WorldWideScience

Sample records for big river bacterioplankton

  1. Spatial variability overwhelms seasonal patterns in bacterioplankton communities across a river to ocean gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Herfort, Lydie; Zuber, Peter; Baptista, Antonio M; Crump, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    Few studies of microbial biogeography address variability across both multiple habitats and multiple seasons. Here we examine the spatial and temporal variability of bacterioplankton community composition of the Columbia River coastal margin using 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of 300 water samples collected in 2007 and 2008. Communities separated into seven groups (ANOSIM, P850 m). The ordination of these samples was correlated with salinity (ρ=−0.83) and depth (ρ=−0.62). Temporal patterns were obscured by spatial variability among the coastal environments, and could only be detected within individual groups. Thus, structuring environmental factors (for example, salinity, depth) dominate over seasonal changes in determining community composition. Seasonal variability was detected across an annual cycle in the river, estuary and plume where communities separated into two groups, early year (April–July) and late year (August–Nov), demonstrating annual reassembly of communities over time. Determining both the spatial and temporal variability of bacterioplankton communities provides a framework for modeling these communities across environmental gradients from river to deep ocean. PMID:22011718

  2. [Bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI): an approach for assessing river ecosystem health in Dianchi watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Shu, Zhong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    The index of biotic integrity (IBI) has been widely applied to the health assessment of river ecosystems. However, the currently available IBI methods are lack of decomposer-based assessment. Based on the T-RFLP result of bacterioplankton, we developed the bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI) after the screening of major environmental factors and candidate metrics to assess the health of the inflow rivers in Dianchi Watershed. The evaluation result indicated that the eco-health conditions of 11 reference sites were either level I (8 sites) or level II (3 sites), while the 27 damaged sites were level I (4 sites), level II (14 sites), level III (7 sites), and level IV (2 sites), and there was no level V site. Compared with the other IBI methods and the integrated pollution index, BP-IBI showed better effect in reflecting the influence of the key environmental factors, the land use types and the upstream water types in river ecosystems. Therefore, BP-IBI is a good method to characterize the health status of river ecosystems.

  3. 76 FR 7837 - Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... December 1, 2010, the date that Big Rivers integrated its transmission facilities with the Midwest... Energy Regulatory Commission Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 4, 2011, Big Rivers Electric Corporation (Big Rivers) filed a notice of cancellation of its...

  4. Bacterioplankton features and its relations with doc characteristics and other limnological variables in Paraná river floodplain environments (PR/MS-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carolina Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Microbial Loop concept, many studies aimed to explain the role of bacterioplankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC in aquatic ecosystems. Paraná River floodplain system is a very complex environment where these subjects were little explored. The aim of this work was to characterize bacterial community in terms of density, biomass and biovolume in some water bodies of this floodplain and to verify its temporal variation and its relation with some limnological variables, including some indicators of DOC quality, obtained through Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Bacterial density, biomass and biovolume are similar to those from other freshwater environments and both density and biomass were higher in the period with less rain. The limnological and spectroscopic features that showed any relation with bacterioplankton were the concentrations of N-NH4 and P-PO4, water transparency, and some indicators of DOC quality and origin. The analysis of these relations showed a possible competition between bacterioplankton and phytoplankton for inorganic nutrients and that the DOC used by bacterioplankton is labile and probably from aquatic macrophytes.

  5. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the season of navigation, parties engaged in...

  6. How do we identify big rivers? And how big is big?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall, Andrew D.

    2006-04-01

    "Big rivers" are the trunk rivers that carry the water and sediment load from major orogens, or that drain large areas of a continent. Identifying such rivers in the ancient record is a challenge. Some guidance may be provided by tectonic setting and sedimentological evidence, including the scale of architectural elements, and clues from provenance studies, but such data are not infallible guides to river magnitude. The scale of depositional elements is the most obvious clue to channel size, but evidence is typically sparse and inadequate, and may be misleading. For example, thick fining-upward successions may be tectonic cyclothems. Two examples of the analysis of large ancient river systems are discussed here in order to highlight problems of methodology and interpretation. The Hawkesbury Sandstone (Triassic) of the Sydney Basin, Australia, is commonly cited as the deposit of a large river, on the basis of abundant very large-scale crossbedding. An examination of very large outcrops of this unit, including a coastal cliff section 6 km long near Sydney, showed that even with 100% exposure there are ambiguities in the determination of channel scale. It was concluded in this case that the channel dimensions of the Hawkesbury rivers were about half the size of the modern Brahmaputra River. The tectonic setting of a major ancient fluvial system is commonly not a useful clue to river scale. The Hawkesbury Sandstone is a system draining transversely from a cratonic source into a foreland basin, whereas most large rivers in foreland basins flow axially and are derived mainly from the orogenic uplifts (e.g., the large tidally influenced rivers of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta). Epeirogenic tilting of a continent by the dynamic topography process may generate drainages in unexpected directions. For example, analyses of detrital zircons in Upper Paleozoic-Mesozoic nonmarine successions in the SW United States suggests significant derivation from the Appalachian orogen

  7. How do big rivers come to be different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Philip J.; Lewin, John

    2012-08-01

    Big rivers dominate the world's continental surface, yet we are still learning about how they operate and whether they are explicably different, not only from each other, but also from smaller rivers. This paper uses global satellite imagery and ground field-experience to explain and illustrate why and how big rivers are strongly differentiated. At the largest scale, trans-continent sized rivers do not possess unified valley systems created by fluvial erosion but instead involve chains of interlinked domains with contrasted fluvial functions. Alluvial settings are dependent on mainstream and tributary inputs of water and sediment, but big river channel pattern variety is determined by contrasts in sediment feed-rates and differences in the rates and routes of sediment exchange. Four modes of alluvial exchange are recognised: (i) deposition on the floodplain (e.g., levees, infilled palaeochannels and floodbasins), (ii) exchanges involving main channels (e.g., bank erosion and accretion), (iii) deposition within main channels (e.g. bedforms from metres to 10s of kilometres in size), and (iv) material input from tributaries (sediment-rich or sediment-poor). Different combinations of sedimentation activity lead to floodplain morphologies for big rivers that can be classified into four types: (i) lacustrine-dominated, (ii) mainstream-dominated, (iii) tributary or accessory-stream dominated, and (iv) confined or bedrock-dominated. Channel patterning involves a range of main-channel, branch and floodplain styles promoted by variable sediment feeds, complex bed sediment transfers, variable lateral sediment exchanges, plural channel systems and incomplete mineral sedimentation of the hydraulic corridors set by tectonics and prior-valley trenching. In some of the world's largest rivers it is accessory and tributary channels, rather than main-river branches, which determine patterns of floodplain morphology. In some big rivers, but certainly not all, ponded lacustrine

  8. 76 FR 53827 - Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the Confluence of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road... for the temporary safety zone restricting navigation on the Big Sioux River from the Military Road... rule extends the existing temporary safety zone on the Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge...

  9. A Contaminants Evaluation of the Big Blue River in Southeastern Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We collected three composite fish and three composite sediment samples from the Big Blue River in southeastern Nebraska to determine the presence of agricultural...

  10. Annual Hunting Program : Big Game : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : CY 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1988 Annual Big Game Hunting Program outlines the reasons and regulations for white-tailed deer hunting on Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. The...

  11. Annual Big Game Hunting Program : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : CY 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1993 Annual Big Game Hunting Program outlines the reasons and regulations for white-tailed deer hunting on Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. The...

  12. Annual Hunting Program : Big Game : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : CY 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1989 Annual Big Game Hunting Program outlines the reasons and regulations for white-tailed deer hunting on Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. The...

  13. Annual Big Game Hunting Program : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : CY 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1990 Annual Big Game Hunting Program outlines the reasons and regulations for white-tailed deer hunting on Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. The...

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  15. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  16. Occurrence and transport of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River, northwestern Mississippi, October 2009-June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The Big Sunflower River Basin, located within the Yazoo River Basin, is subject to large annual inputs of nitrogen from agriculture, atmospheric deposition, and point sources. Understanding how nutrients are transported in, and downstream from, the Big Sunflower River is key to quantifying their eutrophying effects on the Gulf. Recent results from two Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW models), which include the Big Sunflower River, indicate minimal losses of nitrogen in stream reaches typical of the main channels of major river systems. If SPARROW assumptions of relatively conservative transport of nitrogen are correct and surface-water losses through the bed of the Big Sunflower River are negligible, then options for managing nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico may be limited. Simply put, if every pound of nitrogen entering the Delta is eventually delivered to the Gulf, then the only effective nutrient management option in the Delta is to reduce inputs. If, on the other hand, it can be shown that processes within river channels of the Mississippi Delta act to reduce the mass of nitrogen in transport, other hydrologic approaches may be designed to further limit nitrogen transport. Direct validation of existing SPARROW models for the Delta is a first step in assessing the assumptions underlying those models. In order to characterize spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River Basin, water samples were collected at four U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations located on the Big Sunflower River between October 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. Nitrogen concentrations were generally highest at each site during the spring of the 2010 water year and the fall and winter of the 2011 water year. Additionally, the dominant form of nitrogen varied between sites. For example, in samples collected from the most upstream site (Clarksdale), the concentration of organic nitrogen was generally higher than the concentrations of

  17. 76 FR 38013 - Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the Confluence of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road... area is a safety zone: All waters of the Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge, North Sioux...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone...

  18. Bacterioplankton Diversity in Xiamen Houxi River Watershed Along an Urban-rural Gradient and Its Relation to Environmental Factors%厦门后溪流域沿城乡梯度浮游细菌多样性及其与环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乐冕; 杨军; 余小青; 余正; 张永雨; 田野; 张冬红

    2012-01-01

    为研究城市化对河流浮游细菌的影响,选取厦门后溪流域沿城乡梯度采集样品,并利用变性梯度凝胶电泳(Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,DGGE)和多元统计方法对浮游细菌群落空间分布格局进行分析.结果表明,Shannon-Weiner多样性指数和DGGE条带数随着采样站点和城市中心距离的减小呈现先升高后下降的趋势.聚类分析(Cluster)和多维尺度分析(Multidimensional scaling,MDS)将12个站点的浮游细菌群落分为4组,测序结果显示β-变形菌( Betaproteobacteria)是优势类群,占40.0%.统计分析表明,pH和总氮(Total nitrogen,TN)是影响后溪浮游细菌群落组成最主要的环境因子,他们共同解释了47.6%的群落组成变化.总之,沿城乡梯度随着水体理化指标的变化,浮游细菌群落也发生明显转变,表明后溪浮游细菌受到城市化的强烈影响此外,结果也提示DGGE可以作为监测与评价河流生态系统健康的重要工具.%To investigate the urbanization effect on riverine bacterioplankton, surface water samples were collected along an urban - rural gradient in the Houxi River Watershed, Xiamen, southeast China. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and nvultivariable statistical approaches were used to characterize the spatial patterns of change in the bacterioplankton communities. The overall trend of Shannon-Weiner index and DGGE bands increased from site 1 to site 5 and then decreased from site 6 to site 12 with the decreasing distance between the sampling sites and downtown Xiamen. The cluster and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) resulted in four identical groups from the 12 sites, and Betaproteobacteria (40,0%) was the most dominant taxon derived from DGGE bands. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that pH and total nitrogen (TN) were the main factors influencing bacterioplankton community composition in the Houxi River Watershed. Further, both pH and TN explained 47.6% of the variation

  19. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  20. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  1. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  2. The Portland Basin: A (big) river runs through it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarts, Russell C.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Wells, Ray E.; Madin, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan Portland, Oregon, USA, lies within a small Neogene to Holocene basin in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction system. Although the basin owes its existence and structural development to its convergent-margin tectonic setting, the stratigraphic architecture of basin-fill deposits chiefly reflects its physiographic position along the lower reaches of the continental-scale Columbia River system. As a result of this globally unique setting, the basin preserves a complex record of aggradation and incision in response to distant as well as local tectonic, volcanic, and climatic events. Voluminous flood basalts, continental and locally derived sediment and volcanic debris, and catastrophic flood deposits all accumulated in an area influenced by contemporaneous tectonic deformation and variations in regional and local base level.

  3. Interactions between hydrology and water chemistry shape bacterioplankton biogeography across boreal freshwater networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-García, Juan Pablo; Ruiz-González, Clara; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Disentangling the mechanisms shaping bacterioplankton communities across freshwater ecosystems requires considering a hydrologic dimension that can influence both dispersal and local sorting, but how the environment and hydrology interact to shape the biogeography of freshwater bacterioplankton over large spatial scales remains unexplored. Using Illumina sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we investigate the large-scale spatial patterns of bacterioplankton across 386 freshwater systems from seven distinct regions in boreal Québec. We show that both hydrology and local water chemistry (mostly pH) interact to shape a sequential structuring of communities from highly diverse assemblages in headwater streams toward larger rivers and lakes dominated by fewer taxa. Increases in water residence time along the hydrologic continuum were accompanied by major losses of bacterial richness and by an increased differentiation of communities driven by local conditions (pH and other related variables). This suggests that hydrology and network position modulate the relative role of environmental sorting and mass effects on community assembly by determining both the time frame for bacterial growth and the composition of the immigrant pool. The apparent low dispersal limitation (that is, the lack of influence of geographic distance on the spatial patterns observed at the taxonomic resolution used) suggests that these boreal bacterioplankton communities derive from a shared bacterial pool that enters the networks through the smallest streams, largely dominated by mass effects, and that is increasingly subjected to local sorting of species during transit along the hydrologic continuum.

  4. Distribution of biomass of heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Distribution, variation and impact factors of biomass of bacterioplankton from April to May 1999in Bohai Sea were studied in DAPI method with epifluorescence microscopy. The biomass in surface waters showed a small day-night variation, varying from 0.13 to 2.51 μg/dm3 with an average of 0.84 μg/dm3. The biomass in bottom waters showed, however, a large variation, changing from 0.15 to 4.18 μg/dm3 with an average of 1.36 μg/dm3. The peak values occurred at 5 and 11 a.m. The bottom water biomass showed a significant correlation with particulate organic carbon (r=0.639, P<0.05). Heterotrophic bacterioplankton biomass was high in nearshore waters and low in offshore areas with a high biomass zone around Huanghe (Yellow) River mouth,showing the same distribution of nutrients. In vertical distribution, heterotrophic bacteria biomass in bottom waters was higher than that in surface water.

  5. Flood-inundation maps for the Big Blue River at Shelbyville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2017-02-13

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 4.1-mile reach of the Big Blue River at Shelbyville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The floodinundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at https://water. usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Big Blue River at Shelbyville, Ind. (station number 03361500). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata. usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at https://water.weather.gov/ ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (SBVI3). Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Big Blue River at Shelbyville, Ind., streamgage. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 9.0 feet, or near bankfull, to 19.4 feet, the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-foot vertical accuracy and 4.9-foot horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The availability of these maps, along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at the Big Blue River at Shelbyville, Ind., and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, will provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response

  6. The ordered network structure and its prediction for the big floods of the Changjiang River Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai; Zhu, Shu-Dan [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing (China). College of Mathematics and Statistics

    2013-12-15

    According to the latest statistical data of hydrology, a total of 21 floods took place over the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Basins from 1827 to 2012 and showed an obvious commensurable orderliness. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the summary of the ordered network structure of the Changjiang floods, supplement new information, further optimize networks, construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure and make prediction research. Predictions show that the future big deluges will probably occur over the Changjiang River Basin around 2013-2014, 2020-2021, 2030, 2036, 2051, and 2058. (orig.)

  7. Water resources in the Big Lost River Basin, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.; Thomas, C.A.; Dyer, K.L.

    1970-01-01

    The Big Lost River basin occupies about 1,400 square miles in south-central Idaho and drains to the Snake River Plain. The economy in the area is based on irrigation agriculture and stockraising. The basin is underlain by a diverse-assemblage of rocks which range, in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The assemblage is divided into five groups on the basis of their hydrologic characteristics. Carbonate rocks, noncarbonate rocks, cemented alluvial deposits, unconsolidated alluvial deposits, and basalt. The principal aquifer is unconsolidated alluvial fill that is several thousand feet thick in the main valley. The carbonate rocks are the major bedrock aquifer. They absorb a significant amount of precipitation and, in places, are very permeable as evidenced by large springs discharging from or near exposures of carbonate rocks. Only the alluvium, carbonate rock and locally the basalt yield significant amounts of water. A total of about 67,000 acres is irrigated with water diverted from the Big Lost River. The annual flow of the river is highly variable and water-supply deficiencies are common. About 1 out of every 2 years is considered a drought year. In the period 1955-68, about 175 irrigation wells were drilled to provide a supplemental water supply to land irrigated from the canal system and to irrigate an additional 8,500 acres of new land. Average. annual precipitation ranged from 8 inches on the valley floor to about 50 inches at some higher elevations during the base period 1944-68. The estimated water yield of the Big Lost River basin averaged 650 cfs (cubic feet per second) for the base period. Of this amount, 150 cfs was transpired by crops, 75 cfs left the basin as streamflow, and 425 cfs left as ground-water flow. A map of precipitation and estimated values of evapotranspiration were used to construct a water-yield map. A distinctive feature of the Big Lost River basin, is the large interchange of water from surface streams into the ground and from the

  8. Big Blue River at Shelbyville, Indiana flood-inundation geospatial datasets​

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2017-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 4.1-mile reach of the Big Blue River at Shelbyville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Big Blue River at Shelbyville, Indiana (station number 03361500). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (SBVI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Big Blue River at Shelbyville, Ind., streamgage. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 9.0 feet, or near bankfull, to 19.4 feet, the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-foot vertical accuracy and 4.9-foot horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The attached files on this landing page are the inputs and outputs for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS model used to create flood-inundation maps for the referenced report, https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20165166. There are two child items that contain final geospatial datasets for the flood-inundation maps

  9. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  10. Big River Reservoir Project - Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins - Water and Related Land Resources Study. Volume III. Appendices H-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    abundant taxa observed were: Odonata (0.5%), Nematoda (0.5%) and Turbellaria (2.5%) (Appendix A). Tarbox Pond Three Ponar samples yielded an average...included only snails (Gastropoda); other less abundant taxa observed were Odonata (1.0%), Trichoptera (0.5%) and Hydracarina (0.5%) (Appendix A). Big River...included Ceraclea; Oecetis, Lype and Phylocentropus. Other less abundant taxa observed included Mollusca (4.4%), Odonata (1.1%) and Megaloptera (1.8

  11. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  12. 基于浮游细菌生物完整性指数的河流生态系统健康评价——以滇池流域为例%Bacterioplankton Index of Biotic Integrity (BP-IBI): An Approach for Assessing River Ecosystem Health in Dianchi Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艺; 舒中亚

    2013-01-01

    生物完整性指数(IBI)已被广泛运用于河流生态系统的健康评价中.然而,现存的IBI缺少基于分解者的评价方法.因此,基于浮游细菌的T-RFLP结果,通过对关键环境因子与候选生物参数的筛选和确定,建立浮游细菌生物完整性指数(BPIBI)评价体系,对滇池流域入湖河流生态系统健康状况进行评价.评价结果表明,作为参照点的11个滇池流域入湖河流水源地或上游出水口样点健康状况为Ⅰ级健康(8个)或Ⅱ级亚健康(3个),27个下游入湖口样点健康状况分别为Ⅰ级健康(4个)、Ⅱ级亚健康(14个)、Ⅲ级一般(7个)和Ⅳ级较差(2个),无Ⅴ级极差点.对BP-IBI的可行性验证结果表明,与底栖IBI、着生藻IBI和综合污染指数相比,BP-IBI结果能够更好地反映各主要环境因子、不同土地利用方式以及上游的来水方式对生态系统的影响,对退化生态系统的健康状况具有良好的表征作用.因此,BP-IBI是评价受损河流生态系统健康的一种良好方法.%The index of biotic integrity (IBI) has been widely applied to the health assessment of river ecosystems.However,the currently available IBI methods are lack of decomposer-based assessment.Based on the T-RFLP result of bacterioplankton,we developed the bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI) after the screening of major environmental factors and candidate metrics to assess the health of the inflow rivers in Dianchi Watershed.The evaluation result indicated that the eco-health conditions of 11 reference sites were either level Ⅰ (8 sites) or level Ⅱ (3 sites),while the 27 damaged sites were level Ⅰ (4 sites),level Ⅱ (14 sites),level Ⅲ (7 sites),and level Ⅳ (2 sites),and there was no level Ⅴ site.Compared with the other IBI methods and the integrated pollution index,BP-IBI showed better effect in reflecting the influence of the key environmental factors,the land use types and the upstream water types in river

  13. Storm and flood of July 31-August 1, 1976, in the Big Thompson River and Cache la Poudre River basins, Larimer and Weld Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Jerald F.; Shroba, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    PART A: Devastating flash floods swept through the canyon section of Larimer County in north-central Colorado during the night of July 31-August I, 1976, causing 139 deaths, 5 missing persons, and more than $35 million in total damages. The brunt of the storms occurred over the Big Thompson River basin between Drake and Estes Park with rainfall amounts as much as 12 inches being reported during the storm period. In the Cache la Poudre River basin to the north, a rainfall amount of 10 inches was reported for one locality while 6 inches fell over a widespread area near the central part of the basin. The storms developed when strong low-level easterly winds to the rear of a polar front pushed a moist, conditionally unstable airmass upslope into the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Orographic uplift released the convective instability, and light south-southeasterly winds at middle and upper levels allowed the storm complex to remain nearly stationary over the foothills for several hours. Minimal entrainment of relatively moist air at middle and upper levels, very low cloud bases, and a slightly tilted updraft structure contributed to a high precipitation efficiency. Intense rainfall began soon after 1900 MDT (Mountain Daylight Time) in the Big Thompson River and the North Fork Cache la Poudre River basins. A cumulative rainfall curve developed for Glen Comfort from radar data indicates that 7.5 inches of rain fell during the period 1930-2040 MDT on July 31. In the central part of the storm area west of Fort Collins, the heaviest rainfall began about 2200 MDT on July 31 and continued until 0100 MDT on August 1. Peak discharges were extremely large on many streams in the storm area-exceeding previously recorded maximum discharges at several locations. The peak discharge of the Big Thompson River at the gaging station at the canyon mouth, near Drake was 31,200 cubic feet per second or more than four times the previous maximum discharge of 7,600 cubic feet per second at

  14. Reducing risks of maintenance dredging on freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Big Sunflower River, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew C; Payne, Barry S

    2004-11-01

    In response to proposed dredging in a 122-km reach of the Big Sunflower River, Mississippi, we studied freshwater mussels (family: Unionidae) using qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative (0.25 m(2) total substratum removal) methods in 1987, 1993, 1994, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Our objectives were to identify important mussel resources, to devise methods for minimizing dredging risks, and to identify habitat improvement features. Approximately 60% of the fauna was located on two high-density shoals characterized by extreme dominance of the commercially valuable threeridge (Amblema plicata). Shallow nearshore and main channel areas comprised approximately 10 and 88% of the aquatic habitat in the project area; however, these areas were of less importance for mussels and supported densities of approximately 5 and 0.5 individuals/m(2), respectively. Throughout the project area the mussel fauna exhibited little or no evidence of recent recruitment, dominance of relatively few species (either A. plicata, or the bank climber Plectomerus dombeyanus), and low species diversity (H') and evenness. No federally listed endangered or threatened mussels were found, although the pyramid pigtoe (Pleurobema pyramidatum), a species listed as endangered in Mississippi, was collected in and upstream of the project area. Two other state-listed species, Plethobasus cyphyus (sheepnose) and Quadrula cylindrica (rabbitsfoot), were only found on gravelly shoals upriver of the project area. Maintenance plans were redesigned to minimize environmental damage; a hydraulic cutterhead dredge will be used in most of the mainstem to reduce risk to nearshore habitats. High-density assemblages on four shoals will not be dredged and 150 and 100 m buffer zones will be left immediately up and downriver. Enhancements for aquatic biota will be created with gravel substratum and wing dams.

  15. Spatial and temporal dynamics of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton biomass in Sanya Bay, northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Weihua; LI Tao; XU Jirong; WANG Hankui; CAI Chuanghua; DONG Junde; ZHANG Si

    2009-01-01

    The composition of phytoplankton and the dynamics of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton biomass (PB and BB, respectively) of Sanya Bay, South China Sea, were determined. A total of 168 species (67 genera) phytoplankton were identified, including Bacillariophyta (diatom, 128 species), Pyrrophyta (35 species), Cyanophyta (3 species), and Chrysophyta (2 species). Annual average abundance of phytoplankton was 1.2 × 107 cells/m3, with the highest abundance in autumn, and the lowest in summer. Annual average diversity index (H′) and evenness (J) values were 3.86 and 0.70, respectively. Average chlorophyll a was 2.5 mg/m3, and the average PB was 124 mg C/m3, with the highest value in autumn. Surface PB was higher than the bottom, except for summer. Annual mean bacterioplankton abundance and BB were 6.9 × 1011 cells/m3 and 13.8 mg C/m3, respectively. The highest BB was found in summer, followed by winter, spring, and autumn. Surface BB was higher than bottom all year round. The spatial distribution patterns of PB and BB were very similar with the highest biomass in the estuary and decreasing seaward, primarily due to terrestrial input from the Sanya River and influx of oceanic water. The main factor influencing on PB and BB was DIN, with other factors such as temperature, which was above 22℃ throughout the year, having a negligible impact. The correlation between BB and PB was significant (P < 0.01). The annual average ratio of BB/PB was 0.12 (0.06--0.15). Phytoplankton primary production was one of the most important factors in controlling the distribution of bacterioplankton.

  16. Modeling the impact of riverine DON removal by marine bacterioplankton on primary production in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Le Fouest

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The planktonic and biogeochemical dynamics of the Arctic shelves exhibit a strong variability in response to Arctic warming. In this study, in order to elucidate on the processes regulating the production of phytoplankton (PP and bacterioplankton (BP and their interactions, we employ a biogeochemical model coupled to a pan-Arctic ocean-sea ice model (MITgcm to explicitly simulate and quantify the contribution of usable dissolved organic nitrogen (DON drained by the major circum-Arctic rivers on PP and BP in a scenario of melting sea ice (1998–2011. Model simulations suggest that on average between 1998 and 2011, the removal of usable RDON by bacterioplankton is responsible of a ~26% increase of the annual BP for the whole Arctic Ocean. With respect to total PP, the model simulates an increase of ~8% on an annual basis and of ~18% in summer. Recycled ammonium is responsible for the PP increase. The recycling of RDON by bacterioplankton promotes higher BP and PP but there is no significant temporal trend in the BP : PP ratio within the ice-free shelves over the 1998–2011 period. This suggests no significant evolution in the balance between autotrophy and heterotrophy in the last decade with a constant annual flux of RDON into the coastal ocean although changes in RDON supply and further reduction in sea ice cover could potentially alter this delicate balance.

  17. Annual patterns in bacterioplankton community variability in a humic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, A D; Jones, S E; Yannarell, A C; Graham, J M; Lauster, G H; Kratz, T K; Triplett, E W

    2004-11-01

    Bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) was monitored in a shallow humic lake in northern Wisconsin, USA, over 3 years using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Comparison of ARISA profiles of bacterial communities over time indicated that BCC was highly variable on a seasonal and annual scale. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis indicated little similarity in BCC from year to year. Nevertheless, annual patterns in bacterioplankton community diversity were observed. Trends in bacterioplankton community diversity were correlated to annual patterns in community succession observed for phytoplankton and zooplankton populations, consistent with the notion that food web interactions affect bacterioplankton community structure in this humic lake. Bacterioplankton communities experience a dramatic drop in richness and abundance each year in early summer, concurrent with an increase in the abundance of both mixotrophic and heterotrophic flagellates. A second drop in richness, but not abundance, is observed each year in late summer, coinciding with an intense bloom of the nonphagotrophic dinoflagellate Peridinium limbatum. A relationship between bacterial community composition, size, and abundance and the population dynamics of Daphnia was also observed. The noted synchrony between these major population and species shifts suggests that linkages across trophic levels play a role in determining the annual time course of events for the microbial and metazoan components of the plankton.

  18. 75 FR 27507 - Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... expect the economic impact of this proposed rule to be so minimal that a full Regulatory Evaluation is... made to the maritime community via marine information broadcasts and area newspapers so mariners can... is intended to temporarily restrict vessel traffic in the regulated area within Big Timber...

  19. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge: Public Use Management : Big Game Hunting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This hunt plan initiates the effort to manage Parker River National Wildlife Refuge’s white-tailed deer population at a level commensurate with the habitat. This...

  20. Systems Biology and Ecology of Streamlined Bacterioplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The salient feature of streamlined cells is their small genome size, but "streamlining" refers more generally to selection that favors minimization of cell size and complexity. The essence of streamlining theory is that selection is most efficient in organisms that have large effective population sizes, and, in nutrient-limited systems, favors cell architecture that minimizes resources required for replication. Regardless of the cause of genome reduction, lost coding potential eventually dictates loss of function, raising the questions, what genome features are expendable, and how do cells become highly successful with a minimal genomic repertoire? One consequence of reductive evolution in streamlined organisms is atypical patterns of prototrophy, for example the recent discovery of a requirement for the thiamin precursor 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine in some plankton taxa. Examples such as this fit within the framework of the Black Queen Hypothesis, which describes genome reduction that results in reliance on community goods and increased community connectivity. Other examples of genome reduction include losses of regulatory functions, or replacement with simpler regulatory systems, and increased metabolic integration. In one such case, in the order Pelagibacterales, the PII system for regulating responses to N limitation has been replaced with a simpler system composed of fewer genes. Both the absence of common regulatory systems and atypical patterns of prototrophy have been linked to difficulty in culturing Pelagibacterales, lending credibility to the idea that streamlining might broadly explain the phenomenon of the uncultured microbial majority. The success of streamlined osmotrophic bacterioplankton suggests that they successfully compete for labile organic matter and capture a large share of this resource, but an alternative theory postulates they are not good resource competitors and instead prosper by avoiding predation. The answers to these

  1. Disentangling seasonal bacterioplankton population dynamics by high-frequency sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Andersson, Anders F; Baltar, Federico; Hugerth, Luisa W; Lundin, Daniel; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-07-01

    Multiyear comparisons of bacterioplankton succession reveal that environmental conditions drive community shifts with repeatable patterns between years. However, corresponding insight into bacterioplankton dynamics at a temporal resolution relevant for detailed examination of variation and characteristics of specific populations within years is essentially lacking. During 1 year, we collected 46 samples in the Baltic Sea for assessing bacterial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing (nearly twice weekly during productive season). Beta-diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of samples, attributable to seemingly synchronous temporal transitions among populations (populations defined by 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). A wide spectrum of bacterioplankton dynamics was evident, where divergent temporal patterns resulted both from pronounced differences in relative abundance and presence/absence of populations. Rates of change in relative abundance calculated for individual populations ranged from 0.23 to 1.79 day(-1) . Populations that were persistently dominant, transiently abundant or generally rare were found in several major bacterial groups, implying evolution has favoured a similar variety of life strategies within these groups. These findings suggest that high temporal resolution sampling allows constraining the timescales and frequencies at which distinct populations transition between being abundant or rare, thus potentially providing clues about physical, chemical or biological forcing on bacterioplankton community structure.

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Big Island - The McKenzie River, Technical Report 1998-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglitz, Greg

    2001-03-01

    The Big Island site is located in the McKenzie River flood plain, containing remnant habitats of what was once more common in this area. A diverse array of flora and fauna, representing significant wildlife habitats, is present on the site. Stands of undisturbed forested wetlands, along with riparian shrub habitats and numerous streams and ponds, support a diversity of wildlife species, including neotropical migratory songbirds, raptors, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians (including two State-listed Sensitive Critical species). The project is located in eastern Springfield, Oregon (Figure 1). The project area encompasses 187 acres under several ownerships in Section 27 of Township 17S, Range 2W. Despite some invasion of non-native species, the site contains large areas of relatively undisturbed wildlife habitat. Over several site visits, a variety of wildlife and signs of wildlife were observed, including an active great blue heron rookery, red-Legged frog egg masses, signs of beaver, and a bald eagle, Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for the Willamette River Basin. Under this Plan, mitigation goals and objectives were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal hydroelectric facilities in the Willamette River Basin. Results of the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) will be used to: (1) determine the current habitat status of the study area and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area.

  3. Hydrologic, vegetation, and soil data collected in selected wetlands of the Big River Management area, Rhode Island, from 2008 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Meredith S.; Golet, Francis C.; Armstrong, David S.; Breault, Robert F.; McCobb, Timothy D.; Weiskel, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board planned to develop public water-supply wells in the Big River Management Area in Kent County, Rhode Island. Research in the United States and abroad indicates that groundwater withdrawal has the potential to affect wetland hydrology and related processes. In May 2008, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Rhode Island formed a partnership to establish baseline conditions at selected Big River wetland study sites and to develop an approach for monitoring potential impacts once pumping begins. In 2008 and 2009, baseline data were collected on the hydrology, vegetation, and soil characteristics at five forested wetland study sites in the Big River Management Area. Four of the sites were located in areas of potential drawdown associated with the projected withdrawals. The fifth site was located outside the area of projected drawdown and served as a control site. The data collected during this study are presented in this report.

  4. Surface-water quality and suspended-sediment quantity and quality within the Big River Basin, southeastern Missouri, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2016-01-28

    Missouri was the leading producer of lead in the United States—as well as the world—for more than a century. One of the lead sources is known as the Old Lead Belt, located in southeast Missouri. The primary ore mineral in the region is galena, which can be found both in surface deposits and underground as deep as 200 feet. More than 8.5 million tons of lead were produced from the Old Lead Belt before operations ceased in 1972. Although active lead mining has ended, the effects of mining activities still remain in the form of large mine waste piles on the landscape typically near tributaries and the main stem of the Big River, which drains the Old Lead Belt. Six large mine waste piles encompassing more than 2,800 acres, exist within the Big River Basin. These six mine waste piles have been an available source of trace element-rich suspended sediments transported by natural erosional processes downstream into the Big River.

  5. Sediment composition of big Chinese and Indochinese rivers reflects geology of their source, not tectonic setting of their sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Limonta, Mara; Nie, Junsheng; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Wang, Jiangang; Yang, Shouye

    2016-04-01

    There are several reasons why the tectonic setting of a sedimentary basin cannot be inferred from the composition of its sedimentary fill. One is that sediments can, and quite often are transported for thousands of kilometers from sources uplifted by certain tectonic processes to subsident basins created by totally different tectonic processes. A classical case is the Amazon River, carrying detritus from the Andean Cordillera to the Atlantic passive margin on the opposite side of South America (Franzinelli and Potter, 1983; Dickinson, 1988). Similar is the case of major rivers in China and Indochina, sourced in Tibetan orogenic highlands and reaching the Chinese passive margin or the back-arc/pull-apart Andaman Sea. The Huang He (Yellow River), the most sediment-laden river in the world, delivers annually to the Bohai Sea 1 billion tons of litho-feldspatho-quartzose sedimentaclastic/metamorphiclastic sediments with moderately rich, amphibole-epidote-garnet suites including apatite and zircon (Nie et al., 2015). The Changjiang (Yangtze) River, the fourth longest on Earth and the largest in Eurasia, carries to the East China Sea litho-feldspatho-quartzose sedimentaclastic/metamorphiclastic sand with moderately poor, amphibole-epidote suites including clinopyroxene and garnet (Vezzoli et al., 2016). The Ayeyarwadi (Irrawaddy) River, ranking among the five major rivers in the world for its annual load of 0.4 billion tons, carries to the Andaman Sea litho-feldspatho-quartzose metamorphiclastic/sedimentaclastic sand with moderately rich, amphibole-epidote suites including garnet and clinopyroxene (Garzanti et al., 2013). Detrital modes in these three very big river basins are thus similar, and would plot in the "Recycled Orogen" field of Dickinson (1985) rather than in the "Continental Block" or "Magmatic Arc" fields. The orogenic signature acquired in mountainous headwaters is carried all the way to the mouth, and even after long-distance transport across wide

  6. Tissue mercury concentrations and adrenocortical responses of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near a contaminated river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Haruka; Yates, David E; Evers, David C; Taylor, Robert J; Hopkins, William A

    2010-10-01

    Much of the research on mercury (Hg) in wild vertebrates has focused on piscivores and other animals at high trophic levels. However, recent studies indicated that insectivorous terrestrial vertebrates may also be at risk. In the present study, we examined blood and fur Hg concentrations as well as the adrenocortical responses of insectivorous big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near the Hg-contaminated South River, VA and a nearby reference area. Baseline glucocorticoids and adrenocortical responses to handling have been widely used to assess the influence of environmental stressors because plasma glucocorticoids rise in response to various physical, psychological, and physiological challenges. Female bats captured at the contaminated site had 2.6 times higher blood and fur Hg concentrations than those captured at the reference site (blood: 0.11 vs. 0.04 μg/g wet weight; fur: 28.0 vs. 10.9 μg/g fresh weight). Fur Hg concentrations at the contaminated site were higher than most wild omnivorous and carnivorous mammals reported in the literature. Although fur and blood Hg concentrations were tightly correlated, fur Hg concentrations averaged 260 times higher than concentrations in blood. This suggests that fur may be an important depuration route for bats, just as it is in other mammals. Despite the high Hg concentrations in bat tissue, we did not observe any site difference in adrenocortical responses. Our results suggest that the bats at the contaminated site were exposed to Hg concentrations below those causing adverse effects on their adrenal axis.

