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Sample records for big river bacterioplankton

  1. Circumpolar synchrony in big river bacterioplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Byron C; Peterson, Bruce J; Raymond, Peter A; Amon, Rainer M W; Rinehart, Amanda; McClelland, James W; Holmes, Robert M

    2009-12-15

    Natural bacterial communities are extremely diverse and highly dynamic, but evidence is mounting that the compositions of these communities follow predictable temporal patterns. We investigated these patterns with a 3-year, circumpolar study of bacterioplankton communities in the six largest rivers of the pan-arctic watershed (Ob', Yenisey, Lena, Kolyma, Yukon, and Mackenzie), five of which are among Earth's 25 largest rivers. Communities in the six rivers shifted synchronously over time, correlating with seasonal shifts in hydrology and biogeochemistry and clustering into three groups: winter/spring, spring freshet, and summer/fall. This synchrony indicates that hemisphere-scale variation in seasonal climate sets the pace of variation in microbial diversity. Moreover, these seasonal communities reassembled each year in all six rivers, suggesting a long-term, predictable succession in the composition of big river bacterioplankton communities. PMID:19940248

  2. Bacterioplankton community variation across river to ocean environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Crump, Byron C

    2011-08-01

    Coastal zones encompass a complex spectrum of environmental gradients that each impact the composition of bacterioplankton communities. Few studies have attempted to address these gradients comprehensively. We generated a synoptic, 16S rRNA gene-based bacterioplankton community profile of a coastal zone by applying the fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to water samples collected from the Columbia River, estuary, and plume, and along coastal transects covering 360 km of the Oregon and Washington coasts and extending to the deep ocean (>2,000 m). Communities were found to cluster into five distinct groups based on location in the system (ANOSIM, p 650 m). Across all environments, abiotic factors (salinity, temperature, depth) explained most of the community variability (ρ = 0.734). But within each coastal environment, biotic factors explained most of the variability. Thus, structuring physical factors in coastal zones, such as salinity and temperature, define the boundaries of many distinct microbial habitats, but within these habitats variability in microbial communities is explained by biological gradients in primary and secondary productivity. PMID:21286702

  3. Effects of large river dam regulation on bacterioplankton community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Clara; Proia, Lorenzo; Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Sabater, Sergi

    2013-05-01

    Large rivers are commonly regulated by damming, yet the effects of such disruption on prokaryotic communities have seldom been studied. We describe the effects of the three large reservoirs of the Ebro River (NE Iberian Peninsula) on bacterioplankton assemblages by comparing several sites located before and after the impoundments on three occasions. We monitored the abundances of several bacterial phylotypes identified by rRNA gene probing, and those of two functional groups (picocyanobacteria and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria-AAPs). Much greater numbers of particles colonized by bacteria were found in upstream waters than downstream sites. Picocyanobacteria were found in negligible numbers at most sites, whereas AAPs constituted up to 14% of total prokaryotes, but there was no clear effect of reservoirs on the spatial dynamics of these two groups. Instead, damming caused a pronounced decline in Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes from upstream to downstream sites, whereas Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria significantly increased after the reservoirs. Redundancy analysis revealed that conductivity, temperature and dissolved inorganic nitrogen were the environmental predictors that best explained the observed variability in bacterial community composition. Our data show that impoundments exerted significant impacts on bacterial riverine assemblages and call attention to the unforeseen ecological consequences of river regulation. PMID:23278359

  4. Bacterioplankton in an urban river: the effects of a metal-bearing tributary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, C.R.; Goulder, R.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of total Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in the River Aire, West Yorkshire, were elevated close to the confluence of a metal-bearing tributary but rapidly decreased over 500 m downstream. Heterotrophic activity of bacterioplankton appeared to be inhibited adjacent to the confluence, but concentrations of total bacteria, colony-forming units were not depressed. Bacterial variables were not (negatively) correlated with metals (except heterotrophic activity with Cu) but correlations were found between bacteria and other environmental variables. Hence bacterioplankton was probably controlled by environmental variables other than metals originating from the tributary. 29 references, 3 tables.

  5. Spatial-Temporal Changes of Bacterioplankton Community along an Exhorheic River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lili; Mao, Guannan; Liu, Jie; Gao, Guanghai; Zou, Changliang; Bartlam, Mark G; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    To date, few aquatic microbial ecology studies have discussed the variability of the microbial community in exorheic river ecosystems on both the spatial and seasonal scales. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal variation of bacterioplankton community composition in an anthropogenically influenced exorheic river, the Haihe River in Tianjin, China, using pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes. It was verified by one-way ANOVA that the spatial variability of the bacterioplankton community composition over the whole river was stronger than the seasonal variation. Salinity was a major factor leading to spatial differentiation of the microbial community structure into riverine and estuarial parts. A high temperature influence on the seasonal bacterial community variation was only apparent within certain kinds of environments (e.g., the riverine part). Bacterial community richness and diversity both exhibited significant spatial changes, and their seasonal variations were completely different in the two environments studied here. Furthermore, riverine bacterial community assemblages were subdivided into urban and rural groups due to changes in the nutritional state of the river. In addition, the nutrient-loving group including Limnohabitans, Hydrogenophaga, and Polynucleobacter were abundant in the urbanized Haihe River, indicating the environmental factors in these anthropogenic waterbodies heavily influence the core freshwater community composition. PMID:26973627

  6. Free-Living and Particle-Associated Bacterioplankton in Large Rivers of the Mississippi River Basin Demonstrate Biogeographic Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Colin R; Millar, Justin J; Payne, Jason T; Ochs, Clifford A

    2014-12-01

    The different drainage basins of large rivers such as the Mississippi River represent interesting systems in which to study patterns in freshwater microbial biogeography. Spatial variability in bacterioplankton communities in six major rivers (the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee, and Arkansas) of the Mississippi River Basin was characterized using Ion Torrent 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. When all systems were combined, particle-associated (>3 μm) bacterial assemblages were found to be different from free-living bacterioplankton in terms of overall community structure, partly because of differences in the proportional abundance of sequences affiliated with major bacterial lineages (Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Planctomycetes). Both particle-associated and free-living communities ordinated by river system, a pattern that was apparent even after rare sequences or those affiliated with Cyanobacteria were removed from the analyses. Ordination of samples by river system correlated with environmental characteristics of each river, such as nutrient status and turbidity. Communities in the Upper Mississippi and the Missouri and in the Ohio and the Tennessee, pairs of rivers that join each other, contained similar taxa in terms of presence-absence data but differed in the proportional abundance of major lineages. The most common sequence types detected in particle-associated communities were picocyanobacteria in the Synechococcus/Prochlorococcus/Cyanobium (Syn/Pro) clade, while free-living communities also contained a high proportion of LD12 (SAR11/Pelagibacter)-like Alphaproteobacteria. This research shows that while different tributaries of large river systems such as the Mississippi River harbor distinct bacterioplankton communities, there is also microhabitat variation such as that between free-living and particle-associated assemblages. PMID:25217018

  7. Spatial variability overwhelms seasonal patterns in bacterioplankton communities across a river to ocean gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Herfort, Lydie; Zuber, Peter; Baptista, Antonio M; Crump, Byron C

    2012-03-01

    Few studies of microbial biogeography address variability across both multiple habitats and multiple seasons. Here we examine the spatial and temporal variability of bacterioplankton community composition of the Columbia River coastal margin using 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of 300 water samples collected in 2007 and 2008. Communities separated into seven groups (ANOSIM, Priver, estuary, plume, epipelagic, mesopelagic, shelf bottom (depth850 m). The ordination of these samples was correlated with salinity (ρ=-0.83) and depth (ρ=-0.62). Temporal patterns were obscured by spatial variability among the coastal environments, and could only be detected within individual groups. Thus, structuring environmental factors (for example, salinity, depth) dominate over seasonal changes in determining community composition. Seasonal variability was detected across an annual cycle in the river, estuary and plume where communities separated into two groups, early year (April-July) and late year (August-Nov), demonstrating annual reassembly of communities over time. Determining both the spatial and temporal variability of bacterioplankton communities provides a framework for modeling these communities across environmental gradients from river to deep ocean. PMID:22011718

  8. Phylogenetic diversity, composition and distribution of bacterioplankton community in the Dongjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenghui; Huang, Shaobin; Sun, Guoping; Xu, Zhencheng; Xu, Meiying

    2012-04-01

    Bacterioplankton community compositions in the Dongjiang River were characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene clone library construction. Water samples in nine different sites were taken along the mainstem and three tributaries. In total, 24 bands from DGGE gels and 406 clones from the libraries were selected and sequenced, subsequently analyzed for the bacterial diversity and composition of those microbial communities. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from freshwater bacteria exhibited board phylogenetic diversity, including sequences representing the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Verrucomicrobia, and candidate division TM7. Members of Betaproteobacteria group were the most dominant in all sampling sites, followed by Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. DGGE profiles and the ∫-LIBSHUFF analysis revealed similar patterns of bacterial diversity among most sampling sites, while spatial distribution variances existed in all sites along the river basin. Statistical analysis showed that bacterial species distribution strongly correlated with environmental variables, such as nitrate and ammonia, suggesting that nitrogen nutrients may shape the microbial community structure and composition in the Dongjiang River. This study had important implications for the comparison with other rivers elsewhere and contributed to the growing data set on the factors that structure bacterial communities in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:22133045

  9. Temporal variation in the specific growth rate of bacterioplankton in the River Cauvery and its four down stream tributaries in Karnataka State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondoti Sathyanarayana Rao, Harsha; Yamakanamardi, Sadanand Mallappa; Mallaiah, Mahadeveswamy

    2009-07-01

    The temporal variation in the Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of natural population of heterotrophic bacterioplankton of the river Cauvery and its four down stream tributaries in Karnataka State was monitored over a period of two years from February 2000 to January 2002. The SGR was calculated by taking into account only the abundance of bacterioplankton at the beginning (0 h) and at the end (48 h) incubation period, at room or river temperature. The mean SGR was less and significantly different in the surface waters of river Kapila, Shimsha, Suvarnavathy and Arkavathy. But it was more and significantly different in river Cauvery when compared to other tributaries. This suggests that the river Cauvery was more favorable habitat for SGR of bacterioplankton than the other four watercourses studied. Investigation of interrelationship between SGR and other bacterial variables showed presence of only one correlation with direct counts of particle bound bacteria in river Arkavathy. Further, the relationship between SGR of bacterioplankton and other environmental variables showed the presence of six correlations in river Shimsha, five in river Suvarnavathy, three in river Cauvery, and two each in river Kapila and river Arkavathy. Negative SGR were recorded on thirteen occasions in river Cauvery followed by eleven in river Shimsha, nine in river Suvarnavathy, seven in river Arkavathy and five in river Kapila, out of fifty SGR determinations. This negative SGR were a result of decrease in the observed bacterial cell counts after 48 h incubation from that of 0 h count. The probable reason for such negative growth rate and dependency of SGR of bacterioplankton and environmental variables has been discussed. PMID:18600464

  10. [Bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos of some floodplain lakes in the course of the lower Amur river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, A N

    2002-01-01

    The main structural and functional characteristics of bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos of three lakes in the lower course of the Amur River are presented: the total number of bacteria (TNB), biomass, the numbers of bacteria of certain aerobic and anaerobic groups; the intensities of methanogenesis (MG), methane oxidation (MO), assimilation of 14C-compounds, sulfate reduction (SR); and gross estimate of organic matter decomposition (D). Depending on the reservoir type and the anthropogenic load, TNB constituted (2.27 to 16.1) x 10(6) cells/ml in water and (1.06 to 10.35) x 10(9) cells/ml in sediments; MO was 0 to 0.28 ml CH4/(1 day) in water and 0 to 8.4 ml CH4/(dm3 day) in sediments; MG in sediments was 0.001 to 40 ml CH4/(dm3 day); SR varied from 0.001 to 24.8 mg S/(dm3 day); D was 0.3 to 25 g C/(m2 day) in water and 0.2 to 4.9 g C/(m2 day) in sediments. The role of anaerobic microbial processes of organic matter decomposition was shown to increase with an increase in the anthropogenic load, attaining 95% of the total D in the ecosystem of an accumulating pond. PMID:12244728

  11. 76 FR 7837 - Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 4, 2011, Big Rivers Electric Corporation (Big Rivers) filed a notice of cancellation of its Second Revised and Restated Open Access Transmission Tariff. Big Rivers also requests waiver of the...

  12. [Bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI): an approach for assessing river ecosystem health in Dianchi watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Shu, Zhong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    The index of biotic integrity (IBI) has been widely applied to the health assessment of river ecosystems. However, the currently available IBI methods are lack of decomposer-based assessment. Based on the T-RFLP result of bacterioplankton, we developed the bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI) after the screening of major environmental factors and candidate metrics to assess the health of the inflow rivers in Dianchi Watershed. The evaluation result indicated that the eco-health conditions of 11 reference sites were either level I (8 sites) or level II (3 sites), while the 27 damaged sites were level I (4 sites), level II (14 sites), level III (7 sites), and level IV (2 sites), and there was no level V site. Compared with the other IBI methods and the integrated pollution index, BP-IBI showed better effect in reflecting the influence of the key environmental factors, the land use types and the upstream water types in river ecosystems. Therefore, BP-IBI is a good method to characterize the health status of river ecosystems. PMID:24191542

  13. 75 FR 141 - Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing December 23, 2009. Take... Granting Petition for Declaratory Order and Granting Waivers,'' Big Rivers Elec. Corp., 128 FERC ] 61,264 (2009) (September 17 Order), Big Rivers Electric Corporation filed revised tariff sheets to its...

  14. Bacterioplankton features and its relations with doc characteristics and other limnological variables in Paraná river floodplain environments (PR/MS-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mariana Carolina; Santana, Natália Fernanda; de Azevedo, Júlio César Rodrigues; Pagioro, Thomaz Aurélio

    2011-07-01

    Since the introduction of the Microbial Loop concept, many studies aimed to explain the role of bacterioplankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aquatic ecosystems. Paraná River floodplain system is a very complex environment where these subjects were little explored. The aim of this work was to characterize bacterial community in terms of density, biomass and biovolume in some water bodies of this floodplain and to verify its temporal variation and its relation with some limnological variables, including some indicators of DOC quality, obtained through Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Bacterial density, biomass and biovolume are similar to those from other freshwater environments and both density and biomass were higher in the period with less rain. The limnological and spectroscopic features that showed any relation with bacterioplankton were the concentrations of N-NH4 and P-PO4, water transparency, and some indicators of DOC quality and origin. The analysis of these relations showed a possible competition between bacterioplankton and phytoplankton for inorganic nutrients and that the DOC used by bacterioplankton is labile and probably from aquatic macrophytes. PMID:24031705

  15. Bacterioplankton features and its relations with doc characteristics and other limnological variables in Paraná river floodplain environments (PR/MS-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carolina Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Microbial Loop concept, many studies aimed to explain the role of bacterioplankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC in aquatic ecosystems. Paraná River floodplain system is a very complex environment where these subjects were little explored. The aim of this work was to characterize bacterial community in terms of density, biomass and biovolume in some water bodies of this floodplain and to verify its temporal variation and its relation with some limnological variables, including some indicators of DOC quality, obtained through Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Bacterial density, biomass and biovolume are similar to those from other freshwater environments and both density and biomass were higher in the period with less rain. The limnological and spectroscopic features that showed any relation with bacterioplankton were the concentrations of N-NH4 and P-PO4, water transparency, and some indicators of DOC quality and origin. The analysis of these relations showed a possible competition between bacterioplankton and phytoplankton for inorganic nutrients and that the DOC used by bacterioplankton is labile and probably from aquatic macrophytes.

  16. Successive changes in bacterioplankton communities in the River Rhine after copper additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubbing, D.M.J.; Admiraal, W. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Katako, A. [International Institute for Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    The sensitivity of bacterioplankton to copper was analyzed to see whether initial steps in the selection of cooper-tolerant life-forms in mixed populations of bacteria were accompanied by changes in basic metabolic parameters. Analysis took place by measuring the incorporation of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and [{sup 3}H]leucine, and the hydrolysis of leucyl-{beta}-naphthylamide over a period of 4 d. In acute toxicity tests the radiochemically determined parameters showed the same sensitivities to copper, whereas in the enzyme test the dose-response curve had a much lower slope, indicating less sensitivity. Marked differences were observed in the susceptibility of the different processes after prolonged exposure to copper. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]thymidine, [{sup 3}H]leucine, and proteolytic activity changed substantially during exposure to concentrations as low as 2 to 31 {micro}g Cu L{sup {minus}1}. Higher copper concentrations 126--1,000 {micro}g Cu L{sup {minus}1} led in the course of 24 to 48 h to the development of a bacterial community with a higher overall copper tolerance. In winter, these successive events in bacterial populations were observed in the absence of substantial populations of algae or zooplankton. In summer, the metabolic changes in bacterioplankton expose to copper were strongly affected by the poisoning of other organisms, notably algae, and the subsequent release of organic material. Thus, moderate copper concentrations alter the metabolic profile of bacterial communities, probably as an initial step in the selection of tolerant life-forms.

  17. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw...

  18. Temporal changes in the bacterioplankton of a Northeast Ohio (USA) River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Leff, L G

    2002-12-01

    To examine temporal changes in a bacterial community, water samples were collected monthly for one year from five sites along a major use-reuse river, the Cuyahoga River, in northeastern Ohio (USA). Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to enumerate population sizes of two species of common bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus; FISH was also performed with a Domain Bacteria specific probe. In addition, the total bacteria (based on DAPI staining), colony forming units (on modified Nutrient agar) and coliforms were enumerated and supporting physical/chemical data were collected. Each variable examined exhibited a different seasonal pattern. Temporal changes in total number of bacteria and population size of P. putida were correlated with turbidity and precipitation suggesting that allochthonous sources and scouring of the benthos may be major contributors to these portions of the community. In contrast, the number of cells hybridizing the Domain Bacteria and A. calcoaceticus probes were correlated with temperature. Thus, different aspects of the bacterial community are potentially controlled by different factors and the role of allochthonous and autochthonous sources may vary among species. PMID:14552350

  19. Seasonal dynamics and community structure of bacterioplankton in upper Paraná River floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Josiane Barros; Roberto, Maria do Carmo; Pagioro, Thomaz Aurélio

    2013-11-01

    Knowing the bacterial community, as well as understanding how it changes during a hydrological pulse, is very important to understand nutrient cycles in floodplain systems. The bacterial community structure was analyzed in the 12 sites of upper Paraná River floodplain, and its changes during a flood pulse were described. In order to understand how high and low water phases change bacterial community by changing abiotical variables, the bacterial community distribution was determined in superficial water of 12 different sampling stations, every 3 months, from December 2010 to September 2011. The bacterial community structure and diversity was analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, considering the main domains Bacteria and Archaea and the subdivisions of the phylum Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. Smaller densities were observed on ebb and low water periods and the highest density was observed in March 2011. The high water period caused a decrease in diversity because of the lost of equitability. The highest values of Shannon-Wiener index were found on December 2010 and September 2011. The nutrients runoff to the aquatic environments of the floodplain promoted an increase in the total bacterial density during the high water phase as well as changes in bacterial community composition. The bacterial community presented both spatial and temporal differences. Yet, temporal changes in limnological characteristics of the floodplain were the most important predictor of bacterial community and also influenced its diversity. PMID:24046074

  20. Bacterioplankton dynamics along the gradient from highly eutrophic Pearl River Estuary to oligotrophic northern South China Sea in wet season: implication for anthropogenic inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weihua; Long, Aimin; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Shaoyong; Huang, Liangmin; Huang, Hui; Cai, Chuanghua; Yan, Yan

    2011-04-01

    Bacterioplankton abundance (BA) and biomass (BB) from the eutrophic Pearl River Estuary (PRE) to the oligotrophic northern South China Sea (NSCS) were studied in the wet season. BA was significantly higher (p 100 μM and PO₄ > 1 μM) resulted in high chl a and BB, whereas nutrient-depleted offshore waters (DIN 26 °C) was not the controlling factor of BA. BB was significantly correlated with chl a biomass both in PRE and NSCS. The bacteria to phytoplankton biomass (BB/PB) ratio increased clearly along the gradient from near-shore PRE (0.15) to offshore CSNP (0.93) and deep OP (2.75), indicating the important role of small cells in the open ocean compared to estuarine and coastal zones. PMID:21316714

  1. Bacterial activity and bacterioplankton diversity in the eutrophic River Warnow--direct measurement of bacterial growth efficiency and its effect on carbon utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Mareike; Freese, Heike M; Schumann, Rhena

    2011-01-01

    The influence of bacterial activity and diversity on bacterial growth efficiency was investigated in a flatland river. Eutrophic River Warnow drains predominantly agricultural land and is heavily loaded with nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM), especially humic substances. Although the water column bacterial community consists of many inactive or damaged cells, bacterioplankton sustained a high bacterial secondary production of 0.2-14.5 μg C L(-1) h(-1) and a high DNA synthesis (thymidine uptake) of 6.1-15.5 μg C L(-1) h(-1). The direct and short-term measurement of bacterial respiration (by optodes) revealed high respiration rates especially in summer leading to directly estimated bacterial growth efficiencies (BGE) of 2-28%. These values are compared to calculations based only on bacterial production, which considerably overestimated BGEs. From all these data, River Warnow can be characterized as a strongly remineralizing system. River Warnow was dominated among others by Cytophaga/Flavobacteria and Actinobacteria which are typical for organic rich waters because of their ability to degrade high molecular weight compounds. However, community composition did not significantly affect BGE. PMID:20676625

  2. Very long-term incision dynamics of big rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Chardon, Dominique; Beauvais, Anicet

    2014-11-01

    Constraining large-scale incision dynamics of shield and post-rift margin domains is key to understanding the sediment routing system over the overwhelming part of the continental surface. Based on dated and regionally correlated incision markers from West Africa, we reconstruct for the first time the entire paleo-long profiles of big rivers such as the Niger at ca. 24, 11 and 6 Ma, as well as the Eocene topography those rivers have dissected. The results provide boundary conditions and calibration for surface process models and paleodrainage dynamics. Though spatially and temporally variable, incision remained mostly below 10 m/my with a mean around 5 m/my. The spatial stability of both the river outlets and divides imposed maintenance or increasing concavity of the river long profiles through time, resulting from spatially contrasted adjustment of river segments bounded by recurrent lithogenic knickzones that persisted since 24 Ma. Drainages evolved preferentially by very slow slope decrease or uniform incision in between the stationary knickzones of evolving amplitude, with apparently no relation to base level change. Therefore, knickzone height or position may not simply reflect the transient response of big rivers to base level fall as predicted by stream-power incision river models. This may also challenge uplift histories of deep continental interiors retrieved from river long profiles inversion relying on such models. Very slow incision allowed amplification of the Hoggar hot spot swell and flexural uplift of the continental margin to be recorded by river long profiles, emphasizing the potential of big non-orogenic rivers as gauges of dynamic topography.

  3. BIG SIOUX RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN INFORMATION OUTREACH PROJECT

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    The main goal of the proposed project is to raise public awareness about the importance of protecting the Big Sioux River drainage basin. To accomplish this goal, the City and its partnering agencies are seeking to expand and improve public accessibility to a wide variety of r...

  4. Catchment-scale biogeography of riverine bacterioplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Daniel S; Gweon, Hyun S; Bowes, Michael J; Newbold, Lindsay K; Field, Dawn; Bailey, Mark J; Griffiths, Robert I

    2015-02-01

    Lotic ecosystems such as rivers and streams are unique in that they represent a continuum of both space and time during the transition from headwaters to the river mouth. As microbes have very different controls over their ecology, distribution and dispersion compared with macrobiota, we wished to explore biogeographical patterns within a river catchment and uncover the major drivers structuring bacterioplankton communities. Water samples collected across the River Thames Basin, UK, covering the transition from headwater tributaries to the lower reaches of the main river channel were characterised using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. This approach revealed an ecological succession in the bacterial community composition along the river continuum, moving from a community dominated by Bacteroidetes in the headwaters to Actinobacteria-dominated downstream. Location of the sampling point in the river network (measured as the cumulative water channel distance upstream) was found to be the most predictive spatial feature; inferring that ecological processes pertaining to temporal community succession are of prime importance in driving the assemblages of riverine bacterioplankton communities. A decrease in bacterial activity rates and an increase in the abundance of low nucleic acid bacteria relative to high nucleic acid bacteria were found to correspond with these downstream changes in community structure, suggesting corresponding functional changes. Our findings show that bacterial communities across the Thames basin exhibit an ecological succession along the river continuum, and that this is primarily driven by water residence time rather than the physico-chemical status of the river. PMID:25238398

  5. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY: ROLE OF PARTICLE ASSOCIATION AND SEASONAL FRESHWATER FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were observed in northern San Francisco Bay, California, during spring and summer 1996 at three sites: Central Bay, Suisun Bay, and the Sacramento River. These sites spanned a salinity gradient from marine to freshwater, an...

  6. Estimates of bacterioplankton and Synechococcus spp. mortality from nanoflagellate grazing and viral lysis in the subtropical Danshui River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, An-Yi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Huang, Yu Wen; Chao, Chien Fu

    2015-02-01

    To better understand picoplankton dynamics in the surface waters of upriver the Danshui River and its estuary, we assessed nanoflagellate-induced and virus-induced mortality of bacteria and Synechococcus spp. during different seasons (October, 2012 and January, April and July, 2013) using a modified dilution technique. Bacteria and viruses were significantly higher in abundance upriver than at the estuary. The distribution of Synechococcus spp. did not follow this spatial pattern. Abundance of Synechococcus spp. was relatively low during the whole sampling period in the upriver region. Furthermore, bacterial mortality resulting from nanoflagellate grazing were generally higher than those resulting from viral lysis in the upriver region, while Synechococcus spp. losses appeared to be mainly due to viral lysis upriver and in the estuary. Our dilution experiments suggested that nanoflagellates largely depend on bacteria as an important energy source there.

  7. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  8. Annual Hunting Program : Big Game : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : CY 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1989 Annual Big Game Hunting Program outlines the reasons and regulations for whitetailed deer hunting on Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. The...

  9. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  10. A Contaminants Evaluation of the Big Blue River in Southeastern Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We collected three composite fish and three composite sediment samples from the Big Blue River in southeastern Nebraska to determine the presence of agricultural...

  11. National Wildlife Refuge System within the Eastern Tallgrass Prairie and Big Rivers Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map demonstrates the spatial location and total number of both refuges and wetland management districts within the Eastern Tallgrass Prairie and Big Rivers...

  12. Biogeography of bacterioplankton in the tropical seawaters of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stanley C K; Zhang, Rui; Brodie, Eoin L; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge about the biogeography of marine bacterioplankton on the global scale in general and in Southeast Asia in particular has been scarce. This study investigated the biogeography of bacterioplankton community in Singapore seawaters. Twelve stations around Singapore island were sampled on different schedules over 1 year. Using PCR-DNA fingerprinting, DNA cloning and sequencing, and microarray hybridization of the 16S rRNA genes, we observed clear spatial variations of bacterioplankton diversity within the small area of the Singapore seas. Water samples collected from the Singapore Strait (south) throughout the year were dominated by DNA sequences affiliated with Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria that were believed to be associated with the influx of water from the open seas in Southeast Asia. On the contrary, water in the relatively polluted Johor Strait (north) were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and that were presumably associated with river discharge and the relatively eutrophic conditions of the waterway. Bacterioplankton diversity was temporally stable, except for the episodic surge of Pseudoalteromonas, associated with algal blooms. Overall, these results provide valuable insights into the diversity of bacterioplankton communities in Singapore seas and the possible influences of hydrological conditions and anthropogenic activities on the dynamics of the communities. PMID:23237658

  13. Between-site comparison of freshwater bacterioplankton by DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D L; Taylor, P N; Goulder, R

    1993-11-01

    Natural assemblages of freshwater bacterioplankton in enriched lowland rivers had greater cell-specific metabolic activity than those in gravel-pit ponds. Similarly, cell-specific activity and mean cell Size in calcareous headstreams tended to be greater than in intermittently-acid headstreams on millstone grit. DNA was extracted and purified from bacterioplankton assemblages, and between-site comparisons were made in terms of percentage similarity as indicated by DNA hybridization. Cluster analysis, using percentage-similarity matrices, placed bacterioplankton assemblages from different site types into distinct groups. This suggested that between-site physiological differences were related to intrinsically different bacterial composition rather than to different physiological response to different environmental conditions by essentially similar bacterial assemblages. PMID:24190089

  14. Occurrence and transport of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River, northwestern Mississippi, October 2009-June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The Big Sunflower River Basin, located within the Yazoo River Basin, is subject to large annual inputs of nitrogen from agriculture, atmospheric deposition, and point sources. Understanding how nutrients are transported in, and downstream from, the Big Sunflower River is key to quantifying their eutrophying effects on the Gulf. Recent results from two Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW models), which include the Big Sunflower River, indicate minimal losses of nitrogen in stream reaches typical of the main channels of major river systems. If SPARROW assumptions of relatively conservative transport of nitrogen are correct and surface-water losses through the bed of the Big Sunflower River are negligible, then options for managing nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico may be limited. Simply put, if every pound of nitrogen entering the Delta is eventually delivered to the Gulf, then the only effective nutrient management option in the Delta is to reduce inputs. If, on the other hand, it can be shown that processes within river channels of the Mississippi Delta act to reduce the mass of nitrogen in transport, other hydrologic approaches may be designed to further limit nitrogen transport. Direct validation of existing SPARROW models for the Delta is a first step in assessing the assumptions underlying those models. In order to characterize spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River Basin, water samples were collected at four U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations located on the Big Sunflower River between October 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. Nitrogen concentrations were generally highest at each site during the spring of the 2010 water year and the fall and winter of the 2011 water year. Additionally, the dominant form of nitrogen varied between sites. For example, in samples collected from the most upstream site (Clarksdale), the concentration of organic nitrogen was generally higher than the concentrations of

  15. Bacterioplankton dynamics in the Mondego estuary (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacelar-Nicolau, P.; Nicolau, L. B.; Marques, J. C.; Morgado, F.; Pastorinho, R.; Azeiteiro, U. M.

    2003-05-01

    In this work, the density of bacterioplankton and environmental parameters were monitored over a 11 month period (July 1999-June 2000), and also during one tidal cycle (15 June 2000), at two sampling stations, in the estuary of River Mondego. These data were treated by multivariate analyses methods in order to identify the key factors that control the dynamics of the bacterioplankton in the estuary. Bacterial dynamics were dominated by temporal gradients (annual seasons and tide-related) and less by the spatial structure of the estuary. Three main metabolic groups of bacterioplankton—aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB)—involved in the cycling of organic matter, were present in the water column of the estuary. Their relative abundance depended on the particular physical, chemical and biological environment. The abundance of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, during the 11 month study, was modelled as a function of nitrate (the most important variable, with a negative effect), temperature, salinity and pH (with positive effects). SRB appeared to be limited to the water-sediment interface, where concentrations of sulphate and POM were greater. A competition between SRB and NRB for carbon has also been suggested.

  16. Suspended-sediment transport in the Big Eau Pleine River Basin, central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Suspended-sediment yields in the Big Eau Pleine River basin are low to moderate in comparison with other drainage basins in Wisconsin. Average annual yield in the Big Eau Pleine River near Stratford is 32.tons per square mile, with an annual yield ranging from 1.0 to 64 tons per square mile. Fenwood Creek at Bradley and Freeman Creek at Halder, two smaller tributary basins, have average annual yields of 3.3 and 7.9 tons per square mile, respectively. Suspended-sediment concentrations in the basin ranged from 0 to 960 milligrams per liter, with a median concentration at the Stratford site of 13 milligrams per liter. Ninety percent of the material transported by the streams of the Big Eau Pleine basin is finer than sand and is made up of about equal percentages of silt and clay.

  17. Pre-restoration Assessment, Big Sunflower River, Mississippi: Where to Begin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Big Sunflower River in northwestern Mississippi drains about 8,000 km2, is a low-gradient slowly-moving stream, and has historically provided a valuable ecological, navigational and recreational resource. However, present conditions are characterized by depauperate physical habitat, depressed b...

  18. Significance of riverine hypoxia for fish: The case of the Big Sunflower River, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraded streams draining low-relief, intensively cultivated watersheds may experience periods of hypoxia or anoxia. A three-year study of water quality, fish, and physical habitat in the Big Sunflower River in northwestern Mississippi coupled with continuously logged water quality and hydrology dat...

  19. Freshwater bacterioplankton cultured from liver, kidney and lungs of a decomposed cadaver retrieved from a sandy seashore: possibility of drowning in a river and then floating out to sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Muraoka, Eri; Uchiyama, Taketo; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2010-07-01

    A decomposed female body with an open abdomen and pleural cavity washed up on a beach after a powerful typhoon. Autopsy findings could not determine the cause of death because of leaching and putrefaction. Numbers and types of diatoms in organs overall, suggested the aspiration of fresh or brackish water with low salinity. However, this could not be confirmed because of contamination via the open cavities. We simultaneously investigated the presence of bacterioplankton in liver, kidney and lung homogenates using a modification of our reported bacteriological method. The freshwater bacterioplankton Plesiomonas shigelloides was identified in each of these organs, but marine bacterioplankton were undetectable despite the circumstances under which the body was discovered. The presence of freshwater bacterioplankton reinforced the results of the diatom test, and we concluded that this victim had died of drowning in fresh or brackish water with low salinity. PMID:20447853

  20. Factors shaping community composition of bacterioplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of nutrients, predation and viral lysis were studied as the major factors shaping community composition of bacterioplankton. The canyon-shaped Rimov reservoir has a strong downstream longitudinal gradient in trophic status and microbial and chemical parameters, with the most pronounced differences between the river inflow and the reservoir dam. We employed an approach allowing simultaneous assessment of the influences of bottom-up and top-down factors. Samples taken from the P-limited dam area were size-fractionated to produce different levels of bacterivory and then incubated in dialysis bags in situ in the sampling area, as well as in the relatively P-enriched river area. The top-down manipulations induced significant changes in bacterial community composition in the more P-limited dam reservoir while predation played a minor role when P limitation was relaxed at the river site. Viral abundance and virus-induced bacterial mortality generally increased along with increasing protistan grazing pressure, and at the river site also with enhanced P-availability. (authors)

  1. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  2. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas...

  3. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  4. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was...

  5. 78 FR 56264 - Big Bear Mining Corp., Four Rivers BioEnergy, Inc., Mainland Resources, Inc., QI Systems Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Big Bear Mining Corp., Four Rivers BioEnergy, Inc., Mainland Resources, Inc., QI Systems Inc... information concerning the securities of Big Bear Mining Corp. because it has not filed any periodic...

  6. Streamflow losses and ground-water level changes along the Big Lost River at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Big Lost flows onto the eastern Snake River Plain near Arco, Idaho, and across the INEL. Stream-flow recharges the Snake River Plain aquifer from the Big Lost River channel, the INEL spreading areas, and playas at the river terminus. Average annual streamflow for the Big Lost River from 1965 to 1987 above the INEL diversion was 104,436 acre-ft; about 50% of this flow was diverted to the INEL spreading areas, about 9% infiltrated between the INEL diversion and Lincoln Boulevard, and the remainder infiltrated below Lincoln Boulevard or flowed into playas. Streamflow losses to evapotranspiration were minor compared to infiltration losses. Infiltration loss was estimated along the 44 river miles from Arco to playa 1 at discharges ranging from 37 to 372 cu ft/sec. At discharges less than 100 cu ft/sec, loss from Arco to the Big Lost River Sinks was 1 to 4 cu ft/sec/mile. Loss from the sinks to playa 1 ranged from 7 to 12 cu ft/sec/mile. Infiltration loss was greatest at large discharges. At a discharge of 372 cu ft/sec, a loss of 28 cu ft/sec/mi was estimated in the area of the Big Lost River is substantial immediately southwest of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex and in the area form the Naval Reactor Facility to playas 1 and 2

  7. Big Blocks and River Incision: A Numerical Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, C. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Anderson, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment supply dynamics affect fluvial erosion in steep landscapes. Workers have explored the effects of changing sediment flux and uniform grain size on incision processes and distribution of alluvial cover. However, sediment supplied to real rivers is often highly heterogeneous in size, especially in rapidly eroding landscapes where supply processes may range from landslides to rockfall to moraine incision. We hypothesize that the pace of landscape evolution depends on the sediment size distribution supplied to rapidly eroding channels. Rivers that quickly cut steep-walled canyons may incite a negative feedback on incision by receiving an increased supply of large, immobile blocks from the canyon walls that shield significant portions of the bed from erosion. We use a 1-D numerical model that combines mass-flux continuum treatment of several grain size classes with tracking of discrete large blocks to explore fluvial response to changing grain size distribution. We compare simulations with and without a feedback between channel incision rate and the supply rate of large blocks from adjacent hillslopes. This reflects the hypothesis that slopes will be steeper and more prone to releasing large blocks when the channel at their base is eroding rapidly. Comparing model predictions with field observations shows that our models can successfully reproduce the distribution of blocks in natural channels. Results suggest that in landscapes with access to large blocks, fluvial incision may be slowed as increasing amounts of immobile material are supplied from adjacent hillslopes and canyon walls. This can act to stall knickpoint retreat in such rivers and slow the pace of landscape adjustment. The importance of channel armoring by blocks is governed by competition between two timescales: the time required for significant block cover to accumulate in the channel and the time required for blocks to abrade, fragment, or weather down to transportable sizes. Model results also

  8. Home on the Big River, Part II: Great River Habitat Quality Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    USEPA’s EMAP sampled the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers from 2004 through 2006 as part of an integrated assessment of ecological condition. These Great Rivers are important human recreational destinations and transportation corridors, and represent significant wild...

