WorldWideScience

Sample records for big rip singularity

  1. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats - ICREA and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurov, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-23

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time ('phantom energy' without 'Big Rip' singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time ('cosmological constant' with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  2. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Yurov, Artyom V.

    2012-01-01

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time (“phantom energy” without “Big Rip” singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time (“cosmological constant” with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  3. Necessary and sufficient conditions for big bangs, bounces, crunches, rips, sudden singularities and extremality events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattoen, Celine; Visser, Matt

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, the physically relevant singularities occurring in FRW cosmologies had traditionally been thought to be limited to the 'big bang', and possibly a 'big crunch'. However, over the last few years, the zoo of cosmological singularities considered in the literature has become considerably more extensive, with 'big rips' and 'sudden singularities' added to the mix, as well as renewed interest in nonsingular cosmological events such as 'bounces' and 'turnarounds'. In this paper we present an extensive catalogue of such cosmological milestones, both at the kinematical and dynamical level. First, using generalized power series, purely kinematical definitions of these cosmological events are provided in terms of the behaviour of the scale factor a(t). The notion of a 'scale-factor singularity' is defined, and its relation to curvature singularities (polynomial and differential) is explored. Second, dynamical information is extracted by using the Friedmann equations (without assuming even the existence of any equation of state) to place constraints on whether or not the classical energy conditions are satisfied at the cosmological milestones. We use these considerations to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of cosmological milestones such as bangs, bounces, crunches, rips, sudden singularities and extremality events. Since the classification is extremely general and, modulo certain technical assumptions, is complete, the corresponding results are to a high degree model independent: in particular, we provide a characterization of the class of bangs, crunches and sudden singularities for which the dominant energy condition is satisfied

  4. Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behaviour is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

  5. The quantum realm of the ''Little Sibling'' of the Big Rip singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarran, Imanol; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Cabral, Francisco; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the quantum behaviour of the ''Little Sibling'' of the Big Rip singularity (LSBR) [1]. The quantisation is carried within the geometrodynamical approach given by the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) equation. The classical model is based on a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Universe filled by a perfect fluid that can be mapped to a scalar field with phantom character. We analyse the WDW equation in two setups. In the first step, we consider the scale factor as the single degree of freedom, which from a classical perspective parametrises both the geometry and the matter content given by the perfect fluid. We then solve the WDW equation within a WKB approximation, for two factor ordering choices. On the second approach, we consider the WDW equation with two degrees of freedom: the scale factor and a scalar field. We solve the WDW equation, with the Laplace-Beltrami factor-ordering, using a Born-Oppenheimer approximation. In both approaches, we impose the DeWitt (DW) condition as a potential criterion for singularity avoidance. We conclude that in all the cases analysed the DW condition can be verified, which might be an indication that the LSBR can be avoided or smoothed in the quantum approach

  6. Comment on 'Effects of quantized scalar fields in cosmological spacetimes with big rip singularities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, Jaume; Amoros, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    There are two nonequivalent ways to check if quantum effects in the context of semiclassical gravity can moderate or even cancel the final singularity appearing in a universe filled with dark energy: The method followed in [J. D. Bates and P. R. Anderson, Phys. Rev. D 82, 024018 (2010).] is to introduce the classical Friedmann solution in the energy density of the quantum field, and to compare the result with the density of dark energy determined by the Friedmann equation. The method followed in this comment is to solve directly the semiclassical equations. The results obtained by either method are very different, leading to opposed conclusions. The authors of [J. D. Bates and P. R. Anderson, Phys. Rev. D 82, 024018 (2010)] find that for a perfect fluid with state equation p=ωρ and ω<-1 (phantom fluid), considering realistic values of ω leads to a quantum field energy density that remains small compared to the dark energy density until the curvature reaches the Planck scale or higher, at which point the semiclassical approach stops being valid. The conclusion is that quantum effects do not affect significantly the expansion of the universe until the scalar curvature reaches the Planck scale. In this comment we will show by numerical integration of the semiclassical equations that quantum effects modify drastically the expansion of the universe from an early point. We also present an analytic argument explaining why the method of [J. D. Bates and P. R. Anderson, Phys. Rev. D 82, 024018 (2010)] fails to detect this. The units employed are the same as in [J. D. Bates and P. R. Anderson, Phys. Rev. D 82, 024018 (2010)] (c=(ℎ/2π)=G=1).

  7. Bohmian quantization of the big rip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Pantoja, Diego Moraes

    2009-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that minisuperspace quantization of homogeneous and isotropic geometries with phantom scalar fields, when examined in the light of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation of quantum mechanics, does not eliminate, in general, the classical big rip singularity present in the classical model. For some values of the Hamilton-Jacobi separation constant present in a class of quantum state solutions of the Wheeler-De Witt equation, the big rip can be either completely eliminated or may still constitute a future attractor for all expanding solutions. This is contrary to the conclusion presented in [M. P. Dabrowski, C. Kiefer, and B. Sandhofer, Phys. Rev. D 74, 044022 (2006).], using a different interpretation of the wave function, where the big rip singularity is completely eliminated ('smoothed out') through quantization, independently of such a separation constant and for all members of the above mentioned class of solutions. This is an example of the very peculiar situation where different interpretations of the same quantum state of a system are predicting different physical facts, instead of just giving different descriptions of the same observable facts: in fact, there is nothing more observable than the fate of the whole Universe.

  8. Alternative mechanism of avoiding the big rip or little rip for a scalar phantom field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Ping; Zhai Xianghua; Li Xinzhou

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the choice of its potential, the scalar phantom field φ (the equation of state parameter w 2 correction. The singularity is avoidable under all these potentials. Hence, we conclude that the avoidance of big or little rip is hardly dependent on special potential.

  9. Dark energy, wormholes, and the big rip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraoni, V.; Israel, W.

    2005-01-01

    The time evolution of a wormhole in a Friedmann universe approaching the big rip is studied. The wormhole is modeled by a thin spherical shell accreting the superquintessence fluid--two different models are presented. Contrary to recent claims that the wormhole overtakes the expansion of the universe and engulfs it before the big rip is reached, it is found that the wormhole becomes asymptotically comoving with the cosmic fluid and the future evolution of the universe is fully causal

  10. The Big Bang Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  11. Pillow seal system at the BigRIPS separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K., E-mail: ktanaka@riken.jp; Inabe, N.; Yoshida, K.; Kusaka, K.; Kubo, T.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Pillow seal system has been installed for a high-intensity RI-beam facility at RIKEN. • It is aimed at facilitating remote maintenance under high residual radiation. • Local radiation shields are integrated with one of the pillow seals. • Pillow seals have been aligned to the beam axis within 1mm accuracy. • A leakage rate of 10{sup –9} Pa m{sup 3}/s has been achieved with our pillow seal system. -- Abstract: We have designed and installed a pillow seal system for the BigRIPS fragment separator at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) to facilitate remote maintenance in a radioactive environment. The pillow seal system is a device to connect a vacuum chamber and a beam tube. It allows quick attachment and detachment of vacuum connections in the BigRIPS separator and consists of a double diaphragm with a differential pumping system. The leakage rate achieved with this system is as low as 10{sup –9} Pa m{sup 3}/s. We have also designed and installed a local radiation-shielding system, integrated with the pillow seal system, to protect the superconducting magnets and to reduce the heat load on the cryogenic system. We present an overview of the pillow seal and the local shielding systems.

  12. Mechanism of avoiding little rip

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAI Xianghua; XI Ping

    2014-01-01

    The scalar phantom field Φ leads to various catastrophic fates of the universe including big rip,little rip and other future singularity depending on the choice of its potential.For example,little rip stems from a quadratic potential in general relativity.We suggest a new mechanism to avoid little rip in the 1/R gravity.The phantom field with different potentials,including quadratic,cubic and quantic potentials are studied via numerical calculation in the 1/R gravity with R2 correction.T...

  13. Phantom dark energy and cosmological solutions without the Big Bang singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baushev, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis is rapidly gaining popularity that the dark energy pervading our universe is extra-repulsive (-p>ρ). The density of such a substance (usually called phantom energy) grows with the cosmological expansion and may become infinite in a finite time producing a Big Rip. In this Letter we analyze the late stages of the universe evolution and demonstrate that the presence of the phantom energy in the universe is not enough in itself to produce the Big Rip. This singularity occurrence requires the fulfillment of some additional, rather strong conditions. A more probable outcome of the cosmological evolution is the decay of the phantom field into 'normal' matter. The second, more intriguing consequence of the presence of the phantom field is the possibility to introduce a cosmological scenario that does not contain a Big Bang. In the framework of this model the universe eternally expands, while its density and other physical parameters oscillate over a wide range, never reaching the Plank values. Thus, the universe evolution has no singularities at all.

  14. Duality gives rise to Chaplygin cosmologies with a big rip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We consider modifications to the Friedmann equation motivated by recent proposals along these lines pursuing an explanation to the observed late time acceleration. Here we show that these approaches can be framed within a theory with modified gravity, and we discuss the construction of the duals of the cosmologies generated within that framework. We then investigate the modifications required to generate extended, generalized and modified Chaplygin cosmologies, and then show that their duals belong to a larger family of cosmologies we call enlarged Chaplygin cosmologies. Finally, by letting the parameters of these models take values not earlier considered in the literature we show that some representatives of that family of cosmologies display sudden future singularities. This fact indicates that the behaviour of these spacetimes is rather different from that of generalized or modified Chaplygin gas cosmologies. This reinforces the idea that modifications of gravity can be responsible for unexpected evolutionary features in the universe

  15. Further holographic investigations of big bang singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Hertog, Thomas [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven,3001 Leuven (Belgium); Horowitz, Gary T. [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-07-09

    We further explore the quantum dynamics near past cosmological singularities in anisotropic Kasner-AdS solutions using gauge/gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution involves N=4 super Yang-Mills on the contracting branch of an anisotropic de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlator between two points separated in a direction with negative Kasner exponent p always exhibits a pole at horizon scales, in any dimension, which we interpret as a dual signature of the classical bulk singularity. This indicates that the geodesic approximation selects a non-normalizable Yang-Mills state.

  16. Further holographic investigations of big bang singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Hertog, Thomas; Horowitz, Gary T.

    2015-07-01

    We further explore the quantum dynamics near past cosmological singularities in anisotropic Kasner-AdS solutions using gauge/gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution involves super Yang-Mills on the contracting branch of an anisotropic de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlator between two points separated in a direction with negative Kasner exponent p always exhibits a pole at horizon scales, in any dimension, which we interpret as a dual signature of the classical bulk singularity. This indicates that the geodesic approximation selects a non-normalizable Yang-Mills state.