  7. Unusual bacterioplankton community structure in ultra-oligotrophic Crater Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Ena; Vergin, Kevin L.; Morse, Ariel

    2001-01-01

    The bacterioplankton assemblage in Crater Lake, Oregon (U.S.A.), is different from communities found in other oxygenated lakes, as demonstrated by four small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries and oligonucleotide probe hybridization to RNA from lake water. Populations in the euphotic zone of this deep (589 m), oligotrophic caldera lake are dominated by two phylogenetic clusters of currently uncultivated bacteria: CL120-10, a newly identified cluster in the verrucomicrobiales, and ACK4 actinomycetes, known as a minor constituent of bacterioplankton in other lakes. Deep-water populations at 300 and 500 m are dominated by a different pair of uncultivated taxa: CL500-11, a novel cluster in the green nonsulfur bacteria, and group I marine crenarchaeota. b-Proteobacteria, dominant in most other freshwater environments, are relatively rare in Crater Lake (chemistry of infiltrating hydrothermal waters, and irradiation by high levels of ultraviolet light.

  8. Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Structural and Physiological Diversity of Bacterioneuston and Bacterioplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana L.; Oliveira, Vanessa; Baptista, Inês; Henriques, Isabel; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Almeida, Adelaide; Correia, António

    2012-01-01

    The effects of UV radiation (UVR) on estuarine bacterioneuston and bacterioplankton were assessed in microcosm experiments. Bacterial abundance and DNA synthesis were more affected in bacterioplankton. Protein synthesis was more inhibited in bacterioneuston. Community analysis indicated that UVR has the potential to select resistant bacteria (e.g., Gammaproteobacteria), particularly abundant in bacterioneuston. PMID:22247171

  9. Biogeochemical controls on Diel cycling of stable isotopes of dissolved O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon in the Big Hole River, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen R; Poulson, Simon R; Gammons, Christopher H; DeGrandpre, Michael D

    2005-09-15

    Rivers with high biological productivity typically show substantial increases in pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during the day and decreases at night, in response to changes in the relative rates of aquatic photosynthesis and respiration. These changes, coupled with temperature variations, may impart diel (24-h) fluctuations in the concentration of trace metals, nutrients, and other chemical species. A better understanding of diel processes in rivers is needed and will lead to improved methods of data collection for both monitoring and research purposes. Previous studies have used stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen (DO) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as tracers of geochemical and biological processes in streams, lakes, and marine systems. Although seasonal variation in 6180 of DO in rivers and lakes has been documented, no study has investigated diel changes in this parameter. Here, we demonstrate large (up to 13%o) cycles in delta18O-DO for two late summer sampling periods in the Big Hole River of southwest Montana and illustrate that these changes are correlated to variations in the DO concentration, the C-isotopic composition of DIC, and the primary productivity of the system. The magnitude of the diel cycle in delta18O-DO was greater in August versus September because of the longer photoperiod and warmer water temperatures. This study provides another biogeochemical tool for investigating the O2 and C budgets in rivers and may also be applicable to lake and groundwater systems.

  10. Occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in drinking water, wastewater effluent, and the Big Sioux River in or near Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the city of Sioux Falls conducted several rounds of sampling to determine the occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) in the city of Sioux Falls drinking water and waste-water effluent, and the Big Sioux River in or near Sioux Falls during August 2001 through May 2004. Water samples were collected during both base-flow and storm-runoff conditions. Water samples were collected at 8 sites, which included 4 sites upstream from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge, 2 sites downstream from the WWTP discharge, 1 finished drinking-water site, and 1 WWTP effluent (WWE) site. A total of 125 different OWCs were analyzed for in this study using five different analytical methods. Analyses for OWCs were performed at USGS laboratories that are developing and/or refining small-concentration (less than 1 microgram per liter (ug/L)) analytical methods. The OWCs were classified into six compound classes: human pharmaceutical compounds (HPCs); human and veterinary antibiotic compounds (HVACs); major agricultural herbicides (MAHs); household, industrial,and minor agricultural compounds (HIACs); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); and sterol compounds (SCs). Some of the compounds in the HPC, MAH, HIAC, and PAH classes are suspected of being endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Of the 125 different OWCs analyzed for in this study, 81 OWCs had one or more detections in environmental samples reported by the laboratories, and of those 81 OWCs, 63 had acceptable analytical method performance, were detected at concentrations greater than the study reporting levels, and were included in analyses and discussion related to occurrence of OWCs in drinking water, wastewater effluent, and the Big Sioux River. OWCs in all compound classes were detected in water samples from sampling sites in the Sioux Falls area. For the five sampling periods when samples were collected from the Sioux Falls finished drinking water, only one

  11. Big Data: Big Confusion? Big Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    12th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium 12th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Big Data : Big Confusion? Big Challenges? Mary Maureen... Data : Big Confusion? Big Challenges? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Acquisition Research Symposium • ~!& UNC CHARlD1TE 90% of the data in the world today was created in the last two years Big Data growth from

  12. Bacterioplankton carbon cycling along the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, Federico; Stuck, Esther; Morales, Sergio; Currie, Kim

    2015-06-01

    Marine heterotrophic bacterioplankton (Bacteria and Archaea) play a central role in ocean carbon cycling. As such, identifying the factors controlling these microbial populations is crucial to fully understanding carbon fluxes. We studied bacterioplankton activities along a transect crossing three water masses (i.e., Subtropical waters [STW], Sub-Antarctic waters [SAW] and neritic waters [NW]) with contrasting nutrient regimes across the Subtropical Frontal Zone. In contrast to bacterioplankton production and community respiration, bacterioplankton respiration increased in the offshore SAW, causing a seaward increase in the contribution of bacteria to community respiration (from 7% to 100%). Cell-specific bacterioplankton respiration also increased in SAW, but cell-specific production did not, suggesting that prokaryotic cells in SAW were investing more energy towards respiration than growth. This was reflected in a 5-fold decline in bacterioplankton growth efficiency (BGE) towards SAW. One way to explain this decrease in BGE could be due to the observed reduction in phytoplankton biomass (and presumably organic matter concentration) towards SAW. However, this would not explain why bacterioplankton respiration was highest in SAW, where phytoplankton biomass was lowest. Another factor affecting BGE could be the iron limitation characteristic of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions like SAW. Our field-study based evidences would agree with previous laboratory experiments in which iron stress provoked a decrease in BGE of marine bacterial isolates. Our results suggest that there is a strong gradient in bacterioplankton carbon cycling rates along the Subtropical Frontal Zone, mainly due to the HNLC conditions of SAW. We suggest that Fe-induced reduction of BGE in HNLC regions like SAW could be relevant in marine carbon cycling, inducing bacterioplankton to act as a link or a sink of organic carbon by impacting on the quantity of organic carbon they incorporate

  13. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.;

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...... of common drivers of bacterioplankton community functions in two different systems indicates that the drivers may be of broader relevance in coastal temperate waters....

  14. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  15. Big data, big governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reep, Frans van der

    2016-01-01

    “Natuurlijk is het leuk dat mijn koelkast zelf melk bestelt op basis van data gerelateerde patronen. Deep learning op basis van big data kent grote beloften,” zegt Frans van der Reep van Inholland. Geen wonder dat dit op de Hannover Messe tijdens de Wissenstag van ScienceGuide een hoofdthema zal zij

  16. Application of Advection-Diffusion Routing Model to Flood Wave Propagation:A Case Study on Big Piney River, Missouri USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A Endreny; David J Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Flood wave propagation modeling is of critical importance to advancing water re-sources management and protecting human life and property. In this study, we investigated how the advection-diffusion routing model performed in flood wave propagation on a 16 km long down-stream section of the Big Piney River, MO. Model performance was based on gaging station data at the upstream and downstream cross sections. We demonstrated with advection-diffusion theory that for small differences in watershed drainage area between the two river cross sections, inflow along the reach mainly contributes to the downstream hydrograph’s rising limb and not to the falling limb. The downstream hydrograph’s falling limb is primarily determined by the propagated flood wave originating at the upstream cross section. This research suggests the parameter for the advection-diffusion routing model can be calibrated by fitting the hydrograph falling limb. Application of the advection diffusion model to the flood wave of January 29, 2013 supports our theoretical finding that the propagated flood wave determines the downstream cross section falling limb, and the model has good performance in our test examples.

  17. Marine bacterioplankton biomass, activity and community structure in the vicinity of Antarctic icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alison E.; Peng, Vivian; Tyler, Charlotte; Wagh, Protima

    2011-06-01

    We studied marine bacterioplankton in the Scotia Sea in June 2008 and in the northwest Weddell Sea in March to mid April 2009 in waters proximal to three free-drifting icebergs (SS-1, A-43k, and C-18a), in a region with a high density of smaller icebergs (iceberg alley), and at stations that were upstream of the iceberg trajectories designated as far-field reference sites that were between 16-75 km away. Hydrographic parameters were used to define water masses in which comparisons between bacterioplankton-associated characteristics (abundance, leucine incorporation into protein, aminopeptidase activities and community structure) within and between water masses could be made. Early winter Scotia Sea bacterioplankton had low levels of cells and low heterotrophic production rates in the upper 50 m. Influences of the icebergs on bacterioplankton at this time of year were minimal, if not deleterious, as we found lower levels of heterotrophic production near A-43k in comparison to stations >16 km away. Additionally, the results point to small but significant differences in cell abundance, heterotrophic production, and community structure between the two icebergs studied. These icebergs differed greatly in size and the findings suggest that the larger iceberg had a greater effect. In the NW Weddell Sea in March-mid April bacterioplankton were twice as abundant and had heterotrophic productions rates that were 8-fold higher than what we determined in the Scotia Sea, though levels were still quite low, which is typical for autumn. We did not detect direct iceberg-related influences on the bacterioplankton characteristics studied here. Clues to understanding bacterioplankton responses may lie in the details of community structure, as there were some significant differences in community structure in the winter water and underlying upper circumpolar deep-water masses between stations occupied close to C-18a and at stations 18 km away (i.e. Polaribacter and Pelagibacter

  18. Big data, big responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big data refers to the collection and aggregation of large quantities of data produced by and about people, things or the interactions between them. With the advent of cloud computing, specialised data centres with powerful computational hardware and software resources can be used for processing and analysing a humongous amount of aggregated data coming from a variety of different sources. The analysis of such data is all the more valuable to the extent that it allows for specific patterns to be found and new correlations to be made between different datasets, so as to eventually deduce or infer new information, as well as to potentially predict behaviours or assess the likelihood for a certain event to occur. This article will focus specifically on the legal and moral obligations of online operators collecting and processing large amounts of data, to investigate the potential implications of big data analysis on the privacy of individual users and on society as a whole.

  19. Probable hydrologic effects of a hypothetical failure of Mackay Dam on the Big Lost River Valley from Mackay, Idaho to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druffel, Leroy; Stiltner, Gloria J.; Keefer, Thomas N.

    1979-01-01

    Mackay Dam is an irrigation reservoir on the Big Lost River, Idaho, approximately 7.2 kilometers northwest of Mackay, Idaho. Consequences of possible rupture of the dam have long concerned the residents of the river valley. The presence of reactors and of a management complex for nuclear wastes on the reservation of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), near the river , give additional cause for concern over the consequences of a rupture of Mackay Dam. The objective of this report is to calculate and route the flood wave resulting from the hypothetical failure of Mackay Dam downstream to the INEL. Both a full and a 50 percent partial breach of this dam are investigated. Two techniques are used to develop the dam-break model. The method of characteristics is used to propagate the shock wave after the dam fails. The linear implicit finite-difference solution is used to route the flood wave after the shock wave has dissipated. The time of travel of the flood wave, duration of flooding, and magnitude of the flood are determined for eight selected sites from Mackay Dam, Idaho, through the INEL diversion. At 4.2 kilometers above the INEL diversion, peak discharges of 1,550.2 and 1,275 cubic meters per second and peak flood elevations of 1,550.3 and 1,550.2 meters were calculated for the full and partial breach, respectively. Flood discharges and flood peaks were not compared for the area downstream of the diversion because of the lack of detailed flood plain geometry. (Kosco-USGS)

  20. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  1. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    utilization capacity could not be directly linked to the community dynamics. The overall importance of dissolved organic matter (DOM) parameters in the LASSO models indicate that bacterioplankton respond to the present substrate landscape, with a particular importance of nitrogenous DOM. The identification......Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...

  2. Energetic differences between bacterioplankton trophic groups and coral reef resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole Somera, Tracey; Bailey, Barbara; Barott, Katie; Grasis, Juris; Hatay, Mark; Hilton, Brett J; Hisakawa, Nao; Nosrat, Bahador; Nulton, James; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sullivan, Chris; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-27

    Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse marine ecosystems on the Earth. They are also particularly sensitive to changing energetic requirements by different trophic levels. Microbialization specifically refers to the increase in the energetic metabolic demands of microbes relative to macrobes and is significantly correlated with increasing human influence on coral reefs. In this study, metabolic theory of ecology is used to quantify the relative contributions of two broad bacterioplankton groups, autotrophs and heterotrophs, to energy flux on 27 Pacific coral reef ecosystems experiencing human impact to varying degrees. The effective activation energy required for photosynthesis is lower than the average energy of activation for the biochemical reactions of the Krebs cycle, and changes in the proportional abundance of these two groups can greatly affect rates of energy and materials cycling. We show that reef-water communities with a higher proportional abundance of microbial autotrophs expend more metabolic energy per gram of microbial biomass. Increased energy and materials flux through fast energy channels (i.e. water-column associated microbial autotrophs) may dampen the detrimental effects of increased heterotrophic loads (e.g. coral disease) on coral reef systems experiencing anthropogenic disturbance.

  3. Concentration trends for lead and calcium-normalized lead in fish fillets from the Big River, a mining-contaminated stream in southeastern Missouri USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; McKee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005–2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005–2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  4. Big universe, big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Stensbo-Smidt, Kristoffer; Gieseke, Fabian Cristian

    2017-01-01

    , modern astronomy requires big data know-how, in particular it demands highly efficient machine learning and image analysis algorithms. But scalability is not the only challenge: Astronomy applications touch several current machine learning research questions, such as learning from biased data and dealing......Astrophysics and cosmology are rich with data. The advent of wide-area digital cameras on large aperture telescopes has led to ever more ambitious surveys of the sky. Data volumes of entire surveys a decade ago can now be acquired in a single night and real-time analysis is often desired. Thus...... with label and measurement noise. We argue that this makes astronomy a great domain for computer science research, as it pushes the boundaries of data analysis. In the following, we will present this exciting application area for data scientists. We will focus on exemplary results, discuss main challenges...

  5. Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

  6. Bacterioplankton responses to iron enrichment during the SAGE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuparinen, J.; Hall, J.; Ellwood, M.; Safi, K.; Peloquin, J.; Katz, D.

    2011-03-01

    We studied the microbial food web in the upper 100 m of the water column in iron-limited sub-Antarctic HNLC waters south-east of New Zealand in the SAGE experiment in 2004, with focus on bacterioplankton. Samples were collected daily from inside and outside the iron enriched patch. Short term enrichment experiments were conducted on board in 4 L polycarbonate bottles with water outside the iron enriched patch to study single and combined effects of micronutrient additions on microbial food web. Low bacterial growth was recorded in the study area with community turnover times of 50 h or more during the study period. Measurements of bacterial standing stocks and production rates in the study show minor responses to the large scale iron enrichment, with increase in rates and stocks after the first enrichment and at the end of the study period after the third iron enrichment when solar radiation increased and wind mixing decreased. The average daily bacterial production rates were 31.5 and 33.7 mgCm -2 d -1 for the OUT and IN stations, respectively; thus overall there was not a significant difference between the control and the iron-enriched patch. In the bottle experiments bacterial thymidine incorporation showed responses to single iron and silicic acid enrichments and a major growth response to the combined iron and sucrose enrichments. Phytoplankton chlorophyll- a showed clear stimulation by single additions of iron and silicic acid and silicic acid enhanced the iron impact. Cobalt additions had no effect on bacteria growth and a negative effect on phytoplankton growth. Low bacterial in situ growth rates and the enrichment experiments suggest that bacteria are co-limited by iron and carbon, and that bacterial iron uptake is dependent on carbon supply by the food web. With the high iron quota (μmol Fe mol C -1) bacteria may scavenge considerable amounts of the excess iron, and thus influence the relative importance of the microbial food web as a carbon sink.

  7. Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi More

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Demand and spurt in collections and accumulation of data has coined new term “Big Data” has begun. Accidently, incidentally and by interaction of people, information so called data is massively generated. This BIG DATA is to be smartly and effectively used Computer scientists, physicists, economists, mathematicians, political scientists, bio-informaticists, sociologists and many Variety of Intellegesia debate over the potential benefits and costs of analysing information from Twitter, Google, Facebook, Wikipedia and every space where large groups of people leave digital traces and deposit data. Given the rise of Big Data as both a phenomenon and a methodological persuasion, it is time to start critically interrogating this phenomenon, its assumptions and its biases. Big data, which refers to the data sets that are too big to be handled using the existing database management tools, are emerging in many important applications, such as Internet search, business informatics, social networks, social media, genomics, and meteorology. Big data presents a grand challenge for database and data analytics research. This paper is a blend of non-technical and introductory-level technical detail, ideal for the novice. We conclude with some technical challenges as well as the solutions that can be used to these challenges. Big Data differs from other data with five characteristics like volume, variety, value, velocity and complexity. The article will focus on some current and future cases and causes for BIG DATA.

  8. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, USA, The Suwannee River, Georgia, USA and by polycarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Leenheer, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Calcite crystallization rates are characterized using a constant solution composition at 25°C, pH=8.5, and calcite supersaturation (Ω) of 4.5 in the absence and presence of fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada (BSLFA), and a fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia (SRFA). Rates are also measured in the presence and absence of low-molar mass, aliphatic-alicyclic polycarboxylic acids (PCA). BSLFA inhibits calcite crystal-growth rates with increasing BSLFA concentration, suggesting that BSLFA adsorbs at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. Calcite growth morphology in the presence of BSLFA differed from growth in its absence, supporting an adsorption mechanism of calcite-growth inhibition by BSLFA. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by BSLFA is consistent with a model indicating that polycarboxylic acid molecules present in BSLFA adsorb at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. In contrast to published results for an unfractionated SRFA, there is dramatic calcite growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1 mg/L) by a SRFA fraction eluted by pH 5 solution from XAD-8 resin, indicating that calcite growth-rate inhibition is related to specific SRFA component fractions. A cyclic PCA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid (CHXHCA) is a strong calcite growth-rate inhibitor at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/L. Two other cyclic PCAs, 1, 1 cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (CPDCA) and 1, 1 cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (CBDCA) with the carboxylic acid groups attached to the same ring carbon atom, have no effect on calcite growth rates up to concentrations of 10 mg/L. Organic matter ad-sorbed from the air onto the seed crystals has no effect on the measured calcite crystal-growth rates.

  9. Feasibility of determination of low-head hydroelectric power development at existing sites. Big Blue River Co-dependent Hydroelectric Development: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, H. Steve; Feuerberg, Stan; Lawrence, John D.; Pal, Parimal C.; Trick, Dr., William T.

    1979-03-01

    The technical, economic, environmental, safety, and financial aspects of redeveloping 7 dam sites in Nebraska for hydroelectric power generation were studied. The Big Blue River Co-dependent Hydroelectric Development was found to be a technically feasible concept, for both redevelopment and in some cases rehabilitation of seven existing sites. The proposed redevelopment project will include seven installations with a recommended nominally rated redeveloped capacity of 3920 kW ranging from 120 kW at the northernmost site in Seward County to 1500 kW at Barneston. The average annual gross generation expected from the seven redeveloped sites totals 11,555,000 kWh. It is estimated that the total cost of redevelopment of these seven sites will be $14,090,000 at 1979 price levels, providing power at an average levelized cost of about 5.3 cents per kWh based on 7% cost of money, a mid-1983 commissioning date, and allowing for funds during construction and cost escalation over a 30-year period. Rehabilitation of original installations at Crete, Dewitt, Blue Springs and Barneston is technically feasible for a total installed capacity of 1415 kW with annual average gross generation of 6,675,000 kWh. The total cost of this rehabilitation is estimated as $3,372,000 at 1979 price levels, or about 2.4 cents per kWh, levelized on a similar basis. Rehabilitation of the Barneston site alone for an installed capacity of 760 kW and annual generation of 3,581,000 kWh is both technically and economically feasible. The total estimated cost of this alternative is $668,000, providing power at a cost of about 1.9 cents per kWh at 1979 price levels. The benefit-cost ratio for Barneston rehabilitation is estimated as 1.23.

  10. Effects of historical lead–zinc mining on riffle-dwelling benthic fish and crayfish in the Big River of southeastern Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, A.L.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.; Schmitt, C.J.; McKee, M.J.; Girondo, J.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The Big River (BGR) drains much of the Old Lead Belt mining district (OLB) in southeastern Missouri, USA, which was historically among the largest producers of lead–zinc (Pb–Zn) ore in the world. We sampled benthic fish and crayfish in riffle habitats at eight sites in the BGR and conducted 56-day in situ exposures to the woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas) and golden crayfish (Orconectes luteus) in cages at four sites affected to differing degrees by mining. Densities of fish and crayfish, physical habitat and water quality, and the survival and growth of caged crayfish were examined at sites with no known upstream mining activities (i.e., reference sites) and at sites downstream of mining areas (i.e., mining and downstream sites). Lead, zinc, and cadmium were analyzed in surface and pore water, sediment, detritus, fish, crayfish, and other benthic macro-invertebrates. Metals concentrations in all materials analyzed were greater at mining and downstream sites than at reference sites. Ten species of fish and four species of crayfish were collected. Fish and crayfish densities were significantly greater at reference than mining or downstream sites, and densities were greater at downstream than mining sites. Survival of caged crayfish was significantly lower at mining sites than reference sites; downstream sites were not tested. Chronic toxic-unit scores and sediment probable effects quotients indicated significant risk of toxicity to fish and crayfish, and metals concentrations in crayfish were sufficiently high to represent a risk to wildlife at mining and downstream sites. Collectively, the results provided direct evidence that metals associated with historical mining activities in the OLB continue to affect aquatic life in the BGR.

  11. Effects of historical lead-zinc mining on riffle-dwelling benthic fish and crayfish in the Big River of southeastern Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, A L; DiStefano, R J; Fairchild, J F; Schmitt, C J; McKee, M J; Girondo, J A; Brumbaugh, W G; May, T W

    2013-04-01

    The Big River (BGR) drains much of the Old Lead Belt mining district (OLB) in southeastern Missouri, USA, which was historically among the largest producers of lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) ore in the world. We sampled benthic fish and crayfish in riffle habitats at eight sites in the BGR and conducted 56-day in situ exposures to the woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas) and golden crayfish (Orconectes luteus) in cages at four sites affected to differing degrees by mining. Densities of fish and crayfish, physical habitat and water quality, and the survival and growth of caged crayfish were examined at sites with no known upstream mining activities (i.e., reference sites) and at sites downstream of mining areas (i.e., mining and downstream sites). Lead, zinc, and cadmium were analyzed in surface and pore water, sediment, detritus, fish, crayfish, and other benthic macro-invertebrates. Metals concentrations in all materials analyzed were greater at mining and downstream sites than at reference sites. Ten species of fish and four species of crayfish were collected. Fish and crayfish densities were significantly greater at reference than mining or downstream sites, and densities were greater at downstream than mining sites. Survival of caged crayfish was significantly lower at mining sites than reference sites; downstream sites were not tested. Chronic toxic-unit scores and sediment probable effects quotients indicated significant risk of toxicity to fish and crayfish, and metals concentrations in crayfish were sufficiently high to represent a risk to wildlife at mining and downstream sites. Collectively, the results provided direct evidence that metals associated with historical mining activities in the OLB continue to affect aquatic life in the BGR.

  12. Big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed; Flyverbom, Mikkel; Hilbert, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper...... is to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments contained in any big data practice. Second, it suggests a research agenda built around a set of subthemes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay between big data...

  13. Big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed; Ruppert, Evelyn; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper...... is to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments that is contained in any big data practice. Secondly, it suggest a research agenda built around a set of sub-themes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay between big...

  14. 基于水沙动力过程的泥石流阻塞大河模式及判据研究%Criterion and patterns of debris flow blocking big river based on water and sediment dynamic processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠容; 姚令侃; 陈春光; 杜翠

    2012-01-01

      According to the characters of the submerged disk and the density current,the runout equations of the debris flow in the water is obtained, and the equation of the head-water level is given by the broad-crested weir theory. Based on the dynamic equation of the debris flow at different slopes,water and sediment dynamic processes, and the interaction between barriers dam of debris flow and main river were considered,and a model of the runout distance of debris flow in big river was established. In view of the phenomenon that the material erosion is very serious when debris flowing into big river,the erosion coeffi⁃cient is obtaineding using the test dates of flume experiment. Based on the total amount equation of debris flow was blocking given by Bifan ZHOU, a modal of the total amount of the big river blocked by debris flow was considered in hight of the erosion coefficient. The criterion of debris flow blocking big river was presented in terms of dynamic process and total amount of debris flow.%  根据潜坝壅堵模式的特点,基于异重流理论,给出了泥石流龙头在清水中的运动方程,并提出了有坎宽顶模型的潜坝壅堵上游水位计算式。基于水沙动力过程,以泥石流在坡度变化沟道内的运动方程为基础,考虑堰塞坝和主河水流的相互作用,给出了泥石流在主河中运移距离的计算公式;鉴于泥石流堵塞大河过程中物质流失严重的现象,根据水槽实验数据确定了流失系数;以周必凡提出的泥石流堵断主河总量的计算公式为基础,提出了按流失系数加以修正的泥石流阻塞大河物质总量条件。从而建立了基于动力学方程、物质总量的泥石流阻塞大河综合判据。

  15. Big Egos in Big Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina; Lauto, Giancarlo;

    and locations, having a diverse knowledge set and capable of tackling more and more complex problems. This prose the question if Big Egos continues to dominate in this rising paradigm of big science. Using a dataset consisting of full bibliometric coverage from a Large Scale Research Facility, we utilize...

  16. Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Demand and spurt in collections and accumulation of data has coined new term “Big Data” has begun. Accidently, incidentally and by interaction of people, information so called data is massively generated. This BIG DATA is to be smartly and effectively used Computer scientists, physicists, economists, mathematicians, political scientists, bio-informaticists, sociologists and many Variety of Intellegesia debate over the potential benefits and costs of analysing information from Twitter, Google,...

  17. A new molecular approach to help conclude drowning as a cause of death: simultaneous detection of eight bacterioplankton species using real-time PCR assays with TaqMan probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taketo; Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Nishida, Sho; Imamura, Nahoko; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2012-10-10

    We developed a novel tool for concluding drowning as a cause of death. We designed nine primer pairs to detect representative freshwater or marine bacterioplankton (aquatic bacteria) and then used real-time PCR with TaqMan probes to rapidly and specifically detect them. We previously cultured the genus Aeromonas, which is a representative freshwater bacterial species, in blood samples from 94% of victims who drowned in freshwater and the genera Vibrio and/or Photobacterium that are representative marine bacteria in 88% of victims who drowned in seawater. Based on these results, we simultaneously detected eight species of bacterioplankton (Aeromonas hydrophila, A. salmonicida; Vibrio fischeri, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus; Photobacterium damselae, P. leiognathi, P. phosphoreum) using three sets of triplex real-time PCR assays and TaqMan probes labelled with fluorophores (FAM, NED, Cy5). We assayed 266 specimens (109 blood, 157 tissues) from 43 victims, including 32 who had drowned in rivers, ditches, wells, sea or around estuaries. All lung samples of these 32 victims were TaqMan PCR-positive including the lung periphery into which water does not readily enter postmortem. On the other hand, findings in blood and/or closed organs (kidney or liver) were PCR-positive in 84% of the drowned victims (except for those who drowned in baths) although the conventional test detected diatoms in closed organs in only 44% of the victims. Thus, the results of the PCR assay reinforced those of diatom tests when only a few diatoms were detectable in organs due to the low density of diatoms in the water where they were found. Multiplex TaqMan PCR assays for bacterioplankton were rapid, less laborious and high-throughput as well as sensitive and specific. Therefore, these assays would be useful for routine forensic screening tests to estimate the amount and type of aspirated water.

  18. Changes of bacterioplankton apparent species richness in two ornamental fish aquaria

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the 16S rRNA gene diversity within the bacterioplankton community in the water column of the ornamental fish Pterophyllum scalare and Archocentrus nigrofasciatus aquaria during a 60-day growth experiment in order to detect any dominant bacterial species and their possible association with the rearing organisms. The basic physical and chemical parameters remained stable but the bacterial community at 0, 30 and 60 days showed marked differences in bacterial cell abundance and divers...

  19. Characterization of lysogens in bacterioplankton assemblages of the southern California borderland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2007-05-01

    Viruses cause significant mortality of marine microorganisms; however, their role in shaping the composition of microbial assemblages has not been fully elucidated. Because viruses may form lysogenic relationships with their hosts, temperate viruses may influence bacterial assemblage structures through direct lysis of hosts when induced by environmental stimuli or by homoimmunity (i.e., immunity to closely related viruses). We investigated the components of bacterioplankton assemblages that bore prophage using the lysogenic induction agent mitomycin C. Seawater was collected at two locations (the San Pedro Ocean Time Series Station and in the Santa Barbara Channel) in the Southern California Borderland and amended with mitomycin C. After 24-h incubation, the community structure of bacterioplankton was compared with unamended controls using automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis. The addition of mitomycin C to seawater had effects on the community structure of bacterioplankton, stimulating detectable overall diversity and richness of fingerprints and causing the assemblages within incubations to become different to control assemblages. Most negatively impacted operational taxonomic units (OTU) in mitomycin C-amended incubations individually comprised a large fraction of total amplified DNA in initial seawater (5.3-23.3% of amplified DNA fluorescence) fingerprints, and data suggest that these include organisms putatively classified as members of the gamma-Proteobacteria, SAR11 cluster, and Synechococcus groups. The stimulation of assemblage richness by induction of lysogens, and the reduction in the contribution to total DNA of common OTU (and concomitant increase in rare OTU), suggests that temperate phage have the potential to strongly influence the diversity of bacterioplankton assemblages. Because lysogenic OTU may also be resistant to closely related lytic (i.e., free-living) viruses, the impact of lytic virioplankton on assemblages may only be pronounced

  20. Combined Carbohydrates Support Rich Communities of Particle-Associated Marine Bacterioplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Martin; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja; Wiltshire, Karen H.; Niggemann, Jutta; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wichels, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent an important fraction of labile and semi-labile marine organic matter that is mainly comprised of exopolymeric substances derived from phytoplankton exudation and decay. This study investigates the composition of total combined carbohydrates (tCCHO; >1 kDa) and the community development of free-living (0.2–3 μm) and particle-associated (PA) (3–10 μm) bacterioplankton during a spring phytoplankton bloom in the southern North Sea. Furthermore, rates were determined for the extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis that catalyzes the initial step in bacterial organic matter remineralization. Concentrations of tCCHO greatly increased during bloom development, while the composition showed only minor changes over time. The combined concentration of glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose, galactosamine, glucosamine, and glucuronic acid in tCCHO was a significant factor shaping the community composition of the PA bacteria. The richness of PA bacteria greatly increased in the post-bloom phase. At the same time, the increase in extracellular β-glucosidase activity was sufficient to explain the observed decrease in tCCHO, indicating the efficient utilization of carbohydrates by the bacterioplankton community during the post-bloom phase. Our results suggest that carbohydrate concentration and composition are important factors in the multifactorial environmental control of bacterioplankton succession and the enzymatic hydrolysis of organic matter during phytoplankton blooms. PMID:28197132

  1. Fish, Reptile and Amphibian Biodiversity of Wetlands, Ponds and Scour Holes on the Floodplains of the Missouri River, on the Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the summer of 2009, a survey was conducted of of 15 previously unsampled water bodies at four different sites within the Big Muddy NFWR. A brief survey of various...

  2. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  3. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  4. Big Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  5. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  6. An Inventory and Evaluation of Architectural and Engineering Resources of the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-25

    in 1930. These are listed below. - B.D. Shapero Lumber Mill, located at Jamestown, employed 75 men and produced 300,000 board feet of lumber per year...other minerals. In Tennessee reports, edited by .R. Killebrew. Albert B. Tavel, Nashville. Comiskeyt C.E., and D.A. Etnier. 1972 Fishes of the Big

  7. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  8. Diazotrophic bacterioplankton in a coral reef lagoon: phylogeny, diel nitrogenase expression and response to phosphate enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Moisander, Pia H; Morrison, Amanda E; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2007-05-01

    We investigated diazotrophic bacterioplankton assemblage composition in the Heron Reef lagoon (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) using culture-independent techniques targeting the nifH fragment of the nitrogenase gene. Seawater was collected at 3 h intervals over a period of 72 h (i.e. over diel as well as tidal cycles). An incubation experiment was also conducted to assess the impact of phosphate (PO(4)3*) availability on nifH expression patterns. DNA-based nifH libraries contained primarily sequences that were most similar to nifH from sediment, microbial mat and surface-associated microorganisms, with a few sequences that clustered with typical open ocean phylotypes. In contrast to genomic DNA sequences, libraries prepared from gene transcripts (mRNA amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) were entirely cyanobacterial and contained phylotypes similar to those observed in open ocean plankton. The abundance of Trichodesmium and two uncultured cyanobacterial phylotypes from previous studies (group A and group B) were studied by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction in the lagoon samples. These were detected as transcripts, but were not detected in genomic DNA. The gene transcript abundance of these phylotypes demonstrated variability over several diel cycles. The PO(4)3* enrichment experiment had a clearer pattern of gene expression over diel cycles than the lagoon sampling, however PO(4)3* additions did not result in enhanced transcript abundance relative to control incubations. The results suggest that a number of diazotrophs in bacterioplankton of the reef lagoon may originate from sediment, coral or beachrock surfaces, sloughing into plankton with the flooding tide. The presence of typical open ocean phylotype transcripts in lagoon bacterioplankton may indicate that they are an important component of the N cycle of the coral reef.

  9. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  10. Stimulated bacterioplankton growth and selection for certain bacterial taxa in the vicinity of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eDinasquet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Episodic blooms of voracious gelatinous zooplankton, such as the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, affect pools of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon by intensive grazing activities and mucus release. This will potentially influence bacterioplankton activity and community composition, at least at local scales; however, available studies on this are scarce. In the present study we examined effects of M. leidyi on bacterioplankton growth and composition in incubation experiments. Moreover, we examined community composition of bacteria associated with the surface and gut of M. leidyi. High release of ammonium and high bacterial growth was observed in the treatments with M. leidyi relative to controls. Deep 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed specific bacterial communities in treatments with M. leidyi as well as specific communities associated with M. leidyi tissue and gut. In particular, members of Flavobacteriaceae were associated with M. leidyi. Our study shows that M. leidyi influences bacterioplankton activity and community composition in the vicinity of the jellyfish. In particular during temporary aggregations of jellyfish, these local zones of high bacterial growth may contribute significantly to the spatial heterogeneity of bacterioplankton activity and community composition in the sea.

