakis are very prevalent in some fish including tunas of Persian Gulf, and consumption of infected fish if it is not properly cooked may lead to human anisakiasis.

  2. Organ blood flow haemodynamics and metabolism of the albacore tuna Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, F C; Kelly, R; Kemper, S; Schumacker, P T; Gallagher, K R; Laurs, R M

    1988-01-01

    Metabolic haemodynamic, and organ blood flow measurements were made in tabled, partially anaesthetized albacore Thunnus alalunga. Heart rates were 115 +/- 9 beats/min: blood pressure 98/75 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic): cardiac output 36.1 +/- 5 (ml/min/kg): oxygen consumption 3.4 +/- 0.7 (ml O2/min/kg) and cardiac contractility (dP/dt) 6342 +/- 822 mm Hg/s. Organ blood flows were measured with radiolabelled microspheres. The red muscle, kidney, and spleen received the highest flows and the white-muscle the least. There was a flow gradient in the white-muscle with the inner portion near the red-muscle receiving the highest flows. Arterial and venous blood gas measurements showed a reverse temperature effect on arterial PO2 and a P50 of 15.9 Torr corrected to 37 degrees C. Red-muscle temperature was 7 degrees C higher than ambient water temperature. These measurements record the albacore's markedly high cardiovascular capability. PMID:3384072

  3. Biomagnification of mercury and its antagonistic interaction with selenium in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the trophic web of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Rosíles-Martínez, Rene; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2012-12-01

    Mercury and selenium concentrations were determined in muscle of 37 yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) captured aboard of Mexican purse-seiners boats off western coast of Baja California Sur, between Punta Eugenia and Cabo Falso, from October to December 2006. Also, its prey (mainly, jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas and pelagic red crab Pleuroncodes planipes) were analyzed from the stomach contents. All the mercury values obtained were lower that mercury content recommended by standard legal limits for seafood adopted by Mexican norms (typically 0.5-1.0μg g(-1)). Mercury concentrations vary between 0.06 and 0.51μg g(-1) in yellowfin tuna, and from 0.01 to 0.20μg g(-1) in its prey, suggesting that mercury can accumulate in prey tissues and that of their predator. Biomagnification factors (BMF) between predator-prey associations were calculated. The BMFs were >1, indicating that mercury biomagnifies along the food web of yellowfin tuna. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium/mercury molar ratios was for pufferfish (42.62)> diamond squid (15.09)>yellowfin tuna (10.29)>pelagic red crab (10.05)>panama lightfish (9.54)> jumbo squid (8.91). The selenium health benefit value (Se-HBV) was calculated to have an improved understanding of the health benefits and risk of fish consumption. PMID:23059106

  4. Histamine formation and the freshness of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.K.K. Jinadasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of storage temperatures on the shelf life of yellowfin tuna (YFT loins by studying of microbial, chemical and organoleptic changes. Shelf life of YFT was determined through changes in total aerobic bacterial plate counts (APC, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N trimethylamine (TMA, organoleptic properties and histamine development during storage at 0, 4 and 7°C. Based on TVB-N value indices, YFT maintained an acceptable shelf life for 21, 17 and 12 days at 0, 4 and 7°C, respectively. Nevertheless, YFT was rejected earlier by the sensory panellists than their TVB-N value indicated. Histamine development was found to be lower than the European Union safety level for 100 mg/kg fish during storage at 0 and 7°C for 21 and 17 days, respectively. Aerobic bacteria initially dominated the micro-flora on YFT; however, as storage time increased, aerobic bacteria became dominant at cold storage, but the numbers exceeded the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF limit of 107 cfu/g in storage at 7°C after 17 days. Therefore, it can be concluded that the storage of fresh YFT in below 4°C has good enough to the shelf life of products (two weeks.

  5. Molecular Identification of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus, Scombridae Larvae and Development of a DNA Character-Based Identification Key for Mediterranean Scombrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Neils Puncher

    Full Text Available The Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, is a commercially important species that has been severely over-exploited in the recent past. Although the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock is now showing signs of recovery, its current status remains very uncertain and as a consequence their recovery is dependent upon severe management informed by rigorous scientific research. Monitoring of early life history stages can inform decision makers about the health of the species based upon recruitment and survival rates. Misidentification of fish larvae and eggs can lead to inaccurate estimates of stock biomass and productivity which can trigger demands for increased quotas and unsound management conclusions. Herein we used a molecular approach employing mitochondrial and nuclear genes (CO1 and ITS1, respectively to identify larvae (n = 188 collected from three spawning areas in the Mediterranean Sea by different institutions working with a regional fisheries management organization. Several techniques were used to analyze the genetic sequences (sequence alignments using search algorithms, neighbour joining trees, and a genetic character-based identification key and an extensive comparison of the results is presented. During this process various inaccuracies in related publications and online databases were uncovered. Our results reveal important differences in the accuracy of the taxonomic identifications carried out by different ichthyoplanktologists following morphology-based methods. While less than half of larvae provided were bluefin tuna, other dominant taxa were bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, albacore (Thunnus alalunga and little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus. We advocate an expansion of expertise for a new generation of morphology-based taxonomists, increased dialogue between morphology-based and molecular taxonomists and increased scrutiny of public sequence databases.

  6. Molecular Identification of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus, Scombridae) Larvae and Development of a DNA Character-Based Identification Key for Mediterranean Scombrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, Gregory Neils; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Alemany, Francisco; Cariani, Alessia; Oray, Isik K; Karakulak, F Saadet; Basilone, Gualtiero; Cuttitta, Angela; Mazzola, Salvatore; Tinti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, is a commercially important species that has been severely over-exploited in the recent past. Although the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock is now showing signs of recovery, its current status remains very uncertain and as a consequence their recovery is dependent upon severe management informed by rigorous scientific research. Monitoring of early life history stages can inform decision makers about the health of the species based upon recruitment and survival rates. Misidentification of fish larvae and eggs can lead to inaccurate estimates of stock biomass and productivity which can trigger demands for increased quotas and unsound management conclusions. Herein we used a molecular approach employing mitochondrial and nuclear genes (CO1 and ITS1, respectively) to identify larvae (n = 188) collected from three spawning areas in the Mediterranean Sea by different institutions working with a regional fisheries management organization. Several techniques were used to analyze the genetic sequences (sequence alignments using search algorithms, neighbour joining trees, and a genetic character-based identification key) and an extensive comparison of the results is presented. During this process various inaccuracies in related publications and online databases were uncovered. Our results reveal important differences in the accuracy of the taxonomic identifications carried out by different ichthyoplanktologists following morphology-based methods. While less than half of larvae provided were bluefin tuna, other dominant taxa were bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus). We advocate an expansion of expertise for a new generation of morphology-based taxonomists, increased dialogue between morphology-based and molecular taxonomists and increased scrutiny of public sequence databases. PMID:26147931

  7. Spatially explicit estimates of stock size, structure and biomass of North Atlantic albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Dragon, A.-C.; Arrizabalaga, H.

    2014-09-01

    The development of the ecosystem approach and models for the management of ocean marine resources requires easy access to standard validated data sets of historical catch data for the main exploited species. They are used to measure the impact of biomass removal by fisheries and to evaluate the models outputs, while the use of a standard data set facilitates models inter-comparison. Unlike standard stock assessment models, new state-of-the-art ecosystem models require geo-referenced fishing data with the highest possible spatial resolution. This study presents an application to the North Atlantic albacore tuna stock with a careful definition and validation of a spatially explicit fishing data set prepared from publicly available sources (ICCAT) for its use in a spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model (SEAPODYM) to provide the first spatially explicit estimate of albacore density in the North Atlantic by life stage. Density distributions together with the fishing data used for the estimates are provided at http://doi.pangaea.de/ (see section Source Data References) (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828115; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828226; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828227; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828228; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828229; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828230; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828231; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828232; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828232; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828233; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828234; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828235; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828236; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828237; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828238; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828168; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828170; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828171).

  8. Seasonal and interannual variability of fat content of juvenile albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) and bluefin ( Thunnus thynnus) tunas during their feeding migration to the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Nicolas; Arrizabalaga, Haritz

    2010-07-01

    The fat content of 2945 juvenile albacore and 618 juvenile bluefin tunas caught in the Bay of Biscay was measured. Individuals were caught in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 from June to early November by pelagic trawling, trolling and baitboat gears. The results for the two species show different seasonal trends. The fat content of albacore tuna increased linearly throughout the fishing season, which reflects their feeding migration. The seasonal trend of bluefin tuna showed a minimum in early August, which may be related to a different behaviour, physiology or feeding strategy. An interannual increase of fat content was observed in albacore tuna and in age-2 to age-5+ bluefin tuna, which is possibly related to a density-dependence phenomenon. The seasonal increase of fat content was strongest and appeared in the four years studied for age-3 and age-4 albacore tuna, which can be related to a different vertical habitat or a more efficient use of their ecological niche by the individuals of these age-groups, relatively to the younger age-groups. Condition factor and girth/length ratio do not appear to be relevant indicators of fat content.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Histamine-Producing Photobacterium kishitanii and Photobacterium angustum, Isolated from Albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and Yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) Tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; McCarthy, Susan A; Dunlap, Paul V; Timme, Ruth E; Benner, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    Histamine-producing bacteria are responsible for scombrotoxin (histamine) fish poisoning, a leading cause of fish poisoning in the United States. We report here the draft genome sequences of four histamine-producing (HP) Photobacterium kishitanii strains and nine HP Photobacterium angustum strains isolated from tuna. PMID:25931609

  10. 77 FR 71501 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), or skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus... species or species groups: yellowfin tuna, bigeye tuna, albacore, skipjack tuna, swordfish, shark, other... with purse seine gear may not discard at sea within the Convention Area any bigeye tuna,......

  11. On Making Statistical Inferences Regarding the Relationship between Spawners and Recruits and the Irresolute Case of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porch, Clay E; Lauretta, Matthew V

    2016-01-01

    Forecasts of the future abundance of western Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) have, for nearly two decades, been based on two competing views of future recruitment potential: (1) a "low" recruitment scenario based on hockey-stick (two-line) curve where the expected level of recruitment is set equal to the geometric mean of the recruitment estimates for the years after a supposed regime-shift in 1975, and (2) a "high" recruitment scenario based on a Beverton-Holt curve fit to the time series of spawner-recruit pairs beginning in 1970. Several investigators inferred the relative plausibility of these two scenarios based on measures of their ability to fit estimates of spawning biomass and recruitment derived from stock assessment outputs. Typically, these comparisons have assumed the assessment estimates of spawning biomass are known without error. It is shown here that ignoring error in the spawning biomass estimates can predispose model-choice approaches to favor the regime-shift hypothesis over the Beverton-Holt curve with higher recruitment potential. When the variance of the observation error approaches that which is typically estimated for assessment outputs, the same model-choice approaches tend to favor the single Beverton-Holt curve. For this and other reasons, it is argued that standard model-choice approaches are insufficient to make the case for a regime shift in the recruitment dynamics of western Atlantic bluefin tuna. A more fruitful course of action may be to move away from the current high/low recruitment dichotomy and focus instead on adopting biological reference points and management procedures that are robust to these and other sources of uncertainty. PMID:27272215

  12. On Making Statistical Inferences Regarding the Relationship between Spawners and Recruits and the Irresolute Case of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay E Porch

    Full Text Available Forecasts of the future abundance of western Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus have, for nearly two decades, been based on two competing views of future recruitment potential: (1 a "low" recruitment scenario based on hockey-stick (two-line curve where the expected level of recruitment is set equal to the geometric mean of the recruitment estimates for the years after a supposed regime-shift in 1975, and (2 a "high" recruitment scenario based on a Beverton-Holt curve fit to the time series of spawner-recruit pairs beginning in 1970. Several investigators inferred the relative plausibility of these two scenarios based on measures of their ability to fit estimates of spawning biomass and recruitment derived from stock assessment outputs. Typically, these comparisons have assumed the assessment estimates of spawning biomass are known without error. It is shown here that ignoring error in the spawning biomass estimates can predispose model-choice approaches to favor the regime-shift hypothesis over the Beverton-Holt curve with higher recruitment potential. When the variance of the observation error approaches that which is typically estimated for assessment outputs, the same model-choice approaches tend to favor the single Beverton-Holt curve. For this and other reasons, it is argued that standard model-choice approaches are insufficient to make the case for a regime shift in the recruitment dynamics of western Atlantic bluefin tuna. A more fruitful course of action may be to move away from the current high/low recruitment dichotomy and focus instead on adopting biological reference points and management procedures that are robust to these and other sources of uncertainty.

  13. Relative growth pattern and hard tissue of vertebral centra by microradiography of bluefin tuna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the growth feature and the structure of hard tissue, we studied the vertebral centrum of three species, bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus, bigeye tuna T. obesus and skipjack Katsuwonus pelamis (BL: 44.2, 39.5 and 40.0cm respectively). We examined the ratio of cetrum length to diameter in each vertebral centrum and obtained the value of 0.9-1.3 in most centra among three species. This indicates that the examined species belong to the equivalent type of the relative growth pattern of vertebral centra. The hard tissue was observed by microradiography, with the longitudinal and cross sections (about 100 μm) cut through the center of notochordal pore. The major centra of the vertebral column were composed of characteristic simple structure like a cross, when seen in the microradiographs of cross sections. Microradiographs indicated that the bone has complicated canals with minute spaces like the bone cavities

  14. The biological oceanography of the East Australian Current and surrounding waters in relation to tuna and billfish catches off eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. W.; Hobday, A. J.; Campbell, R. A.; Kloser, R. J.; Bonham, P. I.; Clementson, L. A.; Lansdell, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    The surface and sub-surface biological oceanography of tuna fishing grounds within the East Australian Current (EAC) was compared in 2004 with two other fishing areas further offshore. Our aim was to determine whether the biological oceanography of the region could explain the distribution and intensity of pelagic fishery catches inside and outside the EAC at that time. The EAC fishing area was noticeably warmer, less saline and lower in nutrients than waters in the other fishing areas. The EAC waters were dominated by large diatoms, the biomass of which was significantly higher than in the seamount and offshore areas, apparently the result of a cold core eddy beneath the EAC surface filament. Over the seamount and offshore more typical Tasman Sea waters prevailed, although the presence of a relatively deeper oxygen minimum layer over the seamount suggested topographically induced mixing in the area. Notably, sub-surface zooplankton and micronekton biomass was significantly higher around the seamount than in the two other areas. The offshore region was characterised by frontal activity associated with the Tasman front. Micronekton net biomass was generally highest in surface waters in this region. Examination of tuna catch records at that time showed yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) dominated the catches of the EAC, whereas swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) and bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) were the main species caught offshore. We suggest the yellowfin tuna concentrate in waters that are not only warmer but where prey species are concentrated near the surface. Offshore, deeper living species such as swordfish and bigeye tuna ( T. obesus) can take advantage of prey species that are distributed deeper in the water column and along the flanks of the many seamounts in the region, or that are concentrated at fronts associated with the Tasman Front. Although only a snapshot of the region, relatively consistent catch data over time suggests the underlying biological

  15. Physicochemical and sensory characterization of refined and deodorized tuna (Thunnus albacares) by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Dayse A S B; Minozzo, Marcelo G; Licodiedoff, Silvana; Waszczynskyj, Nina

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the effects of chemical refining and deodorization on fatty acid profiles and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the tuna by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. Enzymatic extraction was conducted for 120 min at 60 °C and pH 6.5 using Alcalase at an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:200 w/w. The chemical refining of crude oil consisted of degumming, neutralization, washing, drying, bleaching, and deodorization; deodorization was conducted at different temperatures and processing times. Although chemical refining was successful, temperature and chemical reagents favored the removal of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the oil. Aroma attributes of fishy odor, frying odor, and rancid odor predominantly contributed to the sensory evaluation of the product. Deodorization conditions of 160 °C for 1h and 200 °C for 1h were recommended for the tuna by-product oil, which is rich in PUFA. PMID:27080896

  16. A spatiotemporal study of bacterial community profiles associated with Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae, Thunnus thynnus L., in three Mediterranean hatcheries

    OpenAIRE

    GATESOUPE, François-Joël; Covès, Denis; Ortega, Aurelio; Papandroulakis, Nikos; Vadstein, Olav; de la Gándara, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    During the first 2 years of larval rearing trials with Atlantic bluefin tuna, survival was a challenging issue. As bacterial colonization of the gut has been shown to play a key role for other species, we studied the profiles of the microbiota associated with individual larvae at different stages in three distant hatcheries. The Bacterial Community Profile (BCP) was quantified based on PCR-DGGE analyses of partial amplicons from 16S rDNA. Considerable individual variability in BCP was observ...

  17. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) IN wild Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from different FAO capture zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, L M; Labella, G F; Panseri, S; Pavlovic, R; Bonacci, S; Arioli, F

    2016-06-01

    Residues of environmental contaminants in food represent a concern in food safety programs. In this study, the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were evaluated in 79 tuna samples from FAO areas 51 (Indian Ocean), 71 (Pacific Ocean), 34 (Atlantic Ocean), and 37 (Mediterranean Sea). 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 organochlorines (OCs) and 7 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were selected as representative compounds according to EFSA POPs monitoring guidelines. An analytical method, based on Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), with an "in-line" clean-up step and GC-MS/MS detection, was developed, validated and applied. PCBs were detected in all FAO areas, with a prevalence of 100% for most of them. In the FAO area 37, only, all PBDEs were detected. Only 5 OCs were detected. The results showed that POPs contamination of tuna reflects FAO area contamination; in particular FAO area 37 was the most polluted. Moreover, tuna muscle was an appropriate matrix for monitoring contamination and for obtaining information about food safety. PMID:27016811

  18. Evidence of discrete yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) populations demands rethink of management for this globally important resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, P. M.; Feutry, P.; Hill, P. L.; Gunasekera, R. M.; Schaefer, K. M.; Itano, D. G.; Fuller, D. W.; Foster, S. D.; Davies, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Tropical tuna fisheries are central to food security and economic development of many regions of the world. Contemporary population assessment and management generally assume these fisheries exploit a single mixed spawning population, within ocean basins. To date population genetics has lacked the required power to conclusively test this assumption. Here we demonstrate heterogeneous population structure among yellowfin tuna sampled at three locations across the Pacific Ocean (western, central, and eastern) via analysis of double digest restriction-site associated DNA using Next Generation Sequencing technology. The differences among locations are such that individuals sampled from one of the three regions examined can be assigned with close to 100% accuracy demonstrating the power of this approach for providing practical markers for fishery independent verification of catch provenance in a way not achieved by previous techniques. Given these results, an extended pan-tropical survey of yellowfin tuna using this approach will not only help combat the largest threat to sustainable fisheries (i.e. illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing) but will also provide a basis to transform current monitoring, assessment, and management approaches for this globally significant species.

  19. New Nuclear SNP Markers Unravel the Genetic Structure and Effective Population Size of Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconcha, Urtzi; Iriondo, Mikel; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Manzano, Carmen; Markaide, Pablo; Montes, Iratxe; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Velado, Igor; Bilbao, Eider; Goñi, Nicolas; Santiago, Josu; Domingo, Andrés; Karakulak, Saadet; Oray, Işık; Estonba, Andone

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have investigated the population genetic structure of albacore (Thunnus alalunga, Bonnaterre 1788) and assessed the loss of genetic diversity, likely due to overfishing, of albacore population in the North Atlantic Ocean. For this purpose, 1,331 individuals from 26 worldwide locations were analyzed by genotyping 75 novel nuclear SNPs. Our results indicated the existence of four genetically homogeneous populations delimited within the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Current definition of stocks allows the sustainable management of albacore since no stock includes more than one genetic entity. In addition, short- and long-term effective population sizes were estimated for the North Atlantic Ocean albacore population, and results showed no historical decline for this population. Therefore, the genetic diversity and, consequently, the adaptive potential of this population have not been significantly affected by overfishing. PMID:26090851

  20. 78 FR 14755 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... is to ensure that the stocks of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and... trips, with certain exceptions; and (4) a requirement that all bigeye tuna, yellowfin tuna, and skipjack... bigeye, yellowfin, and skipjack tuna during its next regular annual session, in December 2013. The...

  1. 77 FR 8759 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... vessels to retain all catch of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and... Measure for Bigeye and Yellowfin Tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean,'' for FAD prohibition..., bigeye tuna, albacore, skipjack tuna, swordfish, shark, other; and (6) an indication of whether...

  2. Maturity ogives for South Pacific albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) that account for spatial and seasonal variation in the distributions of mature and immature fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jessica H; Hoyle, Simon D; Eveson, J Paige; Williams, Ashley J; Davies, Campbell R; Nicol, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Length and age at maturity are important life history parameters for estimating spawning stock biomass and reproductive potential of fish stocks. Bias in estimates of size and age at maturity can arise when disparate distributions of mature and immature fish within a population are not accounted for in the analysis. Here we investigate the spatial and temporal variability in observed size and age at maturity of female albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, using samples collected across the South Pacific. Maturity status was identified using consistent histological criteria that were precise enough to allow for mature but regenerating females to be distinguished from immature females during the non-spawning season, permitting year-round sampling for maturity estimation in albacore. Using generalised linear mixed models, we found that the proportion of mature females at length varied significantly with latitude and time of year. Specifically, females at northern latitudes (∼10-20°S, where spawning occurs) were mature at significantly smaller lengths and ages than females at southern latitudes (∼20-40°S), particularly during the spawning season (October-March). This variation was due to different geographic distributions of mature and immature fish during the year. We present a method for estimating an unbiased maturity ogive that takes into account the latitudinal variation in proportion mature at length during a given season (spawning or non-spawning). Applying this method to albacore samples from the western region of the South Pacific gave a predicted length at 50% mature of ∼87 cm fork length (4.5 years). PMID:24416153

  3. Genetic variation in skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis (L.) using PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Ikeda, M.; Taniguchi, N.

    ) in the coastal sector, and Katsuwonus pelamis (L.), Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre) andThunnus obesus(Lowe)intheoceanicwaters.CommercialtunafishinginIndia started in 1985 with the operation of chartered tuna long liners and a few Indian- owned tuna vessels...

  4. A spatial ecosystem and populations dynamics model (SEAPODYM) Modeling of tuna and tuna-like populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2008-09-01

    An enhanced version of the spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model SEAPODYM is presented to describe spatial dynamics of tuna and tuna-like species in the Pacific Ocean at monthly resolution over 1° grid-boxes. The simulations are driven by a bio-physical environment predicted from a coupled ocean physical-biogeochemical model. This new version of SEAPODYM includes expanded definitions of habitat indices, movements, and natural mortality based on empirical evidences. A thermal habitat of tuna species is derived from an individual heat budget model. The feeding habitat is computed according to the accessibility of tuna predator cohorts to different vertically migrating and non-migrating micronekton (mid-trophic) functional groups. The spawning habitat is based on temperature and the coincidence of spawning fish with presence or absence of predators and food for larvae. The successful larval recruitment is linked to spawning stock biomass. Larvae drift with currents, while immature and adult tuna can move of their own volition, in addition to being advected by currents. A food requirement index is computed to adjust locally the natural mortality of cohorts based on food demand and accessibility to available forage components. Together these mechanisms induce bottom-up and top-down effects, and intra- (i.e. between cohorts) and inter-species interactions. The model is now fully operational for running multi-species, multi-fisheries simulations, and the structure of the model allows a validation from multiple data sources. An application with two tuna species showing different biological characteristics, skipjack ( Katsuwonus pelamis) and bigeye ( Thunnus obesus), is presented to illustrate the capacity of the model to capture many important features of spatial dynamics of these two different tuna species in the Pacific Ocean. The actual validation is presented in a companion paper describing the approach to have a rigorous mathematical parameter optimization

  5. Dietary evidence of mesopelagic and pelagic foraging by Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L. during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droplaug eOlafsdottir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus is a large highly mobile predator fish species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Knowledge of its trophic role in marine food webs in summer feeding areas is presently based on recent (1980s-2010s sampling in the Bay of Biscay, Gulfs of Maine and St. Lawrence, and from historical (1950s-1960s sampling in the Norwegian-North Sea-Kattegat. No study has yet investigated the diets of ABFT in Icelandic waters, where it supported an experimental fishery during 1996-2005, nor in any region north of the Bay of Biscay since the 1960s. However north Atlantic temperatures and fish species distributions, including some ABFT prey species (e. g., mackerel have been changing in the 2000s. New knowledge of ABFT diets in previously understudied parts of the species range will be useful for understanding factors affecting the trophic role, migration behavior and bioenergetics of ABFT. Here we report the dietary composition of ABFT during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin south of the continental shelf of Iceland. A total of 36 prey species or higher taxa were observed in 421 stomach samples: 17 teleost fishes, 4 squid, 1 octopus, 11 crustaceans and 2 other invertebrate species. The most important prey species European flying squid (Todarodes sagittatus (%N=16.70, %W=48.89; %FO=87.65, barracudinas (Paralepididae (%N=14.05, %W=28.59, %FO=76.48 and gonate squid (Gonatus sp. (%N=9.17, %W=7.85, %FO=75.06. Prey sizes were highly variable relative to ABFT sizes indicating highly opportunistic feeding on diverse sizes. The presence of a large proportion of mesopelagic species in the diet indicates feeding in the mesopelagic layer and extensive dive behavior. These results give new baseline knowledge for future comparison with anticipated oceanographic-biological changes in the region in the coming decades and can be used to help parameterize new models of ABFT migration behavior and trophic role.

  6. Significant histamine formation in tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) at 2 degrees C - effect of vacuum- and modified atmosphere-packaging on psychrotolerant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, B. G.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2005-01-01

    and sensory changes were evaluated during storage at 1-3 degrees C. To explain the results obtained with naturally contaminated tuna the effect of VP and MAP on biogenic amine formation by psychrotolerant bacteria was evaluated in challenge tests at 2 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The VP tuna that caused...... of histamine were produced at 2.1 degrees C in inoculated VP tuna by both the psychrotolerant M morganii-like bacteria (7400 +/- 1050 mg/kg) and R phosphoreum (4250 +/- 2050 mg/kg). Interestingly, MAP with 40% CO2/60% O-2, in challenge tests, had a strong inhibitory effect on growth and histamine formation...... tuna it is suggested, for lean tuna loins, to replace vacuum packaging with MAP containing similar to 40% CO2 and similar to 60% O-2. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Habitat use and diel vertical migration of bigeye thresher shark: overlap with pelagic longline fishing gear

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Rui; Fernandez-Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Miguel N.

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic longliners targeting swordfish and tunas in oceanic waters regularly capture sharks as bycatch, including currently protected species as the bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus. Fifteen bigeye threshers were tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) in 2012-2014 in the tropical northeast Atlantic, with successful transmissions received from 12 tags for a total of 907 tracking days. Marked diel vertical movements were recorded on all specimens, with most of the daytime spen...

  8. Résumé des connaissances actuelles sur la biologie et la pêche des thons tropicaux en Atlantique

    OpenAIRE

    Bard, F.x.; Stretta, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    This work summarizes the present knowledge on biology and fisheries of Atlantic tuna such as yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) and to a lesser extent, bigeye (Thunnus obesus) and albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Current appraisal of these stocks

  9. 76 FR 82180 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... part on the findings by the WCPFC that the stock of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the WCPO was... seine gear may not discard at sea within the Convention Area any bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin...; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species; Fishing Restrictions for Bigeye...

  10. Determination of temporal spawning patterns and hatching time in response to temperature of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus in the Western Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gordoa

    Full Text Available This study analysed the temporal pattern of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT spawning in the Balearic spawning ground and examined its reproductive performance after years in captivity. Furthermore, ABFT hatching time at different on-site temperatures was determined for the first time. Spawning surveys were carried out in 4 spawning seasons (2009-2012 aboard tuna transport vessels. Three groups of spawners were monitored: a captive group transported to the spawning region and monitored throughout the four spawning seasons and two wild groups caught in 2009 and 2010 which were transferred to a monitoring transport cage immediately after being caught. Surface plankton samples were collected nightly, beginning immediately after the first purse seine catches were made and concluding after spawning was observed to have ended. All groups displayed the same spawning hours, restricted between 2:00-5:00 a.m. The captive group, as they got older, shifted towards the earliest hour, suggesting an age influence on reproductive time. The onset of spawning varied annually from the end of May to the beginning of June at temperatures around 19 °C-20 °C, ending by the second week of July. The peak of spawning was consistently around the summer solstice, June 15th-30th. The results showed the negative effect of unstable oceanographic conditions in the spawning process which might influence the annual reproductive success of ABFT. The influence of temperature on hatching time was higher than that observed in other tuna species, twice as fast at 26 °C (23 h as at 19.5 °C (49 h. Overall, this study shows the strength of the internal mechanism in ABFT that controls spawning traits. Spawning in ABFT is cyclical and highly synchronised on diel and annual scales. We consider that the timing of spawning is rather influenced by day length and its adaptive significance is discussed.

  11. Lipid and fatty acid composition, and persistent organic pollutant levels in tissues of migrating Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, L.) broodstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid class, fatty acid and POP levels were measured in migrating Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT) tissues caught off the Barbate coast, Spain. Tissue lipids were largely characterized by triacylglycerol, reflecting large energy reserves accumulated prior to reproductive migration. Fatty acid compositions of muscle, liver and adipose exhibited similar profiles, whereas gonads showed a higher affinity for docosahexaenoic acid. Tissue POP concentrations correlated positively with percentage triacylglycerol and negatively with polar lipids. Highest POP concentrations were in adipose and lowest in gonads, reflecting lipid content. DL-PCBs contributed most to total PCDD/F + DL-PCB levels, with mono-ortho concentrations higher in tissues, whereas non-ortho PCBs contributed greater WHO-TEQs due to differences in TEFs. PBDE47 was the most prominent BDE congener in tissues, probably through biotransformation of BDE99 and other higher brominated congeners. The perceived POP risk from ABT consumption should be balanced by the well-established beneficial effects on human health of omega-3 fatty acids. - Highlights: ► Lipid classes, fatty acids and POPs were measured in Atlantic bluefin tuna tissues. ► Lowest POP concentrations were detected in gonads and highest in adipose. ► POP concentrations correlated positively with percentage triacylglycerol. ► The DL-PCBs contributed most to total PCDD/F + DL-PCB concentrations and TEQ levels. ► We assess the risk-benefit to human health associated with ABT consumption. - Lipids, fatty acids (particularly omega-3) and POPs were determined in Atlantic bluefin tuna to examine tissue distribution, and assess the risk-benefit to human health.

  12. 78 FR 58240 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Act) to establish a catch limit of 3,763 metric tons (mt) of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) for vessels...; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species; Bigeye Tuna Catch Limit in Longline... of 3,763 mt is reached in 2013 or 2014, retaining, transshipping, or landing bigeye tuna caught...

  13. 77 FR 51709 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... rule establishes a catch limit of 3,763 metric tons (mt) of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) for vessels in... final rule to implement the longline bigeye tuna ] elements of CMM 2008-01 (74 FR 63999). The rule...; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species; Bigeye Tuna Catch Limit in...

  14. Trophic ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus [corrected] larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean spawning grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Laiz-Carrión

    Full Text Available The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT (6-10 mm standard length in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM and the Balearic Sea (MED. These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton-zooplankton-larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae.

  15. Relationships between satellite-derived oceanic events and the albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga, Bonaterre 1788) artisanal fishing grounds in the Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Josep; Ramos, Antonio G.

    2004-11-01

    Satellite radiometers are widely used to detect oceanic structures which may allow for accumulations of pelagic fish. However, little information exists with respect to the possible use of spacecraft radar sensors in the detection and management of pelagic fisheries. This paper presents the satellite-derived ocenic events obtained from the Ekman Pumping (satellite wind scatterometer data derived), the Sea Level Anomaly, the Sea Surface Temperature and the Chlorophyll-a pigment images data sets, and how they relate to the albacore tuna fishing grounds distribution patterns in the North-East Atlantic. The statistical results show that catch per unit of effort (cpue) variability can be extensively explained by the satellite derived data base. The accumulation of CPUE records in specific zones is discussed too, in relation to the specific sensitivity of albacore due to the species' physiological thermo-conserving system. This paper emphasizes the importance of the combination of several satellite data sources in order to fully investigate mathematical relationships with the cpue.

  16. Can Cooperative Management of Tuna Fisheries in the Western Pacific Solve the Growth Overfishing Problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Rashid Sumaila, U.; Martell, S.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Tuna fisheries in the western and central Pacific Ocean are important globally for both food and economic security. Yellowfin and bigeye tuna stocks in this region are declining, in part due to the juvenile bycatch of these species by the purse seine fishery using floating objects and fish aggregati

  17. OPTIMASI KONDISI PEMURNIAN ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 DARI MINYAK HASIL SAMPING PENEPUNGAN TUNA (Thunnus sp DENGAN KRISTALISASI UREA [Optimizing Conditions for the Purification of Omega-3 Fatty Acids from By-product of Tuna (Thunnus sp Meal Processing by Urea Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (-3 are proven to have health beneficial effects. Some effort had been done to obtained oil high in -3 fatty acids. Among the methods developed, urea crystallization was preferred because it is simple, economic, and result in high purity of fatty acids. A source that had not been widely explored for -3 fatty acids production is the by-product of tuna meal processing. This research studied the optimization condition for separation and purification of -3 fatty acids from the by-product of tuna meal processing by urea crystallization. Crystallization reaction conditions of urea inclusion were optimized using the response surface methodology, and the model was developed.Optimization result showed a quadratic polynomial regression equation of Y= 140,52677X1 + 8,38203X2 – 19,85850X12 – 0,12173X22 – 0,74000X1X2 – 240,33546 with X1=urea to fatty acid ratio and X2=crystallization time. Maximum response was obtained at urea to fatty acid ratio of 3,07:1,crystallization time of 25,10 hours, and predicted response was 80,60%. Analysis of variance showed that urea to fatty acid ratio and crystallization time affected response. Under optimal conditions, the product was 3.89 times concentrated and the purity of -3 fatty acids was 81,98%. Verification result revealed that the predicted value from this model was reasonably close to the experimentally observed value. Urea crystallization process changed quality parameters that were oxidation level (peroxide value, anisidin value, and totox value, Fe and Cu content, P content, and water content. The changes were caused by adsorption of primary and secondary oxidation products, part of metals, and phosphoric compound onto unsaponifiable matters or soluble into water.

  18. The Southern Oscillation, Hypoxia, and the Eastern Pacific Tuna Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D.; Kiefer, D.; Lam, C. H.; Harrison, D. P.; Armstrong, E. M.; Hinton, M.; Luo, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Pacific tuna fishery, which is one of the world's major fisheries, covers thousands of square kilometers. The vessels of this fishery are registered in more than 30 nations and largely target bigeye (Thunnus obesus), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and yellowfin (T. albacores) tuna. In both the Pelagic Habitat Analysis Module project, which is sponsored by NASA, and the Fishscape project, which is sponsored by NSF, we have attempted to define the habitat of the three species by matching a 50 year time series on fish catch and effort with oceanographic information obtained from satellite imagery and from a global circulation model. The fishery time series, which was provided by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, provided spatial maps of catch and effort at monthly time steps; the satellite imagery of the region consisted of sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and height from GHRSST, SEAWiFS, and AVISO products, and the modeled flow field at selected depths was output from ECCO-92 simulations from 1992 to present. All information was integrated and analyzed within the EASy marine geographic information system. This GIS will also provides a home for the Fishscape spatial simulation model of the coupled dynamics of the ocean, fish, fleets, and markets. This model will then be applied to an assessment of the potential ecological and economic impacts of climate change, technological advances in fleet operations, and increases in fuel costs. We have determined by application of EOF analysis that the ECCO-2 simulation of sea surface height fits well with that of AVISO imagery; thus, if driven properly by predictions of future air-sea exchange, the model should provide good estimates of circulation patterns. We have also found that strong El Nino events lead to strong recruitment of all three species and strong La Nina events lead to weak recruitment. Finally, we have found that the general spatial distribution of the Eastern Pacific fishing grounds

  19. Identification of five highly priced tuna species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shasha; Xu, Kunhua; Wu, Zhigang; Xie, Xiao; Feng, Junli

    2016-09-01

    Tunas are economically important fishery worldwide, and are often used for commercial processed production. For effective fishery management and protection of consumers' rights, it is important to develop a molecular method to identify species in canned tuna products rapidly and reliably. Here, we have developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for identification of five highly priced tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus obesus, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga and Katsuwonus pelamis) from processed as well as fresh fish. After amplification and sequencing of seven genetic markers commonly used for species identification, 16S rDNA and control region (CR) of mitochondrial DNA were selected as the reference gene markers for genus Thunnus and tuna species identification, respectively. Subsequently, a 73 bp fragment of 16S rDNA and 85-99 bp fragment of CR were simultaneously amplified from each target species by qPCR. The qPCR efficiency of each reaction was calculated according to the standard curves, and the method was validated by amplification DNA extracted from single or mixed tuna specimen. The developed duplex qPCR system was applied to authenticate species of 14 commercial tuna products successfully, which demonstrated it was really a useful and academic technique to identify highly priced tuna species. PMID:25714139

  20. Differentiation of five tuna species by a multiplex primer-extension assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Maria Teresa; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Cappelletti, Marco; Secchi, Camillo; Civera, Tiziana

    2007-05-01

    A novel methodology based on analysis of mtDNA-cytb diagnostic sites was performed to discriminate four closely related species of Thunnus (Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus obesus and Thunnus thynnus) and one species of Euthynnus (Katsuwonus pelamis) genus in raw and canned tuna. The primers used in the preliminary PCR designed in well conserved region upstream and downstream of the diagnosis sites successfully amplified a 132bp region from the cytb gene of all the species taken into consideration. The sites of diagnosis have been interrogate simultaneously using a multiplex primer-extension assay (PER) and the results were confirmed by fragment sequencing. The applicability of the multiplex PER assay to commercial canned tuna samples was also demonstrated. The proposed test could be useful for detection of fraud and for seafood traceability. PMID:17353060

  1. Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna

    KAUST Repository

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz

    2015-03-01

    In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to 2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalised Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to eight biotic and abiotic variables. Results confirmed that, compared to temperate tunas, tropical tunas prefer warm, anoxic, stratified waters. Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna prefer higher concentrations of chlorophyll than the rest. The two species also tolerate most extreme sea surface height anomalies and highest mixed layer depths. In general, Atlantic bluefin tuna tolerates the widest range of environmental conditions. An assessment of the most important variables determining fish habitat is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Identification of tuna species in commercial cans by minor groove binder probe real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, Valentina; Di Pinto, Pietro; Decaro, Nicola; Parisi, Antonio; Desario, Costantina; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tantillo, Marilia Giuseppina

    2010-12-01

    Three different minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays have been developed for rapid and accurate identification of the species commonly used for production of canned tuna, i.e. yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bluefin (Thunnus thynnus) and albacore (Thunnus alalunga) tunas. The assays targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were able to discriminate efficiently between the three species contained in fresh or canned tunas and did not react with other Scombroidei that were tested. A correct species prediction was obtained even from artificial mixtures prepared with different amounts of the reference tuna species and subjected to the sterilisation treatment. Testing of 27 commercial canned tunas by PCR-RFLP, MGB probe assays and sequence analysis showed a concordance of 100% between the last two techniques, whereas by using PCR-RFLP several samples were uncharacterised or mischaracterised. These results make the established MGB probe assays an attractive tool for direct and rapid species identification in canned tuna. PMID:20691254

  3. 50 CFR 600.10 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tuna means the species Thunnus obesus, or a part thereof. Billfish means blue marlin, longbill spearfish, sailfish, or white marlin. Bluefin tuna means the species Thunnus thynnus, or a part thereof... Fisheries, NOAA, or a designee. Atlantic tunas means bluefin, albacore, bigeye, skipjack, and...

  4. Habitat use and diel vertical migration of bigeye thresher shark: Overlap with pelagic longline fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rui; Fernandez-Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Miguel N

    2015-12-01

    Pelagic longliners targeting swordfish and tunas in oceanic waters regularly capture sharks as bycatch, including currently protected species as the bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus. Fifteen bigeye threshers were tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) in 2012-2014 in the tropical northeast Atlantic, with successful transmissions received from 12 tags for a total of 907 tracking days. Marked diel vertical movements were recorded on all specimens, with most of the daytime spent in deeper colder water (mean depth = 353 m, SD = 73; mean temperature = 10.7 °C, SD = 1.8) and nighttime spent in warmer water closer to the surface (mean depth = 72 m, SD = 54; mean temperature = 21.9 °C, SD = 3.7). The operating depth of the pelagic longline gear was measured with Minilog Temperature and Depth Recorders (TDRs), and the overlap with habitat utilization was calculated. Overlap is taking place mainly during the night and is higher for juveniles. The results presented herein can be used as inputs for Ecological Risk Assessments for bigeye threshers captured in oceanic tuna fisheries, and serve as a basis for efficient management and conservation of this vulnerable shark species. PMID:26559889

  5. Selectivity of hook type on hooking species for the tuna longline fishery in the Southern and Central Indian Ocean%印度洋中南部水域金枪鱼延绳钓钓钩钩型对钓获对象的选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平; 陈锦淘; 许柳雄; 李攀

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data collected from the fishing ground of tuna longliners in the Southern-central Indian Ocean during September 2008 to April 2009, the present study compares and analyzes the catchability and selectivity to hooking species for 3 hook types(traditional tuna hook, "J"-type hook and circle hook).The results show that (1) for traditional tuna hook, the proportion of bigeye tuna( Thunnus obesus, BET)and blue shark( Prionace glauca,BLS)is higher than other species in the catch composition and "J"-type hook and circle hook have a similar hooking proportion for the above two species, however, for albacore ( Thunnus alalunga, ALB), the traditional tuna hook has the highest hooking proportion and followed by "J"-type hook and circle hook.(2) the traditional tuna hook has the highest survival rate and the "J"-type is lowest for BET, the survival rate of "J"-type hook is slightly higher than that of circle hook and the traditional tuna hook is the lowest for ALB, the survival rate of circle hook is highest and followed by traditional tuna hook and "J"-type hook for BLS.(3) the average fork length(FL) of ALB for "J"-type hook is slightly larger than that of traditional tuna hook and circle hook, traditional tuna hook is larger than circle hook and "J"-type hook for BET and "J"-type is larger than circle hook and traditional tuna hook for BLS.(4) significant difference has not been found for the FL distribution of ALB, BET and BLS for 3 hook types.%基于2008年9月至2009年4月在印度洋中南部水域金枪鱼延绳钓渔场收集的数据,研究分析和比较了3种钓钩钩型(传统金枪鱼钩、"J"形钩和圆形钩)的渔获效益及对钓捕对象的选择性.结果表明:(1)从渔获种类上看,大眼金枪鱼和大青鲨金枪鱼钩钓获比例最高,"J"形钩和圆形钩的钓获比例相当;而长鳍金枪鱼则为金枪鱼钩钓获比例最高,其次为"J"形钩和圆形钩.(2)大眼金枪鱼存活率以金枪鱼钩最高,"J"形钩最低;长鳍

  6. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin). PMID:23043830

  7. 印度洋温带海域长鳍金枪鱼延绳钓渔获组成分析%Analysis on Catch Composition of Albacore Tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) Longline in Temperate Seas of Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延; 赵君; 戴小杰

    2012-01-01

    Based on the investigation of Albacore Tuna longline fisheries in temperate high seas of Indian Ocean (19° 35'S - 32°01'S 58°25'E - 75°52'E) by "Zhongrong No. 6" from March to May in 2008, during this period, there were 45 operations, and a total of 27 species were identified from the catches including tunas ( 1730,58.5 % ), billfishes ( 175,5. 92% ), sharks and rays ( 187,6. 32% ) and others (865,29. 25% ). Moreover, the influencing factors about the length and weight distribution of all the catches were analyzed. Finally, the countermeasures for reducing the'by-catch species were proposed.%根据2008年3~5月“中荣6号”在印度洋温带公海(19°35′S~32°01′S,58°25′E~75°52′E)金枪鱼延绳钓渔业的调查,期间共投钩45航次,钓获27种鱼类,包括金枪鱼类(1730尾,占总渔获尾数的58.5%),剑旗鱼类(175尾,5.92%),软骨鱼类(187,6.32%)和其他鱼类(865尾,29.25%).分析了延绳钓渔获物的长度和重量组成和渔获组成的影响因素,并提出减少兼捕渔获的对策.

  8. Identification of a Novel Selenium-containing Compound, Selenoneine, as the Predominant Chemical Form of Organic Selenium in the Blood of Bluefin Tuna*

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita

    2010-01-01

    A novel selenium-containing compound having a selenium atom in the imidazole ring, 2-selenyl-Nα,Nα,Nα-trimethyl-l-histidine, 3-(2-hydroseleno-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-2-(trimethylammonio)propanoate, was identified from the blood and other tissues of the bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis. The selenium-containing compound was purified from the tuna blood ...