  17. Holographic Ricci dark energy in Randall-Sundrum braneworld: Avoidance of big rip and steady state future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chaojun; Zhang Xin

    2009-01-01

    In the holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model, the parameter α plays an important role in determining the evolutionary behavior of the dark energy. When α<1/2, the RDE will exhibit a quintom feature, i.e., the equation of state of dark energy will evolve across the cosmological constant boundary w=-1. Observations show that the parameter α is indeed smaller than 1/2, so the late-time evolution of RDE will be really like a phantom energy. Therefore, it seems that the big rip is inevitable in this model. On the other hand, the big rip is actually inconsistent with the theoretical framework of the holographic model of dark energy. To avoid the big rip, we appeal to the extra dimension physics. In this Letter, we investigate the cosmological evolution of the RDE in the braneworld cosmology. It is of interest to find that for the far future evolution of RDE in a Randall-Sundrum braneworld, there is an attractor solution where the steady state (de Sitter) finale occurs, in stead of the big rip.

  18. Confronting dark energy models mimicking ΛCDM epoch with observational constraints: Future cosmological perturbations decay or future Rip?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2013-01-01

    We confront dark energy models which are currently similar to ΛCDM theory with observational data which include the SNe data, matter density perturbations and baryon acoustic oscillations data. DE cosmology under consideration may evolve to Big Rip, type II or type III future singularity, or to Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. It is shown that matter perturbations data define more precisely the possible deviation from ΛCDM model than consideration of SNe data only. The combined data analysis proves that DE models under consideration are as consistent as ΛCDM model. We demonstrate that growth of matter density perturbations may occur at sufficiently small background density but still before the possible disintegration of bound objects (like clusters of galaxies, galaxies, etc.) in Big Rip, type III singularity, Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. This new effect may bring the future universe to chaotic state well before disintegration or Rip.

  19. Investigating the little rip and other future singularities of the universe, and validity of the second law of thermodynamics in F(R theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aghaei Abchouyeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The future singularities are possible in a universe that is described by F(R theory. In previous studies the occurrence of the singularities in F(R theory have been considered by using a special function for the Hubble parameter and calculating the F(R function for each of the singularities. Using the specified Hubble parameter causes some difficulties in the study of the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper by using the scale factor, the behavior of F(R function near each type of the singularities is considered. We can check the validity of the second law of thermodynamics near the singularities. At first we study the Little Rip and then the other types of singularities are considered. The results show that the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied near the singularity type (I with some special conditions and is violated with some other conditions. it is satisfied near the Little Rip, type (II, (III and (IV singularities

  20. Regularization of the big bang singularity with random perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbruno, Edward; Xue, BingKan

    2018-03-01

    We show how to regularize the big bang singularity in the presence of random perturbations modeled by Brownian motion using stochastic methods. We prove that the physical variables in a contracting universe dominated by a scalar field can be continuously and uniquely extended through the big bang as a function of time to an expanding universe only for a discrete set of values of the equation of state satisfying special co-prime number conditions. This result significantly generalizes a previous result (Xue and Belbruno 2014 Class. Quantum Grav. 31 165002) that did not model random perturbations. This result implies that the extension from a contracting to an expanding universe for the discrete set of co-prime equation of state is robust, which is a surprising result. Implications for a purely expanding universe are discussed, such as a non-smooth, randomly varying scale factor near the big bang.

  1. Light-like big bang singularities in string and matrix theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Important open questions in cosmology require a better understanding of the big bang singularity. In string and matrix theories, light-like analogues of cosmological singularities (singular plane wave backgrounds) turn out to be particularly tractable. We give a status report on the current understanding of such light-like big bang models, presenting both solved and open problems.

  2. ``All that Matter ... in One Big Bang ...'', &Other Cosmological Singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2018-02-01

    The first part of this paper contains a brief description of the beginnings of modern cosmology, which, the author will argue, was most likely born in the Year 1912. Some of the pieces of evidence presented here have emerged from recent research in the history of science, and are not usually shared with the general audiences in popular science books. In special, the issue of the correct formulation of the original Big Bang concept, according to the precise words of Fred Hoyle, is discussed. Too often, this point is very deficiently explained (when not just misleadingly) in most of the available generalist literature. Other frequent uses of the same words, Big Bang, as to name the initial singularity of the cosmos, and also whole cosmological models, are then addressed, as evolutions of its original meaning. Quantum and inflationary additions to the celebrated singularity theorems by Penrose, Geroch, Hawking and others led to subsequent results by Borde, Guth and Vilenkin. And corresponding corrections to the Einstein field equations have originated, in particular, $R^2$, $f(R)$, and scalar-tensor gravities, giving rise to a plethora of new singularities. For completeness, an updated table with a classification of the same is given.

  3. The cosmological constant filter without big bang singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In the recently proposed cosmological constant (CC) filter mechanism based on modified gravity in the Palatini formalism, gravity in the radiation, matter and late-time de Sitter eras is insensitive to energy sources with the equation of state -1. This implies that finite vacuum energy shifts from phase transitions are filtered out too. In this work, we investigate the CC filter model at very early times. We find that the initial big bang singularity is replaced by a cosmic bounce, where the matter energy density and the curvature are finite. In a certain case, this finiteness can be already observed on the algebraic level. (paper)

  4. Tachyon cosmology, supernovae data, and the big brake singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Z.; Gergely, L. A.; Gorini, V.; Moschella, U.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu.

    2009-01-01

    We compare the existing observational data on type Ia supernovae with the evolutions of the Universe predicted by a one-parameter family of tachyon models which we have introduced recently [Phys. Rev. D 69, 123512 (2004)]. Among the set of the trajectories of the model which are compatible with the data there is a consistent subset for which the Universe ends up in a new type of soft cosmological singularity dubbed big brake. This opens up yet another scenario for the future history of the Universe besides the one predicted by the standard ΛCDM model.

  5. Cosmological BCS mechanism and the big bang singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephon; Biswas, Tirthabir

    2009-07-01

    We provide a novel mechanism that resolves the big bang singularity present in Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-times without the need for ghost fields. Building on the fact that a four-fermion interaction arises in general relativity when fermions are covariantly coupled, we show that at early times the decrease in scale factor enhances the correlation between pairs of fermions. This enhancement leads to a BCS-like condensation of the fermions and opens a gap dynamically driving the Hubble parameter H to zero and results in a nonsingular bounce, at least in some special cases.

  6. The Avoidance of the Little Sibling of the Big Rip Abrupt Event by a Quantum Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanol Albarran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We address the quantisation of a model that induces the Little Sibling of the Big Rip (LSBR abrupt event, where the dark energy content is described by means of a phantom-like fluid or a phantom scalar field. The quantisation is done in the framework of the Wheeler–DeWitt (WDW equation and imposing the DeWitt boundary condition; i.e., the wave function vanishes close to the abrupt event. We analyse the WDW equation within two descriptions: First, when the dark energy content is described with a perfect fluid. This leaves the problem with the scale factor as the single degree of freedom. Second, when the dark energy content is described with a phantom scalar field in such a way that an additional degree of freedom is incorporated. Here, we have applied the Born–Oppenheimer (BO approximation in order to simplify the WDW equation. In all cases, the obtained wave function vanishes when the LSBR takes place, thus fulfilling the DeWitt boundary condition.

  7. Spacetime averaging of exotic singularity universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a spacetime average as a measure of the strength of singularities we show that big-rips (type I) are stronger than big-bangs. The former have infinite spacetime averages while the latter have them equal to zero. The sudden future singularities (type II) and w-singularities (type V) have finite spacetime averages. The finite scale factor (type III) singularities for some values of the parameters may have an infinite average and in that sense they may be considered stronger than big-bangs.

  8. Classical propagation of strings across a big crunch/big bang singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    One of the simplest time-dependent solutions of M theory consists of nine-dimensional Euclidean space times 1+1-dimensional compactified Milne space-time. With a further modding out by Z 2 , the space-time represents two orbifold planes which collide and re-emerge, a process proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang [J. Khoury, B. A. Ovrut, P. J. Steinhardt, and N. Turok, Phys. Rev. D 64, 123522 (2001).][P. J. Steinhardt and N. Turok, Science 296, 1436 (2002).][N. Turok, M. Perry, and P. J. Steinhardt, Phys. Rev. D 70, 106004 (2004).]. When the two planes are near, the light states of the theory consist of winding M2-branes, describing fundamental strings in a particular ten-dimensional background. They suffer no blue-shift as the M theory dimension collapses, and their equations of motion are regular across the transition from big crunch to big bang. In this paper, we study the classical evolution of fundamental strings across the singularity in some detail. We also develop a simple semiclassical approximation to the quantum evolution which allows one to compute the quantum production of excitations on the string and implement it in a simplified example

  9. Can non-commutativity resolve the big-bang singularity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceda, M.; Madore, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Paris-Sud, Batiment 211, 91405, Orsay (France); Manousselis, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Patras, 26110, Patras (Greece); Physics Department, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, 157 80, Zografou, Athens (Greece); Zoupanos, G. [Physics Department, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, 157 80, Zografou, Athens (Greece); Theory Division, CERN, 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2004-08-01

    A possible way to resolve the singularities of general relativity is proposed based on the assumption that the description of space-time using commuting coordinates is not valid above a certain fundamental scale. Beyond that scale it is assumed that the space-time has non-commutative structure leading in turn to a resolution of the singularity. As a first attempt towards realizing the above programme a modification of the Kasner metric is constructed which is commutative only at large time scales. At small time scales, near the singularity, the commutation relations among the space coordinates diverge. We interpret this result as meaning that the singularity has been completely delocalized. (orig.)

  10. Can noncommutativity resolve the Big-Bang singularity?

    CERN Document Server

    Maceda, M; Manousselis, P; Zoupanos, George

    2004-01-01

    A possible way to resolve the singularities of general relativity is proposed based on the assumption that the description of space-time using commuting coordinates is not valid above a certain fundamental scale. Beyond that scale it is assumed that the space-time has noncommutative structure leading in turn to a resolution of the singularity. As a first attempt towards realizing the above programme a noncommutative version of the Kasner metric is constructed which is nonsingular at all scales and becomes commutative at large length scales.