  11. Phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and virioplankton structure and function across the southern Great Barrier Reef shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Daniel M.; Patten, Nicole L.; McKinnon, David; Köstner, Nicole; Bourne, David G.; Brinkman, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Bacterioplankton and phytoplankton dynamics, pelagic respiration, virioplankton abundance, and the diversity of pelagic diazotrophs and other bacteria were examined in relation to water-column nutrients and vertical mixing across the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) shelf where sharp inshore to offshore gradients in water chemistry and hydrology prevail. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed station groups clustered geographically, suggesting across-shelf differences in plankton function and structure driven by changes in mixing intensity, sediment resuspension, and the relative contributions of terrestrial, reef and oceanic nutrients. At most stations and sampling periods, microbial abundance and activities peaked both inshore and at channels between outer shelf reefs of the Pompey Reef complex. PCA also revealed that virioplankton numbers and biomass correlated with bacterioplankton numbers and production, and that bacterial growth and respiration correlated with net primary production, suggesting close virus-bacteria-phytoplankton interactions; all plankton groups correlated with particulate C, N, and P. Strong vertical mixing facilitates tight coupling of pelagic and benthic shelf processes as, on average, 37% and 56% of N and P demands of phytoplankton are derived from benthic nutrient regeneration and resuspension. These across-shelf planktonic trends mirror those of the benthic microbial community.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity and phenotypic characterization of cultivable bacterioplankton isolated from polar oceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yinxin; LI Huirong; YU Yong; CHEN Bo; ZHENG Tianling

    2007-01-01

    A set of 27 marine planktonic bacteria isolated from the polar regions was characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and physiological and biochemical testing. More than half of these bacteria were positive for caseinase, gelatinase and β-glucosidase, and could utilize glucose, maltose or malic acid as carbon source for cell growth. Twelve isolates expressed nitrate reduction activities. Except for one antarctic isolate BSw10175 belonging to Actinobacteria phylum, these isolates were classified as γ-Proteobacteria, suggesting that γ-Proteobacteria dominated in cultivable marine bacterioplankton at both poles. Genus Pseudoalteromonas was the predominant group in the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea, and genus Shewanella dominated in cultivable bacterioplankton in the Prydz Bay. With sequence similarities above 97%, genus Psychrobacter was found at both poles. These 27 isolates were psychrotolerant, and significant 16S rDNA sequence similarities were found not only between arctic and antarctic marine bacteria ( > 99% ),but also between polar marine bacteria and bacteria from other aquatic environments ( ≥98.8% ) , including temperate ocean,deep sea, pond and lake, suggesting that in the polar oceans less temperature-sensitive bacteria may be cosmopolitan and have a bipolar, even global, distribution at the species level.

  13. Response of marine bacterioplankton pH homeostasis gene expression to elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunse, Carina; Lundin, Daniel; Karlsson, Christofer M. G.; Akram, Neelam; Vila-Costa, Maria; Palovaara, Joakim; Svensson, Lovisa; Holmfeldt, Karin; González, José M.; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Marrasé, Cèlia; Dopson, Mark; Gasol, Josep M.; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2016-05-01

    Human-induced ocean acidification impacts marine life. Marine bacteria are major drivers of biogeochemical nutrient cycles and energy fluxes; hence, understanding their performance under projected climate change scenarios is crucial for assessing ecosystem functioning. Whereas genetic and physiological responses of phytoplankton to ocean acidification are being disentangled, corresponding functional responses of bacterioplankton to pH reduction from elevated CO2 are essentially unknown. Here we show, from metatranscriptome analyses of a phytoplankton bloom mesocosm experiment, that marine bacteria responded to lowered pH by enhancing the expression of genes encoding proton pumps, such as respiration complexes, proteorhodopsin and membrane transporters. Moreover, taxonomic transcript analysis showed that distinct bacterial groups expressed different pH homeostasis genes in response to elevated CO2. These responses were substantial for numerous pH homeostasis genes under low-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a 20 μg l-1) were low. Given that proton expulsion through pH homeostasis mechanisms is energetically costly, these findings suggest that bacterioplankton adaptation to ocean acidification could have long-term effects on the economy of ocean ecosystems.

  14. Spatio.temporal variations of the bacterioplankton community composition in Chaohu Lake,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoling Wei; Sumin Bao; Xinyan Zhu; Xiangming Huang

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable attention paid to Chaohu Lake in China,the dynamics of bacterioplankton community composition(BCC) on spatial and seasonal scales are poorly understood.In this study.water samples were collected from autumn 2006 to summer 2007 at five positions in Chaohu Lake with different trophic status.BCC of these samples was determined by both the PCR amplifieation of the 16S rDNA gene and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).The abundance and diversity of bacterioplankton communities at different sampling positions showed similar seasonal pattems.The BCCs in the samples varied substantially,and the pattern of changes indicated that the seasonal difiefence might have a significant impact on the BCC'S structure iU the lake.Canonical correspondence anal-ysis(CCA)on the DGGE patterns and physicochemical parameters indicated that the temperature and the levels of 5-d biochemical O2 demand(BODs),NH3-N,CODMn,total nitrogen,total phosphorous,and dissolved oxygen significantly influenced the BCC,and four of the seven variables were related to the level of eutrophication.Our results indicate that eutrophic status and season are the most inttu-ential factors in determining BCC in Chaohu Lake.

  15. Metagenomic identification of bacterioplankton taxa and pathways involved in microcystin degradation in lake erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Xiaozhen; Lu, Xinxin; Jacob, Jisha; Sun, Shulei; Heath, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs) that produce microcystins are appearing in an increasing number of freshwater ecosystems worldwide, damaging quality of water for use by human and aquatic life. Heterotrophic bacteria assemblages are thought to be important in transforming and detoxifying microcystins in natural environments. However, little is known about their taxonomic composition or pathways involved in the process. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the metagenomes of Lake Erie free-living bacterioplankton assemblages in laboratory microcosms amended with microcystins relative to unamended controls. A diverse array of bacterial phyla were responsive to elevated supply of microcystins, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subdivisions and Verrucomicrobia. At more detailed taxonomic levels, Methylophilales (mainly in genus Methylotenera) and Burkholderiales (mainly in genera Bordetella, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Polaromonas, Ralstonia, Polynucleobacter and Variovorax) of Betaproteobacteria were suggested to be more important in microcystin degradation than Sphingomonadales of Alphaproteobacteria. The latter taxa were previously thought to be major microcystin degraders. Homologs to known microcystin-degrading genes (mlr) were not overrepresented in microcystin-amended metagenomes, indicating that Lake Erie bacterioplankton might employ alternative genes and/or pathways in microcystin degradation. Genes for xenobiotic metabolism were overrepresented in microcystin-amended microcosms, suggesting they are important in bacterial degradation of microcystin, a phenomenon that has been identified previously only in eukaryotic systems.

  16. Metagenomic identification of bacterioplankton taxa and pathways involved in microcystin degradation in lake erie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Mou

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs that produce microcystins are appearing in an increasing number of freshwater ecosystems worldwide, damaging quality of water for use by human and aquatic life. Heterotrophic bacteria assemblages are thought to be important in transforming and detoxifying microcystins in natural environments. However, little is known about their taxonomic composition or pathways involved in the process. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the metagenomes of Lake Erie free-living bacterioplankton assemblages in laboratory microcosms amended with microcystins relative to unamended controls. A diverse array of bacterial phyla were responsive to elevated supply of microcystins, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subdivisions and Verrucomicrobia. At more detailed taxonomic levels, Methylophilales (mainly in genus Methylotenera and Burkholderiales (mainly in genera Bordetella, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Polaromonas, Ralstonia, Polynucleobacter and Variovorax of Betaproteobacteria were suggested to be more important in microcystin degradation than Sphingomonadales of Alphaproteobacteria. The latter taxa were previously thought to be major microcystin degraders. Homologs to known microcystin-degrading genes (mlr were not overrepresented in microcystin-amended metagenomes, indicating that Lake Erie bacterioplankton might employ alternative genes and/or pathways in microcystin degradation. Genes for xenobiotic metabolism were overrepresented in microcystin-amended microcosms, suggesting they are important in bacterial degradation of microcystin, a phenomenon that has been identified previously only in eukaryotic systems.

  17. Short-term dynamics of North Sea bacterioplankton-dissolved organic matter coherence on molecular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eLucas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Remineralisation and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM by marine microbes shape the DOM composition and thus, have large impact on global carbon and nutrient cycling. However, information on bacterioplankton-DOM interactions on a molecular level is limited. We examined the variation of bacterial community composition at Helgoland Roads (North Sea in relation to variation of molecular DOM composition and various environmental parameters on short-time scales. Surface water samples were taken daily over a period of twenty days. Bacterial community and molecular DOM composition were assessed via 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing and ultrahigh resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS, respectively. Environmental conditions were driven by a coastal water influx during the first half of the sampling period and the onset of a summer phytoplankton bloom towards the end of the sampling period. These phenomena led to a distinct grouping of bacterial communities and DOM composition which was particularly influenced by total dissolved nitrogen concentration, temperature and salinity, as revealed by distance-based linear regression analyses. Bacterioplankton-DOM interaction was demonstrated in strong correlations between specific bacterial taxa and particular DOM molecules, thus, suggesting potential specialization on particular substrates. We propose that a combination of high resolution techniques, as used in this study, may provide substantial information on substrate generalists and specialists and thus, contribute to prediction of bacterial community composition variation.

  18. Impact of warming on phyto-bacterioplankton coupling and bacterial community composition in experimental mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Scheibner, Markus; Dörge, Petra; Biermann, Antje; Sommer, Ulrich; Hoppe, Hans-Georg; Jürgens, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Global warming is assumed to alter the trophic interactions and carbon flow patterns of aquatic food webs. The impact of temperature on phyto-bacterioplankton coupling and bacterial community composition (BCC) was the focus of the present study, in which an indoor mesocosm experiment with natural plankton communities from the western Baltic Sea was conducted. A 6 °C increase in water temperature resulted, as predicted, in tighter coupling between the diatom-dominated phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria, accompanied by a strong increase in carbon flow into bacterioplankton during the phytoplankton bloom phase. Suppressed bacterial development at cold in situ temperatures probably reflected lowered bacterial production and grazing by protists, as the latter were less affected by low temperatures. BCC was strongly influenced by the phytoplankton bloom stage and to a lesser extent by temperature. Under both temperature regimes, Gammaproteobacteria clearly dominated during the phytoplankton peak, with Glaciecola sp. as the single most abundant taxon. However, warming induced the appearance of additional bacterial taxa belonging to Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Our results show that warming during an early phytoplankton bloom causes a shift towards a more heterotrophic system, with the appearance of new bacterial taxa suggesting a potential for utilization of a broader substrate spectrum.

  19. Impact of photochemical processing of DOC on the bacterioplankton respiratory quotient in aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesson, Lina; Ström, Lena; Berggren, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Many studies assume a respiratory quotient (RQ = molar ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed) close to 1 when calculating bacterioplankton respiration. However, evidence suggests that RQ depends on the chemical composition of the respired substrate pool that may be altered by photochemical production of oxygen-rich substrates, resulting in elevated RQs. Here we conducted a novel study of the impact of photochemical processing of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on RQ. We monitored the bacterial RQ in bioassays of both ultraviolet light irradiated and nonirradiated humic lake water, using optic gas-pressure sensors. In the experimentally irradiated samples the average RQ value was significantly higher (3.4-3.5 [±0.4 standard error (SE)]) than that in the dark controls (1.3 [±0.1 SE]). Our results show that the RQ is systematically higher than 1 when the bacterial metabolism in large part is based on photoproducts. By assuming an RQ of 1, bacterioplankton respiration in freshwater ecosystems may be greatly underestimated.

  20. Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Jon; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    2016-01-01

    Big Data byder sig til som en af tidens mest hypede teknologiske innovationer, udråbt til at rumme kimen til nye, værdifulde operationelle indsigter for private virksomheder og offentlige organisationer. Mens de optimistiske udmeldinger er mange, er forskningen i Big Data i den offentlige sektor...... indtil videre begrænset. Denne artikel belyser, hvordan den offentlige sundhedssektor kan genanvende og udnytte en stadig større mængde data under hensyntagen til offentlige værdier. Artiklen bygger på et casestudie af anvendelsen af store mængder sundhedsdata i Dansk AlmenMedicinsk Database (DAMD......). Analysen viser, at (gen)brug af data i nye sammenhænge er en flerspektret afvejning mellem ikke alene økonomiske rationaler og kvalitetshensyn, men også kontrol over personfølsomme data og etiske implikationer for borgeren. I DAMD-casen benyttes data på den ene side ”i den gode sags tjeneste” til...

  1. Big Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀文

    2012-01-01

    <正>梁炳"Edmond"说他演唱会后会跟太太去旅行。无论飞机降落在地球的哪角,有伴在旁就是幸福。他的concert名字是big man,初时我看错是big mac演唱会:心想干吗是大汉堡演唱会?嘻!后来才知看错。但其实细想,在成长路上,谁不曾是活得像个傻傻的面包,一团面粉暴露在这大千世界,时间和各式人生经历就是酵母,多少年月日,你我都会发酵成长。友情也是激发彼此成长的酵母,看到对方早已经从男仔成了男人,我都原来一早已不再能够以"女仔"称呼自己。在我眼中,他的改变是大的,爱玩外向的个性收窄了,现在的我们,

  2. Ordered network structure and its prediction for the big floods in the Changjiang River Basin%长江流域大洪水有序网络结构及其预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门可佩

    2014-01-01

    根据1827年以来的统计资料进行分析,长江流域大洪水展示出极为显著的有序性。运用翁文波信息预测理论,构建长江大洪水二维平面和三维立体信息有序网络结构并进行综合分析和预测,结果表明:2014、2020、2030、2036、2051与2058年前后的汛期,长江流域将有可能发生大洪水。%According to the latest statistical data of hydrology,a total of 21 floods took place in the Changjiang Riv-er Basin from 1827 to now,which showed a very obvious orderliness.Based on the information forecasting theory and ordered network analysis,we construct the 2D-and 3D-ordered network structure and make prediction research.Pre-diction results show that the future big deluges will probably occur in the Changjiang River Basin around 2014, 2020,2030,2036,2051 and 2058.

  3. Big data analytics turning big data into big money

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlhorst, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Unique insights to implement big data analytics and reap big returns to your bottom line Focusing on the business and financial value of big data analytics, respected technology journalist Frank J. Ohlhorst shares his insights on the newly emerging field of big data analytics in Big Data Analytics. This breakthrough book demonstrates the importance of analytics, defines the processes, highlights the tangible and intangible values and discusses how you can turn a business liability into actionable material that can be used to redefine markets, improve profits and identify new business opportuni

  4. Big Egos in Big Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina; Lauto, Giancarlo

    In this paper we investigate the micro-mechanisms governing the structural evolution of a scientific collaboration. Empirical evidence indicates that we have transcended into a new paradigm with a new modus operandi where scientific discovery are not lead by so called lone ?stars?, or big egos......, but instead by a group of people, from a multitude of institutions, having a diverse knowledge set and capable of operating more and more complex instrumentation. Using a dataset consisting of full bibliometric coverage from a Large Scale Research Facility, we utilize a stochastic actor oriented model...

  5. Seasonal and spatial distribution of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region: density, biomass, cellular volume and morphologic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnólia Fernandes Florêncio de Araújo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial fluctuations of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region (Pitimbu River and Jiqui Lake, RN were studied during the dry and the rainy periods. The bacterial abundance varied from 2.67 to 5.1 Cells10(7mL-1 and did not show a typical temporal variation, presenting only small oscillations between the rainy and the dry periods. The bacterial biomass varied from 123 µgC L-1 to 269 µgC L-1 in the sampling sites and the average cellular volume varied from 0.12 to 0.54µm³, showing a predominance of the rods. The temperature showed a positive correlation with the cellular volume of the rods (R=0.55; p=0.02 and vibrio (R=0.53; p=0.03. Significant spatial differences of biomass (Mann Whitney: p=0.01 and cellular volume of the morphotypes (Mann Whitney: p=0.003 were found between the sampling sites. The strong positive correlations of the water temperature and oxygen with bacterioplankton showed a probable high bacterial activity in this system.A variação temporal e espacial do bacterioplâncton em um sistema fluvial-lagunar de região tropical foi estudada em períodos seco e chuvoso. As médias da abundância bacteriana variaram de 2,67 a 5,1 x 10(7 e não exibiram uma variação temporal marcante, tendo apresentado apenas pequenas oscilações entre os períodos chuvoso e seco. A biomassa bacteriana variou de 123 µg C L-1 a 269 µg C L-1 entre os locais de coleta e o volume celular médio de 0,12µm³ a 0,54µm³, ocorrendo predominância de bacilos. A temperatura mostrou correlação positiva com o volume celular de bacilos (R=0,55; p=0,02 e de vibriões (R=0,53; p=0,03. Foram encontradas diferenças espaciais significativas de biomassa (Mann Whitney: p=0,01 e volume celular dos morfotipos (Mann Whitney: p= 0,003, entre os locais de coleta. As fortes correlações positivas da temperatura da água e do oxigênio, com o bacterioplâncton, são sugestivas de uma provavelmente elevada atividade

  6. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  7. Proteomic Stable Isotope Probing Reveals Taxonomically Distinct Patterns in Amino Acid Assimilation by Coastal Marine Bacterioplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Samuel; Li, Zhou; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Hettich, Robert L; Mayali, Xavier; Pan, Chongle; Mueller, Ryan S

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton are a critical component of the carbon cycle, processing nearly a quarter of annual primary production, yet defining how substrate utilization preferences and resource partitioning structure microbial communities remains a challenge. In this study, proteomic stable isotope probing (proteomic SIP) was used to characterize population-specific assimilation of dissolved free amino acids (DFAAs), a major source of dissolved organic carbon for bacterial secondary production in aquatic environments. Microcosms of seawater collected from Newport, Oregon, and Monterey Bay, California, were incubated with 1 µM (13)C-labeled amino acids for 15 and 32 h. The taxonomic compositions of microcosm metaproteomes were highly similar to those of the sampled natural communities, with Rhodobacteriales, SAR11, and Flavobacteriales representing the dominant taxa. Analysis of (13)C incorporation into protein biomass allowed for quantification of the isotopic enrichment of identified proteins and subsequent determination of differential amino acid assimilation patterns between specific bacterioplankton populations. Proteins associated with Rhodobacterales tended to have a significantly high frequency of (13)C-enriched peptides, opposite the trend for Flavobacteriales and SAR11 proteins. Rhodobacterales proteins associated with amino acid transport and metabolism had an increased frequency of (13)C-enriched spectra at time point 2. Alteromonadales proteins also had a significantly high frequency of (13)C-enriched peptides, particularly within ribosomal proteins, demonstrating their rapid growth during incubations. Overall, proteomic SIP facilitated quantitative comparisons of DFAA assimilation by specific taxa, both between sympatric populations and between protein functional groups within discrete populations, allowing an unprecedented examination of population level metabolic responses to resource acquisition in complex microbial communities

  8. Marine bacterioplankton community turnover within seasonally hypoxic waters of a subtropical sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, Rachel J.; Nelson, Craig E.; Carlson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    changes, including both direct counts and rRNA gene sequencing. During stratification, the surface waters were dominated by the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the suboxic bottom waters, cells from the order Chlorobiales prevailed, with gene sequences indicating......, Bermuda during the 6-week annual transition from a strongly stratified water column with suboxic and high-pCO2 bottom waters to a fully mixed and ventilated state during 2008. A suite of culture-independent methods provided a quantitative spatiotemporal characterization of bacterioplankton community...... members of the genera Chlorobium and Prosthecochloris – anoxygenic photoautotrophs that utilize sulfide as a source of electrons for photosynthesis. Transitional zones of hypoxia also exhibited elevated levels of methane- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria relative to the overlying waters. The abundance...

  9. Temporal Patterns in Bacterioplankton Community Composition in Three Reservoirs of Similar Trophic Status in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The bacterioplankton community composition’s (BCC spatial and temporal variation patterns in three reservoirs (Shiyan, Xikeng, and LuoTian Reservoir of similar trophic status in Bao’an District, Shenzhen (China, were investigated using PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA gene and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE techniques. Water samples were collected monthly in each reservoir during 12 consecutive months. Distinct differences were detected in band number, pattern, and density of DGGE at different sampling sites and time points. Analysis of the DGGE fingerprints showed that changes in the bacterial community structure mainly varied with seasons, and the patterns of change indicated that seasonal forces might have a more significant impact on the BCC than eutrophic status in the reservoirs, despite the similar Shannon-Weiner index among the three reservoirs. The sequences obtained from excised bands were affiliated with Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria.

  10. Transient changes in bacterioplankton communities induced by the submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ferrera

    Full Text Available The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1-V3 regions for Bacteria and V3-V5 for Archaea to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012. Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70-200 m, coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria. Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer

  11. Transient Changes in Bacterioplankton Communities Induced by the Submarine Volcanic Eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M.; Montero, María F.; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1–V3 regions for Bacteria and V3–V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70–200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed

  12. Quantification of carbon and phosphorus co-limitation in bacterioplankton: new insights on an old topic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Dorado-García

    Full Text Available Because the nature of the main resource that limits bacterioplankton (e.g. organic carbon [C] or phosphorus [P] has biogeochemical implications concerning organic C accumulation in freshwater ecosystems, empirical knowledge is needed concerning how bacteria respond to these two resources, available alone or together. We performed field experiments of resource manipulation (2×2 factorial design, with the addition of C, P, or both combined in two Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems with contrasting trophic states (oligotrophy vs. eutrophy and trophic natures (autotrophy vs. heterotrophy, measured as gross primary production:respiration ratio. Overall, the two resources synergistically co-limited bacterioplankton, i.e. the magnitude of the response of bacterial production and abundance to the two resources combined was higher than the additive response in both ecosystems. However, bacteria also responded positively to single P and C additions in the eutrophic ecosystem, but not to single C in the oligotrophic one, consistent with the value of the ratio between bacterial C demand and algal C supply. Accordingly, the trophic nature rather than the trophic state of the ecosystems proves to be a key feature determining the expected types of resource co-limitation of bacteria, as summarized in a proposed theoretical framework. The actual types of co-limitation shifted over time and partially deviated (a lesser degree of synergism from the theoretical expectations, particularly in the eutrophic ecosystem. These deviations may be explained by extrinsic ecological forces to physiological limitations of bacteria, such as predation, whose role in our experiments is supported by the relationship between the dynamics of bacteria and bacterivores tested by SEMs (structural equation models. Our study, in line with the increasingly recognized role of freshwater ecosystems in the global C cycle, suggests that further attention should be focussed on the biotic

  13. On Big Data Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Rui; Lu, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Big data systems address the challenges of capturing, storing, managing, analyzing, and visualizing big data. Within this context, developing benchmarks to evaluate and compare big data systems has become an active topic for both research and industry communities. To date, most of the state-of-the-art big data benchmarks are designed for specific types of systems. Based on our experience, however, we argue that considering the complexity, diversity, and rapid evolution of big data systems, fo...

  14. Big data=Big marketing?!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖明超

    2012-01-01

    <正>互联网刚刚兴起的时候,有句话很流行:"在网上,没人知道你是一条狗。"但是,在20多年后的今天,这句话已经早被扔进了历史的垃圾堆,因为在技术的推动下,随着移动互联、社交网络、电子商务等的迅速发展,消费者的"行踪"变得越来越容易被把握,消费者在互联网上的眼球、行为轨迹、谈论、喜好、购物经历等等都可能被捕捉到,消费者进入一个几乎透明化生存的"大数据时代"(Age of Big Data)。数据不仅仅正在变得更加可用,人工智能(AI)技术,包括自然语言处理、模式识别和机器学习等技术的发展,正在让数据变得更加容易被计算机所理解,

  15. Game Theory Analysis on Conflict and Cooperation among Countries along Big Rivers%跨国河流冲突与合作的博弈论分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋新苗; 虢丽霞

    2016-01-01

    Transboundary River is endowed with complexity and uncertainty on account of the geopolitical feature. The countries along the river hold different standpoints on affairs such as conflict or cooperation, bilateral cooperation or multi-lateral cooperation and so the forth. This thesis attempts to undertake a theoretical research on the rules of countries’ strategies-selection on the basis of game theory in hawk-dove game theory, avoiding risk and Nash Equilibrium, hoping to provide as reference for better cooperation of global water resources and development.%跨国河流的地缘政治因素使得水权分配问题充满了复杂性和不确定性,各沿岸国作为跨国河流水权主体对于冲突与合作,双边合作与多边合作等问题各持己见。本文借用博弈论的“鹰鸽博弈”、风险规避和纳什均衡探析跨国河流中各沿岸国策略选择的规律,推动合作、减少冲突,力图对全球水资源的利用与发展等问题的解决提供参考。

  16. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Passing Lane & Anchorage Basin, Big Island, and the Northeast Cape Fear River. Drilling or blasting is expected to occur within the Passing Lane & Anchorage Basin, Big Island, and the Northeast Cape Fear River... Lighted Buoy 27 (LL 30550/39945)). (3) Big Island. The work area includes: Part of Keg Island...

  17. The UV responses of bacterioneuston and bacterioplankton isolates depend on the physiological condition and involve a metabolic shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana L; Baptista, Inês; Lopes, Sílvia; Henriques, Isabel; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide; Correia, António; Cunha, Angela

    2012-06-01

    Bacteria from the surface microlayer (bacterioneuston) and underlying waters (bacterioplankton) were isolated upon exposure to UV-B radiation, and their individual UV sensitivity in terms of CFU numbers, activity (leucine and thymidine incorporation), sole-carbon source use profiles, repair potential (light-dependent and independent), and photoadaptation potential, under different physiological conditions, was compared. Colony counts were 11.5-16.2% more reduced by UV-B exposure in bacterioplankton isolates (P < 0.05). Inhibition of leucine incorporation in bacterioneuston isolates was 10.9-11.5% higher than in bacterioplankton (P < 0.05). These effects were accompanied by a shift in sole-carbon source use profiles, assessed with Biolog(®) EcoPlates, with a reduction in consumption of amines and amino acids and increased use of polymers, particularly in bacterioneuston isolates. Recovery under starvation was generally enhanced compared with nourished conditions, especially in bacterioneuston isolates. Overall, only insignificant increases in the induction of antibiotic resistant mutant phenotypes (Rif(R) and Nal(R) ) were observed. In general, a potential for photoadaptation could not be detected among the tested isolates. These results indicate that UV effects on bacteria are influenced by their physiological condition and are accompanied by a shift in metabolic profiles, more significant in bacterioneuston isolates, suggesting the presence of bacterial strains adapted to high UV levels in the SML.

  18. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  19. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  20. Five Big Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  1. Big data computing

    CERN Document Server

    Akerkar, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Due to market forces and technological evolution, Big Data computing is developing at an increasing rate. A wide variety of novel approaches and tools have emerged to tackle the challenges of Big Data, creating both more opportunities and more challenges for students and professionals in the field of data computation and analysis. Presenting a mix of industry cases and theory, Big Data Computing discusses the technical and practical issues related to Big Data in intelligent information management. Emphasizing the adoption and diffusion of Big Data tools and technologies in industry, the book i

  2. Microsoft big data solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,

  3. Changes of bacterioplankton apparent species richness in two ornamental fish aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Meziti, Alexandra; Hotos, George N; Mente, Eleni

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the 16S rRNA gene diversity within the bacterioplankton community in the water column of the ornamental fish Pterophyllum scalare and Archocentrus nigrofasciatus aquaria during a 60-day growth experiment in order to detect any dominant bacterial species and their possible association with the rearing organisms. The basic physical and chemical parameters remained stable but the bacterial community at 0, 30 and 60 days showed marked differences in bacterial cell abundance and diversity. We found high species richness but no dominant phylotypes were detected. Only few of the phylotypes were found in more than one time point per treatment and always with low relative abundance. The majority of the common phylotypes belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum and were closely related to Acinetobacter junii, Pseudomonas sp., Nevskia ramosa, Vogesella perlucida, Chitinomonas taiwanensis, Acidovorax sp., Pelomonas saccharophila and the rest belonged to the α-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, candidate division OP11 and one unaffiliated group. Several of these phylotypes were closely related to known taxa including Sphingopyxis chilensis, Flexibacter aurantiacus subsp. excathedrus and Mycobacterium sp. Despite the high phylogenetic diversity most of the inferred ecophysiological roles of the found phylotypes are related to nitrogen metabolism, a key process for fish aquaria.

  4. The hidden seasonality of the rare biosphere in coastal marine bacterioplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura

    2015-04-08

    Summary: Rare microbial taxa are increasingly recognized to play key ecological roles, but knowledge of their spatio-temporal dynamics is lacking. In a time-series study in coastal waters, we detected 83 bacterial lineages with significant seasonality, including environmentally relevant taxa where little ecological information was available. For example, Verrucomicrobia had recurrent maxima in summer, while the Flavobacteria NS4, NS5 and NS2b clades had contrasting seasonal niches. Among the seasonal taxa, only 4 were abundant and persistent, 20 cycled between rare and abundant and, remarkably, most of them (59) were always rare (contributing <1% of total reads). We thus demonstrate that seasonal patterns in marine bacterioplankton are largely driven by lineages that never sustain abundant populations. A fewer number of rare taxa (20) also produced episodic \\'blooms\\', and these events were highly synchronized, mostly occurring on a single month. The recurrent seasonal growth and loss of rare bacteria opens new perspectives on the temporal dynamics of the rare biosphere, hitherto mainly characterized by dormancy and episodes of \\'boom and bust\\', as envisioned by the seed-bank hypothesis. The predictable patterns of seasonal reoccurrence are relevant for understanding the ecology of rare bacteria, which may include key players for the functioning of marine ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Functional diversity of bacterioplankton in three North Florida freshwater lakes over an annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Tamar L; Williams, Henry N

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of freshwater bacterioplankton is widely known; however, there is minimal information on the functional diversity of the bacterial communities in these systems. Understanding the functional diversity of freshwater bacterial communities is important because heterotrophic bacteria can be impacted by anthropogenic perturbation, which in turn can alter biogeochemical cycling. The objective of this study was to use Biolog EcoPlates to acquire spatial and temporal community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) for three freshwater lakes of different trophic levels and to assess the phylogenetic affiliation of the bacteria responsible for utilizing the various carbon guilds within them by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). CLPP results showed that bacterial communities utilized the carbon guilds similarly between sites within the three lakes. However, when the metabolic profile of each lake was compared, Lake Bradford and Moore Lake were more similar to one another than to Lake Munson, the eutrophic lake. Additionally, although the bacteria that utilized the five carbon guilds included representatives from the classes α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria, Lake Munson had the largest number of Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria in comparison to Moore Lake and Lake Bradford. Overall, Biolog analysis was useful in identifying differences in the functional diversity of bacterial communities between lakes of different trophic statuses and can be used as a tool to assess ecosystem health.

  6. Bacterioplankton community analysis in tilapia ponds by Illumina high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li Min; Barry, Kamira; Hu, Geng Dong; Meng, Shun long; Song, Chao; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jia Zhang; Xu, Pao

    2016-01-01

    The changes of microbial community in aquaculture systems under the effects of stocking densities and seasonality were investigated in tilapia ponds. Total DNAs were extracted from the water samples, 16S rRNA gene was amplified and the bacterial community analyzed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing obtaining 3486 OTUs, from a total read of 715,842 sequences. Basing on the analysis of bacterial compositions, richness, diversity, bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance, water sample comparisons and existence of specific bacterial taxa within three fish ponds in a 4 months period, the study conclusively observed that the dominant phylum in all water samples were similar, and they included; Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Chlorobi, distributed in different proportions in the different months and ponds. The seasonal changes had a more pronounced effect on the bacterioplankton community than the stocking densities; however some differences between the ponds were more likely caused by feed coefficient than by stocking densities. At the same time, most bacterial communities were affected by the nutrient input except phylum Cyanobacteria that was also affected by the feed control of tilapia.

  7. Characterizing Big Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rossi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: technology, people and processes. Hence, this article discusses these dimensions: the technological dimension that is related to storage, analytics and visualization of big data; the human aspects of big data; and, in addition, the process management dimension that involves in a technological and business approach the aspects of big data management.

  8. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  9. Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and production in a Brazilian coastal lagoon and in two German lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉ L. S. FURTADO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterioplanktonic abundance, biomass, and production within a tropical lagoon (Cabiúnas, Brazil and two temperate lakes (Stechlin and Dagow, Germany were compared. Bacterial abundance and production were significantly different among the three water bodies. The lowest bacterial production ( 0.8mug C l-1 d-1 was observed in the tropical Cabiúnas Lagoon despite its higher mean temperature and dissolved organic carbon concentration. Highest bacterioplankton abundance ( 2.6 x 10(9 cells l-1 and production ( 68.5mug C l-1 d-1 were measured in eutrophic Lake Dagow. In oligotrophic Lake Stechlin, the lowest bacterial biomass ( 48.05mug C l-1 was observed because of lower bacterial biovolume ( 0.248mum³ and lower bacterial abundance. Bacterial populations in the temperate lakes show higher activity (production/biomass ratio than in the tropical lagoon. The meaning of isotopic dilution and leucine incorporation by non-bacterial micro-organisms were evaluated in the oligotrophic temperate system. Leucine uptake by non-bacterial micro-organisms did not have significant influence on bacterial production.A abundância, biomassa e produção bacterioplanctônica em uma lagoa tropical (lagoa Cabiúnas, Brasil e em dois lagos temperados (lago Stechlin e lago Dagow, Alemanha foram comparadas. A abundância e a produção bacteriana foram significativamente diferente entre os três ecossistemas aquáticos. A menor produção bacteriana ( 0.8mig C l-1 d-1 foi observada na lagoa Cabiúnas, apesar da alta temperatura da água e concentração de carbono orgânico dissolvido. A maior abundância ( 2.6 x 10(9 células l-1 e produção bacterioplanctônica ( 68.5mig C l-1 d-1 foram medidas no eutrófico lago Dagow. No oligotrófico lago Stechlin, foi observada a menor biomassa bacteriana ( 48.05mig C l-1, refletindo o menor volume ( 0.248mim³ e abundância bacteriana. Populações bacterianas nos lagos temperados mostraram maior atividade (razão produ

  10. Alkane Hydroxylase Gene (alkB Phylotype Composition and Diversity in Northern Gulf of Mexico Bacterioplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Blake Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic activities introduce alkanes into marine systems where they are degraded by alkane hydroxylases expressed by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Partial sequences for alkB, one of the structural genes of alkane hydroxylase, have been used to assess the composition of alkane-degrading communities, and to determine their responses to hydrocarbon inputs. We present here the first spatially extensive analysis of alkB in bacterioplankton of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM, a region that experiences numerous hydrocarbon inputs. We have analyzed 401 partial alkB gene sequences amplified from genomic extracts collected during March 2010 from 17 water column samples that included surface waters and bathypelagic depths. Previous analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences for these and related samples have shown that nGoM bacterial community composition and structure stratify strongly with depth, with distinctly different communities above and below 100 m. Although we hypothesized that alkB gene sequences would exhibit a similar pattern, PCA analyses of operational protein units (OPU indicated that community composition did not vary consistently with depth or other major physical-chemical variables. We observed 22 distinct OPUs, one of which was ubiquitous and accounted for 57% of all sequences. This OPU clustered with alkB sequences from known hydrocarbon oxidizers (e.g., Alcanivorax and Marinobacter. Some OPUs could not be associated with known alkane degraders, however, and perhaps represent novel hydrocarbon-oxidizing populations or genes. These results indicate that the capacity for alkane hydrolysis occurs widely in the nGoM, but that alkane degrader diversity varies substantially among sites and responds differently than bulk communities to physical-chemical variables.