  9. Bioenergetics, Trophic Ecology, and Niche Separation of Tunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R J; Young, J W; Ménard, F; Potier, M; Allain, V; Goñi, N; Logan, J M; Galván-Magaña, F

    2016-01-01

    Tunas are highly specialized predators that have evolved numerous adaptations for a lifestyle that requires large amounts of energy consumption. Here we review our understanding of the bioenergetics and feeding dynamics of tunas on a global scale, with an emphasis on yellowfin, bigeye, skipjack, albacore, and Atlantic bluefin tunas. Food consumption balances bioenergetics expenditures for respiration, growth (including gonad production), specific dynamic action, egestion, and excretion. Tunas feed across the micronekton and some large zooplankton. Some tunas appear to time their life history to take advantage of ephemeral aggregations of crustacean, fish, and molluscan prey. Ontogenetic and spatial diet differences are substantial, and significant interdecadal changes in prey composition have been observed. Diet shifts from larger to smaller prey taxa highlight ecosystem-wide changes in prey availability and diversity and provide implications for changing bioenergetics requirements into the future. Where tunas overlap, we show evidence of niche separation between them; resources are divided largely by differences in diet percentages and size ranges of prey taxa. The lack of long-term data limits the ability to predict impacts of climate change on tuna feeding behaviour. We note the need for systematic collection of feeding data as part of routine monitoring of these species, and we highlight the advantages of using biochemical techniques for broad-scale analyses of trophic relations. We support the continued development of ecosystem models, which all too often lack the regional-specific trophic data needed to adequately investigate climate and fishing impacts. PMID:27573052

  10. Relationship between sea surface temperatures and dolphin-associated fishing activities by the Mexican tuna fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Muñoz, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    Data from the Mexican purse seiner fleet operating in the eastern Tropical Pacific, for the year 1985-1990, are used to show that the fraction of surface schools of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares associated with dolphins (Stenella attenuata and others) increases with sea surface temperature. Possible reasons for this correlation are briefly discussed.

  11. Population dynamics and fisheries assessment of the bigeye thresher (Alopias superciliosus) in the Atlantic: a comparison between North Atlantic and South Atlantic stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joana Fernandez de

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Ciências do Mar, da Terra e do Ambiente (Biologia Pesqueira), Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2015 The bigeye thresher shark, Alopias supercilious is an oceanic pelagic shark, occasionally caught as bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries targeting tunas and swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean. It is particularly vulnerable to fishing pressure, with overexploitation occurring even at low levels of fishing, due to their slow growth, extremely low...

  12. Application of relative quantification TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction technology for the identification and quantification of Thunnus alalunga and Thunnus albacares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Itziar; Pardo, Miguel Angel

    2005-06-01

    A novel one-step methodology based on real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology has been developed for the identification of two of the most valuable tuna species. Nowadays, species identification of seafood products has a major concern due to the importing to Europe of new species from other countries. To achieve this aim, two specific TaqMan systems were devised to identify Thunnus alalunga and Thunnus albacares. Another system specific to Scombroidei species was devised as a consensus system. In addition, a relative quantification methodology was carried out to quantify T. alalunga and T. albacares in mixtures after the relative amount of the target was compared with the consensus. This relative quantification methodology does not require a known amount of standard, allowing the analysis of many more samples together and saving costs and time. The utilization of real-time PCR does not require sample handling, preventing contamination and resulting in much faster and higher throughput results. PMID:15913324

  13. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian; Iudicone, D.;

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world's most valued fish species. Here we...... develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan...... locations of spawning bluefin tuna using hydrographic backtracking procedures; these locations were situated in a major salinity frontal zone and coincided with distributions of an electronically tagged bluefin tuna and commercial bluefin tuna fishing vessels. Moreover, we hypothesized that mesoscale...

  14. MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF THUNNUS GENUS FOUR SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate identification of similar fish species is necessary to prevent illegal substitution and is imposed by labeling regulations in UE countries (1. The genus Thunnus comprises many species of different quality and commercial value. The increasing trade of fish preparations of the species included in this genus and the consequent loss of the external anatomical and morphological features enables fraudulent substitutions. This study reports data relating to the proteomic analysis of four tuna species (T. thynnus, T. alalunga, T. albacares, T. obesus. Sarcoplasmic proteins were studied by mono and two dimensional electrophoresis. The most significant proteins for the characterization of the species were analyzed by mass spectrometric techniques. As reported in a previous study (2, an accurate identification of the species seems possible, owing to the polymorphism displayed by the species of the Thunnus genus.

  15. Potential impact of climate change on the Intra-Americas Sea: Part 2. Implications for Atlantic bluefin tuna and skipjack tuna adult and larval habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhling, Barbara A.; Liu, Yanyun; Lee, Sang-Ki; Lamkin, John T.; Roffer, Mitchell A.; Muller-Karger, Frank; Walter, John F., III

    2015-08-01

    Increasing water temperatures due to climate change will likely have significant impacts on distributions and life histories of Atlantic tunas. In this study, we combined predictive habitat models with a downscaled climate model to examine potential impacts on adults and larvae of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) in the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS). An additional downscaled model covering the 20th century was used to compare habitat fluctuations from natural variability to predicted future changes under two climate change scenarios: Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 (medium-low) and RCP 8.5 (high). Results showed marked temperature-induced habitat losses for both adult and larval bluefin tuna on their northern Gulf of Mexico spawning grounds. In contrast, habitat suitability for skipjack tuna increased as temperatures warmed. Model error was highest for the two skipjack tuna models, particularly at higher temperatures. This work suggests that influences of climate change on highly migratory Atlantic tuna species are likely to be substantial, but strongly species-specific. While impacts on fish populations remain uncertain, these changes in habitat suitability will likely alter the spatial and temporal availability of species to fishing fleets, and challenge equilibrium assumptions of environmental stability, upon which fisheries management benchmarks are based.

  16. 中西太平洋金枪鱼延绳钓主要渔获物垂直结构的初步研究%Vertical distribution of main species captured by tuna longline fishery in the Western and Central Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾松鹤; 戴小杰; 田思泉; 张艳波

    2015-01-01

    line,length of branch line,main line length between branch lines and so on.The data of fishing gear were used to calculate caught depth by catenary equation.The actual average depth of each hook was measured based on the depth data recoreded by TDR.Based on depth data of longline hook recorded by TDR and capture hook position of pelagic species,shoaling rate of longline hook and vertical distribution were analyzed.The results were as follows:the absolute shoaling rate range of longline hook was 0.49 -44.73 m,and the average absolute shoaling rate was 23.29 m.The relative shoaling rate rang of longline hook was 0.65%-16.69%, and the average relative shoaling rate was 8.87%.The depth ranges of 12 main species were different.The species with the deepest depth was blue marlin (Makaira nigricans),and the species with the shallowest depth was Great barracuda (Lampris guttatus ).Cluster analysis showed that there were three vertical distribution structures among 12 main species;the first class with the shallowest depth was common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus),great barracuda(Sphyraena barracuda),wahoo(Acanthocybium solandri);the second class with deeper depth was escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum ),pelagic stingray (Dasyatis violacea ), albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga ),yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares ),slender mola (Ranzania laevis ), skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis );the third class with the deepest depth was bigeye tuna (Thunnus abesus),longnose lancetfish(Alepisaurus ferox),blue marlin(Makaira nigricans);the mean depth and depth distributions of bycatch species were significantly different from that of the targeted albacore tuna.Those results show that the theoretical depth of the catenary equation has a certain reference value in the Western and Central Pacific.Deploying longline hooks at appropriate depths can greatly improve catch of target species,and reduce bycatch of protected species and untargeted species.

  17. 50 CFR 300.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....2, in the Act, or in the Convention, the definition in this section shall apply. Bigeye tuna means the species Thunnus obesus. Commercial passenger fishing vessel means any vessel licensed for... Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.21 Definitions. In addition to the terms defined in § 300.2, in the Act,...

  18. Total and methylmercury residues in tuna-fish from the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Stuffler, R Giacominelli; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2002-08-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of total mercury and methylmercury in the muscle tissue of albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) caught in the Mediterranean sea with the purpose of ascertaining whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision. Total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.84 to 1.45 mg kg(-1) w.w. (av. 1.17 mg kg(-1) w.w.) and from 0.16 to 2.59 mg kg(-1) (av. 1.18 mg kg(-1) w.w.) in the muscle of albacore and bluefin tuna, respectively. In 78.6% of albacore and in 61.1% of bluefin tuna analysed, total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision (Hg = 1 micro g g(-1) wet wt). In the two species, mercury was present almost completely in the methylated form, with percentages between 77 and 100% (av. 91.3%) in albacore and between 75 and 100% (av. 91%) in bluefin-tuna. In order to assess the potential health impact, the estimated weekly intake was calculated. The estimated weekly intake was far above the established Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake for both species. PMID:12227935

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in albacore and Atlantic bluefin tuna provides insights into worldwide population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaina, A; Iriondo, M; Velado, I; Laconcha, U; Zarraonaindia, I; Arrizabalaga, H; Pardo, M A; Lutcavage, M; Grant, W S; Estonba, A

    2013-12-01

    The optimal management of the commercially important, but mostly over-exploited, pelagic tunas, albacore (Thunnus alalunga Bonn., 1788) and Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT; Thunnus thynnus L., 1758), requires a better understanding of population structure than has been provided by previous molecular methods. Despite numerous studies of both species, their population structures remain controversial. This study reports the development of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in albacore and BFT and the application of these SNPs to survey genetic variability across the geographic ranges of these tunas. A total of 616 SNPs were discovered in 35 albacore tuna by comparing sequences of 54 nuclear DNA fragments. A panel of 53 SNPs yielded FST values ranging from 0.0 to 0.050 between samples after genotyping 460 albacore collected throughout the distribution of this species. No significant heterogeneity was detected within oceans, but between-ocean comparisons (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans along with Mediterranean Sea) were significant. Additionally, a 17-SNP panel was developed in Atlantic BFT by cross-species amplification in 107 fish. This limited number of SNPs discriminated between samples from the two major spawning areas of Atlantic BFT (FST  = 0.116). The SNP markers developed in this study can be used to genotype large numbers of fish without the need for standardizing alleles among laboratories. PMID:23668670

  20. DRY SALTED AND SMOKED TUNA PRODUCTS. CHEMICAL, RHEOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marrone

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the presence of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is limited to some fishing areas and the species undergoes a high fishing pressure the commercial answers to this situation might be the diversification of the commercial offer. The commercial value of this species, especially in oriental market, has prompted researches aiming at fully exploiting the potential of this species through the production of innovative tuna based products. Sliceable dry salted and smoked tuna products were manufactured using whole muscles from fresh and frozen subjects. The shelf life was long enough to justify the industrial production (up to 3 months or more. No significant correlations were observed between sensory characteristics and physico-chemical parameters.

  1. Impending collapse of bluefin tuna in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Mosegaard, Henrik; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, in the east Atlantic and Mediterranean has declined in recent decades. The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), the regional bluefin tuna management authority, has developed a plan to promote recovery by 2022, while...... still permitting fishing to continue during the period 2008-2010. Here we predict that the adult population in 2011 will likely be 75% lower relative to 2005 and that quotas in some intervening years will allow the fishery to capture legally all of the adult fish. Population demographics (proportion of...... older fish and repeat spawners in population) indicate that buffering capacity against years of poor reproduction has been reduced. This population is at risk of collapse (90% decline in adult biomass within three generations, the criterion used by the IUCN for defining populations as Critically...

  2. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity...... reproduction in the Black Sea must have required specific adaptations of egg buoyancy, fertilisation and development for reproductive success. Such adaptations by local populations of marine fish species spawning in estuarine areas are common as is evident from a meta-analysis of egg buoyancy data from 16...... species of fish. We conclude that these adaptations would have been necessary for successful local reproduction by bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, and that a locally-adapted reproducing population may have disappeared. Recovery of bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, either for spawning or foraging, will occur...

  3. ANALISIS EKSPOR IKAN TUNA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriana - Yudiarosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Facing the  free trade era, Indonesia needs to reorganize its export strategies with not mainly depending on oil and gas sector only. In relation to this, tuna as Indonesia’s export commodity has plate an important role but presently Indonesia can only contribute 7% of the world tuna supply. Being one of the country which have unused tunas potensial  up to 53,7%, Indonesia’s opportunity to supply world market is the large. This studied was aimed at analyzing; factors influencing Indonesia’s tunas export; factors  influencing domestic supply of tunas; predicting tunas export in the next 5 years (2000 –2005 and study marketing strategies that effect Indonesia’s export of tuna. To analyze factors that influenced tunas export and domestic supply of tunas, simultan equation in the form of double logarithma with two stage least square (2SLS methods were used. Meanwhile, export development were analyzed with trend analysis and tunas export strategies with SWOT analysis. Result of this study showed that, tunas export price,  tunas export  tax, exchange rate and tunas export the previous year effected tunas export.Factors that influenced domestic tuna supplies were domestic prices of tunas and domestic supplies of tunas the previous year.       Tunas export prediction from 2000 – 2005 drawn from the trend analysis; shows an increase in export by average of 1.06%. Hopefully this will be followed by increase in tunas production by an average of 1.27%. Increase in tunas export must be supported by marketing strategies.Marketing strategies that can be carried out based on the SWOT analysis are improving infrastucture, transfer of technology for fleet and catch material, improvement in the quality and quantity of the product , marketing research and upgrading cooperation with importing countries.   Keywords: tuna fish, export

  4. Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish: the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, introgression, and population expansion on the regional phylogenies of two highly migratory pelagic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R; Viñas, Jordi; Mejuto, Jaime; Ely, Bert; Pla, Carles

    2005-07-01

    Comparative phylogeography has revealed remarkable patterns of concordance in the maternal phylogenies of many species. The phylogeography and historical demography of the mitochondrial control region I for 607 Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and 275 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) were analyzed to clarify the complex phylogenetic signals in the North Atlantic-Mediterranean region where they are sympatric. Atlantic bluefin tuna mtDNA is polyphyletic, and includes rare sequences sister to Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and introgressed albacore (Thunnus alalunga) sequences. There is no geographic partitioning between Atlantic and Mediterranean samples of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Phi(ST)=0.002). In contrast, Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish are differentiated (Phi(ST)=0.091) due to the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, and dissimilar regional demographic histories. Mediterranean swordfish has substantially less variation, and a more recent history (tau=2.42) than that of Atlantic swordfish (tau=7.02). In spite of the discordant phylogenetic and phylogeographic signals, the demographic history of Atlantic swordfish and Atlantic bluefin tuna (tau=7.51) suggests concordance in the timeline of population expansion. Possible scenarios of cladogenesis, expansion, and contraction, influenced by glacial cycles during the Pleistocene, are formulated. PMID:15904864

  5. Age estimation and validation for South Pacific albacore Thunnus alalunga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, J H; Williams, A J; Clear, N P; Davies, C R; Nicol, S J

    2013-05-01

    Validated estimates of age are presented for albacore Thunnus alalunga, sampled from a large part of the south-western Pacific Ocean, based on counts of annual opaque growth zones from transverse sections of otoliths. Counts of daily increments were used to estimate the location of the first opaque growth zone, which was completed before the first assumed birthday. The periodicity of opaque zones was estimated by marginal increment analysis and an oxytetracycline mark-recapture experiment. Both validation methods indicated that opaque zones formed over the austral summer and were completed by autumn to winter (April to August). The direct comparison of age estimates obtained from otoliths and dorsal-fin spines of the same fish indicated bias, which was assumed to be due to poor increment clarity and resorption of early growth zones in spines, resulting in imprecise age estimates. As such, age estimates from otoliths are considered to be more accurate than those from spines for T. alalunga. This is consistent with results for a growing number of tropical and temperate tuna Thunnini species. It is recommend that validated counts of annual growth zones from sectioned otoliths is used as the preferred method for estimating age-based parameters for assessment and management advice for these important stocks. PMID:23639152

  6. Ultrastructural morphometry of the myocardium of Thunnus alalunga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisch, E A; White, F; Jones, H M; Laurs, R M

    1983-01-01

    The common ventricle in the heart of the Thunnus alalunga was studied. The ventricular myocardium consists of an outer compact layer and a thick inner spongy layer. The compact layer has slightly larger cells (4-6 microns diameter) than the spongy layer (2.5-5 microns diameter). Ultrastructurally the myocardium displays normal arrangements of myofibrils and mitochondria. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed. The intercalated discs are simple with the fascia adherens being the most frequent junctional type observed; occasionally a desmosome was seen. Nexus type junctions are present but are unassociated with the intercalated discs. There are no t-tubules evident but the plasmalemma exhibits numerous caveolae which rarely form couplings with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. A morphometric analysis of the volume percent of mitochondria and myofibrils showed that the myocardial cells in the spongy layer of the heart have a significantly greater volume percentage of mitochondria than the compact layer. No significant differences were found between myocardial regions when the volume percentages of myofibrils were compared. The physiological studies revealed that the albacore tuna has heart rates (120 bpm) and ventricular blood pressures (100 mmHg) that are among the highest reported for fish. PMID:6616575

  7. RAD-seq derived genome-wide nuclear markers resolve the phylogeny of tunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Arce, Natalia; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Murua, Hilario; Irigoien, Xabier; Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2016-09-01

    Although species from the genus Thunnus include some of the most commercially important and most severely overexploited fishes, the phylogeny of this genus is still unresolved, hampering evolutionary and traceability studies that could help improve conservation and management strategies for these species. Previous attempts based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers were unsuccessful in inferring a congruent and reliable phylogeny, probably due to mitochondrial introgression events and lack of enough phylogenetically informative markers. Here we infer the first genome-wide nuclear marker-based phylogeny of tunas using restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) data. Our results, derived from phylogenomic inferences obtained from 128 nucleotide matrices constructed using alternative data assembly procedures, support a single Thunnus evolutionary history that challenges previous assumptions based on morphological and molecular data. PMID:27286653

  8. RAD-seq derived genome-wide nuclear markers resolve the phylogeny of tunas

    KAUST Repository

    Díaz-Arce, Natalia

    2016-06-07

    Although species from the genus Thunnus include some of the most commercially important and most severely overexploited fishes, the phylogeny of this genus is still unresolved, hampering evolutionary and traceability studies that could help improve conservation and management strategies for these species. Previous attempts based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers were unsuccessful in inferring a congruent and reliable phylogeny, probably due to mitochondrial introgression events and lack of enough phylogenetically informative markers. Here we infer the first genome-wide nuclear marker-based phylogeny of tunas using restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) data. Our results, derived from phylogenomic inferences obtained from 128 nucleotide matrices constructed using alternative data assembly procedures, support a single Thunnus evolutionary history that challenges previous assumptions based on morphological and molecular data.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a new zinc-binding protein from albacore tuna plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, B; Hegenauer, J; Saltman, P; Laurs, R M

    1987-06-01

    The protein responsible for sequestering high levels of zinc in the plasma of the albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) has been isolated by sequential chromatography. The glycoprotein has a molecular weight of 66,000. Approximately 8.2% of its amino acid residues are histidines. Equilibrium dialysis experiments show it to bind 3 mol of zinc/mol of protein. The stoichiometric constant for the association of zinc with a binding site containing three histidines was determined to be 10(9.4). This protein is different from albumin and represents a previously uncharacterized zinc transport protein. PMID:3607021

  10. Isolation and characterization of a new zinc-binding protein from albacore tuna plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protein responsible for sequestering high levels of zinc in the plasma of the albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) has been isolated by sequential chromatography. The glycoprotein has a molecular weight of 66,000. Approximately 8.2% of its amino acid residues are histidines. Equilibrium dialysis experiments show it to bind 3 mol of zinc/mol of protein. The stoichiometric constant for the association of zinc with a binding site containing three histidines was determined to be 10/sup 9.4/. This protein is different from albumin and represents a previously uncharacterized zinc transport protein

  11. Isolation and characterization of a new zinc-binding protein from albacore tuna plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyke, B.; Hegenauer, J.; Saltman, P.; Laurs, R.M.

    1987-06-02

    The protein responsible for sequestering high levels of zinc in the plasma of the albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) has been isolated by sequential chromatography. The glycoprotein has a molecular weight of 66,000. Approximately 8.2% of its amino acid residues are histidines. Equilibrium dialysis experiments show it to bind 3 mol of zinc/mol of protein. The stoichiometric constant for the association of zinc with a binding site containing three histidines was determined to be 10/sup 9.4/. This protein is different from albumin and represents a previously uncharacterized zinc transport protein.

  12. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Inouye, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management. PMID:23781100

  13. The imprint of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on Atlantic bluefin tuna otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Igaratza; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Kölling, Martin; Santos, Miguel Neves; Macías, David; Addis, Piero; Dettman, David L.; Karakulak, Saadet; Deguara, Simeon; Rooker, Jay R.

    2016-06-01

    Otoliths of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) collected from the Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean were analyzed to evaluate changes in the seawater isotopic composition over time. We report an annual otolith δ13C record that documents the magnitude of the δ13C depletion in the Mediterranean Sea between 1989 and 2010. Atlantic bluefin tuna in our sample (n = 632) ranged from 1 to 22 years, and otolith material corresponding to the first year of life (back-calculated birth year) was used to reconstruct seawater isotopic composition. Otolith δ18O remained relatively stable between 1989 and 2010, whereas a statistically significant decrease in δ13C was detected across the time interval investigated, with a rate of decline of 0.05‰ yr- 1 (- 0.94‰ depletion throughout the recorded period). The depletion in otolith δ13C over time was associated with the oceanic uptake of anthropogenically derived CO2.

  14. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian R.; Payne, Mark R.; Boje, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus Linnaeus 1758. The bluefin tuna were captured in a single net-haul in 9-11 °C water together with 6 tonnes of mackerel, which is a preferred prey species and itself a new immigrant to the area. Regional temperatures in August 2012 were historically high and contributed......Rising ocean temperatures are causing marine fish species to shift spatial distributions and ranges, and are altering predator-prey dynamics in food webs. Most documented cases of species shifts so far involve relatively small species at lower trophic levels, and consider individual species in...... ecological isolation from others. Here, we show that a large highly migratory top predator fish species has entered a high latitude subpolar area beyond its usual range. Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus 1758, were captured in waters east of Greenland (65°N) in August 2012 during exploratory fishing for...

  15. Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, F.; Quintanilla, L.; Velez-Belchí, P.; García, A.; Cortés, D.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; González-Pola, C.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of the TUNIBAL project that focused on Atlantic bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) larval ecology, ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted from 2001 to 2005 off the Balearic archipelago, which is recognized as one of the main spawning areas of the eastern Atlantic stock of this species. In each survey, a regular sampling grid of about 200 stations, 10 nautical miles apart were sampled. CTD casts and oblique Bongo 60 and surface Bongo 90 plankton tows were carried out. The occurrence frequencies of Atlantic bluefin tuna, albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) and bullet tuna ( Auxis rochei) larvae in quantitative Bongo 60 samples were 0.14, 0.29 and 0.49 respectively. Mean larval abundances in these positive samples were relatively high: 31 larvae 10 m -2 for Atlantic bluefin tuna, 17 for albacore tuna and 31 for bullet tuna. All species had patchy distributions since more than 90% of the stations showed larval densities under 10 larvae 100 m -3 (70% showed even less than 2 larvae 100 m -3), whereas in some isolated spots, we recorded abundances as high as 867 (Atlantic bluefin) or 872 (bullet tuna) larvae 10 m -2. These results allowed us to relate larval distribution to mesoscale hydrographic features and to characterize the spawning habitat of these species. Single Quotient Parameter analyses were applied to spatial (depth), physical (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and geostrophic current velocities) and biological (mesozooplankton biomass) variables to determine the environmental preferences of each species for spawning. Results showed that the complex hydrodynamic scenarios around the Balearic Islands, due to the interaction between the inflowing surface Atlantic water masses (AW) and Mediterranean surface waters (MW), play a key role in determining the abundance and distribution of tuna larvae in this area, especially in the case of Atlantic bluefin tuna. Spawning of this species seems to take place mainly in offshore mixed waters, as

  16. [Vertical distribution of main species captured by tuna longline fishery in the southeast Pacific Ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-bo; Dai, Xiao-jie; Zhu, Jiang-feng; Gao, Chun-xia; Wu, Feng; Zheng, Xiao-chun

    2015-03-01

    Information of vertical distribution of longline-hook species is important for the development of effective measures to mitigate bycatch, and very helpful for better understanding of the oceanic ecosystem structure and implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management. Based on depth data of longline hook and capture hook position of pelagic species, collected by on board scientific observer in the southeast Pacific Ocean from September 2013 to January 2014, shoaling rate of longline hook and vertical distribution of 14 pelagic species were analyzed. The results showed that the relative shoaling rate range of longline hook was 8.9% - 17.1%, and the average relative shoaling rate was 13.5%. The depth ranges of 14 capture species were different. The species with the deepest depth was Opah (Lampris guttatus), and the species with the shallowest depth was skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis). Except for yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax), the mean depth and depth distributions of bycatch species were significantly different from that of the targeted albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga). PMID:26211076

  17. Discovery of Genome-Wide Microsatellite Markers in Scombridae: A Pilot Study on Albacore Tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Natacha; Duthoy, Stéphanie; Destombes, Antoine; Bodin, Nathalie; West, Wendy; Puech, Alexis; Bourjea, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analysis provide a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at a low cost. Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies, and high quality markers can be discovered in non-model organisms, such as tuna, with these recent developments. Here, we use a high-throughput method to isolate microsatellite markers in albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, based on coupling multiplex enrichment and next-generation sequencing on 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. The crucial minimum number of polymorphic markers to infer evolutionary and ecological processes for this species has been described for the first time. We provide 1670 microsatellite design primer pairs, and technical and molecular genetics selection resulting in 43 polymorphic microsatellite markers. On this panel, we characterized 34 random and selectively neutral markers («neutral») and 9 «non-neutral» markers. The variability of «neutral» markers was screened with 136 individuals of albacore tuna from southwest Indian Ocean (42), northwest Indian Ocean (31), South Africa (31), and southeast Atlantic Ocean (32). Power analysis demonstrated that the panel of genetic markers can be applied in diversity and population genetics studies. Global genetic diversity for albacore was high with a mean number of alleles at 16.94; observed heterozygosity 66% and expected heterozygosity 77%. The number of individuals was insufficient to provide accurate results on differentiation. Of the 9 «non-neutral» markers, 3 were linked to a sequence of known function. The one is located to a sequence having an immunity function (ThuAla-Tcell-01) and the other to a sequence having energy allocation function (ThuAla-Hki-01). These two markers were genotyped on the 136 individuals and presented different diversity levels. ThuAla-Tcell-01 has a high number of alleles (20), heterozygosity (87-90%), and assignment index. ThuAla-Hki-01

  18. The real maccoyii: identifying tuna sushi with DNA barcodes--contrasting characteristic attributes and genetic distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H Lowenstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of DNA barcodes for the identification of described species is one of the least controversial and most promising applications of barcoding. There is no consensus, however, as to what constitutes an appropriate identification standard and most barcoding efforts simply attempt to pair a query sequence with reference sequences and deem identification successful if it falls within the bounds of some pre-established cutoffs using genetic distance. Since the Renaissance, however, most biological classification schemes have relied on the use of diagnostic characters to identify and place species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we developed a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I character-based key for the identification of all tuna species of the genus Thunnus, and compared its performance with distance-based measures for identification of 68 samples of tuna sushi purchased from 31 restaurants in Manhattan (New York City and Denver, Colorado. Both the character-based key and GenBank BLAST successfully identified 100% of the tuna samples, while the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD as well as genetic distance thresholds, and neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree building performed poorly in terms of species identification. A piece of tuna sushi has the potential to be an endangered species, a fraud, or a health hazard. All three of these cases were uncovered in this study. Nineteen restaurant establishments were unable to clarify or misrepresented what species they sold. Five out of nine samples sold as a variant of "white tuna" were not albacore (T. alalunga, but escolar (Lepidocybium flavorunneum, a gempylid species banned for sale in Italy and Japan due to health concerns. Nineteen samples were northern bluefin tuna (T. thynnus or the critically endangered southern bluefin tuna (T. maccoyii, though nine restaurants that sold these species did not state these species on their menus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Convention on

  19. Gulf of Mexico Ecological Forecasting - Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Population Assessment and Management using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laygo, K.; Jones, I.; Huerta, J.; Holt, B.

    2010-12-01

    Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is one of the largest vertebrates in the world and is in high demand in sushi markets. It is a highly political species and is managed internationally by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna. The Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea are the only two known spawning sites in the world. However, there is a large variance in estimates of adult Atlantic Tuna spawning. This research focuses on extending Earth science research results to existing decision-making systems, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)for population assessment and management of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. The research team is a multi-sector and multi-disciplinary team composed of government (NOAA_NMFS), academic (University of South Florida Institute for Marine Remote Sensing) and commercial (Roffer’s Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc.) institutions. Their goal is to reduce the variance in the estimates of adult Bluefin Tuna spawning stock abundance in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Therefore, this paper will be derived from the innovative use of several earth orbiting satellites focusing on the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to identify Sargassum, which is a floating marine algae that may be relevant to the presence of Bluefin Tuna aggregations. The SAR imagery will be examined in combination with MODIS and MERIS Chlorophyll-a products to detect fine-scale surface current shear, eddy and frontal features, as well as biological slicks due to the presence of Sargassum. In addition, wind records from NOAA buoy data will be studied to analyze wind patterns in the Gulf of Mexico. The fine-resolution, all-weather capabilities of SAR provide a valuable complement to optical/IR sensors, which are often impacted by cloud cover. This study will provide an assessment of whether or not SAR can contribute to decision support efforts relevant to commercial fisheries

  20. Hawaii's Pelagic Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Boggs , Christofer H.; Ito , Russell Y.

    1993-01-01

    Hawaii's diverse pelagic fisheries supply the bulk of the State's total catch. The largest Hawaii fishery is the recently expanded longline fishery, which now lands about 4,400 metric tons (t) of broadbill swordfish, Xiphias gladius; 1,500 t of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus, and 3,000 t of other pelagic species annually. The increased catch of these other species has raised concerns regarding the continued availability of yellowfin tuna, T. albacares; blue marlin, Makaira mazara; and mahimahi, ...

  1. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. PMID:26571413

  2. O2 tension, swimming-velocity, and thermal effects on the metabolic rate of the Pacific albacore Thunnus alalunga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J B; Lowell, W R; Lai, N C; Laurs, R M

    1989-01-01

    The oxygen consumption rates (VO2) of 9 albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga (8.5-12 kg) were measured at sea in a swimming respirometer to determine the effects of relative swimming velocity, ambient O2 tension, and water temperature. Significant positive relationships were obtained between tail-beat frequency and relative speed and between relative speed and VO2. The albacore metabolic rate was not appreciably affected by exposure to water temperatures ranging from 13.5 degrees to 16.9 degrees C. Brief exposure to hyperoxia (200-400 mmHg), which was done to reduce the initial stress upon fish in the respirometer, did not affect VO2. Hypoxia (50-99 mmHg), however, did tend to reduce VO2 and affect swimming velocity. PMID:2920815

  3. Changes in histamine and microbiological analyses in fresh and frozen tuna muscle during temperature abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Vagelis; Brett, Moira M; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Frillingos, Stathis; Nichols, Tom

    2007-08-01

    Temperature abuse of tuna (Thunnus alalunga) was carried out in order to assess the histamine buildup in fish-processing facilities where fish can be exposed to high temperatures for short periods of time. Histamine production was studied in tuna loins under different storage and abuse conditions. Tuna was stored at 0-2 degrees C, 3-4 degrees C, and 6-7 degrees C, and abused for 2 h daily at 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C for 7-12 days. Loins abused at 30 degrees C for 2 h daily contained potentially toxic histamine concentrations (67-382 mg kg(-1)) when stored at a low refrigeration temperature (0-2 degrees C), whereas when stored at 6-7 degrees C, the loins contained highly toxic histamine concentrations (544.5-4156.6 mg kg(-1)). Lower histamine concentrations (23-48 mg kg(-1) in loins stored at 0-2 degrees C and 124.7-2435.8 mg kg(-1) in loins stored at 6-7 degrees C) were observed in temperature-abused loins that were initially frozen. An increase over time was observed in most microbial counts tested. Bacteria isolated from the temperature-abused loins showed a varied ability of histamine production, with Morganella morganii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus hominis, and Enterococcus hirae being the most active histamine-producing bacteria. PMID:17613069

  4. Bluefin Tuna Commercial Domestic Landings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All commercially landed bluefin tuna must be reported to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) so that NMFS can ensure the fishery stays within the U.S....

  5. Trophic niches of sympatric tropical tuna in the Western Indian Ocean inferred by stable isotopes and neutral fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardenne, Fany; Bodin, Nathalie; Chassot, Emmanuel; Amiel, Aurélien; Fouché, Edwin; Degroote, Maxime; Hollanda, Stéphanie; Pethybridge, Heidi; Lebreton, Benoit; Guillou, Gaël; Ménard, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the trophic ecology of three sympatric tropical tuna species (bigeye BET, skipjack SKJ, and yellowfin YFT) sampled in the Western Indian Ocean throughout 2013. Specifically we explored inter-specific resource partitioning and ontogenetic variability using neutral fatty acids and stable isotope analysis of liver and muscle from small (⩽100 cm fork length, FL) and large (>100 cm FL) tuna collected in mixed schools at the surface by purse-seine. Both biochemical tracers were used to calculate trophic niche indices that collectively revealed high potential for resource overlap, especially among small tuna. Resource overlap appeared strongest between BET and YFT, with SKJ tissues having high carbon isotope (δ13C) values (-17 ± 0.3‰), lower nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values (11.4 ± 0.6‰), and higher relative proportion of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than the two other species, indicating a different diet. Size was found to be a strong predictor for most biochemical tracers in the three species with δ13C, δ15N and total lipid content in the liver. In the larger species (YFT and BET), proportions of mono-unsaturated fatty acids typically increased with size, while quantities of PUFA decreased. In addition to ontogenetic variability, trophic markers were shown to vary between sampling area and season: higher lipid reserves and δ15N values, and lower δ13C values occurred during monsoon periods around Seychelles than in the Mozambique Channel (parted from about 1500 km). Our multi-tracer approach reveals the magnitude of potential competitive interactions in mixed tropical tuna schools at both small and large sizes and demonstrates that ontogenetic niche differentiation acts as a major factor of coexistence in tropical tuna.

  6. Reproductive biology of albacore Thunnus alalunga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K-S; Crone, P R; Hsu, C-C

    2010-07-01

    Reproductive variables in albacore Thunnus alalunga were evaluated by gonad histology in samples of 132 males (58-118 cm fork length, L(F)) and 112 females (59-101 cm L(F)) that were collected from the western North Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2006. In the sex ratio examination, males greatly outnumbered females in large adult fish (L(F) > 100 cm). Thunnus alalunga exhibited a protracted spawning period from March to September in the waters off eastern Taiwan and the Philippines, and the peak spawning activity occurred in March and April. Minimum sizes associated with the classification of mature fish were 78 and 83 cm L(F) for males and females, respectively. In addition, the largest L(F) of immature fish were 93 cm for males and 94 cm for females. The spawning frequency estimate in April was 1.7 days. Batch-fecundity estimates of 21 females (89-99 cm L(F)) ranged between 0.17 and 1.66 million eggs (mean +/-s.d. = 0.94 +/- 0.43). The relative fecundity estimates of the 21 females ranged between 9.2 and 92.4 oocytes g(-1) body mass (mean +/-s.d. = 50.5 +/- 22.8). The results presented in this study provide increased information regarding this species' reproductive-related characteristics than are currently available in stock status determinations. PMID:20646142

  7. Public opinions pose barriers for tuna consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Polanco, José Manuel; Llorente García, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Safety and sustainability are key concepts affecting consumers’ decisions on tuna consumption. Although the benefits of consumption exceed the potential negative effects, tuna’s harmful attributes tend to egatively impact purchasing in at-risk groups. For regular individuals, tuna consumption is more influenced by tradition, education or other factors. Overfishing of tuna stocks remains an issue for some consumers. Further development of tuna aquaculture can decrease the presence of methylmer...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals three stocks of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunal, S.P.; GirishKumar; Menezes, M.R.; Meena, R.M.

    , California, USA) following the steps recommended by the manufacturer. All samples were sequenced in forward direction by the same primer as used for PCR amplification. Sequences were obtained at the DNA sequencing facility of CSIR-NIO, Goa, India, using... Big Dye Terminator cycle sequencing kit (V3.1, Applied Biosystems, USA) following the manufacturers protocol and analyzed in Genetic analyzer (3130xl Genetic Analyzer, Applied Biosystems, USA). The representative sequences have been deposited in Gen...

  9. Changes in free amino acids content in albacore (Thunnus alalunga) muscle during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martin, R I; Franco, J M; Aubourg, S; Gallardo, J M

    1988-11-01

    The effects of cooking and sterilization at several temperatures on the free amino acids (FAA) content in albacore (Thunnus alalunga) muscle were studied during the processing of canned tuna. FAAs were derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde, separated on a C18 column by HPLC and detected by both fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors. After cooking the loss of FAAs was not significant. However, in the final product sterilized at 115 degrees C and 110 degrees C (throughout the whole process) there were significant losses with regard to the start material, but not at 118 degrees C (all temperatures leading to the same lethal F-value). The influence of the thermal process time at 115 degrees C was evaluated for 60 and 100 min. Significant losses were found between both canned products (approximately 25%) and between the raw fish and the final product (approximately 12% and approximately 34%, process time 60 and 100 min, respectively). The determination of the content of FAA present in canned albacore may be a useful indication of the severity of the thermal processing. PMID:3206942

  10. Aasta esimene Tuna / Vello Helk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helk, Vello, 1923-2014

    2009-01-01

    ajakiri Tuna, 2009, nr. 1 sisust: Mait Kõivu Trooja sõja aineline essee, Tiina Kala Saare-Lääne piiskopi Johannes Kiveli ametissepühitsemine 1515. aastal, Jaan Rossi artikkel teadlaste panusest muusikasse, Riho Saardi Eesti Kirikute Nõukogu sünnilugu, Vello Salo 1924. aasta 1. detsembri lööksalkade juhtkonnast

  11. Aleksander Loit - Tuna laureaat 2010

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    "Tuna" seitsmendast artklipreemiast. Esimest korda läks preemia väljapoole Eestit. Preemia vääriliseks osutus Aleksander Loidi artikkel "Appihüüd põrgust. Ümberpiiratud Tallinna viimased päevad Rootsi võimu all 2010"

  12. Tuna and dolphin associations in the North-east Atlantic: Evidence of different ecological niches from stable isotope and heavy metal measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, K.; Lepoint, G.; Loizeau, V.; Debacker, V.; Dauby, P.; Bouquegneau, J.M

    2000-02-01

    Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its preys, stable isotope ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C and {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) analyses were performed in three predator species from the North-east Atlantic: the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis and the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, and compared to their previously described stomach content. Heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe) are mainly transferred through the diet and so, have been determined in the tissues of the animals. Tuna muscles display higher {delta}{sup 15}N than in common and striped dolphins (mean: 11.4 vs. 10.3%o and 10.4%o, respectively) which reflects their higher trophic level nutrition. Higher {delta}{sup 13}C are found in common (-18.4%o) and striped dolphin (-18.1%o) muscles than in albacore tuna (-19.3%o) probably in relation with its migratory pattern. The most striking feature is the presence of two levels of cadmium concentrations in the livers of the tunas (32 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight (DW) vs. 5 mg kg{sup -1} DW). These two groups also differ by their iron concentrations and their {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C liver values. These results suggest that in the Biscay Bay, tunas occupy two different ecological niches probably based on different squid inputs in their diet.

  13. Tuna and dolphin associations in the North-east Atlantic: Evidence of different ecological niches from stable isotope and heavy metal measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its preys, stable isotope (13C/12C and 15N/14N) analyses were performed in three predator species from the North-east Atlantic: the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis and the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, and compared to their previously described stomach content. Heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe) are mainly transferred through the diet and so, have been determined in the tissues of the animals. Tuna muscles display higher δ15N than in common and striped dolphins (mean: 11.4 vs. 10.3%o and 10.4%o, respectively) which reflects their higher trophic level nutrition. Higher δ13C are found in common (-18.4%o) and striped dolphin (-18.1%o) muscles than in albacore tuna (-19.3%o) probably in relation with its migratory pattern. The most striking feature is the presence of two levels of cadmium concentrations in the livers of the tunas (32 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) vs. 5 mg kg-1 DW). These two groups also differ by their iron concentrations and their δ15N and δ13C liver values. These results suggest that in the Biscay Bay, tunas occupy two different ecological niches probably based on different squid inputs in their diet

  14. Fishing and qualitative characteristics of big-eyed shad Alosa saposchnikowii (Grimm in the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianova Svetlana Borisovna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the current state of commercial catches of big-eyed shad stocks in the Caspian Sea, which is the backup target species, is carried out. The reasons for the variations in catch and biological parameters in long-term perspective are analyzed. The reduction of catches of herring in the Terek-Caspian region is conditioned by a complex of climatic phenomena (fluctuation of the Caspian Sea level, human factors and organizational and technical reasons. There is a clear downward trend in the rate of linear-weight growth in the same age groups. One of the factors that influences the growth rate and stocks of big-eye shad is its nutrition supply. After the disappearance of shellfish from the adult herring nutrition, the basis of food in the current conditions is fish forage (sardines, silversides, gobies. Almost year-round spawning of anchovy sprat provided with fodder juvenile and adult herring in the South Caspian. After the death of the two types of sprat the forage shortage has caused a gradual decline in the rate of linear-weight growth of herring, including big-eyed shad. By comparison of the previous data obtained during the rise of the sea level 1980–1995, with new materials in recent years, the negative trends occurring in the big-eyed shad population have been revealed, such as increase of the rate of natural mortality. The specifics of breeding and fish-growing period of big-eyed shad in the North Caspian for 5 months allowed gathering reliable data to estimate the number of both new generations and the total stock. The complete calculation of abundance, biomass and size of the fishing stock of 13 generations of big-eyed shad (from 2000 to 2012 is proposed. It is shown that stocks of big-eyed shad in the recent period are at a high level and in a stable condition, but since 2009 there has been a tendency to reduce them. The unusual situation of the recent years is that the decline in stock biomass occurred at high abundance of

  15. Direct ageing of Thunnus thynnus from the eastern Atlantic Ocean and western Mediterranean Sea using dorsal fin spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, P L; Rodriguez-Marin, E; Landa, J; Ruiz, M; Quelle, P; Macias, D; Ortiz De Urbina, J M

    2014-06-01

    This study deals with important methodology issues that affect age estimates of eastern Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus using dorsal fin spines. Nearly 3800 spine sections were used from fish caught in the north-east Atlantic Ocean and western Mediterranean Sea over a 21 year period. Edge type and marginal increment analyses indicated a yearly periodicity of annulus formation with the translucent bands (50% of occurrence) appearing from October to May. Nucleus vascularization seriously affected specimens older than 6 years, with the disappearance of 40-50% of the presumed annuli by that age. An alternate sectioning location was a clear improvement and this finding is an important contribution to the methodology of using this structure for ageing the full-length range of eastern T. thynnus. Finally, there were no significant differences between the coefficients of von Bertalanffy growth model estimated from mean length at age data (L∞  = 327.4; k = 0.097; t0  = -0.838) and those estimated from the growth curves accepted for the eastern and western T. thynnus management units. PMID:24890407

  16. A continuous time delay-difference type model (CTDDM) applied to stock assessment of the southern Atlantic albacore Thunnus alalunga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Baochao; Liu, Qun; Zhang, Kui; Baset, Abdul; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Memon, Khadim Hussain; Han, Yanan

    2016-09-01

    A continuous time delay-diff erence model (CTDDM) has been established that considers continuous time delays of biological processes. The southern Atlantic albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) stock is the one of the commercially important tuna population in the marine world. The age structured production model (ASPM) and the surplus production model (SPM) have already been used to assess the albacore stock. However, the ASPM requires detailed biological information and the SPM lacks the biological realism. In this study, we focus on applying a CTDDM to the southern Atlantic albacore ( T. alalunga) species, which provides an alternative method to assess this fishery. It is the first time that CTDDM has been provided for assessing the Atlantic albacore ( T. alalunga) fishery. CTDDM obtained the 80% confidence interval of MSY (maximum sustainable yield) of (21 510 t, 23 118t). The catch in 2011 (24 100 t) is higher than the MSY values and the relative fishing mortality ratio ( F 2011/ F MSY) is higher than 1.0. The results of CTDDM were analyzed to verify the proposed methodology and provide reference information for the sustainable management of the southern Atlantic albacore stock. The CTDDM treats the recruitment, the growth, and the mortality rates as all varying continuously over time and fills gaps between ASPM and SPM in this stock assessment.

  17. A continuous time delay-difference type model (CTDDM) applied to stock assessment of the southern Atlantic albacore Thunnus alalunga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Baochao; Liu, Qun; Zhang, Kui; Baset, Abdul; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Memon, Khadim Hussain; Han, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    A continuous time delay-diff erence model (CTDDM) has been established that considers continuous time delays of biological processes. The southern Atlantic albacore (Thunnus alalunga) stock is the one of the commercially important tuna population in the marine world. The age structured production model (ASPM) and the surplus production model (SPM) have already been used to assess the albacore stock. However, the ASPM requires detailed biological information and the SPM lacks the biological realism. In this study, we focus on applying a CTDDM to the southern Atlantic albacore (T. alalunga) species, which provides an alternative method to assess this fishery. It is the first time that CTDDM has been provided for assessing the Atlantic albacore (T. alalunga) fishery. CTDDM obtained the 80% confidence interval of MSY (maximum sustainable yield) of (21 510 t, 23 118t). The catch in 2011 (24 100 t) is higher than the MSY values and the relative fishing mortality ratio (F 2011/F MSY) is higher than 1.0. The results of CTDDM were analyzed to verify the proposed methodology and provide reference information for the sustainable management of the southern Atlantic albacore stock. The CTDDM treats the recruitment, the growth, and the mortality rates as all varying continuously over time and fills gaps between ASPM and SPM in this stock assessment.