  11. Beyond the Friedmann—Lemaître—Robertson—Walker Big Bang Singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, Cristi

    2012-01-01

    Einstein's equation, in its standard form, breaks down at the Big Bang singularity. A new version, equivalent to Einstein's whenever the latter is defined, but applicable in wider situations, is proposed. The new equation remains smooth at the Big Bang singularity of the Friedmann—Lemaître—Robertson—Walker model. It is a tensor equation defined in terms of the Ricci part of the Riemann curvature. It is obtained by taking the Kulkarni—Nomizu product between Einstein's equation and the metric tensor.

  12. Five-dimensional null-cone structure of big bang singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauro, S.; Schucking, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Friedmann model PHI of positive space curvature, vanishing pressure and cosmological constant when isometrically imbedded as a hypersurface in five-dimensional Minkowski space M 5 is globally rigid: if F(PHI) and F'(PHI) are isometric embeddings in M 5 there is a motion π of M 5 such that F'=π 0 F. The big bang singularity is the vertex of a null half-cone in M 5 . Global rigidity leads to an invariant characterization of the singularity. The structure of matter at the singularity is governed by the de Sitter group. (author)

  13. Five-dimensional null-cone structure of big bang singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauro, S.; Schucking, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    The Friedmann model PHI of positive space curvature, vanishing pressure and cosmological constant when isometrically imbedded as a hypersurface in five-dimensional Minkowski space MV is globally rigid: if F(PHI) and F'(PHI) are isometric embeddings in MV there is a motion of MV such that F'= F. The big bang singularity is the vertex of a null half-cone in MV. Global rigidity leads to an invariant characterization of the singularity. The structure of matter at the singularity is governed by the de Sitter group.

  14. Resolution of cosmological singularity and a plausible mechanism of the big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    The initial cosmological singularity in the framework of the general theory of relativity is resolved by introducing the effect of the uncertainty principle of quantum theory without violating conventional laws of physics. A plausible account of the mechanism of the big bang, analogous to that of a nuclear explosion, is given and the currently accepted Planck temperature of ≅10 32 K at the beginning of the big bang is predicted

  15. Initial conditions and the structure of the singularity in pre-big-bang cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feinstein, A.; Kunze, K.E.; Vazquez-Mozo, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a picture, within the pre-big-bang approach, in which the universe emerges from a bath of plane gravitational and dilatonic waves. The waves interact gravitationally breaking the exact plane symmetry and lead generically to gravitational collapse resulting in a singularity with the

  16. Resolution of Cosmological Singularity and a Plausible Mechanism of the Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    The initial cosmological singularity in the framework of the general theory of relativity is resolved by introducing the effect of the uncertainty principle of quantum theory without violating conventional laws of physics. A plausible account of the mechanism of the big bang, analogous to that of a nuclear explosion, is given and the currently accepted Planck temperature of about 10^(32)K at the beginning of the big bang is predicted. Subj-class: cosmology: theory-pre-big bang; mechanism of t...

  17. Quantum Oscillations Can Prevent the Big Bang Singularity in an Einstein-Dirac Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Hainzl, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic system of Dirac particles coupled to classical gravity. The dust and radiation dominated closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times are recovered as limiting cases. We find a mechanism where quantum oscillations of the Dirac wave functions can prevent the formation of the big bang or big crunch singularity. Thus before the big crunch, the collapse of the universe is stopped by quantum effects and reversed to an expansion, so that the universe opens up entering a new era of classical behavior. Numerical examples of such space-times are given, and the dependence on various parameters is discussed. Generically, one has a collapse after a finite number of cycles. By fine-tuning the parameters we construct an example of a space-time which satisfies the dominant energy condition and is time-periodic, thus running through an infinite number of contraction and expansion cycles.

  18. Through the big bang: Continuing Einstein's equations beyond a cosmological singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslowski, Tim A.; Mercati, Flavio; Sloan, David

    2018-03-01

    All measurements are comparisons. The only physically accessible degrees of freedom (DOFs) are dimensionless ratios. The objective description of the universe as a whole thus predicts only how these ratios change collectively as one of them is changed. Here we develop a description for classical Bianchi IX cosmology implementing these relational principles. The objective evolution decouples from the volume and its expansion degree of freedom. We use the relational description to investigate both vacuum dominated and quiescent Bianchi IX cosmologies. In the vacuum dominated case the relational dynamical system predicts an infinite amount of change of the relational DOFs, in accordance with the well known chaotic behaviour of Bianchi IX. In the quiescent case the relational dynamical system evolves uniquely though the point where the decoupled scale DOFs predict the big bang/crunch. This is a non-trivial prediction of the relational description; the big bang/crunch is not the end of physics - it is instead a regular point of the relational evolution. Describing our solutions as spacetimes that satisfy Einstein's equations, we find that the relational dynamical system predicts two singular solutions of GR that are connected at the hypersurface of the singularity such that relational DOFs are continuous and the orientation of the spatial frame is inverted.

  19. Status of beam line detectors for the BigRIPS fragment separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. Issues on high rates and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) and parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were installed within the superconducting in-flight separator, named BigRIPS, at the RIKEN Nishina Center for particle identification of RI beams. The MUSIC detector showed negligible charge collection inefficiency from recombination of electrons and ions, up to a 99-kcps incidence rate for high-energy heavy ions. For the PPAC detectors, the electrical discharge durability for incident heavy ions was improved by changing the electrode material. Finally, we designed a single crystal diamond detector, which is under development for TOF measurements of high-energy heavy ions, that has a very fast response time (pulse width <1 ns). (author)

  20. Status of Beam Line Detectors for the BigRIPS Fragment Separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory: Issues on High Rates and Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kameda, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yohei; Ahn, DeukSoon; Murai, Daichi; Inabe, Naohito; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi; Kumagai, Hidekazu; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiromi; Yoshida, Koichi; Kubo, Toshiyuki

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) and parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were installed within the superconducting in-flight separator, named BigRIPS, at the RIKEN Nishina Center for particle identification of RI beams. The MUSIC detector showed negligible charge collection inefficiency from recombination of electrons and ions, up to a 99-kcps incidence rate for high-energy heavy ions. For the PPAC detectors, the electrical discharge durability for incident heavy ions was improved by changing the electrode material. Finally, we designed a single crystal diamond detector, which is under development for TOF measurements of high-energy heavy ions, that has a very fast response time (pulse width <1 ns).

  1. Singularities in cosmologies with interacting fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kittou, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics near finite-time singularities of flat isotropic universes filled with two interacting but otherwise arbitrary perfect fluids. The overall dynamical picture reveals a variety of asymptotic solutions valid locally around the spacetime singularity. We find the attractor of all solutions with standard decay, and for ‘phantom’ matter asymptotically at early times. We give a number of special asymptotic solutions describing universes collapsing to zero size and others ending at a big rip singularity. We also find a very complicated singularity corresponding to a logarithmic branch point that resembles a cyclic universe, and give an asymptotic local series representation of the general solution in the neighborhood of infinity.

  2. How far is it to a sudden future singularity of pressure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaPbrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz; Hendry, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the constraints coming from current observations of type Ia supernovae on cosmological models which allow sudden future singularities of pressure (with the scale factor and the energy density regular). We show that such a sudden singularity may happen in the very near future (e.g. within 10x10 6 years) and its prediction at the present moment of cosmic evolution cannot be distinguished, with current observational data, from the prediction given by the standard quintessence scenario of future evolution. Fortunately, sudden future singularities are characterized by a momentary peak of infinite tidal forces only; there is no geodesic incompleteness, which means that the evolution of the universe may eventually be continued throughout until another 'more serious' singularity such as a big crunch or big rip

  3. New class of inhomogeneous cosmological perfect-fluid solutions without big-bang singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senovilla, J.M.M. (Grupo de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria y Radiologia Medica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salmanaca (Spain))

    1990-05-07

    A new class of exact solutions to Einstein's field equations with a perfect-fluid source is presented. The solutions describe spatially inhomogeneous cosmological models and have a realistic equation of state {ital p}={rho}/3. The properties of the solutions are discussed. The most remarkable feature is the absence of an initial singularity, the curvature and matter invariants being regular and smooth everywhere. We also present an alternative interpretation of the solution as a globally regular cylindrically symmetric space-time.

  4. New 'bigs' in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, Artyom V.; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper contains a detailed discussion on new cosmic solutions describing the early and late evolution of a universe that is filled with a kind of dark energy that may or may not satisfy the energy conditions. The main distinctive property of the resulting space-times is that they make to appear twice the single singular events predicted by the corresponding quintessential (phantom) models in a manner which can be made symmetric with respect to the origin of cosmic time. Thus, big bang and big rip singularity are shown to take place twice, one on the positive branch of time and the other on the negative one. We have also considered dark energy and phantom energy accretion onto black holes and wormholes in the context of these new cosmic solutions. It is seen that the space-times of these holes would then undergo swelling processes leading to big trip and big hole events taking place on distinct epochs along the evolution of the universe. In this way, the possibility is considered that the past and future be connected in a non-paradoxical manner in the universes described by means of the new symmetric solutions

  5. More on the holographic Ricci dark energy model: smoothing Rips through interaction effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Errahmani, Ahmed; Ouali, Taoufik; Tavakoli, Yaser

    2018-04-01

    The background cosmological dynamics of the late Universe is analysed on the framework of a dark energy model described by an holographic Ricci dark energy component. Several kind of interactions between the dark energy and the dark matter components are considered herein. We solve the background cosmological dynamics for the different choices of interactions with the aim to analyse not only the current evolution of the universe but also its asymptotic behaviour and, in particular, possible future singularities removal. We show that in most of the cases, the Big Rip singularity, a finger print of this model in absence of an interaction between the dark sectors, is substituted by a de Sitter or a Minkowski state. Most importantly, we found two new future bouncing solutions leading to two possible asymptotic behaviours, we named Little Bang and Little Sibling of the Big Bang. At a Little Bang, as the size of the universe shrinks to zero in an infinite cosmic time, the Hubble rate and its cosmic time derivative blow up. In addition, at a Little sibling of the Big Bang, as the size of the universe shrinks to zero in an infinite cosmic time, the Hubble rate blows up but its cosmic time derivative is finite. These two abrupt events can happen as well in the past.