  9. Impact of water quality on bacterioplankton assemblage along Cértima River Basin (central western Portugal) assessed by PCR-DGGE and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Daniela R; Ferreira, Raquel V; Cerqueira, Mário; de Melo, Teresa Condesso; Pereira, Mário J; Castro, Bruno B; Correia, António

    2012-01-01

    The information on bacterial community composition (BCC) in Portuguese water bodies is very scarce. Cértima River (central western Portugal) is known to have high levels of pollution, namely organic. In the present work, the BCC from a set of 16 water samples collected from Cértima River Basin and its main tributaries was characterized using 16S rDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, a culture-independent molecular approach. Molecular data were related to environmental parameters through multivariate analysis to investigate potential impact of water pollution along the river. Principal component analysis using environmental data showed a water quality gradient from more pristine waters (at the mountain tributaries) to waters with increasingly eutrophic potential (such as Fermentelos Lake). This gradient was mainly defined by factors such as organic and inorganic nutrient sources, electrical conductivity, hydrogen carbonate concentration, and pH. Molecular results showed variations in BCC along Cértima River Basin but in the main river section, a Bacteroidetes phylotype (Flavobacterium sp.) proved to be dominant throughout the river course. Multivariate analysis suggests that spatial variation of BCC along the Cértima River Basin depended mainly on parameters such as Chl a, total suspended solid (TSS), total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, and HCO[Formula: see text] levels. Bacteroidetes phylotypes were all related to higher electrical conductivity and HCO[Formula: see text] levels although some of these were also correlated with high SO[Formula: see text] and others with high soluble reactive phosphorus, nitrate, TN, and Kjeld-N levels. The Gammaproteobacteria occurrence was correlated with high SO[Formula: see text] levels. One of the Betaproteobacteria phylotypes showed to correlate with low redox potential (E(h)) and high temperature, pH, TSS, and Chl a levels while another one showed a negative correlation with Chl a values. PMID:21431313

  10. Recreation Benefits of Instream Flow: Application to Montana's Big Hole and Bitterroot Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, John W.; Neher, Christopher J.; Brown, Thomas C.

    1992-09-01

    Allocation of water between instream uses such as recreation and consumptive uses such as irrigation is an important public policy issue in the western United States. One basis for identifying appropriate levels of instream flows is maximization of net economic benefits. A general framework for estimating the recreational value of instream flows was developed and applied to Montana's Big Hole and Bitterroot rivers. The paper also provides a synthesis of methods for interpreting covariate effects in dichotomous choice contingent valuation models. Precision of the estimates is examined through a simulation approach. The marginal recreational value of instream flow in these rivers is in the range of 50 per acre foot (1 acre foot equals 1233.5 m3) for recreation at low-flow levels plus 25 per acre foot for downstream hydroelectric generation. These values indicate that at some flow levels, gains may be achieved on the study rivers by reallocating water from consumptive to instream uses.

  11. Spatiotemporal distribution of bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos in the Amur Liman and adjacent sea areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karetnikova, E. A.; Garetova, L. A.

    2015-09-01

    Data on the abundance and the ecological-trophic structure of bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos communities in the Amur Liman and adjacent waters collected in June 2007 have been compared to the relevant data of 2006. Interyear changes of bacterioplankton abundance have been found to depend on the intensity of the Amur River runoff. Correlation analysis has revealed a negative dependence of the abundance of bacterioplankton, bacteriobenthos, and their ecological-trophic groups on water salinity, as well as direct relations between these biotic components and organic matter in water and bottom sediments. The microbiological indicators of water quality ranked the studied waters as classes III-IV in 2006 and as classes II-III in 2007. The high total abundance of bacteriobenthos (109-1010 cells/g) is a result of the functioning of a marginal filter rather than the direct pollution of the liman.

  12. Richness and diversity of bacterioplankton species along an estuarine gradient in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2004-06-01

    Bacterioplankton community diversity was investigated in the subtropical Brisbane River-Moreton Bay estuary, Australia (27 degrees 25 minutes S, 153 degrees 5 minutes E). Bacterial communities were studied using automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), which amplifies 16S-23S ribosomal DNA internally transcribed spacer regions from mixed-community DNA and detects the separated products on a fragment analyzer. Samples were collected from eight sites throughout the estuary and east to the East Australian Current (Coral Sea). Bacterioplankton communities had the highest operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, as measured by ARISA at eastern bay stations (S [total richness] = 84 to 85 OTU) and the lowest richness in the Coral Sea (S = 39 to 59 OTU). Richness correlated positively with bacterial abundance; however, there were no strong correlations between diversity and salinity, NO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-) concentrations, or chlorophyll a concentration. Bacterioplankton communities at the riverine stations were different from communities in the bay or Coral Sea. The main differences in OTU richness between stations were in taxa that each represented 0.1% (the detection limit) to 0.5% of the total amplified DNA, i.e., the "tail" of the distribution. We found that some bacterioplankton taxa are specific to distinct environments while others have a ubiquitous distribution from river to sea. Bacterioplankton richness and diversity patterns in the estuary are potentially a consequence of greater niche availability, mixing of local and adjacent environment communities, or intermediate disturbance. Furthermore, these results contrast with previous reports of spatially homogeneous bacterioplankton communities in other coastal waters. PMID:15184140

  13. The ordered network structure and its prediction for the big floods of the Changjiang River Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the latest statistical data of hydrology, a total of 21 floods took place over the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Basins from 1827 to 2012 and showed an obvious commensurable orderliness. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the summary of the ordered network structure of the Changjiang floods, supplement new information, further optimize networks, construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure and make prediction research. Predictions show that the future big deluges will probably occur over the Changjiang River Basin around 2013-2014, 2020-2021, 2030, 2036, 2051, and 2058. (orig.)

  14. The ordered network structure and its prediction for the big floods of the Changjiang River Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai; Zhu, Shu-Dan [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing (China). College of Mathematics and Statistics

    2013-12-15

    According to the latest statistical data of hydrology, a total of 21 floods took place over the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Basins from 1827 to 2012 and showed an obvious commensurable orderliness. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the summary of the ordered network structure of the Changjiang floods, supplement new information, further optimize networks, construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure and make prediction research. Predictions show that the future big deluges will probably occur over the Changjiang River Basin around 2013-2014, 2020-2021, 2030, 2036, 2051, and 2058. (orig.)

  15. Bacterioplankton in the Baltic Sea : influence of allochthonous organic matter and salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the precipitation ~30% in higher latitudes during the next century, increasing the land runoff via rivers to aquatic ecosystems. The Baltic Sea will receive higher river discharges, accompanied by larger input of allochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial ecosystems. The salinity will decrease due to freshwater dilution. The allochthonous DOM constitute a potential growth substrate for microscopic bacterioplankton and phytoplankton, wh...

  16. Detection of bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers using selective agar plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Tashiro, Noriko; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2009-04-01

    We measured bacterioplankton in blood from cadavers retrieved from the sea (n=12), near estuaries (n=4), rivers (fresh water, n=8) and from bathtubs (n=4) as well as from non-drowned victims (n=10) discovered near aquatic environments. Blood from 11 victims drowned in seawater developed bioluminescent and/or blue colonies (oxidase test positive) on selective media containing 2-4% NaCl. Homology analyses of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all of them were marine bacteria (genera: Photobacterium, Vibrio, Shewanella, Psychrobacter). Blood from all victims drowned in rivers generated blue colonies on plates containing 3%, but not 4% NaCl. Homology analyses showed that the blue colonies were generated from bacteria that inhabit fresh water (Aeromonas). None of the blood samples from victims that drowned in bathtubs generated bioluminescent and blue colonies. However, all cadavers contained bacteria that produced unstained colonies (Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, etc.). Among non-drowned victims, blood from two gave rise to blue colonies on plates containing Aeromonas; unstained colonies, Citrobacter, Vagococcus, Proteus, Enterobacter). These results suggested that the presence of numerous bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers could support a conclusion of death by drowning. PMID:19261520

  17. Photo-degradation effect on dissolved organic carbon availability to bacterioplankton in a lake in the upper Paraná river floodplain - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.11054

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues de Azevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC is nowadays recognized as the main substrate and source of energy for aquatic microbial community. The great part of available organic carbon for bacterioplankton might be formed after photolytic degradation of humic material, which constitutes the major part of DOC in almost all natural waters. The effects of DOC photo-degradation were evaluated, as was its utilization by bacterioplankton, through a two-step experiment, one involving photo-degradation of DOC and the other bacterial growth on the photo-degraded substrate. Photo-degradation was responsible for the consumption of 19% of DOC, reduced SUVA254, an increase in the E2/E3 and E3/E4 ratios, in addition to modifications in the fluorescence spectra that indicated a rise in the labile fraction of DOC. However, these alterations on DOC were not reflected in differences in bacterioplankton growth, as shown by the fact that there were no significant differences in density, biomass, bacterial production, bacterial respiration and bacterial growth efficiency between treatment and control.  

  18. Effect of the cyanobacterium Anabaena spiroides Klebahn on the quantity of bacterioplankton in water of varied trophicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeczuga, B; Chomutowska, H

    2000-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of the cyanobacterium Anabaena spiroides on the quantity of bacterioplankton in water of varied trophicity. The cyanobacterium Anabaena spiroides, introduced to the polluted water of the river Biała has the strongest effect on bacterioplankton--the number of bacteria decreases to 31.78%. The spherical:cylindrical ratio changes in favour of the latter when affected by the cyanobacterium. This is the most pronounced in the river Biała, where spherical:cylindrical changes from 1:0.88 to 1:1.96. Anabaena spiroides exerts the most significant effect on the quantity of bacterioplankton in lake Sniardwy and pond Fosa after 24 hours, and in the other water bodies after 72 hours following the introduction of the cyanobacterium. PMID:11712443

  19. Interactions between hydrology and water chemistry shape bacterioplankton biogeography across boreal freshwater networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-García, Juan Pablo; Ruiz-González, Clara; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Disentangling the mechanisms shaping bacterioplankton communities across freshwater ecosystems requires considering a hydrologic dimension that can influence both dispersal and local sorting, but how the environment and hydrology interact to shape the biogeography of freshwater bacterioplankton over large spatial scales remains unexplored. Using Illumina sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we investigate the large-scale spatial patterns of bacterioplankton across 386 freshwater systems from seven distinct regions in boreal Québec. We show that both hydrology and local water chemistry (mostly pH) interact to shape a sequential structuring of communities from highly diverse assemblages in headwater streams toward larger rivers and lakes dominated by fewer taxa. Increases in water residence time along the hydrologic continuum were accompanied by major losses of bacterial richness and by an increased differentiation of communities driven by local conditions (pH and other related variables). This suggests that hydrology and network position modulate the relative role of environmental sorting and mass effects on community assembly by determining both the time frame for bacterial growth and the composition of the immigrant pool. The apparent low dispersal limitation (that is, the lack of influence of geographic distance on the spatial patterns observed at the taxonomic resolution used) suggests that these boreal bacterioplankton communities derive from a shared bacterial pool that enters the networks through the smallest streams, largely dominated by mass effects, and that is increasingly subjected to local sorting of species during transit along the hydrologic continuum. PMID:26849312

  20. Annual dynamics of North Sea bacterioplankton: seasonal variability superimposes short-term variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Teeling, Hanno; Chafee, Meghan; Scharfe, Mirco; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of coastal marine microbial communities are driven by seasonally changing abiotic and biotic factors as well as by rapidly occurring short-term changes such as river fresh water influxes or phytoplankton blooms. We examined the variability of the free-living bacterioplankton at Helgoland Roads (German Bight, North Sea) over a period of one year with high temporal and taxonomic resolution to reveal variation patterns and main influencing factors. 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing of the bacterioplankton community hints at annual recurrence and resilience of few main taxa belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Acidimicrobiia and Thermoplasmata. Multiple regression analyses with various environmental factors revealed changes in water current patterns and resulting phytoplankton blooms as the main driving factors for short-term variation and temperature as the overlying factor for seasonal variation. Comparison of bacterioplankton successions during spring and summer phytoplankton blooms revealed the same dominating Flavobacteriia operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but shifts in Roseobacter related OTUs (Alphaproteobacteria) and SAR92 clade members (Gammaproteobacteria). Network analysis suggests that during spring and summer phytoplankton blooms temperature-dependent guilds are formed. In conclusion, our data imply that short-term bacterioplankton successions in response to phytoplankton blooms are indirectly affected by temperature, which is a major niche-defining factor in the German Bight. PMID:26298013

  1. Distribution of biomass of heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Distribution, variation and impact factors of biomass of bacterioplankton from April to May 1999in Bohai Sea were studied in DAPI method with epifluorescence microscopy. The biomass in surface waters showed a small day-night variation, varying from 0.13 to 2.51 μg/dm3 with an average of 0.84 μg/dm3. The biomass in bottom waters showed, however, a large variation, changing from 0.15 to 4.18 μg/dm3 with an average of 1.36 μg/dm3. The peak values occurred at 5 and 11 a.m. The bottom water biomass showed a significant correlation with particulate organic carbon (r=0.639, P<0.05). Heterotrophic bacterioplankton biomass was high in nearshore waters and low in offshore areas with a high biomass zone around Huanghe (Yellow) River mouth,showing the same distribution of nutrients. In vertical distribution, heterotrophic bacteria biomass in bottom waters was higher than that in surface water.

  2. The storage basin Geeste - water resources management for big power stations at small rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the securing of the additional water supply for cooling towers of big power stations at small rivers is frequently done by the water transfer in ship-canals or the storage in water basins. The combination of wet cooling towers with special measures concerning the water economy has clearly proved to be more economic as compared to the dry cooling. The storage basin Geeste in the proximity of the power station site Lingen at the Ems of Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG can hold 18 million m3 additional water for cooling towers for two 1300 MW nuclear power station blocks. By this, it is possible to bridge over longer periods of low water, too. The basin consists of a ring dam with a length of 6 km and a height of 15 m and is sealed on the inner surface with asphalt fine concrete. Approval by the authorities concerned was given due to the fact that the basin is well fitted into the environment and the artificial lake of nearly 2 km2 is opened to the public as recreation area. 2.3 million m2 forest had to be cut down, but had to be replaced by reforestations and biotopes on a surface of the same size. (orig.)

  3. Identification of polyamine-responsive bacterioplankton taxa in South Atlantic Bight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxin; Sun, Shulei; Hollibaugh, James T; Mou, Xiaozhen

    2015-12-01

    Putrescine and spermidine are short-chained aliphatic polyamines (PAs) that are ubiquitously distributed in seawater. These compounds may be important sources of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen for marine bacterioplankton. Here, we used pyrotag sequencing to quantify the response of bacterioplankton to putrescine and spermidine amendments in microcosms established using surface waters collected at various stations in the South Atlantic Bight in October 2011. Our analysis showed that PA-responsive bacterioplankton consisted of bacterial taxa that are typically dominant in marine systems. Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria) was the taxon most responsive to PA additions at the nearshore site. Gammaproteobacteria of the families Piscirickettsiaceae; Vibrionaceae; and Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae, were the dominant PA-responsive taxa in samples from the river-influenced coastal station, offshore station and open ocean station, respectively. The spatial variability of PA-responsive taxa may be attributed to differences in composition of the initial bacterial community and variations of in situ physiochemical conditions among sites. Our results also provided the first empirical evidence that Gammaproteobacteria might play an important role in PA transformation in marine systems. PMID:26109269

  4. [The distribution of bacterioplankton and mesozooplankton biomass in the White and Barents Seas coastal water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikin, S M; Tarasova, N A; Saralov, A I; Bannikova, O M

    2003-01-01

    The total population density and the biomass of bacterioplankton, mesozooplankton, and phosphate-accumulating bacteria (PAB) were estimated during the 2000-2001 summer-autumn seasons in the coastal waters of the White and Barents Seas, which are subjects to the action of tidal and sea currents, the inflow of riverine waters, and anthropogenic impact. In the shallow estuarine waters with salinities of 6.5-32@1000 near the Chernaya, Pesha, and Pechora River mouths, the population of PAB fluctuated from 0.1 to 9.1 million cells/ml (0-36% of the total bacterial population). In pelagic seawaters, which are low in phosphates (12-50 micrograms/l) and are characterized by an increased iron/phosphorus ratio (2.0-3.6), bacterioplankton amounted to 0.1-1.6 million cells/ml and was mainly represented by small organisms with a volume of 0.08-0.15 micron 3, commonly lacking intracellular polyphosphates. In the pelagic zone of the Barents Sea, the biomass of mesozooplankton (Bz) was comparable with that of bacterioplankton (Bb = 39-175 mg/m3), the Bb/Bz ratio being 1.4-4.6. Off the Varandeiskii, Pechora, and Kolguyev oil terminals, Bb increased to 155-300 mg/m3 and the Bb/Bz ratio rose to 1.4 to 50.3 (with an average value of 20.9), presumably due to the severe anthropogenic impact on these waters. In this case, the dense population of bacterioplankton (0.9-7.6 million cells/ml) was mainly represented by large cells (0.12-0.76 micron 3 in volume), most of which (3-43% of the total bacterioplankton population) contained polyphosphates. The chemical composition of these waters was characterized by an elevated content of the total phosphorus (65-128 micrograms/l) and by a low iron/phosphorus ratio (0.9-1.2). PMID:12751250

  5. Distribution of biomass of heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the Bohai Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Li, Kuiran; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhengyan; Gao, Huiwang; Zhang, Haofei

    2005-12-01

    Distribution, variation and impact factors of biomass of bacterioplankton from April to May 1999 in Bohai Sea were studied in DAPI method with epifluorescence microscopy. The biomass in surface waters showed a small day-night variation, varying from 0.13 to 2.51 μg/dm3 with an average of 0.84 μg/dm3. The biomass in bottom waters showed, however, a large variation, changing from 0.15 to 4.18 μg/dm3 with an average of 1.36 μg/dm3. The peak values occurred at 5 and 11 a.m. The bottom water biomass showed a significant correlation with particulate organic carbon ( r=0.639, Pbacterioplankton biomass was high in nearshore waters and low in offshore areas with a high biomass zone around Huanghe (Yellow) River mouth, showing the same distribution of nutrients. In vertical distribution, heterotrophic bacteria biomass in bottom waters was higher than that in surface water.

  6. Oceanic fronts: transition zones for bacterioplankton community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, Federico; Currie, Kim; Stuck, Esther; Roosa, Stéphanie; Morales, Sergio E

    2016-02-01

    Oceanic fronts are widespread mesoscale features that exist in the boundary between different water masses. Despite the recognized importance of bacterioplankton (including bacteria and archaea) on the marine biogeochemical cycles and the ubiquitousness of fronts, the effect of frontal zones on the distribution of bacterioplankton community remains unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with a high spatial resolution analysis of the physical properties of the water masses, we demonstrate strong shifts in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) across the subtropical frontal zone off New Zealand. The transition between water masses resulted in a clear modification of the dominant taxa and a significant increase in community dissimilarity. Our results, linking physical oceanography and marine molecular ecology, support the strong role of oceanic frontal zones in delimiting the distribution of bacterioplankton in the ocean. PMID:26636656

  7. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge: Public Use Management : Big Game Hunting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This hunt plan initiates the effort to manage Parker River National Wildlife Refuge’s white-tailed deer population at a level commensurate with the habitat. This...

  8. Bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos of the Amur estuary and the adjacent areas in the Summer of 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karetnikova, E. A.; Garetova, L. A.

    2009-06-01

    This work presents the results of the study of the plankton and benthic microbiocenoses of the Amur estuary. It is shown that the distribution of the total abundance and indicator groups of the bacteriobenthos are characterized by stronger heterogeneity compared with the bacterioplankton and that it depends on the Amur river drainage and the bottom type. The river drainage helps by increasing the overall bacterioplankton abundance in the near-mouth part of the estuary. Microorganisms utilizing low concentrations of OM play a major role in the processes of the OM utilization in the water and bottom sediments. Saprophytic bacteria play a significant role in the OM utilization only in the water at certain sampling sites in the Tatarskiy Strait and Sakhalin Bay and in the bottom sediments taken in the mouth part of the estuary. Some parts of the estuary subject to organic contamination are found according to the microbiological characteristics. It is shown that the fluctuation of the salinity leads to a change of the share of bacteria with different food demands in the microbial community.

  9. Spatial and temporal dynamics of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton biomass in Sanya Bay, northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weihua; Li, Tao; Cai, Chuanghua; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Hankui; Xu, Jirong; Dong, Junde; Zhang, Si

    2009-01-01

    The composition of phytoplankton and the dynamics of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton biomass (PB and BB, respectively) of Sanya Bay, South China Sea, were determined. A total of 168 species (67 genera) phytoplankton were identified, including Bacillariophyta (diatom, 128 species), Pyrrophyta (35 species), Cyanophyta (3 species), and Chrysophyta (2 species). Annual average abundance of phytoplankton was 1.2 x 10(7) cells/m3, with the highest abundance in autumn, and the lowest in summer. Annual average diversity index (H') and evenness (J) values were 3.96 and 0.70, respectively. Average chlorophyll-a was 2.5 mg/m3, and the average PB was 124 mg C/m3, with the highest value in autumn. Surface PB was higher than the bottom, except for summer. Annual mean bacterioplankton abundance and BB were 6.9 x 10(11) cells/m3 and 13.8 mg C/m3, respectively. The highest BB was found in summer, followed by winter, spring, and autumn. Surface BB was higher than bottom all year round. The spatial distribution patterns of PB and BB were very similar with the highest biomass in the estuary, and decreased seaward, primarily due to the terrestrial input from the Sanya River and influx of oceanic water. The main factor influencing PB and BB was dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). Other factors such as temperature, which is above 22 degrees C throughout the year, had a negligible impact. The correlation between BB and PB was significant (P bacterioplankton. PMID:20108660

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Big Island - The McKenzie River, Technical Report 1998-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglitz, Greg

    2001-03-01

    The Big Island site is located in the McKenzie River flood plain, containing remnant habitats of what was once more common in this area. A diverse array of flora and fauna, representing significant wildlife habitats, is present on the site. Stands of undisturbed forested wetlands, along with riparian shrub habitats and numerous streams and ponds, support a diversity of wildlife species, including neotropical migratory songbirds, raptors, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians (including two State-listed Sensitive Critical species). The project is located in eastern Springfield, Oregon (Figure 1). The project area encompasses 187 acres under several ownerships in Section 27 of Township 17S, Range 2W. Despite some invasion of non-native species, the site contains large areas of relatively undisturbed wildlife habitat. Over several site visits, a variety of wildlife and signs of wildlife were observed, including an active great blue heron rookery, red-Legged frog egg masses, signs of beaver, and a bald eagle, Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for the Willamette River Basin. Under this Plan, mitigation goals and objectives were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal hydroelectric facilities in the Willamette River Basin. Results of the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) will be used to: (1) determine the current habitat status of the study area and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area.

  11. Natural equilibria and anthropic effects on sediment transport in big river systems: The Nile case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~ 6700 km, from Burundi and Rwanda highlands south of the Equator to the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes. It is thus the longest natural laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are carrying out a continuing research project to investigate changes in sediment composition associated with a variety of chemical and physical processes, including weathering in equatorial climate and hydraulic sorting during transport and deposition. Petrographic, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic fingerprints of sand and mud have been monitored along all Nile branches, from the Kagera and White Nile draining Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basements uplifted along the western branch of the East African rift, to the Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers sourced in Ethiopian volcanic highlands made of Oligocene basalt. Downstream of the Atbara confluence, the Nile receives no significant tributary water and hardly any rainfall across the Sahara. After construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964, the Nile ceased to be an active conveyor-belt in Egypt, where the mighty river has been tamed to a water canal; transported sediments are thus chiefly reworked from older bed and levee deposits, with minor contributions from widyan sourced in the Red Sea Hills and wind-blown desert sand and dust. Extensive dam construction has determined a dramatic sediment deficit at the mouth, where deltaic cusps are undergoing ravaging erosion. Nile delta sediments are thus recycled under the effect of dominant waves from the northwest, the longest Mediterranean fetch direction. Nile sands, progressively enriched in more stable minerals such as quartz and amphiboles relative to volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene, thus undergo multistep transport by E- and NE-directed longshore currents all along the coast of Egypt and Palestine, and are carried as far as Akko Bay in northern Israel. Nile mud reaches the Iskenderun Gulf in southern Turkey. A full

  12. Modelling the impact of riverine DON removal by marine bacterioplankton on primary production in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fouest, V.; Manizza, M.; Tremblay, B.; Babin, M.

    2015-06-01

    The planktonic and biogeochemical dynamics of the Arctic shelves exhibit a strong variability in response to Arctic warming. In this study, we employ a biogeochemical model coupled to a pan-Arctic ocean-sea ice model (MITgcm) to elucidate the processes regulating the primary production (PP) of phytoplankton, bacterioplankton (BP), and their interactions. The model explicitly simulates and quantifies the contribution of usable dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) drained by the major circum-Arctic rivers to PP and BP in a scenario of melting sea ice (1998-2011). Model simulations suggest that, on average between 1998 and 2011, the removal of usable riverine dissolved organic nitrogen (RDON) by bacterioplankton is responsible for a ~ 26% increase in the annual BP for the whole Arctic Ocean. With respect to total PP, the model simulates an increase of ~ 8% on an annual basis and of ~ 18% in summer. Recycled ammonium is responsible for the PP increase. The recycling of RDON by bacterioplankton promotes higher BP and PP, but there is no significant temporal trend in the BP : PP ratio within the ice-free shelves over the 1998-2011 period. This suggests no significant evolution in the balance between autotrophy and heterotrophy in the last decade, with a constant annual flux of RDON into the coastal ocean, although changes in RDON supply and further reduction in sea-ice cover could potentially alter this delicate balance.

  13. Modeling the impact of riverine DON removal by marine bacterioplankton on primary production in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fouest, V.; Manizza, M.; Tremblay, B.; Babin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The planktonic and biogeochemical dynamics of the Arctic shelves exhibit a strong variability in response to Arctic warming. In this study, in order to elucidate on the processes regulating the production of phytoplankton (PP) and bacterioplankton (BP) and their interactions, we employ a biogeochemical model coupled to a pan-Arctic ocean-sea ice model (MITgcm) to explicitly simulate and quantify the contribution of usable dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) drained by the major circum-Arctic rivers on PP and BP in a scenario of melting sea ice (1998-2011). Model simulations suggest that on average between 1998 and 2011, the removal of usable RDON by bacterioplankton is responsible of a ~26% increase of the annual BP for the whole Arctic Ocean. With respect to total PP, the model simulates an increase of ~8% on an annual basis and of ~18% in summer. Recycled ammonium is responsible for the PP increase. The recycling of RDON by bacterioplankton promotes higher BP and PP but there is no significant temporal trend in the BP : PP ratio within the ice-free shelves over the 1998-2011 period. This suggests no significant evolution in the balance between autotrophy and heterotrophy in the last decade with a constant annual flux of RDON into the coastal ocean although changes in RDON supply and further reduction in sea ice cover could potentially alter this delicate balance.

  14. The Importance of Hunting and Hunting Areas for Big and Small Game (Food) for the Tourism Development in the Crna River Basin in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Koteski, Cane; Josheski, Dushko; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Bardarova, Snezana; Serafimova, Mimoza

    2014-01-01

    The Crna River is a river in the Republic of Macedonia, right tributary to Vardar. Its source is in the mountains of Western Macedonia, west of Krusevo. It flows through the village of Sopotnica, and southwards through the plains east of Bitola. The name means “black river” in Macedonian, which is translation for its former Thracian name. The purpose of this paper is to show the hunting and hunting areas for big and small Game (food), the structure of the areas of certain hunting, fi...

  15. Sediment composition of big Chinese and Indochinese rivers reflects geology of their source, not tectonic setting of their sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Limonta, Mara; Nie, Junsheng; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Wang, Jiangang; Yang, Shouye

    2016-04-01

    There are several reasons why the tectonic setting of a sedimentary basin cannot be inferred from the composition of its sedimentary fill. One is that sediments can, and quite often are transported for thousands of kilometers from sources uplifted by certain tectonic processes to subsident basins created by totally different tectonic processes. A classical case is the Amazon River, carrying detritus from the Andean Cordillera to the Atlantic passive margin on the opposite side of South America (Franzinelli and Potter, 1983; Dickinson, 1988). Similar is the case of major rivers in China and Indochina, sourced in Tibetan orogenic highlands and reaching the Chinese passive margin or the back-arc/pull-apart Andaman Sea. The Huang He (Yellow River), the most sediment-laden river in the world, delivers annually to the Bohai Sea 1 billion tons of litho-feldspatho-quartzose sedimentaclastic/metamorphiclastic sediments with moderately rich, amphibole-epidote-garnet suites including apatite and zircon (Nie et al., 2015). The Changjiang (Yangtze) River, the fourth longest on Earth and the largest in Eurasia, carries to the East China Sea litho-feldspatho-quartzose sedimentaclastic/metamorphiclastic sand with moderately poor, amphibole-epidote suites including clinopyroxene and garnet (Vezzoli et al., 2016). The Ayeyarwadi (Irrawaddy) River, ranking among the five major rivers in the world for its annual load of 0.4 billion tons, carries to the Andaman Sea litho-feldspatho-quartzose metamorphiclastic/sedimentaclastic sand with moderately rich, amphibole-epidote suites including garnet and clinopyroxene (Garzanti et al., 2013). Detrital modes in these three very big river basins are thus similar, and would plot in the "Recycled Orogen" field of Dickinson (1985) rather than in the "Continental Block" or "Magmatic Arc" fields. The orogenic signature acquired in mountainous headwaters is carried all the way to the mouth, and even after long-distance transport across wide

  16. Investigation of the planktonic organism state in the upper and lower pools of hydroelectric stations on the Vuoksa River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main branch of the upstream stretch of the Vuoksa River was studied in order to determine the effects of the Svetogorskaya and Lesogorskaya hydroelectric stations on plankton (phyto-, zoo-, and bacterioplankton). The average loss of plankton (phyto- and zooplankton) due to passage through the hydroelectric station turbine does not exceed 35% and depends on the season of the year. No cavitation effect on bacterioplankton was found. It was revealed that a far more negative effect on the Vuoksa River plankton, particularly zoo- and bacterioplankton, was due to pollution of the river water with industrial sewage from the pulp-and-paper mill located downstream from the Svetogorskaya Hydropower Plant

  17. Systems Biology and Ecology of Streamlined Bacterioplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The salient feature of streamlined cells is their small genome size, but "streamlining" refers more generally to selection that favors minimization of cell size and complexity. The essence of streamlining theory is that selection is most efficient in organisms that have large effective population sizes, and, in nutrient-limited systems, favors cell architecture that minimizes resources required for replication. Regardless of the cause of genome reduction, lost coding potential eventually dictates loss of function, raising the questions, what genome features are expendable, and how do cells become highly successful with a minimal genomic repertoire? One consequence of reductive evolution in streamlined organisms is atypical patterns of prototrophy, for example the recent discovery of a requirement for the thiamin precursor 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine in some plankton taxa. Examples such as this fit within the framework of the Black Queen Hypothesis, which describes genome reduction that results in reliance on community goods and increased community connectivity. Other examples of genome reduction include losses of regulatory functions, or replacement with simpler regulatory systems, and increased metabolic integration. In one such case, in the order Pelagibacterales, the PII system for regulating responses to N limitation has been replaced with a simpler system composed of fewer genes. Both the absence of common regulatory systems and atypical patterns of prototrophy have been linked to difficulty in culturing Pelagibacterales, lending credibility to the idea that streamlining might broadly explain the phenomenon of the uncultured microbial majority. The success of streamlined osmotrophic bacterioplankton suggests that they successfully compete for labile organic matter and capture a large share of this resource, but an alternative theory postulates they are not good resource competitors and instead prosper by avoiding predation. The answers to these

  18. In vitro study of possible microbial indicators for drowning: Salinity and types of bacterioplankton proliferating in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Muraoka, Eri; Uchiyama, Taketo; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-30

    Numbers and types of bacterioplankton proliferating in blood samples mixed with water of various salinity levels were examined to determine the characteristics of species associated with salinity. Water samples (total n=88) were collected from the midstream of two rivers (freshwater; n=10; salinity rivers, n=28, salinity 2.4-3.3%), and from the coast (areas of marine water; n=10; salinity 3.3-3.5%). Freshwater bacteria were identified in 41 of 42 blood samples mixed with water at ≤1.3% salinity, and the genus Aeromonas, which is universally distributed in freshwater environments, was predominant. Marine bacteria were identified in all of 46 blood samples mixed with water at ≥1.8% salinity, and most comprised the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium that are universally distributed in seawater environments. Aeromonas was undetectable in all blood samples mixed with brackish or sea water at ≥1.8% salinity although they are detectable even in seawater environments. Thus, the present results showed that bacterioplankton capable of proliferating in human blood reflects the salinity of water. PMID:20554407

  19. Distribution patterns of bacterioplankton and chlorophyll-a in the German Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poremba, K.; Tillmann, U.; Hesse, K.-J.

    1999-08-01

    In a first synoptic evaluation, the temporal and spatial distribution of bacterioplankton and chlorophyll-a were determined in the German Wadden Sea. Three surveys were undertaken in winter, spring, and summer of 1994 using up to eight ships simultaneously between the river Ems and Sylt island. Despite intensive hydrodynamic mixing of the Wadden Sea water, spatial gradients were obvious. The abundance of bacterioplankton ranged from 0.4 to 26×105 ml-1 and chlorophyll-a varied between <0.1 and 79 µg l-1. In winter, relatively homogeneous distribution patterns of both parameters with small gradients were found. Highest chlorophyll-a values connected with a highly patchy structure were observed in spring, while in summer both total chlorophyll-a values and the complexity of the distribution pattern had decreased. In contrast, bacterial numbers increased steadily from January to July with the highest bacterial densities and greatest patchiness observed in summer. Moreover, in some regions of the Wadden Sea, a trophic succession of algae as carbon producers and bacteria as consumers was evident. Correlation analysis verified the relationship between bacteria and chlorophyll a, indicating bottom-up control of bacterial abundance in the northern part of the German Wadden Sea. Since the observed regression slope is remarkably low (0.12-0.46) compared to literature values (0.5-0.8), we suggest that the link between phytoplankton and bacteria found here is a special characteristic of the Wadden Sea as a transition zone between the coastal region and the outer North Sea.

  20. Ambient solar radiation-induced photodamage in marine bacterioplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been much recent concern about the effects of increased UV radiation at certain locations on the earth's surface. There have been extensive studies of ultraviolet radiation effects on phytoplankton and primary production, yet the effects of UVB upon bacterioplankton have been largely overlooked. Bacteria play a central role in the cycling of nutrients and energy flow to higher trophic levels, serving as both mineralizers and secondary producers that are consumed by higher organisms. We have begun to investigate the induction of DNA photodamage by UVB in marine planktonic communities using a highly specific radioimmunoassay to measure cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in samples collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results demonstrate that direct measures of DNA damage can be made of indigenous planktonic communities and that bacterioplankton are highly susceptible to UVB damage and may serve as a more sensitive indicator of UVR stress than other microorganisms. (Author)

  1. Ambient solar radiation-induced photodamage in marine bacterioplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, W.H.; Aas, Peter; Lyons, M.M. [University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States). Center for Environmental Diagnostics and Bioremediation; Coffin, R.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Pledger, R.J.; Mitchell, D.L. [Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Smithville, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    There has been much recent concern about the effects of increased UV radiation at certain locations on the earth`s surface. There have been extensive studies of ultraviolet radiation effects on phytoplankton and primary production, yet the effects of UVB upon bacterioplankton have been largely overlooked. Bacteria play a central role in the cycling of nutrients and energy flow to higher trophic levels, serving as both mineralizers and secondary producers that are consumed by higher organisms. We have begun to investigate the induction of DNA photodamage by UVB in marine planktonic communities using a highly specific radioimmunoassay to measure cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in samples collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results demonstrate that direct measures of DNA damage can be made of indigenous planktonic communities and that bacterioplankton are highly susceptible to UVB damage and may serve as a more sensitive indicator of UVR stress than other microorganisms. (Author).

  2. DNA hybridization to compare species compositions of natural bacterioplankton assemblages.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.; Fuhrman, J A

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about the species composition and variability of natural bacterial communities, mostly because conventional identification requires pure cultures, but less than 1% of active natural bacteria are cultivable. This problem was circumvented by comparing species compositions via hybridization of total DNA of natural bacterioplankton communities for the estimation of the fraction of DNA in common between two samples (similarity). DNA probes that were labeled with 35S by nick transla...

  3. Phosphorus use by planktonic communities in a large regulated Mediterranean river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, J; Soley, S; Pérez-Baliero, M C; Romaní, A M; Ruiz-González, C; Sabater, S

    2012-06-01

    The regulation of large rivers to meet human requirements (e.g. hydroelectricity production, flood prevention, recreation activities) alters the longitudinal distribution of plankton communities and may affect their capacity to use nutrients and organic matter. Here we analyzed phosphorus (P) availability and use by phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in 6 upstream and 5 downstream sites from a reservoir system in the Ebro River (N Spain). Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was related to nutrient availability and biomass of both phytoplankton and bacterioplankton. During dry periods phytoplankton and bacterioplankton APA was inversely correlated to P availability in the water, but these patterns became less clear during wet periods. The phosphorus-APA patterns were more consistent in the upstream sites and especially during dry periods. Although phytoplankton APA was 6-40 times greater than that of bacterioplankton, APA per unit of biomass suggested that bacterioplankton was more efficient at utilizing dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in the upstream section during dry periods. Imbalanced N:P ratios in the particulate (N:P ranging 133-170) and dissolved (N:P ranging 301-819) water fractions confirmed the strong P limitation in these upstream communities. The phosphorus-APA patterns were weaker in the downstream section and during wet periods. The reservoirs caused a change in the downstream dynamics, where bacterioplankton biomass was positively correlated to APA but APA per unit of biomass decreased. Our findings reveal that river regulation drives changes in plankton use of organic phosphorus, especially during extreme dry periods. PMID:22503678

  4. Big Society, Big Deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  5. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  6. Seasonality of Chesapeake Bay bacterioplankton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberg, J F; Heidelberg, K B; Colwell, R R

    2002-11-01

    Bacteria, gamma-subclass of Proteobacteria, Vibrio-Photobacterium, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae-Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio cincinnatiensis in water samples collected from the Choptank River in Chesapeake Bay from 15 April to 16 December 1996 were enumerated using a fluorescent oligonucleotide direct-counting (FODC) procedure. FODC results obtained using a Bacteria taxon-specific probe ranged from one-third the number of to the same number as that obtained by the acridine orange direct count (AODC) procedure. The abundance of individual taxa (per liter) ranged from 0.25 x 10(10) to 2.6 x 10(10) Bacteria, 0.32 x 10(8) to 3.1 x 10(8) gamma-Proteobacteria, 0.2 x 10(8) to 2.1 x 10(8) Vibrio-Photobacterium, 0.5 x 10(7) to 10 x 10(7) V. vulnificus, 0.2 x 10(6) to 6 x 10(6) V. cholerae-V. mimicus, and 0.5 x 10(5) to 8 x 10(5) V. cincinnatiensis. The occurrence of all taxa monitored in this study was higher in summer; however, these taxa made up a larger proportion of the Bacteria when the water temperature was low. Large fluctuations in species abundance as well as in percent composition of Vibrio-Photobacterium occurred from week to week, indicating that localized blooms of these taxa occur. The cross-Choptank River transect sample profile of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae-V. mimicus varied significantly in abundance, and trans-Choptank River transect samples revealed a patchy distribution. PMID:12406742

  7. Application of Advection-Diffusion Routing Model to Flood Wave Propagation:A Case Study on Big Piney River, Missouri USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A Endreny; David J Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Flood wave propagation modeling is of critical importance to advancing water re-sources management and protecting human life and property. In this study, we investigated how the advection-diffusion routing model performed in flood wave propagation on a 16 km long down-stream section of the Big Piney River, MO. Model performance was based on gaging station data at the upstream and downstream cross sections. We demonstrated with advection-diffusion theory that for small differences in watershed drainage area between the two river cross sections, inflow along the reach mainly contributes to the downstream hydrograph’s rising limb and not to the falling limb. The downstream hydrograph’s falling limb is primarily determined by the propagated flood wave originating at the upstream cross section. This research suggests the parameter for the advection-diffusion routing model can be calibrated by fitting the hydrograph falling limb. Application of the advection diffusion model to the flood wave of January 29, 2013 supports our theoretical finding that the propagated flood wave determines the downstream cross section falling limb, and the model has good performance in our test examples.