  18. Using multi-sensor satellite remote sensing and catch data to detect ocean hot spots for albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) in the northwestern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Mukti; Kiyofuji, Hidetada; Saitoh, Katsuya; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2006-02-01

    To understand better and describe oceanic hot spots for albacore ( Thunnus alalunga), we linked remotely sensed data from multi-sensor satellite images of TRMM/TMI sea-surface temperature (SST), SeaWiFS chlorophyll- a concentration and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and AVISO mean sea-level anomaly (MSLA) with fisheries catch data from 1998 to 2003. A probability map was generated based on biophysical environmental variables (SST and chlorophyll- a) in relation to the catch data. The probability of environmental variables was combined with an eddy kinetic energy (EKE) map to describe the oceanographic features around fishing locations. Primary production was examined to assess the productivity of the fishing grounds and was calculated from chlorophyll- a, SST and PAR using the vertically generalized production model (VGPM). Results indicate that the greatest catches occurred mainly in November, and the catches were highest at warm SSTs (19.78±1.69°C) and relatively high chlorophyll- a concentrations (0.31±0.13 mg m -3). Highest catches occurred in areas where primary production rates ranged from 15.65 to 20.61 g C m -2 month -1 (18.12±4.98 g C m -2 month -1). Our analysis found that catch per unit efforts (CPUEs) tended to increase significantly in areas of increasing probability of environmental variables ( P<0.0001) during the season of high abundance. Albacore CPUEs were clearly higher during November 1998-2000 than during November 2002-2003. During 1998-2000, the congregating spots of albacore clearly showed that the probability and primary productivity rates were higher than during 2002-2003. It is likely that the area of high probability (preferred biophysical environmental factors) corresponds to the location of frontal zones, where albacore prey were abundant. Regions of high tuna abundance occurred in relatively high EKE and geostrophic currents, reflecting that tuna aggregations were associated with anticyclonic eddies. These eddies may

  19. Climate effects on historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzedo, Unai; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M.; Caballero-Alfonso, Ángela M.; Faria, Sérgio H.; Li, Jianke; Castro-Hernández, José J.

    2016-06-01

    Historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter) from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean show pronounced short- and long-term fluctuations. Some of these fluctuations are believed to be associated with biological and ecological process, as well as distinct climate factors. For the period of study (1700-1936) of this work, we found a long-term increasing trend in the BFT captures and in the climate variables. After applying a statistical time series analysis of relevant climate variables and long-term tuna capture records, it is highlighted the role played by sea-surface temperature (SST) on bluefin population variations. The most relevant result of this study is the strong correlation found between the total solar irradiance (TSI) - an external component of the climate system - and bluefin captures. The solar irradiance could have affected storminess during the period under study, mainly during the time interval 1700-1810. We suggest physico-biological mechanisms that explain the BFT catch fluctuations in two consecutive time intervals. In the first period, from 1700 to 1810, this mechanism could be high storm and wind activity, which would have made the BFT fisheries activities more difficult by reducing their efficacy. In contrast, during the interval from 1810 to 1907, the effects of wind and storms could be on spawning behaviour and larval ecology, and hence on year class strength, rather than on fish or fisherman's behaviour. These findings open up a range of new lines of enquiry that are relevant for both, fisheries and climate change research.

  20. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet. PMID:9161466

  1. Atlantic bluefin tuna: a novel multistock spatial model for assessing population biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan G Taylor

    Full Text Available Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is considered to be overfished, but the status of its populations has been debated, partly because of uncertainties regarding the effects of mixing on fishing grounds. A better understanding of spatial structure and mixing may help fisheries managers to successfully rebuild populations to sustainable levels while maximizing catches. We formulate a new seasonally and spatially explicit fisheries model that is fitted to conventional and electronic tag data, historic catch-at-age reconstructions, and otolith microchemistry stock-composition data to improve the capacity to assess past, current, and future population sizes of Atlantic bluefin tuna. We apply the model to estimate spatial and temporal mixing of the eastern (Mediterranean and western (Gulf of Mexico populations, and to reconstruct abundances from 1950 to 2008. We show that western and eastern populations have been reduced to 17% and 33%, respectively, of 1950 spawning stock biomass levels. Overfishing to below the biomass that produces maximum sustainable yield occurred in the 1960s and the late 1990s for western and eastern populations, respectively. The model predicts that mixing depends on season, ontogeny, and location, and is highest in the western Atlantic. Assuming that future catches are zero, western and eastern populations are predicted to recover to levels at maximum sustainable yield by 2025 and 2015, respectively. However, the western population will not recover with catches of 1750 and 12,900 tonnes (the "rebuilding quotas" in the western and eastern Atlantic, respectively, with or without closures in the Gulf of Mexico. If future catches are double the rebuilding quotas, then rebuilding of both populations will be compromised. If fishing were to continue in the eastern Atlantic at the unregulated levels of 2007, both stocks would continue to decline. Since populations mix on North Atlantic foraging grounds, successful rebuilding

  2. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Klaus Bauer

    Full Text Available Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba from the Golf of Lions (GoL, compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies. Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  3. Organic waste impact of capture-based Atlantic bluefin tuna aquaculture at an exposed site in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Moreno, Mariapaola; Marin, Valentina; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Bartoli, Marco; Fabiano, Mauro

    2008-06-01

    A variety of pelagic and benthic parameters were measured at an aquaculture farm used for the fattening of Atlantic bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) which is located at an exposed site (700 m from the coast, average bottom depth of 45 m and average current speed of 6 cm s -1) in the Mediterranean Sea. The objective was to test whether modern off-shore tuna fattening industries can exert a sustainable organic waste impact on the receiving environment as has been reported for the offshore culture of more traditional Mediterranean species such as sparids. In the water column, the concentration of phytopigments, organic matter, heterotrophic bacteria and the taxonomic abundance of mesozooplankton (at the species level) were assessed. In the sediment, we assessed the concentration of reduced sulphur pools, phytopigments, organic matter, heterotrophic bacteria and the taxonomic abundance of meiofauna (at the taxa level) and nematodes (at the genus level). For most parameters, we found no substantial differences between farm and control sites. Deviations of farm values from control values, when they occurred, were small and did not indicate any significant impact on either the pelagic and benthic environment. Deviations were more apparent in the benthic compartment where lower redox potential values, higher bacterial production rates and a change in nematode genus composition pointed out to early changes in the sediment's metabolism. In addition, indigenous potential pathogenic bacteria showed higher concentration at the fish farm stations and were a warning of an undesirable event that may become established following aquaculture practice in oligotrophic environments. The overall data from this study provide extensive experimental evidence to support the sustainability of modern offshore farming technology in minimizing the hypertrophic-dystrophic risks associated with the rapidly-expanding tuna-fattening industry in the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Demarcq, Hervé; Brisset, Blandine; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Golf of Lions (GoL), compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity) of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies). Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). PMID:26458254

  5. Global integration of European tuna markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Toribio, Ramòn; Guillotreau, Patrice; Mongruel, Rémi

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of integration between the world market and the major European marketplaces of frozen and canned tuna through both vertical and horizontal price relationships. Spatial linkages are investigated horizontally in order to estimate the connection between the European market and the world-wide market on the primary stage of the value chain. One of the key results is the high level of market integration at the ex-vessel stage, and the price leadership of yellowfin tuna over skipjack tuna. The same approach is applied at the ex-factory level. Basically, the European market for final goods appears to be segmented between the Northern countries consuming low-priced canned skipjack tuna imported from Asia (mainly Thailand) and the Southern countries (Italy, Spain) processing and importing yellowfin-based products sold at higher prices. France appears to be an intermediate market where both products are consumed. The former market is found to be well integrated to the world market and can be considered to be competitive, but there is a suspicion of market power being exercised on the latter. Price relationships are therefore tested vertically between the price of frozen tuna paid by the canneries and the price of canned fish in both Italy and France. The two species show an opposite pattern in prices transmission along the value chain: price changes along the chain are far better transmitted for the “global” skipjack tuna than for the more “European” yellowfin tuna. The results are discussed, along with their implications for the fishing industry.

  6. 76 FR 27658 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the...

  7. 78 FR 24430 - Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States... tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent...

  8. 77 FR 22796 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United..., the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the...

  9. Dynamics of catches, abundance and stock of big-eyed shad Alosa saposchnikowii (Grimm in the Northern Caspian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianova Svetlana Borisovna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Data on commercial catches of big-eyed shad prior to a ban on sea fishing and during the present period are analyzed. Results of investigations into the composition, distribution of adult and young shads, dynamics of abundance are considered. On the basis of the data (2004–2011 on age composition, mortality and growth rate the abundance, biomass and spawning stock are estimated. It was established that the abundance of big-eyed shad is positively correlated with sea level.

  10. Environmental forcing and the larval fish community associated to the Atlantic bluefin tuna spawning habitat of the Balearic region (Western Mediterranean), in early summer 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. M.; Alvarez, I.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Garcia, A.; Balbin, R.; Alvarez-Berastegui, D.; Torres, A. P.; Alemany, F.

    2013-07-01

    The Balearic region is a highly dynamic area located in the Western Mediterranean, straddling the transition between the Algerian and Provencal basins and constitutes one of the main spawning grounds for the large, migratory Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus) and other medium and small tuna species (Thunnus alalunga, Auxis rochei, Euthynnus alleteratus and Katsuwonus pelamis). In summer, despite been considered an oligotrophic region as the whole Mediterranean Sea, it harbors a relatively abundant and diverse larval fish community (LFC). In this study, we analyze the composition, abundance and the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the horizontal structure of the LFC in the Balearic region, in early summer 2005, during the spawning season of Atlantic bluefin tuna. Hydrographically, 2005 was an unusual year with a summer situation of relatively lack of mesoscale features, weak surface currents and a general situation of high stability. A total of 128 taxa of fish larvae, belonging to 52 families, were identified. The average abundance was 1770 larvae 1000 m-3. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed LFC to have a strong horizontal structure. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination identified two larval fish assemblages. These assemblages were mainly delineated by depth and, therefore, by the spawning location of adult fish. Our results also suggest that anticyclonic eddy boundaries constitute favourable habitats for fish larvae. Also, the scenario of higher than unusual hydrographic stability found during the cruise would be responsible for the relatively lack of mesoscale features and, consequently, for the lack of influence of these features on the horizontal distribution of fish larvae and on the horizontal structure of the LFC.

  11. The development of the northern European fishery for north Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus during 1900-1950

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    extremely rare. The factors which led to the development of the fishery and its subsequent decline remain unclear and poorly documented. This investigation documents the development of the fishery in terms of landings, effort, and gears with focus on the time period from 1900 to 1950 when landings were...... during the summers of 1923–1931. As fishermen realized that the species had market value, new catch methods were developed and employed. These included harpoon-rifle, improved hook and line methods, and hydraulically operated purse seines. Landings rose sharply as did the number of vessels and the......, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Similarly sportfishing increased in popularity in some of these countries and attracted many foreign participants. The increase in landings between 1900 and 1950 was driven particularly by an increase in fishing effort and technology. We found no evidence that...

  12. Fishing and qualitative characteristics of big-eyed shad Alosa saposchnikowii (Grimm) in the Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Andrianova Svetlana Borisovna; Barabanov Vitaliy Victorovich

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the current state of commercial catches of big-eyed shad stocks in the Caspian Sea, which is the backup target species, is carried out. The reasons for the variations in catch and biological parameters in long-term perspective are analyzed. The reduction of catches of herring in the Terek-Caspian region is conditioned by a complex of climatic phenomena (fluctuation of the Caspian Sea level), human factors and organizational and technical reasons. There is a clear downward tren...

  13. Modeling age and growth of the bigeye thresher (Alopias superciliosus) in the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Carvalho, Joana; Coelho, R.; Erzini, Karim; Miguel N. Santos

    2015-01-01

    The bigeye thresher (Alopias superciliosus) is a pelagic shark captured as bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries. Important information on its biology is still missing, especially from the Atlantic Ocean. In all, 546 vertebrae collected by fishery observers between 2007 and 2009 were used to estimate age and growth parameters for this species in the Atlantic Ocean. The size composition was 102–265 cm fork length (FL) for females and 94–260 cm FL for males. The estimated ages ranged from 0 to ...

  14. Trends in the Seychelles tuna fishery.

    OpenAIRE

    IOTC

    1998-01-01

    Distant water fishing nations (DWFN) began longlining for tuna in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) in the early 1950s, initiated by the Japanese soon followed by the Taiwanese (1954) and Koreans (1960). Large scale industrial purse seining began in 1983 when the French and Spanish fleets moved into the Western Indian Ocean from the tropical Atlantic. By 1986 some 6 % of the world tuna catch (143,099t out of 2,400,000t) was coming from the WIO purse seiners; by 1997 this had risen to 14 %. Virtu...

  15. Effect of Storage Temperature on the Outgrowth and Toxin Production of Staphylococcus aureus in Freeze-Thawed Precooked Tuna Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ai; Enache, Elena; Napier, Carla; Hayman, Melinda; Weddig, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the time for a 3-log CFU/g outgrowth of Staphylococcus aureus and its toxin production in previously frozen precooked tuna meat (albacore [Thunnus alalunga] prepared as loin, chunk, and flake or skipjack [Katsuwonus pelamis] prepared as chunk and flake) held either at 21 or 27°C. A five-strain cocktail of enterotoxin-producing S. aureus was surface inoculated with ∼10(3) CFU/g onto tuna samples. The experimental time-temperature conditions were designed to mimic common industry holding conditions. After a 3-h incubation at 37°C, inoculated samples were individually vacuum sealed and stored at 20°C for 4 weeks. Following frozen storage, samples were thawed to the target temperature (21 or 27°C) and then incubated aerobically. Growth of S. aureus in tuna was then monitored using Baird Parker agar; simultaneously, aerobic plate counts, enterotoxin production, and sensory profile (color and odor) were determined. The results showed that the time for a 3-log CFU/g increase was >20 h at 21°C and 8 to 12 h at 27°C for albacore, with toxin production observed at 14 to 16 h at 21°C and at 8 h at 27°C. A 3-log CFU/g increase for skipjack occurred at 22 to 24 h at 21°C and at 10 to 14 h at 27°C. The toxin production in skipjack started at 20 to 22 h at 21°C and at 8 to 10 h at 27°C. Toxin production was observed before a 3-log increase was achieved in albacore samples at 21°C. Under all conditions, toxins were detected when the cell density of S. aureus was 6 log CFU/g. Overall, significantly faster S. aureus growth was observed in albacore compared with skipjack (P < 0.05), possibly owing to differences in sample composition (e.g., pH and salt content). The data developed from this study can be used by the tuna industry to model the growth and enterotoxin production of S. aureus and to design manufacturing controls that ensure food safety. PMID:27052867

  16. ESTIMATION OF PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY FOR TUNA IN INDIAN OCEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ende Kasma; Takahiro Osawa; I Wayan Sandi Adnyana

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia has abundant fisheries potency, one of fisheries potency in Indian Ocean is tuna fish. Primary productivity data used as indicator of tuna fisheries potency in Idian Ocean.Research location is in Indian Ocean 070 - 210 S and 1070 - 1210 E. Weekly satellite data in 2007 used are chlorophyl, sea surface temperature, Photosynthetic Available Radiation (PAR) and euphotic zone (Zeu) data. Daily fisheries data is from tuna fish catching data 2007 in PT. Perikanan Samudera Besar (PT. PSB)....

  17. Detection Tuna and Processed Products Based Protein and DNA Barcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuring Wulansari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is the second largest fishery commodity in Indonesia after the shrimp. Since the high demand and the limited stock of tuna resulted in fraudulent chance. Authentication is required to meassure consumers regarding the accuracy of its labeling and food safety. In this study, the authentication was based on protein and DNA barcoding using cytochrome-b gene (cyt-b of the mitochondrial DNA as the target of gene. Primer of cyt b gene was designed based on the tuna species. This study aimed to identify the authenticity of tuna fresh and its processed products through protein using SDS-PAGE and DNA barcoding techniques. The phases of this research were protein electrophoresis by SDS-PAGE, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, electrophoresis and sequencing. Samples of fresh fish (Tu1, Tu2, Tu3, Tu4, and Tu5 and processed tuna (canned and steak were successfully extracted. Result showed that SDS-PAGE proved the damage of proteins in the processed tuna, so this method was not appropriate if it is used to identify the authenticity of tuna. PCR electrophoresis results showed that the samples of tuna, tuna steak, sushi, meat ball, abon, and caned tuna were successfully amplified in the range of 500-750 bp except Ka3, which was in line with the target of DNA (620 bp. Resulted sequences of Tu2, Tu3, Tu4 and Tu5 were identified according the results of morphometric namely T. albacares, while Tu1 was identified as T. obesus with homology level of 99%. Processed tunas (steak and canned tuna were identified as T. albacares, as stated on the labels.

  18. Tuna fishing and a review of payaos in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, J; Natividad, Ac

    2000-01-01

    Payao is a traditional concept, which has been successfully commercialized to increase the landings of several species valuable to the country's export and local industries. It has become one of the most important developments in pelagic fishing that significantly contributed to increased tuna production and expansion of purse seine and other fishing gears. The introduction of the payao in tuna fishing in 1975 triggered the rapid development of the tuna and small pelagic fishery. With limited...

  19. THE ROLE OF ICCAT IN BLUEFIN TUNA MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Miletić; Vlasta Franičević; Gorana Jelić Mrčelić; Ivor Jeftimijades; Ivona Mladineo; Ivica Aničić

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this study is to bring un updated and detailed analyses of the role of International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), as well as discuss applied measures of protection of the bluefin tuna in Croatia. On the yearly basis, ICCAT brings recommendations that have committing character for all the member countries and which include the minimum catch and farming quotas, temporal and spatial limitation of tuna fisheries, along a number of other controlling regul...

  20. Detection Tuna and Processed Products Based Protein and DNA Barcoding

    OpenAIRE

    Nuring Wulansari; Mala Nurilamala; Nurjanah

    2015-01-01

    Tuna is the second largest fishery commodity in Indonesia after the shrimp. Since the high demand and the limited stock of tuna resulted in fraudulent chance. Authentication is required to meassure consumers regarding the accuracy of its labeling and food safety. In this study, the authentication was based on protein and DNA barcoding using cytochrome-b gene (cyt-b) of the mitochondrial DNA as the target of gene. Primer of cyt b gene was designed based on the tuna species. This...

  1. A value chain analysis of tuna industry in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Elizabeth Drury

    2013-01-01

    Every can of tuna purchased by the consumer has taken a long journey before reaching the supermarket shelves. For each can bought there is a lengthy process from sea to shelf. A large proportion of the tuna cans purchased in the European Union come all the way from West Africa; a developing region with a high dependency on fisheries. Amidst an ever-increasing demand for tuna products the global tuna fisheries are set to continue expanding, apparently one of the last natural res...

  2. Using stable isotopes of albacore tuna and predictive models to characterize bioregions and examine ecological change in the SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Young, Jock W.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Farley, Jessica H.

    2015-05-01

    Broad-scale food web inferences of 534 albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the south-west Pacific Ocean in 2009 and 2010 were made using bulk nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotopes. Condition was also examined for the same fish using C:N ratios. A Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM) approach was used to analyze spatio-temporal, biological and environmental drivers that impact the distribution of tuna isotopes and to create oceanographic maps. Based on model formulations, five bioregions with distinct isotopic signatures were identified and were related to known biological, nutrient cycling and oceanographic (temperature, primary productivity and eddy) features associated with the East Australian Current. δ15N values showed a large-scale, uniform latitudinal gradient decreasing from the south to north, in a region encompassing oligotrophic waters in the Coral Sea. In contrast, δ13C values were lower in the nutrient rich Tasman Sea waters and offshore East Australia. C:N ratios suggested that albacore occupying southern and offshore waters were in better condition. Ontogenetic trends in all three biochemical parameters were identified and related to differences in size distribution. Regional-specific temporal variations were detected including similar monthly changes for both isotopes and significantly less enriched δ13C (by 1.9‰) than in previous work undertaken in 2006, potentially signifying a substantial shift in the carbon cycle that supports food webs off central east Australia. Our results showed that isotopic measurements in tuna and the GAM framework provide powerful tools to assess ecosystem functioning and change by linking sources of nutrients and organic matter to local food web assembly. Such knowledge is vital to support an ecosystem based approach to fisheries management including biogeochemical whole-of-ecosystem models and monitoring programs at regional and landscape-scales.

  3. Habitat suitability of the Atlantic bluefin tuna by size class: An ecological niche approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druon, Jean-Noël; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Hanke, Alex R.; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Damalas, Dimitrios; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Quílez-Badia, Gemma; Ramirez, Karina; Arregui, Igor; Tserpes, George; Reglero, Patricia; Deflorio, Michele; Oray, Isik; Saadet Karakulak, F.; Megalofonou, Persefoni; Ceyhan, Tevfik; Grubišić, Leon; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Lamkin, John; Afonso, Pedro; Addis, Piero

    2016-03-01

    An ecological niche modelling (ENM) approach was used to predict the potential feeding and spawning habitats of small (5-25 kg, only feeding) and large (>25 kg) Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), Thunnus thynnus, in the Mediterranean Sea, the North Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. The ENM was built bridging knowledge on ecological traits of ABFT (e.g. temperature tolerance, mobility, feeding and spawning strategy) with patterns of selected environmental variables (chlorophyll-a fronts and concentration, sea surface current and temperature, sea surface height anomaly) that were identified using an extensive set of precisely geo-located presence data. The results highlight a wider temperature tolerance for larger fish allowing them to feed in the northern - high chlorophyll levels - latitudes up to the Norwegian Sea in the eastern Atlantic and to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in the western basin. Permanent suitable feeding habitat for small ABFT was predicted to be mostly located in temperate latitudes in the North Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as in subtropical waters off north-west Africa, while summer potential habitat in the Gulf of Mexico was found to be unsuitable for both small and large ABFTs. Potential spawning grounds were found to occur in the Gulf of Mexico from March-April in the south-east to April-May in the north, while favourable conditions evolve in the Mediterranean Sea from mid-May in the eastern to mid-July in the western basin. Other secondary potential spawning grounds not supported by observations were predicted in the Azores area and off Morocco to Senegal during July and August when extrapolating the model settings from the Gulf of Mexico into the North Atlantic. The presence of large ABFT off Florida and the Bahamas in spring was not explained by the model as is, however the environmental variables other than the sea surface height anomaly appeared to be favourable for spawning in part of this area. Defining key spatial and

  4. Notes on the biology of the bigeye scad, Selar crumenophthalmus (Carangidae) around Reunion Island, southwest Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, David; Roux, Olivier; Conand, François

    2007-01-01

    The main characteristics of the biology of bigeye scad were studied from commercial fishery catches around Reunion Island. Biometric relationships were calculated. The monitoring of size distribution, aggregated by month, allowed us to estimate the theoretical growth equation using the ELEFAN software. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were adjusted with a seasonal modulation: L8 = 265 mm; K = 1.64 year-1; c = 0.068; ? = 0.38. The growth of the cohort was quite high during the austral sum...

  5. Mercury in canned tuna: white versus light and temporal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are abundant data and advisories for mercury levels in wild fish, but far fewer for commercial fish that compose a large majority of the fish most people eat. Until recently, relatively little attention has been devoted to examining mercury in canned tuna, despite its great importance in human diets. There is substantial media coverage of the benefits and risk from fish consumption, but few peer-reviewed data on canned tuna, the most commonly consumed fish in the United States. In this paper, we examine the levels of total mercury in canned tuna obtained from a New Jersey grocery store from 1998 to 2003, looking for temporal consistency within this data set and particularly for comparison with the Food and Drug Administration's 1991 study. We analyzed 168 cans individually for total mercury. All values are reported as parts per million (=μg/g) on a wet weight basis. In a subset of samples analyzed for total and inorganic mercury, the inorganic mercury was below detection levels; hence at least 89% of the mercury can be considered methylmercury. We found that white-style tuna had significantly more total mercury (mean 0.407 ppm) than light-style tuna (mean 0.118 ppm), presumably reflecting that 'white' tuna is albacore, a species relatively larger than the skipjack tuna, which is commonly available as 'light' or 'chunk light'. The maximum mercury in a can was 0.997 ppm, but 25% of white tuna samples exceeded 0.5 ppm. Data suggest a slight increase in levels since 1991, and mercury levels were significantly higher in 2001 than in other years. The mean level of mercury in white tuna (mean 0.407 ppm) was significantly higher than the mean value of 0.17 ppm currently used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its risk assessment and public information. There were no significant differences in mercury levels in tuna packed in oil compared to water. Draining contents had no effect on mercury levels, and the fluid, both oil and water, contained little

  6. 77 FR 25732 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... International Trade, (202) 325-0009. Correction In notice document, FR Doc. 2012-9131, beginning on page 22796... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

  7. Identification of factors influencing shark catch and mortality in the Marshall Islands tuna longline fishery and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhead, D; Clarke, S; Hoyle, S; Muller, B; Sharples, P; Harley, S

    2012-04-01

    Recent average annual catches of sharks by tuna longline vessels fishing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) are estimated to be between 1583 and 2274 t. Although 22 shark species have been recorded by the observer programme for this fishery, 80% of the annual catch comprises only five species: blue shark Prionace glauca, silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis, bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus, pelagic thresher shark Alopias pelagicus and oceanic whitetip shark Carcharhinus longimanus. Wire leaders (i.e. branch lines or traces) were also used by nearly all observed vessels. Generalized additive model (GAM)-based analyses of catch rates indicated that P. glauca and A. superciliosus are caught in higher numbers when vessels fish in relatively cooler waters, at night, close to the full moon, when the 27° C thermocline is close to the surface and during El Niño conditions. In contrast, C. falciformis, A. pelagicus and C. longimanus are caught in higher numbers when shark lines are used (all three species) or hooks are set at a shallow depth (A. pelagicus and C. longimanus and, also, P. glauca). These findings are generally consistent with current knowledge of these species' habitat preferences, movement and distribution. The results of these analyses were combined with information pertaining to shark condition and fate upon capture to compare the likely effectiveness of a range of potential measures for reducing shark mortality in the longline fishery. Of the options considered, the most effective would be to combine measures that reduce the catch rate (e.g. restrictions on the use of wire leaders, shark baits and shark lines) with measures that increase survival rates after post-capture release (e.g. finning bans). PMID:22497410

  8. Modificaciones en la grasa del atún blanco (Thunnus alalunga debidas a la fabricación y almacenamiento de su conserva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, María P.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Modifications in fatty acid composition in white tuna (Thunnus alalunga ocurring at each stage of the cannig process, boiling and sterilization in soybean oil, were studied. Boiling was performed in brine and two sterilization times (55 and 90 minutes as well as the effects of storage for one year were tested. Boiling had no effect on fatty acid composition or the n-3/n-6 ratio. However canned tuna absorbed soybean oil during sterilization, causing an increase of the percentage of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 and a decrease in C20:5 and C22:6. Therefore, unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PS/S ratio changed and the n-3/n-6 ratio declined from 7.03 to 0.59 compared with raw tuna. Due to the whole fat enrichment, canned fish showed a slight loss of PUFA (C20:5 and C22:6 and a increase of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3. The latter effect was more marked in the preserves as a consequence of one year storage. The convenience of using for cannig an oil containing a lower amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid in order to remain the original n-3/n-6 ratio of the raw tuna is discussed.Se estudiaron los cambios que se producen en la grasa del atún blanco en cada una de las etapas que intervienen en el proceso de fabricación y almacenamiento de su conserva: cocción en salmuera y esterilización practicada en aceite de soja. Se estudiaron dos tiempos diferentes de esterilización (55 y 90 minutos y el almacenamiento por espacio de 1 año. La cocción en salmuera no afectó a la composición en ácidos grasos de los lípidos del pescado ni a la relación n-3/n-6. Sin embargo, durante la esterilización, el atún absorbió el aceite utilizado como cobertura, lo que produjo un aumento porcentual en el nivel de C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 y una disminución en C20:5 y C22:6. La relación ácidos grasos insaturados a saturados (PS/S cambió y la n-3/n-6 disminuyó desde 7,03 a 0,59 comparado con atún crudo. En el pescado en conserva, debido al enriquecimiento total

  9. HYDRODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF A SWIMMING BIONIC ROBOT TUNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic model for undulatory locomotion was proposed to study the swimming mechanism of a developed bionic robot tuna. On the basis of inviscid hydrodynamics and rigid-body dynamics, the momentum and propulsive force required for propelling the swimming robot tuna's flexible body was calculated. By solving the established dynamic equations and efficiency formula, the swimming velocity and propulsive efficiency of the bionic robot tuna were obtained. The relationship between the kinematic parameters of the robot tuna's body curve and the hydrodynamic performances was established and discussed after hydrodynamic simulations. The results presented in this article can be used to increase the swimming speed, propulsive thrust, and the efficiency of underwater vehicles effectively.

  10. Die Transurethrale Nadel-Ablation der Prostata (TUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark L

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 Patienten im Alter von 56?92 Jahren (Durchschnitt: 74,9 mit symptomatischer BPH wurden mittels TUNA therapiert. Das Prostatavolumen betrug 19-160 ml (durchschnittlich 56,6. 14 Patienten (56 % wurden aufgrund eines akuten Harnverhaltes therapiert, 9 Patienten (36 % hatten Restharn zwischen 30 und 700 ml, 2 Patienten (8 % wurden wegen irritativer Symptome behandelt. Bei 4 Patienten wurde die TUNA 2-3 mal wiederholt, bei 5 Patienten kombinierten wir die TUNA mit einer transurethralen Resektion einer Mittellappenhyperplasie. Von den 25 Patienten waren 17 Hochrisikopatienten (ASA III-IV. Die Erfolgsquote betrug 68 %. 6 Patienten (24 % benötigten weiterhin eine transurethrale oder suprapubische Harnableitung, 2 Patienten benötigten eine weitere invasive Therapie. Unsere Ergebnisse bestätigen die TUNA als wirkungsvolle und äußerst nebenwirkungsarme Therapiemöglichkeit bei Patienten mit symptomatischer BPH.

  11. Modelling the impact of climate change on South Pacific albacore tuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna; Nicol, Simon; Hampton, John

    2015-03-01

    The potential impact of climate change under the IPCC AR4-A2 scenario (close to the AR5-RCP8.5 scenario) on south Pacific albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is simulated with the Spatial Ecosystem And Population Dynamics Model (SEAPODYM) and environmental forcing variables provided by the Earth Climate model IPSL-CM4. Parameters controlling the habitat and dynamics of the population were optimized by fitting the model, using maximum likelihood, to a complete fishing data set for the historical fishing period since 1950. Albacore undertake clear seasonal migrations between feeding and spawning grounds, as evidenced by seasonal catch and size composition changes. This seasonality was well predicted by the SEAPODYM albacore simulations. The total biomass estimate of south Pacific albacore was predicted to have decreased from ~1.8 million tonnes (Mt) at the beginning of industrial fisheries in 1950 to 1.25 Mt in 2006, in good agreement with an independent estimate from stock assessment analysis. A simulation without fishing indicated an equivalent contribution of environmental variability and fishing to the historical decrease of the stock biomass. The parameterized SEAPODYM model was used to project the dynamics of the population until the end of the 21st century with an average fishing effort based on recent years. Under this fishing and climate change scenario, the population was predicted to decrease and to stabilize after 2035 just below 0.8 Mt, i.e., 55% below the initial biomass of 1960. After 2080 however, the trend was reversed when a new spawning ground emerged in the north Tasman Sea. A test simulation highlighted the sensitivity of the model results to projected dissolved oxygen concentration for which there is large uncertainty in the tropical region. A second test simulation showed that genetic selection favouring albacore with preferences for higher optimal ambient spawning temperature would maintain a reduced level of spawning in current tropical spawning

  12. Spatial Patterns and Temperature Predictions of Tuna Fatty Acids: Tracing Essential Nutrients and Changes in Primary Producers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi R Pethybridge

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are among the least understood nutrients in marine environments, despite their profile as key energy components of food webs and that they are essential to all life forms. Presented here is a novel approach to predict the spatial-temporal distributions of fatty acids in marine resources using generalized additive mixed models. Fatty acid tracers (FAT of key primary producers, nutritional condition indices and concentrations of two essential long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 fatty acids (EFA measured in muscle of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, sampled in the south-west Pacific Ocean were response variables. Predictive variables were: location, time, sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll-a (Chla, and phytoplankton biomass at time of catch and curved fork length. The best model fit for all fatty acid parameters included fish length and SST. The first oceanographic contour maps of EFA and FAT (FATscapes were produced and demonstrated clear geographical gradients in the study region. Predicted changes in all fatty acid parameters reflected shifts in the size-structure of dominant primary producers. Model projections show that the supply and availability of EFA are likely to be negatively affected by increases in SST especially in temperate waters where a 12% reduction in both total fatty acid content and EFA proportions are predicted. Such changes will have large implications for the availability of energy and associated health benefits to high-order consumers. Results convey new concerns on impacts of projected climate change on fish-derived EFA in marine systems.

  13. Spatial Patterns and Temperature Predictions of Tuna Fatty Acids: Tracing Essential Nutrients and Changes in Primary Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Parrish, Christopher C; Morrongiello, John; Young, Jock W; Farley, Jessica H; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Nichols, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are among the least understood nutrients in marine environments, despite their profile as key energy components of food webs and that they are essential to all life forms. Presented here is a novel approach to predict the spatial-temporal distributions of fatty acids in marine resources using generalized additive mixed models. Fatty acid tracers (FAT) of key primary producers, nutritional condition indices and concentrations of two essential long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 fatty acids (EFA) measured in muscle of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, sampled in the south-west Pacific Ocean were response variables. Predictive variables were: location, time, sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chla), and phytoplankton biomass at time of catch and curved fork length. The best model fit for all fatty acid parameters included fish length and SST. The first oceanographic contour maps of EFA and FAT (FATscapes) were produced and demonstrated clear geographical gradients in the study region. Predicted changes in all fatty acid parameters reflected shifts in the size-structure of dominant primary producers. Model projections show that the supply and availability of EFA are likely to be negatively affected by increases in SST especially in temperate waters where a 12% reduction in both total fatty acid content and EFA proportions are predicted. Such changes will have large implications for the availability of energy and associated health benefits to high-order consumers. Results convey new concerns on impacts of projected climate change on fish-derived EFA in marine systems. PMID:26135308

  14. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  15. 76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet... availability of Office of Vessel Activities Policy Letter 11-05 regarding Distant Water Tuna Fleet vessels... allow a distant water tuna fleet vessel to engage foreign citizens under a temporary manning...

  16. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  17. Suitability of tuna red meat for preparation of wafers

    OpenAIRE

    Thankamma, R.; Lekshmy Nair, A.; Shenoy, A.V.; Gopakumar, K.

    1985-01-01

    Studies to find out the suitability of tuna red meat for preparation of wafers have indicated that the red meat as such is not a good raw material for the production of wafers. The wafers obtained had poor organoleptic quality and characteristic tuna red meat flavour unacceptable to consumers. Attempts to prepare the wafers with the red meat mixed with the meat of barracuda in varying proportions showed that the mixture of red meat and barracuda meat in the ratio 1:3 gives a product having ex...

  18. Abscesses associated with a Brucella inopinata-like bacterium in a big-eyed tree frog (Leptopelis vermiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Lorenz, Nadja; Heuser, Wenke; Kämpfer, Peter; Scholz, Holger C; Lierz, Michael

    2012-09-01

    A 4-yr-old big-eyed tree frog (Leptopelis vermiculatus) was submitted with two pea-sized (4-mm diameter), firm, and painful masses on the right side of its back. The two abscess-like masses were surgically opened, and a whitish-yellow pasty content was removed. A Brucella inopinata-like bacterium was obtained in pure culture and was resistant against ampicillin and tylosin but sensitive to the 8 other antibiotics tested. The organism was identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (acc. no. HE608873) and recA (acc. no. HE608874) genes after preliminary misidentification as Ochrobactrum anthropi when using a commercial identification system. To the authors' knowledge, a B. inopinata-like bacterium has not been reported previously in amphibians. The organism is a potential human pathogen and may present a risk for people handling amphibians. PMID:23082529

  19. Bluefin tuna fishing and ranching: a difficult management problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefano, de V.; Heijden, van der P.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The fish processing industry and consumers in Japan are willing to pay high (and sometimes outrageous) prices for fresh bluefin tuna with fat content and flesh colour just right to be served raw as sashimi or sushi. This willingness was and still is the economic incentive for a high fishing pressure

  20. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  1. 大西洋金枪鱼延绳钓主要兼捕鱼种垂直分布结构研究%VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BYCATCH SPECIES CAPTURED BY TUNA LONGLINE FISHERY IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许友伟; 戴小杰; 庄之栋; 朱江峰; 陈彦

    2012-01-01

    depths of the bycatch species were significantly different from that of the big-eye tuna. Except for swordfish and dagger pomfret, the depth distributions of the bycatch species were significantly different from that of the bigeye tuna. Cluster analysis showed that there were three vertical distribution structures among the 14 species.

  2. Economic impacts of climate change on tuna fisheries in Fiji Islands and Kiribati

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible economic consequences of a change in the tuna fisheries in the Pacific Ocean resulting from climate change. On the background of Lehodey's (2000) study of potential changes in the tuna fisheries, we survey possible economic impacts in terms of quantities and values and give examples of macroeconomic impacts. The two main effects of climate change on tuna fishing are likely to be a decline in the total stock and a migration of the stock westwards. This will le...

  3. Storage Time and Temperature Effects on Histamine Production in Tuna Salad Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Benner, Ronald

    2015-07-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning (SFP), also known as histamine (Hst) poisoning, has been associated with consumption of scombroid-type fish, including tuna and tuna fish products. Preparation of commercial tuna salad contaminated with Hstproducing bacteria (HPB), combined with time-temperature abuse, can present a food safety hazard. A potential source of HPB is raw ingredients, such as celery and onions. The objectives of this study were to determine whether raw ingredients can be a source of HPB and to ascertain the effects of storage time (up to 4 days or 4 weeks) and temperature (4, 10, 18, 25, 30°C) on growth and Hst production by high-HPB (>1,000 ppm of Hst) in tuna salad preparations. Pantoea-Erwinia, Erwinia persicinus, Erwinia spp., and Enterobacter pyrinus isolated from celery in this study were used to inoculate tuna salad and tuna salad with celery or onion. HPB numbers were 0.7 to 4.3 log most probable number per g higher in the presence of celery or onion versus plain tuna salad (3:1 tuna:mayonnaise). E. pyrinus-inoculated plain tuna salad and tuna salad with celery and onion had >500 ppm of Hst after 2 days at 30°C and 4 days at 25°C. E. pyrinus-inoculated salad with celery and onion had >500 ppm of Hst after 4 days at 18°C and 2 weeks at 10°C. Raw celery can introduce HPB into tuna salad, which can cause SFP if the product is time-temperature abused. Tuna salad products must be refrigerated at ≤4°C to prevent growth and Hst production by the HPB used in this study, to protect consumers from potential SFP. PMID:26197286

  4. Visualizing the Food-Web Effects of Fishing for Tunas in the Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Robert J.; Watters, George M.; Kerim Aydin; Isaac C Kaplan; Jefferson T. Hinke; James F. K. Kitchell

    2004-01-01

    We use food-web models to develop visualizations to compare and evaluate the interactions of tuna fisheries with their supporting food webs in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and the central north Pacific (CNP) Oceans. In the ETP and CNP models, individual fisheries use slightly different food webs that are defined by the assemblage of targeted tuna species. Distinct energy pathways are required to support different tuna species and, consequently, the specific fisheries that target differe...

  5. Development of functional canned and pouched tuna products added inulin for commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueangwatcharin, U; Wichienchot, S

    2015-08-01

    Four formulas of canned tuna in spring water and tuna in mayonnaise and pouched tuna in salad cream and tuna in thousand island cream with added inulin were developed for commercial production. The effects of the addition of a prebiotic (inulin, Orafti®-HP) on the color and sensory properties of these products were studied. For inulin concentrations studied (3, 5, 7 and 10 %, w/w) caused more intensed yellow and red colors. Hedonic sensory values of tuna packed in spring water and in mayonnaise showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) among products with different inulin addition levels (3, 5, 7 and 10 %, w/w) in terms of color, flavor, sweetness and overall characteristics. However, when packed in thousand island cream, significant differences (p salad cream showed significant differences (p salad cream, respectively. Considering formula cost in a commercial production and the recommended daily intake (RDI) of inulin in the finished product at end of shelf life (≥3 g/d), an addition of 5 % inulin for tuna in spring water and 7 % inulin for tuna in mayonnaise, tuna in thousand island and tuna in salad cream are recommended. PMID:26243930

  6. Indian Ocean tuna fisheries: Data summary for 1991-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Catch statistics and fishing craft statistics are presented for the Indian Ocean tuna fisheries for the period 1991-2000. The former are presented by species, country, year and by gear. Details are also given of the number of fisheries crafts in the national fleets, in order to provide information on the economic and technical development of the fisheries and to provide an approximate idea of fluctuations in fishing effort.

  7. Indian Ocean tuna fisheries: Data summary for 1990-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Catch statistics and fishing craft statistics are presented for the Indian Ocean tuna fisheries for the period 1990-1999. The former are presented by species, country, year and by gear. Details are also given of the number of fisheries crafts in the national fleets, in order to provide information on the economic and technical development of the fisheries and to provide an approximate idea of fluctuations in fishing effort.

  8. Consumer Demand for Ahi Poke (Raw Tuna Salad) in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes da Costa, Pedro M.; Hu, Wuyang; Pan, Minling

    2009-01-01

    Ahi poke (raw tuna salad) has significant role in Hawaii culture and economy. A consumer survey in Hawaii was used to examine consumers’ purchasing intentions of ahi poke. A censored analysis was conducted to analyze the demand and tie with various consumer characteristics. Results show that many consumer eat ahi poke frequently and different consumer profiles will lead to large differences in their demand. Information obtained in study may help producers and retailers to better target their ...

  9. Convergent evolution in mechanical design of lamnid sharks and tunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Jeanine M; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Konstantinidis, Peter; Gemballa, Sven; Shadwick, Robert E

    2004-05-01

    The evolution of 'thunniform' body shapes in several different groups of vertebrates, including whales, ichthyosaurs and several species of large pelagic fishes supports the view that physical and hydromechanical demands provided important selection pressures to optimize body design for locomotion during vertebrate evolution. Recognition of morphological similarities between lamnid sharks (the most well known being the great white and the mako) and tunas has led to a general expectation that they also have converged in their functional design; however, no quantitative data exist on the mechanical performance of the locomotor system in lamnid sharks. Here we examine the swimming kinematics, in vivo muscle dynamics and functional morphology of the force-transmission system in a lamnid shark, and show that the evolutionary convergence in body shape and mechanical design between the distantly related lamnids and tunas is much more than skin deep; it extends to the depths of the myotendinous architecture and the mechanical basis for propulsive movements. We demonstrate that not only have lamnids and tunas converged to a much greater extent than previously known, but they have also developed morphological and functional adaptations in their locomotor systems that are unlike virtually all other fishes. PMID:15129279

  10. Comparative Influence of Ocean Conditions on Yellowfin and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Catch from Longlines in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, Steven L. H.; Block, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become import...

  11. 75 FR 22418 - The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the...

  12. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  13. 76 FR 3646 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet... availability of a draft policy regarding distant water tuna fleet vessels manning exemption eligibility...

  14. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE RELATED TO THE BIG EYE TUNA EXISTANCE IN INDIAN OCEAN ON 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIWI DIAH SETIAWATI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Ocean, particularly on Southern part of ,Java and Bali was identified for some big pelagic fish. Among all of the big pelagic fishes, big eye tuna is the highest commercial value compare with other species There are several research which studied the relationship between the existence of tuna and environmental factor. Sea Smface Temperature (SST was used as a main oceanographic factor to relate with big eye tuna abundance. SST data \\\\aS derived from Level 3 AQUA M0DIS data. In my paper, 1 use additional simple statistical method to prove that SST and big eye tuna has a good con-elation. I used polynomial regression and geographic information system method to improve correlation value of lhe data. There arc three critical value and four equation. Based on the data analysis, SST has significant value to big eye tuna abundance in Indian Ocean and has high correlation.