  11. Summary big data

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of Cukier the book: "Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How we Live, Work, and Think" by Viktor Mayer-Schonberg and Kenneth. Summary of the ideas in Viktor Mayer-Schonberg's and Kenneth Cukier's book: " Big Data " explains that big data is where we use huge quantities of data to make better predictions based on the fact we identify patters in the data rather than trying to understand the underlying causes in more detail. This summary highlights that big data will be a source of new economic value and innovation in the future. Moreover, it shows that it will

  12. Seasonality in molecular and cytometric diversity of marine bacterioplankton: the reshuffling of bacterial taxa by vertical mixing

    KAUST Repository

    García, Francisca C.

    2015-07-17

    The ’cytometric diversity’ of phytoplankton communities has been studied based on single-cell properties, but the applicability of this method to characterize bacterioplankton has been unexplored. Here, we analysed seasonal changes in cytometric diversity of marine bacterioplankton along a decadal time-series at three coastal stations in the Southern Bay of Biscay. Shannon-Weaver diversity estimates and Bray-Curtis similarities obtained by cytometric and molecular (16S rRNA tag sequencing) methods were significantly correlated in samples from a 3.5-year monthly time-series. Both methods showed a consistent cyclical pattern in the diversity of surface bacterial communities with maximal values in winter. The analysis of the highly resolved flow cytometry time-series across the vertical profile showed that water column mixing was a key factor explaining the seasonal changes in bacterial composition and the winter increase in bacterial diversity in coastal surface waters. Due to its low cost and short processing time as compared to genetic methods, the cytometric diversity approach represents a useful complementary tool in the macroecology of aquatic microbes.

  13. Bacterioplankton communities of Crater Lake, OR: Dynamic changes with euphotic zone food web structure and stable deep water populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, E.; Vergin, K.L.; Larson, G.L.; Giovannoni, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of bacterial and archaeal species in Crater Lake plankton varies dramatically over depth and with time, as assessed by hybridization of group-specific oligonucleotides to RNA extracted from lakewater. Nonmetric, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of relative bacterial phylotype densities revealed complex relationships among assemblages sampled from depth profiles in July, August and September of 1997 through 1999. CL500-11 green nonsulfur bacteria (Phylum Chloroflexi) and marine Group I crenarchaeota are consistently dominant groups in the oxygenated deep waters at 300 and 500 m. Other phylotypes found in the deep waters are similar to surface and mid-depth populations and vary with time. Euphotic zone assemblages are dominated either by ??-proteobacteria or CL120-10 verrucomicrobia, and ACK4 actinomycetes. MDS analyses of euphotic zone populations in relation to environmental variables and phytoplankton and zooplankton population structures reveal apparent links between Daphnia pulicaria zooplankton population densities and microbial community structure. These patterns may reflect food web interactions that link kokanee salmon population densities to community structure of the bacterioplankton, via fish predation on Daphnia with cascading consequences to Daphnia bacterivory and predation on bacterivorous protists. These results demonstrate a stable bottom-water microbial community. They also extend previous observations of food web-driven changes in euphotic zone bacterioplankton community structure to an oligotrophic setting. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Consequences of contaminant mixture on the dynamics and functional diversity of bacterioplankton in a southwestern Mediterranean coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringault, Olivier; Lafabrie, Céline; Avezac, Murielle; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Carre, Claire; Chalghaf, Mohamed; Delpoux, Sophie; Duvivier, Adrien; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise; Gonzalez, Catherine; Got, Patrice; Leboulanger, Christophe; Spinelli, Sylvie; Hlaili, Asma Sakka; Bouvy, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Contamination of coastal environments is often due to a complex mixture of pollutants, sometimes in trace levels, that may have significant effects on diversity and function of organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term dynamics of bacterioplankton exposed to natural and artificial mixtures of contaminants. Bacterial communities from a southwestern Mediterranean ecosystem, lagoon and the bay (offshore) of Bizerte were exposed to i) elutriate from resuspension of contaminated sediment, and ii) an artificial mixture of metals and herbicides mimicking the contamination observed during sediment resuspension. Elutriate incubation as well as artificial spiking induced strong enrichments in nutrients (up to 18 times), metals (up to six times) and herbicides (up to 20 times) relative to the in situ concentrations in the offshore station, whereas the increases in contaminants were less marked in the lagoon station. In the offshore waters, the artificial mixture of pollutants provoked a strong inhibition of bacterial abundance, production and respiration and significant modifications of the potential functional diversity of bacterioplankton with a strong decrease of the carbohydrate utilization. In contrast, incubation with elutriate resulted in a stimulation of bacterial activities and abundances, suggesting that the toxic effects of pollutants were modified by the increase in nutrient and DOM concentrations due to the sediment resuspension. The effects of elutriate and the artificial mixture of pollutants on bacterial dynamics and the functional diversity were less marked in the lagoon waters, than in offshore waters, suggesting a relative tolerance of lagoon bacteria against contaminants.

  15. Effect of Natural Sunlight on Bacterial Activity and Differential Sensitivity of Natural Bacterioplankton Groups in Northwestern Mediterranean Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Gasol, Josep M.; Lefort, Thomas; Hofer, Julia; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural sunlight on heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton in short-term experiments. We used a single-cell level approach involving flow cytometry combined with physiological probes and microautoradiography to determine sunlight effects on the activity and integrity of the cells. After 4 h of sunlight exposure, most bacterial cells maintained membrane integrity and viability as assessed by the simultaneous staining with propidium iodide and SYBR green I. In contrast, a significant inhibition of heterotrophic bacterial activity was detected, measured by 5-cyano-2,3 ditolyl tetrazolium chloride reduction and leucine incorporation. We applied microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization to test the sensitivity of the different bacterial groups naturally occurring in the Northwestern Mediterranean to sunlight. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes groups appeared to be highly resistant to solar radiation, with small changes in activity after exposure. On the contrary, Alphaproteobacteria bacteria were more sensitive to radiation as measured by the cell-specific incorporation of labeled amino acids, leucine, and ATP. Within Alphaproteobacteria, bacteria belonging to the Roseobacter group showed higher resistance than members of the SAR11 cluster. The activity of Roseobacter was stimulated by exposure to photosynthetic available radiation compared to the dark treatment. Our results suggest that UV radiation can significantly affect the in situ single-cell activity of bacterioplankton and that naturally dominating phylogenetic bacterial groups have different sensitivity to natural levels of incident solar radiation. PMID:16957198

  16. Molecular analyses of the diversity in marine bacterioplankton assemblages along the coastline of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapade, Ola A

    2010-10-01

    Bacterial community diversity in marine bacterioplankton assemblages were examined in 3 coastal locations along the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) using 16S rRNA gene libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches. The majority of the sequences (30%-60%) were similar to the 16S rRNA gene sequences of unknown bacteria; however, the operational taxonomic units from members of the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were also present at the 3 GOM sites. Overall, sequence diversity was more similar between the Gulf sites of Carrabelle and Ochlockonee than between either of the Gulf sites and Apalachicola Bay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed the quantitative predominance of members of the Alphaproteobacteria subclass and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster within the bacterioplankton assemblages. In general, the study further reveals the presence of many bacterial taxa that have been previously found to be dominant in coastal marine environments. Differences observed in the representation of the various bacterial phylogenetic groups among the GOM coastal sites could be partly attributed to dynamic variations in several site-specific conditions, including intermittent tidal events, nutrient availability, and anthropogenic influences.

  17. Contribution of chemical water properties to the differential responses of bacterioneuston and bacterioplankton to ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana L; Baptista, Inês; Gomes, Newton C M; Henriques, Isabel; Almeida, Adelaide; Correia, António; Cunha, Angela

    2014-02-01

    The surface microlayer (SML) is characterized by different physicochemical properties from underlying waters (UW). However, whether these differences in abiotic factors underlie the distinct sensitivity of bacterioneuston (i.e. SML bacteria) and bacterioplankton to environmental stressors remains to be addressed. We investigated the contribution of abiotic factors to the UV-B sensitivity of bacterioneuston and bacterioplankton. Nutrients (especially nitrogen and phosphate) emerged as important determinants of bacterial UV-B sensitivity. The role of particles, nutrients, and dissolved organic components on bacterial UV-B sensitivity was further evaluated using dilution cultures. Filtered samples were twofold more UV sensitive than unfiltered samples, suggesting a UV-protective effect of particles. High nutrient concentrations attenuated bacterial UV-B sensitivity (up to 40%), compared with unamended conditions, by influencing bacterial physiology and/or community composition. Suspending cells in natural water, particularly from the SML, also attenuated UV-B sensitivity (up to 23%), compared with suspension in an artificial mineral solution. Bioassays using Pseudomonas sp. strain NT5I1.2B revealed that chemical water properties influence UV-induced oxidative damage. UV-B sensitivity was associated with high cell-specific activities. The chemical environment of the SML and UW influences UV-B effects on the corresponding bacterial communities. Maintaining low cell activities might be advantageous in stressful environments, like the SML.

  18. Bliver big data til big business?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge.......Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge....

  19. Big Boss Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper big boss interval games are introduced and various characterizations are given. The structure of the core of a big boss interval game is explicitly described and plays an important role relative to interval-type bi-monotonic allocation schemes for such games. Specifically, each element

  20. Big Ideas in Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how she was able to discover some big ideas about art education. She relates how she found great ideas to improve her teaching from the book "Rethinking Curriculum in Art." She also shares how she designed a "Big Idea" unit in her class.

  1. Big data for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  2. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  3. Big data a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Prachet; Chenthati, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of chapters written by experts on various aspects of big data. The book aims to explain what big data is and how it is stored and used. The book starts from  the fundamentals and builds up from there. It is intended to serve as a review of the state-of-the-practice in the field of big data handling. The traditional framework of relational databases can no longer provide appropriate solutions for handling big data and making it available and useful to users scattered around the globe. The study of big data covers a wide range of issues including management of heterogeneous data, big data frameworks, change management, finding patterns in data usage and evolution, data as a service, service-generated data, service management, privacy and security. All of these aspects are touched upon in this book. It also discusses big data applications in different domains. The book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing database and networking engineers.

  4. Big Data in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  5. Recht voor big data, big data voor recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafarre, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is een niet meer weg te denken fenomeen in onze maatschappij. Het is de hype cycle voorbij en de eerste implementaties van big data-technieken worden uitgevoerd. Maar wat is nu precies big data? Wat houden de vijf V's in die vaak genoemd worden in relatie tot big data? Ter inleiding van dez

  6. Assessing Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, big data has been one of the most controversially discussed technologies in terms of its possible positive and negative impact. Therefore, the need for technology assessments is obvious. This paper first provides, based on the results of a technology assessment study, an overview...... of the potential and challenges associated with big data and then describes the problems experienced during the study as well as methods found helpful to address them. The paper concludes with reflections on how the insights from the technology assessment study may have an impact on the future governance of big...... data....

  7. Inhomogeneous Big Bang Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, S M

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we outline an inhomogeneous model of the Big Bang cosmology. For the inhomogeneous spacetime used here, the universe originates in the infinite past as the one dominated by vacuum energy and ends in the infinite future as the one consisting of "hot and relativistic" matter. The spatial distribution of matter in the considered inhomogeneous spacetime is {\\em arbitrary}. Hence, observed structures can arise in this cosmology from suitable "initial" density contrast. Different problems of the standard model of Big Bang cosmology are also resolved in the present inhomogeneous model. This inhomogeneous model of the Big Bang Cosmology predicts "hot death" for the universe.

  8. Big data for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kaufman, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Find the right big data solution for your business or organization Big data management is one of the major challenges facing business, industry, and not-for-profit organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather patterns monitored by meteorologists, or social network activity can quickly outpace the capacity of traditional data management tools. If you need to develop or manage big data solutions, you'll appreciate how these four experts define, explain, and guide you through this new and often confusing concept. You'll learn what it is, why it m

  9. Big Data in der Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)......Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)...

  10. Big data opportunities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This ebook aims to give practical guidance for all those who want to understand big data better and learn how to make the most of it. Topics range from big data analysis, mobile big data and managing unstructured data to technologies, governance and intellectual property and security issues surrounding big data.

  11. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  12. Big Data Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on key issues of our paper New games, new rules: big data and the changing context of strategy as a means of addressing some of the concerns raised by the paper’s commentators. We initially deal with the issue of social data and the role it plays in the current data revolution...... and the technological recording of facts. We further discuss the significance of the very mechanisms by which big data is produced as distinct from the very attributes of big data, often discussed in the literature. In the final section of the paper, we qualify the alleged importance of algorithms and claim...... that the structures of data capture and the architectures in which data generation is embedded are fundamental to the phenomenon of big data....

  13. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Klinkby Madsen, Anders; Rasche, Andreas

    This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects...... shows that big data problematizes selected aspects of traditional ways to collect and analyze data for development (e.g. via household surveys). We also demonstrate that using big data analyses to address development challenges raises a number of questions that can deteriorate its impact....

  14. Boarding to Big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Claudia BRATOSIN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today Big data is an emerging topic, as the quantity of the information grows exponentially, laying the foundation for its main challenge, the value of the information. The information value is not only defined by the value extraction from huge data sets, as fast and optimal as possible, but also by the value extraction from uncertain and inaccurate data, in an innovative manner using Big data analytics. At this point, the main challenge of the businesses that use Big data tools is to clearly define the scope and the necessary output of the business so that the real value can be gained. This article aims to explain the Big data concept, its various classifications criteria, architecture, as well as the impact in the world wide processes.

  15. The Big Bang Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  16. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-01

    The volume and variety of data being generated using computersis doubling every two years. It is estimated that in 2015,8 Zettabytes (Zetta=1021) were generated which consistedmostly of unstructured data such as emails, blogs, Twitter,Facebook posts, images, and videos. This is called big data. Itis possible to analyse such huge data collections with clustersof thousands of inexpensive computers to discover patterns inthe data that have many applications. But analysing massiveamounts of data available in the Internet has the potential ofimpinging on our privacy. Inappropriate analysis of big datacan lead to misleading conclusions. In this article, we explainwhat is big data, how it is analysed, and give some case studiesillustrating the potentials and pitfalls of big data analytics.

  17. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  18. Conociendo Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Camargo-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la importancia que ha adquirido el término Big Data, la presente investigación buscó estudiar y analizar de manera exhaustiva el estado del arte del Big Data; además, y como segundo objetivo, analizó las características, las herramientas, las tecnologías, los modelos y los estándares relacionados con Big Data, y por último buscó identificar las características más relevantes en la gestión de Big Data, para que con ello se pueda conocer todo lo concerniente al tema central de la investigación.La metodología utilizada incluyó revisar el estado del arte de Big Data y enseñar su situación actual; conocer las tecnologías de Big Data; presentar algunas de las bases de datos NoSQL, que son las que permiten procesar datos con formatos no estructurados, y mostrar los modelos de datos y las tecnologías de análisis de ellos, para terminar con algunos beneficios de Big Data.El diseño metodológico usado para la investigación fue no experimental, pues no se manipulan variables, y de tipo exploratorio, debido a que con esta investigación se empieza a conocer el ambiente del Big Data.

  19. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  20. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Asst. Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2014-01-01

    Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, senti...

  1. Big data need big theory too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Peter V; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R

    2016-11-13

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their 'depth' and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote 'blind' big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  2. Big data need big theory too

    OpenAIRE

    Coveney, Peter V.; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R.

    2016-01-01

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, ma...

  3. Big data need big theory too.

    OpenAIRE

    Coveney, P. V.; Dougherty, E. R.; Highfield, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, ma...

  4. Big data need big theory too

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R.; Highfield, Roger R.

    2016-01-01

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their ‘depth’ and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote ‘blind’ big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling at the physics–chemistry–biology interface’. PMID:27698035

  5. The study of bacterioplankton dynamics in the Berlengas Archipelago (West coast of Portugal by applying the HJ-biplot method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between bacterioplankton and environmental forcing in the Berlengas Archipelago (Western Coast of Portugal were studied between February 2006 and February 2007 in two sampling stations: Berlenga and Canal, using an HJ-biplot. The HJ-biplot showed a simultaneous display of the three main metabolic groups of bacteria involved in carbon cycling (aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria and environmental parameters, in low dimensions. Our results indicated thatbacterial dynamics are mainly affected by temporal gradients (seasonal gradients with a clear winter versus summer opposition, and less by the spatial structure (Berlenga and Canal. The yearly variation in the abundance of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were positively correlated with those in chlorophyll a concentration, whereas ammonium concentration and temperature decreased with increasing phosphates and nitrites concentration. The relationship between aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, chlorophyll a and ammonium reveals that phytoplankton is an important source of organic substrates for bacteria.

  6. Comparison of Different Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Primer Sets for the Study of Marine Bacterioplankton Communities▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Olga; Gasol, Josep M.; Massana, Ramon; Mas, Jordi; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    An annual seasonal cycle of composition of a bacterioplankton community in an oligotrophic coastal system was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using five different primer sets. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints showed that primer set 357fGC-907rM grouped samples according to seasons. Additionally, we used the set of 16S rRNA genes archived in the RDPII database to check the percentage of perfect matches of each primer for the most abundant bacterial groups inhabiting coastal plankton communities. Overall, primer set 357fGC-907rM was the most suitable for the routine use of PCR-DGGE analyses in this environment. PMID:17660308

  7. One Big Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Ran-Rsarl River Delta is strivingto build the area into a strong engine of China’s development If one compares China’s territory to a rooster,then the Pan-Pearl River Delta would be the bird’s belly.The Pan-Pearl River Delta covers

  8. Biogeochemical cycling and phyto- and bacterioplankton communities in a large and shallow tropical lagoon (Términos Lagoon, Mexico) under 2009-2010 El Niño Modoki drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Pascal; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Agab, Marina; Calva-Benítez, Laura; Chifflet, Sandrine; Douillet, Pascal; Dussud, Claire; Fichez, Renaud; Grenz, Christian; Gutierrez Mendieta, Francisco; Origel-Moreno, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Sauret, Caroline; Severin, Tatiana; Tedetti, Marc; Torres Alvarado, Rocío; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2017-03-01

    The 2009-2010 period was marked by an episode of intense drought known as the El Niño Modoki event. Sampling of the Términos Lagoon (Mexico) was carried out in November 2009 in order to understand the influence of these particular environmental conditions on organic matter fluxes within the lagoon's pelagic ecosystem and, more specifically, on the relationship between phyto- and bacterioplankton communities. The measurements presented here concern biogeochemical parameters (nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic matter [POM], and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]), phytoplankton (biomass and photosynthesis), and bacteria (diversity and abundance, including PAH degradation bacteria and ectoenzymatic activities). During the studied period, the water column of the Términos Lagoon functioned globally as a sink and, more precisely, as a nitrogen assimilator. This was due to the high production of particulate and dissolved organic matter (DOM), even though exportation of autochthonous matter to the Gulf of Mexico was weak. We found that bottom-up control accounted for a large portion of the variability of phytoplankton productivity. Nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry mostly accounted for the heterogeneity in phytoplankton and free-living prokaryote distribution in the lagoon. In the eastern part, we found a clear decoupling between areas enriched in dissolved inorganic nitrogen near the Puerto Real coastal inlet and areas enriched in phosphate (PO4) near the Candelaria estuary. Such a decoupling limited the potential for primary production, resulting in an accumulation of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC and DON, respectively) near the river mouths. In the western part of the lagoon, maximal phytoplankton development resulted from bacterial activity transforming particulate organic phosphorus (PP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) to available PO4 and the coupling between Palizada River inputs of nitrate (NO3) and PP. The

  9. Wyoming big sagebrush associations of eastern Oregon; vegetation attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a synopsis of several vegetative characteristics for the Wyoming big sagebrush complex in eastern Oregon covering the High Desert , Snake River, and Owyhee Ecological Provinces in Harney, Lake, and Malheur Counties. The complex has been grouped into six associations defined by t...

  10. Contrasting patterns of free-living bacterioplankton diversity in macrophyte-dominated versus phytoplankton blooming regimes in Dianchi Lake, a shallow lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujing; Li, Huabing; Xing, Peng; Wu, Qinglong

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater shallow lakes typically exhibit two alternative stable states under certain nutrient loadings: macrophyte-dominated and phytoplankton-dominated water regimes. An ecosystem regime shift from macrophytes to phytoplankton blooming typically reduces the number of species of invertebrates and fishes and results in the homogenization of communities in freshwater lakes. We investigated how microbial biodiversity has responded to a shift of the ecosystem regime in Dianchi Lake, which was previously fully covered with submerged macrophytes but currently harbors both ecological states. We observed marked divergence in the diversity and community composition of bacterioplankton between the two regimes. Although species richness, estimated as the number of operational taxonomic units and phylogenetic diversity (PD), was higher in the phytoplankton dominated ecosystem after this shift, the dissimilarity of bacterioplankton community across space decreased. This decrease in beta diversity was accompanied by loss of planktonic bacteria unique to the macrophyte-dominated ecosystem. Mantel tests between bacterioplankton community distances and Euclidian distance of environmental parameters indicated that this reduced bacterial community diff erentiation primarily reflected the loss of environmental niches, particularly in the macrophyte regime. The loss of this small-scale heterogeneity in bacterial communities should be considered when assessing long-term biodiversity changes in response to ecosystem regime conversions in freshwater lakes.

  11. Focus : big data, little questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Uprichard, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Big data. Little data. Deep data. Surface data. Noisy, unstructured data. Big. The world of data has gone from being analogue and digital, qualitative and quantitative, transactional and a by-product, to, simply, BIG. It is as if we couldn’t quite deal with its omnipotence and just ran out of adjectives. BIG. With all the data power it is supposedly meant to entail, one might have thought that a slightly better descriptive term might have been latched onto. But, no. BIG. Just BIG.

  12. Big data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  13. Big and Small

    CERN Document Server

    Ekers, R D

    2010-01-01

    Technology leads discovery in astronomy, as in all other areas of science, so growth in technology leads to the continual stream of new discoveries which makes our field so fascinating. Derek de Solla Price had analysed the discovery process in science in the 1960s and he introduced the terms 'Little Science' and 'Big Science' as part of his discussion of the role of exponential growth in science. I will show how the development of astronomical facilities has followed this same trend from 'Little Science' to 'Big Science' as a field matures. We can see this in the discoveries resulting in Nobel Prizes in astronomy. A more detailed analysis of discoveries in radio astronomy shows the same effect. I include a digression to look at how science progresses, comparing the roles of prediction, serendipity, measurement and explanation. Finally I comment on the differences between the 'Big Science' culture in Physics and in Astronomy.

  14. Big Data and Cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanillos, Gustavo; Zaltz Austwick, Martin; Ettema, Dick; De Kruijf, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Big Data has begun to create significant impacts in urban and transport planning. This paper covers the explosion in data-driven research on cycling, most of which has occurred in the last ten years. We review the techniques, objectives and findings of a growing number of studies we have classified

  15. Big data in history

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Big Data in History introduces the project to create a world-historical archive, tracing the last four centuries of historical dynamics and change. Chapters address the archive's overall plan, how to interpret the past through a global archive, the missions of gathering records, linking local data into global patterns, and exploring the results.

  16. The big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event that set the universe in motion. Joseph Silk begins his story with the first microseconds of the big bang, on through the evolution of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, and into the distant future of our universe. He also explores the fascinating evidence for the big bang model and recounts the history of cosmological speculation. Revised and updated, this new edition features all the most recent astronomical advances, including: Photos and measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE), and Infrared Space Observatory; the latest estimates of the age of the universe; new ideas in string and superstring theory; recent experiments on neutrino detection; new theories about the presence of dark matter in galaxies; new developments in the theory of the formation and evolution of galaxies; the latest ideas about black holes, worm holes, quantum foam, and multiple universes.

  17. The Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Moods, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    How did the Universe begin? The favoured theory is that everything - space, time, matter - came into existence at the same moment, around 13.7 thousand million years ago. This event was scornfully referred to as the "Big Bang" by Sir Fred Hoyle, who did not believe in it and maintained that the Universe had always existed.

  18. The Big Sky inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  19. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  20. Big Data ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with sp

  1. A Big Bang Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  2. Space big book

    CERN Document Server

    Homer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Our Combined resource includes all necessary areas of Space for grades five to eight. Get the big picture about the Solar System, Galaxies and the Universe as your students become fascinated by the interesting information about the Sun, Earth, Moon, Comets, Asteroids Meteoroids, Stars and Constellations. Also, thrill your young astronomers as they connect Earth and space cycles with their daily life.

  3. Identifying Dwarfs Workloads in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...

  4. Big Data and Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  5. Business and Science - Big Data, Big Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Data Science is more than the creation, manipulation, and transformation of data. It is more than Big Data. The business world seems to have a hold on the term 'data science' and, for now, they define what it means. But business is very different than science. In this talk, I address how large datasets, Big Data, and data science are conceptually different in business and science worlds. I focus on the types of questions each realm asks, the data needed, and the consequences of findings. Gone are the days of datasets being created or collected to serve only one purpose or project. The trick with data reuse is to become familiar enough with a dataset to be able to combine it with other data and extract accurate results. As a Data Curator for the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS), my specialty is communication. Our team enables Arctic sciences by ensuring datasets are well documented and can be understood by reusers. Previously, I served as a data community liaison for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Again, my specialty was communicating complex instructions and ideas to a broad audience of data users. Before entering the science world, I was an entrepreneur. I have a bachelor's degree in economics and a master's degree in environmental social science. I am currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Geography. Because my background has embraced both the business and science worlds, I would like to share my perspectives on data, data reuse, data documentation, and the presentation or communication of findings. My experiences show that each can inform and support the other.

  6. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own…

  7. Abundance and biomass responses of microbial food web components to hydrology and environmental gradients within a floodplain of the River Danube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Goran

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the relationships of time-dependent hydrological variability and selected microbial food web components. Samples were collected monthly from the Kopački Rit floodplain in Croatia, over a period of 19 months, for analysis of bacterioplankton abundance, cell size and biomass; abundance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and nanophytoplankton; and concentration of chlorophyll a. Similar hydrological variability at different times of the year enabled partition of seasonal effects from hydrological changes on microbial community properties. The results suggested that, unlike some other studies investigating sites with different connectivity, bacterioplankton abundance, and phytoplankton abundance and biomass increased during lentic conditions. At increasing water level, nanophytoplankton showed lower sensitivity to disturbance in comparison with total phytoplankton biomass: this could prolong autotrophic conditions within the floodplain. Bacterioplankton biomass, unlike phytoplankton, was not impacted by hydrology. The bacterial biomass less affected by hydrological changes can be an important additional food component for the floodplain food web. The results also suggested a mechanism controlling bacterial cell size independent of hydrology, as bacterial cell size was significantly decreased as nanoflagellate abundance increased. Hydrology, regardless of seasonal sucession, has the potential to structure microbial food webs, supporting microbial development during lentic conditions. Conversely, other components appear unaffected by hydrology or may be more strongly controlled by biotic interactions. This research, therefore, adds to understanding on microbial food web interactions in the context of flood and flow pulses in river-floodplain ecosystems.

  8. Combining culture-dependent and -independent methodologies for estimation of richness of estuarine bacterioplankton consuming riverine dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisand, Veljo; Wikner, Johan

    2003-06-01

    Three different methods for analyzing natural microbial community diversity were combined to maximize an estimate of the richness of bacterioplankton catabolizing riverine dissolved organic matter (RDOM). We also evaluated the ability of culture-dependent quantitative DNA-DNA hybridization, a 16S rRNA gene clone library, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to detect bacterial taxa in the same sample. Forty-two different cultivatable strains were isolated from rich and poor solid media. In addition, 50 unique clones were obtained by cloning of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplified by PCR from the community DNA into an Escherichia coli vector. Twenty-three unique bands were sequenced from 12 DGGE profiles, excluding a composite fuzzy band of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group. The different methods gave similar distributions of taxa at the genus level and higher. However, the match at the species level among the methods was poor, and only one species was identified by all three methods. Consequently, all three methods identified unique subsets of bacterial species, amounting to a total richness of 97 operational taxonomic units in the experimental system. The confidence in the results was, however, dependent on the current precision of the phylogenetic determination and definition of the species. Bacterial consumers of RDOM in the studied estuary were primarily both cultivatable and uncultivable taxa of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group, a concordant result among the methods applied. Culture-independent methods also suggested several not-yet-cultivated beta-proteobacteria to be RDOM consumers.

  9. Big Data and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Shaw

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequencers, Twitter, MRIs, Facebook, particle accelerators, Google Books, radio telescopes, Tumblr: what do these things have in common? According to the evangelists of “data science,” all of these are instruments for observing reality at unprecedentedly large scales and fine granularities. This perspective ignores the social reality of these very different technological systems, ignoring how they are made, how they work, and what they mean in favor of an exclusive focus on what they generate: Big Data. But no data, big or small, can be interpreted without an understanding of the process that generated them. Statistical data science is applicable to systems that have been designed as scientific instruments, but is likely to lead to confusion when applied to systems that have not. In those cases, a historical inquiry is preferable.

  10. Big Data-Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.G. Aruna Sri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Big data is the term for any gathering of information sets, so expensive and complex, that it gets to be hard to process for utilizing customary information handling applications. The difficulties incorporate investigation, catch, duration, inquiry, sharing, stockpiling, Exchange, perception, and protection infringement. To reduce spot business patterns, anticipate diseases, conflict etc., we require bigger data sets when compared with the smaller data sets. Enormous information is hard to work with utilizing most social database administration frameworks and desktop measurements and perception bundles, needing rather enormously parallel programming running on tens, hundreds, or even a large number of servers. In this paper there was an observation on Hadoop architecture, different tools used for big data and its security issues.

  11. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects......This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... of the international development agenda to algorithms that synthesize large-scale data, (3) novel ways of rationalizing knowledge claims that underlie development policies, and (4) shifts in professional and organizational identities of those concerned with producing and processing data for development. Our discussion...

  12. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  13. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, sentiment analysis, social networking analysis to name a few. Therefore, there are a number of requirements for moving beyond standard data mining technique. Purpose of this paper is to understand various techniques to analysis data.

  14. Finding the big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Lyman A; Partridge, R Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Cosmology, the study of the universe as a whole, has become a precise physical science, the foundation of which is our understanding of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) left from the big bang. The story of the discovery and exploration of the CMBR in the 1960s is recalled for the first time in this collection of 44 essays by eminent scientists who pioneered the work. Two introductory chapters put the essays in context, explaining the general ideas behind the expanding universe and fossil remnants from the early stages of the expanding universe. The last chapter describes how the confusion of ideas and measurements in the 1960s grew into the present tight network of tests that demonstrate the accuracy of the big bang theory. This book is valuable to anyone interested in how science is done, and what it has taught us about the large-scale nature of the physical universe.

  15. DARPA's Big Mechanism program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul R

    2015-07-16

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  16. DARPA's Big Mechanism program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul R.

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  17. Big Bang 8

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Band 8 vermittelt auf verständliche Weise Relativitätstheorie, Kern- und Teilchenphysik (und deren Anwendungen in der Kosmologie und Astrophysik), Nanotechnologie sowie Bionik.

  18. Big Bang 6

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 6 RG behandelt die Gravitation, Schwingungen und Wellen, Thermodynamik und eine Einführung in die Elektrizität anhand von Alltagsbeispielen und Querverbindungen zu anderen Disziplinen.

  19. Big Bang 5

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 5 RG behandelt die Grundlagen (Maßsystem, Größenordnungen) und die Mechanik (Translation, Rotation, Kraft, Erhaltungssätze).

  20. Big Bang 7

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. In Band 7 werden neben einer Einführung auch viele aktuelle Aspekte von Quantenmechanik (z. Beamen) und Elektrodynamik (zB Elektrosmog), sowie die Klimaproblematik und die Chaostheorie behandelt.

  1. Big Data Knowledge Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Umar Banuqitah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Big Data (BD era has been arrived. The ascent of big data applications where information accumulation has grown beyond the ability of the present programming instrument to catch, manage and process within tolerable short time. The volume is not only the characteristic that defines big data, but also velocity, variety, and value. Many resources contain BD that should be processed. The biomedical research literature is one among many other domains that hides a rich knowledge. MEDLINE is a huge biomedical research database which remain a significantly underutilized source of biological information. Discovering the useful knowledge from such huge corpus leading to many problems related to the type of information such as the related concepts of the domain of texts and the semantic relationship associated with them. In this paper, an agent-based system of two–level for Self-supervised relation extraction from MEDLINE using Unified Medical Language System (UMLS Knowledgebase, has been proposed . The model uses a Self-supervised Approach for Relation Extraction (RE by constructing enhanced training examples using information from UMLS with hybrid text features. The model incorporates Apache Spark and HBase BD technologies with multiple data mining and machine learning technique with the Multi Agent System (MAS. The system shows a better result in comparison with the current state of the art and naïve approach in terms of Accuracy, Precision, Recall and F-score.

  2. Disaggregating asthma: Big investigation versus big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma.

  3. Tidal switch on metabolic activity: Salinity induced responses on bacterioplankton metabolic capabilities in a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thottathil, S.D.; Balachandran, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Nair, S.

    for the present study, as it receives 35% of the total freshwater discharge through the River Periyar (Srinivas et al., 2003). Moreover, a fertilizer factory situated in the upstream north forms a major source of ammonia in the study region (Joy et al., 1990... mouth of the estuary. On the other hand, PCA indicates that amino/carboxylic acids are support- ing community metabolism at high salinity (Table 2). This shift can be due to the availability of substrates which induce bacterial cells to synthesize ecto...

  4. Allochthonous Carbon--a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, D; Rowe, O F; Paczkowska, J; Legrand, C; Andersson, A

    2016-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60% of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2%. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60%. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.

  5. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  6. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  7. Privacy and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri

  8. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  9. Comparison of growth rates of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and other bacterioplankton groups in coastal Mediterranean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Sebastián, Marta; Hojerová, Eva; Koblízek, Michal

    2011-11-01

    Growth is one of the basic attributes of any living organism. Surprisingly, the growth rates of marine bacterioplankton are only poorly known. Current data suggest that marine bacteria grow relatively slowly, having generation times of several days. However, some bacterial groups, such as the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, have been shown to grow much faster. Two manipulation experiments, in which grazing, viruses, and resource competition were reduced, were conducted in the coastal Mediterranean Sea (Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory). The growth rates of AAP bacteria and of several important phylogenetic groups (the Bacteroidetes, the alphaproteobacterial groups Roseobacter and SAR11, and the Gammaproteobacteria group and its subgroups the Alteromonadaceae and the NOR5/OM60 clade) were calculated from changes in cell numbers in the manipulation treatments. In addition, we examined the role that top-down (mortality due to grazers and viruses) and bottom-up (resource availability) factors play in determining the growth rates of these groups. Manipulations resulted in an increase of the growth rates of all groups studied, but its extent differed largely among the individual treatments and among the different groups. Interestingly, higher growth rates were found for the AAP bacteria (up to 3.71 day⁻¹) and for the Alteromonadaceae (up to 5.44 day⁻¹), in spite of the fact that these bacterial groups represented only a very low percentage of the total prokaryotic community. In contrast, the SAR11 clade, which was the most abundant group, was the slower grower in all treatments. Our results show that, in general, the least abundant groups exhibited the highest rates, whereas the most abundant groups were those growing more slowly, indicating that some minor groups, such the AAP bacteria, very likely contribute much more to the recycling of organic matter in the ocean than what their abundances alone would predict.

  10. Can Pleasant Goat and Big Big Wolf Save China's Animation Industry?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    "My dreamed husband is big big wolf," claimed Miss Fang, a young lady who works in KPMG Beijing Office. This big big wolf is a lovely cartoon wolf appeared in a Pleasant Goat and Big Big Wolf produced independently by Chinese.

  11. Asteroids Were Born Big

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Nesvorny, David; Levison, Harold F

    2009-01-01

    How big were the first planetesimals? We attempt to answer this question by conducting coagulation simulations in which the planetesimals grow by mutual collisions and form larger bodies and planetary embryos. The size frequency distribution (SFD) of the initial planetesimals is considered a free parameter in these simulations, and we search for the one that produces at the end objects with a SFD that is consistent with asteroid belt constraints. We find that, if the initial planetesimals were small (e.g. km-sized), the final SFD fails to fulfill these constraints. In particular, reproducing the bump observed at diameter D~100km in the current SFD of the asteroids requires that the minimal size of the initial planetesimals was also ~100km. This supports the idea that planetesimals formed big, namely that the size of solids in the proto-planetary disk ``jumped'' from sub-meter scale to multi-kilometer scale, without passing through intermediate values. Moreover, we find evidence that the initial planetesimals ...