  8. Structuring of bacterioplankton diversity in a large tropical bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo B Gregoracci

    Full Text Available Structuring of bacterioplanktonic populations and factors that determine the structuring of specific niche partitions have been demonstrated only for a limited number of colder water environments. In order to better understand the physical chemical and biological parameters that may influence bacterioplankton diversity and abundance, we examined their productivity, abundance and diversity in the second largest Brazilian tropical bay (Guanabara Bay, GB, as well as seawater physical chemical and biological parameters of GB. The inner bay location with higher nutrient input favored higher microbial (including vibrio growth. Metagenomic analysis revealed a predominance of Gammaproteobacteria in this location, while GB locations with lower nutrient concentration favored Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. According to the subsystems (SEED functional analysis, GB has a distinctive metabolic signature, comprising a higher number of sequences in the metabolism of phosphorus and aromatic compounds and a lower number of sequences in the photosynthesis subsystem. The apparent phosphorus limitation appears to influence the GB metagenomic signature of the three locations. Phosphorus is also one of the main factors determining changes in the abundance of planktonic vibrios, suggesting that nutrient limitation can be observed at community (metagenomic and population levels (total prokaryote and vibrio counts.

  9. Latitudinal patterns in the abundance of major marine bacterioplankton groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Gram, Lone; Jørgensen, Bo; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the abundance of major marine bacterioplankton taxa and two bacterial genera (Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio) in surface seawater at 24 stations around the world. Catalyzed Reporter Deposition-Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) showed that Alphaproteobacteria (average...... relative abundance 37%, average absolute abundance 3.7×105 cells mL-1) including SAR11 (30%/3×105), Gammaproteobacteria (14%/1.2×105), and Bacteroidetes (12%/1.3×105) globally dominated the bacterioplankton. The SAR86 clade (4.6%/4.1×104) and Actinobacteria (4.5%/4×104) were detected ubiquitously, whereas...... Archaea were scarce (0.6%/4.2×103). The Roseobacter clade (averaging 3.8%/3.5×104), Pseudoalteromonas (2.6%/2.1×104), and Vibrio (1.5%/1.3×104) showed cosmopolitan occurrence. Principal Component Analysis revealed a latitudinal pattern in bacterial abundances by clustering samples according to lower and...

  10. Annual dynamics of bacterioplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celussi, Mauro; Cataletto, Bruno

    2007-12-30

    Bacterioplankton community diversity was investigated monthly in coastal waters of the Gulf of Trieste (NE Adriatic Sea) throughout 2003. Superficial bacterial assemblages of two differently freshwater influenced stations were studied using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting techniques. Bacterial genetic diversity of the sampled area, as estimates of the number of DGGE bands was high (36-64) compared to that reported in other studies employing this fingerprint technique. The similarity index (Sorensen Index) between assemblages showed a defined operational taxonomic units (OTUs) succession pattern in the more typically marine station with stable winter communities and quickly changing summer ones. On the contrary in the station affected by riverine inputs no clear pattern was detected. In both sites, according to cluster analyses performed on the DGGE banding pattern, three seasonal assemblages were identified: winter-spring, summer and fall. Sequence analysis of fifty-six among the brightest gel bands led to the observation of bacteria affiliated to Gram positive, Cyanobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (CFB) lineages and the alpha-, gamma- and delta- subdivisions of the Proteobacteria. Gamma-Proteobacteria constituted the main fraction (60%) of sequences in the more typically marine station, whereas the river-influenced station was characterised by more heterogeneous assemblages (39% alpha-Proteobacteria, 32% Flavobacteria). PMID:17728077

  11. Longitudinal and depth variation of bacterioplankton productivity and related factors in a temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peierls, Benjamin L.; Paerl, Hans W.

    2011-11-01

    Bacterioplankton productivity (BP) spatial variation was investigated in relation to potential resources, including primary productivity and dissolved organic matter, in the micro-tidal Neuse River-Pamlico Sound estuarine system, North Carolina, USA. Estuarine BP was predicted to correlate with the trophic gradient, decreasing along the salinity gradient in parallel with the decrease in organic matter and primary productivity. This prediction was tested over four years at spatial scales ranging from kilometers to meters along the riverine axis and with depth. The general pattern of BP across the salinity gradient was unimodal and matched the phytoplankton patterns in peak location and variability. Peak locations varied with discharge, especially in 2003 when above average discharge moved peaks downstream. Spatial coherence of BP with other variables was much less at short time scales. The effect of temperature, nutrients, and phytoplankton on BP varied by location, especially fresh versus brackish stations, although only temperature explained more than 20% of the BP variation. Depth variation of BP was as great as longitudinal variation and bottom samples were often higher than surface. BP was strongly correlated with particulate organic carbon at the pycnocline and bottom, highlighting the importance of particulate matter as a resource. Station-averaged BP and phytoplankton data corresponded well with two published meta-analyses, although the offset of the freshwater station suggested longitudinal differences in community composition or resource availability.

  12. Tidal switch on metabolic activity: Salinity induced responses on bacterioplankton metabolic capabilities in a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thottathil, S.D.; Balachandran, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Nair, S.

    , Dona Paula 403004, Goa, India Received 5 September 2007; accepted 4 February 2008 Available online 6 March 2008 Abstract ‘‘Biolog’’ plates were used to study the changes in the metabolic capabilities of bacterioplankton over a complete tidal cycle in a... utilization from carbohydrates to amino acids appears to be due to the physiological adaptation or nitrogen limitation of bacterial community with increasing salinity. C211 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: bacterioplankton; community; ‘‘Biolog...

  13. Concentration trends for lead and calcium-normalized lead in fish fillets from the Big River, a mining-contaminated stream in southeastern Missouri USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; McKee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005–2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005–2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  14. Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi More

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Demand and spurt in collections and accumulation of data has coined new term “Big Data” has begun. Accidently, incidentally and by interaction of people, information so called data is massively generated. This BIG DATA is to be smartly and effectively used Computer scientists, physicists, economists, mathematicians, political scientists, bio-informaticists, sociologists and many Variety of Intellegesia debate over the potential benefits and costs of analysing information from Twitter, Google, Facebook, Wikipedia and every space where large groups of people leave digital traces and deposit data. Given the rise of Big Data as both a phenomenon and a methodological persuasion, it is time to start critically interrogating this phenomenon, its assumptions and its biases. Big data, which refers to the data sets that are too big to be handled using the existing database management tools, are emerging in many important applications, such as Internet search, business informatics, social networks, social media, genomics, and meteorology. Big data presents a grand challenge for database and data analytics research. This paper is a blend of non-technical and introductory-level technical detail, ideal for the novice. We conclude with some technical challenges as well as the solutions that can be used to these challenges. Big Data differs from other data with five characteristics like volume, variety, value, velocity and complexity. The article will focus on some current and future cases and causes for BIG DATA.

  15. Physiological and Metabolic Effects of Carbon Monoxide Oxidation in the Model Marine Bacterioplankton Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3

    OpenAIRE

    Cunliffe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ruegeria pomeroyi expresses carbon monoxide (CO) dehydrogenase and oxidizes CO; however, CO has no effect on growth. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed that CO has no effect on cellular metabolite profiles. These data support ecosystem models proposing that, even though bacterioplankton CO oxidation is biogeochemically significant, it has an insignificant effect on bacterioplankton productivity.

  16. Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed; Flyverbom, Mikkel; Hilbert, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper is...... to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments contained in any big data practice. Second, it suggests a research agenda built around a set of subthemes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay between big...

  17. Thermal discharge-created increasing temperatures alter the bacterioplankton composition and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Xiong, Shangling; Qian, Peng; Zhang, Demin; Liu, Lian; Fei, Yuejun

    2016-12-01

    Elevated seawater temperature has altered the coupling between coastal primary production and heterotrophic bacterioplankton respiration. This shift, in turn, could influence the feedback of ocean ecosystem to climate warming. However, little is known about how natural bacterioplankton community responds to increasing seawater temperature. To investigate warming effects on the bacterioplankton community, we collected water samples from temperature gradients (ranged from 15.0 to 18.6 °C) created by a thermal flume of a coal power plant. The results showed that increasing temperatures significantly stimulated bacterial abundance, grazing rate, and altered bacterioplankton community compositions (BCCs). The spatial distribution of bacterioplankton community followed a distance similarity decay relationship, with a turnover of 0.005. A variance partitioning analysis showed that temperature directly constrained 2.01 % variation in BCCs, while temperature-induced changes in water geochemical and grazing rate indirectly accounted for 4.03 and 12.8 % of the community variance, respectively. Furthermore, the relative abundances of 24 bacterial families were linearly increased or decreased (P < 0.05 in all cases) with increasing temperatures. Notably, the change pattern for a given bacterial family was in concert with its known functions. In addition, community functional redundancy consistently decreased along the temperature gradient. This study demonstrates that elevated temperature, combined with substrate supply and trophic interactions, dramatically alters BCCs, concomitant with decreases in functional redundancy. The responses of sensitive assemblages are temperature dependent, which could indicate temperature departures. PMID:27620732

  18. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, USA, The Suwannee River, Georgia, USA and by polycarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Leenheer, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Calcite crystallization rates are characterized using a constant solution composition at 25°C, pH=8.5, and calcite supersaturation (Ω) of 4.5 in the absence and presence of fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada (BSLFA), and a fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia (SRFA). Rates are also measured in the presence and absence of low-molar mass, aliphatic-alicyclic polycarboxylic acids (PCA). BSLFA inhibits calcite crystal-growth rates with increasing BSLFA concentration, suggesting that BSLFA adsorbs at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. Calcite growth morphology in the presence of BSLFA differed from growth in its absence, supporting an adsorption mechanism of calcite-growth inhibition by BSLFA. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by BSLFA is consistent with a model indicating that polycarboxylic acid molecules present in BSLFA adsorb at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. In contrast to published results for an unfractionated SRFA, there is dramatic calcite growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1 mg/L) by a SRFA fraction eluted by pH 5 solution from XAD-8 resin, indicating that calcite growth-rate inhibition is related to specific SRFA component fractions. A cyclic PCA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid (CHXHCA) is a strong calcite growth-rate inhibitor at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/L. Two other cyclic PCAs, 1, 1 cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (CPDCA) and 1, 1 cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (CBDCA) with the carboxylic acid groups attached to the same ring carbon atom, have no effect on calcite growth rates up to concentrations of 10 mg/L. Organic matter ad-sorbed from the air onto the seed crystals has no effect on the measured calcite crystal-growth rates.

  19. Feasibility of determination of low-head hydroelectric power development at existing sites. Big Blue River Co-dependent Hydroelectric Development: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, H. Steve; Feuerberg, Stan; Lawrence, John D.; Pal, Parimal C.; Trick, Dr., William T.

    1979-03-01

    The technical, economic, environmental, safety, and financial aspects of redeveloping 7 dam sites in Nebraska for hydroelectric power generation were studied. The Big Blue River Co-dependent Hydroelectric Development was found to be a technically feasible concept, for both redevelopment and in some cases rehabilitation of seven existing sites. The proposed redevelopment project will include seven installations with a recommended nominally rated redeveloped capacity of 3920 kW ranging from 120 kW at the northernmost site in Seward County to 1500 kW at Barneston. The average annual gross generation expected from the seven redeveloped sites totals 11,555,000 kWh. It is estimated that the total cost of redevelopment of these seven sites will be $14,090,000 at 1979 price levels, providing power at an average levelized cost of about 5.3 cents per kWh based on 7% cost of money, a mid-1983 commissioning date, and allowing for funds during construction and cost escalation over a 30-year period. Rehabilitation of original installations at Crete, Dewitt, Blue Springs and Barneston is technically feasible for a total installed capacity of 1415 kW with annual average gross generation of 6,675,000 kWh. The total cost of this rehabilitation is estimated as $3,372,000 at 1979 price levels, or about 2.4 cents per kWh, levelized on a similar basis. Rehabilitation of the Barneston site alone for an installed capacity of 760 kW and annual generation of 3,581,000 kWh is both technically and economically feasible. The total estimated cost of this alternative is $668,000, providing power at a cost of about 1.9 cents per kWh at 1979 price levels. The benefit-cost ratio for Barneston rehabilitation is estimated as 1.23.

  20. Effects of historical lead–zinc mining on riffle-dwelling benthic fish and crayfish in the Big River of southeastern Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, A.L.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.; Schmitt, C.J.; McKee, M.J.; Girondo, J.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The Big River (BGR) drains much of the Old Lead Belt mining district (OLB) in southeastern Missouri, USA, which was historically among the largest producers of lead–zinc (Pb–Zn) ore in the world. We sampled benthic fish and crayfish in riffle habitats at eight sites in the BGR and conducted 56-day in situ exposures to the woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas) and golden crayfish (Orconectes luteus) in cages at four sites affected to differing degrees by mining. Densities of fish and crayfish, physical habitat and water quality, and the survival and growth of caged crayfish were examined at sites with no known upstream mining activities (i.e., reference sites) and at sites downstream of mining areas (i.e., mining and downstream sites). Lead, zinc, and cadmium were analyzed in surface and pore water, sediment, detritus, fish, crayfish, and other benthic macro-invertebrates. Metals concentrations in all materials analyzed were greater at mining and downstream sites than at reference sites. Ten species of fish and four species of crayfish were collected. Fish and crayfish densities were significantly greater at reference than mining or downstream sites, and densities were greater at downstream than mining sites. Survival of caged crayfish was significantly lower at mining sites than reference sites; downstream sites were not tested. Chronic toxic-unit scores and sediment probable effects quotients indicated significant risk of toxicity to fish and crayfish, and metals concentrations in crayfish were sufficiently high to represent a risk to wildlife at mining and downstream sites. Collectively, the results provided direct evidence that metals associated with historical mining activities in the OLB continue to affect aquatic life in the BGR.

  1. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  2. Big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed; Ruppert, Evelyn; Flyverbom, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper is...... to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments that is contained in any big data practice. Secondly, it suggest a research agenda built around a set of sub-themes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay...

  3. Energetic differences between bacterioplankton trophic groups and coral reef resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole Somera, Tracey; Bailey, Barbara; Barott, Katie; Grasis, Juris; Hatay, Mark; Hilton, Brett J; Hisakawa, Nao; Nosrat, Bahador; Nulton, James; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sullivan, Chris; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-27

    Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse marine ecosystems on the Earth. They are also particularly sensitive to changing energetic requirements by different trophic levels. Microbialization specifically refers to the increase in the energetic metabolic demands of microbes relative to macrobes and is significantly correlated with increasing human influence on coral reefs. In this study, metabolic theory of ecology is used to quantify the relative contributions of two broad bacterioplankton groups, autotrophs and heterotrophs, to energy flux on 27 Pacific coral reef ecosystems experiencing human impact to varying degrees. The effective activation energy required for photosynthesis is lower than the average energy of activation for the biochemical reactions of the Krebs cycle, and changes in the proportional abundance of these two groups can greatly affect rates of energy and materials cycling. We show that reef-water communities with a higher proportional abundance of microbial autotrophs expend more metabolic energy per gram of microbial biomass. Increased energy and materials flux through fast energy channels (i.e. water-column associated microbial autotrophs) may dampen the detrimental effects of increased heterotrophic loads (e.g. coral disease) on coral reef systems experiencing anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27097927

  4. Big Egos in Big Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina; Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    utilize a stochastic actor oriented model (SAOM) to analyze both network endogeneous mechanisms and individual agency driving the collaboration network and further if being a Big Ego in Big Science translates to increasing performance. Our findings suggest that the selection of collaborators is not based...... on preferentialattachment, but more of an assortativity effect creating not merely a rich-gets-richer effect but an elitist network with high entry barriers. In this acclaimed democratic and collaborative environment of Big Science, the elite closes in on itself. We propose this tendency to be even...

  5. Fish, Reptile and Amphibian Biodiversity of Wetlands, Ponds and Scour Holes on the Floodplains of the Missouri River, on the Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the summer of 2009, a survey was conducted of of 15 previously unsampled water bodies at four different sites within the Big Muddy NFWR. A brief survey of...

  6. Bacterial diversity along a 2600 km river continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, Domenico; Sinclair, Lucas; Ijaz, Umer Z.; Parajka, Juraj; Reischer, Georg H.; Stadler, Philipp; Blaschke, Alfred P.; Blöschl, Günter; Mach, Robert L.; Kirschner, Alexander K. T.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Eiler, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Summary The bacterioplankton diversity in large rivers has thus far been under-sampled despite the importance of streams and rivers as components of continental landscapes. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset detailing the bacterioplankton diversity along the midstream of the Danube River and its tributaries. Using 16S rRNA-gene amplicon sequencing, our analysis revealed that bacterial richness and evenness gradually declined downriver in both the free-living and particle-associated bacterial communities. These shifts were also supported by beta diversity analysis, where the effects of tributaries were negligible in regards to the overall variation. In addition, the river was largely dominated by bacteria that are commonly observed in freshwaters. Dominated by the acI lineage, the freshwater SAR11 (LD12) and the Polynucleobacter group, typical freshwater taxa increased in proportion downriver and were accompanied by a decrease in soil and groundwater-affiliated bacteria. Based on views of the metacommunity and River Continuum Concept, we interpret the observed taxonomic patterns and accompanying changes in alpha and beta diversity with the intention of laying the foundation for a unified concept for river bacterioplankton diversity. PMID:25922985

  7. Bacterial diversity along a 2600 km river continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, Domenico; Sinclair, Lucas; Ijaz, Umer Z; Parajka, Juraj; Reischer, Georg H; Stadler, Philipp; Blaschke, Alfred P; Blöschl, Günter; Mach, Robert L; Kirschner, Alexander K T; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Eiler, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The bacterioplankton diversity in large rivers has thus far been under-sampled despite the importance of streams and rivers as components of continental landscapes. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset detailing the bacterioplankton diversity along the midstream of the Danube River and its tributaries. Using 16S rRNA-gene amplicon sequencing, our analysis revealed that bacterial richness and evenness gradually declined downriver in both the free-living and particle-associated bacterial communities. These shifts were also supported by beta diversity analysis, where the effects of tributaries were negligible in regards to the overall variation. In addition, the river was largely dominated by bacteria that are commonly observed in freshwaters. Dominated by the acI lineage, the freshwater SAR11 (LD12) and the Polynucleobacter group, typical freshwater taxa increased in proportion downriver and were accompanied by a decrease in soil and groundwater-affiliated bacteria. Based on views of the meta-community and River Continuum Concept, we interpret the observed taxonomic patterns and accompanying changes in alpha and beta diversity with the intention of laying the foundation for a unified concept for river bacterioplankton diversity. PMID:25922985

  8. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  9. Effects of UV radiation on DNA photodamage and production in bacterioplankton in the coastal Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.M; Snelder, E; Kop, A.J; Boelen, P.; Buma, A.G.J.; van Duyl, F.C

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on bacterioplankton. The effect of different parts of the sunlight spectrum on the leucine and thymidine incorporation and on the induction of DNA damage in natural bacterial populations in the coastal Caribbean Sea off Curacao were in

  10. An ecological assessment of factors determining bacterioplankton dynamics in Tsimlyanskaya reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katretskii, Y.A.

    1984-07-01

    In this paper the author establishes that the abundance of bacterioplankton in Tsimlyanskaya reservoir is affected by such ecological factors as temperature, quality of organic solutes as well as intrapopulation factors. He concludes that factors dependent on density (consumption by zooplankton, sorption of suspensions) are the main regulators of the volume of bacterial population in the reservoir plankton.

  11. Effect of resource enrichment on grazed and ungrazed bacterioplankton communities of a meso-eutrophic reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Horňák, Karel; Mašín, Michal; Nedoma, Jiří; Christaki, U.; Weinbauer, M.; Dolan, J.

    Messina: Istituto per l Ambiente Marino Costiero, 2002 - (Giuliano, L.; Yakimov, M.). s. L80 [Symposium on Aquatic Microbial Ecology SAME-8 /8./. 25.10.2002-30.10.2002, Taormina] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : freshwater reservoir * bacterioplankton communities composition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. Contrasted effects of diversity and immigration on ecological insurance in marine bacterioplankton communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Bouvier

    Full Text Available The ecological insurance hypothesis predicts a positive effect of species richness on ecosystem functioning in a variable environment. This effect stems from temporal and spatial complementarity among species within metacommunities coupled with optimal levels of dispersal. Despite its importance in the context of global change by human activities, empirical evidence for ecological insurance remains scarce and controversial. Here we use natural aquatic bacterial communities to explore some of the predictions of the spatial and temporal aspects of the ecological insurance hypothesis. Addressing ecological insurance with bacterioplankton is of strong relevance given their central role in fundamental ecosystem processes. Our experimental set up consisted of water and bacterioplankton communities from two contrasting coastal lagoons. In order to mimic environmental fluctuations, the bacterioplankton community from one lagoon was successively transferred between tanks containing water from each of the two lagoons. We manipulated initial bacterial diversity for experimental communities and immigration during the experiment. We found that the abundance and production of bacterioplankton communities was higher and more stable (lower temporal variance for treatments with high initial bacterial diversity. Immigration was only marginally beneficial to bacterial communities, probably because microbial communities operate at different time scales compared to the frequency of perturbation selected in this study, and of their intrinsic high physiologic plasticity. Such local "physiological insurance" may have a strong significance for the maintenance of bacterial abundance and production in the face of environmental perturbations.

  13. Contrasted effects of diversity and immigration on ecological insurance in marine bacterioplankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Thierry; Venail, Patrick; Pommier, Thomas; Bouvier, Corinne; Barbera, Claire; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The ecological insurance hypothesis predicts a positive effect of species richness on ecosystem functioning in a variable environment. This effect stems from temporal and spatial complementarity among species within metacommunities coupled with optimal levels of dispersal. Despite its importance in the context of global change by human activities, empirical evidence for ecological insurance remains scarce and controversial. Here we use natural aquatic bacterial communities to explore some of the predictions of the spatial and temporal aspects of the ecological insurance hypothesis. Addressing ecological insurance with bacterioplankton is of strong relevance given their central role in fundamental ecosystem processes. Our experimental set up consisted of water and bacterioplankton communities from two contrasting coastal lagoons. In order to mimic environmental fluctuations, the bacterioplankton community from one lagoon was successively transferred between tanks containing water from each of the two lagoons. We manipulated initial bacterial diversity for experimental communities and immigration during the experiment. We found that the abundance and production of bacterioplankton communities was higher and more stable (lower temporal variance) for treatments with high initial bacterial diversity. Immigration was only marginally beneficial to bacterial communities, probably because microbial communities operate at different time scales compared to the frequency of perturbation selected in this study, and of their intrinsic high physiologic plasticity. Such local "physiological insurance" may have a strong significance for the maintenance of bacterial abundance and production in the face of environmental perturbations. PMID:22701572

  14. Marine bacterioplankton community turnover within seasonally hypoxic waters of a subtropical sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, Rachel J.; Nelson, Craig E.; Carlson, Craig A.;

    2015-01-01

    , Bermuda during the 6-week annual transition from a strongly stratified water column with suboxic and high-pCO2 bottom waters to a fully mixed and ventilated state during 2008. A suite of culture-independent methods provided a quantitative spatiotemporal characterization of bacterioplankton community...

  15. Phylogenetic shifts of bacterioplankton community composition along Pearl Estuary: the potential impact of hypoxia and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwen eLiu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The significance of salinity in shaping bacterial communities dwelling in estuarine areas has been well documented. However, the influences of other environmental factors such as dissolved oxygen and nutrients in governing bacterioplankton communities inhabited in local estuarine regions remain elusive. Here, bacterioplankton community structure of surface and bottom waters from eight sites along Pearl Estuary were characterized with 16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. The bacterioplankton community dendrogram partitioned the samples into three groups, i.e., whole water column of freshwater sites, surface water of saltwater sites and bottom water of saltwater sites. In the saltwater sites, Synechococcus dominated the surface water while Oceanospirillales, SAR11 and SAR406 were prevalent in the bottom water. Betaproteobacteria was abundant in the freshwater sites, with no significant difference between water layers. Moreover, occurrence of phylogenetic shifts in taxa affiliated to the same clade was also detected. Dissolved oxygen explained most of the bacterial community variation in the redundancy analysis targeting only freshwater sites, whereas nutrients and salinity explained most of the variation across all the samples in Pearl Estuary. Methylophilales (mainly PE2 clade was positively correlated to dissolved oxygen, whereas Rhodocyclales (mainly R.12up clade was negatively correlated. Moreover, high nutrient inputs to the freshwater area of Pearl Estuary have shifted the bacterial communities towards copiotrophic groups, such as Sphingomonadales. The present study provides a clear outline of bacterioplankton communities in two regions of a subtropical estuary and demonstrates that the overall nutrients and freshwater hypoxia play important roles in determining bacterioplankton compositions

  16. Big Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astronomy, like particle physics, has become Big Science where the demands of front line research can outstrip the science budgets of whole nations. Thus came into being the European Southern Observatory (ESO), founded in 1962 to provide European scientists with a major modern observatory to study the southern sky under optimal conditions

  17. Big Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  18. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  19. Big Data and Big Science

    OpenAIRE

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Brief introduction to the challenges of big data in scientific research based on the work done by the HEP community at CERN and how the CERN openlab promotes collaboration among research institutes and industrial IT companies. Presented at the FutureGov 2014 conference in Singapore.

  20. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  1. A new molecular approach to help conclude drowning as a cause of death: simultaneous detection of eight bacterioplankton species using real-time PCR assays with TaqMan probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taketo; Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Nishida, Sho; Imamura, Nahoko; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2012-10-10

    We developed a novel tool for concluding drowning as a cause of death. We designed nine primer pairs to detect representative freshwater or marine bacterioplankton (aquatic bacteria) and then used real-time PCR with TaqMan probes to rapidly and specifically detect them. We previously cultured the genus Aeromonas, which is a representative freshwater bacterial species, in blood samples from 94% of victims who drowned in freshwater and the genera Vibrio and/or Photobacterium that are representative marine bacteria in 88% of victims who drowned in seawater. Based on these results, we simultaneously detected eight species of bacterioplankton (Aeromonas hydrophila, A. salmonicida; Vibrio fischeri, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus; Photobacterium damselae, P. leiognathi, P. phosphoreum) using three sets of triplex real-time PCR assays and TaqMan probes labelled with fluorophores (FAM, NED, Cy5). We assayed 266 specimens (109 blood, 157 tissues) from 43 victims, including 32 who had drowned in rivers, ditches, wells, sea or around estuaries. All lung samples of these 32 victims were TaqMan PCR-positive including the lung periphery into which water does not readily enter postmortem. On the other hand, findings in blood and/or closed organs (kidney or liver) were PCR-positive in 84% of the drowned victims (except for those who drowned in baths) although the conventional test detected diatoms in closed organs in only 44% of the victims. Thus, the results of the PCR assay reinforced those of diatom tests when only a few diatoms were detectable in organs due to the low density of diatoms in the water where they were found. Multiplex TaqMan PCR assays for bacterioplankton were rapid, less laborious and high-throughput as well as sensitive and specific. Therefore, these assays would be useful for routine forensic screening tests to estimate the amount and type of aspirated water. PMID:22682932

  2. Global patterns of marine bacterioplankton diversity and characterisation of bioactive Vibrionaceae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the composition of marine bacterial communities around the world, and to investigate bacterial isolates regarding the production of antibiotics. This included molecular analyses of marine bacterioplankton, as well as culture-based studies of marine....... Quantitative community analyses showed latitudinal patterns in bacterial distribution, revealing significantly different relative abundances of Bacteroidetes, unclassified Bacteria and Vibrio between warmer and colder oceans. Absolute cell numbers of most bacterial groups were positively correlated...... bacterial isolates with antagonistic activity. The work was based on samples collected during the Galathea 3 and LOMROG-II marine research expeditions that have explored many different oceanic regions worldwide. A molecular survey of marine bacterioplankton at 24 worldwide stations investigated...

  3. Big queues

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, Ayalvadi; Wischik, Damon

    2004-01-01

    Big Queues aims to give a simple and elegant account of how large deviations theory can be applied to queueing problems. Large deviations theory is a collection of powerful results and general techniques for studying rare events, and has been applied to queueing problems in a variety of ways. The strengths of large deviations theory are these: it is powerful enough that one can answer many questions which are hard to answer otherwise, and it is general enough that one can draw broad conclusions without relying on special case calculations.

  4. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  5. Verrucomicrobia Are Candidates for Polysaccharide-Degrading Bacterioplankton in an Arctic Fjord of Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Cardman, Z.; C. Arnosti; Durbin, A.; Ziervogel, K.; Cox, C; A. D. Steen; Teske, A

    2014-01-01

    In Arctic marine bacterial communities, members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia are consistently detected, although not typically abundant, in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and pyrotag surveys of the marine water column and in sediments. In an Arctic fjord (Smeerenburgfjord) of Svalbard, members of the Verrucomicrobia, together with Flavobacteria and smaller proportions of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, constituted the most frequently detected bacterioplankton community members in 16S rRNA gen...

  6. Impact of solar radiation on bacterioplankton in Laguna Vilama, a hypersaline Andean lake (4650 m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    FaríAs, MaríA. Eugenia; FernáNdez-Zenoff, Verónica; Flores, Regina; OrdóñEz, Omar; EstéVez, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    Laguna Vilama is a hypersaline Lake located at 4660 m altitude in the northwest of Argentina high up in the Andean Puna. The impact of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on bacterioplankton was studied by collecting samples at different times of the day. Molecular analysis (DGGE) showed that the bacterioplankton community is characterized by Gamma-proteobacteria (Halomonas sp., Marinobacter sp.), Alpha-proteobacteria (Roseobacter sp.), HGC (Agrococcus jenensis and an uncultured bacterium), and CFB (uncultured Bacteroidetes). During the day, minor modifications in bacterial diversity such as intensification of Bacteroidetes' signal and an emergence of Gamma-proteobacteria (Marinobacter flavimaris) were observed after solar exposure. DNA damage, measured as an accumulation of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers (CPDs), in bacterioplankton and naked DNA increased from 100 CPDs MB-1 at 1200 local time (LT) to 300 CPDs MB-1 at 1600 LT, and from 80 CPDs MB-1 at 1200 LT to 640 CPDs MB-1 at 1600 LT, respectively. In addition, pure cultures of Pseudomonas sp. V1 and Brachybacterium sp. V5, two bacteria previously isolated from this environment, were exposed simultaneously with the community, and viability of both strains diminished after solar exposure. No CPD accumulation was observed in either of the exposed cultures, but an increase in mutagenesis was detected in V5. Of both strains only Brachybacterium sp. V5 showed CPD accumulation in naked DNA. These results suggest that the bacterioplankton community is well adapted to this highly solar irradiated environment showing little accumulation of CPDs and few changes in the community composition. They also demonstrate that these microorganisms contain efficient mechanisms against UV damage.

  7. Diel changes in bacteriochlorophyll a concentration suggest rapid bacterioplankton cycling in the Baltic Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koblížek, Michal; Ston-Egiert, J.; Sagan, S.; Kolber, Z. S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2005), s. 353-361. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P079; GA MŠk LN00A141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : Aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs * Bacteria l mortality * Bacterioplankton turnover Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.787, year: 2005

  8. Away from darkness: A review on the effects of solar radiation on heterotrophic bacterioplankton activity

    OpenAIRE

    CLARARUIZ GONZALEZ; Gasol, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrophic bacterioplankton are main consumers of dissolved organic matter in aquatic ecosystems, including the sunlit upper layers of the ocean and freshwater bodies. Their well-known sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), together with some recently discovered mechanisms bacteria have evolved to benefit from photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), suggest that natural sunlight plays a relevant, yet difficult to predict role in modulating bacterial biogeochemical functions in a...

  9. Away from darkness: a review on the effects of solar radiation on heterotrophic bacterioplankton activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-González, Clara; Simó, Rafel; Sommaruga, Ruben; Gasol, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrophic bacterioplankton are main consumers of dissolved organic matter (OM) in aquatic ecosystems, including the sunlit upper layers of the ocean and freshwater bodies. Their well-known sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), together with some recently discovered mechanisms bacteria have evolved to benefit from photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), suggest that natural sunlight plays a relevant, yet difficult to predict role in modulating bacterial biogeochemical functions...

  10. [Heterotrophic organisms and viruses in the Oka River and Cheboksary Reservoir during the abnormally hot summer of 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, A I; Stroĭnov, Ia V; Zabotkina, E A; Romanenko, A V; Maslennikova, T S

    2013-01-01

    In July 2010, abnormally high water temperature (25-29 degrees C), as well as increased biomass and phytoplankton production caused intensive development of heterotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates. It was found that the abundance, biomass, and production of heterotrophic bacterioplankton, as well as the abundance and biomass of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and the number of planktonic viruses, which were calculated on average for the reservoir under study, turned out to be higher in the years with lower water temperature (20-23 degrees C). The virus-induced mortality of bacterioplankton in the Oka River and the Cheboksary Reservoir averaged 25.4 +/- 3.4 and 22.4 +/- 2.7% of the daily bacterioplankton production. PMID:24171319

  11. Tracking differential incorporation of dissolved organic carbon types among diverse lineages of Sargasso Sea bacterioplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig E; Carlson, Craig A

    2012-06-01

    Bacterioplankton are the primary trophic conduit for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and linking community structure with DOC utilization is central to understanding global carbon cycling. We coupled stable isotope probing (SIP) with 16S rRNA pyrosequencing in dark seawater culture experiments on euphotic and mesopelagic communities from the Sargasso Sea. Parallel cultures were amended with equimolar quantities of four DO(13) C substrates to simultaneously evaluate community utilization and population-specific incorporation. Of the substrates tested - two cyanobacterial products (exudates or lysates from a culture of Synechococcus) and two defined monosaccharides (glucose or gluconic acid) - the cyanobacterial exudates were incorporated by the greatest diversity of oligotrophic bacterioplankton populations in surface waters, including taxa from > 10 major subclades within the Flavobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria (including SAR11). In contrast, the monosaccharide glucose was not incorporated by any taxa belonging to extant oligotrophic oceanic clades. Conversely, proteobacterial copiotrophs, which were rare in the ambient water (< 0.1% of sequences), grew rapidly on all DOC amendments at both depths, but with different substrate preferences among lineages. We present a new analytical framework for using SIP to detect DOC incorporation across diverse oligotrophic bacterioplankton and discuss implications for the ecology of bacterial-DOC interactions among populations of diverging trophic strategies. PMID:22507662

  12. Understanding diversity patterns in bacterioplankton communities from a sub-Antarctic peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, María Victoria; Valverde, Angel; Mataloni, Gabriela; Cowan, Don

    2015-06-01

    Bacterioplankton communities inhabiting peatlands have the potential to influence local ecosystem functions. However, most microbial ecology research in such wetlands has been done in ecosystems (mostly peat soils) of the Northern Hemisphere, and very little is known of the factors that drive bacterial community assembly in other regions of the world. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the structure of the bacterial communities in five pools located in a sub-Antarctic peat bog (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina), and tested for relationships between bacterial communities and environmental conditions. Bacterioplankton communities in peat bog pools were diverse and dominated by members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia. Community structure was largely explained by differences in hydrological connectivity, pH and nutrient status (ombrotrophic versus minerotrophic pools). Bacterioplankton communities in ombrotrophic pools showed phylogenetic clustering, suggesting a dominant role of deterministic processes in shaping these assemblages. These correlations between habitat characteristics and bacterial diversity patterns provide new insights into the factors regulating microbial populations in peatland ecosystems. PMID:25727763

  13. Spatially uniform but temporally variable bacterioplankton in a semi-enclosed coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziti, Alexandra; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Karayanni, Hera

    2015-07-01

    Studies focusing on the temporal and spatial dynamics of bacterioplankton communities within littoral areas undergoing direct influences from the coast are quite limited. In addition, they are more complicated to resolve compared to communities in the open ocean. In order to elucidate the effects of spatial vs. temporal variability on bacterial communities in a highly land-influenced semi-enclosed gulf, surface bacterioplankton communities from five coastal sites in Igoumenitsa Gulf (Ionian Sea, Greece) were analyzed over a nine-month period using 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing. Temporal differences were more pronounced than spatial ones, with lower diversity indices observed during the summer months. During winter and early spring, bacterial communities were dominated by SAR11 representatives, while this pattern changed in May when they were abruptly replaced by members of Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, and Alteromonadales. Additionally, correlation analysis showed high negative correlations between the presence of SAR11 OTUs in relation to temperature and sunlight that might have driven, directly or indirectly, the disappearance of these OTUs in the summer months. The dominance of SAR11 during the winter months further supported the global distribution of the clade, not only in the open-sea, but also in coastal systems. This study revealed that specific bacteria exhibited distinct succession patterns in an anthropogenic-impacted coastal system. The major bacterioplankton component was represented by commonly found marine bacteria exhibiting seasonal dynamics, while freshwater and terrestrial-related phylotypes were absent. PMID:25976032

  14. Marine bacterioplankton community turnover within seasonally hypoxic waters of a subtropical sound: Devil's Hole, Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Rachel J; Nelson, Craig E; Carlson, Craig A; Denman, Carmen C; Andersson, Andreas J; Kledzik, Andrew L; Vergin, Kevin L; McNally, Sean P; Treusch, Alexander H; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Understanding bacterioplankton community dynamics in coastal hypoxic environments is relevant to global biogeochemistry because coastal hypoxia is increasing worldwide. The temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton communities were analysed throughout the illuminated water column of Devil's Hole, Bermuda during the 6-week annual transition from a strongly stratified water column with suboxic and high-pCO2 bottom waters to a fully mixed and ventilated state during 2008. A suite of culture-independent methods provided a quantitative spatiotemporal characterization of bacterioplankton community changes, including both direct counts and rRNA gene sequencing. During stratification, the surface waters were dominated by the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the suboxic bottom waters, cells from the order Chlorobiales prevailed, with gene sequences indicating members of the genera Chlorobium and Prosthecochloris--anoxygenic photoautotrophs that utilize sulfide as a source of electrons for photosynthesis. Transitional zones of hypoxia also exhibited elevated levels of methane- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria relative to the overlying waters. The abundance of both Thaumarcheota and Euryarcheota were elevated in the suboxic bottom waters (> 10(9) cells l(-1)). Following convective mixing, the entire water column returned to a community typical of oxygenated waters, with Euryarcheota only averaging 5% of cells, and Chlorobiales and Thaumarcheota absent. PMID:24589037

  15. Phosphorus use by planktonic communities in a large regulated Mediterranean river

    OpenAIRE

    Artigas, J.; Soley, S.; Pérez Baliero, M.C.; Romani, A.M.; Ruiz González, C.; Sabater, S.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of large rivers to meet human requirements (e.g. hydroelectricity production, flood prevention, recreation activities) alters the longitudinal distribution of plankton communities and may affect their capacity to use nutrients and organic matter. Here we analyzed phosphorus (P) availability and use by phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in 6 upstream and 5 downstream sites from a reservoir system in the Ebro River (N Spain). Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was related to nut...