  15. Pelagic cephalopods in the western Indian Ocean: New information from diets of top predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Frédéric; Potier, Michel; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Romanov, Evgeny; Sabatié, Richard; Cherel, Yves

    2013-10-01

    Using a combination of diverse large predatory fishes and one seabird, we collected information on the cephalopod fauna of the western Indian Ocean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 35 fishes representing ten families (Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Alepisauridae, Dasyatidae, Carcharhinidae, Alopiidae and Sphyrnidae) and of the sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata of the Mozambique Channel from 2000 to 2010. Both fresh and accumulated beaks were used for identifying cephalopod prey. Cephalopods were important prey for twelve predators; swordfish Xiphias gladius had the highest cephalopod proportion; sooty tern (O. fuscata) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) had high proportions too. We recovered 23 cephalopod families and identified 38 species. Ten species from four Teuthida families (Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae) and two Octopoda families (Argonautidae and Bolitaenidae) occurred very frequently in the stomach contents, while Sepiida were rare. Ommastrephidae were the most cephalopod food sources: the purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was the most prevalent prey by far, Ornithoteuthis volatilis was important for eleven predators and few but large specimens of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii were recovered in the stomachs of swordfish in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre province only. Predators' groups were identified based on cephalopod prey composition, on depth in which they forage, and on prey size. Surface predators' diets were characterized by lower cephalopod diversity but greater average numbers of cephalopod prey, whereas the deep-dwelling predators (swordfish and bigeye tuna) preyed on larger specimens than surface predators (O. fuscata or yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares). Our findings emphasized the usefulness of a community of marine predators to gain valuable information on the biology and the distribution of the cephalopod forage fauna that are

  16. Predicting the Distribution of Yellowfin Tuna in Philippine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, G. J. P.; Leonardo, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Philippines is considered as a major tuna producer in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, both for domestic consumption and on industrial scale. However, with the ever-increasing demand of growing population, it has always been a challenge to achieve sustainable fishing. The creation of satellite-derived potential fishing zone maps is a technology that has been adopted by advanced countries for almost three decades already and has led to reduction in search times by up to 40%. In this study, a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) is developed to predict the distribution of the Yellowfin tuna species in seas surrounding the Philippines based on the Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) index. Level 3 gridded chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the main input parameters of the model. Chlorophyll-a is linked with the presence of phytoplankton, which indicates primary productivity and suggests potential regions of fish aggregation. Fish also prefers to stay in regions where the temperature is stable, thus the sea surface temperature fronts serve as a guide to locate concentrations of fish school. Historical monthly tuna catch data from Western and Central Pacific Commissions (WCPFC) is used to train the model. The resulting predictions are converted to potential fishing zone maps and are evaluated within and beyond the historical time range of the training data used. Diagnostic tests involving adjusted R2 value, GAM residual plots and root mean square error value are used to assess the accuracy of the model. The generated maps were able to confirm locations of known tuna fishing grounds in Mindanao and other parts of the country, as well us detect their seasonality and interannual variability. To improve the performance of the model, ancillary data such as surface winds reanalysis from National Centers for

  17. The migration game in habitat network: the case of tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; Krivan, Vlastimil; MacKenzie, Brian;

    2016-01-01

    migration in direction of increasing fitness should lead to the ideal free distribution (IFD) which is the evolutionary stable strategy of the habitat selection game. We introduce a migration game which focuses on migrating dynamics leading to the IFD for age-structured populations and in time varying...... habitats, where dispersal is costly. The model predicts migration dynamics between these habitats and the corresponding population distribution. When applied to Atlantic bluefin tunas, it predicts their biomass is located in the spawning areas which have also the largest diversity in the age...

  18. Global pollution monitoring of butyltin compounds using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global pollution monitoring of butyltin in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator. - Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono- (MBT), di- (DBT), tri-butyltin (TBT) and total tin (ΣSn), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from Asian offshore waters (off-Japan, the Japan Sea, off-Taiwan, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, off-Philippines, off-Indonesia, the Bay of Bengal), off-Seychelles, off-Brazil and open seas (the North Pacific). BTs were detected in all the skipjack tuna collected, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs even in offshore waters and open seas on a global scale. Considering specific accumulation, Sex-, body length- differences and migration of skipjack tuna did not seem to affect BT concentrations, indicating rapid reflection of the pollution levels in seawater where and when they were collected. Skipjack tuna is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of BTs in offshore waters and open seas. High concentrations of BTs were observed in skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Japan, a highly developed and industrialized region (up to 400 ng/g wet weight). Moreover skipjack tuna collected from offshore waters around Asian developing countries also revealed the levels comparable to those in Japan (up to 270 ng/g wet weight) which may be due to the recent improvement in economic status in Asian developing countries. High percentages (almost 90%) of BTs in total tin (ΣSn: sum of inorganic tin+organic tin) were found in the liver of skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Asian developing countries. This finding suggests that the anthropogenic BTs represent the major source of Sn accumulation in skipjack tuna from these regions

  19. Treatment of tuna cooking juices by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canned tuna is among the largest commercial canned fishery product in Tunisia. This industry rejects many aqueous effluents (washing, thawing, rinsing and cooking waters). Cooking juice represents 50 pour cent of the total effluent volume. It has a high organic load and a very high salt content. For consequence, discarding directly the effluent in the environment is not possible and need further treatment. However, the juice seems to contain interesting flavour compounds. In this work, a membrane process system consisting in nano filtration was used to reduce the pollution load and to concentrate flavour compounds of tuna cooking juice. The NF membrane tested in this work concentrate the organic matter since the retentions are high, starting at 74 pour cent for total circulation and increasing up to 85 pour cent for volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5. The membrane undergoes severe fouling, it can be effectively cleaned through a complete basic-acid washing cycle. The effect of three chemical reagents was studied for the regeneration of the fouled membrane. In the future, we will focus on the concentrates obtained by NF: sensory analysis with a panel of trained tasters and analysis of aromatic molecules should allow to value the quality of the flavouring concentrates.

  20. Assessment of South Pacific albacore stock ( Thunnus alalunga) by improved Schaefer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Shyh-Bin

    2006-04-01

    Based on catch and effort data of tuna longline fishery operating in the South Pacific Ocean, the South Pacific albacore stock was assessed by an improved Schaefer model. The results revealed that the intrinsic growth rate was about 1.283 74 and carrying capacities vareied in the range from 73 734 to 266 732 metric tons. The growth ability of this species is remarkable. Stock dynamics mainly depends on environmental conditions. The stock is still in good condition. However, the continuous decreasing of biomass in recent years should be noticed.

  1. Tuna aggregation and feeding near fronts observed in satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Bernard, Hannah J.

    1987-08-01

    Stomach contents of albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) and skipjack ( Katsuwonus pelamis) caught off California in August 1983 showed they were feeding on juvenile northern anchovy ( Engraulis mordax), other fishes, and planktonic crustaceans. The distribution and diet of these predators were related to mesoscale frontal features visible in satellite sea surface temperature and phytoplankton pigment imagery. Albacore were caught in the vicinity of a filament of cold, pigment-rich surface water that varied with the intensity of coastal upwelling on time scales of several days. Stomachs of albacore caught closer to the filament contained relatively more juvenile anchovy and fewer pelagic red crabs ( Pleuroncodes planipes). Skipjack were caught in warm water in the Southern California Bight, north of their normal range due to El Nin˜o warming. They appeared to be feeding most successfully near the strong frontal boundary of a productive, cold water mass south of Pt. Conception, where dense patches of euphausiids were available. Both species were feeding near variable, mesoscale centers of high productivity where prey abundance may be enhanced.

  2. SWFSC/MMTD/ETP: Dolphin-Tuna Tracking Studies (DTTS) 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was designed to better understand the nature of the dolphin-tuna bond in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. In this study, researchers attempted to...

  3. Determination of element concentration and radioactivity measurements in tuna fish sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of 16 elements and the artificial and natural radionuclide levels in Mediterranean homogenate tuna fish (IAEA-350 and IAEA-352 reference materials) have been determined using the instrumental neutron activation method. (Author)

  4. Global Sushi: The Political Economy of the Mediterranian Bluefin Tuna Fishery in the Modern Era

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano B. Longo

    2015-01-01

    The bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean has a long history of human interaction. In recent times, this fishery has become the central source of bluefin tuna for core nations, particularly Japan. This process was set off in large part by the growth of global fish markets, driven by the valuable sushi and sashimi market, and overfishing of other bluefin stocks in other parts of the world. The transformation of this fishery from an artisanal trap fishery to a globalized industrial fishery ...

  5. Tuna Park Shopping Centre A comparative study of marketing communication tools

    OpenAIRE

    Wongrattanavichit, Teewin; Wang, Haiyan

    2008-01-01

    Date: 2008 June 08 Course: Master thesis Authors: Haiyan Wang, Teewin Wongrattanavichit Tutor: Jan Löwstedt Title: The study of marketing communication effectiveness and customer perception of Tuna Park shopping centre Introduction: The research about the effectiveness of marketing communication tool and customer perception was studied in Tuna Park shopping center, Eskilstuna. The marketing strategy and objective was to compare with the results from the questionnaire in order to measure the e...

  6. Cetaceans and tuna purse seine fisheries in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans : interactions but few mortalities

    OpenAIRE

    Escalle, L.; Capietto, A.; Chavance, Pierre; Dubroca, L.; De Molina, A. D.; Murua, H.; Gaertner, Daniel; Romanov, E.; Spitz, J.; Kiszka, J. J.; Floch, Laurent; Damiano, Alain; Merigot, B

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries bycatch is considered to be one of the most significant causes of mortality for many marine species, including vulnerable megafauna. In the open ocean, tuna purse seiners are known to use several cetacean species to detect tuna schools. This exposes the cetaceans to encirclement which can lead to incidental injury or death. While interactions between fishers and cetaceans have been well documented in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, little is known about these interactions and po...

  7. CULTURAL MEMORY OF VICTORY OF LAS TUNAS CITY' LODGES FROM 1930 TO 1945 / MEMORIA CULTURAL DE LAS LOGIAS DE VICTORIA DE LAS TUNAS 1930-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Medina Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultural memory of the lodges of Victoria de Las Tunas (1930-1945, it constitutes the topic of the present investigation. The thematic of the lodges has been approached for studious and investigating, not alone of the town but of several parts of the world. Still when these studies exist, the related with the cultural memory of the lodges of the territory, is in the pages of the documents of the time that which leaves to the light starting from this investigation, to show yesterday's Tunas, rich in histories and anecdotes. In the town during the investigated period the lodges Masonic Children of Hiram existed, Vicente García No. 27, the young AJEF, the lodge Teosófica Esperanza, the Children of East No. 54 of the Odd Independent Fellows, the lodge Cucalambé of the Odd United Fellows and the lodge Victoria de Las Tunas No. 78 of the Luz's Order Gentlemen.

  8. Food matrix effects on in vitro digestion of microencapsulated tuna oil powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhiping; Apriani, Christina; Weerakkody, Rangika; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2011-08-10

    Tuna oil, containing 53 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 241 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per gram of oil, delivered as a neat microencapsulated tuna oil powder (25% oil loading) or in food matrices (orange juice, yogurt, or cereal bar) fortified with microencapsulated tuna oil powder was digested in simulated gastric fluid or sequentially in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid. The level of fortification was equivalent to 1 g of tuna oil per recommended serving size (i.e., per 200 g of orange juice or yogurt or 60 g of cereal bar). The changes in particle size of oil droplets during digestion were influenced by the method of delivery of the microencapsulated tuna oil powder. Lipolysis in simulated gastric fluid was low, with only 4.4-6.1% EPA and ≤1.5% DHA released after digestion (as a % of total fatty acids present). After sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, much higher extents of lipolysis of both glycerol-bound EPA and DHA were obtained (73.2-78.6% for the neat powder, fortified orange juice, and yogurt; 60.3-64.0% for the fortified cereal bar). This research demonstrates that the choice of food matrix may influence the lipolysis of microencapsulated tuna oil. PMID:21721584

  9. Age and growth of albacore Thunnus alalunga in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K-S; Shimose, T; Tanabe, T; Chen, C-Y; Hsu, C-C

    2012-05-01

    The age and growth of North Pacific albacore Thunnus alalunga were investigated using obliquely sectioned sagittal otoliths from samples of 126 females and 148 males. Otolith edge analysis indicated that the identified annulus in a sagittal otolith is primarily formed during the period from September to February. The assessments of the fish age at first annulus formation indicated that the first annulus represents an age of <1 year. This study presents an age estimate (0·75 years) for the formation of the first annulus. The oldest fish ages observed in this study were 10 years for females and 14 years for males. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters of females estimated were L(∞) = 103·5 cm in fork length (L(F) ), K = 0·340 year(-1) and t(0) = -0·53 years, and the parameters of males were L(∞) = 114·0 cm, K = 0·253 year(-1) and t(0) = -1·01 years. Sexual size dimorphism between males and females seemed to occur after reaching sexual maturity. The coefficients of the power function for expressing the L(F) -mass relationship obtained from sex-pooled data were a = 2·964 × 10(-5) and b = 2·928. PMID:22551185

  10. Histamine and cadaverine production by bacteria isolated from fresh and frozen albacore (Thunnus alalunga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gigirey, B; Vieites Baaptista de Sousa, J M; Villa, T G; Barros-Velazquez, J

    1999-08-01

    Two hundred twenty-seven bacterial strains were isolated from fresh and frozen albacore stored either at -18 or -25 degrees C and investigated for their abilities to produce biogenic amines. As a preliminary screening, all 227 strains were tested in either Niven or Niven modified medium, which allowed the selection of 25 presumptive histamine-producing strains. High-pressure liquid chromatography revealed that only 10 of the 25 strains selected were able to produce low histamine concentrations (<25 ppm) in tryptic soy broth medium supplemented with 2% histidine. None of the 25 strains tested produced putrescine or spermine, whereas 6 strains produced spermidine. Histamine production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain 25MC6 was not prevented at 4 degrees C, and the levels of this amine reached concentrations of 25.8 ppm after 6 days. Three S. maltophilia strains showed strong lysine-decarboxylating activity. Their cadaverine formation capacity was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 1% lysine; this revealed that the three S. maltophilia strains tested produced more than 700 ppm of cadaverine during the first 24 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. S. maltophilia strain 15MF, initially obtained from fresh albacore tuna, produced up to 2,399 ppm and 4,820 ppm of cadaverine after 24 and 48 h of incubation at 37 degrees C, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on histamine and cadaverine production by strains of the species S. maltophilia, previously known as Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas maltophilia, isolated from fresh and frozen albacore tuna. PMID:10456749

  11. CFD Simulation of Flow Features and Vorticity Structures in Tuna-Like Swimming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liang; SU Yu-min

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical research on the propulsive principle of aquatic animal becomes more important and attracted more researchers to make efforts on it.In the present study,a computational fluid dynamic(CFD)simulation of a three-dimensional traveling-wave undulations body of tuna has been developed to investigate the fluid flow features and vorticity structures around this body when moving in a straight line.The undulation only takes place in the posterior half of the fish,and the tuna-tail is considered as a lunate fin oscillating with the mode combined swaying with yawing.A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(BANS)equation is developed,employing a control-volume method and a k-omega SST turbulent model;meanwhile an unstructured tetrahedral grid,which is generated for the three-dimensional geometry,is used based on the deformation of the hind parts of the body and corresponding movement of the tail.We calculated the hydrodynamic performance of tuna-like body when a tuna swims in a uniform velocity,and compared the input power coefficient,output power coefficient and propulsive efficiency of the oscillating tuna-tail with or without body vortex shedding.Additionally,the load distribution on the body,flow features and vorticity structures around the body were demonstrated.The effect of interaction between the body-generated vortices and the tail-generated vorticity on the hydrodynamic performance can be obtained.

  12. CFD simulation of flow features and vorticity structures in tuna-like swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Su, Yu-Min

    2011-03-01

    The theoretical research on the propulsive principle of aquatic animal becomes more important and attracted more researchers to make efforts on it. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a three-dimensional traveling-wave undulations body of tuna has been developed to investigate the fluid flow features and vorticity structures around this body when moving in a straight line. The undulation only takes place in the posterior half of the fish, and the tuna-tail is considered as a lunate fin oscillating with the mode combined swaying with yawing. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation is developed, employing a control-volume method and a k-omega SST turbulent model; meanwhile an unstructured tetrahedral grid, which is generated for the three-dimensional geometry, is used based on the deformation of the hind parts of the body and corresponding movement of the tail. We calculated the hydrodynamic performance of tuna-like body when a tuna swims in a uniform velocity, and compared the input power coefficient, output power coefficient and propulsive efficiency of the oscillating tuna-tail with or without body vortex shedding. Additionally, the load distribution on the body, flow features and vorticity structures around the body were demonstrated. The effect of interaction between the body-generated vortices and the tail-generated vorticity on the hydrodynamic performance can be obtained.

  13. Génesis de la medicina familiar en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rodríguez Peña

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación desde los presupuestos de la historia social integral, con el objetivo de analizar momentos importantes de la historia de la medicina familiar en la localidad de Las Tunas. Para la investigación se consultaron diversas fuentes documentales, orales, iconográficas, patrimoniales y bibliográficas, entre ellas la obra de los historiadores de la ciudad y del Ministerio de Salud Pública, así como resultados científicos de proyectos de investigación. Los métodos empleados partieron de la observación, el análisis histórico-lógico, la síntesis, la inducción y la deducción de la información, que permitieron la sistematización y determinación de los momentos más importantes de este proceso desde su origen en la comunidad primitiva, transitando por diferentes etapas hasta 1984, con la puesta en práctica del Programa del Médico y la Enfermera de la Familia, para el fortalecimiento de la atención primaria de salud, con marcado acento preventivo

  14. Leaching of Oil from Tuna Fish Liver by Using Solvent of Methyl-Ethyl Ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of oil leaching from Tuna Fish Liver has been carried out by extracting of tuna fish liver in soxhlet by using methyl-ethyl ketone as solvent. Liver of fresh tuna fish is blended, put into soxhlet, and extracted at temperatures of 60oC, 65oC, 70oC, 75oC, and 80oC. After obtaining the oil, separation between solvent and oil is carried out by distillation. Oil obtained is analyzed by testing the yield, acid number, Iodine value, viscosity, and its impurities content. Yield obtained is influenced by temperature and time of leaching. Both variables indicates that the higher the variables, the more fish liver oil obtained. Maximum yield obtained is 25.552% at operating condition of leaching temperature 80oC, and leaching duration of 5 hours.

  15. Global Sushi: The Political Economy of the Mediterranian Bluefin Tuna Fishery in the Modern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano B. Longo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean has a long history of human interaction. In recent times, this fishery has become the central source of bluefin tuna for core nations, particularly Japan. This process was set off in large part by the growth of global fish markets, driven by the valuable sushi and sashimi market, and overfishing of other bluefin stocks in other parts of the world. The transformation of this fishery from an artisanal trap fishery to a globalized industrial fishery has had a number of social and environmental consequences. Based on in-depth fieldwork and historical research, this paper examines the political economy of the bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean, with a focus on Sicily. It provides a descriptive history of the changing conditions in this fishery, paying special attention to the modern fishery. This research contributes to the discussions regarding the globalization and industrialization of agri-foodsystems and environmental degradation.

  16. Environmental radioecological study of beaches of Las Tunas and Holguin provinces, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey of radioactivity levels in beaches of Las Tunas and Holguin was undertaken as a programme aimed at studying the environmental radioactivity in Cuba. Concentrations of radionuclides were determined by In Situ gamma ray spectrometry. The average concentrations of Ra226 , Th 232 and K40 in the surveyed soils of Las Tunas beaches (Covarrubia, Real de Covarrubia and Corella) were 3, < 1 and 14.3 Bq.Kg 1 - , respectively. In surveyed soils of Holguin beaches (Guardalavaca, Pesquero and Don Lino) were 6.0, < 1 and 25.0 Bq.Kg 1 - , respectively. Radiological measurements carried out with a portable scintillometer revealed an average outdoor absorbed dose rate in air of 34.2 n Gy.h 1 - for Las Tunas beaches and 37.3 n Gy.h 1 - for Holguin one. For assessing the ionizing component of cosmic rays, measurements were performed on board a wood and plastic boat in the middle of two deep artificial basins and in two bays. The readings averaged 33.5 n Gy.h 1 - . Measurements of gross beta activity in outdoor air revealed 0.3 and 0.5 Bq.m 3 - for Las Tunas and Holguin beaches, respectively, and indoor values averaged 3.5 and 4.3 Bq.m 3 - , respectively. Taking into account the results of measurements was possible to assess effective doses due to external and internal exposure. For the first one were estimated 230 Sv.year 1 - for Las Tunas beaches and 250 Sv.year 1 - for Holguin beaches. The assessing of internal component of exposure revealed 236 and 292 Sv.year 1 - for Las Tunas and Holguin beaches, respectively, due to exposure to radon daughter. The results of our survey show that studied beaches are characterized by low environmental radioactive background

  17. Synthesis of Monoacylglycerol Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Tuna Oil with Immobilized Lipase AK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawongrat, Ratchapol; Xu, Xuebing; H-Kittikun, Aran

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce monoacylglycerols (MAG) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), by glycerolysis of tuna oil with lipase AK from Pseudomonas fluorescence immobilized on Accurel EP-100 (IM-AK). tert...... on tuna oil. The temperature was controlled at 45 degrees C. Under these conditions, with a 24 h reaction, the yield of MAG was 24.6%, but containing 56.0 wt% PUFA (EPA and DHA). Stability of the IM-AK was also studied. The hydrolytic activity of the enzyme remained at 88% and 80% of initial activity...

  18. Investigation of Melamine Presence in Canned Tuna Fish by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Er Demirhan, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Yarımkaya Baş, Sezen; Yentür, Gülderen; Bayhan Öktem, Aysel

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is widely used as a chemical in food industry and may lead to kidney damage. The aim of this study was to determine melamine and pH value of 80 canned tuna fish samples of four different brands (A, B, C, D) sold in Ankara, Turkey. Quantitative determination of melamine in canned tuna fish samples was carried out by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array detector (CZE-DAD). The limits of detection and quantitation for melamine were found to be 0.21 mg kg-1and 0.68 mg kg-1, re...

  19. Bycatch in the tuna purse-seine fisheries of the western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Romanov, Evgeny V.

    2002-01-01

    Bycatch taken by the tuna purse-seine fishery from the Indian Ocean pelagic ecosystem was estimated from data collected by scientific observers aboard Soviet purse seiners in the western Indian Ocean (WIO) during 1986–92. A total of 494 sets on free-swimming schools, whale-shark-associated schools, whale-associated schools, and log-associated schools were analyzed. More than 40 fish species and other marine animals were recorded. Among them only two species, yellow-fin and skipjack tunas, wer...

  20. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Ernani S. Sant’Anna; Luiz H. Beirão

    2004-01-01

    During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition...

  1. Changes in biogenic amines and microbiological analysis in albacore (Thunnus alalunga) muscle during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gigirey, B; Vieites Baptista de Sousa, J M; Villa, T G; Barros-Velazquez, J

    1998-05-01

    Albacore specimens of extra quality were analyzed for their biogenic amine contents after 1, 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage at -18 degrees C or -25 degrees C. A high-performance liquid chromatography method involving a linear elution gradient was optimized for the identification and determination of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, spermidine, and spermine in albacore tuna. Putrescine was the biogenic amine that showed the highest increase, reaching concentrations of 59.04 ppm (815% of the initial level) and 68.26 ppm (942% of the initial level) in the white muscle of albacore after 9 months of frozen storage at -18 and -25 degrees C, respectively. Cadaverine, histamine, and spermidine concentrations were below 3, 5, and 11 ppm, respectively, after 9 months of frozen storage, while spermidine underwent a significant decrease at both storage temperatures. Microbiological analysis confirmed the absence of species of Enterobacteriaceae in 75% of the albacore specimens after 9 months of frozen storage; coliforms were always below 3 CFU/g. The survival rate of the psychrotrophic microorganisms after 9 months of frozen storage at -25 degrees C was 4.6%, while 38.9 and 92.1% of the aerobic mesophiles present in the white muscle of albacore before freezing survived 9 months of storage at -18 and -25 degrees C, respectively. PMID:9709235

  2. Notes on helminth parasites of tuna fishes (Scombridae in Brazil Notas sobre los helmintos parásitos del atún (Scombridae en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Nascimento-Justo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Scombridae from the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southwest Atlantic Ocean were found to be parasitized with species of Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson a new host record for Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970, and Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitized by Didymozoon longicolle and reported as a new host for Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitized by Nephrodidymotrema ahi, and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus by Didymozoon longicolle. Measurements, figures, and parameters of infection are presented.Cuatro especies de Scombridae de la costa de Río de Janeiro, suroeste del océano Atlántico, se reportan parasitados con diferentes especies de Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson un registro de nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970 y para Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitado por Didymozoon longicolle, se indica como nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitados por Nephrodidymotrema ahi y Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus por Didymozoon longicolle. Se presentan las mediciones, las figuras y los parámetros de la infección.

  3. Use of tuna industry waste in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings: effect on digestibility and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Crisantema Hernández; Miguel A. Olvera-Novoa; Domenico Voltolina; Hardy, Ronald W.; Blanca González-Rodriguez; Patricia Dominguez-Jimenez; Martin Valverde-Romero; Samuel Agramon-Romero

    2013-01-01

    During the tuna canning process, about 52~54% of the total weight of the fish is discarded as waste, which can be processed in order to obtain tuna byproducts meal (TBM), or stabilized as tuna silage hydrolysates (TSH). Both products were tested as replacements of soybean meal (SBM), in diets for fingerling male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Seven test diets were isonitrogenous (35% CP) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1): a basal diet contained SBM as main protein source (TSH0); four experime...

  4. Reproductive biology of yellowfin tuna T. albacares in the west-central Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoping; Xu, Liuxiong; Zhou, Yingqi; Song, Liming

    2008-08-01

    Survey of yellowfin tuna in the west-central Indian Ocean was conducted on board of Chinese longliners during 2003, 2004 and 2005, which is a part of Chinese Tuna Fishery Scientific Observer Program (CTFSOP). The reproductive biology has been investigated. A total of 1 023 samples are collected including 417 ovaries and 606 testes. Spawning activities of yellowfin tuna have been studied for both male and female from January to June. The data showed that the average monthly sex ratio is 0.59, and the minimum length at sexual maturity is 101 cm for female and 110 cm for male respectively. Length at 50% sexual maturity is estimated at 113.77 cm for female and 120.20 cm for male, whereas maturation rate is 0.066 cm-1 for female and 0.091 cm-1 for male. Sex ratio by length class indicates that the proportion of male is higher than female’s along with size increasing; for instance, in the group of the body length longer than 145 cm, some females have their body length from 145 to 160 cm and males have their body length at 160 cm and even longer. Statistically, yellowfin tuna has a significant seasonal reproduction.

  5. CONCENTRATION AND RECOVERY OF PROTEIN FROM TUNA COOKING JUICE BY FORWARD OSMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHONGNAKORN W.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuna cooking processing plants generate large amount of cooking juice containing a significant content of protein. Recovery and concentrating process of this valuable compound together with a low energy consumption process are of interest regarding full utilization concept and green process approach. Forward osmosis (FO was employed in this work to recover and concentrate tuna cooking juice. FO process could increase the protein concentration up to 9% with an average permeate flux of 2.54 L/m2h. The permeate flux however tended to decrease as protein concentration increased due to the impact of osmotic pressure of the feed and fouling on the membrane surface. Since tuna cooking juice consists of protein and minerals, membrane analyses indicated that fouling was more severe compared to the fouling caused by standard bovine serum albumin pure protein. However, the presence of minerals rendered it a quicker and lower energy process by comparison. These results indicated that FO is a promising technique in the recovery and concentration of tuna cooking juice protein.

  6. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Pete

    2004-01-01

    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices.

  7. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... proposed rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 560790) to implement Resolution C-12-09 of the IATTC by... central Pacific Ocean. In 2011, NMFS determined overfishing is occurring on Pacific bluefin tuna (76 FR... overexploitation of these stocks and to promote sustainable fisheries. Current IATTC membership includes:...

  8. Reproductive Biology of Yeilowfin Tuna T. albacares in the West-Central Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guoping; XU Liuxiong; ZHOU Yingqi; SONG Liming

    2008-01-01

    Survey of yellowfin tuna in the west-central Indian Ocean was conducted on board of Chinese Iongliners during 2003, 2004 and 2005, which is a part of Chinese Tuna Fishery Scientific Observer Program (CTFSOP). The reproductive biology has been investigated. A total of 1023 samples are collected including 417 ovaries and 606 testes. Spawning activities of yellowfin tuna have been studied for both male and female from January to June. The data showed that the average monthly sex ratio is 0.59, and the minimum length at sexual maturity is 101 cm for female and 110 cm for male respectively. Length at 50% sexual maturity is esti- mated at 113.77 cm for female and 120.20 cm for male, whereas maturation rate is 0.066 cm-1 for female and 0.091 cm-1 for male. Sex ratio by length class indicates that the proportion of male is higher than female's along with size increasing; for instance, in the group of the body length longer than 145 cm, some females have their body length from 145 to 160 cm and males have their body length at 160 cm and even longer. Statistically, yellowfin tuna has a significant seasonal reproduction.

  9. Visualizing the Food-Web Effects of Fishing for Tunas in the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Olson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We use food-web models to develop visualizations to compare and evaluate the interactions of tuna fisheries with their supporting food webs in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP and the central north Pacific (CNP Oceans. In the ETP and CNP models, individual fisheries use slightly different food webs that are defined by the assemblage of targeted tuna species. Distinct energy pathways are required to support different tuna species and, consequently, the specific fisheries that target different tuna assemblages. These simulations suggest that catches of tunas, sharks, and billfishes have lowered the biomass of the upper trophic levels in both systems, whereas increases in intermediate and lower trophic level animals have accompanied the decline of top predators. Trade-offs between fishing and predation mortality rates that occur when multiple fisheries interact with their respective food webs may lead to smaller changes in biomass than if only the effect of a single fishery is considered. Historical simulations and hypothetical management scenarios further demonstrate that the effects of longline and purse seine fisheries have been strongest in upper trophic levels, but that lower trophic levels may respond more strongly to purse-seine fisheries. The apex predator guild has responded most strongly to longlining. Simulations of alternative management strategies that attempt to rebuild shark and billfish populations in each ecosystem reveal that (1 changes in longlining more effectively recover top predator populations than do changes in purse seining and (2 restrictions on both shallow-set longline gear and shark finning may do more to recover top predators than do simple reductions in fishing effort.

  10. Analysis of null sets (zero cat ch) made by the Mexican tuna pur se seine fleet (20002013)

    OpenAIRE

    Michel J Dreyfus-León; Adán Mejía-Trejo; Juan Carlos Villaseñor-Derbez

    2015-01-01

    The world tuna fishing fleet is dominated by purse seine boats . Purse seine sets are sometimes unsuccessful in capturing fish ; these unsuccessful attempts are known as null sets. Null sets h ave been widely documented and the numbers indicate that they h appen in large proportions. In Mexico, the tuna fishery represents the second most important fishery by volume and value. The frequency of oc currence of null sets during the period 20002013 wa s analyzed to identify the r egions, perio...

  11. The spectre of uncertainty in management of exploited fish stocks: The illustrative case of Atlantic bluefin tuna

    OpenAIRE

    Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Kell, Laurence T.

    2014-01-01

    The recent overexploitation of East Atlantic and Mediterranean bluefin tuna stock has been well documented in the media where it has become the archetype of overfishing and general mis-management. Beyond the public debate, the crisis also highlighted how the interactions between science and management can change through time according to the awareness of the public opinion. To reflect these issues, the history of Atlantic bluefin tuna overfishing is first described. Then, the major uncertaint...

  12. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Klaus Bauer; Jean-Marc Fromentin; Hervé Demarcq; Blandine Brisset; Sylvain Bonhommeau

    2015-01-01

    Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availabi...

  13. The application of the European Community regulation No 1005/2008 on tuna longline fisheries in Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quoc Khanh

    2011-01-01

    The fishery sector is a significant contributor to national income as well as a source of employment for local people. The export value of Vietnamese fisheries product is around US$ 4 billion annually. The tuna fisheries have become a key contributor to Vietnamese seafood export. The main markets for Vietnamese tuna products are the European Commission (EC), United States (US) and Japan. Vietnamese fisheries are considered as small-scale and traditional, with a large number of actors. The lar...

  14. Oceanic δ15N biogeography: a novel top-down approach to examine nutrient dynamics in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, B. S.; Fry, B.; Popp, B. N.; Allain, V.; Olson, R.; Galvan, F.

    2010-12-01

    By mapping the δ15N and δ13C values of three top-level pelagic predators, yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (T. obesus), and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) tuna throughout the equatorial Pacific Ocean, we demonstrated systematic geographic isotopic variation (up to ~12‰ for the δ15N values) that reflect nutrient dynamics that occur at the base of the food web. Remarkably the variation observed in the δ15N values of the tunas is geographically similar to δ15N values previously reported in surface particulate organic matter and deep-sea sediments in the tropical Pacific. We discuss the mechanisms occurring at the base of the food web that could produce the spatial variability observed in tropical tuna δ15N values. We present a simple Rayleigh fractionation model that can explain much of the spatial structure. We also discuss the temporal stability in the isotopic compositions at the base and top of the food web. Overall, this nitrogen isotope cartography or “isoscapes” suggests nitrogen is tightly retained in the marine food web, up to the top predators, and that the uptake of nitrate from the equatorial upwelling zone, denitrification in the oxygen minimum zones, and nitrogen fixation at the base of the food web play major roles in the observed geographical variation. In addition to providing insight into the nutrient dynamics of the open ocean, these predator isoscapes can begin to be used to characterize regional residency in tropical tunas, which is important for the successful management of tuna fisheries.

  15. Are Consumers Willing to Pay More for Sustainable Products? A Study of Eco-Labeled Tuna Steak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzhen Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A high demand for seafood leads to overfishing, harms the long-term health of seafood stocks, and threatens environmental sustainability in oceans. Sustainability certification is one of the major sustainability movements and is known as eco-labeling. For instance, in the tuna industry, leading tuna brands have committed to protecting sea turtles by allowing the tracing of the source of their tuna “from catch to can.” This paper relies on an Internet survey on consumers from Kentucky conducted in July 2010. The survey investigates household-level tuna steak (sashimi grade consumption and examines consumer preferences for eco-labeling (“Certified Turtle Safe” (CTS in this study while mimicking individuals’ seafood procurement processes. A random parameter logit model is utilized, and willingness-to-pay measures are calculated based on model estimation results. It was found that respondents on average preferred turtle-safe-labeled tuna steak and were likely to pay more for it; however, they were less likely to purchase wild-caught species, and insignificant results were found for pre-frozen. Moreover, significant heterogeneities were found across individuals regarding tuna steak purchases. The findings indicate evidence of public support for environmental friendliness, particularly with regard to eco-labeling.

  16. Influence of physical damage and freezing on histamine concentration and microbiological quality of yellowfin tuna during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo García-Tapia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellowfin tuna has a high level of free histidine in their muscle, which can lead to histamine formation by microorganisms if temperature abuse occurs during handling and further processing. The objective of this study was to measure levels of histamine in damaged and undamaged thawed muscle to determine the effect of physical damage on the microbial count and histamine formation during the initial steps of canning processing and to isolate and identify the main histamine-forming microorganisms present in the flesh of yellowfin tuna. Total mesophilic and psicrophilic microorganisms were determined using the standard plate method. The presence of histamine-forming microorganisms was determined in a modified Niven's agar. Strains were further identified using the API 20E kit for enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacilli. Physically damaged tuna did not show higher microbiological contamination than that of undamaged muscle tuna. The most active histamine-forming microorganism present in tuna flesh was Morganella morganii. Other decarboxylating microorganisms present were Enterobacter agglomerans and Enterobacter cloacae. Physical damage of tune during catching and handling did not increase the level of histamine or the amount of microorganisms present in tuna meat during frozen transportation, but they showed a higher risk of histamine-forming microorganism growth during processing.

  17. Oligonucleotide indexing of DNA barcodes: identification of tuna and other scombrid species in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botti Sara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA barcodes are a global standard for species identification and have countless applications in the medical, forensic and alimentary fields, but few barcoding methods work efficiently in samples in which DNA is degraded, e.g. foods and archival specimens. This limits the choice of target regions harbouring a sufficient number of diagnostic polymorphisms. The method described here uses existing PCR and sequencing methodologies to detect mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in complex matrices such as foods. The reported application allowed the discrimination among 17 fish species of the Scombridae family with high commercial interest such as mackerels, bonitos and tunas which are often present in processed seafood. The approach can be easily upgraded with the release of new genetic diversity information to increase the range of detected species. Results Cocktail of primers are designed for PCR using publicly available sequences of the target sequence. They are composed of a fixed 5' region and of variable 3' cocktail portions that allow amplification of any member of a group of species of interest. The population of short amplicons is directly sequenced and indexed using primers containing a longer 5' region and the non polymorphic portion of the cocktail portion. A 226 bp region of CytB was selected as target after collection and screening of 148 online sequences; 85 SNPs were found, of which 75 were present in at least two sequences. Primers were also designed for two shorter sub-fragments that could be amplified from highly degraded samples. The test was used on 103 samples of seafood (canned tuna and scomber, tuna salad, tuna sauce and could successfully detect the presence of different or additional species that were not identified on the labelling of canned tuna, tuna salad and sauce samples. Conclusions The described method is largely independent of the degree of degradation of DNA source and can thus be applied to

  18. New Sampling and Data Processing Strategy for Estimating the Composition of Catches by Species and Sizes in the European Purse Seine Tropical Tuna Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Pianet, R.; Pallares, P.; Petit, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    The difficulties associated with tropical tuna sampling strategies, particularly those resulting from the large-scale adoption of the method of fishing on logs, have caused the Indian Ocean tuna scientists concern since the beginning of the purse seine fishery, as well as the ICCAT SCRS (Standing Committee for Research and Statistics of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas) in recent years. Upon the recommendation of this Committee, in 1996 Spain ...

  19. CULTURAL MEMORY OF VICTORY OF LAS TUNAS CITY' LODGES FROM 1930 TO 1945 / MEMORIA CULTURAL DE LAS LOGIAS DE VICTORIA DE LAS TUNAS 1930-1945

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Medina Pérez

    2012-01-01

    The cultural memory of the lodges of Victoria de Las Tunas (1930-1945), it constitutes the topic of the present investigation. The thematic of the lodges has been approached for studious and investigating, not alone of the town but of several parts of the world. Still when these studies exist, the related with the cultural memory of the lodges of the territory, is in the pages of the documents of the time that which leaves to the light starting from this investigation, to show yesterday's Tun...

  20. Numerical Study of Propulsion Mechanism for Oscillating Rigid and Flexible Tuna-Tails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yang; Yumin Su; Qing Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Numerical study on the unsteady hydrodynamic characteristics of oscillating rigid and flexible tuna-tails in viscous flow-field is performed.Investigations are conducted using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a moving adaptive mesh.The effect of swimming speed,flapping amplitude,frequency and flexure amplitude on the propulsion performance of the rigid and flexible tuna-tails are investigated.Computational results reveal that a pair of leading edge vortices develop along the tail surface as it undergoes an oscillating motion.The propulsive efficiency has a strong correlation with various locomotive parameters.Peak propulsive efficiency can be obtained by adjusting these parameters.Particularly,when input power coefficient is less than 2.8,the rigid tail generates larger thrust force and higher propulsive efficiency than flexible tail.However,when input power coefficient is larger than 2.8,flexible tail is superior to rigid tail.

  1. PROCEDIMIENTO PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIO EN COPEXTEL LAS TUNAS

    OpenAIRE

    Yuselis Díaz Corredera

    2009-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo de investigación, Procedimientos para la Gestión de Inventarios, se realiza con el fin de aplicar procedimientos para la gestión de inventarios en COPEXTEL Las Tunas a partir del análisis de métodos científicos y financieros que garanticen niveles de existencia de inventarios que permitan establecer un nivel de servicio y costo ventajoso para la organización.

  2. Shark Bycatch - Small Scale Tuna Fishery Interactions along the Kenyan Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiilu, B.K.; Ndegwa, S.

    2013-01-01

    In Kenya and to a great extent most parts of the WIO region, shark catches majorly occur as by-catch in artisanal tuna fisheries and prawn trawls, including sport fishing activities. However, the extent to which these various fisheries catch sharks is not known but may be significant. The species structure, distribution, catch rates and levels of fisheries-shark interactions are not well documented. This information is, however, necessary to assess exploitation levels of shark spe...

  3. Bycatch in the purse seine tuna fisheries in the western Indian Ocean.

    OpenAIRE

    Romanov, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    The yield of associated and dependent species taken as bycatch by the purse seine tuna fishery from the Indian Ocean pelagic ecosystem is estimated from data collected by scientific observers aboard Soviet purse seiners in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), 1986-1992. A total of 494 sets on free swimming schools, whale shark associated schools, whale associated schools, and log associated schools were analyzed. More than 40 fish species and other marine animals were registered. Among them onl...

  4. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Travassos Tolotti; John David Filmalter; Pascal Bach; Paulo Travassos; Bernard Seret; Laurent Dagorn

    2015-01-01

    Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs) in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring ...

  5. On the movement behaviours of tropical tuna in modern commercial fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt Phillps, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of tropical tunas in the western and central Pacific Ocean constitutes an industry generating over US$5 billion annually. As concern for the sustainability of fishing operations grows, there is an increasing need to explore the potential effects that small-scale movement behaviours, typically ignored in stock assessment, may have on larger scale population dynamics. In this thesis, I examine a variety of individual movement behaviours exhibited by skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), y...

  6. Migration, residency, and homing of bluefin tuna in the western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Lopuszanski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the results of an electronic tagging programme on mature Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) that has been conducted since 2007 offshore of the French Mediterranean Coast. The spatial distributions of ABFT showed little year-to-year variation and the fish concentrated in a small area of the central northwestern Mediterranean, where they may stay for several months. The individual tracks display sinuous trajectories in this area, indicating the possibility of feeding behaviour. No...

  7. Changes in the Microstructure of Skipjack Tuna During Frozen Storage and Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lampila, L. E.; Brown, W D

    1986-01-01

    Samples of fresh, frozen and heat- treated skipjack tuna muscle were observed by scanning electron mieros copy. The photomicrographs were used to assess changes in the microstructure of fish muscle during frozen storage and thermal processing . Differences noted in frozen tissue could be related to the formation of gaps between fibers and the deformation of muscle fibers . No freeze mediated damage to the cell wall was observed at the lower limits, 20,000x, of high resolution scanning electro...

  8. Isolation of 137-Cs in tuna fish by ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolation of 137-Cs in tuna fish (Neithunnus macroptenus) has been carried out using AMP. The energy of 137-Cs was measure using NaI(T1) detector connected to a Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). In standard solution of 137-Cs with activity 160.74 and 80.37 pCi, the addition of 120 mg AMP and 7 hours of absorption time, caused 97% of 137-Cs in the solution was absorbed. The destruction of tuna fish was carried out using two methods namely by wet destruction with sulfuric acid, nitrit acid and hydrogen peroxid mixture and by wet destruction with hydrogen peroxide. The applications of this technique of tuna fish was carried out by spiking 137-Cs standard into the fish before being destructed. The recovery obtained from wet destruction with H2O2 was about 80%, while from destruction with acid mixtures and H2O2 was only about 47%. (authors). 3 refs, 3 tabs

  9. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Tuna Fisheries in Fiji Islands and Kiribati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, Asbjoern; Sygna, Linda

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the possible economic consequences of a change in the tuna fisheries in the Pacific Ocean resulting from climate change. On the background of Lehodey's (2000) study of potential changes in the tuna fisheries, we survey possible economic impacts in terms of quantities and values and give examples of macroeconomic impacts. The two main effects of climate change on tuna fishing are likely to be a decline in the total stock and a migration of the stock westwards. This will lead to various changes in the catch in different countries. The price of the fish in the export market may also change as a result. The Pacific islands are generally dependent on fisheries, and may therefore be vulnerable to these changes, although some will probably gain while others will lose. Based on a very simple macroeconomic model, it is shown that the resulting effects for the national economy in general may diverge substantially from the expected. This applies, in particular, if the national economies are inflexible and a large part of the population relies on subsistence production, which is the case for many developing countries. (author)

  10. Comparative influence of ocean conditions on yellowfin and Atlantic bluefin tuna catch from longlines in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L H Teo

    Full Text Available Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM, their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become important in rebuilding the western Atlantic bluefin stock. In order to help inform management policy and understand the relative distribution of target and bycatch species in the GOM, we compared the spatiotemporal variability and environmental influences on the catch per unit effort (CPUE of yellowfin (target and bluefin tuna (bycatch. Catch and effort data from pelagic longline fisheries observers (1993-2005 and scientific tagging cruises (1998-2002 were coupled with environmental and biological data. Negative binomial models were used to fit the data for both species and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample size was used to determine the best model. Our results indicate that bluefin CPUE had higher spatiotemporal variability as compared to yellowfin CPUE. Bluefin CPUE increased substantially during the breeding months (March-June and peaked in April and May, while yellowfin CPUE remained relatively high throughout the year. In addition, bluefin CPUE was significantly higher in areas with negative sea surface height anomalies and cooler sea surface temperatures, which are characteristic of mesoscale cyclonic eddies. In contrast, yellowfin CPUE was less sensitive to environmental variability. These differences in seasonal variability and sensitivity to environmental influences suggest that bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM can be reduced substantially by managing the spatial and temporal distribution of the pelagic longline effort without

  11. Comparative influence of ocean conditions on yellowfin and Atlantic bluefin tuna catch from longlines in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Steven L H; Block, Barbara A

    2010-01-01

    Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become important in rebuilding the western Atlantic bluefin stock. In order to help inform management policy and understand the relative distribution of target and bycatch species in the GOM, we compared the spatiotemporal variability and environmental influences on the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of yellowfin (target) and bluefin tuna (bycatch). Catch and effort data from pelagic longline fisheries observers (1993-2005) and scientific tagging cruises (1998-2002) were coupled with environmental and biological data. Negative binomial models were used to fit the data for both species and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample size) was used to determine the best model. Our results indicate that bluefin CPUE had higher spatiotemporal variability as compared to yellowfin CPUE. Bluefin CPUE increased substantially during the breeding months (March-June) and peaked in April and May, while yellowfin CPUE remained relatively high throughout the year. In addition, bluefin CPUE was significantly higher in areas with negative sea surface height anomalies and cooler sea surface temperatures, which are characteristic of mesoscale cyclonic eddies. In contrast, yellowfin CPUE was less sensitive to environmental variability. These differences in seasonal variability and sensitivity to environmental influences suggest that bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM can be reduced substantially by managing the spatial and temporal distribution of the pelagic longline effort without substantially

  12. Baja visión en la población pediátrica de Las Tunas Low vision of the pediatric population in Las Tunas province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunia Herbania Labrada Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio descriptivo en 35 pacientes ciegos y débiles visuales matriculados en la Escuela de Ciegos de la provincia Las Tunas. Los pacientes fueron agrupados según categoría visual, sexo, y etiología de baja visión. El sexo masculino fue el más afectado, el mayor número de pacientes eran débiles visuales y las etiologías más frecuentes de baja visión fueron la catarata congénita y la retinopatía de la prematuridadThe results of a descriptive study of 35 blind and impaired vision patients, who study at the School for Blind People in Las Tunas province were presented in this paper. The patients were grouped according to their visual category, sex and etiology of low vision. Males were the most affected, the highest number of patients had impaired vision and the most common causes of low vision were congenital cataract and prematurity retinopathy

  13. Application of a Delay-difference model for the stock assessment of southern Atlantic albacore ( Thunnus alalunga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Liu, Qun; Kalhoro, Muhsan Ali

    2015-06-01

    Delay-difference models are intermediate between simple surplus-production models and complicated age-structured models. Such intermediate models are more efficient and require less data than age-structured models. In this study, a delay-difference model was applied to fit catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data (1975-2011) of the southern Atlantic albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) stock. The proposed delay-difference model captures annual fluctuations in predicted CPUE data better than Fox model. In a Monte Carlo simulation, white noises (CVs) were superimposed on the observed CPUE data at four levels. Relative estimate error was then calculated to compare the estimated results with the true values of parameters α and β in Ricker stock-recruitment model and the catchability coefficient q. a is more sensitive to CV than β and q. We also calculated an 80% percentile confidence interval of the maximum sustainable yield (MSY, 21756 t to 23408 t; median 22490 t) with the delay-difference model. The yield of the southern Atlantic albacore stock in 2011 was 24122 t, and the estimated ratios of catch against MSY for the past seven years were approximately 1.0. We suggest that care should be taken to protect the albacore fishery in the southern Atlantic Ocean. The proposed delay-difference model provides a good fit to the data of southern Atlantic albacore stock and may be a useful choice for the assessment of regional albacore stock.