  6. More on the holographic Ricci dark energy model: smoothing Rips through interaction effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Errahmani, Ahmed; Ouali, Taoufik; Tavakoli, Yaser

    2018-01-01

    The background cosmological dynamics of the late Universe is analysed on the framework of a dark energy model described by an holographic Ricci dark energy component. Several kind of interactions between the dark energy and the dark matter components are considered herein. We solve the background cosmological dynamics for the different choices of interactions with the aim to analyse not only the current evolution of the universe but also its asymptotic behaviour and, in particular, possible future singularities removal. We show that in most of the cases, the Big Rip singularity, a finger print of this model in absence of an interaction between the dark sectors, is substituted by a de Sitter or a Minkowski state. Most importantly, we found two new future bouncing solutions leading to two possible asymptotic behaviours, we named Little Bang and Little Sibling of the Big Bang. At a Little Bang, as the size of the universe shrinks to zero in an infinite cosmic time, the Hubble rate and its cosmic time derivative blow up. In addition, at a Little sibling of the Big Bang, as the size of the universe shrinks to zero in an infinite cosmic time, the Hubble rate blows up but its cosmic time derivative is finite. These two abrupt events can happen as well in the past.

  7. Cosmological solutions and finite time singularities in Finslerian geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nupur; de, S. S.; Rahaman, Farook

    2018-03-01

    We consider a very general scenario of our universe where its geometry is characterized by the Finslerian structure on the underlying spacetime manifold, a generalization of the Riemannian geometry. Now considering a general energy-momentum tensor for matter sector, we derive the gravitational field equations in such spacetime. Further, to depict the cosmological dynamics in such spacetime proposing an interesting equation of state identified by a sole parameter γ which for isotropic limit is simply the barotropic equation of state p = (γ ‑ 1)ρ (γ ∈ ℝ being the barotropic index), we solve the background dynamics. The dynamics offers several possibilities depending on this sole parameter as follows: (i) only an exponential expansion, or (ii) a finite time past singularity (big bang) with late accelerating phase, or (iii) a nonsingular universe exhibiting an accelerating scenario at late time which finally predicts a big rip type singularity. We also discuss several energy conditions and the possibility of cosmic bounce. Finally, we establish the first law of thermodynamics in such spacetime.

  8. Singularity: Raychaudhuri equation once again

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology; Raychaudhuri equation; Universe; quantum gravity; loop quan- tum gravity ... than the observation verifying the prediction of theory. This gave .... which was now expanding, would have had a singular beginning in a hot Big Bang.

  9. Unirradiated cladding rip-propagation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W.L.; Hunter, C.W.

    1981-04-01

    The size of cladding rips which develop when a fuel pin fails can affect the subassembly cooling and determine how rapidly fuel escapes from the pin. The object of the Cladding Rip Propagation Test (CRPT) was to quantify the failure development of cladding so that a more realistic fuel pin failure modeling may be performed. The test results for unirradiated 20% CS 316 stainless steel cladding show significantly different rip propagation behavior at different temperatures. At room temperature, the rip growth is stable as the rip extension increases monotonically with the applied deformation. At 500 0 C, the rip propagation becomes unstable after a short period of stable rip propagation. The rapid propagation rate is approximately 200 m/s, and the critical rip length is 9 mm. At test temperatures above 850 0 C, the cladding exhibits very high failure resistances, and failure occurs by multiple cracking at high cladding deformation. 13 figures

  10. Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Duanwu; Lin, Juan; Han, Jiahuai

    2010-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases are a group of threonine/serine protein kinases with a relatively conserved kinase domain but distinct non-kinase regions. A number of different domain structures, such as death and caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) domains, were found in different RIP family members, and these domains should be keys in determining the specific function of each RIP kinase. It is known that RIP kinases participate in different biological processes, incl...

  11. Loop quantum cosmology and singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyve, Ward

    2017-08-15

    Loop quantum gravity is believed to eliminate singularities such as the big bang and big crunch singularity. This belief is based on studies of so-called loop quantum cosmology which concerns symmetry-reduced models of quantum gravity. In this paper, the problem of singularities is analysed in the context of the Bohmian formulation of loop quantum cosmology. In this formulation there is an actual metric in addition to the wave function, which evolves stochastically (rather than deterministically as the case of the particle evolution in non-relativistic Bohmian mechanics). Thus a singularity occurs whenever this actual metric is singular. It is shown that in the loop quantum cosmology for a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with arbitrary constant spatial curvature and cosmological constant, coupled to a massless homogeneous scalar field, a big bang or big crunch singularity is never obtained. This should be contrasted with the fact that in the Bohmian formulation of the Wheeler-DeWitt theory singularities may exist.

  12. 3-Form Cosmology: Phantom Behaviour, Singularities and Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Morais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The latest cosmological observations by the Planck collaboration (and combined with others are compatible with a phantom-like behaviour ( w < − 1 for the dark energy equation of state that drives the current acceleration of the Universe. With this mindset, we look into models where dark energy is described by a 3-form field minimally coupled to gravity. When compared to a scalar field, these models have the advantage of more naturally accommodating a cosmological-constant and phantom-like behaviours. We show how the latter happens for a fairly general class of positive-valued potentials, and through a dynamical system approach, we find that in such cases the 3-form field leads the Universe into a Little Sibling of the Big Rip singular event into the future. In this work, we explore the possibility of avoiding such singularity via an interaction in the dark sector between cold dark matter and the 3-form field. For the kind of interactions considered, we deduce a condition for replacing the LSBR by a late time de Sitter phase. For specific examples of interactions that meet this condition, we look for distinctive imprints in the statefinder hierarchy { S 3 ( 1 ; S 4 ( 1 } , { S 3 ( 1 ; S 5 ( 1 } , and in the growth rate of matter, ϵ ( z , through the composite null diagnostic (CND.

  13. Death and Lulz: Understanding the personality characteristics of RIP trolls

    OpenAIRE

    Seigfried-Spellar, Kathryn C.; Chowdhury, Siddharth S.

    2017-01-01

    Trolling on the Internet is a form of deviant behavior that borderlines cyberharassment. A specific type of trolling behavior involving individuals posting rude/harassing comments on online memorial pages is known as RIP or memorial page trolling. This study compared the personality traits of self-reported RIP trolls to other trolls who did not engage in RIP trolling (non-RIP trolls); 30 respondents were classified as RIP trolls and 119 respondents as non-RIP trolls. Results indicated RIP tro...

  14. Cosmological models without singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.

    1981-01-01

    A previously studied theory of gravitation in flat space-time is applied to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. There exist two different classes of models without singularities: (i) ever-expanding models, (ii) oscillating models. The first class contains models with hot big bang. For these models there exist at the beginning of the universe-in contrast to Einstein's theory-very high but finite densities of matter and radiation with a big bang of very short duration. After short time these models pass into the homogeneous and isotropic models of Einstein's theory with spatial curvature equal to zero and cosmological constant ALPHA >= O. (author)

  15. The cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Belinski, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Written for researchers focusing on general relativity, supergravity, and cosmology, this is a self-contained exposition of the structure of the cosmological singularity in generic solutions of the Einstein equations, and an up-to-date mathematical derivation of the theory underlying the Belinski–Khalatnikov–Lifshitz (BKL) conjecture on this field. Part I provides a comprehensive review of the theory underlying the BKL conjecture. The generic asymptotic behavior near the cosmological singularity of the gravitational field, and fields describing other kinds of matter, is explained in detail. Part II focuses on the billiard reformulation of the BKL behavior. Taking a general approach, this section does not assume any simplifying symmetry conditions and applies to theories involving a range of matter fields and space-time dimensions, including supergravities. Overall, this book will equip theoretical and mathematical physicists with the theoretical fundamentals of the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Black Hole singula...

  16. Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duanwu; Lin, Juan; Han, Jiahuai

    2010-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases are a group of threonine/serine protein kinases with a relatively conserved kinase domain but distinct non-kinase regions. A number of different domain structures, such as death and caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) domains, were found in different RIP family members, and these domains should be keys in determining the specific function of each RIP kinase. It is known that RIP kinases participate in different biological processes, including those in innate immunity, but their downstream substrates are largely unknown. This review will give an overview of the structures and functions of RIP family members, and an update of recent progress in RIP kinase research. PMID:20383176

  17. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: RIPS (Rip Current Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains locations of rip currents in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Vector lines in the data set represent rip zone locations. Location-specific type and source...

  18. Repository Integration Program: RIP performance assessment and strategy evaluation model theory manual and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the theory and capabilities of RIP (Repository Integration Program). RIP is a powerful and flexible computational tool for carrying out probabilistic integrated total system performance assessments for geologic repositories. The primary purpose of RIP is to provide a management tool for guiding system design and site characterization. In addition, the performance assessment model (and the process of eliciting model input) can act as a mechanism for integrating the large amount of available information into a meaningful whole (in a sense, allowing one to keep the ''big picture'' and the ultimate aims of the project clearly in focus). Such an integration is useful both for project managers and project scientists. RIP is based on a '' top down'' approach to performance assessment that concentrates on the integration of the entire system, and utilizes relatively high-level descriptive models and parameters. The key point in the application of such a ''top down'' approach is that the simplified models and associated high-level parameters must incorporate an accurate representation of their uncertainty. RIP is designed in a very flexible manner such that details can be readily added to various components of the model without modifying the computer code. Uncertainty is also handled in a very flexible manner, and both parameter and model (process) uncertainty can be explicitly considered. Uncertainty is propagated through the integrated PA model using an enhanced Monte Carlo method. RIP must rely heavily on subjective assessment (expert opinion) for much of its input. The process of eliciting the high-level input parameters required for RIP is critical to its successful application. As a result, in order for any project to successfully apply a tool such as RIP, an enormous amount of communication and cooperation must exist between the data collectors, the process modelers, and the performance. assessment modelers

  19. On tridimensional rip current modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesiello, Patrick; Benshila, Rachid; Almar, Rafael; Uchiyama, Yusuke; McWilliams, James C.; Shchepetkin, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Do lateral shear instabilities of nearshore circulation account for a substantial part of Very Low-Frequency (VLF) variability? If yes, it would promote stirring and mixing of coastal waters and surf-shelf exchanges. Another question is whether tridimensional transient processes are important for instability generation. An innovative modeling system with tridimensional wave-current interactions was designed to investigate transient nearshore currents and interactions between nearshore and innershelf circulations. We present here some validation of rip current modeling for the Aquitanian coast of France, using in-situ and remote video sensing. We then proceed to show the benefits of 3D versus 2D (depth-mean flow) modeling of rip currents and their low-frequency variability. It appears that a large part of VLF motions is due to intrinsic variability of the tridimensional flow. 3D models may thus provide a valuable, only marginally more expensive alternative to conventional 2D approaches that miss the vertical flow structure and its nonlinear interaction with the depth-averaged flow.