  16. Big data analytics turning big data into big money

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlhorst, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Unique insights to implement big data analytics and reap big returns to your bottom line Focusing on the business and financial value of big data analytics, respected technology journalist Frank J. Ohlhorst shares his insights on the newly emerging field of big data analytics in Big Data Analytics. This breakthrough book demonstrates the importance of analytics, defines the processes, highlights the tangible and intangible values and discusses how you can turn a business liability into actionable material that can be used to redefine markets, improve profits and identify new business opportuni

  17. Ordered network structure and its prediction for the big floods in the Changjiang River Basin%长江流域大洪水有序网络结构及其预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门可佩

    2014-01-01

    根据1827年以来的统计资料进行分析,长江流域大洪水展示出极为显著的有序性。运用翁文波信息预测理论,构建长江大洪水二维平面和三维立体信息有序网络结构并进行综合分析和预测,结果表明:2014、2020、2030、2036、2051与2058年前后的汛期,长江流域将有可能发生大洪水。%According to the latest statistical data of hydrology,a total of 21 floods took place in the Changjiang Riv-er Basin from 1827 to now,which showed a very obvious orderliness.Based on the information forecasting theory and ordered network analysis,we construct the 2D-and 3D-ordered network structure and make prediction research.Pre-diction results show that the future big deluges will probably occur in the Changjiang River Basin around 2014, 2020,2030,2036,2051 and 2058.

  18. Links between resources, C metabolism and the major components of bacterioplankton community structure across a range of freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jérôme; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    We explored the patterns in bacterioplankton community metabolism (BCM) and four components of community structure [composition (BCC), metabolic capacities (MC), physiological structure (PS) and single-cell characteristics (SCC)], between lakes, rivers and marshes within a watershed in Québec, to assess the connections that exist between them and with the main resources (organic matter, nutrients). Habitat types were well segregated by both resources and BCM and their corresponding dissimilarity matrices were significantly correlated, suggesting that BCM tracks resource conditions in a consistent manner across ecosystem types. MC also segregated the various habitats and was correlated to BCM but less so to resources, whereas BCC at times resulted in a clear separation of habitats, but was rarely correlated to resources and never to BCM, suggesting a higher degree of ecosystem specificity at this particular level. Finally, there was no clear separation of habitats in terms of PS and SCC, and none covaried with resources or BCM. The habitat patterns based on these different components of structure were rarely correlated to each other, indicating weak deterministic connections between them. MC appears to mediate the link between resources and BCM more directly and consistently across systems; BCC appears to be more influenced by ecosystem-specific factors that weaken its overall connection to both resources and BCM, whereas PS and SCC show no discernible patterns. Our results thus suggest that the bottom-up regulation of BCM by resources is mediated by complex shifts within components of community structure that can be directional, ecosystem-specific or apparently random, which combined nevertheless result in a systematic overall response to resources in terms of C metabolism. PMID:19508562

  19. Influence of filtration and glucose amendment on bacterial growth rate at different tidal conditions in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anne, I.; Fidalgo, M. L.; Thosthrup, L.;

    2006-01-01

    Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and growth rates were studied in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal). The influence of tidal conditions, glucose amendment, and the filtration process on total bacterial abundance, total and faecal coliforms, as well as faecal streptococci, were evaluated in...

  20. Heterotrophic bacterioplankton production in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tian; Wang, Rong; Yue, Hai-Dong

    2001-06-01

    Heterotrophic bacterial production (BP) in the East China Sea was measured using tritiated thymidine incorporation (TTI) method in winter 1997 and in summer 1998. The results showed BP in summer (1998, 3.50-15.70 μgC/(L·h) was higher than that in winter (1997, 0.46-2.62 μgC/(L·h). The high values of BP occurred around the Changjiang River estuary and around Station 410. The results at two anchor stations showed that vertical variation of BP was bottom > middle > surface in winter and middle > bottom > surface in summer. Compared with primary production (BP:PP), the average ratio of BP:PP was 0.17(0.04-0.30) in winter and 0.32(0.21-0.43) in summer. There were high ratios around the Changjiang River estuary in winter and around Station 111 in summer.

  1. Big Data : Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Sunny Gupta; Anuradha Singhal

    2014-01-01

    Big data is data that exceeds the processing capacity of traditional databases. The data is too big to be processed by a single machine. New and innovative methods are required to process and store such large volumes of data. This paper provides an overview on big data, its importance in our live and some technologies to handle big data.

  2. Big Data: Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Sunny; Singhal, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Big data is data that exceeds the processing capacity of traditional databases. The data is too big to be processed by a single machine. New and innovative methods are required to process and store such large volumes of data. This paper provides an overview on big data, its importance in our live and some technologies to handle big data.

  3. Annual Bacterioplankton Biomasses and Productivities in a Temperate West Coast Canadian Fjord

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, L. J.; McCrae, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    Bacterioplankton numbers, biomasses, and productivities, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton productivities, were assayed from 1 March 1984 to 12 August 1985 through a 250-m-deep seawater column in Howe Sound, a temperate fjord-sound on the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada. Primary production during this 18-month period was 845 g of C m−2. Bacterial production was assayed over this same period as 193 g of C m−2 (thymidine incorporation) and 77 g of C m−2 (frequ...

  4. Hydraulic Characteristics of Bedrock Constrictions and Evaluation of One- and Two-Dimensional Models of Flood Flow on the Big Lost River at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, Charles; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Twining, Brian V.

    2007-01-01

    A 1.9-mile reach of the Big Lost River, between the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) diversion dam and the Pioneer diversion structures, was investigated to evaluate the effects of streambed erosion and bedrock constrictions on model predictions of water-surface elevations. Two one-dimensional (1-D) models, a fixed-bed surface-water flow model (HEC-RAS) and a movable-bed surface-water flow and sediment-transport model (HEC-6), were used to evaluate these effects. The results of these models were compared to the results of a two-dimensional (2-D) fixed-bed model [Transient Inundation 2-Dimensional (TRIM2D)] that had previously been used to predict water-surface elevations for peak flows with sufficient stage and stream power to erode floodplain terrain features (Holocene inset terraces referred to as BLR#6 and BLR#8) dated at 300 to 500 years old, and an unmodified Pleistocene surface (referred to as the saddle area) dated at 10,000 years old; and to extend the period of record at the Big Lost River streamflow-gaging station near Arco for flood-frequency analyses. The extended record was used to estimate the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the magnitude of floods with return periods as long as 10,000 years. In most cases, the fixed-bed TRIM2D model simulated higher water-surface elevations, shallower flow depths, higher flow velocities, and higher stream powers than the fixed-bed HEC-RAS and movable-bed HEC-6 models for the same peak flows. The HEC-RAS model required flow increases of 83 percent [100 to 183 cubic meters per second (m3/s)], and 45 percent (100 to 145 m3/s) to match TRIM2D simulations of water-surface elevations at two paleoindicator sites that were used to determine peak flows (100 m3/s) with an estimated return period of 300 to 500 years; and an increase of 13 percent (150 to 169 m3/s) to match TRIM2D water-surface elevations at the saddle area that was used to establish the peak flow (150 m3/s) of a paleoflood

  5. Snowmelt-driven changes in dissolved organic matter and bacterioplankton communities in the Heilongjiang watershed of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Linlin; Cui, Hongyang; Wu, Junqiu; Wang, Baijie; Zhao, Yue; Li, Jiming; Jia, Liming; Wei, Zimin

    2016-06-15

    Bacterioplankton plays a significant role in the circulation of materials and ecosystem function in the biosphere. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from dead plant material and surface soil leaches into water bodies when snow melts. In our study, water samples from nine sampling sites along the Heilongjiang watershed were collected in February and June 2014 during which period snowmelt occurred. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in DOM and bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) associated with snowmelt, the effects of DOM, environmental and geographical factors on the distribution of BCC and interactions of aquatic bacterioplankton populations with different sources of DOM in the Heilongjiang watershed. BCC was measured by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DOM was measured by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Bacterioplankton exhibited a distinct seasonal change in community composition due to snowmelt at all sampling points except for EG. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that BCC was more closely related to DOM (Components 1 and 4, dissolved organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand and chlorophyll a) and environmental factors (water temperature and nitrate nitrogen) than geographical factors. Furthermore, DOM had a greater impact on BCC than environmental factors (29.80 vs. 15.90% of the variation). Overall, spring snowmelt played an important role in altering the quality and quantity of DOM and BCC in the Heilongjiang watershed. PMID:26974572

  6. Diurnal variations in depth profiles of UV-induced DNA damage and inhibition of bacterioplankton production in tropical coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, PM; Poos, JJ; Scheper, BB; Boelen, P; van Duyl, FC

    2002-01-01

    In this study, diurnal changes in bacterial production and DNA damage in bacterio-plankton (measured as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, CPDs) incubated in bags at different depths in tropical coastal waters were investigated. The DNA damage and inhibition of the bacterial production was highest at th

  7. Macrophytes and periphyton carbon subsidies to bacterioplankton and zooplankton in a shallow eutrophic lake in tropical China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Kluijver, A.; Ning, J.; Liu, Z.;

    2015-01-01

    The subsidy of carbon derived from macrophytes and associated periphyton to bacterioplankton and zooplankton in subtropical shallow eutrophic Huizhou West Lake in China was analyzed using carbon stable isotope signatures. A restored part of the lake dominated by macrophytes was compared with an...

  8. .i.Candidatus./i. Planktophila limnetica, an actinobacterium representing one of the most numerically important taxa in freshwater bacterioplankton

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezbera, Jan; Sharma, A. K.; Brandt, U.; Doolittle, W.F.; Hahn, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 11 (2009), s. 2864-2869. ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Actinobacteria * Planktophila * freshwater * bacterioplankton Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2009

  9. Response of rare, common and abundant bacterioplankton to anthropogenic perturbations in a Mediterranean coastal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, Federico; Palovaara, Joakim; Vila-Costa, Maria; Salazar, Guillem; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Marrasé, Cèlia; Gasol, Josep M; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-06-01

    Bacterioplankton communities are made up of a small set of abundant taxa and a large number of low-abundant organisms (i.e. 'rare biosphere'). Despite the critical role played by bacteria in marine ecosystems, it remains unknown how this large diversity of organisms are affected by human-induced perturbations, or what controls the responsiveness of rare compared to abundant bacteria. We studied the response of a Mediterranean bacterioplankton community to two anthropogenic perturbations (i.e. nutrient enrichment and/or acidification) in two mesocosm experiments (in winter and summer). Nutrient enrichment increased the relative abundance of some operational taxonomic units (OTUs), e.g. Polaribacter, Tenacibaculum, Rhodobacteraceae and caused a relative decrease in others (e.g. Croceibacter). Interestingly, a synergistic effect of acidification and nutrient enrichment was observed on specific OTUs (e.g. SAR86). We analyzed the OTUs that became abundant at the end of the experiments and whether they belonged to the rare (1% relative abundance) fractions. Most of the abundant OTUs at the end of the experiments were abundant, or at least common, in the original community of both experiments, suggesting that ecosystem alterations do not necessarily call for rare members to grow. PMID:26032602

  10. Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and production in a Brazilian coastal lagoon and in two German lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURTADO ANDRÉ L. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterioplanktonic abundance, biomass, and production within a tropical lagoon (Cabiúnas, Brazil and two temperate lakes (Stechlin and Dagow, Germany were compared. Bacterial abundance and production were significantly different among the three water bodies. The lowest bacterial production ( 0.8mug C l-1 d-1 was observed in the tropical Cabiúnas Lagoon despite its higher mean temperature and dissolved organic carbon concentration. Highest bacterioplankton abundance ( 2.6 x 10(9 cells l-1 and production ( 68.5mug C l-1 d-1 were measured in eutrophic Lake Dagow. In oligotrophic Lake Stechlin, the lowest bacterial biomass ( 48.05mug C l-1 was observed because of lower bacterial biovolume ( 0.248mum³ and lower bacterial abundance. Bacterial populations in the temperate lakes show higher activity (production/biomass ratio than in the tropical lagoon. The meaning of isotopic dilution and leucine incorporation by non-bacterial micro-organisms were evaluated in the oligotrophic temperate system. Leucine uptake by non-bacterial micro-organisms did not have significant influence on bacterial production.

  11. Response of marine bacterioplankton pH homeostasis gene expression to elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunse, Carina; Lundin, Daniel; Karlsson, Christofer M. G.; Akram, Neelam; Vila-Costa, Maria; Palovaara, Joakim; Svensson, Lovisa; Holmfeldt, Karin; González, José M.; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Marrasé, Cèlia; Dopson, Mark; Gasol, Josep M.; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2016-05-01

    Human-induced ocean acidification impacts marine life. Marine bacteria are major drivers of biogeochemical nutrient cycles and energy fluxes; hence, understanding their performance under projected climate change scenarios is crucial for assessing ecosystem functioning. Whereas genetic and physiological responses of phytoplankton to ocean acidification are being disentangled, corresponding functional responses of bacterioplankton to pH reduction from elevated CO2 are essentially unknown. Here we show, from metatranscriptome analyses of a phytoplankton bloom mesocosm experiment, that marine bacteria responded to lowered pH by enhancing the expression of genes encoding proton pumps, such as respiration complexes, proteorhodopsin and membrane transporters. Moreover, taxonomic transcript analysis showed that distinct bacterial groups expressed different pH homeostasis genes in response to elevated CO2. These responses were substantial for numerous pH homeostasis genes under low-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a 20 μg l-1) were low. Given that proton expulsion through pH homeostasis mechanisms is energetically costly, these findings suggest that bacterioplankton adaptation to ocean acidification could have long-term effects on the economy of ocean ecosystems.

  12. Short-Term Dynamics of North Sea Bacterioplankton-Dissolved Organic Matter Coherence on Molecular Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Judith; Koester, Irina; Wichels, Antje; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten; Callies, Ulrich; Wiltshire, Karen H; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Remineralization and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine microbes shape the DOM composition and thus, have large impact on global carbon and nutrient cycling. However, information on bacterioplankton-DOM interactions on a molecular level is limited. We examined the variation of bacterial community composition (BCC) at Helgoland Roads (North Sea) in relation to variation of molecular DOM composition and various environmental parameters on short-time scales. Surface water samples were taken daily over a period of 20 days. Bacterial community and molecular DOM composition were assessed via 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing and ultrahigh resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), respectively. Environmental conditions were driven by a coastal water influx during the first half of the sampling period and the onset of a summer phytoplankton bloom toward the end of the sampling period. These phenomena led to a distinct grouping of bacterial communities and DOM composition which was particularly influenced by total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration, temperature, and salinity, as revealed by distance-based linear regression analyses. Bacterioplankton-DOM interaction was demonstrated in strong correlations between specific bacterial taxa and particular DOM molecules, thus, suggesting potential specialization on particular substrates. We propose that a combination of high resolution techniques, as used in this study, may provide substantial information on substrate generalists and specialists and thus, contribute to prediction of BCC variation. PMID:27014241

  13. Phylogenetic diversity and phenotypic characterization of cultivable bacterioplankton isolated from polar oceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yinxin; LI Huirong; YU Yong; CHEN Bo; ZHENG Tianling

    2007-01-01

    A set of 27 marine planktonic bacteria isolated from the polar regions was characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and physiological and biochemical testing. More than half of these bacteria were positive for caseinase, gelatinase and β-glucosidase, and could utilize glucose, maltose or malic acid as carbon source for cell growth. Twelve isolates expressed nitrate reduction activities. Except for one antarctic isolate BSw10175 belonging to Actinobacteria phylum, these isolates were classified as γ-Proteobacteria, suggesting that γ-Proteobacteria dominated in cultivable marine bacterioplankton at both poles. Genus Pseudoalteromonas was the predominant group in the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea, and genus Shewanella dominated in cultivable bacterioplankton in the Prydz Bay. With sequence similarities above 97%, genus Psychrobacter was found at both poles. These 27 isolates were psychrotolerant, and significant 16S rDNA sequence similarities were found not only between arctic and antarctic marine bacteria ( > 99% ),but also between polar marine bacteria and bacteria from other aquatic environments ( ≥98.8% ) , including temperate ocean,deep sea, pond and lake, suggesting that in the polar oceans less temperature-sensitive bacteria may be cosmopolitan and have a bipolar, even global, distribution at the species level.

  14. Influence of macrophyte decomposition on growth rate and community structure of Okefenokee Swamp bacterioplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved substances released during decomposition of the white water lily (Nymphaea odorata) can alter the growth rate of Okefenokee Swamp bacterioplankton. In microcosm experiments dissolved compounds released bacterioplankton, followed by a period of intense bacterial growth. Rates of [3H]thymidine incorporation and turnover of dissolved D-glucose were depressed by over 85%, 3 h after the addition of Nymphaea leachates to microcosms containing Okefenokee Swamp water. Bacterial activity subsequently recovered; after 20 h [3H]thymidine incorporation in leachate-treated microcosms was 10-fold greater than that in control microcosms. The recovery of activity was due to a shift in the composition of the bacterial population toward resistance to the inhibitory compounds present in Nymphaea leachates. Inhibitory compounds released during the decomposition of aquatic macrophytes thus act as selective agents which alter the community structure of the bacterial population with respect to leachate resistance. Soluble compounds derived from macrophyte decomposition influence the rate of bacterial secondary production and the availability of microbial biomass to microconsumers

  15. Short-term dynamics of North Sea bacterioplankton-dissolved organic matter coherence on molecular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eLucas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Remineralisation and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM by marine microbes shape the DOM composition and thus, have large impact on global carbon and nutrient cycling. However, information on bacterioplankton-DOM interactions on a molecular level is limited. We examined the variation of bacterial community composition at Helgoland Roads (North Sea in relation to variation of molecular DOM composition and various environmental parameters on short-time scales. Surface water samples were taken daily over a period of twenty days. Bacterial community and molecular DOM composition were assessed via 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing and ultrahigh resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS, respectively. Environmental conditions were driven by a coastal water influx during the first half of the sampling period and the onset of a summer phytoplankton bloom towards the end of the sampling period. These phenomena led to a distinct grouping of bacterial communities and DOM composition which was particularly influenced by total dissolved nitrogen concentration, temperature and salinity, as revealed by distance-based linear regression analyses. Bacterioplankton-DOM interaction was demonstrated in strong correlations between specific bacterial taxa and particular DOM molecules, thus, suggesting potential specialization on particular substrates. We propose that a combination of high resolution techniques, as used in this study, may provide substantial information on substrate generalists and specialists and thus, contribute to prediction of bacterial community composition variation.

  16. Spatial variability in the abundance and composition of the free-living bacterioplankton community in the pelagic zone of Lake Bourget (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, Ursula; Fontvieille, Dominique; Humbert, Jean-François

    2006-10-01

    Spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the free-living bacterioplankton community of a large Alpine lake, Lake Bourget (France), were investigated in the pelagic zone by means of two two-dimensional samplings taken in 2003. Lake-water samples were collected in winter during water mixing, and in early summer during stratification. The population abundance in each sample was determined by flow cytometry. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments from organisms measuring less than 2 mum was used to assess eubacterioplankton community composition. In winter, no obvious differences were observed in either the abundance or the diversity of the bacterial community, on either the horizontal or the vertical scales. The only influence detected was that of river water input, but this was at a very minor scale relative to the surface area of the lake. In early summer, changes were found in the community composition on the vertical scale related to the thermal stratification of the water column. There were also marked differences on the horizontal scale at 15 m depth due to internal waves. The implications of these findings for sampling strategies are very important from the perspective of comparative studies of free-living bacterial community diversity and functioning in large and deep lakes. PMID:16958912

  17. Characterizing Big Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Rossi; Kechi Hirama

    2015-01-01

    Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: t...

  18. Seasonal and spatial distribution of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region: density, biomass, cellular volume and morphologic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnólia Fernandes Florêncio de Araújo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial fluctuations of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region (Pitimbu River and Jiqui Lake, RN were studied during the dry and the rainy periods. The bacterial abundance varied from 2.67 to 5.1 Cells10(7mL-1 and did not show a typical temporal variation, presenting only small oscillations between the rainy and the dry periods. The bacterial biomass varied from 123 µgC L-1 to 269 µgC L-1 in the sampling sites and the average cellular volume varied from 0.12 to 0.54µm³, showing a predominance of the rods. The temperature showed a positive correlation with the cellular volume of the rods (R=0.55; p=0.02 and vibrio (R=0.53; p=0.03. Significant spatial differences of biomass (Mann Whitney: p=0.01 and cellular volume of the morphotypes (Mann Whitney: p=0.003 were found between the sampling sites. The strong positive correlations of the water temperature and oxygen with bacterioplankton showed a probable high bacterial activity in this system.A variação temporal e espacial do bacterioplâncton em um sistema fluvial-lagunar de região tropical foi estudada em períodos seco e chuvoso. As médias da abundância bacteriana variaram de 2,67 a 5,1 x 10(7 e não exibiram uma variação temporal marcante, tendo apresentado apenas pequenas oscilações entre os períodos chuvoso e seco. A biomassa bacteriana variou de 123 µg C L-1 a 269 µg C L-1 entre os locais de coleta e o volume celular médio de 0,12µm³ a 0,54µm³, ocorrendo predominância de bacilos. A temperatura mostrou correlação positiva com o volume celular de bacilos (R=0,55; p=0,02 e de vibriões (R=0,53; p=0,03. Foram encontradas diferenças espaciais significativas de biomassa (Mann Whitney: p=0,01 e volume celular dos morfotipos (Mann Whitney: p= 0,003, entre os locais de coleta. As fortes correlações positivas da temperatura da água e do oxigênio, com o bacterioplâncton, são sugestivas de uma provavelmente elevada atividade

  19. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  20. Five Big Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  1. Microsoft big data solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,

  2. Big data computing

    CERN Document Server

    Akerkar, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Due to market forces and technological evolution, Big Data computing is developing at an increasing rate. A wide variety of novel approaches and tools have emerged to tackle the challenges of Big Data, creating both more opportunities and more challenges for students and professionals in the field of data computation and analysis. Presenting a mix of industry cases and theory, Big Data Computing discusses the technical and practical issues related to Big Data in intelligent information management. Emphasizing the adoption and diffusion of Big Data tools and technologies in industry, the book i

  3. Mining "big data" using big data services

    OpenAIRE

    Reips, UD; Matzat, U Uwe

    2014-01-01

    While many colleagues within science are fed up with the “big data fad”, empirical analyses we conducted for the current editorial actually show an inconsistent picture: we use big data services to determine whether there really is an increase in writing about big data or even widespread use of the term. Google Correlate (http://www.google.com/trends/correlate/), the first free tool we are presenting here, doesn’t list the term, showing that number of searches for it are below an absolute min...

  4. From Big Crunch to Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Justin; Ovrut, Burt A.; Seiberg, Nathan; Steinhardt, Paul J.(Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA); Turok, Neil

    2001-01-01

    We consider conditions under which a universe contracting towards a big crunch can make a transition to an expanding big bang universe. A promising example is 11-dimensional M-theory in which the eleventh dimension collapses, bounces, and re-expands. At the bounce, the model can reduce to a weakly coupled heterotic string theory and, we conjecture, it may be possible to follow the transition from contraction to expansion. The possibility opens the door to new classes of cosmological models. F...

  5. Temporal Patterns in Bacterioplankton Community Composition in Three Reservoirs of Similar Trophic Status in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiancheng; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Jun; Lei, Anping; Hu, Zhangli

    2016-01-01

    The bacterioplankton community composition’s (BCC) spatial and temporal variation patterns in three reservoirs (Shiyan, Xikeng, and LuoTian Reservoir) of similar trophic status in Bao’an District, Shenzhen (China), were investigated using PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA gene and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. Water samples were collected monthly in each reservoir during 12 consecutive months. Distinct differences were detected in band number, pattern, and density of DGGE at different sampling sites and time points. Analysis of the DGGE fingerprints showed that changes in the bacterial community structure mainly varied with seasons, and the patterns of change indicated that seasonal forces might have a more significant impact on the BCC than eutrophic status in the reservoirs, despite the similar Shannon-Weiner index among the three reservoirs. The sequences obtained from excised bands were affiliated with Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria. PMID:27322295

  6. Big fundamental groups: generalizing homotopy and big homotopy

    OpenAIRE

    Penrod, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The concept of big homotopy theory was introduced by J. Cannon and G. Conner using big intervals of arbitrarily large cardinality to detect big loops. We find, for each space, a canonical cardinal that is sufficient to detect all big loops and all big homotopies in the space.

  7. ANALYSIS OF BIG DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Sharma; Preeti Gulia

    2014-01-01

    Big Data is data that either is too large, grows too fast, or does not fit into traditional architectures. Within such data can be valuable information that can be discovered through data analysis [1]. Big data is a collection of complex and large data sets that are difficult to process and mine for patterns and knowledge using traditional database management tools or data processing and mining systems. Big Data is data whose scale, diversity and complexity require new architecture, technique...

  8. Matrix Big Brunch

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.; Ward, J.

    2007-01-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...

  9. The big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the 'Big Bang' theory of the creation of the Universe 15 thousand million years ago, and traces events which physicists predict occurred soon after the creation. Unified theory of the moment of creation, evidence of an expanding Universe, the X-boson -the particle produced very soon after the big bang and which vanished from the Universe one-hundredth of a second after the big bang, and the fate of the Universe, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Summary big data

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of Cukier the book: "Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How we Live, Work, and Think" by Viktor Mayer-Schonberg and Kenneth. Summary of the ideas in Viktor Mayer-Schonberg's and Kenneth Cukier's book: " Big Data " explains that big data is where we use huge quantities of data to make better predictions based on the fact we identify patters in the data rather than trying to understand the underlying causes in more detail. This summary highlights that big data will be a source of new economic value and innovation in the future. Moreover, it shows that it will

  11. Attached and Free-Floating Bacterioplankton in Howe Sound, British Columbia, a Coastal Marine Fjord-Embayment

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, L. J.; McCrae, S. K.; May, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    Factors which influence the attachment of bacterioplankton to particles (including phytoplankton) were investigated by using (i) water samples removed from a coastal temperate fjord over an annual cycle and (ii) unialgal cultures of Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and Skeletonema costatum. Silt and salinity levels in this fjord seawater did not appear to influence bacterial attachment, but the percent attached bacteria was inversely related to both chlorophyll a concentrations a...

  12. Analysis of composition and structure of coastal to mesopelagic bacterioplankton communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    GaryMKing; BradleyTolar

    2013-01-01

    16S rRNA gene amplicons were pyrosequenced to assess bacterioplankton community composition, diversity and phylogenetic community structure for 17 stations in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) sampled in March 2010. Statistical analyses showed that samples from depths ≤ 100 m differed distinctly from deeper samples. SAR 11 α-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated communities at depths ≤ 100 m, which were characterized by high α-Proteobacteria/γ-Proteobacteria ratios (α/γ > 1.7). Th...

  13. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory

  14. Bliver big data til big business?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge.......Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge....

  15. Big Ideas in Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how she was able to discover some big ideas about art education. She relates how she found great ideas to improve her teaching from the book "Rethinking Curriculum in Art." She also shares how she designed a "Big Idea" unit in her class.

  16. Big data for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled. PMID:26173222

  17. Submerged macrophytes shape the abundance and diversity of bacterial denitrifiers in bacterioplankton and epiphyton in the Shallow Fresh Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhou; Han, Rui-Ming; Ma, Jie; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    nirK and nirS genes are important functional genes involved in the denitrification pathway. Recent studies about these two denitrifying genes are focusing on sediment and wastewater microbe. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of the abundance and diversity of denitrifiers in the epiphyton of submerged macrophytes Potamogeton malaianus and Ceratophyllum demersum as well as in bacterioplankton in the shallow fresh lake Taihu, China. Results showed that nirK and nirS genes had significant different niches in epiphyton and bacterioplankton. Bacterioplankton showed greater abundance of nirK gene in terms of copy numbers and lower abundance of nirS gene. Significant difference in the abundance of nirK and nirS genes also existed between the epiphyton from different submerged macrophytes. Similar community diversity yet different community abundance was observed between epiphytic bacteria and bacterioplankton. No apparent seasonal variation was found either in epiphytic bacteria or bacterioplankton; however, environmental parameters seemed to have direct relevancy with nirK and nirS genes. Our study suggested that submerged macrophytes have greater influence than seasonal parameters in shaping the presence and abundance of bacterial denitrifiers. Further investigation needs to focus on the potential contact and relative contribution between denitrifiers and environmental factors. PMID:27048324

  18. Big Data, Big Knowledge: Big Data for Personalized Healthcare.

    OpenAIRE

    Viceconti, M.; Hunter, P.; Hose, R.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine soluti...

  19. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority. PMID:26218867

  20. BigDog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  1. Big Data in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  2. Big data a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Prachet; Chenthati, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of chapters written by experts on various aspects of big data. The book aims to explain what big data is and how it is stored and used. The book starts from  the fundamentals and builds up from there. It is intended to serve as a review of the state-of-the-practice in the field of big data handling. The traditional framework of relational databases can no longer provide appropriate solutions for handling big data and making it available and useful to users scattered around the globe. The study of big data covers a wide range of issues including management of heterogeneous data, big data frameworks, change management, finding patterns in data usage and evolution, data as a service, service-generated data, service management, privacy and security. All of these aspects are touched upon in this book. It also discusses big data applications in different domains. The book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing database and networking engineers.

  3. Recht voor big data, big data voor recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafarre, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is een niet meer weg te denken fenomeen in onze maatschappij. Het is de hype cycle voorbij en de eerste implementaties van big data-technieken worden uitgevoerd. Maar wat is nu precies big data? Wat houden de vijf V's in die vaak genoemd worden in relatie tot big data? Ter inleiding van dez

  4. Assessing Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, big data has been one of the most controversially discussed technologies in terms of its possible positive and negative impact. Therefore, the need for technology assessments is obvious. This paper first provides, based on the results of a technology assessment study, an overview...... of the potential and challenges associated with big data and then describes the problems experienced during the study as well as methods found helpful to address them. The paper concludes with reflections on how the insights from the technology assessment study may have an impact on the future governance of big...... data....

  5. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precision of measurements in modern cosmology has made huge strides in recent years, with measurements of the cosmic microwave background and the determination of the Hubble constant now rivaling the level of precision of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis. However, these results are not necessarily consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model of big bang nucleosynthesis. Reconciling these discrepancies may require extensions of the basic tenets of the model, and possibly of the reaction rates that determine the big bang abundances

  6. Big data for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kaufman, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Find the right big data solution for your business or organization Big data management is one of the major challenges facing business, industry, and not-for-profit organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather patterns monitored by meteorologists, or social network activity can quickly outpace the capacity of traditional data management tools. If you need to develop or manage big data solutions, you'll appreciate how these four experts define, explain, and guide you through this new and often confusing concept. You'll learn what it is, why it m

  7. The source of the river as a nursery for microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Valter; Margis, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are highly diverse and ubiquitous organisms that play a key role as drivers for ecosystem processes. The application of NGS (next-generation sequencing technologies) for 16S analysis has been broadly used for understanding bacterioplankton composition and structure. Most of studies conducted on aquatic ecosystems with 16S NGS have been in seawater and lakes. A few studies using NGS have been conducted in river environments and have suggested the presence of a bacterial seed-bank. We performed 16S highly variable V4 region high-throughput analysis in the Sinos River, which is located in one of most important Brazilian industrial centers. This region has several contrasts in its environmental characteristics, presenting a longitudinal gradient of eutrophication and making it a remarkable study site for observing the dynamics of bacterioplankton. We demonstrated consistent evidence for the existence of a bacterial seed-bank and its longitudinal persistence. Seasonal shifts reinforce the importance of the source of the river in maintaining the bacterial seed-bank that spreads throughout the river. Therefore, the preservation of the source of the river is important not only for hydrologic reasons but also to maintain the microbial composition and the ecological integrity of the river. PMID:25803426

  8. The Big Bang Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  9. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-01

    The volume and variety of data being generated using computersis doubling every two years. It is estimated that in 2015,8 Zettabytes (Zetta=1021) were generated which consistedmostly of unstructured data such as emails, blogs, Twitter,Facebook posts, images, and videos. This is called big data. Itis possible to analyse such huge data collections with clustersof thousands of inexpensive computers to discover patterns inthe data that have many applications. But analysing massiveamounts of data available in the Internet has the potential ofimpinging on our privacy. Inappropriate analysis of big datacan lead to misleading conclusions. In this article, we explainwhat is big data, how it is analysed, and give some case studiesillustrating the potentials and pitfalls of big data analytics.

  10. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    ’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  11. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along...