  14. Content of mercury and cadmium in fish (Thunnus alalunga) and cephalopods (Eledone moschata) from the south-eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2004-11-01

    Mercury and cadmium concentrations were measured in the flesh and liver (or hepatopancreas) of albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and horned octopus (Eledone moschata) to establish whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum levels fixed by the European Commission. In both species, mercury and cadmium mean concentrations were higher in liver (albacore: mercury = 2.41 microg g(-1) wet wt, cadmium = 9.22 microg g(-1) wet wt; horned octopus: mercury = 0.76 microg g(-1) wet wt, cadmium = 6.72 microg g(-1) wet wt) than in flesh (albacore: mercury = 1.56 microg g(-1) wet wt, cadmium = 0.05 microg g(-1) wet wt; horned octopus: mercury = 0.36 microg g(-1) wet wt, cadmium = 0.33 microg g(-1)). Mercury concentrations exceeding the prescribed legal limit of 1 microg g(-1) wet wt were found in almost all albacore samples (flesh: 71.4%; liver: 85.7%). For horned octopus, concentrations above 0.5 microg g(-1) wet wt were observed solely in hepatopancreas, while in flesh, the concentrations were below this limit in all the samples examined. Of the flesh samples of albacore, 42.8% exceeded the proposed tolerance for cadmium for human consumption, whilst for horned octopus, the established limit was not exceeded in any sample. PMID:15764333

  15. Oxygen utilization and the branchial pressure gradient during ram ventilation of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus: is lamnid shark-tuna convergence constrained by elasmobranch gill morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Nicholas C; Lai, N Chin; Bull, Kristina B; Graham, Jeffrey B

    2012-01-01

    Ram ventilation and gill function in a lamnid shark, the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, were studied to assess how gill structure may affect the lamnid-tuna convergence for high-performance swimming. Despite differences in mako and tuna gill morphology, mouth gape and basal swimming speeds, measurements of mako O(2) utilization at the gills (53.4±4.2%) and the pressure gradient driving branchial flow (96.8±26.1 Pa at a mean swimming speed of 38.8±5.8 cm s(-1)) are similar to values reported for tunas. Also comparable to tunas are estimates of the velocity (0.22±0.03 cm s(-1)) and residence time (0.79±0.14 s) of water though the interlamellar channels of the mako gill. However, mako and tuna gills differ in the sites of primary branchial resistance. In the mako, approximately 80% of the total branchial resistance resides in the septal channels, structures inherent to the elasmobranch gill that are not present in tunas. The added resistance at this location is compensated by a correspondingly lower resistance at the gill lamellae accomplished through wider interlamellar channels. Although greater interlamellar spacing minimizes branchial resistance, it also limits lamellar number and results in a lower total gill surface area for the mako relative to tunas. The morphology of the elasmobranch gill thus appears to constrain gill area and, consequently, limit mako aerobic performance to less than that of tunas. PMID:22162850

  16. The efficacy of X-ray does on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi, and tuna salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation, we determined the efficacy of X-ray doses on reducing a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate [murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1)] in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna salad. The pure culture (phosphate-buffer saline, pH 7.4), half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna ...

  17. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Dark Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Feng Chi; Fa-Yuan Hu; Bin Wang; Zhong-Rui Li; Hong-Yu Luo

    2015-01-01

    Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration...

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  19. [WTO Case Review Series No. 6] United States—Measures Concerning the Importation, Marketing and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products (DS381): Implications for future TBT disputes (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    NAIKI Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    While the Word Trade Organization's (WTO) Technical Barriers to Trade (hereinafter "TBT Agreement") has long remained unused as a legal basis of the WTO dispute settlement, the Appellate Body made three landmark decisions in 2012: US-Clove Cigarettes , US-Tuna II , and US-COOL . This paper addresses the second case, US-Tuna II. This decision is of importance not only because it clarified two key obligations of the TBT Agreement (i.e., Articles 2.1 and 2.2), but also it resolved and refined ot...

  20. Baja visión en la población pediátrica de Las Tunas Low vision of the pediatric population in Las Tunas province

    OpenAIRE

    Yunia Herbania Labrada Rodríguez; Elsy María Peña Cruz; Enma Peña Góngora

    2006-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de un estudio descriptivo en 35 pacientes ciegos y débiles visuales matriculados en la Escuela de Ciegos de la provincia Las Tunas. Los pacientes fueron agrupados según categoría visual, sexo, y etiología de baja visión. El sexo masculino fue el más afectado, el mayor número de pacientes eran débiles visuales y las etiologías más frecuentes de baja visión fueron la catarata congénita y la retinopatía de la prematuridadThe results of a descriptive study of 35 blind ...

  1. PRODUCCIÓN Y COMERCIALIZACIÓN DE TUNA EN FRESCO BAJO DIFERENTES MODALIDADES EN HIDALGO, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Jolalpa Barrera, Jose Luis; Aguilar Zamora, Alejandro; Ortiz Barreto, Omar; Garcia Lopez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    El presente estudio se realizó durante el 2006 con los siguientes objetivos: determinar costos de producción y márgenes de comercialización de la tuna en fresco producida en Hidalgo. Para realizar el estudio se utilizó las metodologías desarrolladas por Morris (1990) y por Caldentey y De Haro (2004). En total se aplicaron 60 encuestas, 44 a productores y 16 a comercializadores de tuna. Los resultados muestran la identificación de tres tipos de productores; de los cuales 9% son líderes, el 61%...

  2. Anti-wrinkle effects of a tuna heart H2O fraction on Hs27 human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, YOUNG-MIN; JUNG, HEE-JIN; CHOI, JAE-SUE; NAM, TAEK-JEONG

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, there is also growing interest in anti-aging treatments and technologies. The development of anti-aging functional drugs for the skin, and foods from natural sources, may offer solutions to this global matter. Aging involves structural, functional and biochemical changes that occur throughout cells and bodily tissues; the amount of hormones secreted from of all human organs, including the skin, decreases over time. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes (MMP-1 and -8) play an important role in the aging of skin fibroblasts. For example, an increased MMP expression causes accelerated aging and the degradation of skin elasticity-related genes. In the present study, we examined the anti-wrinkle effects of tuna heart extract which are mediated through the inhibition of MMPs in skin cells. Generally, tuna contains high concentrations of selenium and antioxidants, which serve to remove free radicals, and is known to delay skin and body aging. In addition, unsaturated fatty acids in tuna help to maintain the natural glossy look of skin, and increase skin elasticity, providing moisture for dry skin. A recent study confirmed the various bio-effects of boiled tuna extract and muscle. However, bioactivity studies using tuna heart are limited. Thus, in the present study, we obtained extracts and fractions of tuna heart, and examined their effects on Hs27 human fibroblast proliferation using an MTS assay. In addition, we measured procollagen type 1 levels and elastase activity, and performed β-galactosidase staining. We then measured the expression levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and MMP-related genes by western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Our results revealed that tuna heart extract decreased MMP expression by upregulating tissue inhibitors of metallopro-teinase-1 (TIMP-1) and decreasing elastase activity, thus exerting anti-aging and anti-wrinkle effects by increasing collagen synthesis and promoting skin fibroblast proliferation

  3. Anti-wrinkle effects of a tuna heart H2O fraction on Hs27 human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Jung, Hee-Jin; Choi, Jae-Sue; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, there is also growing interest in anti-aging treatments and technologies. The development of anti-aging functional drugs for the skin, and foods from natural sources, may offer solutions to this global matter. Aging involves structural, functional and biochemical changes that occur throughout cells and bodily tissues; the amount of hormones secreted from of all human organs, including the skin, decreases over time. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes (MMP-1 and -8) play an important role in the aging of skin fibroblasts. For example, an increased MMP expression causes accelerated aging and the degradation of skin elasticity-related genes. In the present study, we examined the anti-wrinkle effects of tuna heart extract which are mediated through the inhibition of MMPs in skin cells. Generally, tuna contains high concentrations of selenium and antioxidants, which serve to remove free radicals, and is known to delay skin and body aging. In addition, unsaturated fatty acids in tuna help to maintain the natural glossy look of skin, and increase skin elasticity, providing moisture for dry skin. A recent study confirmed the various bio-effects of boiled tuna extract and muscle. However, bioactivity studies using tuna heart are limited. Thus, in the present study, we obtained extracts and fractions of tuna heart, and examined their effects on Hs27 human fibroblast proliferation using an MTS assay. In addition, we measured procollagen type 1 levels and elastase activity, and performed β-galactosidase staining. We then measured the expression levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and MMP-related genes by western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Our results revealed that tuna heart extract decreased MMP expression by upregulating tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and decreasing elastase activity, thus exerting anti-aging and anti-wrinkle effects by increasing collagen synthesis and promoting skin fibroblast

  4. Some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of solid malignant tumors in children from Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Laffita Estévez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer has kept up as the second cause of death in Las Tunas pediatric population.Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological variables of the cases diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in children seen and treated in the onco-pediatric consultation of “Mártires de Las Tunas” Pediatric Hospital from 2010 to 2014.Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 62 patients with solid malignant tumors in the pediatric population of Las Tunas province, from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The variables considered were: presumptive diagnosis, age, family history of tumors, clinical signs of alarm related to the tumor at the moment of diagnosis and investigations to confirm the diagnosis.  Results: non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, with a 19, 35% of the patients. The most affected age group was between 11 and 14 years old, with a 33, 87%. The 16, 13% of the patients had family history of solid malignant tumors. The most frequent form of presentation was the abdominal tumor, with 29, 03 %. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were the most used complementary diagnostic means, both in the 17, 74% of the patients. Biopsy was used to confirm the 96, 77% of the cases.Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological variables were characterized in pediatric patients diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in Las Tunas. Children between 11 and 14 years old and family history of malignant tumors were the most significant findings.

  5. Encapsulation of mixtures of tuna oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in a spray dried powder formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguansri, Luz; Day, Li; Shen, Zhiping; Fagan, Peter; Weerakkody, Rangika; Cheng, Li Jiang; Rusli, Jenny; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2013-12-01

    Spray dried emulsions are effective for carrying and stabilising combinations of fish oil and tributyrin, fish oil and resveratrol, or fish oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in one formulation. The encapsulation efficiencies were >99% for all three bioactives when a heated mixture of sodium caseinate: glucose: dried glucose syrup matrix (Encapsulant matrix 1) was used. When a heated sodium caseinate: glucose: processed starch matrix (Encapsulant matrix 2) was used, the encapsulation efficiencies were 90-92% for tributyrin and approximately 98% for resveratrol for all formulations but 79-91% for tuna oil where the efficiency was more formulation dependent. There was 84-86% remaining EPA, 85-87% remaining DHA, 85% remaining tributyrin and 94-96% remaining resveratrol after 18 months at 25 °C storage of the spray dried emulsions using Encapsulant matrix 1 across all formulations. In comparison, there was 83-87% remaining EPA and 84-89% remaining DHA, 80-82% remaining tributyrin, and 81-100% remaining resveratrol across all formulations with Encapsulant matrix 2. In vitro studies showed that on sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, <5% tuna oil was found as triglycerides, but all the tributyrin had been lipolysed. The presence of diglycerides, monoglycerides and free fatty acids in the in vitro digests suggested that lipolysis of tuna oil had occurred. The type of matrix used for encapsulating the bioactives had little effect on the lipolysis of the oils but affected the amount of solvent extractable resveratrol. The ability of delivering mixtures of bioactives within one formulation was demonstrated. PMID:24121865

  6. Projecting the impacts of climate change on skipjack tuna abundance and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueri, Sibylle; Bopp, Laurent; Maury, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Climate-induced changes in the physical, chemical, and biological environment are expected to increasingly stress marine ecosystems, with important consequences for fisheries exploitation. Here, we use the APECOSM-E numerical model (Apex Predator ECOSystem Model - Estimation) to evaluate the future impacts of climate change on the physiology, spatial distribution, and abundance of skipjack tuna, the worldwide most fished species of tropical tuna. The main novelties of our approach lie in the mechanistic link between environmental factors, metabolic rates, and behavioral responses and in the fully three dimensional representation of habitat and population abundance. Physical and biogeochemical fields used to force the model are provided by the last generation of the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model run from 1990 to 2100 under a 'business-as-usual' scenario (RCP8.5). Our simulations show significant changes in the spatial distribution of skipjack tuna suitable habitat, as well as in their population abundance. The model projects deterioration of skipjack habitat in most tropical waters and an improvement of habitat at higher latitudes. The primary driver of habitat changes is ocean warming, followed by food density changes. Our projections show an increase of global skipjack biomass between 2010 and 2050 followed by a marked decrease between 2050 and 2095. Spawning rates are consistent with population trends, showing that spawning depends primarily on the adult biomass. On the other hand, growth rates display very smooth temporal changes, suggesting that the ability of skipjack to keep high metabolic rates in the changing environment is generally effective. Uncertainties related to our model spatial resolution, to the lack or simplification of key processes and to the climate forcings are discussed. PMID:24464855

  7. Photobacterium angustum and Photobacterium kishitanii, Psychrotrophic High-Level Histamine-Producing Bacteria Indigenous to Tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, K; McCarthy, S A; Dunlap, P V; Benner, R A

    2016-04-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning (SFP) remains the main contributor of fish poisoning incidents in the United States, despite efforts to control its spread. Psychrotrophic histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) indigenous to scombrotoxin-forming fish may contribute to the incidence of SFP. We examined the gills, skin, and anal vents of yellowfin (n = 3), skipjack (n = 1), and albacore (n = 6) tuna for the presence of indigenous HPB. Thirteen HPB strains were isolated from the anal vent samples from albacore (n = 3) and yellowfin (n = 2) tuna. Four of these isolates were identified as Photobacterium kishitanii and nine isolates as Photobacterium angustum; these isolates produced 560 to 603 and 1,582 to 2,338 ppm histamine in marine broth containing 1% histidine (25°C for 48 h), respectively. The optimum growth temperatures and salt concentrations were 26 to 27°C and 1% salt for P. kishitanii and 30 to 32°C and 2% salt for P. angustum in Luria 70% seawater (LSW-70). The optimum activity of the HDC enzyme was at 15 to 30°C for both species. At 5°C, P. kishitanii and P. angustum had growth rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1), respectively, and the activities of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) enzymes were 71% and 63%, respectively. These results show that indigenous HPB in tuna are capable of growing at elevated and refrigeration temperatures. These findings demonstrate the need to examine the relationships between the rate of histamine production at refrigeration temperatures, seafood shelf life, and regulatory limits. PMID:26826233

  8. Incidencia de los defectos congénitos asociados al uso de medicamentos en Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    Glenys K. Silva Gonzalez; Yurima Rodriguez Peña; Juana Lupe Muñoz Callol; Elibett Carcases Carcases; Lisset del Carmen Romero Portelles

    2015-01-01

    La Red de Genética Nacional estableció un sistema de vigilancia pre y postnatal, para evaluar los efectos potenciales de la medicación en aquellas gestantes que ocasionalmente o de manera permanente ingieren fármacos durante el embarazo. En la provincia de Las Tunas se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo para describir la incidencia de defectos congénitos en la etapa prenatal y al nacimiento de los fetos en las mujeres que consumieron algún medicamento en el primer trimestre del embar...

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste: swine manure and tuna fish waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion has become an established and proven technology for the treatment of solid wastes. Co-digestion offers several possible ecological, technology and economical advantages. Anaerobic co-digestion can increase CH4 production of manure diesters in a 50-200% according to the operation conditions and the co-substrates used. Last September 2007, PROBIOGAS project started up with the objective of improving the production and use of biogas from co-digestion of farming, agricultural and industrial waste. Our research group takes part in the study of co-digestion of swine manure firstly with tuna fish waste and secondly with glycerine (bio diesel production waste). (Author)

  10. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-352 radionuclides in tuna fish flesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a sample of tuna fish flesh from the Mediterranean Sea, IAEA-352, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 63 laboratories from 31 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (Reference data: 1 January 1989): 137Cs 2.7 Bq kg-1, 90Sr 0.2 Bq Kg-1, 40K 391 Bq Kg-1, 210Pb 0.6 Bq Kg-1, 210Po 2.2 Bq Kg-1. Tabs

  11. Utilization of tuna meat by-product in fish ham production

    OpenAIRE

    Masniyom, P.; Sophanodora, P.

    1999-01-01

    Development of fish ham from dark and white meat remainder from the tuna canning industry was studied. It was found that the most acceptable product was made from a mixture of dark meat, white meat and surimi in the proportion of 10:10:80 and containing various seasonings as follows : salt 1.5%, gelatin 9.6%, corn starch 8.6% margarine 5.3%, and all spice 0.8%. All meats and seasonings were mixed, molded and cooked. After cooling, the products were packed in retailed cryovac bag and stored at...

  12. PARR LEGACY - EOP Pop-up Archival Transmission data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain vertical dive depth and temperature data from numerous pelagic species including bigeye tuna, opah, swordfish and whale sharks

  13. 77 FR 22286 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery... Fishery Ecosystem Plan amendment actions 6. Value of marker (>100 pounds) bigeye tuna in relation...

  14. Microbiological stability of canned tuna produced in Italy and in non-European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on the microbiological stability of canned tuna produced by Italian companies and similar canned products manufactured in countries outside Europe are reported herein. The study involved 38 samples of canned tuna of various brands, of which 14 were produced by companies outside Europe and 24 by Italian companies. Qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests were conducted for the following parameters: bacterial colony counts at 30°C, total coliforms, total Enterobacteriaceae, sulphite-reducing anaerobes, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and molds. Bacterial loads and mold contamination were respectivelyin found in 8/14 (57% samples from outside EU and 7/24 (29% Italian samples. The bacterial flora was represented by Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus lentus, Streptococcus mitis, Enterococcus faecalis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Gram-negative bacteria (Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acinetobacter iwoffii, Rhizobium radiobacter, spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus vallismortis, while the fungal species was represented by Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Alternaria spp. Excluding anomalies in the thermal treatment process of products and any contamination after treatment, the contaminations encountered in both cases were most likely due to insufficient production quality standards and the quality of the raw material used. These results may require a redefinition of the concept of commercial stability as hitherto stated.

  15. From forager tracks to prey distributions: an application to tuna vessel monitoring systems (VMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily; Rivoirard, Jacques; Gaspar, Philippe; Bez, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    In the open ocean, movements of migratory fish populations are typically surveyed using tagging methods that are subject to low sample sizes for archive tags, except for a few notable examples, and poor temporal resolution for conventional tags. Alternatively, one can infer patterns of movement of migratory fish by tracking movements of their predators, i.e., fishing vessels, whose navigational systems (e.g., GPS) provide accurate and frequent VMS (vessel monitoring system) records of movement in pursuit of prey. In this paper, we develop a state-space model that infers the foraging activities of fishing vessels from their tracks. Second, we link foraging activities to probabilities of tuna presence. Finally, using multivariate geostatistical interpolation (cokriging) we map the probability of tuna presence together with their estimation variances and produce a time series of indices of abundance. While the segmentation of the trajectories is validated by observers' data, the present VMS-index is compared to catch rate and proved to be useful for management perspectives. The approach reported in this manuscript extends beyond the case study considered. It can be applied to any foragers that engage in an attempt of capture when they see prey and for whom this attempt is linked to a tractable change in behavior. PMID:26214926

  16. Sea level height, sea surface temperature, and tuna yields in the Panama bight during El Niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Pedraza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1988 and 1998, annual tuna landings at Buenaventura (Colombian Pacific are correlated with the sea surface temperature in the central Equatorial Pacific (r=0.78, p<0.05 and the sea level height at Buenaventura (r=0.76, p<0.05 and Balboa (Panama (r=0.79, p<0.05. Seasonal oceanic upwelling is forced by the Panama wind jet, which may favour oceanic fisheries such as tuna. Here we first apply a bivariate correlation method (Pyper and Peterman, 1994 and then a multivariate approach (principal components analysis or PCA to investigate the relationships of these environmental variables with landings. With the first method, we find that landing is best correlated with the sea surface temperature in the Niño 3 region, whereas the other relationships are less clear. In contrast, with PCA we find that PC1 explains 90.6% of the total variance and suggests that sea surface temperature plays a major role in determining tuna availability in the area (especially during El Niño events. Since PC2 is mainly correlated with sea level height at Balboa but only represents 6.8% of the total variance, we suggest that oceanic upwelling effects on tuna landings at Buenaventura are not significant at interannual scales.

  17. Certification of total arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine contents in a tuna fish powder (BCR-CRM 627)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, F.; Amran, M. B.; Leroy, M. J. F.;

    1999-01-01

    Tuna fishes were collected in the Straits of Messina (Italy), were dissected and dorsal muscles minced, freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The obtained powder was stabilised by gamma-irradiation and filled into brown glass bottles. The homogeneity and stability at +20 degrees C and +40 degrees C we...

  18. Improvement of color and physiological properties of tuna-processing by-product by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the by-products from fishery industry had many nutrients, it is being wasted or only used as bacteria media. In this study, the effect of a gamma irradiation on the cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (CDT) was investigated to examine the possible use of the cooking drips as a functional material for food and cosmetic composition. Total aerobic bacteria, and yeasts/molds from CDT were detected at the level of 2.79 and 2.58 Log CFU/mL, respectively. But, CDT was efficiently sterilized by a gamma irradiation at a low dose of 1 kGy. The Hunter L* value of the gamma-irradiated ethanol extract of CDT was increased, and the a* and b* values were decreased compared to the non-irradiated extract, showing color improvement. Antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of CDT was increased by a gamma irradiation depending on the irradiation dose. The increased contents of polyphenolic compounds and proteins in CDT extract by gamma irradiation may be the reason of the increased biological activity. These results suggested that the wasted cooking drips can be successfully used as functional components with gamma irradiation treatment.

  19. Improvement of color and physiological properties of tuna-processing by-product by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Chun, Byeong-Soo; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Although the by-products from fishery industry had many nutrients, it is being wasted or only used as bacteria media. In this study, the effect of a gamma irradiation on the cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (CDT) was investigated to examine the possible use of the cooking drips as a functional material for food and cosmetic composition. Total aerobic bacteria, and yeasts/molds from CDT were detected at the level of 2.79 and 2.58 Log CFU/mL, respectively. But, CDT was efficiently sterilized by a gamma irradiation at a low dose of 1 kGy. The Hunter L* value of the gamma-irradiated ethanol extract of CDT was increased, and the a* and b* values were decreased compared to the non-irradiated extract, showing color improvement. Antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of CDT was increased by a gamma irradiation depending on the irradiation dose. The increased contents of polyphenolic compounds and proteins in CDT extract by gamma irradiation may be the reason of the increased biological activity. These results suggested that the wasted cooking drips can be successfully used as functional components with gamma irradiation treatment.

  20. Three genetic stocks of frigate tuna Auxis thazard thazard (Lacepede, 1800) along the Indian coast revealed from sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GirishKumar; Kunal, S.P.; Menezes, M.R.; Meena, R.M.

    and III). However, there were no significant genealogical branches or clusters of samples corresponding to sampling locality. The results suggest the possibility of three genetically differentiated units of frigate tuna across the coastal waters of India....

  1. KEMAMPUAN DOSIS PUPUK ZA DAN WAKTU PEWIWILAN TUNAS LATERAL TERHADAP HASIL DAN KUALITAS CABAI BESAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Taufik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH]Chili is one of the horticultural commodities which have high economic value and have a large export opportunities. The development of technology makes great chili farming business will be more profitable. The purpose of research to determine the interaction between fertilizer dosing ZA and pruning time of lateral shoots that are most influential to the outcome and quality of hot pepper. Factorial (3 x 3 research carried out using Random Design Group. The first factor is the fertilizer doses studied with 3 threshold ZA covers: N1, N2, and N3, respectively 14, 28, and 42 grams per plant. The second factor is the time of pruning with 3 degrees include: W1, W2, and W3, each for 0, 15, and 25 days after planting. The results showed that the combination treatment of ZA 28 gram per plant and prunning of lateral shoots in 15 dat tend to the best result on the yield and quality of chilli. Keywords: Chilli; ZA Fertilizer Dose; Nitrogen; Pruning.  [INDONESIAN] Cabai merupakan salah satu komoditas hortikultura yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi serta memiliki peluang eksport yang besar. Perkembangan teknologi menjadikan usaha pertanian cabai besar akan semakin menguntungkan. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui interaksi antara pemberian dosis pupuk ZA dan waktu pewiwilan tunas lateral yang berpengaruh paling baik terhadap hasil dan kualitas cabai besar. Penelitian faktorial (3x3 dilaksanakan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok. Faktor pertama yang diteliti adalah dosis pupuk ZA dengan 3 taraf yang meliputi: N1, N2, dan N3 ,masing-masing 14, 28, dan 42 gram per tanaman. Faktor kedua adalah waktu pewiwilan dengan 3 taraf meliputi: W1, W2, dan W3, masing- masing untuk 0, 15, dan 25 hari setelah tanam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi perlakuan ZA 28g/tanaman dan pewiwilan tunas lateral umur 15 hari setelah tanam cenderung memberikan hasil terbaik terhadap hasil dan kualitas cabai besar. Kata Kunci: Cabai Besar; Dosis Pupuk ZA; Nitrogen

  2. Nitrogen isotopic baselines and implications for estimating foraging habitat and trophic position of yellowfin tuna in the Indian and Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrain, Anne; Graham, Brittany S.; Popp, Brian N.; Allain, Valérie; Olson, Robert J.; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Potier, Michel; Fry, Brian; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Menkes, Christophe E. R.; Kaehler, Sven; Ménard, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of isotopic compositions at the base of food webs is a prerequisite for using stable isotope analysis to assess foraging locations and trophic positions of marine organisms. Our study represents a unique application of stable-isotope analyses across multiple trophic levels (primary producer, primary consumer and tertiary consumer) and over a large spatial scale in two pelagic marine ecosystems. We found that δ15N values of particulate organic matter (POM), barnacles and phenylalanine from the muscle tissue of yellowfin tuna all showed similar spatial patterns. This consistency suggests that isotopic analysis of any of these can provide a reasonable proxy for isotopic variability at the base of the food web. Secondly, variations in the δ15N values of yellowfin tuna bulk-muscle tissues paralleled the spatial trends observed in all of these isotopic baseline proxies. Variation in isotopic composition at the base of the food web, rather than differences in tuna diet, explained the 11‰ variability observed in the bulk-tissue δ15N values of yellowfin tuna. Evaluating the trophic position of yellowfin tuna using amino-acid isotopic compositions across the western Indian and equatorial Pacific Oceans strongly suggests these tuna occupy similar trophic positions, albeit absolute trophic positions estimated by this method were lower than expected. This study reinforces the importance of considering isotopic baseline variability for diet studies, and provides new insights into methods that can be applied to generate nitrogen isoscapes for worldwide comparisons of top predators in marine ecosystems.

  3. The Kinematics and Dynamics of Undulatory Motion of a Tuna-mimetic Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Farideddin Masoomi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the steps for the mathematical modelling of a fish robot with four degrees of freedom (DOF called UC-Ika 1. The swimming motion of the robot, which is inspired by tuna fish, needs to generate an undulatory motion by its tail peduncle and caudal fin. Hence, the robot has the benefit of a tail mechanism that plays a determining role in the dynamic behaviour of the robot. Analysing this tail mechanism and the hydrodynamic forces acting upon the fish robot, the governing equations of motion of the robot are derived. Solving these dynamic equations reveals that the robot has a cruising speed of 0.29 m/s, a slight oscillation in the Y direction, and a small swing around its centre of mass. These results are validated by the experimental results of UC-Ika 1.

  4. Quality control of X-ray equipment in some hospitals of Las Tunas province in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the quality controls executed in 33 X-ray rooms of Las Tunas Province in Cuba. Specific tests for the X-ray generators, X-ray Tube, as well as the visualization systems and darkrooms were included. The results also include the estimation of patient doses for some standard radiographic projections (thorax, lumbar spine, abdomen, skull, and pelvis). The results of the evaluation of X-ray equipment was made following the procedures and tolerance included on the technical guidelines elaborated by the National Control Center of Medical Devices, which is the center for regulation of medical devices in the Republic of Cuba. Patient doses obtained were compared with the references levels reported in The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). (author)

  5. Assessment of radioactive elements in canned tuna marketed in Saudi Arabia after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current study, 32 brands of canned tuna that were purchased in supermarkets in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analysed to quantify the activity levels of 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. These samples were processed in Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Europe and the Middle East in 2011 and 2012. The samples were analysed using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The highest activity concentrations of all three radionuclides were obtained in the samples that were processed in Japan in 2011 a few months after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. However, the activity concentrations of radiocaesium in all the samples in this study were far below the limit for food and beverages of 100 Bq/kg, which is the standard limit in the Japan. (author)

  6. Discovery of the strong antioxidant selenoneine in tuna and selenium redox metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumiko; Yamashita; Takeshi; Yabu; Michiaki; Yamashita

    2010-01-01

    A novel selenium-containing compound,selenoneine,has been isolated as the major form of organic selenium in the blood and tissues of tuna.Selenoneine harbors a selenium atom in the imidazole ring,2-selenylNα,Nα,Nα-trimethyl-L-histidine,and is a selenium analog of ergothioneine.This selenium compound has strong antioxidant capacity and binds to heme proteins,such as hemoglobin and myoglobin,to protect them from iron auto-oxidation,and it reacts with radicals and methylmercury(MeHg) .The organic cations/carnitine transporter OCTN1 transports selenoneine and MeHg,regulates Se-enhanced antioxidant activity,and decreases MeHg toxicity.Thus,the dietary intake of selenoneine,by consuming fish,might decrease the formation of reactive oxygen radicals that could oxidize nucleotides in DNA,and thereby inhibit carcinogenesis,chronic diseases,and aging.

  7. Incidencia de los defectos congénitos asociados al uso de medicamentos en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenys K. Silva Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La Red de Genética Nacional estableció un sistema de vigilancia pre y postnatal, para evaluar los efectos potenciales de la medicación en aquellas gestantes que ocasionalmente o de manera permanente ingieren fármacos durante el embarazo. En la provincia de Las Tunas se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo para describir la incidencia de defectos congénitos en la etapa prenatal y al nacimiento de los fetos en las mujeres que consumieron algún medicamento en el primer trimestre del embarazo, durante el período de enero de 2009 a mayo de 2014. La población de estudio lo constituyeron las 627 embarazadas, que habían consumido algún tipo de fármaco que se identificara como posible agente teratogénico y fueron remitidas al Centro de Genética Provincial para su seguimiento. Los datos obtenidos del registro de morbilidad teratogénica permitieron analizar las variables: casos reportados al registro provincial de medicamentos durante la gestación, medicamentos consumidos durante el embarazo según categoría, momento de la gestación en que se produjo el consumo del fármaco, duración del tratamiento durante el embarazo y evaluación del embarazo o el producto. El consumo de medicamentos fue más abundante en gestantes del municipio Las Tunas. Predominó el consumo de medicamentos antiinfecciosos; el consumo ocurrió con más frecuencia en el primer trimestre; y la duración más probable fue de una semana. A pesar de ello, el consumo de medicamentos durante la gestación no significó un riesgo incrementado de teratogenicidad

  8. Incidencia prenatal de los defectos congénitos en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Lupe Muñoz Callol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos congénitos son la principal causa de morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal en casi todo el mundo. La introducción del diagnóstico prenatal y el establecimiento de estrategias preventivas en la atención primaria de salud han logrado la disminución de la prevalencia al nacimiento de defectos congénitos y de la mortalidad infantil en nuestro país. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de los casos diagnosticados o confirmados prenatalmente en la consulta de genética provincial, con el objetivo de describir la incidencia prenatal de los defectos congénitos en la provincia Las Tunas, durante el período de enero 2013 a mayo 2014. De un universo de 9462 embarazadas de la provincia, en el periodo de estudio; se escogió una muestra de 110 gestantes que presentaron defectos fetales en diferentes órganos y sistemas. La información se obtuvo del registro provincial, donde se analizaron las variables: comportamiento de defectos congénitos por áreas de salud, edad de las madres por defectos congénitos, defectos congénitos por programas prenatales y los defectos congénitos por sistemas. El mayor número de casos se diagnosticó en el segundo trimestre del embarazo, siendo el sistema cardiovascular donde se encontró un número mayor de defectos congénitos, seguido del sistema digestivo, genitourinarias y del sistema nervioso central. Las edades maternas estuvieron comprendidas entre 21 y 30 años, siendo el municipio Tunas el que aportó un número significativo de afectados

  9. Petrological and geochemical studies of alkaline rocks from continental Brazil. The tunas massif, state of Parana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tunas massif, outcropping 80 km from the city of Curitiba, Parana State, southern Brazil, covers about 22 km2. It intruded into Precambrian metaigneous and metasedimentary units about 80 Ma ago (K/Ar and Rb/Sr data); five subcircular volcanic structures are recognized. Syenites and alkali syenites (plus some pulaskites) are the main rock-types, with subordinate alkali gabbros, syenogabbros, essexites and syenodiorites; small late syenitic dikes are also found. Magmatic breccias containing clasts of all rock-types are widespread. Main minerals are feldspars (both alkali feldspars and plagioclases, varying from bytownite to more sodic members), Ca-pyroxenes (Ti-salites grading towards ferrosalites and aegirine-augites), amphiboles (mainly pargasites, although kaersutites and katophorites are also present), Fe-biotites (sometimes enriched in Ti), olivines (hortonolites to ferrohortonolites), quartz and feldspathoids (both fresh and altered nephelines and sodalites); main accessories are Ti-magnetites (with exsolved ilmenite) and apatite. In the AFM diagram, whole rock chemistry depicts a typical alkaline trend. Binary variation diagrams (D.I. vs. several elements) show positive correlation for Si, Na and K, and negative slopes for Mg and Ca. The variation in the amounts of Ni, Cr and V with differentiation can be explained by withdrawal of olivine, Ca-pyroxenes and magnetite, and that of Sr and Ba by the fractionation of feldspars. The rocks are also relatively enriched in REE, a trend which is more pronounced for the light REE. Mass balance calculations show that the overall differentiation trend of the Tunas rocks can be explained by crystal fractionation, although several complexities arise and point to more complex genetic patterns. Isotopic Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with a mantle origin for the parental magma; dike rocks, however, with 87Sr86Sri = 0.70777 - 0.70806, were probably contaminated by crustal material. (author)

  10. Analysis of the international fisheries management based on the proposal of including Atlantic bluefin tuna into Appendix Ⅰ of CITES Convention%基于将大西洋蓝鳍金枪鱼列入CITES附录Ⅰ提案的国际渔业管理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜斐斐; 唐建业

    2012-01-01

    受国际市场对大西洋蓝鳍金枪鱼产品需求的驱动,非法、不报告、不管制捕捞和捕捞能力过剩等现象频频发生,造成该鱼类资源的数量持续下降。瑞典、摩纳哥先后向濒危野生动植物种国际贸易委员会提议将大西洋蓝鳍金枪鱼列入《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》附录,禁止捕捞和国际贸易该鱼种,引起了广泛关注和激烈争论。为此,通过分析ICCAT对大西洋蓝鳍金枪鱼的管理、相关国家或地区组织的不同意见,研究该提案可能对国际渔业管理及我国带来的影响。一旦该鱼种列入CITES附录,可能导致更多商业开发的水生生物被提到CITES框架上来,从而影响世界渔业的管理格局。对此,中国应采取行动,积极参加国际组织会议,参与规则制定,反映中国关注问题与主张。而作为联合国海洋法公约和ICCAT的一员,我国也有义务与其他国家合作执行ICCAT的养护和管理措施,为提高履约能力,规范国内远洋企业的管理,如按照相关要求及时、准确报送数据等,从而配合国家履行国际义务。%Driven by the demand from international market for Atlantic bluefin tuna(Thunnus thynnus) and their products,overcapacity and illegal,unregulated and unreported(IUU) fishing frequently took place,which resulted in continuous decline of the fish resources.Although relevant Regional Fishery Management Organizations(RFMOs),the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas(ICCAT) in this case,have adopted some conservation and management measures for this fish stock,the outcome is unsatisfied.To find an alternative solution,Monaco in 2009 proposed to include Atlantic bluefin tuna into Appendix Ⅰ of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora(CITES),banning capture and trade.In 2010,this proposal was discussed heatedly in the fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties,which had attracted

  11. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average. PMID:26606067

  12. Incidental catch and estimated discards of pelagic sharks from the swordfish and tuna fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    MEGALOFONOU Persefoni

    2005-01-01

    Large pelagic sharks are caught incidentally in the swordfish and tuna fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. In our study, twelve shark species were documented as bycatch over three years from 1998 to 2000. Blue shark (Prionace glauca) was the predominant species in all gears and areas examined. Shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus), and tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus) were the next most abundant shark species—found in more than half of the areas samp...

  13. Spatially explicit estimates of stock sizes, structure and biomass of herring and blue whiting, and catch data of bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Trenkel, V.;

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic is a productive marine region which has supported important commercial fisheries for centuries. Many of these fisheries have exploited the pelagic species, including herring, blue whiting and tuna. Here we present data on the distribution of herring and blue whiting based on th...... small catches since the 1980s. The reported catches in the Mediterranean, on the other hand, peaked in the late 1990s and subsequently had a strong reduction....

  14. Tracking multiple pathways of waste from a northern bluefin tuna farm in a marine-coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Aquaculture of bluefin tuna in Mediterranean coastal waters has generated growing concern about the negative environmental effects. In the present isotopic study we examined the dispersal and fate of organic matter derived from a Mediterranean tuna farm in the surrounding environment. An overall enrichment in the heavy nitrogen isotope was found in the feed and in farmed tunas, indicating the input of isotopically traceable organic matter in the system. Waste was clearly traceable in the water column up to 1000 m from the cages, while only slight accumulation occurred in the sediment just below the cages. Waste was isotopically shown also to contribute to the diet of demersal and benthopelagic wild fish collected around the cages. As a result, waste undertook multiple pathways. In the water column its was diluted and dispersed due to hydrodynamism, which prevented great accumulation of aquaculture-derived organic matter in sediments. In addition, biological constraints such as benthopelagic and demersal fish further prevented organic matter accumulation through the benthic trophic route. PMID:22464398

  15. Use of tuna industry waste in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings: effect on digestibility and growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisantema Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the tuna canning process, about 52~54% of the total weight of the fish is discarded as waste, which can be processed in order to obtain tuna byproducts meal (TBM, or stabilized as tuna silage hydrolysates (TSH. Both products were tested as replacements of soybean meal (SBM, in diets for fingerling male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Seven test diets were isonitrogenous (35% CP and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1: a basal diet contained SBM as main protein source (TSH0; four experimental diets had increasing inclusion levels of TSH replacing 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the SBM protein. The sixth diet contained TBM as sole protein source, and a commercial feed for tilapia was used as reference diet (RD. The diets were fed for eight weeks to triplicate tanks, each with 15 fry tilapia (initial weight of 0.89 ± 0.29 g. Tilapia fed the TBM diet had greater weight gain and feed intake, and lower feed conversion ratios than those fed diets containing with TSH. The RD, TSH25 and TSH50 diets gave the similar growth response. Fish fed diets TSH0, TSH75% and TSH100% showed reduced growth performance.

  16. Into the deep blue sea: Commons theory and international governance of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Epstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to understand how to sustainably govern oceanic fisheries has become increasingly urgent as their contribution to global food security and livelihoods are threatened by declining stocks. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABFT is a prominent example of the complexities associated with widely distributed oceanic resources, extending in this case to include much of the North-Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. This distribution has led to limited attention from commons theorists that tend to focus on small-scale social ecological systems. Therefore in order to explore the fit between theories of the commons developed in small-scale systems, we apply the Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database (SESMAD to systematically analyze ABFT governance over a 22 year period. The results, which focus on the effects of resource characteristics, broadly correspond to the expectations of commons theory. Interestingly, however, the addition of resource storage in the form of ABFT ranches appears to be contributing to unsustainable harvests. This stands in contrast to previous findings in the commons literature that storage tends to enhance prospects for sustainable governance. Therefore several alternative hypotheses are developed by comparing and contrasting attributes of ABFT and canal irrigation storage. These hypotheses may be used in future research to evaluate the conditions in which storage enhances prospects for sustainable governance.

  17. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Travassos Tolotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring the measure is beneficial to the resource and its users in the long term. Banning measures are a good first step towards the conservation of pelagic shark species, especially since they improve conservation awareness among fishers, managers and the public. Measures that impose total bans, however, can lead to negative impacts that may jeopardize the populations they were intended to protect. The majority of pelagic shark catches are incidental and most sharks die before they reach the vessel or after they are released. The legislation set out by RFMOs only prevents retention but not the actual capture or the mortality that may occur as a result. Managers should be fully aware that the development and implementation of mitigation measures are critical for a more effective conservation strategy.

  18. Teenage pregnancy, epidemiological behavior in Las Tunas during the period 2012 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: teenage pregnancy is a medical risk to be considered, not only for determining an increase of maternal morbidity and an estimated of 2 to 3 times infant mortality, but also as one of the most important factors in the occurrence of congenital malformations.Objective: to determine the epidemiological behavior of teenage pregnancy in Las Tunas province during the period 2012 - 2014.Methods: a descriptive, observational and retrospective study of the behavior of teenage pregnancy was carried out in the province and time period previously stated. The study was performed in municipalities and People's Councils. The universe consisted of 148 169 women of childbearing age and the sample comprised 3 309 pregnant female teenagers from 12 to 19 years old.Results: the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy continues, but the province and its municipalities show favorable data; 2013 was the one of the most negative results, being Manatí and Amancio municipalities the most significant ones; in all the municipalities there are People's Councils with results that are higher than municipal and provincial averages. The adolescent fertility rate in the province was between 39.0 and 45.2 per 1000, being 2013 and Amancio municipality the ones with the highest incidence.Conclusions: although the teenage pregnancy continues, the province and its municipalities show favorable data, resulting from an integrated and successful health programs, involving Provincial Genetics Network work.

  19. Arte, cultura y lucha contra el cáncer en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ernesto Pérez Reyes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Los avances científicos de hoy están permitiendo que el cáncer no se convierta en una sentencia inexorable de muerte. La cronificación del tratamiento plantea retos a los sistemas sanitarios, en su compromiso por ofrecer al enfermo el apoyo para enfrentar su nueva situación y devolverlo a la vida normal. Las complicaciones producto de los tratamientos, los efectos físicos secundarios, la modificación de las rutinas y el sentir que se vive bajo una amenaza, desestabilizan el balance emocional de muchos enfermos. El arte puede captar los más personales aspectos en la experiencia del cáncer. La creación artística puede unir a pacientes, familiares, amigos, al equipo sanitario y a la comunidad en su conjunto, aportando nuevos caminos para ayudar al paciente. La labor artística puede proveer de otros modos de expresión que no se encuentran en las formas tradicionales de tratamiento, permitiendo explorar temas intrínsecos del enfermo de forma creativa y personal. El arte puede comunicar con los aspectos más silenciados de la enfermedad, ayudando a las personas con escasas posibilidades para confesar sus experiencias. Bajo esta premisa el recientemente fundado capítulo provincial de la Sociedad cubana de oncología, radioterapia y medicina nuclear ha efectuado en Las Tunas varias actividades a partir del día tres de febrero del actual año, comenzando con la inauguración de la Jornada provincial de lucha contra el cáncer. La estrategia divulgativa contó con la colaboración del Grupo provincial para el control del cáncer, el Centro provincial del cine y el proyecto FILOARTMED de la Universidad médica de Las Tunas, quienes se han interesado en elevar la producción científica de los profesionales de la salud, que luchan por controlar el cáncer en el territorio. En la sala cinematográfica Titón del Teatro Tunas, se dieron cita los miembros del capítulo provincial de la Sociedad cubana de oncología, radioterapia y medicina

  20. Rasgos epidemiológicos de ciegos y débiles visuales por retinosis pigmentaria en la provincia Las Tunas Epidemiologic traits of the blind and visually handicapped due to retinitis pigmantosa in the province of Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa González Hess; Elizabeth Ramírez Pérez; Rosa M. Pérez Guerrero; Adriana Abreu Leyva

    2003-01-01

    Se estudiaron 325 pacientes con el diagnóstico retinosis pigmentaria en la provincia Las Tunas. De ellos, se encontró que el 24,9 y el 10 % eran ciegos y débiles visuales respectivamente, donde se obtuvo una tasa de ciegos por retinosis pigmentaria de 1,45 x 10 000 habitantes y de débiles visuales de 0,6 x 10 000 habitantes. El tipo de herencia que predominó en ambos grupos fue la autosómica recesiva.325 patients with the diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa were studied in the province of Las T...