  20. CREATING INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR RIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to create tables for input into RIP ver. 5.18 (Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems) from WAPDEG ver. 3.06 (Waste Package Degradation) output. This calculation details the creation of the RIP input tables for TSPA-VA REV.00

  1. Forcing and variability of nonstationary rip currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph W.; H.T. Özkan-Haller,

    2016-01-01

    Surface wave transformation and the resulting nearshore circulation along a section of coast with strong alongshore bathymetric gradients outside the surf zone are modeled for a consecutive 4 week time period. The modeled hydrodynamics are compared to in situ measurements of waves and currents collected during the Nearshore Canyon Experiment and indicate that for the entire range of observed conditions, the model performance is similar to other studies along this stretch of coast. Strong alongshore wave height gradients generate rip currents that are observed by remote sensing data and predicted qualitatively well by the numerical model. Previous studies at this site have used idealized scenarios to link the rip current locations to undulations in the offshore bathymetry but do not explain the dichotomy between permanent offshore bathymetric features and intermittent rip current development. Model results from the month‐long simulation are used to track the formation and location of rip currents using hourly statistics, and results show that the direction of the incoming wave energy strongly controls whether rip currents form. In particular, most of the offshore wave spectra were bimodal and we find that the ratio of energy contained in each mode dictates rip current development, and the alongshore rip current position is controlled by the incident wave period. Additionally, model simulations performed with and without updating the nearshore morphology yield no significant change in the accuracy of the predicted surf zone hydrodyanmics indicating that the large‐scale offshore features (e.g., submarine canyon) predominately control the nearshore wave‐circulation system.

  2. Public perceptions of a rip current hazard education program: "Break the Grip of the Rip!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Trimble, Sarah; Brander, Robert; Brewster, B. Chris; Dusek, Greg; Jones, Deborah; Kuhn, John

    2017-07-01

    Rip currents pose a major global beach hazard; estimates of annual rip-current-related deaths in the United States alone range from 35 to 100 per year. Despite increased social research into beach-goer experience, little is known about levels of rip current knowledge within the general population. This study describes the results of an online survey to determine the extent of rip current knowledge across the United States, with the aim of improving and enhancing existing beach safety education material. Results suggest that the US-based Break the Grip of the Rip!® campaign has been successful in educating the public about rip current safety directly or indirectly, with the majority of respondents able to provide an accurate description of how to escape a rip current. However, the success of the campaign is limited by discrepancies between personal observations at the beach and rip forecasts that are broadcasted for a large area and time. It was the infrequent beach user that identified the largest discrepancies between the forecast and their observations. Since infrequent beach users also do not seek out lifeguards or take the same precautions as frequent beach users, it is argued that they are also at greatest risk of being caught in a dangerous situation. Results of this study suggest a need for the national campaign to provide greater focus on locally specific and verified rip forecasts and signage in coordination with lifeguards, but not at the expense of the successful national awareness program.

  3. Analysis of Block OMP using Block RIP

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Li, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiqin

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a canonical greedy algorithm for sparse signal reconstruction. When the signal of interest is block sparse, i.e., it has nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters, the block version of OMP algorithm (i.e., Block OMP) outperforms the conventional OMP. In this paper, we demonstrate that a new notion of block restricted isometry property (Block RIP), which is less stringent than standard restricted isometry property (RIP), can be used for a very straightforw...

  4. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C; Rodríguez-Gómez, D; Ward, J

    2007-01-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...

  5. Repulsive and attractive timelike singularities in vacuum cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.D.

    1979-01-01

    Spherically symmetric cosmologies whose big bang is partially spacelike and partially timelike are constrained to occur only in the presence of certain types of matter, and in such cosmologies the timelike part of the big bang is a negative-mass singularity. In this paper examples are given of cylindrically symmetric cosmologies whose big bang is partially spacelike and partially timelike. These cosmologies are vacuum. In some of them, the timelike part of the big bang is clearly a (generalized) negative-mass singularity, while in others it is a (generalized) positive-mass singularity

  6. Classical and quantum Big Brake cosmology for scalar field and tachyonic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenshchik, A. Yu. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy) and L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin str. 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Manti, S. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-02-21

    We study a relation between the cosmological singularities in classical and quantum theory, comparing the classical and quantum dynamics in some models possessing the Big Brake singularity - the model based on a scalar field and two models based on a tachyon-pseudo-tachyon field . It is shown that the effect of quantum avoidance is absent for the soft singularities of the Big Brake type while it is present for the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. Thus, there is some kind of a classical - quantum correspondence, because soft singularities are traversable in classical cosmology, while the strong Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities are not traversable.

  7. Classical and quantum Big Brake cosmology for scalar field and tachyonic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Manti, S.

    2013-01-01

    We study a relation between the cosmological singularities in classical and quantum theory, comparing the classical and quantum dynamics in some models possessing the Big Brake singularity - the model based on a scalar field and two models based on a tachyon-pseudo-tachyon field . It is shown that the effect of quantum avoidance is absent for the soft singularities of the Big Brake type while it is present for the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. Thus, there is some kind of a classical - quantum correspondence, because soft singularities are traversable in classical cosmology, while the strong Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities are not traversable.

  8. The geometry of warped product singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    In this article, the degenerate warped products of singular semi-Riemannian manifolds are studied. They were used recently by the author to handle singularities occurring in General Relativity, in black holes and at the big-bang. One main result presented here is that a degenerate warped product of semi-regular semi-Riemannian manifolds with the warping function satisfying a certain condition is a semi-regular semi-Riemannian manifold. The connection and the Riemann curvature of the warped product are expressed in terms of those of the factor manifolds. Examples of singular semi-Riemannian manifolds which are semi-regular are constructed as warped products. Applications include cosmological models and black holes solutions with semi-regular singularities. Such singularities are compatible with a certain reformulation of the Einstein equation, which in addition holds at semi-regular singularities too.

  9. Partial rip scenario - a cosmology with a growing cosmological term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefancic, H.

    2004-01-01

    A cosmology with the growing cosmological term is considered. If there is no exchange of energy between vacuum and matter components, the requirement of general covariance implies the time dependence of the gravitational constant G. Irrespectively of the exact functional form of the cosmological term growth, the universe ends in a de Sitter regime with a constant asymptotic Λ, but vanishing G. Although there is no divergence of the scale factor in finite time, such as in the 'Big Rip' scenario, gravitationally bound systems eventually become unbound. In the case of systems bound by non-gravitational forces, there is no unbounding effect, as the asymptotic Λ is insufficiently large to disturb these systems

  10. Repository Integration Program: RIP performance assessment and strategy evaluation model theory manual and user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the theory and capabilities of RIP (Repository Integration Program). RIP is a powerful and flexible computational tool for carrying out probabilistic integrated total system performance assessments for geologic repositories. The primary purpose of RIP is to provide a management tool for guiding system design and site characterization. In addition, the performance assessment model (and the process of eliciting model input) can act as a mechanism for integrating the large amount of available information into a meaningful whole (in a sense, allowing one to keep the ``big picture`` and the ultimate aims of the project clearly in focus). Such an integration is useful both for project managers and project scientists. RIP is based on a `` top down`` approach to performance assessment that concentrates on the integration of the entire system, and utilizes relatively high-level descriptive models and parameters. The key point in the application of such a ``top down`` approach is that the simplified models and associated high-level parameters must incorporate an accurate representation of their uncertainty. RIP is designed in a very flexible manner such that details can be readily added to various components of the model without modifying the computer code. Uncertainty is also handled in a very flexible manner, and both parameter and model (process) uncertainty can be explicitly considered. Uncertainty is propagated through the integrated PA model using an enhanced Monte Carlo method. RIP must rely heavily on subjective assessment (expert opinion) for much of its input. The process of eliciting the high-level input parameters required for RIP is critical to its successful application. As a result, in order for any project to successfully apply a tool such as RIP, an enormous amount of communication and cooperation must exist between the data collectors, the process modelers, and the performance. assessment modelers.

  11. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory

  12. Rip current monitoring using GPS buoy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, DongSeob; Kim, InHo; Kang, DongSoo

    2014-05-01

    The occurrence of rip current in the Haeundae beach, which is one of the most famous beaches in South Korea, has been threatening beach-goers security in summer season annually. Many coastal scientists have been investigating rip currents by using field observations and measurements, laboratory measurements and wave tank experiments, and computer and numerical modeling. Rip current velocity is intermittent and may rapidly increase within minutes due to larger incoming wave groups or nearshore circulation instabilities. It is important to understand that changes in rip current velocity occur in response to changes in incoming wave height and period as well as changes in water level. GPS buoys have been used to acquire sea level change data, atmospheric parameters and other oceanic variables in sea for the purposes of vertical datum determination, tide correction, radar altimeter calibration, ocean environment and marine pollution monitoring. Therefore, we adopted GPS buoy system for an experiment which is to investigate rip current velocity; it is sporadic and may quickly upsurge within minutes due to larger arriving wave groups or nearshore flow uncertainties. In this study, for high accurate positioning of buy equipment, a Satellite Based Argumentation System DGPS data logger was deployed to investigate within floating object, and it can be acquired three-dimensional coordinate or geodetic position of buoy with continuous NMEA-0183 protocol during 24 hours. The wave height measured by in-situ hydrometer in a cross-shore array clearly increased before and after occurrence of rip current, and wave period also was lengthened around an event. These results show that wave height and period correlate reasonably well with long-shore current interaction in the Haeundae beach. Additionally, current meter data and GPS buoy data showed that rip current velocities, about 0.2 m/s, may become dangerously strong under specific conditions. Acknowledgement This research was

  13. From big bang to big crunch and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, Shmuel; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Giveon, Amit; Kutasov, David

    2002-01-01

    We study a quotient Conformal Field Theory, which describes a 3+1 dimensional cosmological spacetime. Part of this spacetime is the Nappi-Witten (NW) universe, which starts at a 'big bang' singularity, expands and then contracts to a 'big crunch' singularity at a finite time. The gauged WZW model contains a number of copies of the NW spacetime, with each copy connected to the preceding one and to the next one at the respective big bang/big crunch singularities. The sequence of NW spacetimes is further connected at the singularities to a series of non-compact static regions with closed timelike curves. These regions contain boundaries, on which the observables of the theory live. This suggests a holographic interpretation of the physics. (author)

  14. Quantum cosmology and late-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenshchik, A Yu

    2013-01-01

    The development of dark energy models has stimulated interest to cosmological singularities, which differ from the traditional Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. We review a broad class of phenomena connected with soft cosmological singularities in classical and quantum cosmology. We discuss the classification of singularities from the geometrical point of view and from the point of view of the behavior of finite size objects, crossing such singularities. We discuss in some detail quantum and classical cosmology of models based on perfect fluids (anti-Chaplygin gas and anti-Chaplygin gas plus dust), of models based on the Born–Infeld-type fields and of the model of a scalar field with a potential inversely proportional to the field itself. We dwell also on the phenomenon of the phantom divide line crossing in the scalar field models with cusped potentials. Then we discuss the Friedmann equations modified by quantum corrections to the effective action of the models under considerations and the influence of such modification on the nature and the existence of soft singularities. We review also quantum cosmology of models, where the initial quantum state of the universe is presented by the density matrix (mixed state). Finally, we discuss the exotic singularities arising in the braneworld cosmological models. (topical review)

  15. Analysis of Ribosome Inactivating Protein (RIP): A Bioinformatics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothi, G. Edward Gnana; Majilla, G. Sahaya Jose; Subhashini, D.; Deivasigamani, B.