  12. Techniques of Cross-River Hoisting and Eking of Big-Diameter Steel Tubes%大直径钢管的接长与过河吊装技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈震旻

    2012-01-01

      本文介绍用14 mm 厚钢板,加工成直径为1.6 m 的给水管,运至施工现场用手工电弧焊接长达41 m的过河管道;安装就位前对河床相应位置作横向固化处理;安装中采用水浮法与机械起吊相结合及泄水就位等施工技术。%  The article introduces the ways to make water-supplying tubes with a diameter of 1.6m from 14mm thick steel plate, which are then combined into 41m cross-river tubes by manual y electrical arc welding at the constructing sites. Before installation, conduct curing process at the related place on the river bed. At last, adopt techniques like water-floating, mechanical craning, and water-discharge placing to instal the tubes.

  13. Passport to the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Le 2 juin 2013, le CERN inaugure le projet Passeport Big Bang lors d'un grand événement public. Affiche et programme. On 2 June 2013 CERN launches a scientific tourist trail through the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva known as the Passport to the Big Bang. Poster and Programme.

  14. Fremtidens landbrug bliver big business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Landbrugets omverdensforhold og konkurrencevilkår ændres, og det vil nødvendiggøre en udvikling i retning af “big business“, hvor landbrugene bliver endnu større, mere industrialiserede og koncentrerede. Big business bliver en dominerende udvikling i dansk landbrug - men ikke den eneste...

  15. Phylogenetic diversity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit genes of bacterioplankton in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yonghui; JIAO Nianzhi; CAI Haiyuan; CHEN Xihan; WEI Chaoling

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of Form I and Form Ⅱ ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) large subunit (rbcL) genes in the inshore and offshore areas of the East China Sea were investigated. Two new primer sets were designed for amplifying partial sequences of rbcL genes from Proteobacteria. Four rbcL gene clone libraries were constructed by amplification and cloning of approximately 640~800 bp sequences of bacterioplankton populations.The method of screening library by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was introduced. The results show that the diversity of Form I is higher in offshore waters with higher salinity and lower productivity, while that of Form Ⅱ is higher at the inshore station where salinity is lower and productivity is higher. Several clusters of sequences obtained are deeply rooted and show low similarity (60%~78%) to the known rbcL in existing databases.The degree of diversity of rbcL genes is directly related to environmental variables, including temperature, salinity,pH, dissolved oxygen, etc. These results indicate that rbcL gene can be used as an effective indicator for genetic diversity and population variability of bacterioplankton with the ability of carbon dioxide fixation in the sea.

  16. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA. A pCO2 range of 175–1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard. The activity of natural extracellular enzyme assemblages increased in response to acidification. Rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase increased along the gradient of mesocosm pCO2. A decrease in seawater pH of 0.5 units almost doubled rates of both enzymes. Heterotrophic bacterial activity was closely coupled to phytoplankton productivity in this experiment. The bacterioplankton community responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing protein production and extracellular enzyme activity. Time-integrated primary production and bacterial protein production were positively correlated, strongly suggesting that higher amounts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter were assimilated by heterotrophic bacteria at increased primary production. Primary production increased under high pCO2 in this study, and it can be suggested that the efficient heterotrophic carbon utilisation had the potential to counteract the enhanced autotrophic CO2 fixation. However, our results also show that beneficial pCO2-related effects on bacterial activity can be mitigated by the top-down control of bacterial abundances in natural microbial communities.

  17. The Rise of Big Data in Neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    In some fields, Big Data has been instrumental in analyzing, predicting, and influencing human behavior. However, Big Data approaches have so far been less central in speech-language pathology. This article introduces the concept of Big Data and provides examples of Big Data initiatives pertaining to adult neurorehabilitation. It also discusses the potential theoretical and clinical contributions that Big Data can make. The article also recognizes some impediments in building and using Big Data for scientific and clinical inquiry.

  18. Salinity as a structuring factor for the composition and performance of bacterioplankton degrading riverine DOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheder, Silke; Kisand, Veljo; Wikner, Johan; Tranvik, Lars J

    2003-07-01

    Abstract The impact of salinity on the composition and functional performance (biomass production, growth efficiency and growth rates) of bacterial communities was investigated using batch cultures growing on dissolved organic carbon from a river draining into the Northern Baltic Sea. The cultures were adjusted to riverine or estuarine salinity levels and inoculated with bacteria from these two environments. Bacterial growth efficiencies differed in response to salinity and the origin of the inoculum. When salinity was adjusted to correspond to the salinity at the site where the inoculum was retrieved, growth efficiency was relatively high (11.5+/-2.6%). However, when bacteria were confronted with a shift in salinity, growth efficiency was lower (7.5+/-2.0%) and more of the utilized carbon was respired. In contrast, growth rates were higher when bacteria were exposed to a change in salinity. The composition of the bacterial communities developing in the batch cultures differed, as shown by 16S rDNA DGGE, depending on the origin of the inoculum and salinity. Reverse and direct DNA-DNA hybridization revealed salinity optima in the growth of specific bacterial strains as well as broader phylogenetic groups. Strains belonging to the alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and gamma-Proteobacteria other than the genus Pseudomonas showed higher relative abundance under freshwater conditions, whereas strains of the genus Pseudomonas and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group were favored by estuarine conditions. Generally, our results demonstrate functional changes associated with changes in community composition. We suggest that even moderate changes in salinity affect bacterial community composition, which subsequently leads to altered growth characteristics.

  19. BIG DATA AND STATISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, David

    2016-01-01

    Big Data brings unprecedented power to address scientific, economic and societal issues, but also amplifies the possibility of certain pitfalls. These include using purely data-driven approaches that disregard understanding the phenomenon under study, aiming at a dynamically moving target, ignoring critical data collection issues, summarizing or preprocessing the data inadequately and mistaking noise for signal. We review some success stories and illustrate how statistical principles can help obtain more reliable information from data. We also touch upon current challenges that require active methodological research, such as strategies for efficient computation, integration of heterogeneous data, extending the underlying theory to increasingly complex questions and, perhaps most importantly, training a new generation of scientists to develop and deploy these strategies.

  20. Big Bounce Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Changhong; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E

    2014-01-01

    We report on the possibility to use dark matter mass and its interaction cross section as a smoking gun signal of the existence of a big bounce at the early stage in the evolution of our currently observed universe. A model independent study of dark matter production in the contraction and expansion phases of the bounce universe reveals a new venue for achieving the observed relic abundance in which a significantly smaller amount of dark matter--compared to the standard cosmology--is produced and survives until today, diluted only by the cosmic expansion since the radiation dominated era. Once DM mass and its interaction strength with ordinary matter are determined by experiments, this alternative route becomes a signature of the bounce universe scenario.

  1. Big Hero 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    看《超能陆战队》如何让普通人变身超级英雄拯救城市!Hiro Hamada,14,lives in the future city of San Fransokyo.He has a robot(机器人)friend Baymax.Baymax is big and soft.His job is to nurse sick(生病的)people.One day,a bad man wants to take control of(控制)SanFransokyo.Hiro hopes to save(挽救)the city with Baymax.ButBaymax is just a nursing robot.This is not a problem for Hiro,(ho一we套ve盔r.甲He)knows a lot about robots.He makes a suit of armorfor Baymax and turns him into a super robot!

  2. The Last Big Bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, Austin D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    As one of the very few people in the world to give the “go/no go” decision to detonate a nuclear device, Austin “Mac” McGuire holds a very special place in the history of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the world. As Commander of Joint Task Force Unit 8.1.1, on Christmas Island in the spring and summer of 1962, Mac directed the Los Alamos data collection efforts for twelve of the last atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted by the United States. Since data collection was at the heart of nuclear weapon testing, it fell to Mac to make the ultimate decision to detonate each test device. He calls his experience THE LAST BIG BANG, since these tests, part of Operation Dominic, were characterized by the dramatic displays of the heat, light, and sounds unique to atmospheric nuclear detonations – never, perhaps, to be witnessed again.

  3. Avoiding a Big Catastrophe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Before last October,the South China tiger had almost slipped into mythi- cal status as it had been absent for so long from the public eye.In the previous 20-plus years,these tigers could not be found in the wild in China and the number of those in captivity numbered only around 60. The species—a direct descendent of the earliest tigers thought to have originat- ed in China 2 million years ago—is functionally extinct,according to experts. The big cat’s return to the media spotlight was completely unexpected. On October 12,2007,a digital picture,showing a wild South China tiger

  4. The Impact of Nutrient Enrichment on Bacterioplankton Richness In Nan’ao, Daya Bay%大亚湾南澳海域浮游细菌丰度对营养盐添加的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严瑶仙; 梁柱源; 朱泉剑; 徐智焕; 王海丽; 杨季芳

    2014-01-01

    2011年9月于大亚湾南澳东山码头附近海域设置生态围隔,通过人为对围隔水体中N、P营养元素的加富试验,进一步分析营养盐添加对浮游细菌的丰度影响。结果表明:营养盐添加能促进生态围隔中浮游细菌丰度的增加;并且N、P同时添加于围隔中的效果要比单独添加的效果好,即能更快促进浮游细菌对营养盐的吸收和利用;浮游细菌对氨氮的吸收利用效率最高,其次是硝酸盐;N、P营养盐的添加影响生态围隔中叶绿素a以及溶解氧浓度的变化,从而间接影响浮游细菌的丰度。%A ten-day mesocosm experiment was carried out in Nan’ao of Daya Bay in September of 2011. In total, seven mesocosms (M0~M6) were operated in the study by adding different combinations of N and P on the first day only or daily enrichment, in order to assess the biomass and richness of bacterioplankton with nutrient enrichment. The results showed that nutrient enrichment benefited the growth of bacterioplankton. N and P enriched together increased the biomass of bacterioplankton more efficiently than N and P enriched separately. Bacterioplankton was more eager to uptake ammonium than nitrate as N source. Concentration of chlorophyll a has changed due to nutrient enrichment , which resulted in the changes of bacterioplankton growth.

  5. Influence of filtration and glucose amendment on bacterial growth rate at different tidal conditions in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anne, I.; Fidalgo, M. L.; Thosthrup, L.;

    2006-01-01

    Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and growth rates were studied in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal). The influence of tidal conditions, glucose amendment, and the filtration process on total bacterial abundance, total and faecal coliforms, as well as faecal streptococci, were evaluated....... In contrast, a significant decrease of bacterial indicators of faecal pollution at high tide was probably the result of various causes, such as the decrease of continental and agriculturalland mn-off effect by dilution, aml/or increase in the abundance of potential specific predators. Thus, drastic changes...

  6. Reach-scale characterization of large woody debris in a low-gradient, Midwestern U.S.A. river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Derek J.; Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Harden, Carol P.

    2016-06-01

    Addition of large woody debris (LWD) to rivers has increasingly become a popular stream restoration strategy, particularly in river systems of the Midwestern United States. However, our knowledge of LWD dynamics is mostly limited to high gradient montane river systems, or coastal river systems. The LWD-related management of low-gradient, Midwestern river systems is thus largely based on higher gradient analogs of LWD dynamics. This research characterizes fluvial wood loads and investigates the relationships between fluvial wood, channel morphology, and sediment deposition in a relatively low-gradient, semiconfined, alluvial river. The LWD and channel morphology were surveyed at nine reaches along the Big River in southeastern Missouri to investigate those relationships in comparison to other regions. Wood loads in the Big River are low (3-114 m3/100 m) relative to those of higher gradient river systems of the Pacific Northwest, but high relative to lower-gradient river systems of the Eastern United States. Wood characteristics such as size and orientation suggest that the dominant LWD recruitment mechanism in the Big River is bank erosion. Also, ratios of wood geometry to channel geometry show that the Big River maintains a relatively high wood transport capacity for most of its length. Although LWD creates sites for sediment storage, the overall impact on reach-scale sediment storage in the Big River is low (fluvial wood dynamics in low-gradient river systems of the Midwestern United States.

  7. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  8. Geology and ground-water resources of the lower Little Bighorn River Valley, Big Horn County, Montana, with special reference to the drainage of waterlogged lands, with a section on chemical quality of the water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, E.A.; Klug, M.F.; Morris, D.A.; Swenson, F.A.; Krieger, R.A.

    1960-01-01

    The lower Little Bighorn River valley, Montana, is in the unglaciated part of the Missouri Plateau section of the Great Plains physiographic province. The river and its principal tributaries rise in the Bighorn Mountains, and the confluence of this northward-flowing stream with the Bighorn River is near the east edge of Hardin, Mont. The normal annual precipitation ranges from about 12 inches in the northern part of the area to 15 inches in the southern part. The economy of the area is founded principally on farming, much of the low-lying land adjacent to the river being irrigated. The irrigated land is within the Crow Indian Reservation, although a part is privately owned. The bedrock formations exposed in the area are of Cretaceous age and include the Parkman sandstone, Claggett shale, Eagle sandstone, Telegraph Creek shale, and Cody shale. The Cloverly formation, Tensleep sandstone, and Madison limestone, which underlie but are not exposed in the area, and the Parkman sandstone in the southern half of the area appear to be the principal bedrock aquifers. All except the Parkman lie at depths ranging from a few feet to several thousand feet, and all appear to be capable of yielding water in commercial quantities. Some of the other formations arc capable of yielding enough water for domestic and stock needs. The river alluvium of Recent age and the Pleistocene terrace deposits are the principal unconsolidated formations in the area with respect to water supply and drainage. Wells yielding as much as 100 gallons per minute may be developed in favorable areas. Pumping tests reveal that the transmissibility of the coarser unconsolidated materials probably ranges from about 15,000 to 30,000 gallons per day per foot. Two tests of the Parkman sandstone showed transmissibilities of 6,000 and 20,000 gallons per day per foot. Although a test of the Cloverly formation showed a transmissibility of only 3,000 gallons per day per foot, the high artesian pressure--80 pounds per

  9. Big Bang of Massenergy and Negative Big Bang of Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    There is a balance between Big Bang of Massenergy and Negative Big Bang of Spacetime in the universe. Also some scientists considered there is an anti-Big Bang who could produce the antimatter. And the paper supposes there is a structure balance between Einstein field equation and negative Einstein field equation, a balance between massenergy structure and spacetime structure, a balance between an energy of nucleus of the stellar matter and a dark energy of nucleus of the dark matter-dark energy, and a balance between the particle and the wave-a balance system between massenergy (particle) and spacetime (wave). It should explain of the problems of the Big Bang. http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR16/Session/M13.8

  10. Google BigQuery analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Tigani, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    How to effectively use BigQuery, avoid common mistakes, and execute sophisticated queries against large datasets Google BigQuery Analytics is the perfect guide for business and data analysts who want the latest tips on running complex queries and writing code to communicate with the BigQuery API. The book uses real-world examples to demonstrate current best practices and techniques, and also explains and demonstrates streaming ingestion, transformation via Hadoop in Google Compute engine, AppEngine datastore integration, and using GViz with Tableau to generate charts of query results. In addit

  11. Big Data: present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Raducu TRIFU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the importance of the Big Data concept, a concept that even now, after years of development, is for the most companies just a cool keyword. The paper also describes the level of the actual big data development and the things it can do, and also the things that can be done in the near future. The paper focuses on explaining to nontechnical and non-database related technical specialists what basically is big data, presents the three most important V's, as well as the new ones, the most important solutions used by companies like Google or Amazon, as well as some interesting perceptions based on this subject.

  12. The challenges of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest.

  13. Big Data: present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Raducu TRIFU; Mihaela Laura IVAN

    2014-01-01

    The paper explains the importance of the Big Data concept, a concept that even now, after years of development, is for the most companies just a cool keyword. The paper also describes the level of the actual big data development and the things it can do, and also the things that can be done in the near future. The paper focuses on explaining to nontechnical and non-database related technical specialists what basically is big data, presents the three most important V's, as well as the new ...

  14. Big Data Mining: Tools & Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Shiraz Hashmi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We are now in Big Data era, and there is a growing demand for tools which can process and analyze it. Big data analytics deals with extracting valuable information from that complex data which can’t be handled by traditional data mining tools. This paper surveys the available tools which can handle large volumes of data as well as evolving data streams. The data mining tools and algorithms which can handle big data have also been summarized, and one of the tools has been used for mining of large datasets using distributed algorithms.

  15. The challenges of big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  16. Effect of elevated CO2 on the dynamics of particle attached and free living bacterioplankton communities in an Arctic fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Romac

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 results in acidification of the oceans, expected to lead to the fastest drop in ocean pH in the last 300 million years, if anthropogenic emissions are continued at present rate. Due to higher solubility of gases in cold waters and increased exposure to the atmosphere by decreasing ice cover, the Arctic Ocean will be among the areas most strongly affected by ocean acidification. Yet, the response of the plankton community of high latitudes to ocean acidification has not been studied so far. This work is part of the Arctic campaign of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA in 2010, employing 9 in situ mesocosms of about 45 000 l each to simulate ocean acidification in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (78°56.2' N 11°53.6' E. In the present study, we investigated effects of elevated CO2 on the composition and richness of particle attached (PA; >3 μm and free living (FL; 0.2 μm bacterial communities by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA in 6 of the mesocosms and the surrounding fjord, ranging from 185 to 1050 initial μatm pCO2. ARISA was able to resolve about 20–30 bacterial band-classes per sample and allowed for a detailed investigation of the explicit richness. Both, the PA and the FL bacterioplankton community exhibited a strong temporal development, which was driven mainly by temperature and phytoplankton development. In response to the breakdown of a picophytoplankton bloom (phase 3 of the experiment, number of ARISA-band classes in the PA-community were reduced at low and medium CO2 (∼180–600 μatm by about 25%, while it was more or less stable at high CO2 (∼ 650–800 μatm. We hypothesise that enhanced viral lysis and enhanced availability of organic substrates at high CO2 resulted in a more diverse PA-bacterial community in the post-bloom phase. Despite lower cell numbers and extracellular enzyme activities in the post-bloom phase, bacterial protein production

  17. Big Data is invading big places as CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Big Data technologies are becoming more popular with the constant grow of data generation in different fields such as social networks, internet of things and laboratories like CERN. How is CERN making use of such technologies? How machine learning is applied at CERN with Big Data technologies? How much data we move and how it is analyzed? All these questions will be answered during the talk.

  18. The Big Chills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G. C.; Dwyer, G. S.; Bauch, H. A.

    2002-12-01

    At the end of the last glacial, the Earth's climate system abruptly shifted into the Younger Dryas, a 1500-year long cold snap known in the popular media as the Big Chill. Following an abrupt warming ending the Younger Dryas about 11,600 years ago, the climate system has remained in an interglacial state, thought to have been relatively stable and devoid, with possibly one or two exceptions, of abrupt climate change. A growing amount of evidence suggests that this benign view of interglacial climate is incorrect. High resolution records of North Atlantic ice rafted sediment, now regarded as evidence of extreme multiyear sea ice drift, reveal abrupt shifts on centennial and millennial time scales. These have been traced from the end of the Younger Dryas to the present, revealing evidence of significant climate variability through all of the last two millennia. Correlatives of these events have been found in drift ice records from the Arctic's Laptev Sea, in the isotopic composition of North Grip ice, and in dissolved K from the GISP2 ice core, attesting to their regional extent and imprint in proxies of very different origins. Measurements of Mg/Ca ratios in planktic foraminifera over the last two millennia in the eastern North Atlantic demonstrate that increases in drifting multiyear sea ice were accompanied by abrupt decreases in sea surface temperatures, especially during the Little Ice Age. Estimated rates of temperature change are on the order of two degrees centigrade, more than thirty percent of the regional glacial to interglacial change, within a few decades. When compared at the same resolution, these interglacial variations are as abrupt as the last glacial's Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. The interglacial abrupt changes are especially striking because they occurred within the core of the warm North Atlantic Current. The changes may have been triggered by variations in solar irradiance, but if so their large magnitude and regional extent requires amplifying

  19. [Monitoring of the Moskva River Water Using Microbiological Parameters and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharova, I V; Il'inskii, V V; Matorin, D N; Mosharov, S A; Akulova, A Yu; Protopopov, F F

    2015-01-01

    The results of investigations of three Moskva River sites with different degree of pollution using a complex of microbiological characteristics and the parameters of chlorophyll a fluorescence are presented. We determined that the bacterioplankton seasonal dynamics at less polluted waters (Tushino and Vorobyovy Gory) were similar and differed significantly from one in more polluted waters (Dzerzhinskii). The number of bacteria with active electron transport chain, as well as their share in the bacterioplankton structure, was higher in the water of Dzerzhinskii (average annual values of 0.23 x 10(6) cells/mL and 14%), that in the less polluted water of Tushino and Vorobyovy Gory (0.14 x 10(6) cells/mL; 6% and 0.15 x 10(6) cells/mL; 7%, respectively). From April to October, the content of chlorophyll a and its photosynthetic activity were the highest in Tushino. In Dzerzhinskii, during spring the increase in photosynthetic activity commenced earlier and was more intensive that the increase in chlorophyll a content, i.e., the increase in phytoplankton biomass was temporarily suppressed. We suggest association of this phenomenon with suppression of organic matter synthesis by phytoplankton due to the high water pollution in Dzerzhinskii. The second autumn peak of chlorophyll a content, that was typical of clear water and was observed in Tushino, did not occur in Dzerzhinskii. We recommend combined application of these microbiological parameters and characteristics of chlorophyll a fluorescence for a monitoring.

  20. Big Data and Perioperative Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Bonnie L; Peterson, Jessica J

    2016-10-01

    Big data are large volumes of digital data that can be collected from disparate sources and are challenging to analyze. These data are often described with the five "Vs": volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value. Perioperative nurses contribute to big data through documentation in the electronic health record during routine surgical care, and these data have implications for clinical decision making, administrative decisions, quality improvement, and big data science. This article explores methods to improve the quality of perioperative nursing data and provides examples of how these data can be combined with broader nursing data for quality improvement. We also discuss a national action plan for nursing knowledge and big data science and how perioperative nurses can engage in collaborative actions to transform health care. Standardized perioperative nursing data has the potential to affect care far beyond the original patient.

  1. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Home Page The Big, Fat World of Lipids By Emily Carlson Posted August 9, 2012 Cholesterol ... ways to diagnose and treat lipid-related conditions. Lipid Encyclopedia Just as genomics and proteomics spurred advances ...

  2. The BigBOSS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  3. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Cyburt, Richard H; Olive, Keith A; Yeh, Tsung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of the lightest nuclides via a dynamic interplay among the four fundamental forces during the first seconds of cosmic time. We briefly overview the essentials of this physics, and present new calculations of light element abundances through li6 and li7, with updated nuclear reactions and uncertainties including those in the neutron lifetime. We provide fits to these results as a function of baryon density and of the number of neutrino flavors, N_nu. We review recent developments in BBN, particularly new, precision Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements that now probe the baryon density, helium content, and the effective number of degrees of freedom, n_eff. These measurements allow for a tight test of BBN and of cosmology using CMB data alone. Our likelihood analysis convolves the 2015 Planck data chains with our BBN output and observational data. Adding astronomical measurements of light elements strengthens the power of BBN. We include a ...

  4. Big bang darkleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Krnjaic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis, a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN, in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD, which generically yields large (≫MeV/dark-nucleon binding energies. These bounds further suggest the mediator is relatively weakly coupled, so repulsive forces between dark-sector nuclei are much weaker than Coulomb repulsion between standard-model nuclei, which results in an exponential barrier-tunneling enhancement over standard BBN. Thus, darklei are easier to make and harder to break than visible species with comparable mass numbers. This process can efficiently yield a dominant population of states with masses significantly greater than the confinement scale and, in contrast to dark matter that is a fundamental particle, may allow the dominant form of dark matter to have high spin (S≫3/2, whose discovery would be smoking gun evidence for dark nuclei.

  5. Big Data Comes to School

    OpenAIRE

    Bill Cope; Mary Kalantzis

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of “big data” at once evokes optimistic views of an information-rich future and concerns about surveillance that adversely impacts our personal and private lives. This overview article explores the implications of big data in education, focusing by way of example on data generated by student writing. We have chosen writing because it presents particular complexities, highlighting the range of processes for collecting and interpreting evidence of learning in the era of computer-me...

  6. Big Data for Precision Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Richard Leff; Guang-Zhong Yang

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the potential impact of big data analysis to improve health, prevent and detect disease at an earlier stage, and personalize interventions. The role that big data analytics may have in interrogating the patient electronic health record toward improved clinical decision support is discussed. We examine developments in pharmacogenetics that have increased our appreciation of the reasons why patients respond differently to chemotherapy. We also assess the expansion of onl...

  7. The role of big laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Heuer, Rolf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward.

  8. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  9. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  10. Powering Big Data for Nursing Through Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Ellen M; Parkerson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The Big Data Principles Workgroup (Workgroup) was established with support of the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. Building on the Triple Aim challenge, the Workgroup sought to identify Big Data principles, barriers, and challenges to nurse-sensitive data inclusion into Big Data sets. The product of this pioneering partnership Workgroup was the "Guiding Principles for Big Data in Nursing-Using Big Data to Improve the Quality of Care and Outcomes."

  11. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA. A pCO2 range of 175–1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard. The bacterioplankton communities responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing protein production and extracellular enzyme activity and revealed a close coupling of heterotrophic bacterial activity to phytoplankton productivity in this experiment. The natural extracellular enzyme assemblages showed increased activity in response to moderate acidification. A decrease in seawater pH of 0.5 units roughly doubled rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase. Activities of extracellular enzymes in the mesocosms were directly related to both seawater pH and primary production. Also primary production and bacterial protein production in the mesocosms at different pCO2 were positively correlated. Therefore, it can be suggested that the efficient heterotrophic carbon utilization in this Arctic microbial food web had the potential to counteract increased phytoplankton production that was achieved under elevated pCO2 in this study. However, our results also show that the transfer of beneficial pCO2-related effects on the cellular bacterial metabolism to the scale of community activity and organic matter degradation can be mitigated by the top-down control of bacterial abundances in natural microbial communities.

  12. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  13. Considerations on Geospatial Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Zhen; GUO, Huadong; WANG, Changlin

    2016-11-01

    Geospatial data, as a significant portion of big data, has recently gained the full attention of researchers. However, few researchers focus on the evolution of geospatial data and its scientific research methodologies. When entering into the big data era, fully understanding the changing research paradigm associated with geospatial data will definitely benefit future research on big data. In this paper, we look deep into these issues by examining the components and features of geospatial big data, reviewing relevant scientific research methodologies, and examining the evolving pattern of geospatial data in the scope of the four ‘science paradigms’. This paper proposes that geospatial big data has significantly shifted the scientific research methodology from ‘hypothesis to data’ to ‘data to questions’ and it is important to explore the generality of growing geospatial data ‘from bottom to top’. Particularly, four research areas that mostly reflect data-driven geospatial research are proposed: spatial correlation, spatial analytics, spatial visualization, and scientific knowledge discovery. It is also pointed out that privacy and quality issues of geospatial data may require more attention in the future. Also, some challenges and thoughts are raised for future discussion.

  14. Official statistics and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Struijs

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Big Data changes the context in which organisations producing official statistics operate. Big Data provides opportunities, but in order to make optimal use of Big Data, a number of challenges have to be addressed. This stimulates increased collaboration between National Statistical Institutes, Big Data holders, businesses and universities. In time, this may lead to a shift in the role of statistical institutes in the provision of high-quality and impartial statistical information to society. In this paper, the changes in context, the opportunities, the challenges and the way to collaborate are addressed. The collaboration between the various stakeholders will involve each partner building on and contributing different strengths. For national statistical offices, traditional strengths include, on the one hand, the ability to collect data and combine data sources with statistical products and, on the other hand, their focus on quality, transparency and sound methodology. In the Big Data era of competing and multiplying data sources, they continue to have a unique knowledge of official statistical production methods. And their impartiality and respect for privacy as enshrined in law uniquely position them as a trusted third party. Based on this, they may advise on the quality and validity of information of various sources. By thus positioning themselves, they will be able to play their role as key information providers in a changing society.

  15. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  16. CLOUD COMPUTING WITH BIG DATA: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali; Er. Amandeep Kaur; Mrs. Shakshi

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a collection of huge quantities of data. Big data is the process of examining large amounts of data. Big data and Cloud computing are the hot issues in Information Technology. Big data is the one of the main problem now a day’s. Researchers focusing how to handle huge amount of data with cloud computing and how to gain a perfect security for big data in cloud computing. To handle the Big Data problem Hadoop framework is used in which data is fragmented and executed parallel....

  17. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Zachary D; Lee, Skylar Y; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-07-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade.

  18. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary D Stephens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade.

  19. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  20. 淀粉Big Bang!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Big Bang,也叫"大爆炸",指的是宇宙诞生时期从密度极大且温度极高的太初状态开始发生不断膨胀的过程。换句话说,从Big Bang开始,我们现在的宇宙慢慢形成了。0K,从本期开始,"少电"将在微博引发Big Bang!——淀粉大爆炸!具体怎么爆呢?我想,看到本页版式的你已经明白了七八分了吧?

  1. Multiwavelength astronomy and big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Two major characteristics of modern astronomy are multiwavelength (MW) studies (fromγ-ray to radio) and big data (data acquisition, storage and analysis). Present astronomical databases and archives contain billions of objects observed at various wavelengths, both galactic and extragalactic, and the vast amount of data on them allows new studies and discoveries. Astronomers deal with big numbers. Surveys are the main source for discovery of astronomical objects and accumulation of observational data for further analysis, interpretation, and achieving scientific results. We review the main characteristics of astronomical surveys, compare photographic and digital eras of astronomical studies (including the development of wide-field observations), describe the present state of MW surveys, and discuss the Big Data in astronomy and related topics of Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics. The review includes many numbers and data that can be compared to have a possibly overall understanding on the Universe, cosmic numbers and their relationship to modern computational facilities.

  2. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Belle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  3. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  4. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  5. Was There A Big Bang?

    CERN Document Server

    Soberman, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The big bang hypothesis is widely accepted despite numerous physics conflicts. It rests upon two experimental supports, galactic red shift and the cosmic microwave background. Both are produced by dark matter, shown here to be hydrogen dominated aggregates with a few percent of helium nodules. Scattering from these non-radiating intergalactic masses produce a red shift that normally correlates with distance. Warmed by our galaxy to an Eigenvalue of 2.735 K, drawn near the Earth, these bodies, kept cold by ablation, resonance radiate the Planckian microwave signal. Several tests are proposed that will distinguish between this model and the big bang.

  6. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-01

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented.

  7. Do big gods cause anything?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2014-01-01

    Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere.......Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere....

  8. Big society, big data. The radicalisation of the network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, V.

    2011-01-01

    During the British election campaign of 2010, David Cameron produced the idea of the ‘Big Society’ as a cornerstone of his political agenda. At the core of the idea is a stronger civil society and local community coupled with a more withdrawn government. Although many commentators have dismissed thi

  9. Little Science to Big Science: Big Scientists to Little Scientists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hisham B. Ghassib's essay entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" Professor Ghassib's (2010) essay presents a provocative portrait of how the little science of the Babylonians, Greeks, and Arabs became the Big Science of the modern industrial…

  10. Data Partitioning View of Mining Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shichao

    2016-01-01

    There are two main approximations of mining big data in memory. One is to partition a big dataset to several subsets, so as to mine each subset in memory. By this way, global patterns can be obtained by synthesizing all local patterns discovered from these subsets. Another is the statistical sampling method. This indicates that data partitioning should be an important strategy for mining big data. This paper recalls our work on mining big data with a data partitioning and shows some interesti...

  11. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...: r3planning@fws.gov . Include ``Big Stone Draft CCP/ EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax:...

  12. BIG DATA IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dealing with a lot of data originating from social media sites and mobile communications among data from business environments and institutions, lead to the definition of a new concept, known as Big Data. The economic impact of the sheer amount of data produced in a last two years has increased rapidly. It is necessary to aggregate all types of data (structured and unstructured in order to improve current transactions, to develop new business models, to provide a real image of the supply and demand and thereby, generate market advantages. So, the companies that turn to Big Data have a competitive advantage over other firms. Looking from the perspective of IT organizations, they must accommodate the storage and processing Big Data, and provide analysis tools that are easily integrated into business processes. This paper aims to discuss aspects regarding the Big Data concept, the principles to build, organize and analyse huge datasets in the business environment, offering a three-layer architecture, based on actual software solutions. Also, the article refers to the graphical tools for exploring and representing unstructured data, Gephi and NodeXL.

  13. The International Big History Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  14. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  15. YOUNG CITY,BIG PARTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Shenzhen Universiade unites the world’s young people through sports with none of the usual hoop-la, no fireworks, no grand performances by celebrities and superstars, the Shenzhen Summer Universiade lowered the curtain on a big party for youth and college students on August 23.

  16. True Randomness from Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests.

  17. True Randomness from Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests. PMID:27666514

  18. The BigBoss Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  19. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  20. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  1. Data, Data, Data : Big, Linked & Open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Krukkert, D.; Eckartz, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    De gehele business en IT-wereld praat op dit moment over Big Data, een trend die medio 2013 Cloud Computing is gepasseerd (op basis van Google Trends). Ook beleidsmakers houden zich actief bezig met Big Data. Neelie Kroes, vice-president van de Europese Commissie, spreekt over de ‘Big Data Revolutio

  2. Big sagebrush seed bank densities following wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to many wildlife species including sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush is killed by wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived and do not s...

  3. A survey of big data research

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions.

  4. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  5. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  6. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2535 (United States); Chen, Shih-Hung [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Department of Physics and Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Turok, Neil [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2012-08-29

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  7. Perspectives on Big Data and Big Data Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geanina ULARU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays companies are starting to realize the importance of using more data in order to support decision for their strategies. It was said and proved through study cases that “More data usually beats better algorithms”. With this statement companies started to realize that they can chose to invest more in processing larger sets of data rather than investing in expensive algorithms. The large quantity of data is better used as a whole because of the possible correlations on a larger amount, correlations that can never be found if the data is analyzed on separate sets or on a smaller set. A larger amount of data gives a better output but also working with it can become a challenge due to processing limitations. This article intends to define the concept of Big Data and stress the importance of Big Data Analytics.

  8. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak; Steinhardt, Paul J; Turok, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  9. Solution of a Braneworld Big Crunch/Big Bang Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    McFadden, P; Turok, N G; Fadden, Paul Mc; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2005-01-01

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c)^2. At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly-separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios.

  10. The ethics of big data in big agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M. Carbonell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of big data in agriculture, focusing on the power asymmetry between farmers and large agribusinesses like Monsanto. Following the recent purchase of Climate Corp., Monsanto is currently the most prominent biotech agribusiness to buy into big data. With wireless sensors on tractors monitoring or dictating every decision a farmer makes, Monsanto can now aggregate large quantities of previously proprietary farming data, enabling a privileged position with unique insights on a field-by-field basis into a third or more of the US farmland. This power asymmetry may be rebalanced through open-sourced data, and publicly-funded data analytic tools which rival Climate Corp. in complexity and innovation for use in the public domain.

  11. The Obstacles in Big Data Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim M. Alguliyev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of data and a need to analyze the given data in a timely manner for multiple purposes has created a serious barrier in the big data analysis process. This article describes the challenges that big data creates at each step of the big data analysis process. These problems include typical analytical problems as well as the most uncommon challenges that are futuristic for the big data only. The article breaks down problems for each step of the big data analysis process and discusses these problems separately at each stage. It also offers some simplistic ways to solve these problems.

  12. ISSUES, CHALLENGES, AND SOLUTIONS: BIG DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaseena K.U.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Data has become an indispensable part of every economy, industry, organization, business function and individual. Big Data is a term used to identify the datasets that whose size is beyond the ability of typical database software tools to store, manage and analyze. The Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This paper presents the literature review about the Big data Mining and the issues and challenges with emphasis on the distinguished features of Big Data. It also discusses some methods to deal with big data.