  1. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong [Dongwon Research and Development Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Jung [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jin [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB.

  2. Assessment of health risk of exposure to mercury through intake under canned tuna in health registration process period January 2010-December 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power point presentation is about: Assessing the health risk due to exposure to mercury through ingestion canned tuna under sanitary registration process in the country, using the risk assessment tool recommended by the Codex Alimentarius establishing safety according to the use of local diets. The analytical method appied was Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Amalgamation (SS TDA AS). As a recommendation was important to maintain an ongoing program of monitoring of mercury in tuna as being a highly recommended food as being excellent source of protein and fatty acids beneficial to health can also be a source of mercury poisoning in cases of people who have a high consumption thereof in the diet

  3. Caracterización de los pacientes con cirrosis hepática atendidos en Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Torreblanca Xiques; Liem Fonseca Chong

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, con el objetivo de caracterizar los pacientes con cirrosis hepática (CH), atendidos en el servicio de gastroenterología del Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna”, Las Tunas, Cuba, en el período comprendido entre febrero de 2012 y febrero de 2014. Se estudiaron 55 pacientes con cirrosis hepática diagnosticada por laparoscopia. Predominaron los pacientes del grupo de edad entre 50 y 59 años, siendo el sexo masculino el más af...

  4. Nivel de conocimientos de médicos generales integrales de Las Tunas sobre nutrición humana

    OpenAIRE

    Eslhey Sánchez Domínguez; Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz; Dayne Álvarez Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    La nutrición humana es un instrumento imprescindible a la hora de realizar intervenciones de salud, para ello se requiere de profesionales con un nivel adecuado de conocimientos sobre esta materia. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal, en las cuatro áreas de salud del municipio de Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. El objetivo de la investigación fue caracterizar los niveles de conocimientos sobre nutrición humana que tien...

  5. Efectividad de la acupuntura en el tratamiento del síndrome del túnel del carpo, Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    Aydelián Jevey González; Iliana Maria Machado Reyes; Warnel Pupo Palacio; Concepción Pérez Castillo; Dayne Álvarez Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de intervención con el objetivo de determinar la efectividad de la acupuntura en el tratamiento del Síndrome del Túnel del Carpo, en pacientes que fueron atendidos en el Policlínico Docente Manuel Piti Fajardo del municipio de Las Tunas, en el período comprendido desde enero hasta diciembre de 2008. La muestra la conformaron 50 pacientes mayores de 14 años. Se les aplicó un tratamiento con acupuntura diario en un total de quince sesiones, utilizando los puntos: IG-4, IG-...

  6. High connectivity on a global scale in the pelagic wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri (tuna family Scombridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, T C; Bowen, B W; Lanier, W; Baldwin, J D

    2008-10-01

    The population genetic structure and phylogeography of wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri, were investigated on a global scale with intron six of lactate dehydrogenase-A (ldhA6, 8 locations, N = 213) and mtDNA cytochrome b (Cytb, 10 locations, N = 322). Results show extensive sharing of haplotypes across the wahoo's entire global range, and analyses were unable to detect significant structure (nuclear F(ST) = 0.0125, P = 0.106; mtDNA Phi(ST) or = 0.0389 and mtDNA Phi(ST) > or = 0.0148. These findings appear unique, as most other tunas, billfishes, and oceanic sharks exhibit significant population structure on the scale of East-West Atlantic, Atlantic vs. Indian-Pacific, or East-West Pacific. Overall nuclear heterozygosity (H = 0.714) and mtDNA haplotype diversity (h = 0.918) are both high in wahoo, while overall mtDNA nucleotide diversity (pi = 0.006) and nuclear nucleotide diversity (pi = 0.004) are uniformly low, indicating a recent increase in population size. Coalescence analyses yield an estimate of effective female population size (NeF) at approximately 816,000, and a population bottleneck approximately 690,000 years ago. However, conclusions about population history from our Cytb data set are not concordant with a control region survey, a finding that will require further investigation. This is the first example of a vertebrate with a single globally distributed population, a finding we attribute to extensive dispersal at all life stages. The indications of a worldwide stock for wahoo reinforce the mandate for international cooperation on fisheries issues. PMID:19378403

  7. Estabilidad química, física y microbiológica de lomo de atún (Thunnus sp.) rebanado. Empacado, congelado y almacenado a -20 ºC

    OpenAIRE

    Romaim De Berardinis; Myrna Luisa Medina Bracamonte; Marinela Barrero

    2012-01-01

    La globalización ha introducido en Venezuela el consumo de pescado crudo, principalmente atún rojo (Thunnus sp.) para elaborar sushi y sashimi. Esto ha despertado el interés en conservar el atún fresco, congelado, para disponer de él a lo largo del año con los atributos que definen la calidad del atún fresco. El pescado congelado se empaca para protegerlo del ambiente frío y seco del congelador, evitar su deshidratación y quemaduras en la superficie del tejido muscular que modificarían la ap...

  8. Rasgos epidemiológicos de ciegos y débiles visuales por retinosis pigmentaria en la provincia Las Tunas Epidemiologic traits of the blind and visually handicapped due to retinitis pigmantosa in the province of Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa González Hess

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 325 pacientes con el diagnóstico retinosis pigmentaria en la provincia Las Tunas. De ellos, se encontró que el 24,9 y el 10 % eran ciegos y débiles visuales respectivamente, donde se obtuvo una tasa de ciegos por retinosis pigmentaria de 1,45 x 10 000 habitantes y de débiles visuales de 0,6 x 10 000 habitantes. El tipo de herencia que predominó en ambos grupos fue la autosómica recesiva.325 patients with the diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa were studied in the province of Las Tunas. Of them, it was found that 24.9 % and 10 % were blind and visually handicapped, respectively. A rate of blind patients caused by retinitis pigmentosa of 1.45 x 10 000 inhabitants and of visually handicapped of 0.6 x 10 000 inhabitants was obtained. The type of inheritance predominating in both groups was the autosomal recessive inheritance.

  9. Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in urban topsoils from Las Tunas city (Cuba) using XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in the topsoils (0-10 cm) from Las Tunas city were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean Cr, Co, Ni, Zn and Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples (97± 30, 14 ± 2, 35 ± 36, 94 ± 26, 199 ± 87 and 42 ± 29 mg.kg-1 respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world with similar population. Cr content in school grounds, parks and residential areas exceed background level in 20%. Highest content for Ni was determined in residential areas, for Zn in market gardens soils and as for Pb, the highest content ratios were observed for market gardens (2.7) and residential areas (2.3). Spatial distribution maps indicated the same behaviour for Cr-Co-Ni and Pb-Zn, respectively, whereas the spatial distribution of Cu differs from other heavy metals. On the other hand, the metal-to-iron normalisation, using (10-20) cm bottom soil contents as background, showed that topsoils in Las Tunas city are severe enriched with lead and not enriched with the rest of determined metals. The average values of integrated pollution index (IPI) indicated that soils are moderate contaminated by heavy metals (1.17 ≤ IPIave ≤ 1.39), but enrichment index values (EI) shows that metal concentrations on the studied locations are not above the permissible levels for urban agriculture. (Author)

  10. Environmental impact of bleufin tuna aquaculture on benthic assemblages in the western coast of Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castaneda, V.

    2013-05-01

    Sea-cage farming results in a constant rain of organic waste onto the surrounding benthos. In Baja California there is growing concern over the effects of sea-cages on the local environment: sediment chemistry and benthic communities. Samples were taken in 18 stations using a Van veen grab (0.1 m2) in Bahía Salsipuedes, Baja California in 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008. Organisms belonging to 7 Phyla were collected: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Cnidaria, Sipuncula and Bryozoa. Polychaetes were the dominant group followed by crustaceans and mollusks. Polychaetes were represented by 37 families and 157 species. Best represented families were Paraonidae, Cirratulidae, Spionidae, Glyceridae and Maldanidae. This study shows that in the NW area of the bay organic carbon (2.54%) and organic nitrogen (0.95%) are being accumulated (higher concentrations and lower Eh values) and smaller opportunistic species are increasing rapidly near the tuna pens. It is crucial to maintain "healthy" macrofaunal populations in order to enhance decomposition of organic matter and to prevent its excessive accumulation. The most abundant polychaete species were Aphelochaeta multifinis, Mediomastus ambiseta, Prionospio steenstrupi Spiophanes bombyx, Apoprionospio pygnaea, Paraonella sp, Monticellina sp, Aricidea (Allia) ramosa, Spiophanes bombyx and Levinsenia gracilis. The dominant trophic groups were deposit-feeders and carnivores. The buildup of organic matter on the seafloor has attracted scavenger species particularly peracarid crustaceans. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) separated stations depending of the distance to the tuna pens.

  11. Stereological comparison of oocyte recruitment and batch fecundity estimates from paraffin and resin sections using spawning albacore (Thunnus alalunga) ovaries as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Sámar; Macías, David; Ortiz de Urbina, Josetxu; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd

    2015-01-01

    Traditional histological protocols in marine fish reproductive laboratories using paraffin as the embedding medium are now increasingly being replaced with protocols using resin instead. These procedures entail different degrees of tissue shrinkage complicating direct comparisons of measurement results across laboratories or articles. In this work we selected ovaries of spawning Mediterranean albacore (Thunnus alalunga) as the subject of our study to address the issue of structural changes, by contrasting values on oocyte recruitment and final batch fecundity given from the same tissue samples in both paraffin and resin. A modern stereological method, the oocyte packing density (OPD) theory, was used supported by initial studies on ovarian tissue sampling and measurement design. Examples of differences in the volume fraction of oocyte stages, free space and connective tissue were found between the embedding media. Mean oocyte diameters were smaller in paraffin than in resin with differences ranging between 0.5% in primary growth and 24.3% in hydration (HYD) stage oocytes. Fresh oocyte measurements showed that oocytes shrank as a consequence of the embedding process, reaching the maximal degree of shrinkage for oocytes in the HYD stage (45.8% in paraffin and 26.5% in resin). In order to assess the effect of oocyte shrinkage on the OPD result, and thereby on relative batch fecundity (Fr), oocyte diameters corrected and uncorrected for shrinkage, were used for estimations. Statistical significant differences were found (P embedding media. The average Fr was numerically smaller in paraffin compared to resin (86 ± 61 vs. 106 ± 54 oocytes per gram of body mass (mean ± SD)). For both embedding media statistical significant differences (P < 0.05) were seen between Fr results based on either oocytes in the germinal vesicle migration stage or HYD stage. As a valuable adjunct, the present use of the OPD theory made it possible to document that the oocyte recruitment of

  12. 热带大西洋金枪鱼延绳钓兼捕鲨鱼种类组成和渔获率及其与表温的关系%Species composition and catch rate of bycatch sharks captured by tuna longline fishery and their relationship with sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜润林; 戴小杰; 许柳雄

    2009-01-01

    根据2007年12月~2008年3月采集的热带大西洋(05°37′~12°01′N、29°00′~36°51′W)金枪鱼延绳钓渔获物数据,分析了金枪鱼延绳钓兼捕鲨鱼的种类组成、渔获量、渔获率及其与表温的关系.本次调查共捕获鲨鱼8种,隶属3目7科7属, 总渔获尾数为633 ind,总渔获量达26 837.4 kg, 其中大青鲨为主要兼捕种类.各种鲨鱼渔获率平均值在0.003~1.524 ind/1 000 hooks之间, 其中大青鲨最高, 其值为1.524 ind/1 000 hooks,大眼砂锥齿鲨最低,其值为0.003 ind/1 000 hooks.各种鲨鱼渔获率月变化不明显(ANOVA, P=0.901).鲨鱼总渔获率和大青鲨渔获率与表温都呈显著性负相关.大青鲨主要出现渔场的表温范围为24.6~25.8 ℃.%Based on catch data collected in the tropical Atlantic Ocean (05°37′N-12°01′N, 29°00′W-36°51′W) from December 2007 to March 2008, the species composition, catch, catch rate of bycatch sharks captured by tuna longline fishery and their relationship with sea surface temperature (SST) are analyzed. Altogether 633 individuals of fish are captured, which belong to 3 orders, 7 families, 7 genera and 8 fish species. The total weight of bycatch sharks is 26837.4kg. And the dominant bycatch shark is blue shark ( Prionace glauca ). Average catch rate of bycatch sharks is 0.003-1.524 individual per 1 000 hooks, of which blue shark is the highest, 1.524 individual per 1 000 hooks, and bigeye sand shark( Odontaspis noronhai ) lowest, 0.003 individual per 1 000 hooks. Catch rate of bycatch sharks shows no obvious monthly fluctuation (ANOVA, P=0.901). An obvious negative correlation is found between SST and catch rate of total bycatch shark and blue shark. The range of SST in the dominant fishing ground where blue sharks appear is 24.6-25.8℃.

  13. PRODUCCIÓN Y COMERCIALIZACIÓN DE TUNA EN FRESCO BAJO DIFERENTES MODALIDADES EN HIDALGO, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Jolalpa Barrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó durante el 2006 con los siguientes objetivos: determinar costos de producción y márgenes de comercialización de la tuna en fresco producida en Hidalgo. Para realizar el estudio se utilizó las metodologías desarrolladas por Morris (1990 y por Caldentey y De Haro (2004. En total se aplicaron 60 encuestas, 44 a productores y 16 a comercializadores de tuna. Los resultados muestran la identificación de tres tipos de productores; de los cuales 9% son líderes, el 61% son genéricos, y el 30% son básicos, donde los costos de producción de cada uno de ellos fueron $14,532/ha-1, $9,626/ha-1 y $3,186/ha-1 respectivamente. El costo de comercialización para el productor líder fue de $1.17/kg-1, donde el 40 % corresponde al almacenamiento, el 26 % al transporte, el 24 % al empaque y el 10 % al desespinado. Con respecto a los costos de comercialización para el productor genérico estos fueron de $0.70/kg-1. El mayor margen absoluto en la comercialización lo obtiene el productor líder con $3.50/ kg-1, cuando comercializa la tuna en centros comerciales y centrales de abasto a un precio medio de $4.63/kg-1, en donde $1.17/kg-1 corresponden a los costos y $2.33/kg-1 a las ganancias; asimismo el mayor margen relativo con este productor se obtuvo a nivel centro comercial y representó el 40.6 % del precio al consumidor. Los factores más importantes que contribuyeron a un mejor nivel de ingreso de parte del productor líder fueron la productividad y calidad del producto.

  14. Specific activity and derived intervention levels for cesium-137 in Costa Rican export goods: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is a fission product of 235U and 239Pu. After a major nuclear accident, it is released into the atmosphere and in the far field region it will produce radioactively contaminated food and drinking water. This paper will study the specific activity of 137Cs in three Costa Rican export products: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk. The average specific activities found are as follows: 0.89 ± 0.41, 1.16 ± 0.76 and 4.53 ± 2.00 Bq kg-1. They represent low values compared to their derived intervention levels: 1.25 x 107, 1.25 x 107 and 2.44 x 105 Bq kg-1, respectively. (Author)

  15. Efectividad del tratamiento acupuntural en la Parálisis Facial Periférica. Puerto Padre, Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    Dorania Cera Barea; José Ramón Martínez Pérez; Rubiseida Almaguer Pérez; Dennis Ballester Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio experimental en pacientes mayores de 19 años, con Parálisis Facial Periférica, que fueron atendidos en el Policlínico "Romárico Oro Peña" del municipio de Puerto Padre, provincia de Las Tunas; en el período comprendido entre enero y diciembre del año 2011. La muestra quedó conformada por 40 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión establecidos, a los que se les aplicó el método acupuntural, con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad del mismo en el tratamie...

  16. EL FENÓMENO SOCIO RELIGIOSO EN LAS TUNAS. EL PENTECOSTALISMO Y SU INFLUENCIA PARA UNA CONCEPCIÓN IDENTITARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Antonio Lalana Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El pentecostalismo como componente del campo religioso del territorio de Victoria de Las Tunas, los aportes a la identidad cultural son los hilos conductores de este trabajo. Comprende además un análisis del proceso de asentamiento y desarrollo del mismo a partir del análisis de las fuentes históricas y socioculturales. Su génesis primaria responde a condicionantes propias de las transformaciones de Europa Occidental durante el siglo XVI y, consciente o no sus fundadores promulgaron las bases para el correlato religioso del nuevo orden socio económico que se gestaba: el capitalismo. Las implicaciones a la identidad cultural en las regiones donde se asentaron y desarrollaron este tipo de denominaciones generaron comportamientos interesantes que constituyen un importante objeto de estudio para su mejor comprensión. ABSTRACT Pentecostalism as a component of the religious field of the territory of Victoria de Las Tunas, contributions to cultural identity are the threads of this work. It includes an analysis of the process of settlement and development of the same from the analysis of historical and sociocultural sources. Its primary genesis responds to own conditions of transformations of Western Europe during the sixteenth century and, consciously or not its founders enacted the basis for the religious correlate the new socioeconomic order that was brewing: capitalism. The implications for cultural identity in the regions where they settled and developed this kind of names generated interesting behaviors that constitute an important object of study for better understanding.

  17. Evaluación del estado mental de los pacientes centenarios en Las Tunas, diciembre 2007- agosto 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisset del Carmen Romero Portelles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento de la población en Cuba es similar al de muchos países desarrollados, y se encuentra entre los que tienen un índice más elevado dentro del grupo de países en desarrollo. Se realizó un trabajo descriptivo observacional  en la provincia de Las Tunas, en el período diciembre 2007- agosto 2008, con el propósito de caracterizar el estado cognitivo-afectivo de los centenarios. El universo estuvo  constituido por 97 ancianos; una vez validada su edad, la muestra quedó conformada con 95 centenarios. Se aplicaron los instrumentos Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE y Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR y se estudiaron las siguientes variables: estado cognitivo, estado de ánimo, satisfacción con la vida, nivel de tensión y la percepción de eventos vitales. El dato primario provino de las entrevistas realizadas, y para el análisis estadístico se creó una hoja de cálculo en Excel. Se utilizaron técnicas de distribución de frecuencias; para las variables cuantitativas se empleó la proporción en porcentaje. En la muestra de individuos centenarios que vivían en la provincia de Las Tunas, al momento del estudio, predominaron los que no presentaban deterioro cognitivo ni depresión, tuvieron  satisfacción alta con la vida, nivel bajo de tensión y no se afectaban con los eventos vitales. Las positivas características psicológicas y de resiliencia, unidas a un entorno psicosocial favorable, se relacionan con la larga supervivencia de los individuos estudiados.

  18. Characterization of acid-and pepsin-soluble collagens from spines and skulls of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Di; Chi, Chang-Feng; Wang, Bin; Ding, Guo-Fang; Li, Zhong-Rui

    2014-09-01

    Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) from the spine (ASC-SP and PSC-SP) and skull (ASC-SK and PSC-SK) of the skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, were successfully isolated and characterized. The yields of ASC-SP, PSC-SP, ASC-SK and PSC-SK were (2.47 ± 0.39)%, (5.62 ± 0.82)%, (3.57 ± 0.40)%, and (6.71 ± 0.81)%, respectively, on the basis of dry weight. The four collagens contained Gly (330.2-339.1 residues/1 000 residues) as the major amino acid, and their imino acid contents were between 168.8 and 178.2 residues/1 000 residues. Amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR investigations confirmed that ASC-SP and ASC-SK were mainly composed of type I collagen, and had higher contents of high-molecular weight cross-links than those of PSC-SK and PSC-SP. The FTIR investigation also certified all the collagens had triple helical structure. The denaturation temperatures of ASC-SK, PSC-SK, ASC-SP, and PSC-SP were 17.8, 16.6, 17.6, and 16.5 °C, respectively. All isolated collagens were soluble at acidic pH (1-5) and lost their solubilities when the NaCl concentration was above 2% (W/V). The isolated collagens from the spines and skulls of skipjack tuna could serve as an alternative source of collagens for further application in food, cosmetic, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25263986

  19. Estabilidad en el almacenamiento congelado de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo (Thunnus sp. empacadas en atmósfera modificada con CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Luisa Medina Bracamonte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La disponibilidad atún rojo fresco, entero y rebanado, como todo producto pesquero fresco está restringida para los consumidores en zonas distantes a los centros de producción por su estabilidad limitada en el almacenamiento. Por ello la industria pesquera en general, en la época de mayor producción, recurre a la congelación para conservar el excedente de producción, y al empacado para protegerlo del ambiente frío y seco del congelador, evitar su deshidratación y “quemaduras por frío”. El surgimiento del Empacado en Atmósfera Modificada como alternativa para incrementar la vida útil de productos alimenticios despertó la inquietud de evaluar la estabilidad de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo (Thunnus sp. fresco, congeladas y empacadas con 100 % de CO2 durante su almacenamiento a las temperaturas convencionales para su distribución y venta, -10 y -18 ºC, evaluando la estabilidad química, física, microbiológica y sensorial de las rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo durante ≈ 4 meses de almacenamiento congelado. El 50 % de las rebanadas se congeló a -10 ºC (Tratamiento 1 y el 50 % restante a -18 ºC (Tratamiento 2. Las rebanadas congeladas se empacaron individualmente, el 50 % en atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 conservando la proporción 1:2 (rebanada:gas y el 50 % restante en atmósfera de aire. Se almacenaron a la temperatura correspondiente: Tratamiento 1 a -10 ºC y Tratamiento 2 a -18 ºC durante 111 días. Al final del almacenamiento el tratamiento P2 (100 % CO2 ofreció mejor barrera a la pérdida de humedad, favoreció la estabilidad de la fracción de proteínas solubles en solución salina. Las muestras P2 tuvieron mayor aceptación sensorial, fueron las más oscuras y rojas, con menor recuento microbiológico, coincidiendo con el menor contenido en bases volátiles totales. A -10 ºC la atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 no evitó la “quemadura por frío” y los panelistas percibieron el “olor a pescado”.

  20. Legal, Political, and Economic Constraints on Japanese Strategies for Distant-Water Tuna and Skipjack Fisheries in Southeast Asian Seas and the Western Central Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Yoshiaki; OUCHI, Kazuomi; マツダ, ヨシアキ; オオウチ, カズオミ; 松田, 恵明; 大内, 和臣

    1985-01-01

    Together with cost inflation and stagnant market prices, the new 200-nautical-mile regime has hit the conventional tuna and skipjack fishing industry very hard. Japanese countermeasures consist of domestic adjustments such as cost and risk-reducing devices, withdrawals of fishing vessels, employment of purse-seine fisheries, nearshore fishing ground adjustments, and demand expansion; and external strategies such as historical fishing rights, legal-Informal Composite Negotiating Text ...

  1. Genetic stock structure of frigate tuna (Auxis thazard) along Indian coast based on PCR-RFLP analyses of mtDNA D-Loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GirishKumar; Kunal, S.P.; Menezes, M.R.

    . 2006. Highly migratory species. The State of World Highly Migratory, Straddling and Other High Seas Fishery Resources and Associated Species. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 84 pp. McManus, J.W. 1985. Marine speciation... and Mallia, 2007). Despite high abundance, very little information is available on genetic stocks of tuna species in Indian waters. To date, only four genetic studies were reported across the Indian coast (Menezes et al., 2006, 2008, 2012; Kumar et al...

  2. Present and Future Potential Habitat Distribution of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata By-Catch Species in the Tropical Tuna Purse-Seine Fishery under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Lezama-Ochoa, Nerea; Murua, Hilario; Chust, Guillem; van Loon, Emiel; Ruiz, Jon; Hall, Martin; Chavance, Pierre; Delgado De Molina, Alicia; Villarino, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    By-catch species from tropical tuna purse seine fishery have been affected by fishery pressures since the last century; however, the habitat distribution and the climate change impacts on these species are poorly known. With the objective of predicting the potential suitable habitat for a shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) and a teleost (Canthidermis maculata) in the Indian, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, a MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM) was developed using data collected by obse...

  3. Present and future potential habitat distribution of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata by-catch species in the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Nerea eLezama Ochoa; Hilario eMurua; Guillem eChust; Emiel eVan Loon; Jon eRuiz; Martin eHall; Pierre eChavance; Alicia eDelgado de Molina; Ernesto eVillarino

    2016-01-01

    By-catch species from tropical tuna purse seine fishery have been affected by fishery pressures since the last century; however, the habitat distribution and the climate change impacts on these species are poorly known. With the objective of predicting the potential suitable habitat for a shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) and a teleost (Canthidermis maculata) in the Indian, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, a MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM) was developed using data collected by obse...

  4. Physical and chemical properties of tuna-skin and bovine-hide gelatin films with added aqueous oregano and rosemary extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Estaca, Joaquín; Montero García, Pilar; Fernández Martín, Fernando; Alemán, A.; Gómez Guillén, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    The properties of edible, gelatin-based films with added oregano or rosemary extract (two different concentrations) were studied. Gelatins from different sources (bovine-hides and tuna-skins) were employed with a view to elucidating how inherent gelatin characteristics may affect interaction of the gelatin with the polyphenols in the added extract and hence the properties of the resulting films. The bovine-hide gelatin reacted only slightly with the polyphenols in the extracts as shown by the...

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS FOR DETERMINING PELAGIC TUNA FISHING GROUND IN THE NORTH PAPUA WATERS USING MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA

    OpenAIRE

    VlNCENTIUS SlREGAR; HAROLD JOPPIE DAVIDO WAAS

    2006-01-01

    The North Papua waters as one of the important fi shing grounds in the world contribute approximately 75% of world production of pelagic tunas. These fishing grounds are still determined by hunting method. This method is time consuming and costly. However, in many areas determination of fishing ground using satellited data lias been applied by detecting the important oceanographic parameter of the presence of fish schooling such as, sea surface temperature and chlorophyl. Mostly these paramet...

  6. Trophic Ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnusthynnus) Larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean Spawning Grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study

    OpenAIRE

    Laiz-Carrión, Raúl; GERARD, Trika; Uriarte, Amaya; Malca, Estrella; Quintanilla, José María; Barbara A Muhling; ALEMANY Francisco; Privoznik, Sarah L.; Shiroza, Akihiro; John T Lamkin; García, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C) as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT) (6–10 mm standard length) in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Balearic Sea (MED). These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophi...

  7. Duration of unassisted swimming activity for spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) calves: implications for mother-calf separation during tuna purse-seine sets

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Elizabeth F.

    2006-01-01

    Size-related differences in power production and swim speed duration may contribute to the observed deficit of nursing calves in relation to lactating females killed in sets by tuna purse-seiners in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP). Power production and swim-speed duration were estimated for northeastern spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), the species (neonate through adult) most often captured by the fishery. Power required by neonates to swim unassisted was 3.6 times that require...

  8. Enhancement of ACE and prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitory potency of protein hydrolysates from sardine and tuna by-products by simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Batista, Irineu; Ramos, Cristina; Montero, Pilar

    2016-04-20

    This work was focused on the study of the bioactive potential of three fish protein hydrolysates, one of them prepared from industrial sardine by-products (head and viscera) and the others from tuna by-products (head, and muscle and viscera). These protein hydrolysates exhibited moderate ability to inhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme or ACE (IC50 between 0.24-1.16 mg dry weight per ml) and prolyl oligopeptidase or PO (IC50 between 3.30-9.57 mg ml(-1)), those obtained from tuna by-products being the most effective. Overall, ACE- and PO-inhibiting activities were enhanced by sequential nanofiltration through 3 and 1 kDa MWCO membranes (IC50 between 0.02-0.16 mg ml(-1) (ACE) and 1.10-4.21 mg ml(-1) (PO)). The inhibitory properties of the hydrolysates were greatly improved by in vitro gastric digestion, and were barely affected by further intestinal digestion. The digested tuna hydrolysates, mainly that from heads, proved to be the best source of PO- and ACE- inhibiting molecules (IC50 = 0.16 mg ml(-1) (ACE) and 1.04 mg ml(-1) (PO)) and could be potential new ingredients in food with interest in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. PMID:27045751

  9. Aniversario XXX de la creación del Centro Provincial de Información de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenny Reina Castillo Montes de Oca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El 4 de enero de 1984 se inauguró el Centro Provincial de Información de Ciencias Médicas de Las Tunas, lo que permitió organizar la Red Provincial de Bibliotecas Médicas y con ello crear nuevos escenarios para desarrollar la actividad científico - informativa en el territorio; con la apertura de una biblioteca en cada unidad de salud. El Centro inicialmente estuvo ubicado en un pequeño local cercano a la biblioteca del Hospital “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna”. En el año 1988; con la misión, la visión y los objetivos de trabajo de su objeto social bien definidos, fue trasladado para la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Zoilo Marinello Vidaurreta”, de la provincia de Las Tunas y al crearse la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas en esta provincia, el Centro Provincial de Información pasa a ser una dependencia directa de la misma. En la primera década se sentaron las bases de lo que es hoy el Sistema Provincial de Información de Ciencias de la Salud, constituido por 25 bibliotecas médicas distribuidas en toda la geografía tunera, con la misión de: “garantizar la prestación de servicios de información científico tecnológica a la comunidad de profesionales que conforman el sector de la salud en la provincia, con el fin de elevar la calidad de la asistencia, la investigación, la docencia, la dirección y la cultura médica nueva y propiciar el hallazgo de soluciones que posibiliten enfrentar los problemas de salud”. Durante estos 30 años, los trabajadores de la información en el territorio han laborado con verdadera dedicación para cumplir cada tarea encomendada, asumir los retos del desarrollo continuo de la ciencia, asimilar las nuevas tecnologías y brindar a nuestros usuarios servicios y productos de alto valor informacional. La movilización de recursos lograda a través de los proyectos de la Red Nacional de Salud INFOMED, entre los cuales figuran: Proyecto SIDA, Proyecto para la Promoción de Publicaciones

  10. SI-traceable measurement of methylmercury in tuna by species-specific isotope dilution with a 202Hg isotopically enriched methylmercury reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere, CCQM, from the International Committee for Weights and Measures, has the tasks to co-ordinate the activities of national metrology laboratories in establishing traceability of measurements to the SI and to stimulate understanding of the concept of uncertainty and assignment of uncertainty statements to measurements. CCQM working groups develop and execute international comparisons to establish the technical basis for the mutual recognition of measurement capabilities. In 2003, IRMM, the metrology institute of the European Commission, launched CCQM pilot study 39 on the measurement of As, Se, Pb, Hg and CH3Hg in tuna. The aims were to strengthen the comparability of measurements EU member states are obliged to make under EC regulation 466/2001 (monitoring of contaminants in food) on the total element contents, and to evaluate the comparability of CH3Hg measurement with new measurement techniques. At the CCQM level, it is necessary to produce measurements for all analytes through processes with established traceability to the SI and with uncertainty statements. The IRMM contribution to CCQM-P39 for the determination of the tuna's CH3Hg amount content was based on species specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry applied as a primary method of measurement. IRMM-670, a newly developed 202Hg enriched CH3Hg isotopic reference material, was blended to the tuna sample, from which Hg species were extracted and derivatised to non-polar forms. Gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, GC-ICP-MS, was used for Hg species separation and detection of the n(200Hg)/n(202Hg) ratio in the CH3Hg of the blended material. The SI-traceable CH3Hg amount content was then obtained through comparison using an IDMS equation with the IRMM-670 reference CH3Hg amount content (including the isotopic compositions of natural Hg recommended by IUPAC, and certified for CH3Hg in IRMM-670). IRMM-639, a natural-like Hg

  11. CONTRIBUTE TO THE CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF LAS TUNAS CITY OF DIOSCÓRIDE T. FUERTE BORGES / APORTES AL DESARROLLO CULTURAL DE LAS TUNAS DE DIOSCÓRIDE T. BORGES FUERTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Susana Hernández Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation it was carried out a valuation of the elements that distinguish the cultural work of Dioscóride T. Borges Fuerte and their contributions to the cultural development of Las Tunas, through the significance of their cultural chore, to become an artisan Luthiers of great relevance. It is sought to achieve the recognition of a personality of the culture, illustrating in the document that contains their history of life their contributions and taxes from the luthiería to the cultural development of the county. In the investigation it was made use of the History of Life like qualitative method to achieve an approach to Borges' life and to reveal their contributions to the cultural development through their contribution to the music, the construction of guitars, formation of new generations and innovation in the luthiería. The reach and transcendency of the work of the eminent Luthiers stands out among musicians, professors, students, personalities of the culture and manufacturers of guitars in the whole country.

  12. Optimizing Conditions for the Purification of Omega-3 Fatty Acids from the By-product of Tuna Canning Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the optimization conditions for separation and purification of omega-3 (&omega-3 fatty acids from the by-product of tuna canning processing by urea crystallization. Crystallization reaction conditions of urea inclusion (urea to fatty acid ratio (X1 and crystallization time(X2 were optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM and a model was developed. Optimization results showed a quadratic polynomial regression equation of Y = 24.44X1+5.65X2-8.71XX1 2-0.19X22+1.171X1X2- 12.95. The maximum response was obtained at an urea to fatty acid ratio of 2.99:1 and a crystallization time of 23.64 h and predicted response of 90.44%. Analysis of variance showed that the urea to fatty acid ratio and crystallization time affected the response. Verification under optimal conditions showed that the purity of &omega-3 fatty acids was 89.64% and the enrichment was 2.85 fold. Verification result revealed that the predicted value from this model was reasonably close to the experimentally observed value. The urea crystallization process changed oil quality parameters including oxidation level (peroxide, anisidin, and totox values, Fe, Cu and P concentrations and moisture content and this were mostly due to the saponification process before urea crystallization.

  13. Caracterización de los pacientes con cirrosis hepática atendidos en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Torreblanca Xiques

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, con el objetivo de caracterizar los pacientes con cirrosis hepática (CH, atendidos en el servicio de gastroenterología del Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna”, Las Tunas, Cuba, en el período comprendido entre febrero de 2012 y febrero de 2014. Se estudiaron 55 pacientes con cirrosis hepática diagnosticada por laparoscopia. Predominaron los pacientes del grupo de edad entre 50 y 59 años, siendo el sexo masculino el más afectado. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas que se apreciaron en estos pacientes fueron la ascitis y los edemas en miembros inferiores, así como las complicaciones más frecuentemente encontradas, la ascitis y la hemorragia digestiva alta. El alcoholismo y la etiología viral por virus C se presentaron con mayor frecuencia, predominando el primero. En el mayor por ciento de los pacientes debutó la enfermedad con al menos una complicación

  14. In vitro calcium availability in bakery products fortified with tuna bone powder as a natural calcium source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Mahnaz; Kamilah, Hanisah; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah

    2015-08-01

    Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception. In vitro availability of calcium in TBP-fortified cookies or TCP-fortified cookies were comparable at 38.9% and 39.5%, respectively. These values were higher than the readings from TBP-fortified bread (36.7%) or TCP-fortified bread (37.4%). Sensory evaluation of bakery products containing TBP or TCP elicited comparable scores for the two additives from test panels. Hence, TBP could be used in the production of high calcium bakery products that would enjoy consumer acceptance. PMID:27144766

  15. CALIDAD DE LAS AGUAS DE LA CUENCA DEL RÍO NARANJO, MUNICIPIO MAJIBACOA, PROVINCIA LAS TUNAS PARA EL RIEGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Balmaseda Espinosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad de las aguas es uno de los elementos estudiados cuando se valora la sostenibilidad de las cuencas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la aptitud de las aguas de la cuenca del río Naranjo, en la provincia Las Tunas, con fines de riego. Para el estudio, se tomaron seis puntos representativos de la cuenca (tres superficiales y tres subterráneos. El muestreo se hizo en dos momentos, húmedo y seco. La calidad se definió en base a los criterios de FAO y otros indicadores específicos para el riego. Las aguas de las fuentes subterráneas son no aptas para el riego de los cultivos agrícolas y las superficiales tienen restricciones ligeras a moderadas. Existe peligro de alcalinización de los suelos producto de las concentraciones de bicarbonato en las aguas. Por otra parte el sodio de las aguas puede pasar a la solución del suelo y sustituir al calcio y el magnesio causando la degradación de los suelos.

  16. Cold-stable eye lens crystallins of the Antarctic nototheniid toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni Norman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andor J; Mirarefi, Amir Y; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Zukoski, Charles F; Devries, Arthur L; Cheng, Chi-Hing C

    2004-12-01

    The eye lenses of the Antarctic nototheniid fishes that inhabit the perennially freezing Antarctic seawater are transparent at -2 degrees C, whereas the cold-sensitive mammalian and tropical fish lenses display cold-induced cataract at 20 degrees C and 7 degrees C, respectively. No cold-cataract occurs in the giant Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni lens when cooled to temperatures as low as -12 degrees C, indicating highly cold-stable lens proteins. To investigate this cold stability, we characterised the lens crystallin proteins of the Antarctic toothfish, in parallel with those of the sub-tropical bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus and the endothermic cow Bos taurus, representing three disparate thermal climes (-2 degrees C, 18 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively). Sizing chromatography resolved their lens crystallins into three groups, alpha/betaH, beta and gamma, with gamma crystallins being the most abundant (>40%) lens proteins in fish, in contrast to the cow lens where they comprise only 19%. The upper thermal stability of these crystallin components correlated with the body temperature of the species. In vitro chaperone assays showed that fish alpha crystallin can protect same-species gamma crystallins from heat denaturation, as well as lysozyme from DTT-induced unfolding, and therefore are small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSP) like their mammalian counterparts. Dynamic light scattering measured an increase in size of alphagamma crystallin mixtures upon heating, which supports formation of the alphagamma complex as an integral part of the chaperone process. Surprisingly, in cross-species chaperone assays, tuna alpha crystallins only partly protected toothfish gamma crystallins, while cow alpha crystallins completely failed to protect, indicating partial and no alphagamma interaction, respectively. Toothfish gamma was likely to be the component that failed to interact, as the supernatant from a cow alpha plus toothfish gamma incubation could chaperone cow

  17. Impact of fish aggregation devices on tropical tuna' s behavioral pattern: A review%人工集鱼装置对热带金枪鱼类行为模式的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学昉; 朱国平; 孙满昌; 许柳雄

    2012-01-01

    金枪鱼类会聚集在漂浮物周围,人类依据该行为特性研制出人工集鱼装置(fish aggregation devices,FADs)诱集金枪鱼,从而使金枪鱼围网的产量和捕捞效率大幅提高.但目前科学界仍不确定FADs为何能够吸引金枪鱼以及其广泛使用是否会对金枪鱼资源和大洋中上层生态系统产生潜在影响.针对这些问题,国外学者展开了大量以FADs周围金枪鱼为研究对象的个体行为学试验.本文归纳并整理了过去30多年中较可靠和经典的相关试验,从金枪鱼的趋向性行为、集群行为、随附行为、摄食行为和垂直移动行为5个方面分别阐述了漂流FADs和锚泊FADs下金枪鱼的行为模式,并对国内今后开展相关研究的重点方向和注意事项进行了展望.%Tuna prefers to aggregate around floating objects. Based on this behavioral characteristic , people developed fish aggregation devices (FADs) to trap tuna, and made the catch and fishing efficiency of tuna purse seine fisheries improved greatly. However, there still exist uncertainties whether the FADs can attract tuna and what' s the potential impact of widely applying FADs in tuna purse seine fishery on tuna resources and oceanic pelagic ecosystem. Aiming at these uncertainties, scientists conducted a great deal experiments to study the behavioral biology of tuna around FADs. This paper reviewed the related classic and more credible experiments in the past 30 years, and summed up five behavioral patterns of the tunas around drifting and anchored FADs, i. e. , tropism behavior, schooling behavior, association behavior, feeding behavior, and vertical movement pattern. The related main research methods currently in use were introduced, and the issues on this subject needed to be paid great attention to were discussed.

  18. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis Dark Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Chi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%, hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%, and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03% and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively, small molecular sizes (3–6 peptides, low molecular weights (524.78 kDa, and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11. This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes.

  19. ESTRATEGIA DE COMUNICACIÓN PARA FORTALECER LA IMAGEN ORGANIZACIONAL DE COPEXTEL S.A. DIVISIÓN TERRITORIAL LAS TUNAS

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Abad Bermúdez Laguna; Idalmis Ramírez Hidalgo; Adis Isabel López Mesa

    2010-01-01

    La comunicación y la imagen de las empresas se muestran como armas que incitan al público o consumidor a la adquisición de un producto o servicio, con una conducta o comportamiento esperado. Los estudios sobre comunicación e imagen organizacional, constituyen una necesidad de las instituciones cubanas. La presente investigación se desarrolla en la Corporación Copextel, S.A. de la División Territorial Las Tunas donde hasta el momento, la búsqueda de información estaba limitada al nivel de sati...

  20. Límites máximos de residuos e intervalos de seguridad de plaguicidas en tuna, Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Aldama Aguilera, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    Dado que no existen plaguicidas registrados para el manejo fitosanitario de las plagas que afectan la producción de tuna, Opuntia ficus-indica (L) Miller 1768, se propusieron límites máximos de residuos (LMRs) de siete plaguicidas en esta fruta. En la evaluación del riesgo dietético crónico se estimaron los niveles de exposición con los métodos de Ingesta Diaria Teórica Máxima (IDTM) e Ingesta Diaria Estimada (IDE). En 2006, se realizaron dos aplicaciones de los plagui...

  1. Integración Ganadería Agricultura en una pequeña finca familiar. CCSF José Santiago Ercilla, Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    González Espinosa, Ángel; Funes Aguilar, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    La integración agroecológica diversificada permite mayor eficiencia, uso racional de recursos, complementando la agricultura y pecuaria y el campesino logra, con recursos propios ser menos vulnerable ante el cambio climático y ataque de plagas. Se presentan resultados de la finca “Las Palmitas” en Villanueva, Las Tunas, en 16.4 ha., con objetivo de diversificar e integrar la producción para lograr alimentos sanos, libres de agrotóxicos de forma eficiente y sostenible, y uso racional de recurs...

  2. Estudio de cinco años en pacientes de Las Tunas con cáncer cutáneo no melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Odalys Rufina Peña Pérez; Vicente de Jesús Alvarez Yabor; Alicia María Yabor Palomo; Alexander Morales Fontaine; Ariadna Ricardo Peña

    2015-01-01

    Fundamento: el cáncer cutáneo no melanoma ha mostrado un incremento paulatino a nivel mundial, en Las Tunas, Cuba, existe un comportamiento similar.Objetivo: caracterizar los pacientes diagnosticados histopatológicamente con cáncer cutáneo no melanoma, cuyas biopsias fueron analizadas en el departamento de anatomía patológica del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna", en el período comprendido entre enero de 2010 a diciembre 2014.Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo...

  3. REPOSITORIO DIGITAL PARA UNA MEJOR GESTIÓN DE LA INFORMACIÓN CIENTÍFICA EN LA UNIVERSIDAD LAS TUNAS

    OpenAIRE

    Yunior Rodríguez Rodríguez; Yamina Arteaga Aleaga

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda la importancia de la implementación de un repositorio digital para una mejor gestión de la información científica en la Universidad de Las Tunas, donde podamos socializar y consultar las tesis de grado, maestría y doctorado, resultados de proyectos de investigación, libros, revistas, manuscritos creados en nuestra Universidad e incluso digitalizar libros de única edición y de difícil acceso. Se ofrecen definiciones de varios autores así como los antecedentes de la ...

  4. Annual estimates of the unobserved incidental kill of pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata attenuata) calves in the tuna purse-seine fishery of the eastern tropical Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Frederick; Gerrodette, Tim; Chivers, Susan; Jackson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    We estimated the total number of pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) mothers killed without their calves (“calf deficit”) in all tuna purse-seine sets from 1973– 90 and 1996–2000 in the eastern tropical Pacific. Estimates were based on a tally of the mothers killed as reported by color pattern and gender, several color-pattern-based frequency tables, and a weaning model. Over the time series, there was a decrease in the calf deficit from approximately 2800 for the western-souther...

  5. Conteo CD4+ y carga viral en la evolución clínica de pacientes con vih-sida en Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Hernández Betancourt; Orlando R. Serrano Barrera; Eduardo Reyes Leyet

    2015-01-01

    La comprensión de la inmunopatogénesis de la infección por vih-sida es un requisito para mejorar racionalmente los tratamientos disponibles y desarrollar inmunoterapias y vacunas. Se estudiaron 314 sujetos con diagnóstico confirmado de esta infección en la provincia de Las Tunas, en el periodo comprendido entre enero de 1986 hasta diciembre de 2011, según los criterios establecidos en el programa cubano para el control de la enfermedad. Se calcularon las frecuencias para las variables: sexo, ...

  6. DIAGNÓSTICO DEL PROCESO DE CONTROL DE LOS COSTOS DE PRODUCCIÓN EN LA EMPRESA MINERO SALINERA DE LAS TUNAS

    OpenAIRE

    Yadianis Matamoros Hechavarría

    2012-01-01

    En el contexto actual se ha convertido en una necesidad para las empresas disponer de instrumentos válidos que tributen a una eficiente toma de decisiones. En este sentido el presente trabajo se realizó en la Empresa Minero Salinera de Las Tunas con el objetivo de diagnosticar el proceso de control de los costos de producción. Los principales resultados evidencian que existen insuficiencias en el proceso de control de los costos que limitan los resultados económicos, dado en la no elaboración...