    2012-10-01

    In spite of the medical advances in recent years, the world is in need of different sources to encounter certain health issues.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs) were found to be one among them. In order to get easy access about RIPs, there is a need to analyse RIPs towards constructing a database on RIPs. Also, multiple sequence alignment was done towards screening for homologues of significant RIPs from rare sources against RIPs from easily available sources in terms of similarity. Protein sequences were retrieved from SWISS-PROT and are further analysed using pair wise and multiple sequence alignment.Analysis shows that, 151 RIPs have been characterized to date. Amongst them, there are 87 type I, 37 type II, 1 type III and 25 unknown RIPs. The sequence length information of various RIPs about the availability of full or partial sequence was also found. The multiple sequence alignment of 37 type I RIP using the online server Multalin, indicates the presence of 20 conserved residues. Pairwise alignment and multiple sequence alignment of certain selected RIPs in two groups namely Group I and Group II were carried out and the consensus level was found to be 98%, 98% and 90% respectively.

  16. Infinite derivative gravity : non-singular cosmology & blackhole solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Both Einstein's theory of General Relativity and Newton's theory of gravity possess a short dis- tance and small time scale catastrophe. The blackhole singularity and cosmological Big Bang singularity problems highlight that current theories of gravity are incomplete description at early times and

  17. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.

    2007-01-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe

  18. Public perceptions of a rip current hazard education program: “Break the Grip of the Rip!”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Houser

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rip currents pose a major global beach hazard; estimates of annual rip-current-related deaths in the United States alone range from 35 to 100 per year. Despite increased social research into beach-goer experience, little is known about levels of rip current knowledge within the general population. This study describes the results of an online survey to determine the extent of rip current knowledge across the United States, with the aim of improving and enhancing existing beach safety education material. Results suggest that the US-based Break the Grip of the Rip!® campaign has been successful in educating the public about rip current safety directly or indirectly, with the majority of respondents able to provide an accurate description of how to escape a rip current. However, the success of the campaign is limited by discrepancies between personal observations at the beach and rip forecasts that are broadcasted for a large area and time. It was the infrequent beach user that identified the largest discrepancies between the forecast and their observations. Since infrequent beach users also do not seek out lifeguards or take the same precautions as frequent beach users, it is argued that they are also at greatest risk of being caught in a dangerous situation. Results of this study suggest a need for the national campaign to provide greater focus on locally specific and verified rip forecasts and signage in coordination with lifeguards, but not at the expense of the successful national awareness program.

  19. The road to singularities, and the roses on the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of current investigations of space-time singularities is given. The different approaches adopted by various research schools is discussed, and an analogy is drawn between this study and the mounting of an expedition that sets out on a long trail of discovery. A heuristic discussion is given of the latest classification of singularities and some brief comments are made on how physically relevant each type of singularity is. Roughly speaking, it seems that the milder types (at which quantities remain well behaved) are pathological cases, whereas the crude 'big-bang' type of singularity is more generic. (author)

  20. Computer optimization of cutting yield from multiple ripped boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.R. Stern; K.A. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    RIPYLD is a computer program that optimizes the cutting yield from multiple-ripped boards. Decisions are based on automatically collected defect information, cutting bill requirements, and sawing variables. The yield of clear cuttings from a board is calculated for every possible permutation of specified rip widths and both the maximum and minimum percent yield...

  1. Red oak and black walnut growth increased with minesoil ripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Red oak, black walnut, and black walnut with autumn olive, a 'nitrogen-fixing' shrub, were planted on graded, compacted cast overburden (topsoil substitute) coal mining minesoil with a dense ground cover consisting chiefly of all fescue grass. Compaction was mitigated by ripping on half the plots. Year 1 establishment of all species was equal or lower on the graded versus graded/ripped plots. After 12 years red oak survival was 9% where unripped versus 61% where ripped. Black walnut survival was respectively 41% and 74%. Red oak 12-year heights were 2.2 m on the graded and 4.5 m on the graded/ripped plots. Black walnut heights averaged 2.6 m and 5.5 m respectively. Diameter breast height similarly was greater with ripping for the oak and walnut. Deer damage was substantially greater on the red oak than on the black walnut trees. Black walnut was interplanted a year later with autumn olive on unripped and ripped graded minesoils. After 12 years survival of black walnut interplanted with autumn olive was 42% where unripped and 85% in two ripped plots. Corresponding heights averaged 3.8 m where graded and 5.7 to 6.4 m where graded/ripped. 16 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Quantum propagation across cosmological singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil

    2017-05-01

    The initial singularity is the most troubling feature of the standard cosmology, which quantum effects are hoped to resolve. In this paper, we study quantum cosmology with conformal (Weyl) invariant matter. We show that it is natural to extend the scale factor to negative values, allowing a large, collapsing universe to evolve across a quantum "bounce" into an expanding universe like ours. We compute the Feynman propagator for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds exactly, identifying curious pathologies in the case of curved (open or closed) universes. We then include anisotropies, fixing the operator ordering of the quantum Hamiltonian by imposing covariance under field redefinitions and again finding exact solutions. We show how complex classical solutions allow one to circumvent the singularity while maintaining the validity of the semiclassical approximation. The simplest isotropic universes sit on a critical boundary, beyond which there is qualitatively different behavior, with potential for instability. Additional scalars improve the theory's stability. Finally, we study the semiclassical propagation of inhomogeneous perturbations about the flat, isotropic case, at linear and nonlinear order, showing that, at least at this level, there is no particle production across the bounce. These results form the basis for a promising new approach to quantum cosmology and the resolution of the big bang singularity.

  3. A Matrix Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matr...

  4. Singular stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cherny, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.

  5. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  6. Mapping and Mitigating the International Rip Current Health Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.

    2016-12-01

    Rip currents are concentrated seaward flows of water originating in the surf zones of beaches. Rips cause hundreds of international drownings each year. Calculating exact numbers is barred by logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports, but annual rip current fatalities are estimated at 100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Notably, Australia's lifeguards rescue 17,600 swimmers from rips each year. This project addresses the geophysical, social, and systematic causes of fatalities in hopes of decreasing the global number of rip-related deaths. We demonstrate a novel method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep or less), specifically within rip channels (topographic low spots in the nearshore that result from feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry). We calculate bathymetry using 8-band multispectral imagery from the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) satellite and field measurements of depth, generating maps of the changing nearshore at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including `yellow' (585-625 nm) and `coastal blue' (400-450 nm). Methods are tested for consistency amongst dates and locations. Previous research shows drownings result from a combination of the physical environment with personal and group behaviors; for this reason we build on rip-detection by evaluating tourists' and locals' knowledge and understanding of their beach's rip behavior. By combining the geomorphologic maps developed from WV2 with interview data, we evaluate how the physical environment dictates the exposure of certain swimmers. Controls include rip channel location, beach access points, and environmental factors favored by swimmers. The project serves as an evaluation of the landscape's creation of a physical feature that becomes a hazard when vulnerable humans

  7. Generalized teleparallel cosmology and initial singularity crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel; Nashed, Gamal, E-mail: Adel.Awad@bue.edu.eg, E-mail: gglnashed@sci.asu.edu.eg [Center for Theoretical Physics, the British University in Egypt, Suez Desert Road, Sherouk City 11837 (Egypt)

    2017-02-01

    We present a class of cosmological solutions for a generalized teleparallel gravity with f ( T )= T +α̃ (− T ) {sup n} , where α̃ is some parameter and n is an integer or half-integer. Choosing α̃ ∼ G {sup n} {sup −1}, where G is the gravitational constant, and working with an equation of state p = w ρ, one obtains a cosmological solution with multiple branches. The dynamics of the solution describes standard cosmology at late times, but the higher-torsion correction changes the nature of the initial singularity from big bang to a sudden singularity. The milder behavior of the sudden singularity enables us to extend timelike or lightlike curves, through joining two disconnected branches of solution at the singularity, leaving the singularity traversable. We show that this extension is consistent with the field equations through checking the known junction conditions for generalized teleparallel gravity. This suggests that these solutions describe a contracting phase a prior to the expanding phase of the universe.

  8. RIP3-dependent necrosis induced inflammation exacerbates atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Lingjun, E-mail: menglingjun@nibs.ac.cn [College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Jin, Wei [Institute for Immunology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Yuhui [Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Huanwei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Cai [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is already the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis shares features with diseases caused by chronic inflammation. More attention should concentrates on the innate immunity effect atherosclerosis progress. RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3) act through the transcription factor named Nr4a3 (Nuclear orphan receptors) to regulate cytokine production. Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1α production. Injection of anti-IL-1α antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice. RIP3 as a molecular switch in necrosis, controls macrophage necrotic death caused inflammation. Inhibiting necrosis will certainly reduce atherosclerosis through limit inflammation. Necrotic cell death caused systemic inflammation exacerbated cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of necrosis may yield novel therapeutic targets for treatment in years to come. - Highlights: • RIP3 regulate the Nr4a3 to control cytokine production. • Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1a production. • Injection anti-IL-1a antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis. • RIP3 controls macrophage necrotic dead caused inflammation.

  9. RIP3-dependent necrosis induced inflammation exacerbates atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Lingjun; Jin, Wei; Wang, Yuhui; Huang, Huanwei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is already the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis shares features with diseases caused by chronic inflammation. More attention should concentrates on the innate immunity effect atherosclerosis progress. RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3) act through the transcription factor named Nr4a3 (Nuclear orphan receptors) to regulate cytokine production. Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1α production. Injection of anti-IL-1α antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice. RIP3 as a molecular switch in necrosis, controls macrophage necrotic death caused inflammation. Inhibiting necrosis will certainly reduce atherosclerosis through limit inflammation. Necrotic cell death caused systemic inflammation exacerbated cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of necrosis may yield novel therapeutic targets for treatment in years to come. - Highlights: • RIP3 regulate the Nr4a3 to control cytokine production. • Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1a production. • Injection anti-IL-1a antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis. • RIP3 controls macrophage necrotic dead caused inflammation.