  12. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities and bacterioplankton in Indonesian Marine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel F R; Becking, Leontine E; Polónia, Ana R M; Freitas, Rossana M; Gomes, Newton C M

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we compared communities of bacteria in two jellyfish species (the 'golden' jellyfishMastigiascf.papuaand the box jellyfishTripedaliacf.cystophora) and water in three marine lakes located in the Berau region of northeastern Borneo, Indonesia. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities were compositionally distinct and less diverse than bacterioplankton communities. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Synechococcophycidae and Flavobacteriia were the most abundant classes in water. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities were dominated by OTUs assigned to the Gammaproteobacteria (family Endozoicimonaceae), Mollicutes, Spirochaetes and Alphaproteobacteria (orders Kiloniellales and Rhodobacterales). Mollicutes were mainly restricted toMastigiaswhereas Spirochaetes and the order Kiloniellales were most abundant inTripedaliahosts. The most abundant OTU overall in jellyfish hosts was assigned to the family Endozoicimonaceae and was highly similar to organisms in Genbank obtained from various hosts including an octocoral, bivalve and fish species. Other abundant OTUs included an OTU assigned to the order Entomoplasmatales and mainly found inMastigiashosts and OTUs assigned to the Spirochaetes and order Kiloniellales and mainly found inTripedaliahosts. The low sequence similarity of the Entomoplasmatales OTU to sequences in Genbank suggests that it may be a novel lineage inhabitingMastigiasand possibly restricted to marine lakes. PMID:27004797

  13. Inorganic phosphorus stimulation of bacterioplankton production in a meso-eutrophic lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether production of heterotrophic bacterioplankton in a small meso-eutrophic lake was influenced by the dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) supply. DIP may indirectly limit bacterial production by limiting phytoplankton, which in turn may limit the carbon available to bacteria. Direct DIP limitation of bacteria occurs where the availability of DIP for bacteria is insufficient to maintain growth. This work examined direct DIP limitation of bacteria by removing phytoplankton and incubating flasks with or without added P in the dark. Bacterial production was measured via the rate of incorporation of [3H]thymidine ([3H]TdR) into DNA. Bacterial abundance was followed with epifluorescent direct counts. Rates of [3H]TdR incorporation were significantly greater in flasks with added DIP, and changes in cell abundances generally paralleled increases in [3H]TdR incorporation. Even very small additions of P (0.05 μM) were sufficient to stimulate production. DIP addition to whole lakewater also stimulated [3H]TdR incorporation relative to that in zero-addition controls, but there was not a concurrent increase in bacterial cell numbers. The stimulation of [3H]TdR incorporation after DIP addition to whole lakewater was significantly less than the stimulation due to DIP addition to 1-μm-pore-size-filtered lakewater. In this study, addition of DIP causes as much as an eightfold stimulation of [3H]TdR incorporation

  14. Tips and tricks for high quality MAR-FISH preparations: focus on bacterioplankton analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    The combination of microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) is a powerful technique for tracking the incorporation of radiolabelled compounds by specific bacterial populations at a single cell resolution. It has been widely applied in aquatic microbial ecology as a tool to unveil key ecophysiological features, shedding light on relevant ecological issues such as bacterial biomass production, the role of different bacterioplankton groups in the global carbon and sulphur cycle, and, at the same time, providing insights into the life styles and niche differentiation of cosmopolitan members of the aquatic microbial communities. Despite its great potential, its application has remained restricted to a few laboratories around the world, in part due to its reputation as a "difficult technique". Therefore, the objective of this minireview is to highlight the impact of MAR-FISH application on aquatic microbial ecology, and also to provide basic concepts, as well as practical tips, for processing MAR-FISH preparations, thus aiming to contribute to a more widespread application of this powerful method. PMID:22502862

  15. The hidden seasonality of the rare biosphere in coastal marine bacterioplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura

    2015-04-08

    Summary: Rare microbial taxa are increasingly recognized to play key ecological roles, but knowledge of their spatio-temporal dynamics is lacking. In a time-series study in coastal waters, we detected 83 bacterial lineages with significant seasonality, including environmentally relevant taxa where little ecological information was available. For example, Verrucomicrobia had recurrent maxima in summer, while the Flavobacteria NS4, NS5 and NS2b clades had contrasting seasonal niches. Among the seasonal taxa, only 4 were abundant and persistent, 20 cycled between rare and abundant and, remarkably, most of them (59) were always rare (contributing <1% of total reads). We thus demonstrate that seasonal patterns in marine bacterioplankton are largely driven by lineages that never sustain abundant populations. A fewer number of rare taxa (20) also produced episodic \\'blooms\\', and these events were highly synchronized, mostly occurring on a single month. The recurrent seasonal growth and loss of rare bacteria opens new perspectives on the temporal dynamics of the rare biosphere, hitherto mainly characterized by dormancy and episodes of \\'boom and bust\\', as envisioned by the seed-bank hypothesis. The predictable patterns of seasonal reoccurrence are relevant for understanding the ecology of rare bacteria, which may include key players for the functioning of marine ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Diversity of bacterioplankton in the surface seawaters of Drake Passage near the Chinese Antarctic station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengxin; Li, Zhao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Mi

    2015-07-01

    The determination of relative abundances and distribution of different bacterial groups is a critical step toward understanding the functions of various bacteria and its surrounding environment. Few studies focus on the taxonomic composition and functional diversity of microbial communities in Drake Passage. In this study, marine bacterioplankton communities from surface seawaters at five locations in Drake Passage were examined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The results indicated that psychrophilic bacteria were the most abundant group in Drake Passage, and mainly made up of Bacillus, Aeromonas, Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas and Halomonas. Diversity analysis showed that surface seawater communities had no significant correlation with latitudinal gradient. Additionally, a clear difference among five surface seawater communities was evident, with 1.8% OTUs (only two) belonged to Bacillus consistent across five locations and 71% OTUs (80) existed in only one location. However, the few cosmopolitans had the largest population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that the dominant bacterial groups appear to be analogous between geographical sites, but significant differences may be detected among rare bacterial groups. The microbial diversity of surface seawaters would be liable to be affected by environmental factors. PMID:26184094

  17. Linking the patterns of change in composition and function in bacterioplankton successions along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jérôme; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    The connections that exist between the composition of bacterial communities and their functional attributes are still a matter of intense debate, despite over a decade of intense studies. Here we explored three different facets of the links that may exist between bacterioplankton compositional and functional successions that occurred along the water flow path in a complex watershed in southern Quebec. We analyzed the correlation between composition and function in terms of their absolute patterns, and in terms of their rates of change relative to transit time in environmental transitions, and relative to shifts in resources along the same transitions. Our results showed that the absolute patterns in bacterial community composition (BCC, using DGGE [denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis] profiles) and functional capacities (FC, using BIOLOG profiles) were not correlated, but that the rates of change in BCC and FC along the transitions were strongly correlated to each other. Further, we observed that the strength and shape of the relationship between the changes in BCC and FC varied relative to the type and intensity of gradient considered. Collectively, these results showed that BCC and FC are strongly related but in a very dynamic manner, such that their absolute patterns do not appear to be connected. This in turn suggests a high level of functional redundancy that occurs both within the existing community and in the meta-community from which phylotypes are selected to occupy the new niches that are created along the transitions. PMID:20503878

  18. Big data opportunities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This ebook aims to give practical guidance for all those who want to understand big data better and learn how to make the most of it. Topics range from big data analysis, mobile big data and managing unstructured data to technologies, governance and intellectual property and security issues surrounding big data.

  19. Low Taxon Richness of Bacterioplankton in High-Altitude Lakes of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau, with a Predominance of Bacteroidetes and Synechococcus spp.▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Peng; Hahn, Martin W.; Wu, Qinglong L.

    2009-01-01

    Plankton samples were collected from six remote freshwater and saline lakes located at altitudes of 3,204 to 4,718 m and 1,000 km apart within an area of ca. 1 million km2 on the eastern Tibetan Plateau to comparatively assess how environmental factors influence the diversity of bacterial communities in high-altitude lakes. The composition of the bacterioplankton was investigated by analysis of large clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes. Comparison of bacterioplankton diversities estimated for t...

  20. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    OpenAIRE

    Riebesell, U.; Engel, A.; K. G. Schulz; Sperling, M.; C. Borchard; J. Piontek

    2012-01-01

    The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A pCO2 range of 175–1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). The bacterioplankton communities responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing ...

  1. Sharing big biomedical data

    OpenAIRE

    Toga, Arthur W.; Dinov, Ivo D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Findings Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent data...

  2. Testing Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Steigman, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), along with the cosmic background radiation and the Hubble expansion, is one of the pillars ofthe standard, hot, big bang cosmology since the primordial synthesis of the light nuclides (D, $^3$He, $^4$He, $^7$Li) must have occurred during the early evolution of a universe described by this model. The overall consistency between the predicted and observed abundances of the light nuclides, each of which spans a range of some nine orders of magnitude, provides impr...

  3. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  4. Big Bang baryosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures I briefly review Big Bang baryosynthesis. In the first lecture I discuss the evidence which exists for the BAU, the failure of non-GUT symmetrical cosmologies, the qualitative picture of baryosynthesis, and numerical results of detailed baryosynthesis calculations. In the second lecture I discuss the requisite CP violation in some detail, further the statistical mechanics of baryosynthesis, possible complications to the simplest scenario, and one cosmological implication of Big Bang baryosynthesis. (orig./HSI)

  5. Conociendo Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Camargo-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la importancia que ha adquirido el término Big Data, la presente investigación buscó estudiar y analizar de manera exhaustiva el estado del arte del Big Data; además, y como segundo objetivo, analizó las características, las herramientas, las tecnologías, los modelos y los estándares relacionados con Big Data, y por último buscó identificar las características más relevantes en la gestión de Big Data, para que con ello se pueda conocer todo lo concerniente al tema central de la investigación.La metodología utilizada incluyó revisar el estado del arte de Big Data y enseñar su situación actual; conocer las tecnologías de Big Data; presentar algunas de las bases de datos NoSQL, que son las que permiten procesar datos con formatos no estructurados, y mostrar los modelos de datos y las tecnologías de análisis de ellos, para terminar con algunos beneficios de Big Data.El diseño metodológico usado para la investigación fue no experimental, pues no se manipulan variables, y de tipo exploratorio, debido a que con esta investigación se empieza a conocer el ambiente del Big Data.

  6. One Big Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Ran-Rsarl River Delta is strivingto build the area into a strong engine of China’s development If one compares China’s territory to a rooster,then the Pan-Pearl River Delta would be the bird’s belly.The Pan-Pearl River Delta covers

  7. Maximum growth rates and possible life strategies of different bacterioplankton groups in relation to phosphorus availability in a freshwater reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Horňák, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Nedoma, Jiří; Vrba, Jaroslav; Straškrábová, Viera; Macek, Miroslav; Dolan, J. R.; Hahn, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2006), s. 1613-1624. ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Grant ostatní: MŠM(CZ) 60076658/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : bacterioplankton community composition * growth of bacteria and flagellates * phosphorus availability * reservoir * top-down and bottom-up control Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.630, year: 2006

  8. The diversity of the Limnohabitans genus, an important group of freshwater bacterioplankton, by characterization of 35 isolated strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasalický, Vojtěch; Jezbera, Jan; Hahn, M.W.; Šimek, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2013), e58209. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0015; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/10/0566; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB060702; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB060901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bacterial microdiversity * aquatic * Limnohabitans * freshwater * bacterioplankton Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  9. Virginia Tech students give community a big thank you

    OpenAIRE

    Lazenby, Jenna

    2006-01-01

    On Saturday, April 1, more than 2,300 Virginia Tech students will fan out in the New River Valley to participate in the Big Event, a campus-wide day of service in which students say "Thank you" to the surrounding community for hosting the university.

  10. Bacterioplankton Biogeography of the Atlantic Ocean: A Case Study of the Distance-Decay Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Mathias; Tomasch, Jürgen; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L.; Decelle, Johan; Jáuregui, Ruy; Wang, Hui; Deng, Zhi-Luo; Plumeier, Iris; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Badewien, Thomas H.; Wurst, Mascha; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Simon, Meinhard; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of geographical distance, depth, and Longhurstian province on bacterial community composition and compare it with the composition of photosynthetic micro-eukaryote communities, 382 samples from a depth-resolved latitudinal transect (51°S–47°N) from the epipelagic zone of the Atlantic ocean were analyzed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. In the upper 100 m of the ocean, community similarity decreased toward the equator for 6000 km, but subsequently increased again, reaching similarity values of 40–60% for samples that were separated by ~12,000 km, resulting in a U-shaped distance-decay curve. We conclude that adaptation to local conditions can override the linear distance-decay relationship in the upper epipelagial of the Atlantic Ocean which is apparently not restrained by barriers to dispersal, since the same taxa were shared between the most distant communities. The six Longhurstian provinces covered by the transect were comprised of distinct microbial communities; ~30% of variation in community composition could be explained by province. Bacterial communities belonging to the deeper layer of the epipelagic zone (140–200 m) lacked a distance-decay relationship altogether and showed little provincialism. Interestingly, those biogeographical patterns were consistently found for bacteria from three different size fractions of the plankton with different taxonomic composition, indicating conserved underlying mechanisms. Analysis of the chloroplast 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that phytoplankton composition was strongly correlated with both free-living and particle associated bacterial community composition (R between 0.51 and 0.62, p < 0.002). The data show that biogeographical patterns commonly found in macroecology do not hold for marine bacterioplankton, most likely because dispersal and evolution occur at drastically different rates in bacteria. PMID:27199923

  11. Alkane Hydroxylase Gene (alkB Phylotype Composition and Diversity in Northern Gulf of Mexico Bacterioplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Blake Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic activities introduce alkanes into marine systems where they are degraded by alkane hydroxylases expressed by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Partial sequences for alkB, one of the structural genes of alkane hydroxylase, have been used to assess the composition of alkane-degrading communities, and to determine their responses to hydrocarbon inputs. We present here the first spatially extensive analysis of alkB in bacterioplankton of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM, a region that experiences numerous hydrocarbon inputs. We have analyzed 401 partial alkB gene sequences amplified from genomic extracts collected during March 2010 from 17 water column samples that included surface waters and bathypelagic depths. Previous analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences for these and related samples have shown that nGoM bacterial community composition and structure stratify strongly with depth, with distinctly different communities above and below 100 m. Although we hypothesized that alkB gene sequences would exhibit a similar pattern, PCA analyses of operational protein units (OPU indicated that community composition did not vary consistently with depth or other major physical-chemical variables. We observed 22 distinct OPUs, one of which was ubiquitous and accounted for 57% of all sequences. This OPU clustered with alkB sequences from known hydrocarbon oxidizers (e.g., Alcanivorax and Marinobacter. Some OPUs could not be associated with known alkane degraders, however, and perhaps represent novel hydrocarbon-oxidizing populations or genes. These results indicate that the capacity for alkane hydrolysis occurs widely in the nGoM, but that alkane degrader diversity varies substantially among sites and responds differently than bulk communities to physical-chemical variables.

  12. Phytoplankton relationship with bacterioplankton, dissolved carbohydrates and water characteristics in a subtropical coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo S. Guimarães

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Release of carbohydrates by phytoplankton enhances microbial diversity, promoting associations between algae and heterotrophic organisms. Thus, this work aimed to characterise the dissolved carbohydrates at a Brazilian subtropical coastal lagoon (Merin lagoon, in addition to determining their relationships with environmental parameters and phyto/bacterioplankton communities over one year. We analysed the relationships among physical, chemical and biological parameters by a principal component analysis (PCA after normalisation of data as z scores. Chlorophyceae showed the highest richness, although Bacillariophyceae and Cyanophyceae showed the highest densities. These classes are essentially represented by centric diatoms (Aulacoseira cf. muzzanensis and filamentous cyanobacteria (Planktolyngbya limnetica and Planktolyngbya cf. contorta. Merin lagoon showed a strong seasonal behaviour for most of parameters and phytoplanktonic density was mainly correlated with temperature, specific conductance, phosphate and total bright sunshine duration. Only combined dissolved carbohydrates (CDCHOs were found and their main components were glucose (31.6%, mannose/xylose (20.6%, ribose (13.9%, arabinose (8.9% and galacturonic acid (8.1%. The CDCHO amounts were higher in November, March-April and September and the December/January and July/August periods showed lower ones. Ribose was first detected only in the warm months and it gradually decreased with bacterial density. The carbohydrate concentration was coupled to phytoplanktonic density, except in December and January, when the bacterial density was increased. These results supported the significance of dissolved carbohydrates in associations with algae and bacteria in the freshwater planktonic environment. Our data reinforced the influence of phytoplankton community on the natural dissolved carbohydrate pool, besides the significance of such carbon source on the bacterial community dynamic.

  13. Determining indicator taxa across spatial and seasonal gradients in the Columbia River coastal margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Eiler, Alexander; Herfort, Lydie; Needoba, Joseph A; Peterson, Tawnya D; Crump, Byron C

    2013-10-01

    Bacterioplankton communities are deeply diverse and highly variable across space and time, but several recent studies demonstrate repeatable and predictable patterns in this diversity. We expanded on previous studies by determining patterns of variability in both individual taxa and bacterial communities across coastal environmental gradients. We surveyed bacterioplankton diversity across the Columbia River coastal margin, USA, using amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 596 water samples collected from 2007 to 2010. Our results showed seasonal shifts and annual reassembly of bacterioplankton communities in the freshwater-influenced Columbia River, estuary, and plume, and identified indicator taxa, including species from freshwater SAR11, Oceanospirillales, and Flavobacteria groups, that characterize the changing seasonal conditions in these environments. In the river and estuary, Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria indicator taxa correlated strongly with seasonal fluctuations in particulate organic carbon (ρ=-0.664) and residence time (ρ=0.512), respectively. In contrast, seasonal change in communities was not detected in the coastal ocean and varied more with the spatial variability of environmental factors including temperature and dissolved oxygen. Indicator taxa of coastal ocean environments included SAR406 and SUP05 taxa from the deep ocean, and Prochlorococcus and SAR11 taxa from the upper water column. We found that in the Columbia River coastal margin, freshwater-influenced environments were consistent and predictable, whereas coastal ocean community variability was difficult to interpret due to complex physical conditions. This study moves beyond beta-diversity patterns to focus on the occurrence of specific taxa and lends insight into the potential ecological roles these taxa have in coastal ocean environments. PMID:23719153

  14. Big Data Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on key issues of our paper New games, new rules: big data and the changing context of strategy as a means of addressing some of the concerns raised by the paper’s commentators. We initially deal with the issue of social data and the role it plays in the current data revolution....... The massive involvement of lay publics as instrumented by social media breaks with the strong expert cultures that have underlain the production and use of data in modern organizations. It also sets apart the interactive and communicative processes by which social data is produced from sensor data...... and the technological recording of facts. We further discuss the significance of the very mechanisms by which big data is produced as distinct from the very attributes of big data, often discussed in the literature. In the final section of the paper, we qualify the alleged importance of algorithms and claim...

  15. Big Data and Peacebuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Hattotuwa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Any peace process is an exercise in the negotiation of big data. From centuries old communal hagiography to the reams of official texts, media coverage and social media updates, peace negotiations generate data. Peacebuilding and peacekeeping today are informed by, often respond and contribute to big data. This is no easy task. As recently as a few years ago, before the term big data embraced the virtual on the web, what informed peace process design and implementation was in the physical domain – from contested borders and resources to background information in the form of text. The move from analogue, face-to-face negotiations to online, asynchronous, web-mediated negotiations – which can still include real world meetings – has profound implications for how peace is strengthened in fragile democracies.

  16. Big data in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science. PMID:24183925

  17. Primordial Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Keith A.

    1999-01-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is the theory of the production of the the light element isotopes of D, He3, He4, and Li7. After a brief review of the essential elements of the standard Big Bang model at a temperature of about 1 MeV, the theoretical input and predictions of BBN are discussed. The theory is tested by the observational determinations of the light element abundances and the current status of these observations is reviewed. Concordance of standard model and the related observations is f...

  18. Networks & big data

    OpenAIRE

    Litvak, Nelly; Meulen, van der, P.

    2015-01-01

    Once a year, the NWO cluster Stochastics – Theoretical and Applied Research (STAR) organises a STAR Outreach Day, a one-day event around a theme that is of a broad interest to the stochastics community in the Netherlands. The last Outreach Day took place at Eurandom on 12 December 2014. The theme of the day was ‘Networks & Big Data’. The topic is very timely. The Vision document 2025 of the PlatformWiskunde Nederland (PWN) mentions big data as one of the six “major societal and scientific tre...

  19. Seasonality in molecular and cytometric diversity of marine bacterioplankton: the reshuffling of bacterial taxa by vertical mixing

    KAUST Repository

    García, Francisca C.

    2015-07-17

    The ’cytometric diversity’ of phytoplankton communities has been studied based on single-cell properties, but the applicability of this method to characterize bacterioplankton has been unexplored. Here, we analysed seasonal changes in cytometric diversity of marine bacterioplankton along a decadal time-series at three coastal stations in the Southern Bay of Biscay. Shannon-Weaver diversity estimates and Bray-Curtis similarities obtained by cytometric and molecular (16S rRNA tag sequencing) methods were significantly correlated in samples from a 3.5-year monthly time-series. Both methods showed a consistent cyclical pattern in the diversity of surface bacterial communities with maximal values in winter. The analysis of the highly resolved flow cytometry time-series across the vertical profile showed that water column mixing was a key factor explaining the seasonal changes in bacterial composition and the winter increase in bacterial diversity in coastal surface waters. Due to its low cost and short processing time as compared to genetic methods, the cytometric diversity approach represents a useful complementary tool in the macroecology of aquatic microbes.

  20. Bacterioplankton communities of Crater Lake, OR: Dynamic changes with euphotic zone food web structure and stable deep water populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, E.; Vergin, K.L.; Larson, G.L.; Giovannoni, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of bacterial and archaeal species in Crater Lake plankton varies dramatically over depth and with time, as assessed by hybridization of group-specific oligonucleotides to RNA extracted from lakewater. Nonmetric, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of relative bacterial phylotype densities revealed complex relationships among assemblages sampled from depth profiles in July, August and September of 1997 through 1999. CL500-11 green nonsulfur bacteria (Phylum Chloroflexi) and marine Group I crenarchaeota are consistently dominant groups in the oxygenated deep waters at 300 and 500 m. Other phylotypes found in the deep waters are similar to surface and mid-depth populations and vary with time. Euphotic zone assemblages are dominated either by ??-proteobacteria or CL120-10 verrucomicrobia, and ACK4 actinomycetes. MDS analyses of euphotic zone populations in relation to environmental variables and phytoplankton and zooplankton population structures reveal apparent links between Daphnia pulicaria zooplankton population densities and microbial community structure. These patterns may reflect food web interactions that link kokanee salmon population densities to community structure of the bacterioplankton, via fish predation on Daphnia with cascading consequences to Daphnia bacterivory and predation on bacterivorous protists. These results demonstrate a stable bottom-water microbial community. They also extend previous observations of food web-driven changes in euphotic zone bacterioplankton community structure to an oligotrophic setting. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Community differentiation and population enrichment of Sargasso Sea bacterioplankton in the euphotic zone of a mesoscale mode-water eddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig E; Carlson, Craig A; Ewart, Courtney S; Halewood, Elisa R

    2014-03-01

    Eddies are mesoscale oceanographic features (∼ 200 km diameter) that can cause transient blooms of phytoplankton by shifting density isoclines in relation to light and nutrient resources. To better understand how bacterioplankton respond to eddies, we examined depth-resolved distributions of bacterial populations across an anticyclonic mode-water eddy in the Sargasso Sea. Previous work on this eddy has documented elevated phytoplankton productivity and diatom abundance within the eddy centre with coincident bacterial productivity and biomass maxima. We illustrate bacterial community shifts within the eddy centre, differentiating populations uplifted along isopycnals from those enriched or depleted at horizons of enhanced bacterial and primary productivity. Phylotypes belonging to the Roseobacter, OCS116 and marine Actinobacteria clades were enriched in the eddy core and were highly correlated with pigment-based indicators of diatom abundance, supporting developing hypotheses that members of these clades associate with phytoplankton blooms. Typical mesopelagic clades (SAR202, SAR324, SAR406 and SAR11 IIb) were uplifted within the eddy centre, increasing bacterial diversity in the lower euphotic zone. Typical surface oligotrophic clades (SAR116, OM75, Prochlorococcus and SAR11 Ia) were relatively depleted in the eddy centre. The biogeochemical context of a bloom-inducing eddy provides insight into the ecology of the diverse uncultured bacterioplankton dominating the oligotrophic oceans. PMID:24589288

  2. A between-river comparison of extracellular-enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, K R; Goulder, R

    1995-01-01

    River-water extracellular-enzyme activity in the lowland Rivers Ouse and Derwent, northeast England, had much in common. In both rivers, the mean enzyme activities over 15 months differed in the following order: leucine aminopeptidase > phosphatase > β-D-glucosidase > β-D-galactosi-idase and β-D-xylosidase. None of the five enzymes assayed had significant between-river difference in activity, and there was significant between-river correlation of β-D-glucosidase, phosphatase, and leucine-aminopeptidase activity. The common enzyme regimes were probably more due to between-river similarity of planktonic microbiota than to similar physico-chemical conditions. The potential for glucose uptake by bacterioplankton closely followed β-D-glucosidase activity in magnitude and periodicity. The potential for leucine uptake, however, was much less than leucine-aminopeptidase activity; hence rate of leucine release probably did not limit leucine uptake. There was an appreciable and highly variable proportion of free (river water; ranges were β-D-glucosidase 10-30%, phosphatase 53% to apparently 104%, and leucine aminopeptidase 22-98%. These free enzymes did not necessarily originate from planktonic microbiota and may explain the fairly loose coupling between whole-water enzyme activity and microbial variables. Marked downstream increase in enzyme activity, along about 104 km of the River Derwent, was found on only one of three sampling days; hence the single site used for regular sampling was reasonably representative of most of the river. PMID:24186635

  3. Implications of Historic River Channel Modifications on Contemporary Restoration Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    Identifying contemporary river management and restoration opportunities relies on understanding how river ecosystems respond to historic forcing from natural events and human impacts. Over the past 70 years, the Big Wood River in central Idaho, USA, has experienced significant engineered channel modifications and realignment, as well as natural changes in channel location and riverbank instability. Understanding the effects of these historic conditions on contemporary river characteristics and processes was needed to inform river management and restoration planning. A geomorphic assessment along 16 km of the Big Wood River was completed in order to understand the physical characteristics and processes upstream, within, and downstream of a 3 km long project reach. This evaluation included analysis of the longitudinal profile, planform pattern, cross-section dimensions, cross-section hydraulics, riverbed and riverbank materials, sediment transport conditions, and large roughness elements such as boulders and large wood material. As a result of residential and highway encroachment along the river corridor, river channel modifications (bank revetments, grade-control drop structures, training channels, sediment traps) have been implemented in attempts to limit the vertical and lateral channel adjustments that would negatively affect infrastructure along the river corridor. These river channel modifications have interrupted the geomorphic processes of the Big Wood River, and have initiated the need for ongoing maintenance of in-channel structures and new efforts at river restoration. Future river ecosystem response along this reach of the Big Wood River will be constrained as a result of river channel and floodplain modifications throughout the valley.

  4. Big Data ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with sp

  5. Space big book

    CERN Document Server

    Homer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Our Combined resource includes all necessary areas of Space for grades five to eight. Get the big picture about the Solar System, Galaxies and the Universe as your students become fascinated by the interesting information about the Sun, Earth, Moon, Comets, Asteroids Meteoroids, Stars and Constellations. Also, thrill your young astronomers as they connect Earth and space cycles with their daily life.

  6. The Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Moods, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    How did the Universe begin? The favoured theory is that everything - space, time, matter - came into existence at the same moment, around 13.7 thousand million years ago. This event was scornfully referred to as the "Big Bang" by Sir Fred Hoyle, who did not believe in it and maintained that the Universe had always existed.

  7. A Big Bang Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  8. Governing Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej J. Zwitter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created every day through pictures, messages, gps-data, etc. "Big Data" is seen simultaneously as the new Philosophers Stone and Pandora's box: a source of great knowledge and power, but equally, the root of serious problems.

  9. The big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event that set the universe in motion. Joseph Silk begins his story with the first microseconds of the big bang, on through the evolution of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, and into the distant future of our universe. He also explores the fascinating evidence for the big bang model and recounts the history of cosmological speculation. Revised and updated, this new edition features all the most recent astronomical advances, including: Photos and measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE), and Infrared Space Observatory; the latest estimates of the age of the universe; new ideas in string and superstring theory; recent experiments on neutrino detection; new theories about the presence of dark matter in galaxies; new developments in the theory of the formation and evolution of galaxies; the latest ideas about black holes, worm holes, quantum foam, and multiple universes.

  10. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  11. Big is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.P.

    2007-06-08

    Although big solar systems are both effective and architecturally pleasing, they are still not widespread in Germany. Recently, politicians reacted by improving funding conditions. In order to prevent planning errors, planners and fitters must be better trained, and standardisation of systems must be enhanced. (orig.)

  12. Big ideas: innovation policy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Reenen, John

    2011-01-01

    In the last CentrePiece, John Van Reenen stressed the importance of competition and labour market flexibility for productivity growth. His latest in CEP's 'big ideas' series describes the impact of research on how policy-makers can influence innovation more directly - through tax credits for business spending on research and development.

  13. Business and Science - Big Data, Big Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Data Science is more than the creation, manipulation, and transformation of data. It is more than Big Data. The business world seems to have a hold on the term 'data science' and, for now, they define what it means. But business is very different than science. In this talk, I address how large datasets, Big Data, and data science are conceptually different in business and science worlds. I focus on the types of questions each realm asks, the data needed, and the consequences of findings. Gone are the days of datasets being created or collected to serve only one purpose or project. The trick with data reuse is to become familiar enough with a dataset to be able to combine it with other data and extract accurate results. As a Data Curator for the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS), my specialty is communication. Our team enables Arctic sciences by ensuring datasets are well documented and can be understood by reusers. Previously, I served as a data community liaison for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Again, my specialty was communicating complex instructions and ideas to a broad audience of data users. Before entering the science world, I was an entrepreneur. I have a bachelor's degree in economics and a master's degree in environmental social science. I am currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Geography. Because my background has embraced both the business and science worlds, I would like to share my perspectives on data, data reuse, data documentation, and the presentation or communication of findings. My experiences show that each can inform and support the other.

  14. Big Data and Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  15. Identifying Dwarfs Workloads in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...

  16. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asst. Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, sentiment analysis, social networking analysis to name a few. Therefore, there are a number of requirements for moving beyond standard data mining technique. Purpose of this paper is to understand various techniques to analysis data.

  17. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, sentiment analysis, social networking analysis to name a few. Therefore, there are a number of requirements for moving beyond standard data mining technique. Purpose of this paper is to understand various techniques to analysis data.

  18. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects......This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... of the international development agenda to algorithms that synthesize large-scale data, (3) novel ways of rationalizing knowledge claims that underlie development policies, and (4) shifts in professional and organizational identities of those concerned with producing and processing data for development. Our discussion...

  19. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Klinkby Madsen, Anders; Rasche, Andreas

    data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects......This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... of international development agendas to algorithms that synthesize large-scale data, (3) novel ways of rationalizing knowledge claims that underlie development efforts, and (4) shifts in professional and organizational identities of those concerned with producing and processing data for development. Our discussion...

  20. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  1. Big Data Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Boiten, Eerke Albert

    2016-01-01

    "Big data" has become a major area of research and associated funding, as well as a focus of utopian thinking. In the still growing research community, one of the favourite optimistic analogies for data processing is that of the oil refinery, extracting the essence out of the raw data. Pessimists look for their imagery to the other end of the petrol cycle, and talk about the "data exhausts" of our society. Obviously, the refinement community knows how to do "refining". This paper explores...

  2. DARPA's Big Mechanism program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul R.

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  3. Canonical Big Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Bertot, Yves; Gonthier, Georges; Ould Biha, Sidi; Pasca, Ioana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to describe uniformly iterated “big” operations and to provide lemmas that encapsulate all the commonly used reasoning steps on these constructs. We show that these iterated operations can be handled generically using the syntactic notation and canonical structure facilities provided by the Coq system. We then show how these canonical big operations played a crucial enabling role in the study of various parts of linear algebra and multi-dimensional real a...

  4. Big Bang 6

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 6 RG behandelt die Gravitation, Schwingungen und Wellen, Thermodynamik und eine Einführung in die Elektrizität anhand von Alltagsbeispielen und Querverbindungen zu anderen Disziplinen.

  5. Big Bang 7

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. In Band 7 werden neben einer Einführung auch viele aktuelle Aspekte von Quantenmechanik (z. Beamen) und Elektrodynamik (zB Elektrosmog), sowie die Klimaproblematik und die Chaostheorie behandelt.

  6. Big Bang 8

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Band 8 vermittelt auf verständliche Weise Relativitätstheorie, Kern- und Teilchenphysik (und deren Anwendungen in der Kosmologie und Astrophysik), Nanotechnologie sowie Bionik.

  7. Big Bang 5

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 5 RG behandelt die Grundlagen (Maßsystem, Größenordnungen) und die Mechanik (Translation, Rotation, Kraft, Erhaltungssätze).

  8. Think Small Go Big

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤维维

    2006-01-01

    Vepoo公司在创立之前,经历了三次创业转型。用他们的话来说,从“think big go small”转到“think small go big”用了一年的时间。这期间他们耗尽了初期筹备资金,幸运的是在最后一刻迎来了黎明的曙光。

  9. Virginia big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) roosting in abandoned coal mines in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Wood, P.B. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (US). Wildlife & Fisheries Resources Programme

    2005-07-01

    We surveyed bats at 36 abandoned coal mines during summer 2002 and 47 mines during fall 2002 at New River Gorge National River and Gauley River National Recreation Area, WV. During summer, we captured three federally endangered Virginia big-eared bats at two mine entrances, and 25 were captured at 12 mine entrances during fall. These represent the first documented captures of this species at coal mines in West Virginia. Future survey efforts conducted throughout the range of the Virginia big-eared bat should include abandoned coal mines.

  10. Lower Seine river and estuary (France) carbon and oxygen budgets during low flow

    OpenAIRE

    J. Garnier; Servais, P.; Billen, G.; Akopian, M.; Brion, N.

    2001-01-01

    Ecological processes driving the oxygen budget were investigated in the downstream part of the Seine River and its estuary. Phytoplankton and bacterioplankton production were measured along longitudinal profiles (11 to 17 stations) in a range of low discharges from 300 m³ s -1 in 1993 and 1995 to 140 m³ s -1 in 1996. Values representative of the water column were based on investigations carried out during two tidal cycles. Net primary production was invariably greatest in the freshwater estua...

  11. The study of bacterioplankton dynamics in the Berlengas Archipelago (West coast of Portugal by applying the HJ-biplot method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between bacterioplankton and environmental forcing in the Berlengas Archipelago (Western Coast of Portugal were studied between February 2006 and February 2007 in two sampling stations: Berlenga and Canal, using an HJ-biplot. The HJ-biplot showed a simultaneous display of the three main metabolic groups of bacteria involved in carbon cycling (aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria and environmental parameters, in low dimensions. Our results indicated thatbacterial dynamics are mainly affected by temporal gradients (seasonal gradients with a clear winter versus summer opposition, and less by the spatial structure (Berlenga and Canal. The yearly variation in the abundance of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were positively correlated with those in chlorophyll a concentration, whereas ammonium concentration and temperature decreased with increasing phosphates and nitrites concentration. The relationship between aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, chlorophyll a and ammonium reveals that phytoplankton is an important source of organic substrates for bacteria.

  12. Bacterial community structure influenced by Coscinodiscus sp. in the Vistula river plume* This research was carried out with the support of a grant from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (No. NN304 025334 and statutory activities of the Department of Fisheries Oceanography and Marine Ecology of the National Marine Fisheries Research Institute (project P1-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Ameryk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Gdańsk is influenced by freshwater inflow from the River Vistula and by a wind-driven current along the coast. Bacterial communities from five stations along a salinity gradient were sampled during one day and analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, catalysed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridisation (CARD-FISH and 16S rRNA gene libraries. On the day of sampling, we observed a probable current-driven seawater influx into the inner part of the gulf that separated the gulf into distinct water bodies. Members of the diatom Coscinodiscus sp. dominated one of these water bodies and influenced the bacterial community. The coexistence of typically freshwater and marine bacterioplankton populations in the Vistula river plume suggested an integration of some freshwater populations into the Baltic Sea bacterioplankton.

  13. From Big Bang to Big Crunch and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Elitzur, S.; Giveon, A.; Kutasov, D.; Rabinovici, E.

    2002-01-01

    We study a quotient Conformal Field Theory, which describes a 3+1 dimensional cosmological spacetime. Part of this spacetime is the Nappi-Witten (NW) universe, which starts at a ``big bang'' singularity, expands and then contracts to a ``big crunch'' singularity at a finite time. The gauged WZW model contains a number of copies of the NW spacetime, with each copy connected to the preceeding one and to the next one at the respective big bang/big crunch singularities. The sequence of NW spaceti...

  14. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  15. Effects of decreased resource availability, protozoan grazing and viral impact on a structure of bacterioplankton assemblage in a canyon-shaped reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horňák, Karel; Mašín, Michal; Jezbera, Jan; Bettarel, Y.; Nedoma, Jiří; Sime-Ngando, T.; Šimek, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2005), s. 315-327. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0003 Grant ostatní: PICS(FR) project 1111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : bacterioplankton * protozoan grazing * viral lysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.787, year: 2005

  16. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    OpenAIRE

    J. Piontek; C. Borchard; Sperling, M.; K. G. Schulz; Riebesell, U.; Engel, A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A pCO2 range of 175–1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). The activity of natural extracellular enzyme assemblages increased in response to acidification. Rates of β-glucosidase ...

  17. Phylogenetic compositions of bacterioplankton from two California estuaries compared by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA fragments.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, A. E.; Hollibaugh, J.T.; Orrego, C.

    1996-01-01

    The phylogenetic compositions of bacterioplankton assemblages from San Francisco Bay and Tomales Bay, Calif., differed substantially when analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; these differences are consistent with the results of previous studies demonstrating differences in their metabolic capabilities. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of complex microbial assemblages was sensitive and reliable, and the results were reproducible as shown by experiments w...

  18. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Kurki-Suonio, H

    2001-01-01

    I review standard big bang nucleosynthesis and some versions of nonstandard BBN. The abundances of the primordial isotopes D, He-3, and Li-7 produced in standard BBN can be calculated as a function of the baryon density with an accuracy of about 10%. For He-4 the accuracy is better than 1%. The calculated abundances agree fairly well with observations, but the baryon density of the universe cannot be determined with high precision. Possibilities for nonstandard BBN include inhomogeneous and antimatter BBN and nonzero neutrino chemical potentials.

  19. A Matrix Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matr...

  20. Big and little OER

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Much of the attention around OERs has been on institutional projects which make explicit learning content available. These can be classified as ‘big OER’, but another form of OER is that of small scale, individually produced resources using web 2.0 type services, which are classified as ‘little OER’. This paper examines some of the differences between the use of these two types of OER to highlight issues in open education. These include attitudes towards reputation, the intentionality of the ...

  1. Big Red Telephone, Gone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toni Piech

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese big red telephones looked exactly as Iimagined the ones servicing the direct emergen line between the Kreml and the White House duing the cold-war era would have look like. But here in China, every kio seemed to have such a device in t1990s, and anyone could use it for ju 0.2 yuan. The government did not juinstall public phones on street corner but they let small-business owners pa ticipate in telecommunication. Supply and demand were juggled by a kind of Hutong capitalism.

  2. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  3. Privacy and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri

  4. Bigness in compatible systems

    OpenAIRE

    Snowden, Andrew; Wiles, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Clozel, Harris and Taylor have recently proved a modularity lifting theorem of the following general form: if rho is an l-adic representation of the absolute Galois group of a number field for which the residual representation rho-bar comes from a modular form then so does rho. This theorem has numerous hypotheses; a crucial one is that the image of rho-bar must be "big," a technical condition on subgroups of GL(n). In this paper we investigate this condition in compatible systems. Our main r...

  5. Contrasting patterns of free-living bacterioplankton diversity in macrophyte-dominated versus phytoplankton blooming regimes in Dianchi Lake, a shallow lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujing; Li, Huabing; Xing, Peng; Wu, Qinglong

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater shallow lakes typically exhibit two alternative stable states under certain nutrient loadings: macrophyte-dominated and phytoplankton-dominated water regimes. An ecosystem regime shift from macrophytes to phytoplankton blooming typically reduces the number of species of invertebrates and fishes and results in the homogenization of communities in freshwater lakes. We investigated how microbial biodiversity has responded to a shift of the ecosystem regime in Dianchi Lake, which was previously fully covered with submerged macrophytes but currently harbors both ecological states. We observed marked divergence in the diversity and community composition of bacterioplankton between the two regimes. Although species richness, estimated as the number of operational taxonomic units and phylogenetic diversity (PD), was higher in the phytoplankton dominated ecosystem after this shift, the dissimilarity of bacterioplankton community across space decreased. This decrease in beta diversity was accompanied by loss of planktonic bacteria unique to the macrophyte-dominated ecosystem. Mantel tests between bacterioplankton community distances and Euclidian distance of environmental parameters indicated that this reduced bacterial community diff erentiation primarily reflected the loss of environmental niches, particularly in the macrophyte regime. The loss of this small-scale heterogeneity in bacterial communities should be considered when assessing long-term biodiversity changes in response to ecosystem regime conversions in freshwater lakes.