  7. Comportamiento del síndrome de inmovilización. Hogar de Ancianos, Las Tunas, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Thomas Santiesteban

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para describir el comportamiento de la inmovilización en el Hogar de Ancianos Carlos Pupo Font, de la provincia de Las Tunas, durante el año 2011. El universo lo constituyeron la totalidad de pacientes institucionalizados y la muestra estuvo conformada por 98 pacientes con algún tipo de inmovilización. Las variables a medir fueron: tipo de inmovilidad, edad, sexo, raza, hábitos tóxicos, estado mental, cambios fisiológicos ocurridos con el envejecimiento, enfermedades frecuentes, complicaciones y factores sociales. La información se obtuvo de la revisión de historias clínicas, fue procesada estadísticamente usando el Microsoft Excel, los resultados se mostraron a través de tablas y gráficos y se compararon con la literatura nacional e internacional. Se obtuvo predominio de pacientes con inmovilización relativa; el grupo de edad más afectado fue de 75 a 84 años, el sexo femenino, la raza blanca y el estado mental correspondiente a los demenciados; el hábito tóxico predominante fue el café; los cambios fisiológicos con el envejecimiento y las enfermedades más frecuentes corresponden a las del aparato músculo esquelético; las complicaciones predominantes fueron las digestivas seguidas por las respiratorias.

  8. Nivel de conocimientos de médicos generales integrales de Las Tunas sobre nutrición humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslhey Sánchez Domínguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La nutrición humana es un instrumento imprescindible a la hora de realizar intervenciones de salud, para ello se requiere de profesionales con un nivel adecuado de conocimientos sobre esta materia. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal, en las cuatro áreas de salud del municipio de Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. El objetivo de la investigación fue caracterizar los niveles de conocimientos sobre nutrición humana que tienen los especialistas y los residentes en medicina general integral. La muestra quedó conformada por 162 profesionales, a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario estructurado en cinco temas. Se realizó el análisis porcentual de los resultados y, de acuerdo al análisis integral del cuestionario, el 56,2% demostró conocimientos en los niveles medio y alto, el resto evidenció insuficiencias significativas (71 profesionales. Por el tipo de pregunta, el 49,4% (80 profesionales reveló dificultades en diferentes aspectos que constituyen generalidades de nutrición humana. En contraste con ello, el 62,3% demostró niveles de conocimientos medios y altos acerca del empleo de la nutrición en la prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades. Por temas, las deficiencias se centraron en: Aspectos generales y Alimentos, con el 51,2 y 58,7%, respectivamente. Se concluye que en los profesionales incluidos en el estudio existió un discreto predominio de los que poseen niveles de conocimientos medios y altos sobre nutrición humana. Las mayores deficiencias cognoscitivas estuvieron al relacionar los nutrientes con los alimentos y en aspectos generales de nutrición, que es necesario tener presente a la hora de promocionar estilos de vida saludables

  9. Hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus in marine by-products media from mussel processing wastewaters and tuna peptone viscera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murado Miguel A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyaluronic acid is one of the biopolymers most commonly used by the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, there is an increasing number of recent works that deal with the production of microbial hyaluronic acid. Different properties and characteristics of the fermentation process have been extensively optimised; however, new carbon and protein sources obtained from by-products or cheap substrates have not yet been studied. Results Mussel processing wastewater (MPW was used as a sugar source and tuna peptone (TP from viscera residue as a protein substrate for the production of hyaluronic acid (HA, biomass and lactic acid (LA by Streptococcus zooepidemicus in batch fermentation. Commercial medium formulated with glucose and tryptone was used as the control. The parametric estimations obtained from logistic equations and maintenance energy model utilized for modelling experimental data were compared in commercial and low-cost media. Complete residual media achieved high production (3.67, 2.46 and 30.83 g l-1 of biomass, HA and LA respectively and a high molecular weight of HA (approximately 2500 kDa. A simple economic analysis highlighted the potential viability of this marine media for reducing the production costs by more than 50%. Conclusions The experimental data and mathematical descriptions reported in this article demonstrate the potential of media formulated with MPW and TP to be used as substrates for HA production by S. zooepidemicus. Furthermore, the proposed equations accurately simulated the experimental profiles and generated a set of interesting parameters that can be used to compare the different bacterial cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work in which a culture media formed by marine by-products has been successfully used for microbial HA production.

  10. A Methodological Framework to Estimate the Site Fidelity of Tagged Animals Using Passive Acoustic Telemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Capello

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of the use of passive acoustic telemetry technologies has facilitated unprecedented opportunities for studying the behavior of marine organisms in their natural environment. This technological advance would greatly benefit from the parallel development of dedicated methodologies accounting for the variety of timescales involved in the remote detection of tagged animals related to instrumental, environmental and behavioral events. In this paper we propose a methodological framework for estimating the site fidelity ("residence times" of acoustic tagged animals at different timescales, based on the survival analysis of continuous residence times recorded at multiple receivers. Our approach is validated through modeling and applied on two distinct datasets obtained from a small coastal pelagic species (bigeye scad, Selar crumenophthalmus and a large, offshore pelagic species (yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, which show very distinct spatial scales of behavior. The methodological framework proposed herein allows estimating the most appropriate temporal scale for processing passive acoustic telemetry data depending on the scientific question of interest. Our method provides residence times free of the bias inherent to environmental and instrumental noise that can be used to study the small scale behavior of acoustic tagged animals. At larger timescales, it can effectively identify residence times that encompass the diel behavioral excursions of fish out of the acoustic detection range. This study provides a systematic framework for the analysis of passive acoustic telemetry data that can be employed for the comparative study of different species and study sites. The same methodology can be used each time discrete records of animal detections of any nature are employed for estimating the site fidelity of an animal at different timescales.

  11. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, Brian; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hatun, H.; Jansen, Teunis; Jacobsen, Jan Arge; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, Patrizio; Melvin, G.D.; Neilson, J.D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G.J.; Payne, Mark R.; Richardson, D.E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D.C.

    scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna...... (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many...

  12. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

  13. Colagenosis con afectación dermatológica en edades pediátricas en Las Tunas, 2010 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuska Tamayo Mariño

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las enfermedades del colágeno en edades pediátricas es relativamente joven y no se cuenta en Las Tunas con archivos que permitan evaluar su comportamiento, por ello se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo en el período comprendido entre los años 2010 al 2012, para caracterizar a los pacientes ingresados con estas enfermedades en el hospital pediátrico Mártires de Las Tunas. Inicialmente se determinaron las conectivopatias diagnosticadas con más frecuencia y luego se estudiaron las variables: sexo, edad, color de la piel, procedencia geográfica y antecedentes patológicos familiares de colagenosis, Los resultados fueron expuestos en tablas y expresados en porcientos. Predominaron la artritis idiopática juvenil, seguido de la fiebre reumática y la morfea. El sexo más frecuente fue el femenino, el grupo de edad más afectado fueron los adolescentes mayores de 13 años, el color de la piel que prevaleció fue el blanco y predominaron los pacientes sin antecedentes patológicos familiares de colagenosis

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS FOR DETERMINING PELAGIC TUNA FISHING GROUND IN THE NORTH PAPUA WATERS USING MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VlNCENTIUS SlREGAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Papua waters as one of the important fi shing grounds in the world contribute approximately 75% of world production of pelagic tunas. These fishing grounds are still determined by hunting method. This method is time consuming and costly. However, in many areas determination of fishing ground using satellited data lias been applied by detecting the important oceanographic parameter of the presence of fish schooling such as, sea surface temperature and chlorophyl. Mostly these parameters are used integrat edly. The aim of this study is to assess the important oceanographic parameters detected from mu lti-sensor satellites (NO AA/AVHRR, Seawifs and Topex Poisedon for determining fishing ground of pelagic tunas in the North Papua waters at east season. The parameters include Sea Surface Temperature (STT, chlorophyl-a and currents. The ava ilability of data from optic sensor (Seawifs: chl-a and AVHRR: Thermal is limited by the presence of cloud cover. In that case, Topex Poseidon satellite data can be used to provide the currents data. The integration of data from multi-sensors increases the availability of the oceanographic parameters for prediction of the potential fishing zones in the study area.

  15. Spatial variation in fatty acid trophic markers in albacore tuna from the southwestern Pacific Ocean-A potential 'tropicalization' signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Christopher C.; Pethybridge, Heidi; Young, Jock W.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2015-03-01

    Signature fatty acids were used to explore trophic variations in albacore and skipjack tuna sampled from the southwestern Pacific Ocean. There were clear spatial differences in fatty acid profiles between albacore sampled in the Coral (tropical zone centered at ~20°S) and Tasman (temperate zone centered at ~42°S) Seas; however, few differences were observed in fatty acid profiles of albacore sampled off Tasmania and New Zealand. Fatty acid signatures of the Tasman Sea samples reflected a food web based more on diatoms and included: 20:5ω3 (EPA), 18:1ω7, 22:1ω11, 18:2ω6, 18:4ω3, 18:3ω3, and 20:4ω3. In contrast, albacore from the Coral Sea had a distinct fatty acid signature which included 20:4ω6, 22:5ω6, 17:0, 22:4ω6, 24:0, and 17:1. Multivariate analyses revealed the importance of 22:6ω3 (DHA) in Coral Sea-caught albacore which also had a DHA/EPA ratio more than twice that in all other groups suggesting a greater dinoflagellate contribution and/or a higher trophic position. Fatty acid markers indicative of krill consumption were significantly higher in temperate-caught albacore although skipjack were closest in fatty acid composition to krill. These results were likely due to differences at the base of the food web in these two seas suggesting that signature fatty acids can be used as indicators of ecosystem change: in this case the gradual 'tropicalization' of the eastern seaboard of Australia through the southward extension of the East Australian Current. Our findings also indicate comparatively lower concentrations of healthful ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular the content of DHA and EPA, in the tropical samples. This suggests that tropicalization could adversely affect the dietary intake of albacore and other marine predators in the region. Such changes are readily detectable by fatty acid analysis.

  16. Comportamiento de la polifarmacia en el hogar de ancianos “Carlos Font Pupo”, Las Tunas, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahily de la Caridad Rojas Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento conlleva a un mayor consumo de fármacos en los ancianos, elevando la probabilidad de ocurrencia de interacciones medicamentosas y reacciones adversas, afectando la calidad de vida de este tipo de paciente. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para caracterizar la polifarmacia en el Hogar de Ancianos “Carlos Pupo Font”, en Las Tunas, durante el año 2011. El universo estuvo constituido por la totalidad de pacientes institucionalizados y la muestra por 102 ancianos con criterio de selección de consumo de tres o más medicamentos de forma simultánea en el período de estudio. Se caracterizó la edad y sexo de los ancianos, frecuencia de polifarmacia, los grupos farmacológicos implicados, las principales afecciones clínicas y las posibles interacciones medicamentosas por las prescripciones realizadas. La información se obtuvo de la revisión de historias clínicas y fue procesada mediante la estadística descriptiva. El sexo femenino y el grupo de edad entre 75 y 84 años fueron los predominantes. Un 47% de los ancianos consumió cuatro medicamentos simultáneamente. Los antihipertensivos fueron los medicamentos más usados, seguidos por los AINEs. El 72% de la muestra padece afecciones cardiorrespiratorias y el 68% afecciones músculo esqueléticas. Se identificaron posibles interacciones medicamentosas relacionadas con el proceso de absorción, dadas por uniones de ácidos y bases débiles y por interacciones con alimentos, específicamente con la leche. La polimedicación puede ser racionalizada a través de un uso adecuado de los medicamentos, teniendo en cuenta el intervalo de dosificación, las características químicas de los fármacos, la dosis y las características individuales del paciente.

  17. Efectividad del tratamiento acupuntural en la Parálisis Facial Periférica. Puerto Padre, Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorania Cera Barea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio experimental en pacientes mayores de 19 años, con Parálisis Facial Periférica, que fueron atendidos en el Policlínico "Romárico Oro Peña" del municipio de Puerto Padre, provincia de Las Tunas; en el período comprendido entre enero y diciembre del año 2011. La muestra quedó conformada por 40 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión establecidos, a los que se les aplicó el método acupuntural, con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad del mismo en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Los puntos de acupuntura utilizados fueron: Extra 1, 2, 3; Estómago 2, 4, 6, 7; Vaso Concepción 24; Vaso Gobernador 26 y Vesícula Biliar 14. Se aplicó tonificación en el lado sano y dispersión de la energía en el lado de la parálisis. Se recogió la información a través de micro-historias clínicas, donde se incluyeron todas las variables de manera independiente. Los datos se analizaron a través de la estadística descriptiva y el análisis porcentual. Se concluyó que la enfermedad predominó en el sexo femenino y el grupo etáreo de 40 a 49 años; la exposición al frío y/o al calor resultó el factor desencadenante que más incidió; el mayor número de pacientes presentó una evolución clínica favorable; solo se presentaron dos efectos adversos relativos al uso de la acupuntura, demostrando la inocuidad del tratamiento.

  18. Metasomatismo en ortoanfibolitas de la Faja máfica-ultramáfica del río de las tunas, Mendoza Metasomatism in orthoamphibolites from the Río de Las Tunas mafic-ultramafic belt, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Florencia Gargiulo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron claras evidencias petro-mineralógicas y químicas de metasomatismo en ortoanfibolitas de la faja máficaultramáfica del Río de Las Tunas, Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza. Estas ortoanfibolitas integran el basamento metamórfico de la Cordillera Frontal y pertenecen al Complejo Guarguaráz. La peculiaridad que poseen, es el desarrollo de asociaciones de minerales calcosilicáticos vinculados a texturas que indican condiciones de desequilibrio. Los cristaloblastos de anfíbol están reemplazados en los bordes por clinopiroxeno (diópsido ferroso y los individuos de plagioclasa se encuentran casi completamente reemplazados por un agregado muy fino de granate-epidotos.l -prehnita-pumpellyita-albita, que actúa a modo de matriz de la roca. Los cristales de anfíbol y clinopiroxeno están, a su vez, parcialmente reemplazados por pumpellyita y/o clorita, mientras que la matriz se encuentra alterada débilmente por muscovita y calcita. Los cristales de granate corresponden a la serie grosularia-andradita y su composición promedio es Alm05Adr53Prp01Sps04Grs36Uv01. Cristales con mayor contenido de Cr2O3 (11,69-13,17% en peso y sutil zonalidad composicional, determinada por un núcleo más rico en el componente uvarovítico: Alm03Adr13Prp00Sps02Grs35Uv47, y borde con incremento de la proporción del componente grosulárico: Alm03Adr12Prp00Sps01Grs44Uv40, suelen estar en contacto con cristales de magnetita con hasta un 20% de componente cromítico. La zonalidad composicional presente también en los cristales de anfíbol permitió estimar valores de presión entre 2,5 y 4,2 kbar. Las asociaciones minerales junto con sus características texturales y químicas distinguen a estas rocas del resto de las ortoanfibolitas que afloran en el área de estudio y se las interpreta y clasifica como rodingitas clinopiroxénicas con granate y clinozoisita. Las condiciones de presión obtenidas, junto con el desarrollo de los minerales calcosilic

  19. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific). PMID:25629476

  20. REPOSITORIO DIGITAL PARA UNA MEJOR GESTIÓN DE LA INFORMACIÓN CIENTÍFICA EN LA UNIVERSIDAD LAS TUNAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunior Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda la importancia de la implementación de un repositorio digital para una mejor gestión de la información científica en la Universidad de Las Tunas, donde podamos socializar y consultar las tesis de grado, maestría y doctorado, resultados de proyectos de investigación, libros, revistas, manuscritos creados en nuestra Universidad e incluso digitalizar libros de única edición y de difícil acceso. Se ofrecen definiciones de varios autores así como los antecedentes de la gestión de información científica en nuestra universidad, además de las ventajas de su creación. También se muestra el diagnóstico y la estrategia para si implementación.

  1. Caracterización del mieloma múltiple y de su componente monoclonal durante 14 años en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lina Pupo Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El mieloma múltiple es una neoplasia de células plasmáticas que representa el 10% de las enfermedades hematológicas malignas. La mayoría de los pacientes presentan síntomas, signos y trastornos de laboratorio sugestivos de enfermedad activa, incluyendo lesiones osteolíticas activas, hipercalcemia, anemia y fallo renal. Para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad hay que tener en cuenta las manifestaciones clínicas, los estudios radiológicos, pruebas especiales como citología celular y exámenes de laboratorio como la electroforesis de proteína en suero y orina, inmunoelectroforesis, cuantificación de inmunoglobulinas y proteína de Bence-Jones. Se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de evaluar las características de las variables inmunológicas mediante la determinación de inmunoglobulinas (inmunodifusión radial simple o inmunoturbidimetría en un analizador automático HITACHI, proteínas totales (método de Biuret o en el analizador HITACHI y electroforesis de proteínas en suero y orina en pacientes remitidos de la consulta de Hematología del Hospital “Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de Las Tunas, con el diagnóstico de mieloma múltiple. La clase IgG fue la predominante en los 127 casos estudiados (73,3%, seguido de la IgA (16,5% y de cadenas ligeras (9,5%. Se han registrado dos casos de macroglobulinemia de Waldeström. En correspondencia con lo reportado en la literatura, en la provincia de Las Tunas el isotipo más frecuente en pacientes afectados por mieloma múltiple es de clase IgG.

  2. Conteo CD4+ y carga viral en la evolución clínica de pacientes con vih-sida en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hernández Betancourt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La comprensión de la inmunopatogénesis de la infección por vih-sida es un requisito para mejorar racionalmente los tratamientos disponibles y desarrollar inmunoterapias y vacunas. Se estudiaron 314 sujetos con diagnóstico confirmado de esta infección en la provincia de Las Tunas, en el periodo comprendido entre enero de 1986 hasta diciembre de 2011, según los criterios establecidos en el programa cubano para el control de la enfermedad. Se calcularon las frecuencias para las variables: sexo, municipio de residencia, estadio de la enfermedad, progresión clínica, enfermedades coexistentes, conteo de CD4, carga viral y protocolo de tratamiento. El sexo masculino predominó en la muestra de estudio (79,4% y en los progresores rápidos (77,3%. El tiempo medio estimado de progresión a sida fue de 3,6 años. Los pacientes con más de diez años de infectados tuvieron niveles sanguíneos por encima de 500 células CD4+/µL. Los dos esquemas de tratamiento antirretroviral más empleados fueron Zidovudina – Lamivudina – Nevirapina y Estavudina - Lamivudina – Nevirapina, con cifras aceptables para las cifras de linfocitos T CD4+ y la viremia. Más de la cuarta parte de los portadores asintomáticos mantuvieron niveles de células T CD4+ en valores normales, proporción que se reduce a una quinta parte en los enfermos de sida. La muestra estudiada de sujetos infectados por el vih-sida de la provincia de Las Tunas tiene características similares a lo reportado para la epidemia en Cuba.

  3. LA GUITARRA DE CONCIERTO COMO EXPRESIÓN DE LA CULTURA EN LAS TUNAS. ESTUDIO DEL PERÍODO 1990- 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tamayo Talavera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente estudio forma parte de una investigación que se encuentra en proceso, sobre el devenir de la guitarra de concierto en el municipio Las Tunas desde el año 1990 hasta el 2014. La guitarra de concierto se cultiva en este territorio desde la segunda mitad siglo XX, generándose a partir del período citado un proceso de desarrollo paulatino en torno a sus expresiones. Sin embargo, aún no se han logrado niveles masivos de aceptación de la guitarra de concierto por parte de la sociedad tunera, lo cual conduce a realizar un análisis sobre las causas de su situación actual desde la definición de cultura. Por otro lado, quedarán identificadas las deficiencias que en la actualidad limitan sus contribuciones al desarrollo cultural del territorio. ABSTRACT This study is part of a research which is still in process, about the development of the concert guitar in Las Tunas municipality in 1990-2014 period. The concert guitar has been cultivated in this territory since the beginning of XX century, and it has been generated a development process around its expressions in the selected period. However, Las Tunas’ society hasn’t accepted these musical expressions in massive levels, which takes to make an analysis of the causes of its actual situation from culture’s definition. On the other hand, the problems that avoid the contributions of the concert guitar to the culture development of Las Tunas’ territory will be also identified.

  4. Características de la infección por geohelmintos intestinales en escolares primarios de la provincia de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca M. Laird Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo, en el período comprendido entre los meses de septiembre y diciembre de 2004, con el objetivo de caracterizar la infección por geohelmintos intestinales en escolares de la enseñanza primaria de la provincia de Las Tunas. Se estudiaron 1 342 escolares pertenecientes a 35 escuelas de los estratos urbano y rural de los ocho municipios de la provincia. De cada escolar se procesó una muestra de heces por los procedimientos Directo y Kato Katz y se practicó el método de Harada Moris cuando se observaron huevos de ancylostomídeos. A los escolares parasitados por geohelmintos se les determinó su condición clínica. Se obtuvo una prevalencia general de la infección por geohelmintos intestinales del 16,2%, con predominio de la intensidad general de la infección ligera. Los gusanos trichúridos fueron los más observados, asociados a la mayoría de las infecciones con intensidades ligeras y moderadas. Prevaleció el estado clínico asintomático con muy poca morbilidad específica, siendo el dolor abdominal y la diarrea no disentérica los síntomas más frecuentes. Se caracterizó a la provincia de Las Tunas como una zona hipoendémica de geohelmintos intestinales y se recomienda identificar los determinantes de la infección por estos parásitos en la población escolar

  5. THE CRAFT LIKE A CULTURAL PRACTICE THAT CONFIGURES SOCIOCULTURAL PROCESSES: THE BASKETWORK IN THE TUNAS AT THE PRESENT TIME / LA ARTESANÍA COMO UNA PRÁCTICA CULTURAL CONFIGURADORA DE PROCESOS SOCIOCULTURALES: LA CESTERÍA EN LAS TUNAS EN LA ACTUALIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumairys Diamela Candó Gámez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the handmade movement in The Tunas is an important cultural fact in which has left condensing the conserved information and renovated in the cultural memoirs of the tunero, as long as it is identity that reflective characteristic that distinguish it and very authentic revealing knowledge and specific creation of a societal group. The years ninety represented a stagnation in the popular craft, it altered and it confused the true sense of the handmade production. The market entered as an element of deregulation of the qualities. He fell in the temptation of the commercialization without control. The art is confused with something easy, the legitimate and necessary commercialization of the productions with the marketing of the candongas, the artisan with the worker self-employed, the promoter with the merolico. The institucionalization of the culture starting from the revolutionary victory with the cultural politics's application in Cuba, together to the economic crisis in the decade of the 90 are sociocultural factors that condition to the craft as that it configures of sociocultural processes that are evidenced in the inherited cultural practices or institutionalized, remunerated (professionals or not remunerated (fans, as approaches that it configures of groups. The types of craft, the techniques, the ethnic composition of the representative groups, the professional formation, the origin (field, city, periphery, and composition of the groups for gender and number (grupal or singular they are indicative that allow to conceptualize the characteristics and types of the craft as cultural practice in The Tunas.

  6. Diet of three large pelagic fishes associated with drifting fish aggregating devices (DFADs) in the western equatorial Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, M. A.; Buck, K. M.; Moreno, G.; Sancho, G.

    2011-01-01

    Several species of fish, aggregate around DFADs in marine tropical waters. We captured three predatory species: yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri) and dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) from aggregations under DFADs in the Western Indian Ocean to characterize their diet and determine whether they fed on other DFAD associated organisms. Yellowfin tuna did not feed on DFAD–associated prey, while wahoo and dolphinfish did exploit resources aggregated by the DFADs,...

  7. Review of a Small-scale Pelagic Longline Fishery off Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hazin, F. H. V.; Zagaglia, J. R.; Broadhurst, M. K.; Travassos, P. E. P.; Bezerra, T. R. Q.

    1998-01-01

    The annual catches of four small longliners operating off northeast Brazil from 1983 to 1997 were examined across different areas and locations. The total catch comprised tunas (30%), sharks (54%), billfishes (12%), and other fish species (4%). Fishing strategy and annual composition of catches showed large spatial and temporal variabilities with the dominant catches alternating among yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares; gray sharks, Carcharhinus spp.; and blue shark, Prionace glauca. Catche...

  8. Tuna Genetics Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These samples are collected in order to gain a better understanding of the biological and ecological aspects of this group of fish in this area. It will be used to...

  9. Dinámica de la flota atunera mexicana del Océano Pacífico Oriental Mexican tuna fleet dynamics of the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Solana-Sansores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la dinámica de la flota atunera mexicana del Pacífico Oriental y su relación con señales medioambientales utilizadas en las estrategias de pesca. La información proviene de una muestra sistemática con arranque aleatorio de 176 cruceros de pesca registrados por el programa mexicano de observadores, entre 1992 y 2005. En cada viaje la información se genera secuencialmente en lapsos de tiempo fijos, permitiendo suponer que los registros son un proceso estocástico discreto y puede analizarse como una Cadena de Markov. Los registros se agrupan en: (1 desplazamientos espaciales del barco; (2 observación de señales y (3 maniobras de pesca. En el análisis se reconocen dos tácticas de pesca: una sistemática y otra aleatoria. La primera inicia con una búsqueda de señales (aves o mamíferos marinos, seguido de un lance de pesca sobre cardúmenes asociados a delfines o sobre cardúmenes no asociados. Alternativamente, las tácticas aleatorias no involucran una búsqueda y llevan, con menor probabilidad, a un lance sobre atunes no asociados. Ambas tácticas de pesca son influenciados por factores ambientales, ecológicos, sociales, y económicos. De este modo se observan diferentes estrategias durante un ciclo anual o de mayor duración, que están relacionadas con políticas regionales de manejo pesquero derivadas del Acuerdo del Programa Internacional de Conservación de Delfines. Se concluye que la dinámica de la flota atunera mexicana es un factor que deberá analizarse sistemáticamente en la estimación del Esfuerzo de Pesca para obtener mejores evaluaciones de los rendimientos de esta pesquería.It analyzes the fishing dynamics of the Mexican tuna fleet of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP and its relation with environmental signs which are used for fishing. The information comes from a systematic sample with a random start of 176 fishing cruisers, registered by the observer's Mexican program (1992 to 2005. In each trip the

  10. Estabilidad química, física y microbiológica de lomo de atún (Thunnus sp. rebanado. Empacado, congelado y almacenado a -20 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaim De Berardinis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La globalización ha introducido en Venezuela el consumo de pescado crudo, principalmente atún rojo (Thunnus sp. para elaborar sushi y sashimi. Esto ha despertado el interés en conservar el atún fresco, congelado, para disponer de él a lo largo del año con los atributos que definen la calidad del atún fresco. El pescado congelado se empaca para protegerlo del ambiente frío y seco del congelador, evitar su deshidratación y quemaduras en la superficie del tejido muscular que modificarían la apariencia (color, textura, el sabor y el valor nutritivo durante el almacenamiento. El empaque, además debe ofrecer barrera al paso del oxígeno. Los filetes individuales de pescados magros pueden conservarse en almacenamiento congelado 6 meses a -18 ºC y hasta 9 meses a -24 ºC. Con este trabajo se propuso determinar el efecto del la operación de empacado antes y después de la operación de congelación de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo. Tratamiento 1: empacadas al vacío y congeladas a -20 ºC (V1; control: empacadas a presión atmosférica y congeladas a -20 ºC (C1. Tratamiento 2: congeladas a -20 ºC y empacadas al vacío después (V2; control: congeladas a -20 ºC y empacadas a presión atmosférica después (C2. Para el empacado se recurrió a bolsas multilaminadas (PE/PA/PE, impermeables al O2 del aire, al vapor de agua y con resistencia mecánica a bajas temperaturas. El tratamiento V1 mantuvo la estabilidad química, microbiológica y sensorial de las rebanadas de lomo de atún, a 90 días de almacenamiento a -20 ºC, la cuales fueron más rojas (a, menos amarillas (b y más oscuras (L, con la menor producción de malonaldehído (0,64 mg/kg de todos los tratamientos, y la mayor estabilidad de la fracción de proteínas solubles (10,03 %.

  11. Estabilidad química, física y microbiológica de lomo de atún (Thunnus sp. rebanado. Empacado, congelado y almacenado a -20 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaim De Berardinis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La globalización ha introducido en Venezuela el consumo de pescado crudo, principalmente atún rojo (Thunnus sp. para elaborar sushi y sashimi. Esto ha despertado el interés en conservar el atún fresco, congelado, para disponer de él a lo largo del año con los atributos que definen la calidad del atún fresco. El pescado congelado se empaca para protegerlo del ambiente frío y seco del congelador, evitar su deshidratación y quemaduras en la superficie del tejido muscular que modificarían la apariencia (color, textura, el sabor y el valor nutritivo durante el almacenamiento. El empaque, además debe ofrecer barrera al paso del oxígeno. Los filetes individuales de pescados magros pueden conservarse en almacenamiento congelado 6 meses a -18 ºC y hasta 9 meses a -24 ºC. Con este trabajo se propuso determinar el efecto del la operación de empacado antes y después de la operación de congelación de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo. Tratamiento 1: empacadas al vacío y congeladas a -20 ºC (V1; control: empacadas a presión atmosférica y congeladas a -20 ºC (C1. Tratamiento 2: congeladas a -20 ºC y empacadas al vacío después (V2; control: congeladas a -20 ºC y empacadas a presión atmosférica después (C2. Para el empacado se recurrió a bolsas multilaminadas (PE/PA/PE, impermeables al O2 del aire, al vapor de agua y con resistencia mecánica a bajas temperaturas. El tratamiento V1 mantuvo la estabilidad química, microbiológica y sensorial de las rebanadas de lomo de atún, a 90 días de almacenamiento a -20 ºC, la cuales fueron más rojas (a, menos amarillas (b y más oscuras (L, con la menor producción de malonaldehído (0,64 mg/kg de todos los tratamientos, y la mayor estabilidad de la fracción de proteínas solubles (10,03 %.

  12. STUDY OF POTENTIAL FISHING GROUND FOR SKIPJACK TUNA (Katsuwonus pelamis in SAWU SEA EAST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE USING REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE AND FISHERY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRMA YULIA MADJID

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia's marine waters contain natural resources, especially biological resources, such as fish abundant and diverse. Skipjack tuna is one of the pelagic fish that have a high commercial value and eao be found in the sea water of the eastern part of Indonesia, especially in the sea waler of Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province. This study employed the average composite data of Sea Surface Temperature, Chlorophyll-a and Photosyntetically Active Radiation (PAR are got from Aqua MODJS satellite in 2006, and wind speed data from Quickscat satellite. Vertieally Generalized Production Model (VGPM was proposed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski (1997 was used to estimate the Primary Production (PP. The Fish Production was estimated using the formula wa.???? proposed by Pauly and Christensen (1995. Fish Production in-situ data were provided by Ministry of Ma,ine and Fisheries East N\\lsa Tenggara Province in 2006 that was 4,685.75 ton/year. Potential fishing zone for Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pe/amis was divided in Lo Southeast, Transition II, and Northwest monsoon. At Northwest monsoon was low potential fishing ground. The good fishing zone was observed in western part of Sawu Sea. The Estimation of higher fish catching estimated during Southeast and Transition II monsoon. The results of Primary Production (PP showed the same patterns with Chlorophyll-a. The estiination of fish production in Sawu Sea was 6,563.08 ton/year. With comparing between fish production estimation and fish production from Ministry of Marine and Fisheris data showed the utilization rate was 71.39 % in Sawu Sea. The correlation between SST and fish catching was low (-0.25 and the correlation between Chlorophyll-a and fish catching in Sawu Sea was low (0.12. The correlation between Chlorophyll-a and SST in Sawu Sea showed inversely relationships (correlation coefficient of -0.24 and has a different and opposite patterns. The correlation between Primary Production (PP and Chlorophyll

  13. Present and future potential habitat distribution of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata by-catch species in the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery under climate change

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    Nerea eLezama Ochoa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By-catch species from tropical tuna purse seine fishery have been affected by fishery pressures since the last century; however, the habitat distribution and the climate change impacts on these species are poorly known. With the objective of predicting the potential suitable habitat for a shark (Carcharhinus falciformis and a teleost (Canthidermis maculata in the Indian, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, a MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM was developed using data collected by observers in tuna purse seiners. The relative percentage of contribution of some environmental variables (depth, sea surface temperature, salinity and primary production and the potential impact of climate change on species habitat by the end of the century under the A2 scenario (scenario with average concentrations of carbon dioxide of 856 ppm by 2100 were also evaluated. Results showed that by-catch species can be correctly modelled using observed occurrence records and few environmental variables with SDM. Results from projected maps showed that the equatorial band and some coastal upwelling regions were the most suitable areas for both by-catch species in the three oceans in concordance with the main fishing grounds. Sea surface temperature was the most important environmental variable which contributed to explain the habitat distribution of the two species in the three oceans in general. Under climate change scenarios, the largest change in present habitat suitability is observed in the Atlantic Ocean (around 16% of the present habitat suitability area of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata, respectively whereas the change is less in the Pacific (around 10% and 8% and Indian Oceans (around 3% and 2 %. In some regions such as Somalia, the Atlantic equatorial band or Peru’s coastal upwelling areas, these species could lose potential habitat whereas in the south of the equator in the Indian Ocean, the Benguela System and in the Pacific coast of

  14. Análisis del contenido estomacal y la razón de isótopos estables de carbono (13C) y nitrógeno (15N) del atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares), delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata) y delfín tornillo (Stenella longirostris) del Océano Pacífico Oriental.

    OpenAIRE

    Román Reyes, José Cristóbal

    2005-01-01

    Las agregaciones del atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares), el delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata) y el delfín tornillo (Stenella longirostris) son frecuentes en el Océano Pacífico oriental tropical. A pesar del considerable interés, la asociación entre el atún aleta amarilla y las especies de delfines no se comprende totalmente. La hipótesis de que la asociación está basada en la alimentación ha sido explorada a través del estudio del contenido estomacal, la cual está limitada sólo a desc...

  15. Índice canadiense de calidad de las aguas para la cuenca del río Naranjo, provincia Las Tunas, Cuba

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    Carlos Balmaseda Espinosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de índices para valorar la calidad de las aguas facilita su comunicación y entendimiento por especialistas y público en general. Uno de los más empleados es el propuesto por Canadian Council of Ministers of theEnvironment, conocido como CCME_WQI (por sus siglas en inglés por la flexibilidad en la selección de las variables considerar. En este trabajo se utilizó el CCME_WQI para evaluar la calidad de las aguas con fines de riego de fuentes superficiales y subterráneas de la cuenca del río Naranjo, provincia Las Tunas, Cuba. Se utilizaron criterios de FAO y del Instituto de Ingeniería Agrícola de Cuba para definir los valores deseables. Los resultados muestran que las aguas son clasificadas como Pobres para el riego de cultivos agrícolas.

  16. Trophic Ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnusthynnus) Larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean Spawning Grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malca, Estrella; Quintanilla, José María; Muhling, Barbara A.; Alemany, Francisco; Privoznik, Sarah L.; Shiroza, Akihiro; Lamkin, John T.; García, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C) as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT) (6–10 mm standard length) in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Balearic Sea (MED). These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton—zooplankton—larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae. PMID:26225849

  17. Caracterización de la trombosis protésica en el servicio de cardiología de Las Tunas. 2006-2011

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    Maikel Santos Medina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cardiología del Hospital “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de la provincia de Las Tunas, con el objetivo de caracterizar la trombosis de prótesis valvular en el período entre 2006 y 2011. El universo estuvo conformado por los 34 pacientes ingresados en el servicio por sospecha de trombosis protésica y la muestra por los 29 casos con diagnóstico definitivo de trombosis valvular protésica. Se utilizó la estadística descriptiva a través del análisis porcentual. La edad promedio de los casos fue de 47 años. Predominaron los pacientes del sexo femenino, con prótesis en posición mitral, con anticoagulación inadecuada y con ritmo sinusal en el electrocardiograma al ingreso. El edema agudo del pulmón fue la forma de presentación de disfunción ventricular izquierda que predominó. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron tratados con estreptoquinasa, lográndose resolución de la trombosis en la mayoría de los casos, con un número escaso de complicaciones tras el tratamiento trombolítico.

  18. Vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica del sarampión, rubéola, parotiditis, poliomielitis y tos ferina en la provincia Las Tunas, 2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La inmunoepidemiología se ha convertido en imprescindible en el sistema de vigilancia moderno de salud, en la evaluación de los programas de vacunación, en la definición de la inmunidad poblacional y en su papel en la prevención de enfermedades. Este estudio describe el comportamiento en la provincia de Las Tunas de la vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica de cinco enfermedades prevenibles: sarampión, rubéola, parotiditis, poliomielitis y tos ferina. La investigación cubrió el periodo desde el año 2010 hasta el 2013. Los resultados muestran la eficacia de las vacunas empleadas, sin ningún caso positivo registrado y avalan a la vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica establecida desde la atención primaria de salud hasta la red de higiene y epidemiología del municipio, la provincia y la nación. Este sistema es necesario para evaluar con antelación posibles riesgos de enfermedades y la decisión oportuna de medidas de intervención

  19. Propuestas de mejoras energéticas en el área del tándem de un ingenio azucarero de la provincia Las Tunas, Cuba

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    Anislei Santiesteban Velázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se efectuó en ingenio azucarero Antonio Guiteras Holmes, municipio Puerto Padre, provincia Las Tunas en la zafra 2012, con el objetivo de determinar las potencialidades de ahorro de energía eléctrica en el área del tándem, se evalúa el comportamiento de los motores de inducción trifásicos de los molinos en las condiciones actuales de operación con el conocimiento de las mediciones de las magnitudes eléctricas de tensión, corrientes y factor de potencia, con estos elementos mínimos y aplicando el método de los Datos de Placas se obtuvieron sus indicadores energéticos, estos resultados permitieron conocer el factor de carga, la eficiencia, la potencia real de salida de los motores estándares para lograr un uso más racional y eficiente de la energía en la empresa. Se realiza una propuesta para el redimensionado de estos motores.

  20. Caracterización hidroquímica de las aguas de riego de la cuenca del río Naranjo, municipio Majibacoa, provincia Las Tunas

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    Yoandris García Hidalgo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El origen de las aguas, los procesos físico-químicos que las afectan y su calidad son parte de la información que aporta la caracterización hidroquímica de las aguas para hacer una mejor gestión de los recursos hídricos. Se estudiaron seis fuentes de abasto de aguas para el riego (tres superficiales y tres subterráneas, de la cuenca del río Naranjo en la provincia Las Tunas, a partir de sus concentraciones de aniones y cationes minoritarios, el pH y la conductividad eléctrica. La clasificación de las aguas se realizó siguiendo los criterios de Shchoukarev y mediante los diagramas de Schoeller-Berkaloff y de Stiff se representaron los resultados. Las aguas subterráneas son más mineralizadas que las superficiales, los iones que predominan son bicarbonato, cloruro y sodio, de ahí que las aguas que prevalecen son de los tipos HCO3-Cl-Na o Cl-HCO3-Na. Las aguas estudiadas no son aptas para el riego y son un peligro potencial para la alcalinización de los suelos.

  1. 金枪鱼鱼肉色泽评定方法的研究进展%Review on the evaluation of tuna meat color

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖明涛; 刘书臣; 林森森; 赵巧灵; 戴志远

    2013-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the meat color of tuna include sensory evaluation,meat surface optical measurement,spectrophotometry,computer vision technology and electron paramagnetic resonance.After illustrating the coloring mechanism of meat,this article summarized the basic principle,the equipment,operation steps,the current situation of application of the methods,as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method.At last,prospect of the future development was proposed.%金枪鱼鱼肉色泽的评定方法主要包括感官评价法、肉面光学度量法、分光光度法、计算机视觉技术和电子顺磁共振技术等.文中在阐明了鱼肉呈色机理后,从基本原理、所用设备、操作步骤、国内外使用现状等方面对近年来应用于金枪鱼肉色评定的各种方法进行了综述,列举了各方法的优缺点,并对未来发展进行了展望.

  2. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of organobrominated compounds in bluefin tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Abaurrea, Miren; Covaci, Adrian; Ramos, Lourdes

    2011-09-28

    This study evaluates comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF MS) for the simultaneous analysis of several classes of organobromines (OBs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), several halogenated naturally produced compounds (HNPs) and eight novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivates (PBHDs), 2,4,6-tribromoanisole and a mixed halogenated compound (MHC-1), in bluefin tuna muscles. The proposed methodology maximised separation of both within and among OB families, and among these and other halogenated micropollutants detected in these samples and co-extracted matrix components. Special attention has been paid to solve co-elution problems observed during the analysis of OBs with one-dimensional GC-based techniques. Satisfactory separation among several relevant PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs has been obtained allowing their unambiguous determination in a single run. Additional studies were conducted to identify selected NBFRs and HNPs. 2,4-Dibromoanisole, a dibromophenol isomer and hexabromobenzene were identified in the investigated samples. Several new tri- and tetra-BHD derivates were also identified, indicating that these compounds could apparently exist as structured families in nature. In addition, a tetrabrominated diMeO-biphenyl and two tetrabrominated diMeO-BDEs were also tentatively identified. PMID:21872866

  3. Diet of three large pelagic fishes associated with drifting fish aggregating devices (DFADs in the western equatorial Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species of fish, aggregate around DFADs in marine tropical waters. We captured three predatory species: yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares, wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri and dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus from aggregations under DFADs in the Western Indian Ocean to characterize their diet and determine whether they fed on other DFAD associated organisms. Yellowfin tuna did not feed on DFAD–associated prey, while wahoo and dolphinfish did exploit resources aggregated by the DFADs, though they predominantly fed on other non–associated organisms. Opportunistic feeding on surface swarming stomatopod crustaceans was observed in yellowfin tuna and dolphinfish associated with FADs, but was not observed in wahoo.

  4. Los tumores de la mama: hallazgos ecográficos más frecuentes en el policlínico “Gustavo Aldereguía Lima”, Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    Yecenia Velasco Diéguez; Juan Ernesto Pérez Reyes; Yamila Urquiola González; José Antonio Navarro Mariño; Andrés Hernández Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de pacientes femeninas que presentaron ecografía de mamas con resultado patológico, en el policlínico “Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” de la ciudad de Las Tunas, en el período comprendido de enero a diciembre de 2011. El universo de estudio estuvo conformado por 277 mujeres, a las que se les realizó algún ultrasonido de las mamas, quedando constituida la muestra por 95 pacientes, que presentaron imágenes ultrasonográficas de aspecto sólido. La i...

  5. Efecto del Almacenamiento a Diferentes Temperaturas sobre la Calidad de Tuna Roja (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller) Effect of the Storage at Different Temperatures on the Quality of Red Prickle Pear (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E Ochoa; Guerrero, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Se estudia el efecto del almacenamiento a diferentes temperaturas sobre la calidad de tuna roja (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller), variedad San Martín. El fruto se almacenó a 4±1, 9±2 y 28±2°C para determinar su vida útil. Se realizó semanalmente la caracterización fisicoquímica, enzimática, antioxidante y microbiológica durante el almacenamiento, hasta observar características no aptas para el consumo. Se observó que el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento son factores que afectan de m...

  6. Una propuesta de iniciativas para la producción de agua dulce en la ciudad de Puerto Padre, Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Pérez Fajardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basado en informes técnicos emitidos por instituciones municipales del territorio de Puerto Padre en la provincia de Las Tunas y en los resultados de entrevistas con representantes de esas propias instituciones y habitantes de la referida localidad, se proponen variantes para la regeneralización de las viejas prácticas de captación de agua dulce a la luz de las actuales circunstancias económicas del país y los avances que ha experimentado la industria de materiales en general, así como adaptar variantes tecnológicas de relativamente bajos costos con iguales propósitos respecto a la disponibilidad de agua, como son los sistemas de desalación de agua de mar con el empleo de energía renovable a escala familiar, tan ampliamente utilizados en regiones de nuestro planeta donde la escasez de agua para el consumo humano impone tonos verdaderamente dramáticos a la existencia misma. Se obtuvo la elaboración de un proyecto que contempla todas estas iniciativas y que ha sido aceptado por las autoridades del gobierno en el territorio y revisado por varios representantes de instituciones académicas y científicas en el país. La ejecución de este proyecto por si solo, no resolverá los problemas de alta contaminación del agua de las fuentes de abasto a la población pero incorporado a nuevas iniciativas constituirá un importante paliativo a la grave problemática que hoy enfrenta ese territorio de grandes potencialidades económicas para el país.