  10. A matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control

  11. A matrix big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Verlinde, Erik [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  12. R.I.P. Computer Animal Shelter

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Due to a brutal and unjustified attack on our facilities in front of the CERN Computer Centre, we had to close the CERN Animal Shelter on 5/1/2012 after only 9 months of operation (the shelter was inaugurated on 1/4/2011). With deep sadness we look back to the old days when everything was fine. R.I.P.   The Computer Mice shelter after the attack. More photographs available here.  All surviving mice have been returned to their owners, who have also been advised to "Stop --- Think --- Click" in order to securely browse the Internet and securely read e-mails. Users who have followed this recommendation in the past were less likely to have their computer infected or their computing account compromised. However, still too many users click on malicious web-links and put their computer and account at risk. Thank you all for your support during the last 9 months. The Computer Animal Shelter    

  13. Quantum evolution across singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to consider evolution across space-time singularities often lead to quantum systems with time-dependent Hamiltonians developing an isolated singularity as a function of time. Examples include matrix theory in certain singular time-dependent backgounds and free quantum fields on the two-dimensional compactified Milne universe. Due to the presence of the singularities in the time dependence, the conventional quantum-mechanical evolution is not well-defined for such systems. We propose a natural way, mathematically analogous to renormalization in conventional quantum field theory, to construct unitary quantum evolution across the singularity. We carry out this procedure explicitly for free fields on the compactified Milne universe and compare our results with the matching conditions considered in earlier work (which were based on the covering Minkowski space)

  14. Introduction to singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Shihoko

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to singularities for graduate students and researchers. It is said that algebraic geometry originated in the seventeenth century with the famous work Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences by Descartes. In that book he introduced coordinates to the study of geometry. After its publication, research on algebraic varieties developed steadily. Many beautiful results emerged in mathematicians’ works. Most of them were about non-singular varieties. Singularities were considered “bad” objects that interfered with knowledge of the structure of an algebraic variety. In the past three decades, however, it has become clear that singularities are necessary for us to have a good description of the framework of varieties. For example, it is impossible to formulate minimal model theory for higher-dimensional cases without singularities. Another example is that the moduli spaces of varieties have natural compactification, the boundar...

  15. Probing the pre-big bang universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, G.

    2000-01-01

    Superstring theory suggests a new cosmology whereby a long inflationary phase preceded a non singular big bang-like event. After discussing how pre-big bang inflation naturally arises from an almost trivial initial state of the Universe, I will describe how present or near-future experiments can provide sensitive probes of how the Universe behaved in the pre-bang era

  16. Properties of kinematic singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coley, A A [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Hervik, S [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Lim, W C [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); MacCallum, M A H, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.c, E-mail: sigbjorn.hervik@uis.n, E-mail: wclim@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: m.a.h.maccallum@qmul.ac.u [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-07

    The locally rotationally symmetric tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type V cosmological model provides examples of future geodesically complete spacetimes that admit a 'kinematic singularity' at which the fluid congruence is inextendible but all frame components of the Weyl and Ricci tensors remain bounded. We show that for any positive integer n there are examples of Bianchi type V spacetimes admitting a kinematic singularity such that the covariant derivatives of the Weyl and Ricci tensors up to the nth order also stay bounded. We briefly discuss singularities in classical spacetimes.

  17. Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Thanks to two orbiting X-ray observatories, astronomers have the first strong evidence of a supermassive black hole ripping apart a star and consuming a portion of it. The event, captured by NASA's Chandra and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, had long been predicted by theory, but never confirmed. Astronomers believe a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after being thrown off course by a close encounter with another star. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information about how these black holes grow and affect surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, leader of the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighborhood." While other observations have hinted stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as "stellar tidal disruptions"), these new results are the first strong evidence. Evidence already exists for supermassive black holes in many galaxies, but looking for tidal disruptions represents a completely independent way to search for black holes. Observations like these are urgently needed to determine how quickly black holes can grow by swallowing neighboring stars. Animation of Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgen satellite, detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the center of the galaxy RX J1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees Celsius before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in the process

  18. Nonlinear singular elliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Minh Duc.

    1988-09-01

    We improve the Poincare inequality, the Sobolev imbedding theorem and the Trudinger imbedding theorem and prove a Mountain pass theorem. Applying these results we study a nonlinear singular mixed boundary problem. (author). 22 refs

  19. Coloured phase singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    For illumination with white light, the spectra near a typical isolated phase singularity (nodal point of the component wavelengths) can be described by a universal function of position, up to linear distortion and a weak dependence on the spectrum of the source. The appearance of the singularity when viewed by a human observer is predicted by transforming the spectrum to trichromatic variables and chromaticity coordinates, and then rendering the colours, scaled to constant luminosity, on a computer monitor. The pattern far from the singularity is a white that depends on the source temperature, and the centre of the pattern is flanked by intensely coloured 'eyes', one orange and one blue, separated by red, and one of the eyes is surrounded by a bright white circle. Only a small range of possible colours appears near the singularity; in particular, there is no green. (author)

  20. Surface Plasmon Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Martínez-Niconoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to compare the physical features of the electromagnetic field, we describe the synthesis of optical singularities propagating in the free space and on a metal surface. In both cases the electromagnetic field has a slit-shaped curve as a boundary condition, and the singularities correspond to a shock wave that is a consequence of the curvature of the slit curve. As prototypes, we generate singularities that correspond to fold and cusped regions. We show that singularities in free space may generate bifurcation effects while plasmon fields do not generate these kinds of effects. Experimental results for free-space propagation are presented and for surface plasmon fields, computer simulations are shown.

  1. Timelike naked singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    2004-01-01

    We construct a class of spherically symmetric collapse models in which a naked singularity may develop as the end state of collapse. The matter distribution considered has negative radial and tangential pressures, but the weak energy condition is obeyed throughout. The singularity forms at the center of the collapsing cloud and continues to be visible for a finite time. The duration of visibility depends on the nature of energy distribution. Hence the causal structure of the resulting singularity depends on the nature of the mass function chosen for the cloud. We present a general model in which the naked singularity formed is timelike, neither pointlike nor null. Our work represents a step toward clarifying the necessary conditions for the validity of the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture

  2. Algorithms in Singular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schonemann

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Some algorithms for singularity theory and algebraic geometry The use of Grobner basis computations for treating systems of polynomial equations has become an important tool in many areas. This paper introduces of the concept of standard bases (a generalization of Grobner bases and the application to some problems from algebraic geometry. The examples are presented as SINGULAR commands. A general introduction to Grobner bases can be found in the textbook [CLO], an introduction to syzygies in [E] and [St1]. SINGULAR is a computer algebra system for computing information about singularities, for use in algebraic geometry. The basic algorithms in SINGULAR are several variants of a general standard basis algorithm for general monomial orderings (see [GG]. This includes wellorderings (Buchberger algorithm ([B1], [B2] and tangent cone orderings (Mora algorithm ([M1], [MPT] as special cases: It is able to work with non-homogeneous and homogeneous input and also to compute in the localization of the polynomial ring in 0. Recent versions include algorithms to factorize polynomials and a factorizing Grobner basis algorithm. For a complete description of SINGULAR see [Si].

  3. Numerical method of singular problems on singular integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huaiguo; Mou Zongze

    1992-02-01

    As first part on the numerical research of singular problems, a numerical method is proposed for singular integrals. It is shown that the procedure is quite powerful for solving physics calculation with singularity such as the plasma dispersion function. Useful quadrature formulas for some class of the singular integrals are derived. In general, integrals with more complex singularities can be dealt by this method easily

  4. Metric dimensional reduction at singularities with implications to Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2014-01-01

    A series of old and recent theoretical observations suggests that the quantization of gravity would be feasible, and some problems of Quantum Field Theory would go away if, somehow, the spacetime would undergo a dimensional reduction at high energy scales. But an identification of the deep mechanism causing this dimensional reduction would still be desirable. The main contribution of this article is to show that dimensional reduction effects are due to General Relativity at singularities, and do not need to be postulated ad-hoc. Recent advances in understanding the geometry of singularities do not require modification of General Relativity, being just non-singular extensions of its mathematics to the limit cases. They turn out to work fine for some known types of cosmological singularities (black holes and FLRW Big-Bang), allowing a choice of the fundamental geometric invariants and physical quantities which remain regular. The resulting equations are equivalent to the standard ones outside the singularities. One consequence of this mathematical approach to the singularities in General Relativity is a special, (geo)metric type of dimensional reduction: at singularities, the metric tensor becomes degenerate in certain spacetime directions, and some properties of the fields become independent of those directions. Effectively, it is like one or more dimensions of spacetime just vanish at singularities. This suggests that it is worth exploring the possibility that the geometry of singularities leads naturally to the spontaneous dimensional reduction needed by Quantum Gravity. - Highlights: • The singularities we introduce are described by finite geometric/physical objects. • Our singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction effects. • They affect the metric, the measure, the topology, the gravitational DOF (Weyl = 0). • Effects proposed in other approaches to Quantum Gravity are obtained naturally. • The geometric dimensional reduction obtained

  5. Rip Currents, Mega-Cusps, and Eroding Dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, E.B.; MacMahan, J.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Submitted to Marine Geology 1 November 2006 Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18 km shoreline in southern Mont...

  6. "I didn't know her, but…": parasocial mourning of mediated deaths on Facebook RIP pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klastrup, Lisbeth

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the use of six Danish "Rest in Peace" or (RIP) memorial pages. The article focuses on the relation between news media and RIP page use, in relation to general communicative practices on these pages. Based on an analysis of press coverage of the deaths of six young people and a close analysis of 1,015 comments extracted from the RIP pages created to memorialize them, it is shown that their deaths attracted considerable media attention, as did the RIP pages themselves. Comment activity seem to reflect the news stories in the way the commenters refer to the context of death and the emotional distress they experience, but mainly comments on the RIP pages are conventional expressions of sympathy and "RIP" wishes. The article concludes that public RIP pages might be understood as virtual spontaneous shrines, affording an emerging practice of "RIP-ing."