  13. SURVEY-Big Sioux River, Minnehaha County, SD, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. Terrain, BIG BLUE RIVER TRIBUTARY NO 44, GAGE COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. Big data is not a monolith

    CERN Document Server

    Ekbia, Hamid R; Mattioli, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Big data is ubiquitous but heterogeneous. Big data can be used to tally clicks and traffic on web pages, find patterns in stock trades, track consumer preferences, identify linguistic correlations in large corpuses of texts. This book examines big data not as an undifferentiated whole but contextually, investigating the varied challenges posed by big data for health, science, law, commerce, and politics. Taken together, the chapters reveal a complex set of problems, practices, and policies. The advent of big data methodologies has challenged the theory-driven approach to scientific knowledge in favor of a data-driven one. Social media platforms and self-tracking tools change the way we see ourselves and others. The collection of data by corporations and government threatens privacy while promoting transparency. Meanwhile, politicians, policy makers, and ethicists are ill-prepared to deal with big data's ramifications. The contributors look at big data's effect on individuals as it exerts social control throu...

  16. The big wheels of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS cavern is filling up at an impressive rate. The installation of the first of the big wheels of the muon spectrometer, a thin gap chamber (TGC) wheel, was completed in September. The muon spectrometer will include four big moving wheels at each end, each measuring 25 metres in diameter. Of the eight wheels in total, six will be composed of thin gap chambers for the muon trigger system and the other two will consist of monitored drift tubes (MDTs) to measure the position of the muons (see Bulletin No. 13/2006). The installation of the 688 muon chambers in the barrel is progressing well, with three-quarters of them already installed between the coils of the toroid magnet.

  17. Big Numbers in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schellekens, A N

    2016-01-01

    This paper contains some personal reflections on several computational contributions to what is now known as the "String Theory Landscape". It consists of two parts. The first part concerns the origin of big numbers, and especially the number $10^{1500}$ that appeared in work on the covariant lattice construction (with W. Lerche and D. Luest). This part contains some new results. I correct a huge but inconsequential error, discuss some more accurate estimates, and compare with the counting for free fermion constructions. In particular I prove that the latter only provide an exponentially small fraction of all even self-dual lattices for large lattice dimensions. The second part of the paper concerns dealing with big numbers, and contains some lessons learned from various vacuum scanning projects.

  18. Big Data for Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Richard Leff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the potential impact of big data analysis to improve health, prevent and detect disease at an earlier stage, and personalize interventions. The role that big data analytics may have in interrogating the patient electronic health record toward improved clinical decision support is discussed. We examine developments in pharmacogenetics that have increased our appreciation of the reasons why patients respond differently to chemotherapy. We also assess the expansion of online health communications and the way in which this data may be capitalized on in order to detect public health threats and control or contain epidemics. Finally, we describe how a new generation of wearable and implantable body sensors may improve wellbeing, streamline management of chronic diseases, and improve the quality of surgical implants.

  19. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research.

  20. George and the big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2012-01-01

    George has problems. He has twin baby sisters at home who demand his parents’ attention. His beloved pig Freddy has been exiled to a farm, where he’s miserable. And worst of all, his best friend, Annie, has made a new friend whom she seems to like more than George. So George jumps at the chance to help Eric with his plans to run a big experiment in Switzerland that seeks to explore the earliest moment of the universe. But there is a conspiracy afoot, and a group of evildoers is planning to sabotage the experiment. Can George repair his friendship with Annie and piece together the clues before Eric’s experiment is destroyed forever? This engaging adventure features essays by Professor Stephen Hawking and other eminent physicists about the origins of the universe and ends with a twenty-page graphic novel that explains how the Big Bang happened—in reverse!

  1. Statistical Inference: The Big Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Robert E

    2011-02-01

    Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative "big picture" depiction.

  2. Big data: the management revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Andrew; Brynjolfsson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Big data, the authors write, is far more powerful than the analytics of the past. Executives can measure and therefore manage more precisely than ever before. They can make better predictions and smarter decisions. They can target more-effective interventions in areas that so far have been dominated by gut and intuition rather than by data and rigor. The differences between big data and analytics are a matter of volume, velocity, and variety: More data now cross the internet every second than were stored in the entire internet 20 years ago. Nearly real-time information makes it possible for a company to be much more agile than its competitors. And that information can come from social networks, images, sensors, the web, or other unstructured sources. The managerial challenges, however, are very real. Senior decision makers have to learn to ask the right questions and embrace evidence-based decision making. Organizations must hire scientists who can find patterns in very large data sets and translate them into useful business information. IT departments have to work hard to integrate all the relevant internal and external sources of data. The authors offer two success stories to illustrate how companies are using big data: PASSUR Aerospace enables airlines to match their actual and estimated arrival times. Sears Holdings directly analyzes its incoming store data to make promotions much more precise and faster.

  3. The BigBOSS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Schlegel, D; Abraham, T; Ahn, C; Prieto, C Allende; Annis, J; Aubourg, E; Azzaro, M; Baltay, S Bailey C; Baugh, C; Bebek, C; Becerril, S; Blanton, M; Bolton, A; Bromley, B; Cahn, R; Carton, P -H; Cervantes-Cota, J L; Chu, Y; Cortes, M; Dawson, K; Dey, A; Dickinson, M; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Ealet, A; Edelstein, J; Eppelle, D; Escoffier, S; Evrard, A; Faccioli, L; Frenk, C; Geha, M; Gerdes, D; Gondolo, P; Gonzalez-Arroyo, A; Grossan, B; Heckman, T; Heetderks, H; Ho, S; Honscheid, K; Huterer, D; Ilbert, O; Ivans, I; Jelinsky, P; Jing, Y; Joyce, D; Kennedy, R; Kent, S; Kieda, D; Kim, A; Kim, C; Kneib, J -P; Kong, X; Kosowsky, A; Krishnan, K; Lahav, O; Lampton, M; LeBohec, S; Brun, V Le; Levi, M; Li, C; Liang, M; Lim, H; Lin, W; Linder, E; Lorenzon, W; de la Macorra, A; Magneville, Ch; Malina, R; Marinoni, C; Martinez, V; Majewski, S; Matheson, T; McCloskey, R; McDonald, P; McKay, T; McMahon, J; Menard, B; Miralda-Escude, J; Modjaz, M; Montero-Dorta, A; Morales, I; Mostek, N; Newman, J; Nichol, R; Nugent, P; Olsen, K; Padmanabhan, N; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Park, I; Peacock, J; Percival, W; Perlmutter, S; Peroux, C; Petitjean, P; Prada, F; Prieto, E; Prochaska, J; Reil, K; Rockosi, C; Roe, N; Rollinde, E; Roodman, A; Ross, N; Rudnick, G; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Sanchez, J; Sawyer, D; Schimd, C; Schubnell, M; Scoccimaro, R; Seljak, U; Seo, H; Sheldon, E; Sholl, M; Shulte-Ladbeck, R; Slosar, A; Smith, D S; Smoot, G; Springer, W; Stril, A; Szalay, A S; Tao, C; Tarle, G; Taylor, E; Tilquin, A; Tinker, J; Valdes, F; Wang, J; Wang, T; Weaver, B A; Weinberg, D; White, M; Wood-Vasey, M; Yang, J; Yeche, X Yang Ch; Zakamska, N; Zentner, A; Zhai, C; Zhang, P

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy red...

  4. Big Data Comes to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Cope

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of “big data” at once evokes optimistic views of an information-rich future and concerns about surveillance that adversely impacts our personal and private lives. This overview article explores the implications of big data in education, focusing by way of example on data generated by student writing. We have chosen writing because it presents particular complexities, highlighting the range of processes for collecting and interpreting evidence of learning in the era of computer-mediated instruction and assessment as well as the challenges. Writing is significant not only because it is central to the core subject area of literacy; it is also an ideal medium for the representation of deep disciplinary knowledge across a number of subject areas. After defining what big data entails in education, we map emerging sources of evidence of learning that separately and together have the potential to generate unprecedented amounts of data: machine assessments, structured data embedded in learning, and unstructured data collected incidental to learning activity. Our case is that these emerging sources of evidence of learning have significant implications for the traditional relationships between assessment and instruction. Moreover, for educational researchers, these data are in some senses quite different from traditional evidentiary sources, and this raises a number of methodological questions. The final part of the article discusses implications for practice in an emerging field of education data science, including publication of data, data standards, and research ethics.

  5. Enhanced viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton in a natural iron-fertilized bloom event above the Kerguelen Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malits

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Above the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization sustains a large phytoplankton bloom over three months during austral summer. During the KEOPS1 project (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study1 we sampled this phytoplankton bloom during its declining phase along with the surrounding HNLC waters to study the effect of natural iron fertilization on the role of viruses in the microbial food web. Bacterial and viral abundances were 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, higher within the bloom than in HNLC waters. Viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton was 4.1 and 4.9 times, respectively, higher in the bloom, while the fraction of infected cells (FIC and the fraction of lysogenic cells (FLC showed no significant differences between environments. The present study suggests viruses to be more important for bacterial mortality within the bloom and dominate over protozoan grazing during the late bloom phase. As a consequence, at least at a late bloom stage, viral lysis shunts part of the photosynthetically fixed carbon in iron-fertilized regions into the dissolved organic matter (DOM pool with potentially less particulate organic carbon transfered to larger members of the food web or exported.

  6. Enhanced viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton in a natural iron-fertilized bloom event above the Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malits, A.; Christaki, U.; Obernosterer, I.; Weinbauer, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Above the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization sustains a large phytoplankton bloom over 3 months during austral summer. During the KEOPS1 project (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study1) we sampled this phytoplankton bloom during its declining phase along with the surrounding high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to study the effect of natural iron fertilization on the role of viruses in the microbial food web. Bacterial and viral abundances were 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, higher within the bloom than in HNLC waters. Viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton were 4.1 and 4.9 times, respectively, higher in the bloom, while the fraction of infected cells (FIC) and the fraction of lysogenic cells (FLC) showed no significant differences between environments. The present study suggests viruses to be more important for bacterial mortality within the bloom and dominate over grazing of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNFs) during the late bloom phase. As a consequence, at least at a late bloom stage, viral lysis shunts part of the photosynthetically fixed carbon in iron-fertilized regions into the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool with potentially less particulate organic carbon transferred to larger members of the food web or exported.

  7. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  8. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  9. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  10. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  11. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  12. Big data optimization recent developments and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to provide the necessary background to work with big data by introducing some novel optimization algorithms and codes capable of working in the big data setting as well as introducing some applications in big data optimization for both academics and practitioners interested, and to benefit society, industry, academia, and government. Presenting applications in a variety of industries, this book will be useful for the researchers aiming to analyses large scale data. Several optimization algorithms for big data including convergent parallel algorithms, limited memory bundle algorithm, diagonal bundle method, convergent parallel algorithms, network analytics, and many more have been explored in this book.

  13. Medical big data: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  14. Organizational Design Challenges Resulting From Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Galbraith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Business firms and other types of organizations are feverishly exploring ways of taking advantage of the big data phenomenon. This article discusses firms that are at the leading edge of developing a big data analytics capability. Firms that are currently enjoying the most success in this area are able to use big data not only to improve their existing businesses but to create new businesses as well. Putting a strategic emphasis on big data requires adding an analytics capability to the existing organization. This transformation process results in power shifting to analytics experts and in decisions being made in real time.

  15. The big de Rham–Witt complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselholt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a new and direct construction of the multi-prime big de Rham–Witt complex, which is defined for every commutative and unital ring; the original construction by Madsen and myself relied on the adjoint functor theorem and accordingly was very indirect. The construction given here....... It is the existence of these divided Frobenius operators that makes the new construction of the big de Rham–Witt complex possible. It is further shown that the big de Rham–Witt complex behaves well with respect to étale maps, and finally, the big de Rham–Witt complex of the ring of integers is explicitly evaluated....

  16. Big data analytics with R and Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Prajapati, Vignesh

    2013-01-01

    Big Data Analytics with R and Hadoop is a tutorial style book that focuses on all the powerful big data tasks that can be achieved by integrating R and Hadoop.This book is ideal for R developers who are looking for a way to perform big data analytics with Hadoop. This book is also aimed at those who know Hadoop and want to build some intelligent applications over Big data with R packages. It would be helpful if readers have basic knowledge of R.

  17. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  18. Big Data; A Management Revolution : The emerging role of big data in businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Blasiak, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Big data is a term that was coined in 2012 and has since then emerged to one of the top trends in business and technology. Big data is an agglomeration of different technologies resulting in data processing capabilities that have been unreached before. Big data is generally characterized by 4 factors. Volume, velocity and variety. These three factors distinct it from the traditional data use. The possibilities to utilize this technology are vast. Big data technology has touch points in differ...

  19. Big Brother Has Bigger Say

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ 156 delegates from all walks of life in Guangdong province composed the Guangdong delegation for the NPC this year. The import and export value of Guangdong makes up one-third of national total value, and accounts for one-eighth of national economic growth. Guangdong province has maintained its top spot in import and export value among China's many provinces and cities for several years, commonly referred to as "Big Brother". At the same time, it is the region where the global financial crisis has hit China hardest.

  20. Water Quality Conditions Monitored at the Corps’ Big Bend Project in South Dakota during the 3-Year Period 2008 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    dioxide (CO2), bicarbonate ions (HCO3), and carbonate ions (CO3). Carbon dioxide is readily soluble in water and some CO2 remains in a gaseous form...but the majority of the CO2 forms carbonic acid that dissociates rapidly into HCO3 and CO3 ions. This dissociation results in a weakly alkaline...November 2011 Aerial Photo of Big Bend Dam, Tailwaters and Reservoir Big Bend Reservoir (Lake Sharpe) Tailwaters (Missouri River) (Lake Francis

  1. Big Data en surveillance, deel 1 : Definities en discussies omtrent Big Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk

    2016-01-01

    Naar aanleiding van een (vrij kort) college over surveillance en Big Data, werd me gevraagd iets dieper in te gaan op het thema, definities en verschillende vraagstukken die te maken hebben met big data. In dit eerste deel zal ik proberen e.e.a. uiteen te zetten betreft Big Data theorie en terminolo

  2. Comparative validity of brief to medium-length Big Five and Big Six personality questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalmayer, A.G.; Saucier, G.; Eigenhuis, A.

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five

  3. Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are…

  4. Big Challenges and Big Opportunities: The Power of "Big Ideas" to Change Curriculum and the Culture of Teacher Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical knowledge of pre-service teachers is currently "under the microscope" and the subject of research. This paper proposes a different approach to teacher content knowledge based on the "big ideas" of mathematics and the connections that exist within and between them. It is suggested that these "big ideas"…

  5. An analysis of cross-sectional differences in big and non-big public accounting firms' audit programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokdijk, J.H. (Hans); Drieenhuizen, F.; Stein, M.T.; Simunic, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant body of prior research has shown that audits by the Big 5 (now Big 4) public accounting firms are quality differentiated relative to non-Big 5 audits. This result can be derived analytically by assuming that Big 5 and non-Big 5 firms face different loss functions for "audit failures" a

  6. Big data in oncologic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regge, Daniele; Mazzetti, Simone; Giannini, Valentina; Bracco, Christian; Stasi, Michele

    2016-09-13

    Cancer is a complex disease and unfortunately understanding how the components of the cancer system work does not help understand the behavior of the system as a whole. In the words of the Greek philosopher Aristotle "the whole is greater than the sum of parts." To date, thanks to improved information technology infrastructures, it is possible to store data from each single cancer patient, including clinical data, medical images, laboratory tests, and pathological and genomic information. Indeed, medical archive storage constitutes approximately one-third of total global storage demand and a large part of the data are in the form of medical images. The opportunity is now to draw insight on the whole to the benefit of each individual patient. In the oncologic patient, big data analysis is at the beginning but several useful applications can be envisaged including development of imaging biomarkers to predict disease outcome, assessing the risk of X-ray dose exposure or of renal damage following the administration of contrast agents, and tracking and optimizing patient workflow. The aim of this review is to present current evidence of how big data derived from medical images may impact on the diagnostic pathway of the oncologic patient.

  7. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  8. Georges et le big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Georges et Annie, sa meilleure amie, sont sur le point d'assister à l'une des plus importantes expériences scientifiques de tous les temps : explorer les premiers instants de l'Univers, le Big Bang ! Grâce à Cosmos, leur super ordinateur, et au Grand Collisionneur de hadrons créé par Éric, le père d'Annie, ils vont enfin pouvoir répondre à cette question essentielle : pourquoi existons nous ? Mais Georges et Annie découvrent qu'un complot diabolique se trame. Pire, c'est toute la recherche scientifique qui est en péril ! Entraîné dans d'incroyables aventures, Georges ira jusqu'aux confins de la galaxie pour sauver ses amis...Une plongée passionnante au coeur du Big Bang. Les toutes dernières théories de Stephen Hawking et des plus grands scientifiques actuels.

  9. Why Big Data Is a Big Deal (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new group of data mining technologies promises to change forever the way we sift through our vast stores of data,making it faster and cheaper.Some of the technologies are actively being used by people on the bleeding edge who need the technology now,like those involved in creating Web-based services that are driven by social media.They're also heavily contributing to these projects.In other vertical industries,businesses are realizing that much more of their value proposition is informationbased than they had previously thought,which will allow big data technologies to gain traction quickly,Olofson says.Couple that with affordable hardware and software,and enterprises find themselves in a perfect storm of business transformation opportunities.

  10. Big Data – Big Deal for Organization Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne J. Korhonen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analytics is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage. It has even been posited that big data will be the next strategic emphasis of organizations and that analytics capability will be manifested in organizational structure. In this article, I explore how analytics capability might be reflected in organizational structure using the notion of  “requisite organization” developed by Jaques (1998. Requisite organization argues that a new strategic emphasis requires the addition of a new stratum in the organization, resulting in greater organizational complexity. Requisite organization could serve as an objective, verifiable criterion for what qualifies as a genuine new strategic emphasis. Such a criterion is  necessary for research on the co-evolution of strategy and structure.

  11. Kansen voor Big data – WPA Vertrouwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.A. van den; Roosendaal, A.P.C.; Veenstra, A.F.E. van; Nunen, A.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Big data is expected to become a driver for economic growth, but this can only be achieved when services based on (big) data are accepted by citizens and consumers. In a recent policy brief, the Cabinet Office mentions trust as one of the three pillars (the others being transparency and control) for

  12. The Death of the Big Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Keir

    2010-01-01

    Recently Tolai people og Papua New Guinea have adopted the term 'Big Shot' to decribe an emerging post-colonial political elite. The mergence of the term is a negative moral evaluation of new social possibilities that have arisen as a consequence of the Big Shots' privileged position within a glo...

  13. The Big Sleep in the Woods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉峰

    2002-01-01

    Now it's the time of the big sleep for the bees and the bears. Even the buds of the plants whose leaves fall off share in it. But the intensity of this winter sleep, or hibernation, depends on who's doing it.The big sleep of the bears ,for instance ,would probably be thought of as a

  14. A New Look at Big History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out a "big history" which resonates with the priorities of our own time. A globalizing world calls for new spacial scales to underpin what the history curriculum addresses, "big history" calls for new temporal scales, while concern over climate change calls for a new look at subject boundaries. The article…

  15. 革命者BIG BANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩

    2015-01-01

    <正>在鄂尔多斯的繁荣时代,我遇见了那里的一位"意见领袖",因为他从美国回来,见过外面的世界,有着对奢侈品辽阔的见识和独到的品味。他引领着那座神秘财富城市中一个小圈子的购物风潮,他们一块接一块儿地购入Big Bang。那个时候,我并不太清楚他们迷恋这款腕表的原因,直到我一次次地去到巴塞尔表展,一次次地了解到Big Bang的想象力。是的,Big Bang的确充满了魅力。Big Bang进化史2005年Big Bang系列诞生2006年Big Bang全黑"全黑"理念使Big Bang更加纯粹和简洁。Big Bang全黑腕表从表壳到表盘浑然天成的亚光质感和多层次、不同材料融合起来的黑色,蕴含"不可见的可见"之禅意。

  16. An embedding for the big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    A cosmological model is given that has good physical properties for the early and late universe but is a hypersurface in a flat five-dimensional manifold. The big bang can therefore be regarded as an effect of a choice of coordinates in a truncated higher-dimensional geometry. Thus the big bang is in some sense a geometrical illusion.

  17. Structuring the Curriculum around Big Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Janet; Knighton, Barbara; Brophy, Jere

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an inside look at Barbara Knighton's classroom teaching. She uses big ideas to guide her planning and instruction and gives other teachers suggestions for adopting the big idea approach and ways for making the approach easier. This article also represents a "small slice" of a dozen years of collaborative research,…

  18. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  19. Cloud Based Big Data Infrastructure: Architectural Components and Automated Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    Demchenko, Yuri; Turkmen, Fatih; Blanchet, Christophe; Loomis, Charles; Laat, Caees de

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the general architecture and functional components of the cloud based Big Data Infrastructure (BDI). The proposed BDI architecture is based on the analysis of the emerging Big Data and data intensive technologies and supported by the definition of the Big Data Architecture Framework (BDAF) that defines the following components of the Big Data technologies: Big Data definition, Data Management including data lifecycle and data structures, Big Data Infrastructure (generical...

  20. The ethics of biomedical big data

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstadt, Brent Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. ‘Biomedical Big Data’ refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use/re-purposing of data, in areas such as privacy, consent, professionalism, power relationships, and ethical governance of Big Data platforms. Approaches and methods are discussed that can be used to address these problems to achieve the appropriate balance between the social goods of biomedical Big Data research and the safety and privacy of individuals. Seventeen original contributions analyse the ethical, social and related policy implications of the analysis and curation of biomedical Big Data, written by leading experts in the areas of biomedical research, medical and technology ethics, privacy, governance and data protection. The book advances our understan...

  1. Ethics and Epistemology in Big Data Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Mason, Paul H; Kerridge, Ian; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-03-20

    Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques. While such advances will likely go some way towards resolving technical and methodological issues, we believe that the epistemological issues raised by big data research have important ethical implications and raise questions about the very possibility of big data research achieving its goals.

  2. 2nd INNS Conference on Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, Yannis; Iliadis, Lazaros; Roy, Asim; Vellasco, Marley

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a timely snapshot of neural network technologies as a significant component of big data analytics platforms. It promotes new advances and research directions in efficient and innovative algorithmic approaches to analyzing big data (e.g. deep networks, nature-inspired and brain-inspired algorithms); implementations on different computing platforms (e.g. neuromorphic, graphics processing units (GPUs), clouds, clusters); and big data analytics applications to solve real-world problems (e.g. weather prediction, transportation, energy management). The book, which reports on the second edition of the INNS Conference on Big Data, held on October 23–25, 2016, in Thessaloniki, Greece, depicts an interesting collaborative adventure of neural networks with big data and other learning technologies.

  3. Big data analytics methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, BLS; Rao, SB

    2016-01-01

    This book has a collection of articles written by Big Data experts to describe some of the cutting-edge methods and applications from their respective areas of interest, and provides the reader with a detailed overview of the field of Big Data Analytics as it is practiced today. The chapters cover technical aspects of key areas that generate and use Big Data such as management and finance; medicine and healthcare; genome, cytome and microbiome; graphs and networks; Internet of Things; Big Data standards; bench-marking of systems; and others. In addition to different applications, key algorithmic approaches such as graph partitioning, clustering and finite mixture modelling of high-dimensional data are also covered. The varied collection of themes in this volume introduces the reader to the richness of the emerging field of Big Data Analytics.

  4. Review Study of Mining Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Misagh Javaherian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Big data is time period for collecting extensive and complex data set which including both structured and nonstructured information. Data can come from everywhere. sensors for collecting environment data are presented in online networking targets, computer images and recording and so on , this information is known as big data. The valuable data can be extracted from this big data using data mining. Data mining is a method to find attractive samples and also logical models of information in wide scale. This article shown types of big data and future problems in extensive information as a chart. Study of issues in data-centered model in addition to big data will be analyzed.

  5. Advancements in Big Data Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing volumes of scientific data present new challenges for Distributed Computing and Grid-technologies. The emerging Big Data revolution drives new discoveries in scientific fields including nanotechnology, astrophysics, high-energy physics, biology and medicine. New initiatives are transforming data-driven scientific fields by pushing Bid Data limits enabling massive data analysis in new ways. In petascale data processing scientists deal with datasets, not individual files. As a result, a task (comprised of many jobs) became a unit of petascale data processing on the Grid. Splitting of a large data processing task into jobs enabled fine-granularity checkpointing analogous to the splitting of a large file into smaller TCP/IP packets during data transfers. Transferring large data in small packets achieves reliability through automatic re-sending of the dropped TCP/IP packets. Similarly, transient job failures on the Grid can be recovered by automatic re-tries to achieve reliable Six Sigma produc...

  6. Evidence of the Big Fix

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-01-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value $v_{h}$. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self coupling are fixed when we vary $v_{h}$. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental low in our case.

  7. Evidence of the big fix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-06-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value vh. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self-coupling are fixed when we vary vh. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental law in our case.

  8. Big Book of Apple Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Seibold, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Bigger in size, longer in length, broader in scope, and even more useful than our original Mac OS X Hacks, the new Big Book of Apple Hacks offers a grab bag of tips, tricks and hacks to get the most out of Mac OS X Leopard, as well as the new line of iPods, iPhone, and Apple TV. With 125 entirely new hacks presented in step-by-step fashion, this practical book is for serious Apple computer and gadget users who really want to take control of these systems. Many of the hacks take you under the hood and show you how to tweak system preferences, alter or add keyboard shortcuts, mount drives and

  9. Was the Big Bang hot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for verifying the spectrum defined by Woody and Richards (WR, 1981), which serves as a base for dust-distorted models of the 3 K background, are discussed. WR detected a sharp deviation from the Planck curve in the 3 K background. The absolute intensity of the background may be determined by the frequency dependence of the dipole anisotropy of the background or the frequency dependence effect in galactic clusters. Both methods involve the Doppler shift; analytical formulae are defined for characterization of the dipole anisotropy. The measurement of the 30-300 GHz spectra of cold galactic dust may reveal the presence of significant amounts of needle-shaped grains, which would in turn support a theory of a cold Big Bang.

  10. Big ideas for psychotherapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, James; Gates, Sarah; Vinca, Maria Ann; Boles, Shawna; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2007-12-01

    Research indicates that traditional psychotherapy training practices are ineffective in durably improving the effectiveness of psychotherapists. In addition, the quantity and quality of psychotherapy training research has also been limited in several ways. Thus, based on extant scholarship and personal experience, we offer several suggestions for improving on this state of affairs. Specifically, we propose that future psychotherapy trainings focus on a few "big ideas," target psychotherapist meta-cognitive skills, and attend more closely to the organizational/treatment context in which the training takes place. In terms of future training research, we recommend that researchers include a wider range of intermediate outcomes in their studies, examine the nature of trainee skill development, and investigate the role that organizational/treatment culture plays in terms of the retention of changes elicited by psychotherapy training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Microsystems - The next big thing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STINNETT,REGAN W.

    2000-05-11

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a big name for tiny devices that will soon make big changes in everyday life and the workplace. These and other types of Microsystems range in size from a few millimeters to a few microns, much smaller than a human hair. These Microsystems have the capability to enable new ways to solve problems in commercial applications ranging from automotive, aerospace, telecommunications, manufacturing equipment, medical diagnostics to robotics, and in national security applications such as nuclear weapons safety and security, battlefield intelligence, and protection against chemical and biological weapons. This broad range of applications of Microsystems reflects the broad capabilities of future Microsystems to provide the ability to sense, think, act, and communicate, all in a single integrated package. Microsystems have been called the next silicon revolution, but like many revolutions, they incorporate more elements than their predecessors. Microsystems do include MEMS components fabricated from polycrystalline silicon processed using techniques similar to those used in the manufacture of integrated electrical circuits. They also include optoelectronic components made from gallium arsenide and other semiconducting compounds from the III-V groups of the periodic table. Microsystems components are also being made from pure metals and metal alloys using the LIGA process, which utilizes lithography, etching, and casting at the micron scale. Generically, Microsystems are micron scale, integrated systems that have the potential to combine the ability to sense light, heat, pressure, acceleration, vibration, and chemicals with the ability to process the collected data using CMOS circuitry, execute an electrical, mechanical, or photonic response, and communicate either optically or with microwaves.

  12. MACROSCOPIC RIVERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, IP

    1991-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the

  13. Seasonal baseline of nutrients and stable isotopes in a saline lake of Argentina: biogeochemical processes and river runoff effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopprio, Germán A; Kattner, Gerhard; Freije, R Hugo; de Paggi, Susana José; Lara, Rubén J

    2014-05-01

    The seasonal variability of inorganic and organic nutrients and stable isotopes and their relations with plankton and environmental conditions were monitored in Lake Chasicó. Principal component analysis evidenced the strong influence of the river runoff on several biogeochemical variables. Silicate concentrations were controlled by diatom biomass and river discharge. Higher values of nitrate and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) indicated agricultural uses in the river basin. Elevated pH values (∼ 9) inhibiting nitrification in the lake explained partially the dominance of ammonium: ∼ 83 % of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The low DIN/SRP ratio inferred nitrogen limitation, although the hypotheses of iron and CO2 limitation are relevant in alkaline lakes. Particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) were mainly of autochthonous origin. The main allochthonous input was imported by the river as POM owning to the arid conditions. Dissolved organic carbon was likely top-down regulated by the bacterioplankton grazer Brachionus plicatilis. The δ(13)C signature was a good indicator of primary production and its values were influenced probably by CO2 limitation. The δ(15)N did not evidence nitrogen fixation and suggested the effects of anthropogenic activities. The preservation of a good water quality in the lake is crucial for resource management.

  14. What makes Big Data, Big Data? Exploring the ontological characteristics of 26 datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Big Data has been variously defined in the literature. In the main, definitions suggest that Big Data possess a suite of key traits: volume, velocity and variety (the 3Vs, but also exhaustivity, resolution, indexicality, relationality, extensionality and scalability. However, these definitions lack ontological clarity, with the term acting as an amorphous, catch-all label for a wide selection of data. In this paper, we consider the question ‘what makes Big Data, Big Data?’, applying Kitchin’s taxonomy of seven Big Data traits to 26 datasets drawn from seven domains, each of which is considered in the literature to constitute Big Data. The results demonstrate that only a handful of datasets possess all seven traits, and some do not possess either volume and/or variety. Instead, there are multiple forms of Big Data. Our analysis reveals that the key definitional boundary markers are the traits of velocity and exhaustivity. We contend that Big Data as an analytical category needs to be unpacked, with the genus of Big Data further delineated and its various species identified. It is only through such ontological work that we will gain conceptual clarity about what constitutes Big Data, formulate how best to make sense of it, and identify how it might be best used to make sense of the world.

  15. [Big data in medicine and healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüping, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Healthcare is one of the business fields with the highest Big Data potential. According to the prevailing definition, Big Data refers to the fact that data today is often too large and heterogeneous and changes too quickly to be stored, processed, and transformed into value by previous technologies. The technological trends drive Big Data: business processes are more and more executed electronically, consumers produce more and more data themselves - e.g. in social networks - and finally ever increasing digitalization. Currently, several new trends towards new data sources and innovative data analysis appear in medicine and healthcare. From the research perspective, omics-research is one clear Big Data topic. In practice, the electronic health records, free open data and the "quantified self" offer new perspectives for data analytics. Regarding analytics, significant advances have been made in the information extraction from text data, which unlocks a lot of data from clinical documentation for analytics purposes. At the same time, medicine and healthcare is lagging behind in the adoption of Big Data approaches. This can be traced to particular problems regarding data complexity and organizational, legal, and ethical challenges. The growing uptake of Big Data in general and first best-practice examples in medicine and healthcare in particular, indicate that innovative solutions will be coming. This paper gives an overview of the potentials of Big Data in medicine and healthcare.

  16. Big data as governmentality in international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Statistics have long shaped the field of visibility for the governance of development projects. The introduction of big data has altered the field of visibility. Employing Dean's “analytics of government” framework, we analyze two cases—malaria tracking in Kenya and monitoring of food prices...... in Indonesia. Our analysis shows that big data introduces a bias toward particular types of visualizations. What problems are being made visible through big data depends to some degree on how the underlying data is visualized and who is captured in the visualizations. It is also influenced by technical factors...

  17. Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.

  18. Big data governance an emerging imperative

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Written by a leading expert in the field, this guide focuses on the convergence of two major trends in information management-big data and information governance-by taking a strategic approach oriented around business cases and industry imperatives. With the advent of new technologies, enterprises are expanding and handling very large volumes of data; this book, nontechnical in nature and geared toward business audiences, encourages the practice of establishing appropriate governance over big data initiatives and addresses how to manage and govern big data, highlighting the relevant processes,

  19. BLENDING IOT AND BIG DATA ANALYTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Tulasi.B*; Girish J Vemulkar

    2016-01-01

    Internet is continuously evolving and changing. Internet of Things (IoT) can be considered as the future of Internet applications which involves machine to machine learning (M2M). The actionable intelligence can be derived through fusion of Big Data and real time analytics with IoT. Big Data and IoT can be viewed as two sides of a coin. With the connection between Big Data and the objects on Internet benefits of IoT can be easily reaped. The applications of IoT spread across various domains l...

  20. Big data and the electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Steve G; Buntrock, James D

    2014-01-01

    The electronic medical record has evolved from a digital representation of individual patient results and documents to information of large scale and complexity. Big Data refers to new technologies providing management and processing capabilities, targeting massive and disparate data sets. For an individual patient, techniques such as Natural Language Processing allow the integration and analysis of textual reports with structured results. For groups of patients, Big Data offers the promise of large-scale analysis of outcomes, patterns, temporal trends, and correlations. The evolution of Big Data analytics moves us from description and reporting to forecasting, predictive modeling, and decision optimization.

  1. Big Data and historical social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bearman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Big Data” can revolutionize historical social science if it arises from substantively important contexts and is oriented towards answering substantively important questions. Such data may be especially important for answering previously largely intractable questions about the timing and sequencing of events, and of event boundaries. That said, “Big Data” makes no difference for social scientists and historians whose accounts rest on narrative sentences. Since such accounts are the norm, the effects of Big Data on the practice of historical social science may be more limited than one might wish.

  2. Big questions, big science: meeting the challenges of global ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, David; Keller, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Ecologists are increasingly tackling questions that require significant infrastucture, large experiments, networks of observations, and complex data and computation. Key hypotheses in ecology increasingly require more investment, and larger data sets to be tested than can be collected by a single investigator's or s group of investigator's labs, sustained for longer than a typical grant. Large-scale projects are expensive, so their scientific return on the investment has to justify the opportunity cost-the science foregone because resources were expended on a large project rather than supporting a number of individual projects. In addition, their management must be accountable and efficient in the use of significant resources, requiring the use of formal systems engineering and project management to mitigate risk of failure. Mapping the scientific method into formal project management requires both scientists able to work in the context, and a project implementation team sensitive to the unique requirements of ecology. Sponsoring agencies, under pressure from external and internal forces, experience many pressures that push them towards counterproductive project management but a scientific community aware and experienced in large project science can mitigate these tendencies. For big ecology to result in great science, ecologists must become informed, aware and engaged in the advocacy and governance of large ecological projects.

  3. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  4. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response of FIR filters and error graph. The BB-BC seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design especially in a dynamic environment where filter coefficients have to be adapted and fast convergence is of importance.