  7. Comportamiento clínico-epidemiológico del cáncer de mama en las pacientes del policlínico Guillermo Tejas, Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Maria Aparicio Meneses

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo, para describir el comportamiento clínico- epidemiológico de las pacientes diagnosticadas de cáncer de mama, en el policlínico “Guillermo Tejas Silva” del municipio de Las Tunas, Cuba, en el período de enero a diciembre de 2012. El universo estuvo integrado por 36 pacientes diagnosticadas histológicamente con cáncer de mama y registradas en el departamento de estadísticas. El grupo de edad más afectado fue el comprendido entre 50 y 64 años, con un 44%. El 91,6% fue de la raza blanca, con un nivel de escolaridad de secundaria básica terminada, las pacientes utilizaron la vía espontánea para acudir a la consulta municipal y predominó la afección de la mama derecha en más de la mitad de ellas (69,4%. La cuarta parte de la muestra presentó una supervivencia superior a diez años posteriores al diagnóstico, relacionado con la prontitud del tratamiento, en su mayoría quirúrgico. La totalidad presentó un seguimiento adecuado por parte de especialistas clínicos, ginecólogos y oncólogos, no así por los trabajadores sociales y psicólogos, los cuales evaluaron solo al 12,08% y 8,79%, respectivamente. Sin la participación de estos últimos no es posible lograr resultados óptimos en el control de la enfermedad

  8. Aspectos clínicos y endoscópicos del adenocarcinoma gástrico en pacientes de Las Tunas, enero de 2013 a enero de 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Fonseca Chong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de caracterizar los pacientes atendidos por adenocarcinoma gástrico en el Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de provincia de Las Tunas, durante el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de enero de 2013 y el 1 de enero de 2014. El universo quedó constituido por todos los pacientes a los que se les realizó biopsia de estómago, por lesión sospechosa de adenocarcinoma gástrico, y la muestra por todos los pacientes con diagnóstico histológico de esta enfermedad. Para la obtención de los datos primarios se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de 23 pacientes con biopsia positiva. A partir de un cuestionario se recogieron y procesaron los datos y se interpretaron los resultados. Se encontró un predominio en el sexo masculino (69,5%, en los mayores de 51 años (30,4% y en la población de raza negra (47,8% con antecedentes de infección por helicobacter pylori (69,5%. El 43,4% de los pacientes debutó con una dispepsia prolongada, como síntoma predominante, y la imagen endoscópica más observada fue la úlcera cancerosa (12 casos, en relación con el patrón histológico difuso

  9. Large-Scale Examination of Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs from Tropical Tuna Fisheries of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maufroy

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, massive use of drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs to aggregate tropical tunas has strongly modified global purse-seine fisheries. For the first time, a large data set of GPS positions from buoys deployed by French purse-seiners to monitor dFADs is analysed to provide information on spatio-temporal patterns of dFAD use in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during 2007-2011. First, we select among four classification methods the model that best separates "at sea" from "on board" buoy positions. A random forest model had the best performance, both in terms of the rate of false "at sea" predictions and the amount of over-segmentation of "at sea" trajectories (i.e., artificial division of trajectories into multiple, shorter pieces due to misclassification. Performance is improved via post-processing removing unrealistically short "at sea" trajectories. Results derived from the selected model enable us to identify the main areas and seasons of dFAD deployment and the spatial extent of their drift. We find that dFADs drift at sea on average for 39.5 days, with time at sea being shorter and distance travelled longer in the Indian than in the Atlantic Ocean. 9.9% of all trajectories end with a beaching event, suggesting that 1,500-2,000 may be lost onshore each year, potentially impacting sensitive habitat areas, such as the coral reefs of the Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago, and the Seychelles.

  10. Caracterización de pacientes pediátricos con labio y paladar fisurados en la provincia de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Las fisuras labio-palatinas son las malformaciones congénitas craneofaciales más frecuentes. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, con el objetivo de caracterizar los pacientes con fisuras de labio y paladar, atendidos en la consulta de cirugía maxilofacial del hospital pediátrico provincial “Mártires de Las Tunas”, en el periodo de septiembre de 2012 a diciembre de 2013. La muestra estuvo conformada por los 26 pacientes en edades pediátricas, atendidos y diagnosticados con la referida entidad. Se seleccionaron como variables a estudiar: grupos de edad, sexo, color de la piel, lugar de procedencia, factores predisponentes, tipo de fisura, asociadas a síndromes, magnitud y número de la fisura. El 26,9% de los pacientes tenían hasta un mes de edad; el 57,7% eran masculinos; el 50,0% del municipio de Las Tunas y el 84,6% de piel blanca. Los factores predisponentes más frecuentes fueron: madres menores de 20 años (57,7% y la herencia (46,2%. Predominaron las fisuras no sindrómicas en el 92,3% de los pacientes; las más frecuentes fueron las fisuras labio-palatinas completas y las palatinas incompletas, con seis de cada una y las unilaterales izquierdas (30,8%. Más de la mitad de los casos comenzaron tratamiento en el primer año de vida

  11. Estimation of the nopal cactus (Opuntia cochenillifera for color removal in drinking water Evaluación de la tuna (Opuntia cochenillifera para la remoción del color en agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Jiménez Antillón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of nopal cactus to remove color in river and artificial waters for human consumption was evaluated. The performance of nopal was compared with that of aluminum sulfate coagulant and a cationic flocculant.The river water was cha- racterized by high color, low turbidity, alkalinity and hardness, and a high percentage of dissolved oxygen. The cactus leaves showed no activity as unique coa- gulant to be evaluated only in river water. In artificial water, as a sole treatment (45 mg/l, an efficiency of 94% in color removal was observed, slightly higher than that of the conventional treatment (20 mg/l Al2 (SO43 and 2 mg/l of cationic flocculant with a removal of 89%. However, water treated with nopal left a residual COD value doubled (21 mg/l compared to con- ventional treatment. In the treatment of artificial water, nopal as a flocculant showed a color removal of 92% and a residual COD of 31.5 mg /l applied at a dose of 22.5 mg/l and 7 mg/l of Al2 (SO43. The nopal was not very effective to remove the color produced by humic substances in waters of low turbidity and alkalinity, but its applicability as a coagulant/flocculant in waters of high turbidity and alkalinity is promising. It is recommended to extract the active ingredients of natural products to reduce the organic load of treated water and prevent the formation of disin- fection byproducts.El estudio evaluó la eficiencia del cactus de la tuna para remover el color en agua de río y agua artificial para el consumo humano. Se comparó su desem- peño con el coagulante sulfato de aluminio y un floculante catiónico. El agua fluvial se caracterizó por presentar alto color, baja turbidez, alcalinidad y dureza y alto porcentaje de oxígeno disuelto. Las hojas de tuna no mostraron actividad como coagulante único al ser evaluadas en agua de río. Se observó una eficiencia de remoción de color del 94% en agua artificial, cuando se aplicó como tratamiento único (45 mg/l, poco

  12. Numeric modeling of a pelagic longline based on minimum potential energy principle%基于最小势能原理的延绳钓渔具作业状态数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋利明; 张智; 袁军亭; 李玉伟

    2011-01-01

    基于有限元理论及最小势能原理,以2008年9月到2009年1月海上实测的188枚钓钩的深度、24个站点不同深度的三维海流数据、渔具参数和作业参数为基础,建立并验证了延绳钓三维最小势能模型.结果表明:(1)建立的延绳钓最小势能模型可以计算得出任何三维分层海流作用下延绳钓的三维形状和钓钩的深度,大部分钓钩的实测深度与数学模型数值深度之间的差别不大,其平均差值为12.03 m,差值范围为0.02~40.36 m(方差S2=100.30,标准差S=10.01,n=188),通过成对双样本均值分析,实测深度与数值深度无显著性差异(P>0.05);(2)延绳钓渔具的干线在海水中稳定后并不是呈平滑的悬链线,而是波浪形的曲线;(3)圆柱体轴线与流向垂直时的阻力系数(CN90)取值对于数值模拟的结果有一定的影响,CN90值的选取与研究对象的雷诺数有关.延绳钓最小势能数值模型能够有效模拟并预测延绳钓在不同深度的三维海流作用下的形状、钓钩深度并达到可视化.%Fishing parameters (such as the shooting speed of mainline, vessel speed, time interval between two hooks, numbers of hooks between two floats) can be adjusted to deploy the hooks to water layers that are preferred by target species, such as tuna. As a result, the catch rate of the target species can be increased and the catch of bycatch species (e.g., loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta; blue sharks, Prionace glauca; silky sharks, Car- charhinus falciformis) can be reduced. Together, these actions improve fishing efficiency and help maintain biological diversity. To better understand the relationship between these factors and the fishing depth of longline gear, we developed a numeric model of the behavior of a pelagic longline. We conducted surveys on board Chinese large scale tuna longliners in the Indian Ocean between September 2008 and January 2009. During the surveys, the vessels targeted bigeye tuna

  13. Numeric modeling of a pelagic longline based on minimum potential energy principle%基于最小势能原理的延绳钓渔具作业状态数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋利明; 张智; 袁军亭; 李玉伟

    2011-01-01

    基于有限元理论及最小势能原理,以2008年9月到2009年1月海上实测的188枚钓钩的深度、24个站点不同深度的三维海流数据、渔具参数和作业参数为基础,建立并验证了延绳钓三维最小势能模型.结果表明:(1)建立的延绳钓最小势能模型可以计算得出任何三维分层海流作用下延绳钓的三维形状和钓钩的深度,大部分钓钩的实测深度与数学模型数值深度之间的差别不大,其平均差值为12.03 m,差值范围为0.02~40.36 m(方差S2=100.30,标准差S=10.01,n=188),通过成对双样本均值分析,实测深度与数值深度无显著性差异(P>0.05);(2)延绳钓渔具的干线在海水中稳定后并不是呈平滑的悬链线,而是波浪形的曲线;(3)圆柱体轴线与流向垂直时的阻力系数(CN90)取值对于数值模拟的结果有一定的影响,CN90值的选取与研究对象的雷诺数有关.延绳钓最小势能数值模型能够有效模拟并预测延绳钓在不同深度的三维海流作用下的形状、钓钩深度并达到可视化.%Fishing parameters (such as the shooting speed of mainline, vessel speed, time interval between two hooks, numbers of hooks between two floats) can be adjusted to deploy the hooks to water layers that are preferred by target species, such as tuna. As a result, the catch rate of the target species can be increased and the catch of bycatch species (e.g., loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta; blue sharks, Prionace glauca; silky sharks, Car- charhinus falciformis) can be reduced. Together, these actions improve fishing efficiency and help maintain biological diversity. To better understand the relationship between these factors and the fishing depth of longline gear, we developed a numeric model of the behavior of a pelagic longline. We conducted surveys on board Chinese large scale tuna longliners in the Indian Ocean between September 2008 and January 2009. During the surveys, the vessels targeted bigeye tuna

  14. Características de pacientes con cáncer de mama diagnosticado en el año 2013 en el municipio de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Nicolás Milián Mosquera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer de mama constituye la primera causa de muerte de las mujeres en el mundo. El diagnostico precoz y el tratamiento oportuno de las lesiones mamarias constituyen pilares fundamentales en la evolución y pronóstico de este tipo de cáncer. Objetivo: describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas de las pacientes con cáncer de mama del municipio de Las Tunas, provincia del mismo nombre, Cuba; en el periodo de enero a diciembre de 2013. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional-descriptivo y transversal. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por las 59 pacientes que se les diagnosticó cáncer de mama. Se estudiaron los antecedentes patológicos personales, antecedentes patológicos familiares de patología mamaria, menopausia, ingestión de hormonas y otros factores asociados. Se definió el BIRADS (por las siglas en inglés de Breast Imaging reporting and data system mamográfico y se determinó la etapa clínica en que estaban las pacientes cuando se realizó el diagnóstico. Para la recolección de la información fueron utilizados datos estadísticos, historias clínicas individuales, hojas de cargo y resultados de las biopsias y se procesaron por el método estadístico porcentual. Resultados: en la muestra predominó el grupo de edad entre los 50-59 años, los principales factores de riesgo asociados estuvieron relacionados con los antecedentes familiares de haber padecido esta enfermedad, la categoría mamográfica predominante fue la BIRADS IV, y la etapa clínica II. Conclusiones: el mayor por ciento de pacientes se diagnosticó de forma tardía, a pesar de los esfuerzos del sistema nacional de salud para aumentar la pesquisa del cáncer de mama.

  15. Impacto de la mastoplastia reductiva con técnicas de mínima incisión. Las Tunas, 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Alain Dieppa Ramírez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio experimental, con el objetivo de evaluar la utilidad de la Mastoplastia reductiva con técnicas de mínima incisión, en el Servicio de Cirugía Plástica del Hospital Provincial Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de la ciudad de Las Tunas; en el periodo comprendido de abril de 2008 a marzo de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 281 pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertrofia mamaria, acompañada o no de ptosis mamaria, y la muestra quedó constituida por las 136 pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertrofia mamaria, grado I, II o III, con criterio quirúrgico estético y/o funcional, las cuales tributaban a la realización de la cirugía con técnicas de mínima incisión durante el período de estudio. Para lograr los objetivos, los datos fueron recogidos de fuentes primarias y secundarias a través del interrogatorio directo, examen físico y de la historia clínica de cada paciente. Todos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva mediante el análisis porcentual. Los principales resultados mostraron un predominio del grupo de 23 a 35 años de edad, el tipo de deformidad más operada fue la hipertrofia mamaria moderada, asimismo el tipo de anestesia más usada fue la local. A pesar de ser la dehiscencia de la herida quirúrgica la más frecuente complicación, las operadas se mostraron altamente satisfechas de acuerdo al tamaño, forma, simetría y sensibilidad; siendo la reducción de la cicatriz resultante el parámetro de mayor impacto.

  16. Estudio de cinco años en pacientes de Las Tunas con cáncer cutáneo no melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Rufina Peña Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer cutáneo no melanoma ha mostrado un incremento paulatino a nivel mundial, en Las Tunas, Cuba, existe un comportamiento similar.Objetivo: caracterizar los pacientes diagnosticados histopatológicamente con cáncer cutáneo no melanoma, cuyas biopsias fueron analizadas en el departamento de anatomía patológica del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna", en el período comprendido entre enero de 2010 a diciembre 2014.Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 3970 pacientes, atendidos en el lugar y período de tiempo antes señalado, se utilizó el modelo oficial de biopsia como fuente secundaria de recolección de la información. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva.Resultados: la frecuencia de aparición de este cáncer en el 2010 fue de 15,6 %, se incrementó en el 2011 a 21,7 %, en 2012 y 2013 osciló, con valores de 20,62 % y 22,5 %, respectivamente, y en el 2014 mostró una disminución de los casos positivos a 19,5 %. El tipo histológico predominante fue el carcinoma basocelular, por encima del 50 % en todos los años y estuvo presente en el 65,4 % del total de la muestra estudiada. Se obtuvieron cifras muy cercanas entre ambos sexos: masculino (51,5 % y femenino (48,5 %. El grupo de edad de mayores de 60 años predominó, con el 61,2 % del total de pacientes. La mayoría procedían de las consultas de atención secundaria (76,62 % y la especialidad que más biopsias indicó fue dermatología con un 42,84 %.Conclusiones: la variedad histológica que predominó en los pacientes con cáncer cutáneo no melanoma fue el carcinoma basocelular y su frecuencia fue mayor en pacientes con más de 60 años, la atención primaria no constituyó el principal eslabón de pesquisa y tratamiento de esta afección y los pacientes fueron mayormente atendidos por dermatólogos y cirujanos maxilofaciales.

  17. Aplicación de la psicoterapia sistémica en la atención primaria de salud. Municipio de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Lastre Arrieta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención con un grupo de pacientes neuróticos en tratamiento ambulatorio, del municipio de Las Tunas, donde se empleó como modalidad terapéutica la Psicoterapia Sistémica de Modificación de Predisposiciones, con el objetivo de modificar las actitudes y los síntomas básicos. En la consulta externa de psiquiatría se seleccionaron a los pacientes que integrarían el grupo de psicoterapia, entre los meses de octubre a diciembre del año 2009, con las características de tener un coeficiente intelectual normal, que no presentaran síntomas obsesivos, ni organicidad cerebral. El grupo de trabajo estuvo formado por psiquiatras, un psicólogo clínico, psicometristas y una enfermera psiquiátrica. A todos los pacientes se les realizó una entrevista, con los objetivos de selección y diagnóstico, se les llenó una encuesta teniendo en cuenta los objetivos propuestos y se les indicaron pruebas psicológicas. El grupo se reunió con una frecuencia semanal, empleando un tiempo de hora y media, durante seis meses, de enero a junio de 2010. Se logró la modificación de los síntomas básicos en los pacientes del estudio con esta forma de psicoterapia, valorando también la modificación de actitudes en relación a las problemáticas fundamentales. Se recomienda el tratamiento en este medio, teniendo en cuenta sus características y lo que se quiere lograr, donde los enfermeros y técnicos de salud tengan un papel activo y que además de la modificación sintomática, se mejore la forma de actuar en la vida ante situaciones de conflicto.

  18. Valoración de Indicadores de calidad para el diseño e implementación de tecnologías de manejo en Luvisoles de la zona norte de la provincia de Las Tunas, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Leyva Rodríguez, Santa Laura

    2013-01-01

    La calidad del suelo es una herramienta de evaluación que puede facilitar la adaptación de prácticas de manejo que promuevan sistemas agropecuarios sostenibles. La investigación de este trabajo se inició con un diagnóstico participativo en 12 comunidades rurales de la provincia de Las Tunas en el año 2009 en el cual los productores identificaron los puntos críticos de calidad de los suelos de la región y sirvieron de punta de partida para seleccionar las variables físicas, químicas y biológic...

  19. Tuna fishery research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R; Kumar, G.; Kunal, S.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Enviroscan_Newslett_2_7.pdf.txt stream_source_info Enviroscan_Newslett_2_7.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. 黑鳍生食金枪鱼解冻后不同气体比例气调包装的新鲜度变化%Freshness Changes of Thawed Bluefin Tuna Used for Raw Consumption during Storage in Modified Atmospheres with Different Gas Compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡慧; 杨震; 史智佳; 刘梦; 李少鹏; 陈文华

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on theK value, pH value and sensory quality of thawed bluefin tuna meat during storage at 4℃. The results showed that when the modified atmosphere was CO2:N2= 60:40 (V/V), the freshness of tuna meat was preserved for the longest period of time (96 h), with no obvious acidification. Under refrigeration conditions, theK value can reflect the sensory quality of blackfin tuna meat with respect to taste and flavor.%以黑鳍金枪鱼为对象,研究4℃条件下气调包装对其K值、pH值与感官品质的影响。结果表明:当气调包装的气体比例为CO2∶N2=60∶40(V/V)时,黑鳍金枪鱼保鲜时间最久,可达到96 h,且不会发生明显酸化;在冷藏条件下,K值可以从滋味、气味的角度很好地反映黑鳍金枪鱼的感官品质。

  1. ComParison of delay difference model and surPlus Production model aPPlied to albacore(Thunnus alalunga)in the South Atlantic Ocean%时滞差分模型与剩余产量模型的应用比较--以南大西洋长鳍金枪鱼为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张魁; 陈作志; 黄梓荣; 许友伟

    2015-01-01

    We applied surplus production model and delay difference model to analyze the data of the southern Atlantic albacore (Thunnus alalunga)stock. Results show that the delay difference model captured annual fluctuation of catch per unit effort(CPUE) better than the Schaefer model. Akaike information criterion(AIC)also reveals that delay difference model performed better. We cal-culated an 80% percentile confidence interval of maximum sustainable yield(MSY)of 21 756 ~ 23 408 t(median 22 490 t)and 26 116 ~ 28 959 t(median 27 520 t)by delay difference model and Schaefer model,respectively. Results of biological reference points show that the southern Atlantic albacore stock was in a good state before 1985 but had been overfished from 1985 to 2005;after that,it was rebuilt gradually but must be taken care of. The delay difference model gave more effective and conservative results than the surplus production model.%将剩余产量模型和时滞差分模型分别应用于南大西洋长鳍金枪鱼(Thunnus alalunga)渔业数据,结果表明,比起剩余产量模型,时滞差分模型拟合的单位捕捞努力渔获量( catch per unit effort,CPUE)曲线能够更好地捕捉到 CPUE 随着时间的波动。赤池信息量准则( Akaike information criterion,AIC)的结果显示,时滞差分模型比Schaefer 模型的评估效果要好。时滞差分模型评估的最大可持续产量( maximum sustainable yield,MSY)中值为22490 t,80%置信区间为21756~23408 t;剩余产量模型评估的 MSY 中值为27520 t,80%的置信区间为26116~28959 t。生物学参考点的结果表明目标群体在1985年以前资源状态较好;1985年~2005年的20年里处于过度捕捞状态;2005年后资源状况得到改善,但仍需加强管理。比起剩余产量模型,时滞差分模型给出了更为有效且保守的评估结果。

  2. Caracterización y evolución metamórfica de las rocas ultramáficas de la faja del río de las Tunas, Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza Characteristics and metamorphic evolution of the ultramafic rocks from Río de Las Tunas Belt, Frontal Cordillera of Mendoza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Florencia Gargiulo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio petro-mineralógico y químico de metaperidotitas y serpentinitas de la faja máfica-ultramáfica del río de Las Tunas, Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza. Las metaperidotitas preservan relictos de Ol, Cpx, Spls.l. (castaño-rojizo y escaso Opx con diferentes proporciones modales, que permiten inferir protolitos de dunitas, dunitas espinélicas, dunitas clinopiroxénicas, wehrlitas, clinopiroxenitas olivínicas y clinopiroxenitas. La secuencia de cristalización observada en los minerales de reemplazo de las fases primarias: Srp+Mgt(±Brc±Chl→àTr±Tlc→�}Ath→à±Spls.s./Ple(verde±Opx, evidencia el proceso de serpentinización inicial seguido de aumento del grado metamórfico hasta alcanzar condiciones equivalentes a la transición entre la facies de anfibolita de alto grado y la facies de granulita. Un segundo evento de serpentinización manifestado por texturas pseudomórficas según Amp y Chl y texturas no pseudomórficas y de recristalización, junto con las secuencias a FeChr→àCrMgtà→Mgt y b Spls.s./Ple(verdeà→Mgt, indican condiciones posteriores de bajo grado vinculadas a la etapa retrógrada del ciclo de metamorfismo regional. Durante esta etapa también se desarrollan zonas de reacción entre los cuerpos ultramáficos y su roca de caja, como consecuencia de un proceso metasomático entre las litologías en contacto. De manera relativamente simultánea, se genera también la carbonatización penetrativa de cuerpos ultramáficos cercanos a los niveles carbonáticos del Complejo Guarguaráz. Durante el estadío final del ciclo metamórfico, se emplazan cuerpos ígneos gondwánicos en el área de estudio, que aportan las condiciones físico-químicas que favorecen la movilización de elementos y la concentración de minerales, además de potenciar el desarrollo de los procesos metasomáticos. Un nuevo evento de serpentinización restringido en zonas de cizalla, concentra la alteración extrema y

  3. 金枪鱼延绳钓船机电混合动力系统节油效果分析%Analysis of fuel saving effect of tuna longliner electromechanical hybrid power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都劲松; 史斌杰; 石浩舰; 黄伟

    2016-01-01

    Tuna longliner fishing is an important part of the pelagic fishery .The process of tuna fishing consists of two completely different working conditions:navigation and operation .The speed is high with the condition of navigation , and the speed is low with the condition of operation .In order to meet the requirenents of the two conditions, the electromechanical hybrid power system through the diesel electric independent operation ( PTH) mode is used .Electromechanical hybrid power system is composed of two parts , which are the diesel engine propulsion system and electric propulsion system .The high power diesel engine model is used when the speed is high , and the small power electric propulsion mode is used when the speed is low .In the past two years, Shanghai Ocean Fishing Company has built five tuna longliners which are equipped with electromechanical hybrid system .According to the real ship test , fuel saving was 25%and 8%with different types in the hooking stage in the operation period , and fuel saving of voyage reached to 14%in the navigation period.Through calculation and analysis , the initial investment cost of using electromechanical power hybrid system throgh the diesel electric independent operation ( PTH) mode could be recovered by way of fuel saving within four years .The fuel saving effects showed that using electric propulsion could save 15%-20% of the fuel compared with the diesel engine propulsion , which could achieve the effects of good energy-saving, emission reduction and cost reduction .%金枪鱼延绳钓渔业是远洋渔业的重要组成部分。金枪鱼延绳钓作业过程包括航行、作业两种完全不同的工况。航行工况时要求航速较高,作业工况时要求航速较低。为了满足这两种工况,采用柴电独立运行( PTH)方式机电混合动力系统。机电混合动力系统由柴油机推进系统与电力推进系统两部分组成。高航速时使用大功率的柴油机模式,低航速

  4. 金枪鱼延绳钓船机电混合动力系统节油效果分析%Analysis of fuel saving effect of tuna longliner electromechanical hybrid power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都劲松; 史斌杰; 石浩舰; 黄伟

    2016-01-01

    金枪鱼延绳钓渔业是远洋渔业的重要组成部分。金枪鱼延绳钓作业过程包括航行、作业两种完全不同的工况。航行工况时要求航速较高,作业工况时要求航速较低。为了满足这两种工况,采用柴电独立运行( PTH)方式机电混合动力系统。机电混合动力系统由柴油机推进系统与电力推进系统两部分组成。高航速时使用大功率的柴油机模式,低航速时使用小功率的电力推进模式。上海远洋渔业有限公司近两年先后两批次建造了5条装备了PTH方式机电混合动力系统金枪鱼延绳钓船。根据实船测试,在作业期间,不同船型起钩阶段节油25%和8%,航行节油均达14%。通过计算分析,使用PTH方式,机电混合动力系统增加的初始投资成本可通过节油方式在4年内回收。综合节油效果显示,使用电力推进比使用柴油机推进可以节油15%~20%,达到了良好的节能减排、降低运营成本的效果。%Tuna longliner fishing is an important part of the pelagic fishery .The process of tuna fishing consists of two completely different working conditions:navigation and operation .The speed is high with the condition of navigation , and the speed is low with the condition of operation .In order to meet the requirenents of the two conditions, the electromechanical hybrid power system through the diesel electric independent operation ( PTH) mode is used .Electromechanical hybrid power system is composed of two parts , which are the diesel engine propulsion system and electric propulsion system .The high power diesel engine model is used when the speed is high , and the small power electric propulsion mode is used when the speed is low .In the past two years, Shanghai Ocean Fishing Company has built five tuna longliners which are equipped with electromechanical hybrid system .According to the real ship test , fuel saving was 25%and 8%with different types in

  5. Observations of the 1992 U.S. Pelagic Pair Trawl Fishery in the Northwest Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrior, Patricia; Williams, Amy S.; Christensen, Darryl J.

    1994-01-01

    Pelagic pair trawling for tuna, Thunnus spp., and swordfish, Xiphias gladius, was introduced in U.S. Northwest Atlantic waters in 1991. During autumn (October-November) of 1992 under the authority oft he Federal Atlantic Swordfish Regulations, the National Marine Fisheries Service placed observers aboard pelagic pair trawl vessels to document the catch, bycatch, discard, and gear used in this new fishery. The fishery is conducted primarily at night along shelf-edge waters from June to Novembe...

  6. Pelagic longline fishing trials to shape a mitigation device of the depredation by toothed whales

    OpenAIRE

    Rabearisoa, Njaratiana; Bach, Pascal; Tixier, P.; Guinet, C.

    2012-01-01

    Depredation is defined as the damage or removal of fish from fishing gear by predators, and is a crucial issue leading to negative impacts on both animals involved in depredation and fisheries. Depredation in longline pelagic fisheries targeting swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and tuna (Thunnus spp.) involves short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) and some pelagic sharks. Since no long-term solution could be found to date, we investigate...

  7. Through the stomach of a predator: Regional patterns of forage in the diet of albacore tuna in the California Current System and metrics needed for ecosystem-based management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Sarah M.; Waechter, Katrina E.; Bransome, Nicole C.

    2015-06-01

    Foraging habits of predators can reveal patterns in prey ecology and guide ecosystem-based management by informing species interactions. This study describes the diet habits of albacore tuna in three regions (north, central, south) of the California Current System (CCS) and estimates the total predation mortality imposed on twenty prey taxa. The northern CCS was defined by predation on decapods, euphausiids, anchovy and hake. The central CCS was defined by predation on squid, hake and Pacific saury. The southern CCS was defined by predation on anchovy. We estimate North Pacific albacore consumed each year, on average, 54,000 mt of decapods and euphausiids, 43,000 mt of cephalopods, 84,000 mt of juvenile hake, 1600 mt of myctophids, 21,000 mt of juvenile sardine, 10,000 mt of juvenile rockfishes, almost 43,000 mt of Pacific saury, and over 107,000 mt of juvenile anchovy. While variability in predation certainly exists, this and prior studies show that diet habits of albacore are fairly stable through time. The northern CCS appears to be a more significant source of energy for albacore. When designing ecosystem-based approaches to the management of CCS-based fisheries, we recommend that the forage contribution of saury, hake and anchovy to the albacore population be considered.

  8. Efecto del Almacenamiento a Diferentes Temperaturas sobre la Calidad de Tuna Roja (Opuntia ficus indica (L. Miller Effect of the Storage at Different Temperatures on the Quality of Red Prickle Pear (Opuntia ficus indica (L. Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E Ochoa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el efecto del almacenamiento a diferentes temperaturas sobre la calidad de tuna roja (Opuntia ficus indica (L. Miller, variedad San Martín. El fruto se almacenó a 4±1, 9±2 y 28±2°C para determinar su vida útil. Se realizó semanalmente la caracterización fisicoquímica, enzimática, antioxidante y microbiológica durante el almacenamiento, hasta observar características no aptas para el consumo. Se observó que el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento son factores que afectan de manera significativa (P0,05 a las diferentes temperaturas de almacenamiento. Sin embargo, la actividad antioxidante presentó un aumento significativo con el tiempo.The effect of the storage at different temperatures on the quality of red prickle pear (Opuntia ficus indica (L. Miller San Martín variety. The fruit was stored at 4±1, 9±2, and 28±2°C for determining its shelf life. Once a week, physicochemical, enzymatic, antioxidant and microbiological characteristics were evaluated until fruit showed no edible characteristics. Time and storage temperature were the two parameters that significantly affected (p0.05 during storage time. However, antioxidant capacity presented a significant increase with time.

  9. Caracterización de pacientes con retinopatía diabética atendidos en el Servicio de Retina del Centro Oftalmológico de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunilda De Los Ángeles Aveleira Ortiz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en pacientes diabéticos remitidos a consulta de retina del Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara De La Serna”, en la provincia de Las Tunas, desde febrero 2012 a diciembre 2013, con el objetivo de caracterizar los referidos pacientes. La muestra quedó integrada por 211 diabéticos tipo I y II con retinopatía diabética. Las variables analizadas fueron edad, sexo, agudeza visual, tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad, tipo de retinopatía diabética y tiempo medio de la última consulta oftalmológica. El sexo femenino se presentó en el 54%, la edad comprendida entre 61-70 años fue la más frecuente, con un 26,5%. Como factor atenuante de la retinopatía se destacó el glaucoma de ángulo abierto, con 10,9%, y la miopía, con un 5,6%. El 53% de los pacientes tenían más de 15 años de evolución de la diabetes. La retinopatía diabética no proliferativa severa estuvo en el 27,9%. Se evidenció la entidad en una muestra de pacientes no vistos antes en consulta de oftalmología

  10. Assessment of trophic dynamics of cephalopods and large pelagic fishes in the central North Atlantic Ocean using stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John M.; Lutcavage, Molly E.

    2013-10-01

    Pelagic ecosystems in the central North Atlantic Ocean support numerous commercially-exploited tuna, shark, and billfish species, which rely largely on cephalopod as well as fish and crustacean prey. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on tuna and billfish predators as well as cephalopod prey species sampled during two research longline cruises (2001-02) to study their trophic structure. Nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) analyses revealed similarity in trophic position (TP) among sampled fish predator species, with large swordfish occupying the highest TP. Species with wider vertical distributions (swordfish and bigeye tuna) had higher δ15N values than species more constrained to the epipelagic zone (yellowfin tuna and dolphinfish). Analysis of tissue nitrogen isotope values showed an ontogenetic increase for swordfish and white marlin but no effects for other sampled fish species. For cephalopods as a group, δ15N increased with size. Smaller cephalopods sampled in this study had δ15N values that were about one TP below co-occurring tunas and billfishes, confirming their importance as a prey resource. Larger cephalopods had similar δ15N values to tunas and billfishes, indicating that these large cephalopods occupy a comparable TP to their fish predators. Both carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values of large pelagic fishes showed spatial gradients relative to conspecifics analyzed in coastal regions, which can be used to trace large scale movements.

  11. Study on Application of HACCP System on Histamine and Microorganism Control of Canned Skipjack Tuna Product for Export%出口金枪鱼罐头中组胺及微生物控制的HACCP应用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李微微; 吴祖芳; 周秀锦; 沈飚

    2013-01-01

    以金枪鱼(Skipjack Tuna)罐头生产加工过程为例,分析了生产原料及罐头生产流程各环节物料微生物变化情况,部分工艺参数对细菌总数及组胺产生的影响;确定了原料验收、解冻清洗、预蒸煮和配料封罐为主要关键控制点,并制定HACCP计划,建立相应的监控程序和纠偏措施.经HACCP计划实施前后细菌总数与组胺质量分数对比分析,结果表明解冻阶段细菌数减少约30%,成品细菌总数减少49%,成品中组胺质量分数也从3.5 mg/kg降至1.5 mg/kg,同时提高了水产制品卫生品质及保质期.%The raw materials and microbial changes in different periods of production process of canned marine products were investigated, using Skipjack Tuna production as an example in this paper. The effects of processing factors on the total bacterial population and histamine content were also studied. The crucial control points of entire production process were established including the raw material examination,defrozen cleaning,precooking,ingredients and can sealing. A HACCP plan was established, meanwhile the monitoring program and rectification measures were set up. The total bacterial population and histamine content of tuna in the canning processing were compared by adopting the HACCP plan established. The results showed that the bacterial population reduced about 30% in the phase of defrost by HACCP procedure. It also reduced by 49% for the final product. The histamine content of the final product is also reduced from the 3.5 mg/kg to 1.5 mg/kg. These results demonstrated that the hygiene quality and preservation period of the Skipjack Tuna product have been improved.

  12. Physical-chemical quality of fish used for making sushi and sashimi tuna and salmon marketed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Qualidade físico-química do pescado utilizado na elaboração de sushis e sashimis de atum e salmão comercializados no município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Leal Rodrigues; Lucas Rabaça dos Santos; Eliane Teixeira Mársico; Carla Cruz Camarinha; Sérgio Borges Mano; Carlos Adam Conte Junior

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the physical-chemical quality of fish used in a random sampling of 54 samples of sushi and sashimi tuna and salmon obtained in restaurants with the support of Sanitary Surveillance of the city of Rio de Janeiro from July to August 2011. The temperature were measured at the time of sampling. We carried out physical and chemical tests to determine pH, ammonia, H2S, total volatile bases (TVB), trimethylamine (TMA) and histamine. All samples were exposed to inadequat...

  13. Dual enzymatic hydrolysis of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) and dynamic changes of the products during hydrolysis%鲣鱼双酶酶解工艺优化及其产物动态变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周绪霞; 高莹; 顾利伟; 赵丹丹; 丁玉庭

    2015-01-01

    以鲣鱼为对象,优化了胰蛋白酶(trypsin)与木瓜蛋白酶(papain)复合酶解鱼肉蛋白的条件,研究了酶解过程中酶解液中游离氨基酸组成和含量、肽分子质量分布以及呈味核苷酸二钠含量的动态变化规律.结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶和胰蛋白酶双酶酶解鲣鱼最优条件为:最适比例1:3,总酶添加量3 000 U/g,底物浓度为25%.酶解过程中,酶解液中游离氨基酸总量不断增加,酶解6h后,呈苦味氨基酸含量有所减少,而呈鲜味氨基酸大幅增加;对氨基酸呈味强度值(taste activity value,TAV)的分析表明,Glu、Met、Ile和His等几种氨基酸对酶解液的呈味特性起了关键作用.随着酶解时间的增加,大分子质量蛋白和肽类组分逐渐减少而小分子质量肽类组分逐渐增多,酶解6h后分子质量小于0.5 ku的组分含量达到80.17%.呈味核苷酸二钠含量随酶解时间缓慢增加.%Conditions of dual enzymatic hydrolysis of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) by trypsin and papain were investigated, and dynamic changes in free amino acids composition and content, peptide molecular weight distribution, IMP and GMP contents during the hydrolysis were studied.The results showed that the optimal conditions for skipjack tuna hydrolysis were as follows : enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 3 000 U/g, papain to trypsin ratio of 1 : 3, substrate concentration of 25%.Under these conditions, the total free amino acids content of the hydrolysate kept increasing during the fermentation.The content of free amino acid with bitter taste decreased obviously while that of free amino acids with umami taste had a sharp increase after 6 h of hydrolysis.According to TAV analysis, Glu, Met, Ile and His played important roles in the contribution of hydrolysate flavor.Distribution of small molecular weight peptides in the hydrolysate increased gradually during the hydrolysis, and 80.17% of them were below 0.5 ku after 6 h of hydrolysis.The contents of IMP

  14. Contribution of cephalopod prey to the diet of large pelagic fish predators in the central North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John M.; Toppin, Rebecca; Smith, Sean; Galuardi, Benjamin; Porter, Julie; Lutcavage, Molly

    2013-10-01

    Trophic studies documenting the importance of cephalopod prey for large pelagic fish predators have been performed recently for open ocean ecosystems in the Pacific and Indian oceans, but similar data for the central North Atlantic Ocean have been lacking. A series of longline sampling cruises targeting large pelagic fish species was undertaken in the central North Atlantic Ocean in 2001-2002, and stomach samples were analyzed from a variety of tuna, shark, and billfish species to help fill this data gap. Stomach samples were collected from nine species (n=170 non-empty stomachs), with the majority of stomachs from Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius; n=69), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares; n=31), and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga; n=28). Ommastrephid squids were the most ubiquitous prey group across predator species and sampling years. Secondary cephalopod prey included octopods, histioteuthids, and architeuthids. Mesopelagic fishes and Sargassum-associated fishes were also identified as important prey. Diet composition varied spatially and prey size increased with predator size for swordfish and yellowfin tuna. Our results support findings in other ocean basins that demonstrate the importance of squid to large pelagic fishes and highlight the need for more research on their ecological and biophysical dynamics.

  15. Trophic influences on mercury accumulation in top pelagic predators from offshore New England waters of the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teffer, Amy K; Staudinger, Michelle D; Taylor, David L; Juanes, Francis

    2014-10-01

    Trophic pathways and size-based bioaccumulation rates of total mercury were evaluated among recreationally caught albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus), and dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) from offshore southern New England waters of the northwest Atlantic Ocean between 2008 and 2011. Mercury concentrations were highest in mako (2.65 ± 1.16 ppm) and thresher sharks (0.87 ± 0.71 ppm), and significantly lower in teleosts (albacore, 0.45 ± 0.14 ppm; yellowfin, 0.32 ± 0.09 ppm; dolphinfish, 0.20 ± 0.17 ppm). The relationship between body size and mercury concentration was positive and linear for tunas, and positive and exponential for sharks and dolphinfish. Mercury increased exponentially with δ (15)N values, a proxy for trophic position, across all species. Results demonstrate mercury levels are positively related to size, diet and trophic position in sharks, tunas, and dolphinfish, and the majority of fishes exhibited concentrations greater than the US EPA recommended limit. PMID:25440782

  16. Tracing phylogeny through proteins of the layers of the eye lens nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A C

    1982-01-01

    1. In accordance with the concept that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, it was hypothesized that the proteins in the eye lens nucleus increase in antiquity with depth of layer and so can be used to reconstruct the phylogenetic past. 2. This hypothesis was tested by analyzing electrophoretic patterns of proteins from solubilized nuclear lens layers of three tuna species with well-studied phylogenies. The tuna species are the albacore, Thunnus alalunga; yellowfin, T. albacares; and skipjack, Katsuwonus pelamis. 3. The electrophoretic patterns fitted a scheme that is in agreement with major phylogenetic beliefs about these species. Additionally, the patterns seemed to indicate that (a) the skipjack diverged later (although to a lesser degree) from a common ancestor than did the other two tuna species, and (b) the albacore is more closely related to the skipjack than is the yellowfin. 4. It is concluded that electrophoretic analysis of proteins from nuclear lens layers is a promising new tool for tracing phylogenetic relationships. PMID:7083823

  17. Incorrect likelihood methods were used to infer scaling laws of marine predator search behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecologists are collecting extensive data concerning movements of animals in marine ecosystems. Such data need to be analysed with valid statistical methods to yield meaningful conclusions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate methodological issues in two recent studies that reached similar conclusions concerning movements of marine animals (Nature 451:1098; Science 332:1551. The first study analysed vertical movement data to conclude that diverse marine predators (Atlantic cod, basking sharks, bigeye tuna, leatherback turtles and Magellanic penguins exhibited "Lévy-walk-like behaviour", close to a hypothesised optimal foraging strategy. By reproducing the original results for the bigeye tuna data, we show that the likelihood of tested models was calculated from residuals of regression fits (an incorrect method, rather than from the likelihood equations of the actual probability distributions being tested. This resulted in erroneous Akaike Information Criteria, and the testing of models that do not correspond to valid probability distributions. We demonstrate how this led to overwhelming support for a model that has no biological justification and that is statistically spurious because its probability density function goes negative. Re-analysis of the bigeye tuna data, using standard likelihood methods, overturns the original result and conclusion for that data set. The second study observed Lévy walk movement patterns by mussels. We demonstrate several issues concerning the likelihood calculations (including the aforementioned residuals issue. Re-analysis of the data rejects the original Lévy walk conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: We consequently question the claimed existence of scaling laws of the search behaviour of marine predators and mussels, since such conclusions were reached using incorrect methods. We discourage the suggested potential use of "Lévy-like walks" when modelling consequences of fishing and climate change, and caution

  18. Characterization of Molecular Species of Fish Muscle Phosphatidylcholine

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Koretaro; Ebina, Hideaki; Egi, Makoto; Matsumoto, Kozo; Zama, Koichi

    1985-01-01

    Dorsal muscle phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species of sardine, mackerel, big-eyed tuna, brown sole, sand flounder, rock fish, Alaska pollack, chum salmon, blue shark, mackerel shark, carp and rainbow trout were analyzed on HPLC.Flat fish such as brown sole and sand flounder were extremely characteristic, since these fish contained (16:0) (20:5) as the most prominent molecular species unlike the rest of the fish that had (16:0) (22:6) as the most prominant molecular species.Principal com...

  19. Eficiencia operacional del virador de palangre de una embarcación atunera artesanal prototipo de Isla Margarita, Venezuela Operational efficiency of the longline hauler on a prototype artisanal tuna fishing vessel from Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Trujillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia operacional del mecanismo de virado del palangre de una embarcación atunera artesanal de Isla Margarita, Venezuela, se determinó mediante la velocidad media de calado, velocidad media de virado, tensión de entrada del virador (T0 y su fuerza de tracción (P. Se encontró una relación directa entre la fuerza de gravedad media (q med de la sección de palangre y la tensión de entrada del virador (T0. Considerando una fuerza (Pme d en la entrada del virador (Sj, la tensión en (S3 disminuye debido a la polea de presión que ejerce una fuerza H = 23,7 N, obteniendo una fuerza S4 = 0. La velocidad media de calado del palangre fue de 208 m min-1 (~ 333 anzuelos/hora y la velocidad media de virado de 121 m min-1 (~ 160 anzuelos/hora; mientras que la tensión de entrada del virador (T0 fue de 1.013 N. Por lo tanto, la nueva fuerza de tracción (P fluctuó entre 1.317 y 1.418 N. De acuerdo al torque en las poleas del mecanismo virador, la velocidad media de virado (v med y las relaciones de transmisión (k1= k2, se estimó que para el izado del palangre se requiere una potencia media (Nmed de 5,3 hp (~ 3,95 kW, resultando eficiencia de virado por sección (Tp de 135,4 s.The operational efficiency of the long line hauler on an artisanal tuna fishing vessel from Margarita Island, Venezuela, was determined using the average setting velocity, average hauling velocity, hauler input tension (T0 and traction strength (P. A direct relationship was found between the average gravity (q med on the long-line section and the hauler input tension (T0. Considering a strength (Pme d at the input of the long line hauler (Sj, the roller tension (S3 decreases due to the force of H = 23.7 N exerted by the pressure roller, resulting in a strength of S4 = 0. The long-line average setting velocity was 208 m min-1 (~ 333 hooks/hour and its hauling velocity was 121 m min-1 (~ 160 hooks/hour, whereas hauler input tension (T0 was 1013 N. Therefore, the new

  20. Caracterización y evolución metamórfica de las rocas ultramáficas de la faja del río de las Tunas, Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Florencia Gargiulo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio petro-mineralógico y químico de metaperidotitas y serpentinitas de la faja máfica-ultramáfica del río de Las Tunas, Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza. Las metaperidotitas preservan relictos de Ol, Cpx, Spls.l. (castaño-rojizo y escaso Opx con diferentes proporciones modales, que permiten inferir protolitos de dunitas, dunitas espinélicas, dunitas clinopiroxénicas, wehrlitas, clinopiroxenitas olivínicas y clinopiroxenitas. La secuencia de cristalización observada en los minerales de reemplazo de las fases primarias: Srp+Mgt(±Brc±Chl→àTr±Tlc→�}Ath→à±Spls.s./Ple(verde±Opx, evidencia el proceso de serpentinización inicial seguido de aumento del grado metamórfico hasta alcanzar condiciones equivalentes a la transición entre la facies de anfibolita de alto grado y la facies de granulita. Un segundo evento de serpentinización manifestado por texturas pseudomórficas según Amp y Chl y texturas no pseudomórficas y de recristalización, junto con las secuencias a FeChr→àCrMgtà→Mgt y b Spls.s./Ple(verdeà→Mgt, indican condiciones posteriores de bajo grado vinculadas a la etapa retrógrada del ciclo de metamorfismo regional. Durante esta etapa también se desarrollan zonas de reacción entre los cuerpos ultramáficos y su roca de caja, como consecuencia de un proceso metasomático entre las litologías en contacto. De manera relativamente simultánea, se genera también la carbonatización penetrativa de cuerpos ultramáficos cercanos a los niveles carbonáticos del Complejo Guarguaráz. Durante el estadío final del ciclo metamórfico, se emplazan cuerpos ígneos gondwánicos en el área de estudio, que aportan las condiciones físico-químicas que favorecen la movilización de elementos y la concentración de minerales, además de potenciar el desarrollo de los procesos metasomáticos. Un nuevo evento de serpentinización restringido en zonas de cizalla, concentra la alteración extrema y