  6. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an overview of the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), which describes the production of the light elements in the early universe. The theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li is discussed. We emphasize the role of key nuclear reactions and the methods by which experimental cross section uncertainties are propagated into uncertainties in the predicted abundances. The observational determination of the light nuclides is also discussed. Particular attention is given to the comparison between the predicted and observed abundances, which yields a measurement of the cosmic baryon content. The spectrum of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) now independently measures the baryon density to high precision; we show how the CMB data test BBN, and find that the CMB and the D and 4He observations paint a consistent picture. This concordance stands as a major success of the hot big bang. On the other hand, 7Li remains discrepant with the CMB-preferred baryon density; possible explanations are reviewed. Finally, moving beyond the standard model, primordial nucleosynthesis constraints on early universe and particle physics are also briefly discussed

  7. Big Rock Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant is the second oldest operating nuclear power plant in the United States. Its 25-yr history is an embodiment of the history of commercial nuclear power. In some respects, its situation today - 5 yr past the midpoint of its design life - can provide operators of other nuclear plants a glimpse of where they will be in another decade. Construction on Big Rock Point began in 1960. It was completed just 2 1/2 yr later at a cost of $27 million. The plant is a General Electric (GE)-designed boiling water direct cycle, forced circulation, high power density reactor. Its construction was undertaken by Consumers Power under the third round of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC's) Power Demonstration Reactor Program. It was an advanced version of GE's Vallecitos boiling water reactor. The plant's fuel was GE's responsibility and, under contract with the AEC, it conducted a fuel research and development (RandD) program involving the plant. Although the plant was designed for research - its original electrical capacity was set at 50 MW(electric) - the unit was subsequently uprated to 69 MW(net electric). The original plant staff included only 44 people and minimal security. Mirroring the industry experience, the number of people on-site had quadrupled

  8. Abundance and biomass responses of microbial food web components to hydrology and environmental gradients within a floodplain of the River Danube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Goran

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the relationships of time-dependent hydrological variability and selected microbial food web components. Samples were collected monthly from the Kopački Rit floodplain in Croatia, over a period of 19 months, for analysis of bacterioplankton abundance, cell size and biomass; abundance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and nanophytoplankton; and concentration of chlorophyll a. Similar hydrological variability at different times of the year enabled partition of seasonal effects from hydrological changes on microbial community properties. The results suggested that, unlike some other studies investigating sites with different connectivity, bacterioplankton abundance, and phytoplankton abundance and biomass increased during lentic conditions. At increasing water level, nanophytoplankton showed lower sensitivity to disturbance in comparison with total phytoplankton biomass: this could prolong autotrophic conditions within the floodplain. Bacterioplankton biomass, unlike phytoplankton, was not impacted by hydrology. The bacterial biomass less affected by hydrological changes can be an important additional food component for the floodplain food web. The results also suggested a mechanism controlling bacterial cell size independent of hydrology, as bacterial cell size was significantly decreased as nanoflagellate abundance increased. Hydrology, regardless of seasonal sucession, has the potential to structure microbial food webs, supporting microbial development during lentic conditions. Conversely, other components appear unaffected by hydrology or may be more strongly controlled by biotic interactions. This research, therefore, adds to understanding on microbial food web interactions in the context of flood and flow pulses in river-floodplain ecosystems. PMID:22327270

  9. Passport to the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Le 2 juin 2013, le CERN inaugure le projet Passeport Big Bang lors d'un grand événement public. Affiche et programme. On 2 June 2013 CERN launches a scientific tourist trail through the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva known as the Passport to the Big Bang. Poster and Programme.

  10. IZVEDBENI ELEMENTI U BIG BROTHERU

    OpenAIRE

    Radman, Korana

    2009-01-01

    Big Brother publici nudi "ultimativnu stvarnost" osiguranu cjelodnevnim nadzorom televizijskih kamera, o čemu je polemizirano od početka njegova prikazivanja u Europi i svijetu. Imajući to na umu, ovaj rad je pristupio Big Brotheru iz perspektive izvedbenih studija, pokušavajući u njemu prepoznati neke od mogućih izvedbi.

  11. The Big Read: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  12. Resources: Building Big (and Small)

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    The article offers a set of videos and web resources for elementary teachers to help them explore five different structures, including bridges, domes, skyscrapers, dams, and tunnels, that have been built big to meet the human needs and wants. It includes the miniseries video "Building Big" by David Macaulay and the website www.pbs.org/buildingbig.com.

  13. Big Bounce Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Changhong; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E

    2014-01-01

    We report on the possibility to use dark matter mass and its interaction cross section as a smoking gun signal of the existence of a big bounce at the early stage in the evolution of our currently observed universe. A model independent study of dark matter production in the contraction and expansion phases of the bounce universe reveals a new venue for achieving the observed relic abundance in which a significantly smaller amount of dark matter--compared to the standard cosmology--is produced and survives until today, diluted only by the cosmic expansion since the radiation dominated era. Once DM mass and its interaction strength with ordinary matter are determined by experiments, this alternative route becomes a signature of the bounce universe scenario.

  14. A matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control

  15. A Matrix Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, B; Verlinde, E; Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  16. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  17. DPF Big One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its latest venue at Fermilab from 10-14 November, the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields meeting entered a new dimension. These regular meetings, which allow younger researchers to communicate with their peers, have been gaining popularity over the years (this was the seventh in the series), but nobody had expected almost a thousand participants and nearly 500 requests to give talks. Thus Fermilab's 800-seat auditorium had to be supplemented with another room with a video hookup, while the parallel sessions were organized into nine bewildering streams covering fourteen major physics topics. With the conventionality of the Standard Model virtually unchallenged, physics does not move fast these days. While most of the physics results had already been covered in principle at the International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Dallas in August (October, page 1), the Fermilab DPF meeting had a very different atmosphere. Major international meetings like Dallas attract big names from far and wide, and it is difficult in such an august atmosphere for young researchers to find a receptive audience. This was not the case at the DPF parallel sessions. The meeting also adopted a novel approach, with the parallels sandwiched between an initial day of plenaries to set the scene, and a final day of summaries. With the whole world waiting for the sixth ('top') quark to be discovered at Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, the meeting began with updates from Avi Yagil and Ronald Madaras from the big detectors, CDF and DO respectively. Although rumours flew thick and fast, the Tevatron has not yet reached the top, although Yagil could show one intriguing event of a type expected from the heaviest quark

  18. Mining “Big Data” using Big Data Services

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    While many colleagues within science are fed up with the “big data fad”, empirical analyses we conducted for the current editorial actually show an inconsistent picture: we use big data services to determine whether there really is an increase in writing about big data or even widespread use of the term. Google Correlate (http://www.google.com/trends/correlate/), the first free tool we are presenting here, doesn’t list the term, showing that number of searches for it are below an absolute min...

  19. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe

  20. BigOP: Generating Comprehensive Big Data Workloads as a Benchmarking Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yuqing; Zhan, Jianfeng; Weng, Chuliang; Nambiar, Raghunath; Zhang, Jinchao; Chen, Xingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Big Data is considered proprietary asset of companies, organizations, and even nations. Turning big data into real treasure requires the support of big data systems. A variety of commercial and open source products have been unleashed for big data storage and processing. While big data users are facing the choice of which system best suits their needs, big data system developers are facing the question of how to evaluate their systems with regard to general big data processing needs. System b...

  1. From big bang to big crunch and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a quotient Conformal Field Theory, which describes a 3+1 dimensional cosmological spacetime. Part of this spacetime is the Nappi-Witten (NW) universe, which starts at a 'big bang' singularity, expands and then contracts to a 'big crunch' singularity at a finite time. The gauged WZW model contains a number of copies of the NW spacetime, with each copy connected to the preceding one and to the next one at the respective big bang/big crunch singularities. The sequence of NW spacetimes is further connected at the singularities to a series of non-compact static regions with closed timelike curves. These regions contain boundaries, on which the observables of the theory live. This suggests a holographic interpretation of the physics. (author)

  2. The challenges of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  3. Big Data Mining: Tools & Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Shiraz Hashmi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We are now in Big Data era, and there is a growing demand for tools which can process and analyze it. Big data analytics deals with extracting valuable information from that complex data which can’t be handled by traditional data mining tools. This paper surveys the available tools which can handle large volumes of data as well as evolving data streams. The data mining tools and algorithms which can handle big data have also been summarized, and one of the tools has been used for mining of large datasets using distributed algorithms.

  4. Google BigQuery analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Tigani, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    How to effectively use BigQuery, avoid common mistakes, and execute sophisticated queries against large datasets Google BigQuery Analytics is the perfect guide for business and data analysts who want the latest tips on running complex queries and writing code to communicate with the BigQuery API. The book uses real-world examples to demonstrate current best practices and techniques, and also explains and demonstrates streaming ingestion, transformation via Hadoop in Google Compute engine, AppEngine datastore integration, and using GViz with Tableau to generate charts of query results. In addit

  5. The challenges of big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  6. Big Data: present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Raducu TRIFU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the importance of the Big Data concept, a concept that even now, after years of development, is for the most companies just a cool keyword. The paper also describes the level of the actual big data development and the things it can do, and also the things that can be done in the near future. The paper focuses on explaining to nontechnical and non-database related technical specialists what basically is big data, presents the three most important V's, as well as the new ones, the most important solutions used by companies like Google or Amazon, as well as some interesting perceptions based on this subject.

  7. Detecting and understanding big events in big cities

    OpenAIRE

    Furletti, Barbara; Trasarti, Roberto; Gabrielli, Lorenzo; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Vanhoof, Maarten; Ziemlicki, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the great potential of big data such as mobile phone location data to model human behavior. Big data allow to analyze people presence in a territory in a fast and effective way with respect to the classical surveys (diaries or questionnaires). One of the drawbacks of these collection systems is incompleteness of the users' traces; people are localized only when they are using their phones. In this work we define a data mining method for identifying people presence an...

  8. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    OpenAIRE

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.(Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA); Turok, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition...

  9. Quantum Fields in a Big Crunch/Big Bang Spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Tolley, Andrew J.; Turok, Neil

    2002-01-01

    We consider quantum field theory on a spacetime representing the Big Crunch/Big Bang transition postulated in the ekpyrotic or cyclic cosmologies. We show via several independent methods that an essentially unique matching rule holds connecting the incoming state, in which a single extra dimension shrinks to zero, to the outgoing state in which it re-expands at the same rate. For free fields in our construction there is no particle production from the incoming adiabatic vacuum. When interacti...

  10. Sailing through the big crunch-big bang transition

    OpenAIRE

    Bars, Itzhak; Steinhardt, Paul; Turok, Neil

    2013-01-01

    In a recent series of papers, we have shown that theories with scalar fields coupled to gravity (e.g., the standard model) can be lifted to a Weyl-invariant equivalent theory in which it is possible to unambiguously trace the classical cosmological evolution through the transition from big crunch to big bang. The key was identifying a sufficient number of finite, Weyl-invariant conserved quantities to uniquely match the fundamental cosmological degrees of freedom across the transition. In so ...

  11. Hey, big spender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Business to business electronic commerce is looming large in the future of the oil industry. It is estimated that by adopting e-commerce the industry could achieve bottom line savings of between $1.8 to $ 3.4 billion a year on annual gross revenues in excess of $ 30 billion. At present there are several teething problems to overcome such as inter-operability standards, which are at least two or three years away. Tying in electronically with specific suppliers is also an expensive proposition, although the big benefits are in fact in doing business with the same suppliers on a continuing basis. Despite these problems, 14 of the world's largest energy and petrochemical companies joined forces in mid-April to create a single Internet procurement marketplace for the industry's complex supply chain. The exchange was designed by B2B (business-to-business) software provider, Commerce One Inc., ; it will leverage the buying clout of these industry giants (BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell Group, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Phillips Petroleum, Unocal Corporation and Statoil among them), currently about $ 125 billion on procurement per year; they hope to save between 5 to 30 per cent depending on the product and the region involved. Other similar schemes such as Chevron and partners' Petrocosm Marketplace, Network Oil, a Houston-based Internet portal aimed at smaller petroleum companies, are also doing business in the $ 10 billion per annum range. e-Energy, a cooperative project between IBM Ericson and Telus Advertising is another neutral, virtual marketplace targeted at the oil and gas sector. PetroTRAX, a Calgary-based website plans to take online procurement and auction sales a big step forward by establishing a portal to handle any oil company's asset management needs. There are also a number of websites targeting specific needs: IndigoPool.com (acquisitions and divestitures) and WellBid.com (products related to upstream oil and gas operators) are just two examples. All in

  12. Maximum growth rates and possible life strategies of different bacterioplankton groups in relation to phosphorus availability in a freshwater reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Karel; Hornák, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Nedoma, Jirí; Vrba, Jaroslav; Straskrábová, Viera; Macek, Miroslav; Dolan, John R; Hahn, Martin W

    2006-09-01

    We investigated net growth rates of distinct bacterioplankton groups and heterotrophic nanoflagellate (HNF) communities in relation to phosphorus availability by analysing eight in situ manipulation experiments, conducted between 1997 and 2003, in the canyon-shaped Rímov reservoir (Czech Republic). Water samples were size-fractionated and incubated in dialysis bags at the sampling site or transplanted into an area of the reservoir, which differed in phosphorus limitation (range of soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations--SRP, 0.7-96 microg l-1). Using five different rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, net growth rates of the probe-defined bacterial groups and HNF assemblages were estimated and related to SRP using Monod kinetics, yielding growth rate constants specific for each bacterial group. We found highly significant differences among their maximum growth rates while insignificant differences were detected in the saturation constants. However, the latter constants represent only tentative estimates mainly due to insufficient sensitivity of the method used at low in situ SRP concentrations. Interestingly, in these same experiments HNF assemblages grew significantly faster than any bacterial group studied except for a small, but abundant cluster of Betaproteobacteria (targeted by the R-BT065 probe). Potential ecological implications of different growth capabilities for possible life strategies of different bacterial phylogenetic lineages are discussed. PMID:16913921

  13. Betaproteobacteria Limnohabitans strains increase fecundity in the crustacean Daphnia magna: symbiotic relationship between major bacterioplankton and zooplankton in freshwater ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerakietkhajorn, Saranya; Kato, Yasuhiko; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2016-09-01

    How symbioses between bacteria and aquatic animals influence food webs in freshwater ecosystems is a fundamental question in ecology. We investigated symbiosis between a crustacean zooplankton Daphnia magna and its dominant bacterial symbiont Limnohabitans, an abundant and globally distributed freshwater Betaproteobacteria. Aposymbiotic juvenile Daphnia were prepared and exposed to any of four Limnohabitans sp. - Limnohabitans strains DM1, 2KL-3, 2KL-7 and Limnohabitans planktonicus strain II-D5, all previously found in D. magna digestive tract or culture. Re-infected Daphnia were cultured until they produced the first clutch of juveniles. Limnohabitans strain DM1 and L. planktonicus strain II-D5 successfully re-infected Daphnia through single exposure at the first instar juvenile stage. In contrast to aposymbiotic Daphnia that produced non-viable juveniles, re-infected Daphnia produced viable juveniles and increased fecundity to levels of that of symbiotic Daphnia. Re-infected Daphnia did not increase their number of eggs nor growth rates. Limnohabitans strains 2KL-7 and 2KL-3 could not recover fecundity even in multiple exposures during culture. This study shows the functional evidence demonstrating that a single bacterium Limnohabitans regulates fecundity of the consumer Daphnia through symbiosis. Our results indicated that symbiotic relationship between major bacterioplankton and zooplankton is important for maintaining the population of zooplankton in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:26014379

  14. Big bang darkleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Krnjaic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis, a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN, in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD, which generically yields large (≫MeV/dark-nucleon binding energies. These bounds further suggest the mediator is relatively weakly coupled, so repulsive forces between dark-sector nuclei are much weaker than Coulomb repulsion between standard-model nuclei, which results in an exponential barrier-tunneling enhancement over standard BBN. Thus, darklei are easier to make and harder to break than visible species with comparable mass numbers. This process can efficiently yield a dominant population of states with masses significantly greater than the confinement scale and, in contrast to dark matter that is a fundamental particle, may allow the dominant form of dark matter to have high spin (S≫3/2, whose discovery would be smoking gun evidence for dark nuclei.

  15. The BigBOSS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  16. Big Lake Dam Inspection Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes an inspection of the Big Lake Dam that was done in September of 1983. The inspection did not reveal any conditions that constitute and...

  17. Le Big Bang en laboratoire

    CERN Multimedia

    Roy, Christelle

    2006-01-01

    Physiciens have been dreaming of it for 30 years; Thanks to huge particle accelerators, they were able to observe the matter such as it was some instants after the Big Bang (three different articles in 10 pages)

  18. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Belle; Raghuram Thiagarajan; S. M. Reza Soroushmehr; Fatemeh Navidi; Daniel A Beard; Kayvan Najarian

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is sti...

  19. Big Data and Ambulatory Care

    OpenAIRE

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an ov...

  20. The role of big laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward. (paper)

  1. The role of big laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Heuer, Rolf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward.

  2. Simulated artificial recharge in the Big Sioux Aquifer in Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County is a water-table aquifer hydraulically connected to the Big Sioux River. A digital-computer model previously developed by the U.S. Geological Survey was used to simulate potential effects of artificial recharge on the aquifer. A simulation was made by recharging water at the rate of 870 gallons per minute for four 30-day periods. Total water recharged to the aquifer during the 120 days was 150.3 million gallons. About 24.4 million gallons of water discharged from the aquifer to the river during the 120-day recharge period and about 30 million gallons discharged from the aquifer to the river during three 30-day recovery periods, both as a result of the artificial recharge, therefore, a total of 54.4 million gallons or 36 percent of the 150.3 million gallons that was artificially recharged from the aquifer to the river. (USGS)

  3. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  4. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    OpenAIRE

    Riebesell, U.; Engel, A.; K. G. Schulz; Sperling, M.; C. Borchard; J. Piontek

    2013-01-01

    The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A pCO2 range of 175–1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). The activity of natural extracellular enzyme assemblages increased in response to acidification. Rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminop...

  5. Spatio-temporal patterns of bacterioplankton production and community composition related to phytoplankton composition and protistan bacterivory in a dam reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Horňák, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Nedoma, Jiří; Znachor, Petr; Hejzlar, Josef; Seďa, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2008), s. 249-262. ISSN 0948-3055 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0015; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : bacterioplankton composition and production * algal-bacterial relationships * extracellular phytoplankton production * protistan bacterivory * phytoplankton community * reservoir * betaproteobacterial groups Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.190, year: 2008

  6. Allochthonous Carbon-a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, D; Rowe, O F; Paczkowska, J; Legrand, C; Andersson, A

    2016-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60 % of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2 %. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60 %. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century. PMID:26677860

  7. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process. PMID:27068058

  8. [Big data in official statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany. PMID:26077871

  9. Dual of Big-bang and Big-crunch

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Dongsu

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by procedure of the double anaytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are non singular at all as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological sing...

  10. Turning big bang into big bounce: II. Quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the big bounce transition of the quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model in the setting of the nonstandard loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Elementary observables are used to quantize composite observables. The spectrum of the energy density operator is bounded and continuous. The spectrum of the volume operator is bounded from below and discrete. It has equally distant levels defining a quantum of the volume. The discreteness may imply a foamy structure of spacetime at a semiclassical level which may be detected in astro-cosmo observations. The nonstandard LQC method has a free parameter that should be fixed in some way to specify the big bounce transition.

  11. CLOUD COMPUTING WITH BIG DATA: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali; Er. Amandeep Kaur; Mrs. Shakshi

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a collection of huge quantities of data. Big data is the process of examining large amounts of data. Big data and Cloud computing are the hot issues in Information Technology. Big data is the one of the main problem now a day’s. Researchers focusing how to handle huge amount of data with cloud computing and how to gain a perfect security for big data in cloud computing. To handle the Big Data problem Hadoop framework is used in which data is fragmented and executed parallel....

  12. Water chemistry and plankton composition in the mixing zone of the Selenga River with Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberg, Irina; Sorokovikova, larisa; Popovskaya, Galina; Belykh, Olga; Bashenkhaeva, Nadya; Parfenova, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual variations of chemical components, bacterio- and phytoplankton and autotrophic picoplankton (APP) were studied in the distributaries of the Selenga River, Selenga shallow waters (Selenga shoal) and Lake Baikal for 2003-2013. Major variations in the chemical composition of river waters were recorded at a distance of 1-3 km off the mouths of the Selenga River distributaries (mixing zone). The total quantity of major ions and plankton composition and abundance served as indicators to distinguish between river and lake waters. Phytoplankton concentration was high in the mixing zone and caused the reduction of nutrients in this area. Changes in species composition of phytoplankton, APP, dominant groups of bacterioplankton were observed in the Selenga shoal. River phytoplankton prevailed near the mouths of distributaries, in the mixing zone these were replaced by lake species, and at a distance of 7 km offshore phytoplankton composition was typical of Lake Baikal. Organotrophic microorganisms dominated in the Selenga River water. In the mixing zone, all bacterial groups were represented in equal proportions. Oligotrophic and psychrotolerant bacteria prevailed in Lake Baikal. As the distance from the river delta increased, phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria were replaced by phycoerythrin-rich picocyanobacteria and the contribution of picoplankton biomass to total phytoplankton biomass was raised. Near the mouth of distributaries, APP biomass was 5 times lower than the phytoplankton biomass whilst at a distance of 7 km it was 2 times higher than typical values for Baikal phytoplankton.

  13. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Belle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  14. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  15. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Zachary D; Lee, Skylar Y; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-07-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade. PMID:26151137

  16. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary D Stephens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade.

  17. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  18. Sosiaalinen asiakassuhdejohtaminen ja big data

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Topi-Antti

    2015-01-01

    Tässä tutkielmassa käsitellään sosiaalista asiakassuhdejohtamista sekä hyötyjä, joita siihen voidaan saada big datan avulla. Sosiaalinen asiakassuhdejohtaminen on terminä uusi ja monille tuntematon. Tutkimusta motivoi aiheen vähäinen tutkimus, suomenkielisen tutkimuksen puuttuminen kokonaan sekä sosiaalisen asiakassuhdejohtamisen mahdollinen olennainen rooli yritysten toiminnassa tulevaisuudessa. Big dataa käsittelevissä tutkimuksissa keskitytään monesti sen tekniseen puoleen, eikä sovellutuk...

  19. AAPOR Report on Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Task Force Members Include: Lilli Japec; Frauke Kreuter; Marcus Berg; Paul Biemer; Paul Decker; Cliff Lampe; Julia Lane; Cathy O'Neil; Abe Usher

    2015-01-01

    In recent years we have seen an increase in the amount of statistics in society describing different phenomena based on so called Big Data. The term Big Data is used for a variety of data as explained in the report, many of them characterized not just by their large volume, but also by their variety and velocity, the organic way in which they are created, and the new types of processes needed to analyze them and make inference from them. The change in the nature of the new types of data, thei...

  20. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  1. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-01

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented. PMID:26614539

  2. The BigBOSS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Prieto, C. Allende; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Baltay, S. Bailey. C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra...

  3. Release plan for Big Pete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This release plan is to provide instructions for the Radiological Control Technician (RCT) to conduct surveys for the unconditional release of ''Big Pete,'' which was used in the removal of ''Spacers'' from the N-Reactor. Prior to performing surveys on the rear end portion of ''Big Pete,'' it shall be cleaned (i.e., free of oil, grease, caked soil, heavy dust). If no contamination is found, the vehicle may be released with the permission of the area RCT Supervisor. If contamination is found by any of the surveys, contact the cognizant Radiological Engineer for decontamination instructions

  4. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, J.; Borchard, C.; Sperling, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Engel, A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A pCO2 range of 175-1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). The activity of natural extracellular enzyme assemblages increased in response to acidification. Rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase increased along the gradient of mesocosm pCO2. A decrease in seawater pH of 0.5 units almost doubled rates of both enzymes. Heterotrophic bacterial activity was closely coupled to phytoplankton productivity in this experiment. The bacterioplankton community responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing protein production and extracellular enzyme activity. Time-integrated primary production and bacterial protein production were positively correlated, strongly suggesting that higher amounts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter were assimilated by heterotrophic bacteria at increased primary production. Primary production increased under high pCO2 in this study, and it can be suggested that the efficient heterotrophic carbon utilisation had the potential to counteract the enhanced autotrophic CO2 fixation. However, our results also show that beneficial pCO2-related effects on bacterial activity can be mitigated by the top-down control of bacterial abundances in natural microbial communities.

  5. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA. A pCO2 range of 175–1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard. The activity of natural extracellular enzyme assemblages increased in response to acidification. Rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase increased along the gradient of mesocosm pCO2. A decrease in seawater pH of 0.5 units almost doubled rates of both enzymes. Heterotrophic bacterial activity was closely coupled to phytoplankton productivity in this experiment. The bacterioplankton community responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing protein production and extracellular enzyme activity. Time-integrated primary production and bacterial protein production were positively correlated, strongly suggesting that higher amounts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter were assimilated by heterotrophic bacteria at increased primary production. Primary production increased under high pCO2 in this study, and it can be suggested that the efficient heterotrophic carbon utilisation had the potential to counteract the enhanced autotrophic CO2 fixation. However, our results also show that beneficial pCO2-related effects on bacterial activity can be mitigated by the top-down control of bacterial abundances in natural microbial communities.

  6. [Monitoring of the Moskva River Water Using Microbiological Parameters and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharova, I V; Il'inskii, V V; Matorin, D N; Mosharov, S A; Akulova, A Yu; Protopopov, F F

    2015-01-01

    The results of investigations of three Moskva River sites with different degree of pollution using a complex of microbiological characteristics and the parameters of chlorophyll a fluorescence are presented. We determined that the bacterioplankton seasonal dynamics at less polluted waters (Tushino and Vorobyovy Gory) were similar and differed significantly from one in more polluted waters (Dzerzhinskii). The number of bacteria with active electron transport chain, as well as their share in the bacterioplankton structure, was higher in the water of Dzerzhinskii (average annual values of 0.23 x 10(6) cells/mL and 14%), that in the less polluted water of Tushino and Vorobyovy Gory (0.14 x 10(6) cells/mL; 6% and 0.15 x 10(6) cells/mL; 7%, respectively). From April to October, the content of chlorophyll a and its photosynthetic activity were the highest in Tushino. In Dzerzhinskii, during spring the increase in photosynthetic activity commenced earlier and was more intensive that the increase in chlorophyll a content, i.e., the increase in phytoplankton biomass was temporarily suppressed. We suggest association of this phenomenon with suppression of organic matter synthesis by phytoplankton due to the high water pollution in Dzerzhinskii. The second autumn peak of chlorophyll a content, that was typical of clear water and was observed in Tushino, did not occur in Dzerzhinskii. We recommend combined application of these microbiological parameters and characteristics of chlorophyll a fluorescence for a monitoring. PMID:26964361

  7. Big society, big data. The radicalisation of the network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, V.

    2011-01-01

    During the British election campaign of 2010, David Cameron produced the idea of the ‘Big Society’ as a cornerstone of his political agenda. At the core of the idea is a stronger civil society and local community coupled with a more withdrawn government. Although many commentators have dismissed thi

  8. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  9. Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159241.html Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues? Smaller baby bottles ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Feeding babies formula from a big bottle might put them at higher risk for ...

  10. Big data e data science

    OpenAIRE

    Cavique, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Neste artigo foram apresentados os conceitos básicos de Big Data e a nova área a que deu origem, a Data Science. Em Data Science foi discutida e exemplificada a noção de redução da dimensionalidade dos dados.

  11. Do big gods cause anything?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2014-01-01

    Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere....

  12. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  13. YOUNG CITY,BIG PARTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Shenzhen Universiade unites the world’s young people through sports with none of the usual hoop-la, no fireworks, no grand performances by celebrities and superstars, the Shenzhen Summer Universiade lowered the curtain on a big party for youth and college students on August 23.

  14. BIG DATA IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dealing with a lot of data originating from social media sites and mobile communications among data from business environments and institutions, lead to the definition of a new concept, known as Big Data. The economic impact of the sheer amount of data produced in a last two years has increased rapidly. It is necessary to aggregate all types of data (structured and unstructured in order to improve current transactions, to develop new business models, to provide a real image of the supply and demand and thereby, generate market advantages. So, the companies that turn to Big Data have a competitive advantage over other firms. Looking from the perspective of IT organizations, they must accommodate the storage and processing Big Data, and provide analysis tools that are easily integrated into business processes. This paper aims to discuss aspects regarding the Big Data concept, the principles to build, organize and analyse huge datasets in the business environment, offering a three-layer architecture, based on actual software solutions. Also, the article refers to the graphical tools for exploring and representing unstructured data, Gephi and NodeXL.

  15. Characterizing and Subsetting Big Data Workloads

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Zhen; Zhan, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Han, Rui; Mckee, Sally A.; Yang, Qiang; Luo, Chunjie; Li, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    Big data benchmark suites must include a diversity of data and workloads to be useful in fairly evaluating big data systems and architectures. However, using truly comprehensive benchmarks poses great challenges for the architecture community. First, we need to thoroughly understand the behaviors of a variety of workloads. Second, our usual simulation-based research methods become prohibitively expensive for big data. As big data is an emerging field, more and more software stacks are being p...

  16. Big Graph Mining: Frameworks and Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Aridhi, Sabeur; Nguifo, Engelbert Mephu

    2016-01-01

    Big graph mining is an important research area and it has attracted considerable attention. It allows to process, analyze, and extract meaningful information from large amounts of graph data. Big graph mining has been highly motivated not only by the tremendously increasing size of graphs but also by its huge number of applications. Such applications include bioinformatics, chemoinformatics and social networks. One of the most challenging tasks in big graph mining is pattern mining in big gra...

  17. The BigBoss Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  18. Bacterioplankton and organic carbon dynamics in the lower mesohaline chesapeake bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, R B; Tuttle, J H

    1990-03-01

    The mesohaline portion of the Chesapeake Bay is subject to annual summertime hypoxia and anoxia in waters beneath the pycnocline. This dissolved oxygen deficit is directly related to salinity-based stratification of the water column in combination with high levels of autochthonously produced organic matter and a very high abundance of metabolically active bacteria. Throughout the water column in the lower, mesohaline part of the bay, between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, near the southern limit of the mainstem anoxia, bacterial abundance often exceeded 10 x 10 cells per ml and bacterial production exceeded 7 x 10 cells per liter per day during summer. Bacterial biomass averaged 34% (range, 16 to 126%) of the phytoplankton biomass in summer. These values are equal to or greater than those found farther north in the bay, where the oxygen deficit is more severe. Seasonal variations in bacterial abundance and production were correlated with phytoplankton biomass (lag time, 7 to 14 days), particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, and particulate biochemical oxygen demand in spring; but during summer, they were significantly correlated only with dissolved biochemical oxygen demand. During summer, dissolved biochemical oxygen demand can account for 50 to 60% of the total biochemical oxygen demand throughout the water column and 80% in the bottom waters. There is a clear spring-summer seasonal shift in the production of organic matter and in the coupling of bacteria and autochthonous organic matter. The measurement of dissolved, microbially labile organic matter concentrations is crucial in understanding the trophic dynamics of the lower mesohaline part of the bay. The absolute levels of organic matter in the water column and the bacterial-organic carbon relationships suggest that a lower bay source of organic matter fuels the upper mesohaline bay oxygen deficits. PMID:16348148

  19. Salinity as a structuring factor for the composition and performance of bacterioplankton degrading riverine DOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheder, Silke; Kisand, Veljo; Wikner, Johan; Tranvik, Lars J

    2003-07-01

    Abstract The impact of salinity on the composition and functional performance (biomass production, growth efficiency and growth rates) of bacterial communities was investigated using batch cultures growing on dissolved organic carbon from a river draining into the Northern Baltic Sea. The cultures were adjusted to riverine or estuarine salinity levels and inoculated with bacteria from these two environments. Bacterial growth efficiencies differed in response to salinity and the origin of the inoculum. When salinity was adjusted to correspond to the salinity at the site where the inoculum was retrieved, growth efficiency was relatively high (11.5+/-2.6%). However, when bacteria were confronted with a shift in salinity, growth efficiency was lower (7.5+/-2.0%) and more of the utilized carbon was respired. In contrast, growth rates were higher when bacteria were exposed to a change in salinity. The composition of the bacterial communities developing in the batch cultures differed, as shown by 16S rDNA DGGE, depending on the origin of the inoculum and salinity. Reverse and direct DNA-DNA hybridization revealed salinity optima in the growth of specific bacterial strains as well as broader phylogenetic groups. Strains belonging to the alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and gamma-Proteobacteria other than the genus Pseudomonas showed higher relative abundance under freshwater conditions, whereas strains of the genus Pseudomonas and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group were favored by estuarine conditions. Generally, our results demonstrate functional changes associated with changes in community composition. We suggest that even moderate changes in salinity affect bacterial community composition, which subsequently leads to altered growth characteristics. PMID:19719630

  20. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates. PMID

  1. Judging Big Deals: Challenges, Outcomes, and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of five Big Deal electronic journal packages to which Hofstra University's Axinn Library subscribes. COUNTER usage reports were used to judge the value of each Big Deal. Limitations of usage statistics are also discussed. In the end, the author concludes that four of the five Big Deals are good…

  2. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  3. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  4. "Big Data" - Grosse Daten, viel Wissen?

    OpenAIRE

    Hothorn, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Since a couple of years, the term Big Data describes technologies to extract knowledge from data. Applications of Big Data and their consequences are also increasingly discussed in the mass media. Because medicine is an empirical science, we discuss the meaning of Big Data and its potential for future medical research.

  5. The BigBoss Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = λ/Δλ = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 max = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (kmax = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  6. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  7. Global Fluctuation Spectra in Big Crunch/Big Bang String Vacua

    OpenAIRE

    Craps, Ben; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2003-01-01

    We study Big Crunch/Big Bang cosmologies that correspond to exact world-sheet superconformal field theories of type II strings. The string theory spacetime contains a Big Crunch and a Big Bang cosmology, as well as additional ``whisker'' asymptotic and intermediate regions. Within the context of free string theory, we compute, unambiguously, the scalar fluctuation spectrum in all regions of spacetime. Generically, the Big Crunch fluctuation spectrum is altered while passing through the bounce...

  8. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  9. Perspectives on Big Data and Big Data Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geanina ULARU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays companies are starting to realize the importance of using more data in order to support decision for their strategies. It was said and proved through study cases that “More data usually beats better algorithms”. With this statement companies started to realize that they can chose to invest more in processing larger sets of data rather than investing in expensive algorithms. The large quantity of data is better used as a whole because of the possible correlations on a larger amount, correlations that can never be found if the data is analyzed on separate sets or on a smaller set. A larger amount of data gives a better output but also working with it can become a challenge due to processing limitations. This article intends to define the concept of Big Data and stress the importance of Big Data Analytics.

  10. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  11. Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c)2. At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios

  12. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2535 (United States); Chen, Shih-Hung [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Department of Physics and Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Turok, Neil [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2012-08-29

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  13. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  14. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak; Steinhardt, Paul J; Turok, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  15. Web Science Big Wins: Information Big Bang & Fundamental Constants

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Les

    2010-01-01

    We take for granted a Web that provides free and unrestricted information exchange, but the Web is under pressure to change in order to respond to issues of security, commerce, criminality, privacy. Web Science needs to explain how the Web impacts society and predict the outcomes of proposed changes to Web infrastructure on business and society. Using the analogy of the Big Bang, this presentation describes how the Web spread the conditions of its initial creation throughout the whole of soci...

  16. Big Data – Big Deal for Organization Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Janne J. Korhonen

    2014-01-01

    Analytics is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage. It has even been posited that big data will be the next strategic emphasis of organizations and that analytics capability will be manifested in organizational structure. In this article, I explore how analytics capability might be reflected in organizational structure using the notion of  “requisite organization” developed by Jaques (1998). Requisite organization argues that a new strategic emphasis requires the addition ...

  17. Effect of elevated CO2 on the dynamics of particle attached and free living bacterioplankton communities in an Arctic fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, M.; Piontek, J.; Gerdts, G.; Wichels, A.; Schunck, H.; Roy, A.-S.; La Roche, J.; Gilbert, J.; Bittner, L.; Romac, S.; Riebesell, U.; Engel, A.

    2012-08-01

    The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) results in acidification of the oceans, expected to lead to the fastest drop in ocean pH in the last 300 million years, if anthropogenic emissions are continued at present rate. Due to higher solubility of gases in cold waters and increased exposure to the atmosphere by decreasing ice cover, the Arctic Ocean will be among the areas most strongly affected by ocean acidification. Yet, the response of the plankton community of high latitudes to ocean acidification has not been studied so far. This work is part of the Arctic campaign of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) in 2010, employing 9 in situ mesocosms of about 45 000 l each to simulate ocean acidification in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (78°56.2' N 11°53.6' E). In the present study, we investigated effects of elevated CO2 on the composition and richness of particle attached (PA; >3 μm) and free living (FL; 0.2 μm) bacterial communities by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) in 6 of the mesocosms and the surrounding fjord, ranging from 185 to 1050 initial μatm pCO2. ARISA was able to resolve about 20-30 bacterial band-classes per sample and allowed for a detailed investigation of the explicit richness. Both, the PA and the FL bacterioplankton community exhibited a strong temporal development, which was driven mainly by temperature and phytoplankton development. In response to the breakdown of a picophytoplankton bloom (phase 3 of the experiment), number of ARISA-band classes in the PA-community were reduced at low and medium CO2 (∼180-600 μatm) by about 25%, while it was more or less stable at high CO2 (∼ 650-800 μatm). We hypothesise that enhanced viral lysis and enhanced availability of organic substrates at high CO2 resulted in a more diverse PA-bacterial community in the post-bloom phase. Despite lower cell numbers and extracellular enzyme activities in the post-bloom phase, bacterial protein production was enhanced in

  18. Effect of elevated CO2 on the dynamics of particle attached and free living bacterioplankton communities in an Arctic fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Romac

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 results in acidification of the oceans, expected to lead to the fastest drop in ocean pH in the last 300 million years, if anthropogenic emissions are continued at present rate. Due to higher solubility of gases in cold waters and increased exposure to the atmosphere by decreasing ice cover, the Arctic Ocean will be among the areas most strongly affected by ocean acidification. Yet, the response of the plankton community of high latitudes to ocean acidification has not been studied so far. This work is part of the Arctic campaign of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA in 2010, employing 9 in situ mesocosms of about 45 000 l each to simulate ocean acidification in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (78°56.2' N 11°53.6' E. In the present study, we investigated effects of elevated CO2 on the composition and richness of particle attached (PA; >3 μm and free living (FL; 0.2 μm bacterial communities by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA in 6 of the mesocosms and the surrounding fjord, ranging from 185 to 1050 initial μatm pCO2. ARISA was able to resolve about 20–30 bacterial band-classes per sample and allowed for a detailed investigation of the explicit richness. Both, the PA and the FL bacterioplankton community exhibited a strong temporal development, which was driven mainly by temperature and phytoplankton development. In response to the breakdown of a picophytoplankton bloom (phase 3 of the experiment, number of ARISA-band classes in the PA-community were reduced at low and medium CO2 (∼180–600 μatm by about 25%, while it was more or less stable at high CO2 (∼ 650–800 μatm. We hypothesise that enhanced viral lysis and enhanced availability of organic substrates at high CO2 resulted in a more diverse PA-bacterial community in the post-bloom phase. Despite lower cell numbers and extracellular enzyme activities in the post-bloom phase, bacterial protein production

  19. Nástroje pro Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The thesis covers the term for specific data analysis called Big Data. The thesis firstly defines the term Big Data and the need for its creation because of the rising need for deeper data processing and analysis tools and methods. The thesis also covers some of the technical aspects of Big Data tools, focusing on Apache Hadoop in detail. The later chapters contain Big Data market analysis and describe the biggest Big Data competitors and tools. The practical part of the thesis presents a way...