  5. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  6. NOAA Big Data Partnership RFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a Big Data Request for Information (RFI) from industry and other organizations (e.g., non-profits, research laboratories, and universities) to assess capability and interest in establishing partnerships to position a copy of NOAA's vast data holdings in the Cloud, co-located with easy and affordable access to analytical capabilities. This RFI was motivated by a number of concerns. First, NOAA's data facilities do not necessarily have sufficient network infrastructure to transmit all available observations and numerical model outputs to all potential users, or sufficient infrastructure to support simultaneous computation by many users. Second, the available data are distributed across multiple services and data facilities, making it difficult to find and integrate data for cross-domain analysis and decision-making. Third, large datasets require users to have substantial network, storage, and computing capabilities of their own in order to fully interact with and exploit the latent value of the data. Finally, there may be commercial opportunities for value-added products and services derived from our data. Putting a working copy of data in the Cloud outside of NOAA's internal networks and infrastructures should reduce demands and risks on our systems, and should enable users to interact with multiple datasets and create new lines of business (much like the industries built on government-furnished weather or GPS data). The NOAA Big Data RFI therefore solicited information on technical and business approaches regarding possible partnership(s) that -- at no net cost to the government and minimum impact on existing data facilities -- would unleash the commercial potential of its environmental observations and model outputs. NOAA would retain the master archival copy of its data. Commercial partners would not be permitted to charge fees for access to the NOAA data they receive, but

  7. 6 Top Tools for Taming Big Data%6Top Tools for Taming Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JakoB BJ orklund

    2012-01-01

    The industry now has a buzzword,"big data," for how we're going to do something with the huge amount of information piling up."Big data" is replacing "business intelligence,"which subsumed "reporting," which put a nicer gloss on "spreadsheets," which beat out the old-fashioned "printouts."Managers who long ago studied printouts are now hiring mathematicians who claim to be big data specialists to help them solve the same old problem:What's selling and why?

  8. "Big Data" : big gaps of knowledge in the field of internet science

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, CCP Chris; Matzat, U Uwe; Reips, UD

    2012-01-01

    Research on so-called 'Big Data' has received a considerable momentum and is expected to grow in the future. One very interesting stream of research on Big Data analyzes online networks. Many online networks are known to have some typical macro-characteristics, such as 'small world' properties. Much less is known about underlying micro-processes leading to these properties. The models used by Big Data researchers usually are inspired by mathematical ease of exposition. We propose to follow in...

  9. BDGS: A Scalable Big Data Generator Suite in Big Data Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Zijian; Luo, Chunjie; Gao, Wanling; Han, Rui; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Lei; Zhan, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Data generation is a key issue in big data benchmarking that aims to generate application-specific data sets to meet the 4V requirements of big data. Specifically, big data generators need to generate scalable data (Volume) of different types (Variety) under controllable generation rates (Velocity) while keeping the important characteristics of raw data (Veracity). This gives rise to various new challenges about how we design generators efficiently and successfully. To date, most existing tec...

  10. Direct and indirect effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation on the bacterioplankton metabolism in high-mountain lakes from southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Durán

    2014-05-01

    availability even led to higher HBP. Consequently, EOC satisfied BCD in the clear lakes, particularly in the clearest one [LC]. Our results suggest that the higher vulnerability of bacteria to the damaging effects of UVR may be particularly accentuated in the opaque lakes and further recognizes the relevance of light exposure history and biotic interactions on bacterioplankton metabolism when coping with fluctuating radiation and nutrient inputs.

  11. Soft computing in big data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Seung-Jong; Lee, Jee-Hyong

    2014-01-01

    Big data is an essential key to build a smart world as a meaning of the streaming, continuous integration of large volume and high velocity data covering from all sources to final destinations. The big data range from data mining, data analysis and decision making, by drawing statistical rules and mathematical patterns through systematical or automatically reasoning. The big data helps serve our life better, clarify our future and deliver greater value. We can discover how to capture and analyze data. Readers will be guided to processing system integrity and implementing intelligent systems. With intelligent systems, we deal with the fundamental data management and visualization challenges in effective management of dynamic and large-scale data, and efficient processing of real-time and spatio-temporal data. Advanced intelligent systems have led to managing the data monitoring, data processing and decision-making in realistic and effective way. Considering a big size of data, variety of data and frequent chan...

  12. Scaling big data with Hadoop and Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Karambelkar, Hrishikesh Vijay

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at developers, designers, and architects who would like to build big data enterprise search solutions for their customers or organizations. No prior knowledge of Apache Hadoop and Apache Solr/Lucene technologies is required.

  13. Neutrino oscillations and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Nicole F.

    2001-01-01

    We outline how relic neutrino asymmetries may be generated in the early universe via active-sterile neutrino oscillations. We discuss possible consequences for big bang nucleosynthesis, within the context of a particular 4-neutrino model.

  14. Tick-Borne Diseases: The Big Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - ... on the skin where there has been a tick bite. Photo: CDC/James Gathany Lyme disease Lyme ...

  15. Big Fish and Prized Trees Gain Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fred Pearce; 吴敏

    2004-01-01

    @@ Decisions made at a key conservation① meeting are good news for big and quirky② fish and commercially prized trees. Several species will enjoy extra protection against trade following rulings made at the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

  16. Big Data for Business Ecosystem Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perko Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the provided research, some of the Big Data most prospective usage domains connect with distinguished player groups found in the business ecosystem. Literature analysis is used to identify the state of the art of Big Data related research in the major domains of its use-namely, individual marketing, health treatment, work opportunities, financial services, and security enforcement. System theory was used to identify business ecosystem major player types disrupted by Big Data: individuals, small and mid-sized enterprises, large organizations, information providers, and regulators. Relationships between the domains and players were explained through new Big Data opportunities and threats and by players’ responsive strategies. System dynamics was used to visualize relationships in the provided model.

  17. ARC Code TI: BigView

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BigView allows for interactive panning and zooming of images of arbitrary size on desktop PCs running linux. Additionally, it can work in a multi-screen environment...

  18. Big Data in food and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bronson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Farming is undergoing a digital revolution. Our existing review of current Big Data applications in the agri-food sector has revealed several collection and analytics tools that may have implications for relationships of power between players in the food system (e.g. between farmers and large corporations. For example, Who retains ownership of the data generated by applications like Monsanto Corproation's Weed I.D. “app”? Are there privacy implications with the data gathered by John Deere's precision agricultural equipment? Systematically tracing the digital revolution in agriculture, and charting the affordances as well as the limitations of Big Data applied to food and agriculture, should be a broad research goal for Big Data scholarship. Such a goal brings data scholarship into conversation with food studies and it allows for a focus on the material consequences of big data in society.

  19. Quantum nature of the big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Singh, Parampreet

    2006-04-14

    Some long-standing issues concerning the quantum nature of the big bang are resolved in the context of homogeneous isotropic models with a scalar field. Specifically, the known results on the resolution of the big-bang singularity in loop quantum cosmology are significantly extended as follows: (i) the scalar field is shown to serve as an internal clock, thereby providing a detailed realization of the "emergent time" idea; (ii) the physical Hilbert space, Dirac observables, and semiclassical states are constructed rigorously; (iii) the Hamiltonian constraint is solved numerically to show that the big bang is replaced by a big bounce. Thanks to the nonperturbative, background independent methods, unlike in other approaches the quantum evolution is deterministic across the deep Planck regime.

  20. Big Data Components for Business Process Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Raducu TRIFU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In these days, more and more people talk about Big Data, Hadoop, noSQL and so on, but very few technical people have the necessary expertise and knowledge to work with those concepts and technologies. The present issue explains one of the concept that stand behind two of those keywords, and this is the map reduce concept. MapReduce model is the one that makes the Big Data and Hadoop so powerful, fast, and diverse for business process optimization. MapReduce is a programming model with an implementation built to process and generate large data sets. In addition, it is presented the benefits of integrating Hadoop in the context of Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing applications. The concepts and technologies behind big data let organizations to reach a variety of objectives. Like other new information technologies, the main important objective of big data technology is to bring dramatic cost reduction.

  1. Cosmic relics from the big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L.J.

    1988-12-01

    A brief introduction to the big bang picture of the early universe is given. Dark matter is discussed; particularly its implications for elementary particle physics. A classification scheme for dark matter relics is given. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Big Data and Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S S-L; Gao, G; Koch, S

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Big Data and Analytics in Healthcare". The amount of data being generated in the healthcare industry is growing at a rapid rate. This has generated immense interest in leveraging the availability of healthcare data (and "big data") to improve health outcomes and reduce costs. However, the nature of healthcare data, and especially big data, presents unique challenges in processing and analyzing big data in healthcare. This Focus Theme aims to disseminate some novel approaches to address these challenges. More specifically, approaches ranging from efficient methods of processing large clinical data to predictive models that could generate better predictions from healthcare data are presented.

  3. Fisicos argentinos reproduciran el Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    De Ambrosio, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of argentine physicists from La Plata and Buenos Aires Universities work in a sery of experiments who while recreate the conditions of the big explosion that was at the origin of the universe. (1 page)

  4. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, were located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, was located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  5. Big bang nucleosynthesis: Present status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Yeh, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of the lightest nuclides via a dynamic interplay among the four fundamental forces during the first seconds of cosmic time. A brief overview of the essentials of this physics is given, and new calculations presented of light-element abundances through 6Li and 7Li, with updated nuclear reactions and uncertainties including those in the neutron lifetime. Fits are provided for these results as a function of baryon density and of the number of neutrino flavors Nν. Recent developments are reviewed in BBN, particularly new, precision Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements that now probe the baryon density, helium content, and the effective number of degrees of freedom Neff. These measurements allow for a tight test of BBN and cosmology using CMB data alone. Our likelihood analysis convolves the 2015 Planck data chains with our BBN output and observational data. Adding astronomical measurements of light elements strengthens the power of BBN. A new determination of the primordial helium abundance is included in our likelihood analysis. New D/H observations are now more precise than the corresponding theoretical predictions and are consistent with the standard model and the Planck baryon density. Moreover, D/H now provides a tight measurement of Nν when combined with the CMB baryon density and provides a 2 σ upper limit Nνpointing to new physics. This paper concludes with a look at future directions including key nuclear reactions, astronomical observations, and theoretical issues.

  6. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  7. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  8. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  9. Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mickaelian, A M

    2015-01-01

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum are reviewed, from Gamma-ray to radio, such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in Gamma-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and II based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio and many others, as well as most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS) and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era. Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics play a...

  10. Big-bang nucleosynthesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Walker, Terry P.

    1989-01-01

    The homogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis yields of D, He-3, He-4, and Li-7 are computed taking into account recent measurements of the neutron mean-life as well as updates of several nuclear reaction rates which primarily affect the production of Li-7. The extraction of primordial abundances from observation and the likelihood that the primordial mass fraction of He-4, Y(sub p) is less than or equal to 0.24 are discussed. Using the primordial abundances of D + He-3 and Li-7 we limit the baryon-to-photon ratio (eta in units of 10 exp -10) 2.6 less than or equal to eta(sub 10) less than or equal to 4.3; which we use to argue that baryons contribute between 0.02 and 0.11 to the critical energy density of the universe. An upper limit to Y(sub p) of 0.24 constrains the number of light neutrinos to N(sub nu) less than or equal to 3.4, in excellent agreement with the LEP and SLC collider results. We turn this argument around to show that the collider limit of 3 neutrino species can be used to bound the primordial abundance of He-4: 0.235 less than or equal to Y(sub p) less than or equal to 0.245.

  11. The NOAA Big Data Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a Big Data producer, generating tens of terabytes per day from hundreds of sensors on satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, and buoys, and from numerical models. These data are of critical importance and value for NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts. In order to facilitate extracting additional value from this information, NOAA has established Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with five Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers — Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, Open Cloud Consortium — to determine whether hosting NOAA data in publicly-accessible Clouds alongside on-demand computational capability stimulates the creation of new value-added products and services and lines of business based on the data, and if the revenue generated by these new applications can support the costs of data transmission and hosting. Each IaaS provider is the anchor of a "Data Alliance" which organizations or entrepreneurs can join to develop and test new business or research avenues. This presentation will report on progress and lessons learned during the first 6 months of the 3-year CRADAs.

  12. Big Data Empowered Self Organized Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Baldo, Nicola; Giupponi, Lorenza; Mangues-Bafalluy, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Mobile networks are generating a huge amount of data in the form of network measurements as well as network control and management interactions, and 5G is expected to make it even bigger. In this paper, we discuss the different approaches according to which this information could be leveraged using a Big Data approach. In particular, we focus on Big Data Empowered Self Organized Networks, discussing its most peculiar traits, its potential, and the relevant related work, as well as analysing s...

  13. Congenital malalignment of the big toe nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gunnar; Sachse, Michael Max

    2012-05-01

    Congenital malalignment of the big toe nail is based on a lateral deviation of the nail plate. This longitudinal axis shift is due to a deviation of the nail matrix, possibly caused by increased traction of the hypertrophic extensor tendon of the hallux. Congenital malalignment of the big toe nail is typically present at birth. Ingrown toenails and onychogryphosis are among the most common complications. Depending on the degree of deviation, conservative or surgical treatment may be recommended.

  14. ISSUES, CHALLENGES, AND SOLUTIONS: BIG DATA MINING

    OpenAIRE

    Jaseena K.U,; Julie M. David

    2014-01-01

    Data has become an indispensable part of every economy, industry, organization, business function and individual. Big Data is a term used to identify the datasets that whose size is beyond the ability of typical database software tools to store, manage and analyze. The Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguishe...

  15. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  16. Data Confidentiality Challenges in Big Data Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Jian; Zhao, Dongfang

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we address the problem of data confidentiality in big data analytics. In many fields, much useful patterns can be extracted by applying machine learning techniques to big data. However, data confidentiality must be protected. In many scenarios, data confidentiality could well be a prerequisite for data to be shared. We present a scheme to provide provable secure data confidentiality and discuss various techniques to optimize performance of such a system.

  17. COBE looks back to the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA-Goddard's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the first NASA satellite designed to observe the primeval explosion of the universe. The spacecraft carries three extremely sensitive IR and microwave instruments designed to measure the faint residual radiation from the Big Bang and to search for the formation of the first galaxies. COBE's far IR absolute spectrophotometer has shown that the Big Bang radiation has a blackbody spectrum, proving that there was no large energy release after the explosion.

  18. Harnessing the Heart of Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Scruggs, Sarah B; Watson, Karol; Su, Andrew I.; Hermjakob, Henning; Yates, John R.; Lindsey, Merry L.; Ping, Peipei

    2015-01-01

    The exponential increase in Big Data generation combined with limited capitalization on the wealth of information embedded within Big Data have prompted us to revisit our scientific discovery paradigms. A successful transition into this digital era of medicine holds great promise for advancing fundamental knowledge in biology, innovating human health and driving personalized medicine, however, this will require a drastic shift of research culture in how we conceptualize science and use data. ...

  19. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawsher Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data.

  20. Research on runoff forecast approaches to the Aksu River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG RuLin; CHENG WeiMing; WANG WeiSheng; JIANG Yan; ZHANG YiChi; WANG YongQin

    2007-01-01

    The Aksu River (the international river between China and Kirghiz) has become the main water source for the Tarim River. It significantly influences the Tarim River's formation, development and evolution.Along with the western region development strategy and the Tarim River basin comprehensive development and implementation, the research is now focused on the Aksu River basin hydrologic characteristic and hydrologic forecast. Moreover, the Aksu River is representative of rivers supplied with glacier and snow melt in middle-high altitude arid district. As a result, the research on predicting the river flow of the Aksu River basin has theoretical and practical significance. In this paper, considering the limited hydrometeorological data for the Aksu River basin, we have constructed four hydrologic forecast approaches using the daily scale to simulate and forecast daily runoff of two big branches of the Aksu River basin. The four approaches are the upper air temperature and the daily runoff correlation method, AR(p) runoff forecast model, temperature and precipitation revised AR(p) model and the NAM rainfall-runoff model. After comparatively analyzing the simulation results of the four approaches, we discovered that the temperature and precipitation revised AR(p) model, which needs less hydrological and meteorological data and is more predictive, is suitable for the short-term runoff forecast of the Aksu River basin. This research not only offers a foundation for the Aksu River and Tarim Rivers' hydrologic forecast, flood prevention, control and the entire basin water collocation, but also provides the hydrologic forecast reference approach for other arid ungauged basins.

  1. Boosting Big National Lab Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-21

    Introduction: Big data. Love it or hate it, solving the world’s most intractable problems requires the ability to make sense of huge and complex sets of data and do it quickly. Speeding up the process – from hours to minutes or from weeks to days – is key to our success. One major source of such big data are physical experiments. As many will know, these physical experiments are commonly used to solve challenges in fields such as energy security, manufacturing, medicine, pharmacology, environmental protection and national security. Experiments use different instruments and sensor types to research for example the validity of new drugs, the base cause for diseases, more efficient energy sources, new materials for every day goods, effective methods for environmental cleanup, the optimal ingredients composition for chocolate or determine how to preserve valuable antics. This is done by experimentally determining the structure, properties and processes that govern biological systems, chemical processes and materials. The speed and quality at which we can acquire new insights from experiments directly influences the rate of scientific progress, industrial innovation and competitiveness. And gaining new groundbreaking insights, faster, is key to the economic success of our nations. Recent years have seen incredible advances in sensor technologies, from house size detector systems in large experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider and the ‘Eye of Gaia’ billion pixel camera detector to high throughput genome sequencing. These developments have led to an exponential increase in data volumes, rates and variety produced by instruments used for experimental work. This increase is coinciding with a need to analyze the experimental results at the time they are collected. This speed is required to optimize the data taking and quality, and also to enable new adaptive experiments, where the sample is manipulated as it is observed, e.g. a substance is injected into a

  2. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  3. Small government or big government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEO SPAHO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century, economists and philosophers were polarizedon their positions beyond the role that the government should have in the economy. On one hand John Maynard Keynes represented, within the optics of market economy, a position where the state should intervene in the economy to maintain the aggregate demand and the employment in the country, without hesitation in creating budget deficits and public debt expansion. This approach happens especially in the moments when the domestic economy and global economic trends show a weak growth or a recession. This means a heavy interference inthe economy, with higher income but with high expenditure to GDP too. On the other side, Liberals and Neoliberalsled by Friedrich Hayek advocated a withdrawal of the government from economic activity not just in moments of economic growth but also during the crisis, believing that the market has self-regulating mechanisms within itself. The government, as a result will have a smaller dimension with lower income and also low expenditures compared to the GDP of the country. We took the South-Eastern Europe countries distinguishing those with a "Big Government" or countries with "Small Government". There are analyzed the economic performances during the global crisis (2007-2014. In which countries the public debt grew less? Which country managed to attract more investments and which were the countries that preserved the purchasing power of their consumers? We shall see if during the economic crisis in Eastern Europe the Great Government or the Liberal and "Small" one has been the most successful the model.

  4. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  5. Big Data Big Changes%大数据,大变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爽

    2014-01-01

    大数据正时刻发生在人们的身边,大数据时代已经到来。本文通过对大数据特点的描述,分析了大数据在国内外的研究现状以及未来的应用方向,只有重新认识大数据,从思维上变革对大数据的认识,从商业模式上适应大数据的变化,创新大数据管理模式,加强制度建设,增强法律意识,保证个人和国家的安全,才能不断推动大数据的健康发展。%Big data are always happen in people’s side, big data era has arrived. This paper has described the characteristics of big data, analyzed big data research status and future application direction. Only to understand big data again, change the thinking of big data, adapt to changes in business model, innovative big data management, strengthen institution construction, enhance law awareness, ensure the personal and national security, it can continuously promote the healthy development of big data.

  6. Benchmarking Big Data Systems and the BigData Top100 List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, Chaitanya; Bhandarkar, Milind; Nambiar, Raghunath; Poess, Meikel; Rabl, Tilmann

    2013-03-01

    "Big data" has become a major force of innovation across enterprises of all sizes. New platforms with increasingly more features for managing big datasets are being announced almost on a weekly basis. Yet, there is currently a lack of any means of comparability among such platforms. While the performance of traditional database systems is well understood and measured by long-established institutions such as the Transaction Processing Performance Council (TCP), there is neither a clear definition of the performance of big data systems nor a generally agreed upon metric for comparing these systems. In this article, we describe a community-based effort for defining a big data benchmark. Over the past year, a Big Data Benchmarking Community has become established in order to fill this void. The effort focuses on defining an end-to-end application-layer benchmark for measuring the performance of big data applications, with the ability to easily adapt the benchmark specification to evolving challenges in the big data space. This article describes the efforts that have been undertaken thus far toward the definition of a BigData Top100 List. While highlighting the major technical as well as organizational challenges, through this article, we also solicit community input into this process.

  7. Five Big, Big Five Issues : Rationale, Content, Structure, Status, and Crosscultural Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, Boele

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the rationale, content, structure, status, and crosscultural assessment of the Big Five trait factors, focusing on topics of dispute and misunderstanding. Taxonomic restrictions of the original Big Five forerunner, the "Norman Five," are discussed, and criticisms regarding the

  8. Big Data in Caenorhabditis elegans: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Harald; Moerman, Donald

    2015-11-05

    A clear definition of what constitutes "Big Data" is difficult to identify, but we find it most useful to define Big Data as a data collection that is complete. By this criterion, researchers on Caenorhabditis elegans have a long history of collecting Big Data, since the organism was selected with the idea of obtaining a complete biological description and understanding of development. The complete wiring diagram of the nervous system, the complete cell lineage, and the complete genome sequence provide a framework to phrase and test hypotheses. Given this history, it might be surprising that the number of "complete" data sets for this organism is actually rather small--not because of lack of effort, but because most types of biological experiments are not currently amenable to complete large-scale data collection. Many are also not inherently limited, so that it becomes difficult to even define completeness. At present, we only have partial data on mutated genes and their phenotypes, gene expression, and protein-protein interaction--important data for many biological questions. Big Data can point toward unexpected correlations, and these unexpected correlations can lead to novel investigations; however, Big Data cannot establish causation. As a result, there is much excitement about Big Data, but there is also a discussion on just what Big Data contributes to solving a biological problem. Because of its relative simplicity, C. elegans is an ideal test bed to explore this issue and at the same time determine what is necessary to build a multicellular organism from a single cell.

  9. Transcriptome marker diagnostics using big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Henry; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The big omics data are challenging translational bioinformatics in an unprecedented way for its complexities and volumes. How to employ big omics data to achieve a rivalling-clinical, reproducible disease diagnosis from a systems approach is an urgent problem to be solved in translational bioinformatics and machine learning. In this study, the authors propose a novel transcriptome marker diagnosis to tackle this problem using big RNA-seq data by viewing whole transcriptome as a profile marker systematically. The systems diagnosis not only avoids the reproducibility issue of the existing gene-/network-marker-based diagnostic methods, but also achieves rivalling-clinical diagnostic results by extracting true signals from big RNA-seq data. Their method demonstrates a better fit for personalised diagnostics by attaining exceptional diagnostic performance via using systems information than its competitive methods and prepares itself as a good candidate for clinical usage. To the best of their knowledge, it is the first study on this topic and will inspire the more investigations in big omics data diagnostics.

  10. Conceptualization and theorization of the Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mazzieri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term Big Data is being used widely by companies and researchers who consider your relevant functionalities or applications to create value and business innovation. However some questions arise about what is this phenomenon and, more precisely, how it occurs and under what conditions it can create value and innovation in business. In our view, the lack of depth related to the principles involved in Big Data and the very absence of a conceptual definition, made it difficult to answer these questions that have been the basis for our research. To answer these questions we did a bibliometric study and extensive literature review. The bibliometric studies were realized based in articles and citation of Web of Knowledge database. The main result of our research is the providing a conceptual definition for the term Big Data. Also, we propose which principles discovered can contribute with other researches  that intend value creation by Big Data. Finally we propose see the value creation through Big Data using the  Resource Based View as the main theory used for discuss that theme.

  11. Volume and Value of Big Healthcare Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D.

    2016-01-01

    Modern scientific inquiries require significant data-driven evidence and trans-disciplinary expertise to extract valuable information and gain actionable knowledge about natural processes. Effective evidence-based decisions require collection, processing and interpretation of vast amounts of complex data. The Moore's and Kryder's laws of exponential increase of computational power and information storage, respectively, dictate the need rapid trans-disciplinary advances, technological innovation and effective mechanisms for managing and interrogating Big Healthcare Data. In this article, we review important aspects of Big Data analytics and discuss important questions like: What are the challenges and opportunities associated with this biomedical, social, and healthcare data avalanche? Are there innovative statistical computing strategies to represent, model, analyze and interpret Big heterogeneous data? We present the foundation of a new compressive big data analytics (CBDA) framework for representation, modeling and inference of large, complex and heterogeneous datasets. Finally, we consider specific directions likely to impact the process of extracting information from Big healthcare data, translating that information to knowledge, and deriving appropriate actions. PMID:26998309

  12. Big data analytics a management perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Corea, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book is about innovation, big data, and data science seen from a business perspective. Big data is a buzzword nowadays, and there is a growing necessity within practitioners to understand better the phenomenon, starting from a clear stated definition. This book aims to be a starting reading for executives who want (and need) to keep the pace with the technological breakthrough introduced by new analytical techniques and piles of data. Common myths about big data will be explained, and a series of different strategic approaches will be provided. By browsing the book, it will be possible to learn how to implement a big data strategy and how to use a maturity framework to monitor the progress of the data science team, as well as how to move forward from one stage to the next. Crucial challenges related to big data will be discussed, where some of them are more general - such as ethics, privacy, and ownership – while others concern more specific business situations (e.g., initial public offering, growth st...

  13. About Big Data and its Challenges and Benefits in Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan NEDELCU

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show the importance of Big Data and its growing influence on companies. It also shows what kind of big data is currently generated and how much big data is estimated to be generated. We can also see how much are the companies willing to invest in big data and how much are they currently gaining from their big data. There are also shown some major influences that big data has over one major segment in the industry (manufacturing) and the challenges that appear.

  14. SoBigData - VRE specification and software 1

    OpenAIRE

    Assante, Massimiliano; Candela, Leonardo; Frosini, Luca; Lelii, Lucio; Mangiacrapa, Francesco; Pagano, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable complements "D10.5 SoBigData e-Infrastructure software release 1" by describing how such a software has been deployed to serve the current needs of the SoBigData community. In particular, it describes how such a software has been exploited to make available the components envisaged in "D10.2 SoBigData e-Infrastructure release plan 1", i.e. the SoBigData portal (and the underlying Virtual Organisation), the SoBigData Catalogue, and the SoBigData Virtual Research Environments.

  15. Big Data Mining: Challenges, Technologies, Tools and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Asha M. PAWAR

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a data with large size means it has large volume, velocity and variety. Now a day's big data is expanding in a various science and engineering fields. And so there are many challenges to manage and analyse big data using various tools. This paper introduces the big data and its Characteristic concepts and Next section elaborates about the Challenges in Big data. In Particular, wed discuss about the technologies used in big data Analysis and Which Tools are mainly used to analyse t...

  16. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  17. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the

  18. Big data in food safety; an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Hans J P; Janssen, Esmée M; Bouzembrak, Yamine; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Staats, Martijn

    2016-11-07

    Technology is now being developed that is able to handle vast amounts of structured and unstructured data from diverse sources and origins. These technologies are often referred to as big data, and opens new areas of research and applications that will have an increasing impact in all sectors of our society. In this paper we assessed to which extent big data is being applied in the food safety domain and identified several promising trends. In several parts of the world, governments stimulate the publication on internet of all data generated in public funded research projects. This policy opens new opportunities for stakeholders dealing with food safety to address issues which were not possible before. Application of mobile phones as detection devices for food safety and the use of social media as early warning of food safety problems are a few examples of the new developments that are possible due to big data.

  19. Adapting bioinformatics curricula for big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Anna C; Giffin, Kristine A; Greene, Casey S; Moore, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these growing needs. While bioinformatics programs have traditionally trained students in data-intensive science, we identify areas of particular biological, computational and statistical emphasis important for this era that can be incorporated into existing curricula. For each area, we propose a course structured around these topics, which can be adapted in whole or in parts into existing curricula. In summary, specific challenges associated with big data provide an important opportunity to update existing curricula, but we do not foresee a wholesale redesign of bioinformatics training programs.

  20. Big Data Analytics for Genomic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Karen Y; Ge, Dongliang; He, Max M

    2017-02-15

    Genomic medicine attempts to build individualized strategies for diagnostic or therapeutic decision-making by utilizing patients' genomic information. Big Data analytics uncovers hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other insights through examining large-scale various data sets. While integration and manipulation of diverse genomic data and comprehensive electronic health records (EHRs) on a Big Data infrastructure exhibit challenges, they also provide a feasible opportunity to develop an efficient and effective approach to identify clinically actionable genetic variants for individualized diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we review the challenges of manipulating large-scale next-generation sequencing (NGS) data and diverse clinical data derived from the EHRs for genomic medicine. We introduce possible solutions for different challenges in manipulating, managing, and analyzing genomic and clinical data to implement genomic medicine. Additionally, we also present a practical Big Data toolset for identifying clinically actionable genetic variants using high-throughput NGS data and EHRs.

  1. Unsupervised Tensor Mining for Big Data Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexakis, Evangelos E; Faloutsos, Christos

    2016-09-01

    Multiaspect data are ubiquitous in modern Big Data applications. For instance, different aspects of a social network are the different types of communication between people, the time stamp of each interaction, and the location associated to each individual. How can we jointly model all those aspects and leverage the additional information that they introduce to our analysis? Tensors, which are multidimensional extensions of matrices, are a principled and mathematically sound way of modeling such multiaspect data. In this article, our goal is to popularize tensors and tensor decompositions to Big Data practitioners by demonstrating their effectiveness, outlining challenges that pertain to their application in Big Data scenarios, and presenting our recent work that tackles those challenges. We view this work as a step toward a fully automated, unsupervised tensor mining tool that can be easily and broadly adopted by practitioners in academia and industry.

  2. Big Data Issues: Performance, Scalability, Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Matei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Big Data is probably one of the most discussed topics not only in the area of data analysis, but, I believe, in the whole realm of information technology. The simple typing of the words „big data” on an online search engine like Google will retrieve approximately 1,660,000,000 results. Having such a buzz gathered around this term, I could not help but wonder what this phenomenon means.The ever greater portion that the combination of Internet, Cloud Computing and mobile devices has been occupying in our lives, lead to an ever increasing amount of data that must be captured, communicated, aggregated, stored, and analyzed. These sets of data that we are generating are called Big Data.

  3. One Second After the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    A new experiment called PTOLEMY (Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-Universe, Massive-Neutrino Yield) is under development at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with the goal of challenging one of the most fundamental predictions of the Big Bang – the present-day existence of relic neutrinos produced less than one second after the Big Bang. Using a gigantic graphene surface to hold 100 grams of a single-atomic layer of tritium, low noise antennas that sense the radio waves of individual electrons undergoing cyclotron motion, and a massive array of cryogenic sensors that sit at the transition between normal and superconducting states, the PTOLEMY project has the potential to challenge one of the most fundamental predictions of the Big Bang, to potentially uncover new interactions and properties of the neutrinos, and to search for the existence of a species of light dark matter known as sterile neutrinos.

  4. Big Bang riddles and their revelations

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Magueijo, Joao; Baskerville, Kim

    1999-01-01

    We describe how cosmology has converged towards a beautiful model of the Universe: the Big Bang Universe. We praise this model, but show there is a dark side to it. This dark side is usually called ``the cosmological problems'': a set of coincidences and fine tuning features required for the Big Bang Universe to be possible. After reviewing these ``riddles'' we show how they have acted as windows into the very early Universe, revealing new physics and new cosmology just as the Universe came into being. We describe inflation, pre Big Bang, and varying speed of light theories. At the end of the millennium, these proposals are seen respectively as a paradigm, a tentative idea, and outright speculation.

  5. Big Data Analytics for Genomic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Karen Y.; Ge, Dongliang; He, Max M.

    2017-01-01

    Genomic medicine attempts to build individualized strategies for diagnostic or therapeutic decision-making by utilizing patients’ genomic information. Big Data analytics uncovers hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other insights through examining large-scale various data sets. While integration and manipulation of diverse genomic data and comprehensive electronic health records (EHRs) on a Big Data infrastructure exhibit challenges, they also provide a feasible opportunity to develop an efficient and effective approach to identify clinically actionable genetic variants for individualized diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we review the challenges of manipulating large-scale next-generation sequencing (NGS) data and diverse clinical data derived from the EHRs for genomic medicine. We introduce possible solutions for different challenges in manipulating, managing, and analyzing genomic and clinical data to implement genomic medicine. Additionally, we also present a practical Big Data toolset for identifying clinically actionable genetic variants using high-throughput NGS data and EHRs. PMID:28212287

  6. Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

  7. A Critical Axiology for Big Data Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los datos masivos ( Big Data han tenido un gran impacto en el periodis - mo y los estudios de comunicación, a la vez que han generado un gran número de preocupaciones sociales que van desde la vigilancia masiva hasta la legitimación de prejuicios, como el racismo. En este artículo, se desarrolla una agenda para la investigación crítica de Big Data y se discu - te cuál debería ser el propósito de dicha investigación, de qué obstáculos protegerse y la posibilidad de adaptar los métodos de Big Data para lle - var a cabo la investigación empírica desde un punto de vista crítico. Di - cho programa de investigación no solo permitirá que la erudición crítica desafíe significativamente a Big Data como una herramienta hegemónica, sino que también permitirá que los académicos usen los recursos de Big Data para abordar una serie de problemas sociales de formas previamente imposibles. El artículo llama a la innovación metodológica para combinar las técnicas emergentes de Big Data y los métodos críticos y cualitativos de investigación, como la etnografía y el análisis del discurso, de tal ma - nera que se puedan complementar.

  8. From big data to smart data

    CERN Document Server

    Iafrate, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    A pragmatic approach to Big Data by taking the reader on a journey between Big Data (what it is) and the Smart Data (what it is for). Today's decision making can be reached via information (related to the data), knowledge (related to people and processes), and timing (the capacity to decide, act and react at the right time). The huge increase in volume of data traffic, and its format (unstructured data such as blogs, logs, and video) generated by the "digitalization" of our world modifies radically our relationship to the space (in motion) and time, dimension and by capillarity, the enterpr

  9. Probing Big Bounce with Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Changhong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the production of dark matter in a generic bouncing universe framework. Our result shows that, if the future-experimentally-measured cross section and mass of dark matter particle satisfy the cosmological constraint, $\\langle \\sigma v\\rangle m_\\chi^2 < 1.82\\times 10^{-26}$, it becomes a strong indication that our universe went through a Big Bounce---instead of the inflationary phase as postulated in Standard Big Bang Cosmology---at the early stage of the cosmological evolution.

  10. Cognitive computing and big data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Bowles, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    MASTER THE ABILITY TO APPLY BIG DATA ANALYTICS TO MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF STRUCTURED AND UNSTRUCTURED DATA Cognitive computing is a technique that allows humans and computers to collaborate in order to gain insights and knowledge from data by uncovering patterns and anomalies. This comprehensive guide explains the underlying technologies, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, natural language processing, and big data analytics. It then demonstrates how you can use these technologies to transform your organization. You will explore how different vendors and different industries are a

  11. Some notes on the big trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: pedrogonzalez@mi.madritel.es

    2006-03-30

    The big trip is a cosmological process thought to occur in the future by which the entire universe would be engulfed inside a gigantic wormhole and might travel through it along space and time. In this Letter we discuss different arguments that have been raised against the viability of that process, reaching the conclusions that the process can actually occur by accretion of phantom energy onto the wormholes and that it is stable and might occur in the global context of a multiverse model. We finally argue that the big trip does not contradict any holographic bounds on entropy and information.

  12. SETI as a part of Big History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Big History is an emerging academic discipline which examines history scientifically from the Big Bang to the present. It uses a multidisciplinary approach based on combining numerous disciplines from science and the humanities, and explores human existence in the context of this bigger picture. It is taught at some universities. In a series of recent papers ([11] through [15] and [17] through [18]) and in a book [16], we developed a new mathematical model embracing Darwinian Evolution (RNA to Humans, see, in particular, [17] and Human History (Aztecs to USA, see [16]) and then we extrapolated even that into the future up to ten million years (see 18), the minimum time requested for a civilization to expand to the whole Milky Way (Fermi paradox). In this paper, we further extend that model in the past so as to let it start at the Big Bang (13.8 billion years ago) thus merging Big History, Evolution on Earth and SETI (the modern Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) into a single body of knowledge of a statistical type. Our idea is that the Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM), so far used as the key stochastic process of financial mathematics (Black-Sholes models and related 1997 Nobel Prize in Economics!) may be successfully applied to the whole of Big History. In particular, in this paper we derive book about GBMs will be written by the author. Mass Extinctions of the geological past also are one more topic that may be cast in the language of a decreasing GBM over a short time lapse, since Mass Extinctions are sudden all-lows in the number of living species. In this paper, we give formulae for the decreasing GBMs of Mass Extinctions, like the K-Pg one of 64 million years ago. Finally, we note that the Big History Equation is just the extension of the Drake Equation to 13.8 billion years of cosmic evolution. So, the relevant GBM starting at the Big Bang epoch (13.8 billion years ago) and growing up to nowadays in a stochastically increasing fashion becomes the GBM

  13. The Big Idea. Dynamic Stakeholder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Defense AT&L: November–December 2014 8 The Big IDEA Dynamic Stakeholder Management Lt. Col. Franklin D. Gaillard II, USAF Frank Gaillard, Ph.D...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE DEC 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The... Big Idea. Dynamic Stakeholder Management 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  14. How quantum is the big bang?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2008-06-06

    When quantum gravity is used to discuss the big bang singularity, the most important, though rarely addressed, question is what role genuine quantum degrees of freedom play. Here, complete effective equations are derived for isotropic models with an interacting scalar to all orders in the expansions involved. The resulting coupling terms show that quantum fluctuations do not affect the bounce much. Quantum correlations, however, do have an important role and could even eliminate the bounce. How quantum gravity regularizes the big bang depends crucially on properties of the quantum state.