  20. ISSUES, CHALLENGES, AND SOLUTIONS: BIG DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaseena K.U.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Data has become an indispensable part of every economy, industry, organization, business function and individual. Big Data is a term used to identify the datasets that whose size is beyond the ability of typical database software tools to store, manage and analyze. The Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This paper presents the literature review about the Big data Mining and the issues and challenges with emphasis on the distinguished features of Big Data. It also discusses some methods to deal with big data.

  1. Big data is not a monolith

    CERN Document Server

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Mattioli, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Big data is ubiquitous but heterogeneous. Big data can be used to tally clicks and traffic on web pages, find patterns in stock trades, track consumer preferences, identify linguistic correlations in large corpuses of texts. This book examines big data not as an undifferentiated whole but contextually, investigating the varied challenges posed by big data for health, science, law, commerce, and politics. Taken together, the chapters reveal a complex set of problems, practices, and policies. The advent of big data methodologies has challenged the theory-driven approach to scientific knowledge in favor of a data-driven one. Social media platforms and self-tracking tools change the way we see ourselves and others. The collection of data by corporations and government threatens privacy while promoting transparency. Meanwhile, politicians, policy makers, and ethicists are ill-prepared to deal with big data's ramifications. The contributors look at big data's effect on individuals as it exerts social control throu...

  2. Do we need big flood to cut spectacular river gorges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Loreto; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Mather, Anne; Stokes, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The study of a historical erosional process occurred in a dam spillway in NW Spain evidences extremely rapid gorge formation in granite. Historic documents, photographs and surveys preserved at the Historical Archives allowed the reconstruction of the whole erosion process. A ~270 m long, ~100 m deep and ~100 to 160 m wide amphitheater headed canyon was carved over 6 years. The study approaches the reconstruction of the scour site topography prior to the gorge formation and during the erosion events, and analyses the erosion mechanisms involved in the canyon cutting. Data reveal extremely high (>100 m/year) erosion rates, the highest reported so far on earth, associated to small-moderate floods (~100-1500m3/s). Results come to nuance the established models of erosion and gorge formation which are used to analyze the landscape evolution. The example demonstrates that moderate water discharges are capable of radical erosion suggesting that adjustments to changes such as drainage diversion and capture, or glacier outburst, may be initially much more rapid than has hereto been assumed. Structural preconditioning of the bedrock through jointing and faulting was the primary control on landscape change, conditioning gorge morphology and the rate at which erosion progress.

  3. SURVEY-Big Sioux River, Minnehaha County, SD, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. Big Numbers in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schellekens, A N

    2016-01-01

    This paper contains some personal reflections on several computational contributions to what is now known as the "String Theory Landscape". It consists of two parts. The first part concerns the origin of big numbers, and especially the number $10^{1500}$ that appeared in work on the covariant lattice construction (with W. Lerche and D. Luest). This part contains some new results. I correct a huge but inconsequential error, discuss some more accurate estimates, and compare with the counting for free fermion constructions. In particular I prove that the latter only provide an exponentially small fraction of all even self-dual lattices for large lattice dimensions. The second part of the paper concerns dealing with big numbers, and contains some lessons learned from various vacuum scanning projects.

  5. George and the big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2012-01-01

    George has problems. He has twin baby sisters at home who demand his parents’ attention. His beloved pig Freddy has been exiled to a farm, where he’s miserable. And worst of all, his best friend, Annie, has made a new friend whom she seems to like more than George. So George jumps at the chance to help Eric with his plans to run a big experiment in Switzerland that seeks to explore the earliest moment of the universe. But there is a conspiracy afoot, and a group of evildoers is planning to sabotage the experiment. Can George repair his friendship with Annie and piece together the clues before Eric’s experiment is destroyed forever? This engaging adventure features essays by Professor Stephen Hawking and other eminent physicists about the origins of the universe and ends with a twenty-page graphic novel that explains how the Big Bang happened—in reverse!

  6. The big wheels of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS cavern is filling up at an impressive rate. The installation of the first of the big wheels of the muon spectrometer, a thin gap chamber (TGC) wheel, was completed in September. The muon spectrometer will include four big moving wheels at each end, each measuring 25 metres in diameter. Of the eight wheels in total, six will be composed of thin gap chambers for the muon trigger system and the other two will consist of monitored drift tubes (MDTs) to measure the position of the muons (see Bulletin No. 13/2006). The installation of the 688 muon chambers in the barrel is progressing well, with three-quarters of them already installed between the coils of the toroid magnet.

  7. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research. PMID:26844660

  8. Big Bounce in Dipole Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Battisti, Marco Valerio; Marciano, Antonino

    2010-01-01

    We derive the cosmological Big Bounce scenario from the dipole approximation of Loop Quantum Gravity. We show that a non-singular evolution takes place for any matter field and that, by considering a massless scalar field as a relational clock for the dynamics, the semi-classical proprieties of an initial state are preserved on the other side of the bounce. This model thus enhances the relation between Loop Quantum Cosmology and the full theory.

  9. BIG DATA IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Logica BANICA; Alina HAGIU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, dealing with a lot of data originating from social media sites and mobile communications among data from business environments and institutions, lead to the definition of a new concept, known as Big Data. The economic impact of the sheer amount of data produced in a last two years has increased rapidly. It is necessary to aggregate all types of data (structured and unstructured) in order to improve current transactions, to develop new business models, to provide a real image ...

  10. BIG Data – A Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha Bhatia; Gaurav Vaswani

    2013-01-01

    As more data becomes available from an abundance of sources both within and outside, organizations are seeking to use those abundant resources to increase innovation, retain customers, and increase operational efficiency. At the same time, organizations are challenged by their end users, who are demanding greater capability and integration to mine and analyze burgeoning new sources of information. Big Data provides opportunities for business users to ask questions they never were able to ask ...

  11. Big data processing with Hadoop

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    Computing technology has changed the way we work, study, and live. The distributed data processing technology is one of the popular topics in the IT field. It provides a simple and centralized computing platform by reducing the cost of the hardware. The characteristics of distributed data processing technology have changed the whole industry. Hadoop, as the open source project of Apache foundation, is the most representative platform of distributed big data processing. The Hadoop distribu...

  12. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Keith A.; Scully, Sean T.

    1995-01-01

    WThe current status of big bang nucleosynthesis is reviewed with an emphasis on the comparison between the observational determination of the light element abundances of \\D, \\he3, \\he4 and \\li7 and the predictions from theory. In particular, we present new analyses for \\he4 and \\li7. Implications for physics beyond the standard model are also discussed. Limits on the effective number of neutrino flavors are also updated.

  13. Industrialization and the Big Push

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores Rosenstein-Rodman's (1943) idea that simultaneous industrialization of many sectors of the economy can be profitable for all of them, even when no sector can break even industrializing alone. We analyze this ides in the context of an imperfectly competitive economy with aggregate demand spillovers, and interpret the big push into industrialization as a move from a bad to a good equilibrium. We show that for two equilibria to exist, it must be the case that an industrializi...

  14. Pragmatic Interaction between Big Powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Lu. It is very difficult to summarize the relationship among big powers in 2004. Looking east, there existed a """"small cold war"""" named by some media between Europe and Russia and between the United States and Russia; with regard to the """"orange revolution"""" in Ukraine at the end of the year, a rival show rope and Russia. Looking east, awas displayed between America, Eufresh scent seems to fill the air.

  15. The BigBOSS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Schlegel, D; Abraham, T; Ahn, C; Prieto, C Allende; Annis, J; Aubourg, E; Azzaro, M; Baltay, S Bailey C; Baugh, C; Bebek, C; Becerril, S; Blanton, M; Bolton, A; Bromley, B; Cahn, R; Carton, P -H; Cervantes-Cota, J L; Chu, Y; Cortes, M; Dawson, K; Dey, A; Dickinson, M; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Ealet, A; Edelstein, J; Eppelle, D; Escoffier, S; Evrard, A; Faccioli, L; Frenk, C; Geha, M; Gerdes, D; Gondolo, P; Gonzalez-Arroyo, A; Grossan, B; Heckman, T; Heetderks, H; Ho, S; Honscheid, K; Huterer, D; Ilbert, O; Ivans, I; Jelinsky, P; Jing, Y; Joyce, D; Kennedy, R; Kent, S; Kieda, D; Kim, A; Kim, C; Kneib, J -P; Kong, X; Kosowsky, A; Krishnan, K; Lahav, O; Lampton, M; LeBohec, S; Brun, V Le; Levi, M; Li, C; Liang, M; Lim, H; Lin, W; Linder, E; Lorenzon, W; de la Macorra, A; Magneville, Ch; Malina, R; Marinoni, C; Martinez, V; Majewski, S; Matheson, T; McCloskey, R; McDonald, P; McKay, T; McMahon, J; Menard, B; Miralda-Escude, J; Modjaz, M; Montero-Dorta, A; Morales, I; Mostek, N; Newman, J; Nichol, R; Nugent, P; Olsen, K; Padmanabhan, N; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Park, I; Peacock, J; Percival, W; Perlmutter, S; Peroux, C; Petitjean, P; Prada, F; Prieto, E; Prochaska, J; Reil, K; Rockosi, C; Roe, N; Rollinde, E; Roodman, A; Ross, N; Rudnick, G; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Sanchez, J; Sawyer, D; Schimd, C; Schubnell, M; Scoccimaro, R; Seljak, U; Seo, H; Sheldon, E; Sholl, M; Shulte-Ladbeck, R; Slosar, A; Smith, D S; Smoot, G; Springer, W; Stril, A; Szalay, A S; Tao, C; Tarle, G; Taylor, E; Tilquin, A; Tinker, J; Valdes, F; Wang, J; Wang, T; Weaver, B A; Weinberg, D; White, M; Wood-Vasey, M; Yang, J; Yeche, X Yang Ch; Zakamska, N; Zentner, A; Zhai, C; Zhang, P

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy red...

  16. Big data: the management revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Andrew; Brynjolfsson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Big data, the authors write, is far more powerful than the analytics of the past. Executives can measure and therefore manage more precisely than ever before. They can make better predictions and smarter decisions. They can target more-effective interventions in areas that so far have been dominated by gut and intuition rather than by data and rigor. The differences between big data and analytics are a matter of volume, velocity, and variety: More data now cross the internet every second than were stored in the entire internet 20 years ago. Nearly real-time information makes it possible for a company to be much more agile than its competitors. And that information can come from social networks, images, sensors, the web, or other unstructured sources. The managerial challenges, however, are very real. Senior decision makers have to learn to ask the right questions and embrace evidence-based decision making. Organizations must hire scientists who can find patterns in very large data sets and translate them into useful business information. IT departments have to work hard to integrate all the relevant internal and external sources of data. The authors offer two success stories to illustrate how companies are using big data: PASSUR Aerospace enables airlines to match their actual and estimated arrival times. Sears Holdings directly analyzes its incoming store data to make promotions much more precise and faster. PMID:23074865

  17. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA. A pCO2 range of 175–1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard. The bacterioplankton communities responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing protein production and extracellular enzyme activity and revealed a close coupling of heterotrophic bacterial activity to phytoplankton productivity in this experiment. The natural extracellular enzyme assemblages showed increased activity in response to moderate acidification. A decrease in seawater pH of 0.5 units roughly doubled rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase. Activities of extracellular enzymes in the mesocosms were directly related to both seawater pH and primary production. Also primary production and bacterial protein production in the mesocosms at different pCO2 were positively correlated. Therefore, it can be suggested that the efficient heterotrophic carbon utilization in this Arctic microbial food web had the potential to counteract increased phytoplankton production that was achieved under elevated pCO2 in this study. However, our results also show that the transfer of beneficial pCO2-related effects on the cellular bacterial metabolism to the scale of community activity and organic matter degradation can be mitigated by the top-down control of bacterial abundances in natural microbial communities.

  18. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC) optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response ...

  19. Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures

    OpenAIRE

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin). The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out unti...

  20. An Overview of Big Data Privacy Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Hung

    2013-01-01

    Big data is the term for a collection of large and complex datasets from different sources that is difficult to process using traditional data management and processing applications. In these datasets, some information must be kept secret from others. On the other hand, some information has to be released for acquainting information or big data analytical services. The research challenge is how to protect the private information in the context of big data. Privacy is described by the ability ...

  1. Social Big Data and Privacy Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Based on the rapid development of Big Data, the data from the online social network becomea major part of it. Big data make the social networks became data-oriented rather than social-oriented. Taking this into account, this dissertation presents a qualitative study to research howdoes the data-oriented social network affect its users’ privacy management for nowadays. Within this dissertation, an overview of Big Data and privacy issues on the social network waspresented as a background study. ...

  2. 对虾养殖围隔生态系统浮游细菌的呼吸与生产%Respiration and production of bacterioplankton in shrimp cultural enclosure ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国才; 李德尚; 董双林

    2003-01-01

    The study on the respiration and production of bacterioplankton in five shrimp cultural enclosure ecosystems showed that the production and respiration fluctuated from 90 to 909 and 248 to 1785 μgC· L-1. d-l, respec-tively. There existed a significant positive relationship between production and respiration. The daily P/B ratio of bacterioplancton averaged 0.93 d-l, and its production efficiency averaged 0.34.

  3. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  4. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  5. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  6. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  7. Fitting ERGMs on big networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Weihua

    2016-09-01

    The exponential random graph model (ERGM) has become a valuable tool for modeling social networks. In particular, ERGM provides great flexibility to account for both covariates effects on tie formations and endogenous network formation processes. However, there are both conceptual and computational issues for fitting ERGMs on big networks. This paper describes a framework and a series of methods (based on existent algorithms) to address these issues. It also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and the conditions to which they are most applicable. Selected methods are illustrated through examples. PMID:27480375

  8. Big deformation in 17C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction and interaction cross sections of 17C on a carbon target have been re-analyzed using the modified Glauber model. The analysis with a deformed Woods-Saxon density/potential suggests a big deformation structure for 17C. The existence of a tail in the density distribution supports the possibility of it being a one-neutron halo structure. Under a deformed core plus a single-particle assumption, analysis shows a dominant d-wave of the valence neutron in 17C. (authors)

  9. Big bang nucleosynthesis: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An update on the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is presented. With the value of the baryon-tophoton ratio determined to high precision by WMAP, standard BBN is a parameter-free theory. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, 4He, and 7Li is discussed and compared to their observational determination. While concordance for D and 4He is satisfactory, the prediction for 7Li exceeds the observational determination by a factor of about four. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed

  10. Big Five -persoonallisuuspiirteiden yhteydet unettomuuteen

    OpenAIRE

    Aronen, Aino

    2015-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittÀÀ, ovatko Big Five -persoonallisuuspiirteet (neuroottisuus, ulospÀinsuuntautuneisuus, tunnollisuus, avoimuus kokemuksille ja sovinnollisuus) yhteydessÀ unettomuuden oireisiin, joita olivat nukahtamisvaikeudet, herÀilyt, vaikeudet pysyÀ unessa ja vÀsyneenÀ herÀÀmiset normaalipituisten unien jÀlkeen. Unettomuutta koskevien teorioiden mukaan korkea neuroottisuus, matala ulospÀinsuuntautuneisuus, matala tunnollisuus ja matala sovinnollisuus voivat...

  11. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  12. Big Data Analytics Using Cloud and Crowd

    OpenAIRE

    Allahbakhsh, Mohammad; Arbabi, Saeed; Motahari-Nezhad, Hamid-Reza; Benatallah, Boualem

    2016-01-01

    The increasing application of social and human-enabled systems in people's daily life from one side and from the other side the fast growth of mobile and smart phones technologies have resulted in generating tremendous amount of data, also referred to as big data, and a need for analyzing these data, i.e., big data analytics. Recently a trend has emerged to incorporate human computing power into big data analytics to solve some shortcomings of existing big data analytics such as dealing with ...

  13. Big data optimization recent developments and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to provide the necessary background to work with big data by introducing some novel optimization algorithms and codes capable of working in the big data setting as well as introducing some applications in big data optimization for both academics and practitioners interested, and to benefit society, industry, academia, and government. Presenting applications in a variety of industries, this book will be useful for the researchers aiming to analyses large scale data. Several optimization algorithms for big data including convergent parallel algorithms, limited memory bundle algorithm, diagonal bundle method, convergent parallel algorithms, network analytics, and many more have been explored in this book.

  14. Big data: an introduction for librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Modern life produces data at an astounding rate and shows no signs of slowing. This has lead to new advances in data storage and analysis and the concept of "big data," that is, massive data sets that can yield surprising insights when analyzed. This column will briefly describe what big data is and why it is important. It will also briefly explore the possibilities and problems of big data and the implications it has for librarians. A list of big data projects and resources is also included. PMID:25023020

  15. Big data analytics with R and Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Prajapati, Vignesh

    2013-01-01

    Big Data Analytics with R and Hadoop is a tutorial style book that focuses on all the powerful big data tasks that can be achieved by integrating R and Hadoop.This book is ideal for R developers who are looking for a way to perform big data analytics with Hadoop. This book is also aimed at those who know Hadoop and want to build some intelligent applications over Big data with R packages. It would be helpful if readers have basic knowledge of R.

  16. Urgent Call for Nursing Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Connie W

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this panel is to expand internationally a National Action Plan for sharable and comparable nursing data for quality improvement and big data science. There is an urgent need to assure that nursing has sharable and comparable data for quality improvement and big data science. A national collaborative - Nursing Knowledge and Big Data Science includes multi-stakeholder groups focused on a National Action Plan toward implementing and using sharable and comparable nursing big data. Panelists will share accomplishments and future plans with an eye toward international collaboration. This presentation is suitable for any audience attending the NI2016 conference. PMID:27332330

  17. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  18. Microbial Gene Abundance and Expression Patterns across a River to Ocean Salinity Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Crump, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities mediate the biogeochemical cycles that drive ecosystems, and it is important to understand how these communities are affected by changing environmental conditions, especially in complex coastal zones. As fresh and marine waters mix in estuaries and river plumes, the salinity, temperature, and nutrient gradients that are generated strongly influence bacterioplankton community structure, yet, a parallel change in functional diversity has not been described. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted on five water samples spanning the salinity gradient of the Columbia River coastal margin, including river, estuary, plume, and ocean, in August 2010. Samples were pre-filtered through 3 μm filters and collected on 0.2 μm filters, thus results were focused on changes among free-living microbial communities. Results from metagenomic 16S rRNA sequences showed taxonomically distinct bacterial communities in river, estuary, and coastal ocean. Despite the strong salinity gradient observed over sampling locations (0 to 33), the functional gene profiles in the metagenomes were very similar from river to ocean with an average similarity of 82%. The metatranscriptomes, however, had an average similarity of 31%. Although differences were few among the metagenomes, we observed a change from river to ocean in the abundance of genes encoding for catabolic pathways, osmoregulators, and metal transporters. Additionally, genes specifying both bacterial oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were abundant and expressed in the estuary and plume. Denitrification genes were found throughout the Columbia River coastal margin, and most highly expressed in the estuary. Across a river to ocean gradient, the free-living microbial community followed three different patterns of diversity: 1) the taxonomy of the community changed strongly with salinity, 2) metabolic potential was highly similar across samples, with few differences in functional gene abundance

  19. Microbial Gene Abundance and Expression Patterns across a River to Ocean Salinity Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Fortunato

    Full Text Available Microbial communities mediate the biogeochemical cycles that drive ecosystems, and it is important to understand how these communities are affected by changing environmental conditions, especially in complex coastal zones. As fresh and marine waters mix in estuaries and river plumes, the salinity, temperature, and nutrient gradients that are generated strongly influence bacterioplankton community structure, yet, a parallel change in functional diversity has not been described. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted on five water samples spanning the salinity gradient of the Columbia River coastal margin, including river, estuary, plume, and ocean, in August 2010. Samples were pre-filtered through 3 μm filters and collected on 0.2 μm filters, thus results were focused on changes among free-living microbial communities. Results from metagenomic 16S rRNA sequences showed taxonomically distinct bacterial communities in river, estuary, and coastal ocean. Despite the strong salinity gradient observed over sampling locations (0 to 33, the functional gene profiles in the metagenomes were very similar from river to ocean with an average similarity of 82%. The metatranscriptomes, however, had an average similarity of 31%. Although differences were few among the metagenomes, we observed a change from river to ocean in the abundance of genes encoding for catabolic pathways, osmoregulators, and metal transporters. Additionally, genes specifying both bacterial oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were abundant and expressed in the estuary and plume. Denitrification genes were found throughout the Columbia River coastal margin, and most highly expressed in the estuary. Across a river to ocean gradient, the free-living microbial community followed three different patterns of diversity: 1 the taxonomy of the community changed strongly with salinity, 2 metabolic potential was highly similar across samples, with few differences in

  20. BigDataBench: a Big Data Benchmark Suite from Internet Services

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Jianfeng; Luo, Chunjie; Zhu, Yuqing; Yang, Qiang; He, Yongqiang; Gao, Wanling; Jia, Zhen; Shi, Yingjie; Zhang, Shujie; Zheng, Chen; Lu, Gang; Zhan, Kent; Li, Xiaona; Qiu, Bizhu

    2014-01-01

    As architecture, systems, and data management communities pay greater attention to innovative big data systems and architectures, the pressure of benchmarking and evaluating these systems rises. Considering the broad use of big data systems, big data benchmarks must include diversity of data and workloads. Most of the state-of-the-art big data benchmarking efforts target evaluating specific types of applications or system software stacks, and hence they are not qualified for serving the purpo...

  1. Big Data; A Management Revolution : The emerging role of big data in businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Blasiak, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Big data is a term that was coined in 2012 and has since then emerged to one of the top trends in business and technology. Big data is an agglomeration of different technologies resulting in data processing capabilities that have been unreached before. Big data is generally characterized by 4 factors. Volume, velocity and variety. These three factors distinct it from the traditional data use. The possibilities to utilize this technology are vast. Big data technology has touch points in differ...

  2. CloudJet4BigData: Streamlining Big Data via an accelerated socket interface

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Z.Wang

    2014-01-01

    Big data needs to feed users with fresh processing results and cloud platforms can be used to speed up big data applications. This paper describes a new data communication protocol (CloudJet) for long distance and large volume big data accessing operations to alleviate the large latencies encountered in sharing big data resources in the clouds. It encapsulates a dynamic multi-stream/multi-path engine at the socket level, which conforms to Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) and thereb...

  3. CloudJet4BigData: Streamlining Big Data via an Accelerated Socket Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Frank Zhigang; Dimitrakos, Theo; Helian, Na; Wu, Sining; Li, Ling; Yates, Rodric

    2014-01-01

    Big data needs to feed users with fresh processing results and cloud platforms can be used to speed up big data applications. This paper describes a new data communication protocol (CloudJet) for long distance and large volume big data accessing operations to alleviate the large latencies encountered in sharing big data resources in the clouds. It encapsulates a dynamic multi-stream/multi-path engine at the socket level, which conforms to Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) and thereb...

  4. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Register (73 FR 76677) on December 17, 2008. For more about the initial process and the history of this... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife...

  5. Comparative validity of brief to medium-length Big Five and Big Six personality questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Thalmayer; G. Saucier; A. Eigenhuis

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five

  6. Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are…

  7. Astronomical surveys and big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ -rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ -ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS), and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  8. Georges et le big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Georges et Annie, sa meilleure amie, sont sur le point d'assister à l'une des plus importantes expériences scientifiques de tous les temps : explorer les premiers instants de l'Univers, le Big Bang ! Grâce à Cosmos, leur super ordinateur, et au Grand Collisionneur de hadrons créé par Éric, le père d'Annie, ils vont enfin pouvoir répondre à cette question essentielle : pourquoi existons nous ? Mais Georges et Annie découvrent qu'un complot diabolique se trame. Pire, c'est toute la recherche scientifique qui est en péril ! Entraîné dans d'incroyables aventures, Georges ira jusqu'aux confins de la galaxie pour sauver ses amis...Une plongée passionnante au coeur du Big Bang. Les toutes dernières théories de Stephen Hawking et des plus grands scientifiques actuels.

  9. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  10. An analysis of cross-sectional differences in big and non-big public accounting firms' audit programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokdijk, J.H. (Hans); Drieenhuizen, F.; Stein, M.T.; Simunic, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant body of prior research has shown that audits by the Big 5 (now Big 4) public accounting firms are quality differentiated relative to non-Big 5 audits. This result can be derived analytically by assuming that Big 5 and non-Big 5 firms face different loss functions for "audit failures" a

  11. Seasonal Variation of the Geochemistry and the Effects on the Composition in Microbial Communities Attached to Fraser River Suspended Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M. C.; Epp, A.; Luymes, R.; DaSilva, J.; Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B.; Coolen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of the temporal dynamics of microbial communities attached to suspended sediments in the Arctic rivers have revealed systematic seasonal changes in microbial community composition, based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing (Crump et al., 2007). A time series investigation of the Fraser River system in British Columbia has been conducted with approximately bi-weekly sampling since (2009). The results show significant seasonal variations in many chemical parameters (e.g. nutrient and major element concentrations). An investigation of microbial diversity in the Fraser River is important to understand linkages between microbial diversity and the biogeochemistry of Fraser River water and the particles it transports. The results are the beginning of data analysis to the framework of annual changes that may pose as a threat to biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that decreases in river microbial biodiversity can be linked to decreases in water quality and changes in seasonal water flow (Brown et al., 2007; Vörösmarty et al., 2010). Analysis of microbial DNA (rDNA) attached to the suspended sediment load has not been conducted before on the Fraser River system. The results from this study will therefore establish a bench-mark against which future changes in the Fraser River basin can be compared, it will also serve as an example of seasonal dynamics in microbial community diversity for comparison with other temperate rivers. Such potential changes are of great significance as the Fraser River system is one of the prime salmon spawning river basins in the world. Brown L. E. et al. (2007) Vulnerability of alpine stream biodiversity to shrinking glaciers and snowpacks. Global Change Biology 13, 958-966. Crump B. C. et al. (2007) Biogeography of bacterioplankton in lakes and streams of an arctic tundra catchment. Ecology 88, 1365-1378. Vörösmarty C. J. et al. (2010) Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467, 555-561.

  12. Why Big Data Is a Big Deal (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new group of data mining technologies promises to change forever the way we sift through our vast stores of data,making it faster and cheaper.Some of the technologies are actively being used by people on the bleeding edge who need the technology now,like those involved in creating Web-based services that are driven by social media.They're also heavily contributing to these projects.In other vertical industries,businesses are realizing that much more of their value proposition is informationbased than they had previously thought,which will allow big data technologies to gain traction quickly,Olofson says.Couple that with affordable hardware and software,and enterprises find themselves in a perfect storm of business transformation opportunities.

  13. Reach-scale characterization of large woody debris in a low-gradient, Midwestern U.S.A. river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Derek J.; Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Harden, Carol P.

    2016-06-01

    Addition of large woody debris (LWD) to rivers has increasingly become a popular stream restoration strategy, particularly in river systems of the Midwestern United States. However, our knowledge of LWD dynamics is mostly limited to high gradient montane river systems, or coastal river systems. The LWD-related management of low-gradient, Midwestern river systems is thus largely based on higher gradient analogs of LWD dynamics. This research characterizes fluvial wood loads and investigates the relationships between fluvial wood, channel morphology, and sediment deposition in a relatively low-gradient, semiconfined, alluvial river. The LWD and channel morphology were surveyed at nine reaches along the Big River in southeastern Missouri to investigate those relationships in comparison to other regions. Wood loads in the Big River are low (3-114 m3/100 m) relative to those of higher gradient river systems of the Pacific Northwest, but high relative to lower-gradient river systems of the Eastern United States. Wood characteristics such as size and orientation suggest that the dominant LWD recruitment mechanism in the Big River is bank erosion. Also, ratios of wood geometry to channel geometry show that the Big River maintains a relatively high wood transport capacity for most of its length. Although LWD creates sites for sediment storage, the overall impact on reach-scale sediment storage in the Big River is low (< 4.2% of total in-channel storage). However, wood loads, and thus opportunities for sediment storage, have the potential to grow in the future as Midwestern riparian forests mature. This study represents the first of its kind within this particular type of river system and within this region and thus serves as a basis for understanding fluvial wood dynamics in low-gradient river systems of the Midwestern United States.

  14. The ethics of Big data: analytical survey

    OpenAIRE

    GIBER L.; KAZANTSEV N.

    2015-01-01

    The number of recent publications on the matter of ethical challenges of the implementation of Big Data has signified the growing interest to all the aspects of this issue. The proposed study specifically aims at analyzing ethical issues connected with Big Data.

  15. A New Look at Big History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out a "big history" which resonates with the priorities of our own time. A globalizing world calls for new spacial scales to underpin what the history curriculum addresses, "big history" calls for new temporal scales, while concern over climate change calls for a new look at subject boundaries. The article…

  16. The Big Sleep in the Woods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉峰

    2002-01-01

    Now it's the time of the big sleep for the bees and the bears. Even the buds of the plants whose leaves fall off share in it. But the intensity of this winter sleep, or hibernation, depends on who's doing it.The big sleep of the bears ,for instance ,would probably be thought of as a

  17. Big Science and Long-tail Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Jim Downing and I were privileged to be the guests of Salavtore Mele at CERN yesterday and to see the Atlas detector of the Large Hadron Collider . This is a wow experience - although I knew it was big, I hadnt realised how big.

  18. An embedding for the big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    A cosmological model is given that has good physical properties for the early and late universe but is a hypersurface in a flat five-dimensional manifold. The big bang can therefore be regarded as an effect of a choice of coordinates in a truncated higher-dimensional geometry. Thus the big bang is in some sense a geometrical illusion.

  19. Big Red: A Development Environment for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faithfull, Alexander John; Perrone, Gian David; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present Big Red, a visual editor for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems, based upon Eclipse. The editor integrates with several existing bigraph tools to permit simulation and model-checking of bigraphical models. We give a brief introduction to the bigraphs formalism, and show how these...... concepts manifest within the tool using a small motivating example bigraphical model developed in Big Red....

  20. Hom-Big Brackets: Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Liqiang; Sheng, Yunhe

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of hom-big brackets, which is a generalization of Kosmann-Schwarzbach's big brackets. We show that it gives rise to a graded hom-Lie algebra. Thus, it is a useful tool to study hom-structures. In particular, we use it to describe hom-Lie bialgebras and hom-Nijenhuis operators.

  1. Big system: Interactive graphics for the engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenneville, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The BCS Interactive Graphics System (BIG System) approach to graphics was presented, along with several significant engineering applications. The BIG System precompiler, the graphics support library, and the function requirements of graphics applications are discussed. It was concluded that graphics standardization and a device independent code can be developed to assure maximum graphic terminal transferability.

  2. What is beyond the big five?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, G; Goldberg, L R

    1998-08-01

    Previous investigators have proposed that various kinds of person-descriptive content--such as differences in attitudes or values, in sheer evaluation, in attractiveness, or in height and girth--are not adequately captured by the Big Five Model. We report on a rather exhaustive search for reliable sources of Big Five-independent variation in data from person-descriptive adjectives. Fifty-three candidate clusters were developed in a college sample using diverse approaches and sources. In a nonstudent adult sample, clusters were evaluated with respect to a minimax criterion: minimum multiple correlation with factors from Big Five markers and maximum reliability. The most clearly Big Five-independent clusters referred to Height, Girth, Religiousness, Employment Status, Youthfulness and Negative Valence (or low-base-rate attributes). Clusters referring to Fashionableness, Sensuality/Seductiveness, Beauty, Masculinity, Frugality, Humor, Wealth, Prejudice, Folksiness, Cunning, and Luck appeared to be potentially beyond the Big Five, although each of these clusters demonstrated Big Five multiple correlations of .30 to .45, and at least one correlation of .20 and over with a Big Five factor. Of all these content areas, Religiousness, Negative Valence, and the various aspects of Attractiveness were found to be represented by a substantial number of distinct, common adjectives. Results suggest directions for supplementing the Big Five when one wishes to extend variable selection outside the domain of personality traits as conventionally defined. PMID:9728415

  3. Kansen voor Big data – WPA Vertrouwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.A. van den; Roosendaal, A.P.C.; Veenstra, A.F.E. van; Nunen, A.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Big data is expected to become a driver for economic growth, but this can only be achieved when services based on (big) data are accepted by citizens and consumers. In a recent policy brief, the Cabinet Office mentions trust as one of the three pillars (the others being transparency and control) for

  4. Big Food, Food Systems, and Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckler, David; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, guest editors David Stuckler and Marion Nestle lay out why more examination of the food industry is necessary, and offer three competing views on how public health professionals might engage with Big Food.

  5. Probing the pre-big bang universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superstring theory suggests a new cosmology whereby a long inflationary phase preceded a non singular big bang-like event. After discussing how pre-big bang inflation naturally arises from an almost trivial initial state of the Universe, I will describe how present or near-future experiments can provide sensitive probes of how the Universe behaved in the pre-bang era

  6. BIG Data – A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Bhatia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As more data becomes available from an abundance of sources both within and outside, organizations are seeking to use those abundant resources to increase innovation, retain customers, and increase operational efficiency. At the same time, organizations are challenged by their end users, who are demanding greater capability and integration to mine and analyze burgeoning new sources of information. Big Data provides opportunities for business users to ask questions they never were able to ask before. How can a financial organization find better ways to detect fraud? How can an insurance company gain a deeper insight into its customers to see who may be the least economical to insure? How does a software company find its most at-risk customers those who are about to deploy a competitive product? They need to integrate Big Data techniques with their current enterprise data to gain that competitive advantage. Heterogeneity, scale, timeliness, complexity, and privacy problems with Big Data impede progress at all phases of the pipeline that can create value from data. The problems start right away during data acquisition, when the data tsunami requires us to make decisions, currently in an ad hoc manner, about what data to keep and what to discard, and how to store what we keep reliably with the right metadata. Much data today is not natively in structured format; for example, tweets and blogs are weakly structured pieces of text, while images and video are structured for storage and display, but not for semantic content and search: transforming such content into a structured format for later analysis is a major challenge. The value of data explodes when it can be linked with other data, thus data integration is a major creator of value. Since most data is directly generated in digital format today, we have the opportunity and the challenge both to influence the creation to facilitate later linkage and to automatically link previously created data

  7. Inhibition of bacterial and phytoplanktonic metabolic activity in the lower River Rhine by ditallowdimethylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbing, D M; Admiraal, W

    1991-12-01

    The effects of a quaternary ammonium compound, ditallowdimethylammonium chloride (DTDMAC), on natural populations of bacteria and phytoplankton from the lower River Rhine were examined to estimate their sensitivity to the discharges of cationic surfactants in the river basin. In short-term experiments, significant decreases in the growth rate of bacterioplankton and in the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton were observed at a nominal concentration of 0.03 to 0.1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. Nitrification was measured with an ion-selective electrode and by the rate of acid production in ammonium-spiked river water and was found to be only sensitive to the addition of concentrations higher than 1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. This does not support an earlier suggestion that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria are specifically sensitive to quaternary ammonium compounds. The effect of DTDMAC on thymidine incorporation was shown to depend strongly on the concentration of suspended material, which varied with the sampling date. This effect was also quantified in experimental manipulations with Rhine water. Calculations on the partitioning of DTDMAC between water and suspended matter confirmed the role of suspended solids and showed that an increase of the dissolved DTDMAC concentration in Rhine water by circa 0.01 mg liter-1 leads to a slight inhibition of the growth of heterotrophic bacteria. It is concluded that a total concentration of circa 0.01 mg of DTDMAC liter-1 measured in the River Rhine is likely to have biological consequences. PMID:1785934

  8. The ethics of biomedical big data

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstadt, Brent Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. ‘Biomedical Big Data’ refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use/re-purposing of data, in areas such as privacy, consent, professionalism, power relationships, and ethical governance of Big Data platforms. Approaches and methods are discussed that can be used to address these problems to achieve the appropriate balance between the social goods of biomedical Big Data research and the safety and privacy of individuals. Seventeen original contributions analyse the ethical, social and related policy implications of the analysis and curation of biomedical Big Data, written by leading experts in the areas of biomedical research, medical and technology ethics, privacy, governance and data protection. The book advances our understan...

  9. Cloud Based Big Data Infrastructure: Architectural Components and Automated Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    Demchenko, Yuri; Turkmen, Fatih; Blanchet, Christophe; Loomis, Charles; Laat, Caees de

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the general architecture and functional components of the cloud based Big Data Infrastructure (BDI). The proposed BDI architecture is based on the analysis of the emerging Big Data and data intensive technologies and supported by the definition of the Big Data Architecture Framework (BDAF) that defines the following components of the Big Data technologies: Big Data definition, Data Management including data lifecycle and data structures, Big Data Infrastructure (generical...