  15. Comparative validity of brief to medium-length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-12-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are faced with a variety of options as to inventory length. Furthermore, a 6-factor model has been proposed to extend and update the Big Five model, in part by adding a dimension of Honesty/Humility or Honesty/Propriety. In this study, 3 popular brief to medium-length Big Five measures (NEO Five Factor Inventory, Big Five Inventory [BFI], and International Personality Item Pool), and 3 six-factor measures (HEXACO Personality Inventory, Questionnaire Big Six Scales, and a 6-factor version of the BFI) were placed in competition to best predict important student life outcomes. The effect of test length was investigated by comparing brief versions of most measures (subsets of items) with original versions. Personality questionnaires were administered to undergraduate students (N = 227). Participants' college transcripts and student conduct records were obtained 6-9 months after data was collected. Six-factor inventories demonstrated better predictive ability for life outcomes than did some Big Five inventories. Additional behavioral observations made on participants, including their Facebook profiles and cell-phone text usage, were predicted similarly by Big Five and 6-factor measures. A brief version of the BFI performed surprisingly well; across inventory platforms, increasing test length had little effect on predictive validity. Comparative validity of the models and measures in terms of outcome prediction and parsimony is discussed.

  16. BIG DATA, BIG CONSEQUENCES? EEN VERKENNING NAAR PRIVACY EN BIG DATA GEBRUIK BINNEN DE OPSPORING, VERVOLGING EN RECHTSPRAAK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.; Meulen, van der N.S.; Wisman, T.H.A.; Meij, Lisette; Zwinkels, C.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In deze verkenning is ingegaan op de privacy aspecten van Big Data analysis binnen het domein Veiligheid en Justitie. Besproken zijn toepassingen binnen de rechtspraak zoals voorspellen van uitspraken en gebruik in rechtszaken. Met betrekking tot opsporing is onder andere ingegaan op predictive poli

  17. Editorial for FGCS special issue: Big Data in the cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, V; Ramachandran, M.; Wills, G.; Walters, RJ; Li, C-S; Watters, P

    2016-01-01

    Research associated with Big Data in the Cloud will be important topic over the next few years. The topic includes work on demonstrating architectures, applications, services, experiments and simulations in the Cloud to support the cases related to adoption of Big Data. A common approach to Big Data in the Cloud to allow better access, performance and efficiency when analysing and understanding the data is to deliver Everything as a Service. Organisations adopting Big Data this way find the b...

  18. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR USING BIG DATA TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Prabin Sahoo; Dr. Nilay Yajnik

    2014-01-01

    Big data technology is getting momentum recently. There are several articles, books, blogs and discussion points to various facets of big data technology. The study in this paper focuses on big data as concept, and insights into 3 Vs such as Volume, Velocity and Variety and demonstrates their significance with respect to factors that can be processed using big data for studying customer behaviour for online users.

  19. Big data in food safety; an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Janssen, E.M.; Bouzembrak, Y.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Staats, M.

    2016-01-01

    Technology is now being developed that is able to handle vast amounts of structured and unstructured data from diverse sources and origins. These technologies are often referred to as big data, and opens new areas of research and applications that will have an increasing impact in all sectors of our

  20. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a…

  1. Functional connectomics from a "big data" perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingrui; He, Yong

    2017-02-14

    In the last decade, explosive growth regarding functional connectome studies has been observed. Accumulating knowledge has significantly contributed to our understanding of the brain's functional network architectures in health and disease. With the development of innovative neuroimaging techniques, the establishment of large brain datasets and the increasing accumulation of published findings, functional connectomic research has begun to move into the era of "big data", which generates unprecedented opportunities for discovery in brain science and simultaneously encounters various challenging issues, such as data acquisition, management and analyses. Big data on the functional connectome exhibits several critical features: high spatial and/or temporal precision, large sample sizes, long-term recording of brain activity, multidimensional biological variables (e.g., imaging, genetic, demographic, cognitive and clinic) and/or vast quantities of existing findings. We review studies regarding functional connectomics from a big data perspective, with a focus on recent methodological advances in state-of-the-art image acquisition (e.g., multiband imaging), analysis approaches and statistical strategies (e.g., graph theoretical analysis, dynamic network analysis, independent component analysis, multivariate pattern analysis and machine learning), as well as reliability and reproducibility validations. We highlight the novel findings in the application of functional connectomic big data to the exploration of the biological mechanisms of cognitive functions, normal development and aging and of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We advocate the urgent need to expand efforts directed at the methodological challenges and discuss the direction of applications in this field.

  2. Challenges of Big Data in Educational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David C.; Webb, Mary; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses four measurement challenges of data science or "big data" in educational assessments that are enabled by technology: 1. Dealing with change over time via time-based data. 2. How a digital performance space's relationships interact with learner actions, communications and products. 3. How layers of…

  3. Big data integration: scalability and sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2016-01-26

    Integration of various types of omics data is critically indispensable for addressing most important and complex biological questions. In the era of big data, however, data integration becomes increasingly tedious, time-consuming and expensive, posing a significant obstacle to fully exploit the wealth of big biological data. Here we propose a scalable and sustainable architecture that integrates big omics data through community-contributed modules. Community modules are contributed and maintained by different committed groups and each module corresponds to a specific data type, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. Based on this community-based architecture, we build Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase that integrates a variety of rice omics data from multiple community modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures, and community annotations. Taken together, such architecture achieves integration of different types of data from multiple community-contributed modules and accordingly features scalable, sustainable and collaborative integration of big data as well as low costs for database update and maintenance, thus helpful for building IC4R into a comprehensive knowledgebase covering all aspects of rice data and beneficial for both basic and translational researches.

  4. Weld manufacturing of big heat-exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeutigam, M.; Huppertz, P.H.

    1986-06-24

    The topic of this article are big heat exchangers, which are developed and constructed to minimize energy losses in plants of process engineering. Some welding specifications are discussed in detail. Some constructive details, as e.g. materials selection and vibration safety complete this contribution.

  5. BIG tahab pangaks saada / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Finansõ 19. jaan. 2005 lk. 2. Kiirlaenukontorina tegutsev Balti Investeringute Grupp tahab saada pangaks. Kommenteerivad Ain Hanschmidt, Loit Linnupõld, Indrek Neivelt ja Alvar Jõgeva. Vt. samas: Krista Taim. Väikeinvestor kiidab BIG-i soodsat protsenti; Kiirelt saadud laen tänini kukil ja suhted sugulastega sassis

  6. Quantum fields and "Big Rip" expansion singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Calderon, H; Calderon, Hector; Hiscock, William A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of quantized conformally invariant massless fields on the evolution of cosmological models containing a ``Big Rip'' future expansion singularity are examined. Quantized scalar, spinor, and vector fields are found to strengthen the accelerating expansion of such models as they approach the expansion singularity.

  7. Big physics quartet win government backing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Four major physics-based projects are among 10 to have been selected by Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for funding in the coming decade as part of its “roadmap” of big-science projects.

  8. Sign Plan : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Big Stone NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a list of...

  9. Big Data Cognition for City Emergency Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Yongxin; Wang, Weisheng

    2016-11-01

    There are many kinds of data produced in the city daily life, which operates as an elementary component of the citizen life support system. The city unexpected incidents occurs in a seemingly unpredictable patterns. With the Big Data analysis the emergency rescue can be carried out efficiently. In this paper, the Big Data cognition for city emergency rescue is studied from four perspectives. From the data volume perspective, the spatial data analysis technology is divided into two parts, the indoor data and the outdoor data. From the data velocity perspective, the big data is collected from the eyes in the sky and objects on-the-ground networks, together with demographic data. From the data variety analysis perspective, the population distribution data, the socio-economic data and model estimates are included. From the data value mining perspective, the crime model estimates are studied. In the end, the application in the big public venues emergency rescue is introduced, which is located in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

  10. GIS in the Era of Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Goodchild, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Big Data can be defined by volume, velocity, and variety. Techniques for dealing with volume have a long history in geography, but velocity and variety raise new issues. A rich background of geographic knowledge will always be essential to effective use of GIS. Spatial prediction offers new and unique opportunities, while the consumerization of GIS raises many technical, social, and educational questions.

  11. The Big Bang (one more time)

    CERN Multimedia

    Spotts, P

    2002-01-01

    For 20 years, Paul Steinhardt has played a key role in helping to write and refine the inflationary "big bang" origin of the universe. But over the past few years, he decided to see if he could come up with a plausible alternative to the prevailing notion (1 page).

  12. Feature driven survey of big data systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salma, Cigdem Avci; Tekinerdogan, Bedir; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.

    2016-01-01

    Big Data has become a very important driver for innovation and growth for various industries such as health, administration, agriculture, defence, and education. Storing and analysing large amounts of data are becoming increasingly common in many of these application areas. In general, different

  13. New 'bigs' in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurov, Artyom V. [I. Kant Russian State University, Theoretical Physics Department, 14 Al. Nevsky St., Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Martin-Moruno, Prado [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2006-12-18

    This paper contains a detailed discussion on new cosmic solutions describing the early and late evolution of a universe that is filled with a kind of dark energy that may or may not satisfy the energy conditions. The main distinctive property of the resulting space-times is that they make to appear twice the single singular events predicted by the corresponding quintessential (phantom) models in a manner which can be made symmetric with respect to the origin of cosmic time. Thus, big bang and big rip singularity are shown to take place twice, one on the positive branch of time and the other on the negative one. We have also considered dark energy and phantom energy accretion onto black holes and wormholes in the context of these new cosmic solutions. It is seen that the space-times of these holes would then undergo swelling processes leading to big trip and big hole events taking place on distinct epochs along the evolution of the universe. In this way, the possibility is considered that the past and future be connected in a non-paradoxical manner in the universes described by means of the new symmetric solutions.

  14. Big Gods: Extended prosociality or group binding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Luke W

    2016-01-01

    Big Gods are described as having a "prosocial" effect. However, this conflates parochialism (group cohesion) with cooperation extended to strangers or out-group members. An examination of the cited experimental studies indicates that religion is actually associated with increased within-group parochialism, rather than extended or universal prosociality, and that the same general mechanisms underlie both religious and secular effects.

  15. Toward effective software solutions for big biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Pjotr; de Ligt, Joep; Tarasov, Artem; Jansen, Ritsert C; Cuppen, Edwin; Bourne, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Leading scientists tell us that the problem of large data and data integration, referred to as 'big data', is acute and hurting research. Recently, Snijder et al.1 suggested a culture change in which scientists would aim to share high-dimensional data among laboratories. It is important to realize t

  16. Lifting gear crucial in Big Bang experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "On November 26 2007, the most complex scientific instrument ever built will be turned on in an attempt to rerun the Big Bang - but i would never have got off the ground - litteraly - without the hundreds of hoists and cranes on site." (1/2 page)

  17. Integrating "big data" into surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Brittany; Lipori, Gigi; Moldawer, Lyle L; Efron, Philip A

    2016-02-01

    'Big data' is the next frontier of medicine. We now have the ability to generate and analyze large quantities of healthcare data. Although interpreting and integrating this information into clinical practice poses many challenges, the potential benefits of personalized medicine are seemingly without limit.

  18. "Big Bang" project put off to 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Evans, Robert

    2007-01-01

    "First tests in a scientific project aimed at solving myteries of the universe and the "Big Bang" that created it have been put off from November to late April or early May next year, an official said on Wednesday" (1/2 page)

  19. Big data supports light rail in Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Transport planners are starting to consider how "big data" retrieved from passenger smart cards, computers and mobile phones could improve the design of urban rail networks and timetables, and improve operations by predicting ridership. Niels van Oort, assistant professor at Delft University of Tech

  20. Mining Big Data to Predicting Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Tyagi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to technological advances, vast data sets (e.g. big data are increasing now days. Big Data a new term; is used to identify the collected datasets. But due to their large size and complexity, we cannot manage with our current methodologies or data mining software tools to extract those datasets. Such datasets provide us with unparalleled opportunities for modelling and predicting of future with new challenges. So as an awareness of this and weaknesses as well as the possibilities of these large data sets, are necessary to forecast the future. Today’s we have an overwhelming growth of data in terms of volume, velocity and variety on web. Moreover this, from a security and privacy views, both area have an unpredictable growth. So Big Data challenge is becoming one of the most exciting opportunities for researchers in upcoming years. Hence this paper discuss about this topic in a broad overview like; its current status; controversy; and challenges to forecast the future. This paper defines at some of these problems, using illustrations with applications from various areas. Finally this paper discuss secure management and privacy of big data as one of essential issues.

  1. Treatment Integrity: Revisiting Some Big Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    The contributors to this special issue have helped everyone consider the next steps in building a research and practice agenda regarding the use of treatment integrity. Such an agenda must converge with the big ideas that link treatment integrity to the effectiveness of evidence-based practices (EBPs), and ultimately that of the profession. In…

  2. Science Literacy Circles: Big Ideas about Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devick-Fry, Jane; LeSage, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Science literacy circles incorporate the organization of both science notebooks and literature circles to help K-8 students internalize big ideas about science. Using science literacy circles gives students opportunities to engage in critical thinking as they inductively develop understanding about science concepts. (Contains 1 table and 7…

  3. Big Red: A Development Environment for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faithfull, Alexander John; Perrone, Gian David; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present Big Red, a visual editor for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems, based upon Eclipse. The editor integrates with several existing bigraph tools to permit simulation and model-checking of bigraphical models. We give a brief introduction to the bigraphs formalism, and show how...

  4. Big Data in High Performance Scientific Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Novăcescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of this study is to find the bottlenecks that are caused by the deluge of data, in the supercomputing community. To be more precise, the research targets the big data community, and is concentrated around identifying the new challenges posed by the huge amounts of data resulted from the numerical simulations using supercomputers.

  5. Big Data for Big Discoveries: How LHC Finds Needles by Burning Haystacks

    OpenAIRE

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Overview presentation of the CERN and LHC Experiments computing and data infrastructure and the technology evolution strategies being currently evaluated. Presented at the HPC & Big Data Conference, London on 4 Feb 2016

  6. "Big Data": Big Knowledge Gaps in the Field of Internet Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf-Dietrich Reips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on so-called ‘Big Data’ has received a considerable momentum and is expected to grow in the future. One very interesting stream of research on Big Data analyzes online networks. Many online networks are known to have some typical macro-characteristics, such as ‘small world’ properties. Much less is known about underlying micro-processes leading to these properties. The models used by Big Data researchers usually are inspired by mathematical ease of exposition. We propose to follow in addition a different strategy that leads to knowledge about micro-processes that match with actual online behavior. This knowledge can then be used for the selection of mathematically-tractable models of online network formation and evolution. Insight from social and behavioral research is needed for pursuing this strategy of knowledge generation about micro-processes. Accordingly, our proposal points to a unique role that social scientists could play in Big Data research. ...

  7. Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge & Big Stone Wetland Management District: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  8. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Notes [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to several hundreds light years on each side of the black hole, or about several thousand million million km! More information This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising

  9. Journey from Data Mining to Web Mining to Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Richa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the journey of big data starting from data mining to web mining to big data. It discusses each of this method in brief and also provides their applications. It states the importance of mining big data today using fast and novel approaches.

  10. Big data in small steps : Assessing the value of data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.F.E. van; Bakker, T.P.; Esmeijer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Data is seen as the new oil: an important driver of innovation and economic growth. At the same time, many find it difficult to determine the value of big data for their organization. TNO presents a stepwise big data model that supports private and public organizations to assess the potential of big

  11. ["Big data" - large data, a lot of knowledge?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothorn, Torsten

    2015-01-28

    Since a couple of years, the term Big Data describes technologies to extract knowledge from data. Applications of Big Data and their consequences are also increasingly discussed in the mass media. Because medicine is an empirical science, we discuss the meaning of Big Data and its potential for future medical research.

  12. 76 FR 59394 - Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration...: This notice announces the availability of the ROD to implement the Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project in Wasco County, Oregon and Klickitat County, Washington. Construction of the Big...

  13. De impact van Big Data op Internationale Betrekkingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Big Data changes our daily lives, but does it also change international politics? In this contribution, Andrej Zwitter (NGIZ chair at Groningen University) argues that Big Data impacts on international relations in ways that we only now start to understand. To comprehend how Big Data influences worl

  14. Addressing big data issues in Scientific Data Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Membrey, P.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.; Smari, W.W.; Fox, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Big Data are becoming a new technology focus both in science and in industry. This paper discusses the challenges that are imposed by Big Data on the modern and future Scientific Data Infrastructure (SDI). The paper discusses a nature and definition of Big Data that include such features as Volume,

  15. Big Ideas in Primary Mathematics: Issues and Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This article is located within the literature arguing for attention to Big Ideas in teaching and learning mathematics for understanding. The focus is on surveying the literature of Big Ideas and clarifying what might constitute Big Ideas in the primary Mathematics Curriculum based on both theoretical and pragmatic considerations. This is…

  16. Big data - a 21st century science Maginot Line? No-boundary thinking: shifting from the big data paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiuzhen; Jennings, Steven F; Bruce, Barry; Buchan, Alison; Cai, Liming; Chen, Pengyin; Cramer, Carole L; Guan, Weihua; Hilgert, Uwe Kk; Jiang, Hongmei; Li, Zenglu; McClure, Gail; McMullen, Donald F; Nanduri, Bindu; Perkins, Andy; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Salem, Saeed; Specker, Jennifer; Walker, Karl; Wunsch, Donald; Xiong, Donghai; Zhang, Shuzhong; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Zhongming; Moore, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Whether your interests lie in scientific arenas, the corporate world, or in government, you have certainly heard the praises of big data: Big data will give you new insights, allow you to become more efficient, and/or will solve your problems. While big data has had some outstanding successes, many are now beginning to see that it is not the Silver Bullet that it has been touted to be. Here our main concern is the overall impact of big data; the current manifestation of big data is constructing a Maginot Line in science in the 21st century. Big data is not "lots of data" as a phenomena anymore; The big data paradigm is putting the spirit of the Maginot Line into lots of data. Big data overall is disconnecting researchers and science challenges. We propose No-Boundary Thinking (NBT), applying no-boundary thinking in problem defining to address science challenges.

  17. Victoria Stodden: Scholarly Communication in the Era of Big Data and Big Computation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Victoria Stodden gave the keynote address for Open Access Week 2015. "Scholarly communication in the era of big data and big computation" was sponsored by the University Libraries, Computational Modeling and Data Analytics, the Department of Computer Science, the Department of Statistics, the Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Statistical Analysis (LISA), and the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. Victoria Stodden is an associate professor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Scien...

  18. Comparing Audit Quality of Big 4 and Non-Big 4 Auditors

    OpenAIRE

    PING, CHAO-WEN

    2010-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st centuries, there were many multinational corporations collapsed because of fraud. These scandals have induced concerns about audit quality even among the large international accounting firms. This study examines the quality of audit services in the Taiwanese audit market. Consistent with prior research, this paper treat audit quality as a dichotomous variable, and assume that Big 4 auditors are of higher quality than non-Big 4 auditors, as it is widely accepted...

  19. Big Data and HPC: A Happy Marriage

    KAUST Repository

    Mehmood, Rashid

    2016-01-25

    International Data Corporation (IDC) defines Big Data technologies as “a new generation of technologies and architectures, designed to economically extract value from very large volumes of a wide variety of data produced every day, by enabling high velocity capture, discovery, and/or analysis”. High Performance Computing (HPC) most generally refers to “the practice of aggregating computing power in a way that delivers much higher performance than one could get out of a typical desktop computer or workstation in order to solve large problems in science, engineering, or business”. Big data platforms are built primarily considering the economics and capacity of the system for dealing with the 4V characteristics of data. HPC traditionally has been more focussed on the speed of digesting (computing) the data. For these reasons, the two domains (HPC and Big Data) have developed their own paradigms and technologies. However, recently, these two have grown fond of each other. HPC technologies are needed by Big Data to deal with the ever increasing Vs of data in order to forecast and extract insights from existing and new domains, faster, and with greater accuracy. Increasingly more data is being produced by scientific experiments from areas such as bioscience, physics, and climate, and therefore, HPC needs to adopt data-driven paradigms. Moreover, there are synergies between them with unimaginable potential for developing new computing paradigms, solving long-standing grand challenges, and making new explorations and discoveries. Therefore, they must get married to each other. In this talk, we will trace the HPC and big data landscapes through time including their respective technologies, paradigms and major applications areas. Subsequently, we will present the factors that are driving the convergence of the two technologies, the synergies between them, as well as the benefits of their convergence to the biosciences field. The opportunities and challenges of the

  20. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  1. Fixing the Big Bang Theory's Lithium Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    How did our universe come into being? The Big Bang theory is a widely accepted and highly successful cosmological model of the universe, but it does introduce one puzzle: the cosmological lithium problem. Have scientists now found a solution?Too Much LithiumIn the Big Bang theory, the universe expanded rapidly from a very high-density and high-temperature state dominated by radiation. This theory has been validated again and again: the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation and observations of the large-scale structure of the universe both beautifully support the Big Bang theory, for instance. But one pesky trouble-spot remains: the abundance of lithium.The arrows show the primary reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and their flux ratios, as predicted by the authors model, are given on the right. Synthesizing primordial elements is complicated! [Hou et al. 2017]According to Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory, primordial nucleosynthesis ran wild during the first half hour of the universes existence. This produced most of the universes helium and small amounts of other light nuclides, including deuterium and lithium.But while predictions match the observed primordial deuterium and helium abundances, Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory overpredicts the abundance of primordial lithium by about a factor of three. This inconsistency is known as the cosmological lithium problem and attempts to resolve it using conventional astrophysics and nuclear physics over the past few decades have not been successful.In a recent publicationled by Suqing Hou (Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) and advisorJianjun He (Institute of Modern Physics National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences), however, a team of scientists has proposed an elegant solution to this problem.Time and temperature evolution of the abundances of primordial light elements during the beginning of the universe. The authors model (dotted lines

  2. Big data in Tamil: opportunities, benefits and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Raj; Khazaei, Babak; Ali, Ashik

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overall introduction on big data and has tried to introduce Big Data in Tamil. It discusses the potential opportunities, benefits and likely challenges from a very Tamil and Tamil Nadu perspective. The paper has also made original contribution by proposing the ‘big data’s’ terminology in Tamil. The paper further suggests a few areas to explore using big data Tamil on the lines of the Tamil Nadu Government ‘vision 2023’. Whilst, big data has something to offer everyone, it ...

  3. BIG DATA IN TAMIL: OPPORTUNITIES, BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Vignesh Raj; Babak Khazaei; Ashik Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overall introduction on big data and has tried to introduce Big Data in Tamil. It discusses the potential opportunities, benefits and likely challenges from a very Tamil and Tamil Nadu perspective. The paper has also made original contribution by proposing the ‘big data’s’ terminology in Tamil. The paper further suggests a few areas to explore using big data Tamil on the lines of the Tamil Nadu Government ‘vision 2023’. Whilst, big data has something to offer everyone, it ...

  4. Big Data - What is it and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Andy; Grant, Maria J

    2016-06-01

    Big data, like MOOCs, altmetrics and open access, is a term that has been commonplace in the library community for some time yet, despite its prevalence, many in the library and information sector remain unsure of the relationship between big data and their roles. This editorial explores what big data could mean for the day-to-day practice of health library and information workers, presenting examples of big data in action, considering the ethics of accessing big data sets and the potential for new roles for library and information workers.

  5. Big data are coming to psychiatry: a general introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Bauer, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Big data are coming to the study of bipolar disorder and all of psychiatry. Data are coming from providers and payers (including EMR, imaging, insurance claims and pharmacy data), from omics (genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data), and from patients and non-providers (data from smart phone and Internet activities, sensors and monitoring tools). Analysis of the big data will provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration, descriptive observation, hypothesis generation, and prediction, and the results of big data studies will be incorporated into clinical practice. Technical challenges remain in the quality, analysis and management of big data. This paper discusses some of the fundamental opportunities and challenges of big data for psychiatry.

  6. Remotely Sensed Optical Water Quality for Water Quality Assessment and Seagrass Protection in Florida's Big Bend Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P. R.; Hu, C.; Cannizarro, J.; Yarbro, L. A.; English, D. C.; Magley, W.; Charbonneau, M.; Barnes, B.

    2012-12-01

    Florida's Big Bend coastal region contains the second largest contiguous seagrass bed in the continental US. Approximately 250,000 ha of seagrass have been mapped in the region, but the total area of offshore seagrass beds might be several times greater. The Suwannee River drains a largely agricultural watershed (26,000 km2) in Georgia and Florida, and its discharge (x= 280 m3/s) affects water clarity over most of the Big Bend seagrass beds. Seagrass density, species composition and areal extent were severely affected by discharge associated with tropical cyclones in 2004 and 2005, focusing attention on this important resource and the near- and far-field impacts of the Suwannee River discharge. The Lower Suwannee River also has been identified by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection as an impaired water body due to high nitrogen and algal biomass. This project attempts to improve water quality and to protect Big Bend seagrasses by making remotely sensed optical water quality data more accessible to managers and stakeholders involved in the process of regulating nutrient loads in the Suwannee River and to provide data to assess effectiveness of management actions. To accomplish these goals, we have developed and tested new algorithms for retrieval of Kd, chlorophyll, and CDOM from Modis imagery, created a time series of optical water quality (OWQ) for the Suwannee River Estuary (SRE), and related seagrass gains and losses to annual variations in optical water quality. During two years of bimonthly ground-truth cruises, chlorophyll concentrations, Aph, Ad, and Acdom in the SRE were 0.3-38.3 mgm-3, 0.013-1.056, 0.013-0.735, and 0.042-7.24, respectively. For most locations and most cruises, CDOM was the dominant determinant of Kd. In the Modis time series, Kd488 estimates (calculated using the Quasi-Analytic Algorithm of Lee et al. 2006) covaried with Suwannee River discharge between 2002 and 2011 with an overall r2 value of 0.64. This relationship is

  7. Enhancing Big Data Value Using Knowledge Discovery Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Abdrabo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been drowned by floods of data due to technological development. Consequently, the Big Data term has gotten the expression to portray the gigantic sum. Different sorts of quick data are doubling every second. We have to profit from this enormous surge of data to convert it to knowledge. Knowledge Discovery (KDD can enhance detecting the value of Big Data based on some techniques and technologies like Hadoop, MapReduce, and NoSQL. The use of Big Data value is critical in different fields. This survey discusses the expansion of data that led the world to Big Data expression. Big Data has distinctive characteristics as volume, variety, velocity, value, veracity, variability, viscosity, virality, ambiguity, and complexity. We will describe the connection between Big Data and KDD techniques to reach data value. Big Data applications that are applied by big organizations will be discussed. Characteristics of big data will be introduced, which represent a significant challenge for Big Data management. Finally, some of the important future directions in Big Data field will be presented.

  8. WE-H-BRB-00: Big Data in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stanley

    2016-06-01

    Big Data in Radiation Oncology: (1) Overview of the NIH 2015 Big Data Workshop, (2) Where do we stand in the applications of big data in radiation oncology?, and (3) Learning Health Systems for Radiation Oncology: Needs and Challenges for Future Success The overriding goal of this trio panel of presentations is to improve awareness of the wide ranging opportunities for big data impact on patient quality care and enhancing potential for research and collaboration opportunities with NIH and a host of new big data initiatives. This presentation will also summarize the Big Data workshop that was held at the NIH Campus on August 13-14, 2015 and sponsored by AAPM, ASTRO, and NIH. The workshop included discussion of current Big Data cancer registry initiatives, safety and incident reporting systems, and other strategies that will have the greatest impact on radiation oncology research, quality assurance, safety, and outcomes analysis.

  9. Novel Cloud Architecture to Decrease Problems Related to Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entesar Althagafy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available IT companies are facing many difficulties and challenges when dealing with big data. These difficulties have surfaced due to the ever-expanding amount of data generated via personal computer, mobile devices, and social network sites. The significant increase in big data has created challenges for IT companies that need to extract necessary information and knowledge. Cloud computing, with its virtualized resources usage and dynamic scalability, is broadly used in organizations to address challenges related to big data and has an important influence on business in organizations. Furthermore, big data is changing the way organizations do business. This paper proposes novel cloud architecture to decrease problems related to big data. The proposed architecture is a combination of many big data infrastructures in the creation of a service. This architecture minimizes problems related to big data by improving performance and quality of service.

  10. Big 4 and non-Big 4 Audit Production Costs: Office Level Audit Technology and the Impact on Audit Fees

    OpenAIRE

    Sirois, Louis-Philippe; Marmousez, Sophie; Simunic, Dan,

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We empirically evaluate the degree to which Big 4 auditors achieve economies of scale resulting from investments in audit technology at the local U.S. office level and, more importantly, determine how this affects audit pricing differences between Big 4 and non-Big 4 auditors. Focusing on the U.S. audit market for small to medium sized public companies, we argue and find that, relative to non-Big 4 auditors, Big 4 audit firms benefit from economies of scale at the loca...

  11. MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES USED IN BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFANIA LOREDANA NITA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical tools used in data analysis are not enough in order to benefit of all advantages of big data. The amount of information is too large for a complete investigation, and the possible connections and relations between data could be missed, because it is difficult or even impossible to verify all assumption over the information. Machine learning is a great solution in order to find concealed correlations or relationships between data, because it runs at scale machine and works very well with large data sets. The more data we have, the more the machine learning algorithm is useful, because it “learns” from the existing data and applies the found rules on new entries. In this paper, we present some machine learning algorithms and techniques used in big data.

  12. Accelerating Iterative Big Data Computing Through MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁帆; 鲁小亿

    2015-01-01

    Current popular systems, Hadoop and Spark, cannot achieve satisfied performance because of the inefficient overlapping of computation and communication when running iterative big data applications. The pipeline of computing, data movement, and data management plays a key role for current distributed data computing systems. In this paper, we first analyze the overhead of shuffle operation in Hadoop and Spark when running PageRank workload, and then propose an event-driven pipeline and in-memory shuffle design with better overlapping of computation and communication as DataMPI-Iteration, an MPI-based library, for iterative big data computing. Our performance evaluation shows DataMPI-Iteration can achieve 9X∼21X speedup over Apache Hadoop, and 2X∼3X speedup over Apache Spark for PageRank and K-means.

  13. The Life Between Big Data Log Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Veletsianos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Big data from massive open online courses (MOOCs have enabled researchers to examine learning processes at almost infinite levels of granularity. Yet, such data sets do not track every important element in the learning process. Many strategies that MOOC learners use to overcome learning challenges are not captured in clickstream and log data. In this study, we interviewed 92 MOOC learners to better understand their worlds, investigate possible mechanisms of student attrition, and extend conversations about the use of big data in education. Findings reveal three important domains of the experience of MOOC students that are absent from MOOC tracking logs: the practices at learners’ workstations, learners’ activities online but off-platform, and the wider social context of their lives beyond the MOOC. These findings enrich our understanding of learner agency in MOOCs, clarify the spaces in-between recorded tracking log events, and challenge the view that MOOC learners are disembodied autodidacts.

  14. Big Crunch-based omnidirectional light concentrators

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2014-01-01

    Omnidirectional light concentration remains an unsolved problem despite such important practical applications as design of efficient mobile photovoltaic cells. Optical black hole designs developed recently offer partial solution to this problem. However, even these solutions are not truly omnidirectional since they do not exhibit a horizon, and at large enough incidence angles light may be trapped into quasi-stationary orbits around such imperfect optical black holes. Here we propose and realize experimentally another gravity-inspired design of a broadband omnidirectional light concentrator based on the cosmological Big Crunch solutions. By mimicking the Big Crunch spacetime via corresponding effective optical metric we make sure that every photon world line terminates in a single point.

  15. Livermore Big Trees Park: 1998 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Queen, D; Gallegos, G; Surano, K

    2002-04-18

    This report is an in-depth study of results from environmental sampling conducted in 1998 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Big Trees Park in the city of Livermore. The purpose of the sampling was to determine the extent and origin of plutonium found in soil at concentrations above fallout-background levels in the park. This report describes the sampling that was conducted, the chemical and radio-chemical analyses of the samples, the quality control assessments and statistical analyses of the analytical results, and LLNL's interpretations of the results. It includes a number of data analyses not presented in LLNL's previous reports on Big Trees Park.

  16. Traffic measurement for big network data

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shigang; Xiao, Qingjun

    2017-01-01

    This book presents several compact and fast methods for online traffic measurement of big network data. It describes challenges of online traffic measurement, discusses the state of the field, and provides an overview of the potential solutions to major problems. The authors introduce the problem of per-flow size measurement for big network data and present a fast and scalable counter architecture, called Counter Tree, which leverages a two-dimensional counter sharing scheme to achieve far better memory efficiency and significantly extend estimation range. Unlike traditional approaches to cardinality estimation problems that allocate a separated data structure (called estimator) for each flow, this book takes a different design path by viewing all the flows together as a whole: each flow is allocated with a virtual estimator, and these virtual estimators share a common memory space. A framework of virtual estimators is designed to apply the idea of sharing to an array of cardinality estimation solutions, achi...

  17. Information granularity, big data, and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The recent pursuits emerging in the realm of big data processing, interpretation, collection and organization have emerged in numerous sectors including business, industry, and government organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather monitoring, intelligence gathering, quickly outpace the capacities of traditional techniques and tools of data analysis. The 3V (volume, variability and velocity) challenges led to the emergence of new techniques and tools in data visualization, acquisition, and serialization. Soft Computing being regarded as a plethora of technologies of fuzzy sets (or Granular Computing), neurocomputing and evolutionary optimization brings forward a number of unique features that might be instrumental to the development of concepts and algorithms to deal with big data. This carefully edited volume provides the reader with an updated, in-depth material on the emerging principles, conceptual underpinnings, algorithms and practice of Computational Intelligenc...

  18. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats - ICREA and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurov, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-23

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time ('phantom energy' without 'Big Rip' singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time ('cosmological constant' with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  19. Astronomy in the Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fields of Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics are vital for dealing with the big data issues now faced by astronomy. Like other disciplines in the big data era, astronomy has many V characteristics. In this paper, we list the different data mining algorithms used in astronomy, along with data mining software and tools related to astronomical applications. We present SDSS, a project often referred to by other astronomical projects, as the most successful sky survey in the history of astronomy and describe the factors influencing its success. We also discuss the success of Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics organizations and the conferences and summer schools on these issues that are held annually. All the above indicates that astronomers and scientists from other areas are ready to face the challenges and opportunities provided by massive data volume.

  20. Big Data Analytics in Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Leo; Lu, Bo; Castillo, Ivan

    2017-02-27

    Big data analytics is the journey to turn data into insights for more informed business and operational decisions. As the chemical engineering community is collecting more data (volume) from different sources (variety), this journey becomes more challenging in terms of using the right data and the right tools (analytics) to make the right decisions in real time (velocity). This article highlights recent big data advancements in five industries, including chemicals, energy, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food, and then discusses technical, platform, and culture challenges. To reach the next milestone in multiplying successes to the enterprise level, government, academia, and industry need to collaboratively focus on workforce development and innovation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 8 is June 7, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.