  10. Evidence of the Big Fix

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-01-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value $v_{h}$. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self coupling are fixed when we vary $v_{h}$. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental low in our case.

  11. Big data ja yrityksen markkinointi

    OpenAIRE

    Perolainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä oli tavoitteena tutkia big datan hyödyntämistä yrityksen myyntityössä ja markkinoinnissa. Yrityksillä on mahdollisuuksia käyttää omista tai ulkoisista lähteistä kerättyä tietoa toimintansa tehostamiseen. Yrityksen omat tiedot ovat lähinnä transaktiotietoja, asiakaskorttitietoa, logistiikkadataa tai anturidataa. Kameratallenteet ovat myös osa yritysten keräämää dataa, lainsäädännössä tämä data lasketaan henkilörekisteritiedoksi. Yritysten on mahdollista kerätä, käsitellä ja yhd...

  12. Spinoffs of big nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinoffs so far used to be discussed only in connection with space travel. The question is well worth investigating wether also big nuclear projects, such as the advanced reactor lines or the nuclear fuel cycle, produce technical spinoffs. One misunderstanding should be cleared right at the beginning: man did not travel to the moon to invent the teflon coated frying pan. Nor is nuclear spinoff the actual purpose of the exercise. The high temperature reactor and the fast breeder reactor, or the closing of the nuclear fuel cycle, are justified independent goals of energy policy. However, if the overall benefit to the national economy of nuclear high technology is to be evaluated, also the question of technical spinoff must be considered. (orig.)

  13. Was the Big Bang hot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for verifying the spectrum defined by Woody and Richards (WR, 1981), which serves as a base for dust-distorted models of the 3 K background, are discussed. WR detected a sharp deviation from the Planck curve in the 3 K background. The absolute intensity of the background may be determined by the frequency dependence of the dipole anisotropy of the background or the frequency dependence effect in galactic clusters. Both methods involve the Doppler shift; analytical formulae are defined for characterization of the dipole anisotropy. The measurement of the 30-300 GHz spectra of cold galactic dust may reveal the presence of significant amounts of needle-shaped grains, which would in turn support a theory of a cold Big Bang.

  14. Advancements in Big Data Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing volumes of scientific data present new challenges for Distributed Computing and Grid-technologies. The emerging Big Data revolution drives new discoveries in scientific fields including nanotechnology, astrophysics, high-energy physics, biology and medicine. New initiatives are transforming data-driven scientific fields by pushing Bid Data limits enabling massive data analysis in new ways. In petascale data processing scientists deal with datasets, not individual files. As a result, a task (comprised of many jobs) became a unit of petascale data processing on the Grid. Splitting of a large data processing task into jobs enabled fine-granularity checkpointing analogous to the splitting of a large file into smaller TCP/IP packets during data transfers. Transferring large data in small packets achieves reliability through automatic re-sending of the dropped TCP/IP packets. Similarly, transient job failures on the Grid can be recovered by automatic re-tries to achieve reliable Six Sigma produc...

  15. Big Book of Apple Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Seibold, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Bigger in size, longer in length, broader in scope, and even more useful than our original Mac OS X Hacks, the new Big Book of Apple Hacks offers a grab bag of tips, tricks and hacks to get the most out of Mac OS X Leopard, as well as the new line of iPods, iPhone, and Apple TV. With 125 entirely new hacks presented in step-by-step fashion, this practical book is for serious Apple computer and gadget users who really want to take control of these systems. Many of the hacks take you under the hood and show you how to tweak system preferences, alter or add keyboard shortcuts, mount drives and

  16. Big Bang nucleosynthesis in crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new evaluation of the constraint on the number of light neutrino species (Nν) from big bang nucleosynthesis suggests a discrepancy between the predicted light element abundances and those inferred from observations, unless the inferred primordial 4He abundance has been underestimated by 0.014±0.004 (1σ) or less than 10% (95% C.L.) of 3He survives stellar processing. With the quoted systematic errors in the observed abundances and a conservative chemical evolution parametrization, the best fit to the combined data is Nν=2.1±0.3 (1σ) and the upper limit is Nνν=3) at the 98.6% C.L. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  17. The safety of big workmanship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together the contributions of a colloquium given in memory of Pierre Londe (1922-1999) and dealing with the safety of big workmanship. The main topics concern: the 3-D under pressure water flow inside fractured environments; Rion-Antarion bridge: reliability and para-seismic design of foundations; Rion-Antarion bridge: design and realization; geology and safety of dams; risk assessment; salt storage cavities: evaluation of tightness; safety of tunnels supporting in deformed rock massifs: application to the El Achir tunnel; instability risk of rock formations on the natural slopes of the Alps; safety approach applied to the civil engineering of nuclear facilities; lessons learnt from the accidents of offshore platforms; the engineer in front of the natural hazards; science and regulation. (J.S.)

  18. Exploring Relationships in Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Crichton, D. J.; Cinquini, L.; Kelly, S.; Colbert, M. A.; Kincaid, H.

    2015-12-01

    Big Data are characterized by several different 'V's. Volume, Veracity, Volatility, Value and so on. For many datasets inflated Volumes through redundant features often make the data more noisy and difficult to extract Value out of. This is especially true if one is comparing/combining different datasets, and the metadata are diverse. We have been exploring ways to exploit such datasets through a variety of statistical machinery, and visualization. We show how we have applied it to time-series from large astronomical sky-surveys. This was done in the Virtual Observatory framework. More recently we have been doing similar work for a completely different domain viz. biology/cancer. The methodology reuse involves application to diverse datasets gathered through the various centers associated with the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) for cancer, an initiative of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Application to Geo datasets is a natural extension.

  19. Impact of the inflow of Vistula river waters on the pelagic zone in the Gulf of Gdańsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Torgunova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biomass, production, composition of autotrophic phytoplankton andhetero-trophic bacteria were studied along with environmental and biologicalparameters. Samples were taken from Vistula river water (at Kiezmark andfrom the river plume to the outer stations in the Gulf of Gdańsk (Baltic Sea in June2005. The phytoplankton biomass gradient appeared to be simply the result ofdilution of the river water in the sea water, whereas the bacterial abundanceand biomass dropped between the river station and the first sea water stations,a decrease that cannot be explained by the dilution effect. The Vistula waterstimulated the production mainly of bacterioplankton but also of phytoplanktonin the river plume as compared to rates measured in Vistula waters and at the opensea stations. However, this stimulation did not result in a measurable increasein biomasses, probably because of the short retention time of water in theriver plume. Phytoplankton production was correlated with phytoplankton biomass(Chl a, while bacterial production was correlated with phytoplanktonproduction and phytoplankton biomass (Chl a.

  20. Big questions, big science: meeting the challenges of global ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, David; Keller, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Ecologists are increasingly tackling questions that require significant infrastucture, large experiments, networks of observations, and complex data and computation. Key hypotheses in ecology increasingly require more investment, and larger data sets to be tested than can be collected by a single investigator's or s group of investigator's labs, sustained for longer than a typical grant. Large-scale projects are expensive, so their scientific return on the investment has to justify the opportunity cost-the science foregone because resources were expended on a large project rather than supporting a number of individual projects. In addition, their management must be accountable and efficient in the use of significant resources, requiring the use of formal systems engineering and project management to mitigate risk of failure. Mapping the scientific method into formal project management requires both scientists able to work in the context, and a project implementation team sensitive to the unique requirements of ecology. Sponsoring agencies, under pressure from external and internal forces, experience many pressures that push them towards counterproductive project management but a scientific community aware and experienced in large project science can mitigate these tendencies. For big ecology to result in great science, ecologists must become informed, aware and engaged in the advocacy and governance of large ecological projects. PMID:25680334

  1. Big data and the electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Steve G; Buntrock, James D

    2014-01-01

    The electronic medical record has evolved from a digital representation of individual patient results and documents to information of large scale and complexity. Big Data refers to new technologies providing management and processing capabilities, targeting massive and disparate data sets. For an individual patient, techniques such as Natural Language Processing allow the integration and analysis of textual reports with structured results. For groups of patients, Big Data offers the promise of large-scale analysis of outcomes, patterns, temporal trends, and correlations. The evolution of Big Data analytics moves us from description and reporting to forecasting, predictive modeling, and decision optimization. PMID:24887521

  2. BLENDING IOT AND BIG DATA ANALYTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Tulasi.B*; Girish J Vemulkar

    2016-01-01

    Internet is continuously evolving and changing. Internet of Things (IoT) can be considered as the future of Internet applications which involves machine to machine learning (M2M). The actionable intelligence can be derived through fusion of Big Data and real time analytics with IoT. Big Data and IoT can be viewed as two sides of a coin. With the connection between Big Data and the objects on Internet benefits of IoT can be easily reaped. The applications of IoT spread across various domains l...

  3. Big data governance an emerging imperative

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Written by a leading expert in the field, this guide focuses on the convergence of two major trends in information management-big data and information governance-by taking a strategic approach oriented around business cases and industry imperatives. With the advent of new technologies, enterprises are expanding and handling very large volumes of data; this book, nontechnical in nature and geared toward business audiences, encourages the practice of establishing appropriate governance over big data initiatives and addresses how to manage and govern big data, highlighting the relevant processes,

  4. Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.

  5. [Variation of bacterioplankton number in the north-western part of the Black Sea depending on hydrological and hydrochemical factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N V

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of total bacteria numbers variations under influence of river outflow and development of anaerobic conditions has been carried out on the basis of long-term field research in the north-western part of the Black Sea. The regressive equations describing dependence of the total bacteria number on temperature, salinity and water saturation with oxygen have been calculated. These results allow to characterize more completely the regularities of eutrophication processes on the Black Sea shelf. PMID:14723155

  6. BIG DATA, BIG CONSEQUENCES? EEN VERKENNING NAAR PRIVACY EN BIG DATA GEBRUIK BINNEN DE OPSPORING, VERVOLGING EN RECHTSPRAAK

    OpenAIRE

    Lodder, A.R.; Meulen, van der, N.; Wisman, T.H.A.; Meij, Lisette; Zwinkels, C.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In deze verkenning is ingegaan op de privacy aspecten van Big Data analysis binnen het domein Veiligheid en Justitie. Besproken zijn toepassingen binnen de rechtspraak zoals voorspellen van uitspraken en gebruik in rechtszaken. Met betrekking tot opsporing is onder andere ingegaan op predictive policing en internetopsporing. Na een uiteenzetting van de privacynormen en toepassingsmogelijkheden, zijn de volgende zes uitgangspunten voor Big Data toepassingen voorgesteld: 7 A.R. Lodder e.a. ‐ Bi...

  7. NOAA Big Data Partnership RFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a Big Data Request for Information (RFI) from industry and other organizations (e.g., non-profits, research laboratories, and universities) to assess capability and interest in establishing partnerships to position a copy of NOAA's vast data holdings in the Cloud, co-located with easy and affordable access to analytical capabilities. This RFI was motivated by a number of concerns. First, NOAA's data facilities do not necessarily have sufficient network infrastructure to transmit all available observations and numerical model outputs to all potential users, or sufficient infrastructure to support simultaneous computation by many users. Second, the available data are distributed across multiple services and data facilities, making it difficult to find and integrate data for cross-domain analysis and decision-making. Third, large datasets require users to have substantial network, storage, and computing capabilities of their own in order to fully interact with and exploit the latent value of the data. Finally, there may be commercial opportunities for value-added products and services derived from our data. Putting a working copy of data in the Cloud outside of NOAA's internal networks and infrastructures should reduce demands and risks on our systems, and should enable users to interact with multiple datasets and create new lines of business (much like the industries built on government-furnished weather or GPS data). The NOAA Big Data RFI therefore solicited information on technical and business approaches regarding possible partnership(s) that -- at no net cost to the government and minimum impact on existing data facilities -- would unleash the commercial potential of its environmental observations and model outputs. NOAA would retain the master archival copy of its data. Commercial partners would not be permitted to charge fees for access to the NOAA data they receive, but

  8. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  9. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response of FIR filters and error graph. The BB-BC seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design especially in a dynamic environment where filter coefficients have to be adapted and fast convergence is of importance.

  10. Enhanced viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton in a natural iron-fertilized bloom event above the Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malits, A.; Christaki, U.; Obernosterer, I.; Weinbauer, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Above the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization sustains a large phytoplankton bloom over 3 months during austral summer. During the KEOPS1 project (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study1) we sampled this phytoplankton bloom during its declining phase along with the surrounding high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to study the effect of natural iron fertilization on the role of viruses in the microbial food web. Bacterial and viral abundances were 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, higher within the bloom than in HNLC waters. Viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton were 4.1 and 4.9 times, respectively, higher in the bloom, while the fraction of infected cells (FIC) and the fraction of lysogenic cells (FLC) showed no significant differences between environments. The present study suggests viruses to be more important for bacterial mortality within the bloom and dominate over grazing of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNFs) during the late bloom phase. As a consequence, at least at a late bloom stage, viral lysis shunts part of the photosynthetically fixed carbon in iron-fertilized regions into the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool with potentially less particulate organic carbon transferred to larger members of the food web or exported.

  11. Enhanced viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton in a natural iron-fertilized bloom event above the Kerguelen Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malits

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Above the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization sustains a large phytoplankton bloom over three months during austral summer. During the KEOPS1 project (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study1 we sampled this phytoplankton bloom during its declining phase along with the surrounding HNLC waters to study the effect of natural iron fertilization on the role of viruses in the microbial food web. Bacterial and viral abundances were 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, higher within the bloom than in HNLC waters. Viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton was 4.1 and 4.9 times, respectively, higher in the bloom, while the fraction of infected cells (FIC and the fraction of lysogenic cells (FLC showed no significant differences between environments. The present study suggests viruses to be more important for bacterial mortality within the bloom and dominate over protozoan grazing during the late bloom phase. As a consequence, at least at a late bloom stage, viral lysis shunts part of the photosynthetically fixed carbon in iron-fertilized regions into the dissolved organic matter (DOM pool with potentially less particulate organic carbon transfered to larger members of the food web or exported.

  12. BDGS: A Scalable Big Data Generator Suite in Big Data Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Zijian; Luo, Chunjie; Gao, Wanling; Han, Rui; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Lei; Zhan, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Data generation is a key issue in big data benchmarking that aims to generate application-specific data sets to meet the 4V requirements of big data. Specifically, big data generators need to generate scalable data (Volume) of different types (Variety) under controllable generation rates (Velocity) while keeping the important characteristics of raw data (Veracity). This gives rise to various new challenges about how we design generators efficiently and successfully. To date, most existing tec...

  13. HOW BIG ARE ’BIG FOUR’ COMPANIES – EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    SORIN ROMULUS BERINDE

    2013-01-01

    The audit market is divided between two main categories of auditors: Big Four auditors and Non Big Four auditors. The general accepted opinion is that the former cover most audit services. The objective of the study is to quantify the share covered by Big Four auditors at the level of Romanian market. In this respect one collected and processed data obtained from the audited companies from the North-West Region of Romania which is considered representative for extrapolating the results at nat...

  14. BigDataBench: a Big Data Benchmark Suite from Web Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Zhu, Yuqing; Jia, Zhen; Luo, Chunjie; Wang, Lei; Li, Zhiguo; Zhan, Jianfeng; Qi, Yong; He, Yongqiang; Gong, Shiming; Li, Xiaona; Zhang, Shujie; Qiu, Bizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents our joint research efforts on big data benchmarking with several industrial partners. Considering the complexity, diversity, workload churns, and rapid evolution of big data systems, we take an incremental approach in big data benchmarking. For the first step, we pay attention to search engines, which are the most important domain in Internet services in terms of the number of page views and daily visitors. However, search engine service providers treat data, applications,...

  15. "Big Data" : big gaps of knowledge in the field of internet science

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, CCP Chris; Matzat, U Uwe; Reips, UD

    2012-01-01

    Research on so-called 'Big Data' has received a considerable momentum and is expected to grow in the future. One very interesting stream of research on Big Data analyzes online networks. Many online networks are known to have some typical macro-characteristics, such as 'small world' properties. Much less is known about underlying micro-processes leading to these properties. The models used by Big Data researchers usually are inspired by mathematical ease of exposition. We propose to follow in...

  16. 6 Top Tools for Taming Big Data%6Top Tools for Taming Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JakoB BJ orklund

    2012-01-01

    The industry now has a buzzword,"big data," for how we're going to do something with the huge amount of information piling up."Big data" is replacing "business intelligence,"which subsumed "reporting," which put a nicer gloss on "spreadsheets," which beat out the old-fashioned "printouts."Managers who long ago studied printouts are now hiring mathematicians who claim to be big data specialists to help them solve the same old problem:What's selling and why?

  17. 'Big bang' of quantum universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reparametrization-invariant generating functional for the unitary and causal perturbation theory in general relativity in a finite space-time is obtained. The classical cosmology of a Universe and the Faddeev-Popov-DeWitt functional correspond to different orders of decomposition of this functional over the inverse 'mass' of a Universe. It is shown that the invariant content of general relativity as a constrained system can be covered by two 'equivalent' unconstrained systems: the 'dynamic' (with 'dynamic' time as the cosmic scale factor and conformal field variables) and 'geometric' (given by the Levi-Civita type canonical transformation to the action-angle variables which determine initial cosmological states with the arrow of the proper time measured by the watch of an observer in the comoving frame). 'Big Bang', the Hubble evolution, and creation of 'dynamic' particles by the 'geometric' vacuum are determined by 'relations' between the dynamic and geometric systems as pure relativistic phenomena, like the Lorentz-type 'relation' between the rest and comoving frames in special relativity

  18. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  19. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  20. The NOAA Big Data Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a Big Data producer, generating tens of terabytes per day from hundreds of sensors on satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, and buoys, and from numerical models. These data are of critical importance and value for NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts. In order to facilitate extracting additional value from this information, NOAA has established Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with five Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers — Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, Open Cloud Consortium — to determine whether hosting NOAA data in publicly-accessible Clouds alongside on-demand computational capability stimulates the creation of new value-added products and services and lines of business based on the data, and if the revenue generated by these new applications can support the costs of data transmission and hosting. Each IaaS provider is the anchor of a "Data Alliance" which organizations or entrepreneurs can join to develop and test new business or research avenues. This presentation will report on progress and lessons learned during the first 6 months of the 3-year CRADAs.

  1. Big-bang nucleosynthesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Walker, Terry P.

    1989-01-01

    The homogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis yields of D, He-3, He-4, and Li-7 are computed taking into account recent measurements of the neutron mean-life as well as updates of several nuclear reaction rates which primarily affect the production of Li-7. The extraction of primordial abundances from observation and the likelihood that the primordial mass fraction of He-4, Y(sub p) is less than or equal to 0.24 are discussed. Using the primordial abundances of D + He-3 and Li-7 we limit the baryon-to-photon ratio (eta in units of 10 exp -10) 2.6 less than or equal to eta(sub 10) less than or equal to 4.3; which we use to argue that baryons contribute between 0.02 and 0.11 to the critical energy density of the universe. An upper limit to Y(sub p) of 0.24 constrains the number of light neutrinos to N(sub nu) less than or equal to 3.4, in excellent agreement with the LEP and SLC collider results. We turn this argument around to show that the collider limit of 3 neutrino species can be used to bound the primordial abundance of He-4: 0.235 less than or equal to Y(sub p) less than or equal to 0.245.

  2. Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mickaelian, A M

    2015-01-01

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum are reviewed, from Gamma-ray to radio, such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in Gamma-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and II based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio and many others, as well as most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS) and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era. Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics play a...

  3. Deuterium and big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of deuterium absorption in high redshift quasar absorption systems provide a direct inference of the deuterium abundance produced by big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). With measurements and limits from five independent absorption systems, we place strong constraints on the primordial ratio of deuterium to hydrogen, (D/H)p = 3.4 ± 0.3 x 10-5 [1,2]. We employ a direct numerical treatment to improve the estimates of critical reaction rates and reduce the uncertainties in BBN predictions of D/H and 7Li/H by a factor of three[3] over previous efforts[4]. Using our measurements of (D/H)p and new BBN predictions, we find at 95% confidence the baryon density ρb = (3.6 ± 0.4) x 10-31 g cm-3 (Ωbh265 = 0.045 ± 0.006 in units of the critical density), and cosmological baryon-photon ratio η = (5.1 ± 0.6) x 10-10

  4. Tick-Borne Diseases: The Big Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... muscle pain. The red-spotted rash usually happens 2 to 5 days after the fever begins. Antibiotics ...

  5. ARC Code TI: BigView

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BigView allows for interactive panning and zooming of images of arbitrary size on desktop PCs running linux. Additionally, it can work in a multi-screen environment...

  6. Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159744.html Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats Kids, elderly among those ... can be inherently dangerous, but the initial heat waves every summer can be particularly perilous to those ...

  7. Scaling big data with Hadoop and Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Karambelkar, Hrishikesh Vijay

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at developers, designers, and architects who would like to build big data enterprise search solutions for their customers or organizations. No prior knowledge of Apache Hadoop and Apache Solr/Lucene technologies is required.

  8. Cosmic relics from the big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief introduction to the big bang picture of the early universe is given. Dark matter is discussed; particularly its implications for elementary particle physics. A classification scheme for dark matter relics is given. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  9. Fisicos argentinos reproduciran el Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    De Ambrosio, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of argentine physicists from La Plata and Buenos Aires Universities work in a sery of experiments who while recreate the conditions of the big explosion that was at the origin of the universe. (1 page)

  10. Soft computing in big data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Seung-Jong; Lee, Jee-Hyong

    2014-01-01

    Big data is an essential key to build a smart world as a meaning of the streaming, continuous integration of large volume and high velocity data covering from all sources to final destinations. The big data range from data mining, data analysis and decision making, by drawing statistical rules and mathematical patterns through systematical or automatically reasoning. The big data helps serve our life better, clarify our future and deliver greater value. We can discover how to capture and analyze data. Readers will be guided to processing system integrity and implementing intelligent systems. With intelligent systems, we deal with the fundamental data management and visualization challenges in effective management of dynamic and large-scale data, and efficient processing of real-time and spatio-temporal data. Advanced intelligent systems have led to managing the data monitoring, data processing and decision-making in realistic and effective way. Considering a big size of data, variety of data and frequent chan...

  11. Big Fish and Prized Trees Gain Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fred Pearce; 吴敏

    2004-01-01

    @@ Decisions made at a key conservation① meeting are good news for big and quirky② fish and commercially prized trees. Several species will enjoy extra protection against trade following rulings made at the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

  12. Hunting Plan : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge Hunting Plan provides guidance for the management of hunting on the refuge. Hunting program objectives include providing a...

  13. Conjecture on Avoidance of Big Crunch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Yi; ZHANG De-Hai

    2006-01-01

    By conjecturing the physics at the Planck scale, we modify the definition of the Hawking temperature and modify the Friedmann equation. It is found that we can avoid the singularity of the big crunch and obtain a bouncing cosmological model.

  14. From data quality to big data quality

    OpenAIRE

    Batini, C; Rula, A; Scannapieco, M; Viscusi, G

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the evolution of data quality issues from traditional structured data managed in relational databases to Big Data. In particular, the paper examines the nature of the relationship between Data Quality and several research coordinates that are relevant in Big Data, such as the variety of data types, data sources and application domains, focusing on maps, semi-structured texts, linked open data, sensor &sensor networks and official statistics. Consequently a set of str...

  15. Adapting bioinformatics curricula for big data

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Anna C.; Giffin, Kristine A.; Greene, Casey S; Jason H Moore

    2015-01-01

    Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these...

  16. Mining Big Data to Predicting Future

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Amit K.; Priya, R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to technological advances, vast data sets (e.g. big data) are increasing now days. Big Data a new term; is used to identify the collected datasets. But due to their large size and complexity, we cannot manage with our current methodologies or data mining software tools to extract those datasets. Such datasets provide us with unparalleled opportunities for modelling and predicting of future with new challenges. So as an awareness of this and weaknesses as well as the possibilit...

  17. Scientific Big Data Analytics by HPC

    OpenAIRE

    Lippert, Thomas; Mallmann, Daniel; Riedel, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Storing, managing, sharing, curating and especially analysing huge amounts of data face animmense visibility and importance in industry and economy as well as in science and research.Industry and economy exploit "Big Data" for predictive analysis, to increase the efficiency ofinfrastructures, customer segmentation, and tailored services. In science, Big Data allows foraddressing problems with complexities that were impossible to deal with so far. The amountsof data are growing exponentially i...

  18. Effective Dynamics of the Matrix Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Craps, Ben; Rajaraman, Arvind; Sethi, Savdeep

    2006-01-01

    We study the leading quantum effects in the recently introduced Matrix Big Bang model. This amounts to a study of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory compactified on the Milne orbifold. We find a one-loop potential that is attractive near the Big Bang. Surprisingly, the potential decays very rapidly at late times, where it appears to be generated by D-brane effects. Usually, general covariance constrains the form of any effective action generated by renormalization group flow. However, the form ...

  19. Dark energy, wormholes, and the Big Rip

    OpenAIRE

    Faraoni, Valerio; Israel, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The time evolution of a wormhole in a Friedmann universe approaching the Big Rip is studied. The wormhole is modeled by a thin spherical shell accreting the superquintessence fluid - two different models are presented. Contrary to recent claims that the wormhole overtakes the expansion of the universe and engulfs it before the Big Rip is reached, it is found that the wormhole becomes asymptotically comoving with the cosmic fluid and the future evolution of the universe is fully causal.

  20. COBE looks back to the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA-Goddard's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the first NASA satellite designed to observe the primeval explosion of the universe. The spacecraft carries three extremely sensitive IR and microwave instruments designed to measure the faint residual radiation from the Big Bang and to search for the formation of the first galaxies. COBE's far IR absolute spectrophotometer has shown that the Big Bang radiation has a blackbody spectrum, proving that there was no large energy release after the explosion.

  1. Leading Undergraduate Students to Big Data Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jianjun; Shen, Ju

    2015-01-01

    People are facing a flood of data today. Data are being collected at unprecedented scale in many areas, such as networking, image processing, virtualization, scientific computation, and algorithms. The huge data nowadays are called Big Data. Big data is an all encompassing term for any collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process them using traditional data processing applications. In this article, the authors present a unique way which uses network simula...

  2. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  3. The Death of the Big Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Keir

    2010-01-01

    Recently Tolai people og Papua New Guinea have adopted the term 'Big Shot' to decribe an emerging post-colonial political elite. The mergence of the term is a negative moral evaluation of new social possibilities that have arisen as a consequence of the Big Shots' privileged position within a...... example of a global proces in which key lexical categories that contest, trace and shape how global historical change is experienced and constituted through linguistic categories....

  4. Data Confidentiality Challenges in Big Data Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Jian; Zhao, Dongfang

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we address the problem of data confidentiality in big data analytics. In many fields, much useful patterns can be extracted by applying machine learning techniques to big data. However, data confidentiality must be protected. In many scenarios, data confidentiality could well be a prerequisite for data to be shared. We present a scheme to provide provable secure data confidentiality and discuss various techniques to optimize performance of such a system.

  5. Main Issues in Big Data Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Data is currently one of the most important assets for companies in every field. The continuous growth in the importance and volume of data has created a new problem: it cannot be handled by traditional analysis techniques. This problem was, therefore, solved through the creation of a new paradigm: Big Data. However, Big Data originated new issues related not only to the volume or the variety of the data, but also to data security and privacy. In order to obtain a full perspective of the problem, we decided to carry out an investigation with the objective of highlighting the main issues regarding Big Data security, and also the solutions proposed by the scientific community to solve them. In this paper, we explain the results obtained after applying a systematic mapping study to security in the Big Data ecosystem. It is almost impossible to carry out detailed research into the entire topic of security, and the outcome of this research is, therefore, a big picture of the main problems related to security in a Big Data system, along with the principal solutions to them proposed by the research community.

  6. Big data: survey, technologies, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. PMID:25136682

  7. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawsher Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data.

  8. Analyzing Big Data with the Hybrid Interval Regression Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hui Huang; Keng-Chieh Yang; Han-Ying Kao

    2014-01-01

    Big data is a new trend at present, forcing the significant impacts on information technologies. In big data applications, one of the most concerned issues is dealing with large-scale data sets that often require computation resources provided by public cloud services. How to analyze big data efficiently becomes a big challenge. In this paper, we collaborate interval regression with the smooth support vector machine (SSVM) to analyze big data. Recently, the smooth support vector machine (SSVM...

  9. Boosting Big National Lab Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-21

    Introduction: Big data. Love it or hate it, solving the world’s most intractable problems requires the ability to make sense of huge and complex sets of data and do it quickly. Speeding up the process – from hours to minutes or from weeks to days – is key to our success. One major source of such big data are physical experiments. As many will know, these physical experiments are commonly used to solve challenges in fields such as energy security, manufacturing, medicine, pharmacology, environmental protection and national security. Experiments use different instruments and sensor types to research for example the validity of new drugs, the base cause for diseases, more efficient energy sources, new materials for every day goods, effective methods for environmental cleanup, the optimal ingredients composition for chocolate or determine how to preserve valuable antics. This is done by experimentally determining the structure, properties and processes that govern biological systems, chemical processes and materials. The speed and quality at which we can acquire new insights from experiments directly influences the rate of scientific progress, industrial innovation and competitiveness. And gaining new groundbreaking insights, faster, is key to the economic success of our nations. Recent years have seen incredible advances in sensor technologies, from house size detector systems in large experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider and the ‘Eye of Gaia’ billion pixel camera detector to high throughput genome sequencing. These developments have led to an exponential increase in data volumes, rates and variety produced by instruments used for experimental work. This increase is coinciding with a need to analyze the experimental results at the time they are collected. This speed is required to optimize the data taking and quality, and also to enable new adaptive experiments, where the sample is manipulated as it is observed, e.g. a substance is injected into a

  10. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  11. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  12. Small government or big government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEO SPAHO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century, economists and philosophers were polarizedon their positions beyond the role that the government should have in the economy. On one hand John Maynard Keynes represented, within the optics of market economy, a position where the state should intervene in the economy to maintain the aggregate demand and the employment in the country, without hesitation in creating budget deficits and public debt expansion. This approach happens especially in the moments when the domestic economy and global economic trends show a weak growth or a recession. This means a heavy interference inthe economy, with higher income but with high expenditure to GDP too. On the other side, Liberals and Neoliberalsled by Friedrich Hayek advocated a withdrawal of the government from economic activity not just in moments of economic growth but also during the crisis, believing that the market has self-regulating mechanisms within itself. The government, as a result will have a smaller dimension with lower income and also low expenditures compared to the GDP of the country. We took the South-Eastern Europe countries distinguishing those with a "Big Government" or countries with "Small Government". There are analyzed the economic performances during the global crisis (2007-2014. In which countries the public debt grew less? Which country managed to attract more investments and which were the countries that preserved the purchasing power of their consumers? We shall see if during the economic crisis in Eastern Europe the Great Government or the Liberal and "Small" one has been the most successful the model.

  13. Big bang nucleosynthesis: Present status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Yeh, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of the lightest nuclides via a dynamic interplay among the four fundamental forces during the first seconds of cosmic time. A brief overview of the essentials of this physics is given, and new calculations presented of light-element abundances through 6Li and 7Li, with updated nuclear reactions and uncertainties including those in the neutron lifetime. Fits are provided for these results as a function of baryon density and of the number of neutrino flavors Nν. Recent developments are reviewed in BBN, particularly new, precision Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements that now probe the baryon density, helium content, and the effective number of degrees of freedom Neff. These measurements allow for a tight test of BBN and cosmology using CMB data alone. Our likelihood analysis convolves the 2015 Planck data chains with our BBN output and observational data. Adding astronomical measurements of light elements strengthens the power of BBN. A new determination of the primordial helium abundance is included in our likelihood analysis. New D/H observations are now more precise than the corresponding theoretical predictions and are consistent with the standard model and the Planck baryon density. Moreover, D/H now provides a tight measurement of Nν when combined with the CMB baryon density and provides a 2 σ upper limit Nνdata. In contrast with D/H and 4He, 7Li predictions continue to disagree with observations, perhaps pointing to new physics. This paper concludes with a look at future directions including key nuclear reactions, astronomical observations, and theoretical issues.

  14. Holocene climatic and hydrological changes in Big Soda Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, M. R.; Reidy, L. M.; Starratt, S.; Byrne, R.

    2014-12-01

    It is important to separate the role of hydrology from climate change when assessing the Holocene history of lake sediments. Big Soda Lake is a Holocene maar lake in the Great Basin of Nevada with a 9 m sediment record that covers the Holocene. The mm-scale laminations, diatoms, and δ18O and δ13C from bulk calcite in the core are consistent with a saline, closed-basin lake down to approximately 4.3 m below the sediment water interface. The top 7 cm of the core show the influence of human hydrologic modifications to the area. Below that, stable isotope data shows variable groundwater input that is mostly consistent with climate variation from other records in the western USA. Below 4.3 m depth, the laminations abruptly end and are replaced by unlaminated massive mud, sand, and gravel to the bottom. The isotopic composition of the calcite abruptly changes from covarying, to inversely varying compositions below this break. This break occurred at about 5,600 cal yr BP. In addition, the diatom assemblage below 4.3 m is similar to that found in modern Walker Lake; whereas the diatom assemblage above 4.3 m is similar to modern Mono Lake. The δ18O isotopic composition of the calcite is on average 6 ‰ more negative below 4.3 m than above the change, indicating that the lake contained fresher water before 5,600 cal yr BP ago. The cause for the abrupt change cannot be explained through climate shifts because climate in the Great Basin has been shown to be more arid between 8,000 and 5,000 cal yr BP. It has been hypothesized that the Walker River flowed to the Carson River Basin between about 14,000 and 5,000 cal yr BP, and this added water may have raised the groundwater table sufficiently in the Carson Basin to freshen Big Soda Lake. Once the Walker River diverted back to the Walker Basin, more saline conditions prevailed reflecting changes in climate and human influence at the top of the core.

  15. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  16. Seasonal baseline of nutrients and stable isotopes in a saline lake of Argentina: biogeochemical processes and river runoff effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopprio, Germán A; Kattner, Gerhard; Freije, R Hugo; de Paggi, Susana José; Lara, Rubén J

    2014-05-01

    The seasonal variability of inorganic and organic nutrients and stable isotopes and their relations with plankton and environmental conditions were monitored in Lake Chasicó. Principal component analysis evidenced the strong influence of the river runoff on several biogeochemical variables. Silicate concentrations were controlled by diatom biomass and river discharge. Higher values of nitrate and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) indicated agricultural uses in the river basin. Elevated pH values (∼ 9) inhibiting nitrification in the lake explained partially the dominance of ammonium: ∼ 83 % of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The low DIN/SRP ratio inferred nitrogen limitation, although the hypotheses of iron and CO2 limitation are relevant in alkaline lakes. Particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) were mainly of autochthonous origin. The main allochthonous input was imported by the river as POM owning to the arid conditions. Dissolved organic carbon was likely top-down regulated by the bacterioplankton grazer Brachionus plicatilis. The δ(13)C signature was a good indicator of primary production and its values were influenced probably by CO2 limitation. The δ(15)N did not evidence nitrogen fixation and suggested the effects of anthropogenic activities. The preservation of a good water quality in the lake is crucial for resource management. PMID:24415133

  17. Big Data in Caenorhabditis elegans: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Harald; Moerman, Donald

    2015-11-01

    A clear definition of what constitutes "Big Data" is difficult to identify, but we find it most useful to define Big Data as a data collection that is complete. By this criterion, researchers on Caenorhabditis elegans have a long history of collecting Big Data, since the organism was selected with the idea of obtaining a complete biological description and understanding of development. The complete wiring diagram of the nervous system, the complete cell lineage, and the complete genome sequence provide a framework to phrase and test hypotheses. Given this history, it might be surprising that the number of "complete" data sets for this organism is actually rather small--not because of lack of effort, but because most types of biological experiments are not currently amenable to complete large-scale data collection. Many are also not inherently limited, so that it becomes difficult to even define completeness. At present, we only have partial data on mutated genes and their phenotypes, gene expression, and protein-protein interaction--important data for many biological questions. Big Data can point toward unexpected correlations, and these unexpected correlations can lead to novel investigations; however, Big Data cannot establish causation. As a result, there is much excitement about Big Data, but there is also a discussion on just what Big Data contributes to solving a biological problem. Because of its relative simplicity, C. elegans is an ideal test bed to explore this issue and at the same time determine what is necessary to build a multicellular organism from a single cell. PMID:26543198

  18. Five Big, Big Five Issues : Rationale, Content, Structure, Status, and Crosscultural Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, Boele

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the rationale, content, structure, status, and crosscultural assessment of the Big Five trait factors, focusing on topics of dispute and misunderstanding. Taxonomic restrictions of the original Big Five forerunner, the "Norman Five," are discussed, and criticisms regarding the

  19. 大数据,大变革%Big Data Big Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爽

    2014-01-01

    Big data are always happen in people’s side, big data era has arrived. This paper has described the characteristics of big data, analyzed big data research status and future application direction. Only to understand big data again, change the thinking of big data, adapt to changes in business model, innovative big data management, strengthen institution construction, enhance law awareness, ensure the personal and national security, it can continuously promote the healthy development of big data.%大数据正时刻发生在人们的身边,大数据时代已经到来。本文通过对大数据特点的描述,分析了大数据在国内外的研究现状以及未来的应用方向,只有重新认识大数据,从思维上变革对大数据的认识,从商业模式上适应大数据的变化,创新大数据管理模式,加强制度建设,增强法律意识,保证个人和国家的安全,才能不断推动大数据的健康发展。

  20. Big Data Big Changes%大数据,大变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爽

    2014-01-01

    大数据正时刻发生在人们的身边,大数据时代已经到来。本文通过对大数据特点的描述,分析了大数据在国内外的研究现状以及未来的应用方向,只有重新认识大数据,从思维上变革对大数据的认识,从商业模式上适应大数据的变化,创新大数据管理模式,加强制度建设,增强法律意识,保证个人和国家的安全,才能不断推动大数据的健康发展。%Big data are always happen in people’s side, big data era has arrived. This paper has described the characteristics of big data, analyzed big data research status and future application direction. Only to understand big data again, change the thinking of big data, adapt to changes in business model, innovative big data management, strengthen institution construction, enhance law awareness, ensure the personal and national security, it can continuously promote the healthy development of big data.