  7. RIP2: A novel player in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and cutaneous wound repair?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Stephanie; Valchanova, Ralitsa S.; Munz, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We could recently demonstrate an important role of receptor interacting protein 4 (RIP4) in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. Now, we analyzed a potential role of the RIP4 homolog RIP2 in keratinocytes. Specifically, we demonstrate here that rip2 expression is induced by scratch-wounding and after the induction of differentiation in these cells. Furthermore, serum growth factors and cytokines can induce rip2, with TNF-α-dependent induction being dependent on p38 MAPK. In addition, we demonstrate that scratch-induced upregulation of rip2 expression is completely blocked by the steroid dexamethasone. Since we also show that RIP2 is an important player in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation, these data suggest that inhibition of rip2 upregulation after wounding might contribute to the reduced and delayed wound re-epithelialization phenotype seen in glucocorticoid-treated patients.

  8. Field Observations of Surf Zone-Inner Shelf Exchange on a Rip-Channeled Beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.A.; MacMahan, J.H.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Thornton, E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-shore exchange between the surf zone and the inner shelf is investigated using Lagrangian and Eulerian field measurements of rip current flows on a rip-channeled beach in Sand City, California. Surface drifters released on the inner shelf during weak wind conditions moved seaward due to rip

  9. Potential for yield improvement in combined rip-first and crosscut-first rough mill processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, lumber cutting systems in rough mills have either first ripped lumber into wide strips and then crosscut the resulting strips into component lengths (rip-first), or first crosscut the lumber into component lengths, then ripped the segments to the required widths (crosscut-first). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Crosscut-first typically...

  10. Singularities in FLRW spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    het Lam, Huibert; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2017-12-01

    We point out that past-incompleteness of geodesics in FLRW spacetimes does not necessarily imply that these spacetimes start from a singularity. Namely, if a test particle that follows such a trajectory has a non-vanishing velocity, its energy was super-Planckian at some time in the past if it kept following that geodesic. That indicates a breakdown of the particle's description, which is why we should not consider those trajectories for the definition of an initial singularity. When one only considers test particles that do not have this breakdown of their trajectory, it turns out that the only singular FLRW spacetimes are the ones that have a scale parameter that vanishes at some initial time.

  11. Singularity Crossing, Transformation of Matter Properties and the Problem of Parametrization in Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenshchik, A. Yu.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate particular cosmological models, based either on tachyon fields or on perfect fluids, for which soft future singularities arise in a natural way. Our main result is the description of a smooth crossing of the soft singularity in models with an anti-Chaplygin gas or with a particular tachyon field in the presence of dust. Such a crossing is made possible by certain transformations of matter properties. We discuss and compare also different approaches to the problem of crossing of the Big Bang-Big Crunch singularities.

  12. Learning Styles versus the Rip Van Winkle Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsak, Lana

    1990-01-01

    Rip Van Winkle would not recognize Corsicana (Texas) High School since its curriculum coordinator began implementing learning styles techniques in various pilot programs. Lecturing to rows of bored students has been replaced by students' active involvement in group activities, listening centers, and tactile/kinesthetic exercises on the floor or at…

  13. Rip currents, mega-cusps, and eroding dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, E.B.; MacMahan, J.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200 m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18 km shoreline in southern Monterey Bay, California. This section of the bay consists of a sandy shoreline backed by extensive dunes, rising to heights exceeding 40 m. There is a large increase in wave height going from small wave heights in the shadow of a headland, to the center of the bay where convergence of waves owing to refraction over the Monterey Bay submarine canyon results in larger wave heights. The large alongshore gradient in wave height results in a concomitant alongshore gradient in morphodynamic scale. The strongly refracted waves and narrow bay aperture result in near normal wave incidence, resulting in well-developed, persistent rip currents along the entire shoreline. The alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline are found significantly correlated with the alongshore variations in rip spacing at 95% confidence. The alongshore variations of the volume of dune erosion are found significantly correlated with alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline at 95% confidence. Therefore, it is concluded the mega-cusps are associated with rip currents and that the location of dune erosion is associated with the embayment of the mega-cusp.

  14. Pseudospherical surfaces with singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of constant Gauss curvature −1 surfaces in Euclidean 3-space, based on Lorentzian harmonic maps, that we call pseudospherical frontals. We analyse the singularities of these surfaces, dividing them into those of characteristic and non-characteristic type. We give methods...

  15. Supersymmetry in singular spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric

    2002-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in spaces with a boundary, i.e. singular spaces. In particular, we discuss the situation in ten and five dimensions. In both these cases we review the construction of supersymmetric domain wall actions situated at the boundary. These domain walls act as sources inducing a

  16. Singularities in FLRW Spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Huibert het; Prokopec, Tom

    2017-01-01

    We point out that past-incompleteness of geodesics in FLRW spacetimes does not necessarily imply that these spacetimes start from a singularity. Namely, if a test particle that follows such a trajectory has a non-vanishing velocity, its energy was super-Planckian at some time in the past if it kept

  17. Charged singularities: repulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    The repulsive phenomena which a particle experiences in the vicinity of a naked singularity are investigated in the Kerr-Newman space-time. The aim is to extend the knowledge of this fact to charged solutions and to have a direct indication of how, in these situations, the gravitational and electrostatic interactions are competing.

  18. Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollier, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    Following Papapetrou [1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)], a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture. (author)

  19. A Role of RIP3-Mediated Macrophage Necrosis in Atherosclerosis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotic death of macrophages has long been known to be present in atherosclerotic lesions but has not been studied. We examined the role of receptor interacting protein (RIP 3, a mediator of necrotic cell death, in atherosclerosis and found that RIP3−/−;Ldlr−/− mice were no different from RIP3+/+;Ldlr−/− mice in early atherosclerosis but had significant reduction in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Similar results were observed in Apoe−/− background mice. Bone marrow transplantation revealed that loss of RIP3 expression from bone-marrow-derived cells is responsible for the reduced disease progression. While no difference was found in apoptosis between RIP3−/−;Ldlr−/− and RIP3+/+;Ldlr−/− mice, electron microscopy revealed a significant reduction of macrophage primary necrosis in the advanced lesions of RIP3−/− mice. In vitro cellular studies showed that RIP3 deletion had no effect on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL-induced macrophage apoptosis, but prevented macrophage primary necrosis occurring in response to oxidized LDL under caspase inhibition or RIP3 overexpression conditions. RIP3-dependent necrosis is not postapoptotic, and the increased primary necrosis in advanced atherosclerotic lesions most likely resulted from the increase of RIP3 expression. Our data demonstrate that primary necrosis of macrophages is proatherogenic during advanced atherosclerosis development.

  20. Singular potentials in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Koo, E. Ley

    1995-10-01

    This paper is a review of some mathematical methods as recently developed and applied to deal with singular potentials in Quantum Mechanics. Regular and singular perturbative methods as well as variational treatments are considered. (author). 25 refs

  1. Big universe, big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Stensbo-Smidt, Kristoffer; Gieseke, Fabian Cristian

    2017-01-01

    , modern astronomy requires big data know-how, in particular it demands highly efficient machine learning and image analysis algorithms. But scalability is not the only challenge: Astronomy applications touch several current machine learning research questions, such as learning from biased data and dealing......, and highlight some recent methodological advancements in machine learning and image analysis triggered by astronomical applications....

  2. Singularities: the Brieskorn anniversary volume

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brieskorn, Egbert; Arnolʹd, V. I; Greuel, G.-M; Steenbrink, J. H. M

    1998-01-01

    ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Main theorem ... 3 Ideals of ideal-unimodal plane curve singularities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References ... Gert-Martin Greuel and Gerhard Pfister...

  3. Multiple roles for nuclear localization signal (NLS, aa 442-472) of receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei; Feng Shanshan; Wu Mian

    2008-01-01

    RIP3, a Ser/Thr kinase of RIP (Receptor Interacting Protein) family, is recruited to the TNFR1 signaling complex through RIP and has been shown to mediate apoptosis induction and NF-κB activation. RIP3 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein and its unconventional nuclear localization signal (NLS, 442-472 aa) is sufficient to trigger apoptosis in the nucleus. In this study, we demonstrate that this NLS exhibits several other roles besides apoptotic function. Firstly, this NLS was found to be required for both RIP3-induced apoptosis and RIP3-mediated NF-κB activation. Next, similar to RHIM motif (RIP homotypic interaction motif), NLS of RIP3 was found to be involved in RIP3-RIP interaction. Furthermore, this NLS was found to be both sufficient and necessary for RIP3 self-association. Our primary data also showed that RIP3 might form a homodimer within cells, and its apoptotic activity may not be required for this dimerization, rather the intactness of NLS determines RIP3-induced apoptosis, since a point mutation at amino acid residue 452 (Ile to Ala) within NLS greatly reduced its apoptotic ability, despite that RIP3 point mutant RIP3/I452A is able to dimerize with wild type RIP3 or itself

  4. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Well-known examples are singularities inside black holes and initial or final singularities in expanding or contracting universes. In recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which may lead to an understanding of these in the standard framework of time evolution in quantum mechanics.

  5. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbón, José L.F. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, Eliezer [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-15

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  6. Are naked singularities really visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; De Felice, F [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1978-12-09

    The question whether a Kerr naked singularity is actually visible from infinity is investigated; it is shown that in fact any signal which could be emitted from the singularity is infinitely red-shifted. This implies that naked singularities would be indistinguishable from a black hole.

  7. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbón, José L.F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  8. RIP-ET: A riparian evapotranspiration package for MODFLOW-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Thomas; Baird, Kathryn J.; Hanson, R.T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Ajami, Hoori

    2012-01-01

    A new evapotranspiration package for the U.S. Geological Survey's groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW, is documented. The Riparian Evapotranspiration Package (RIP-ET) provides flexibility in simulating riparian and wetland transpiration not provided by the Evapotranspiration (EVT) or Segmented Function Evapotranspiration (ETS1) Packages for MODFLOW 2005. This report describes how the RIP-ET package was conceptualized and provides input instructions, listings and explanations of the source code, and an example. Traditional approaches to modeling evapotranspiration (ET) processes assume a piecewise linear relationship between ET flux and hydraulic head. The RIP-ET replaces this traditional relationship with a segmented, nonlinear dimensionless curve that reflects the eco-physiology of riparian and wetland ecosystems. Evapotranspiration losses from these ecosystems are dependent not only on hydraulic head, but on the plant types present. User-defined plant functional groups (PFGs) are used to elucidate the interaction between plant transpiration and groundwater conditions. Five generalized plant functional groups based on transpiration rates, plant rooting depth, and water tolerance ranges are presented: obligate wetland, shallow-rooted riparian, deep-rooted riparian, transitional riparian and bare ground/open water. Plant functional groups can be further divided into subgroups (PFSGs) based on plant size, density or other characteristics. The RIP-ET allows for partial habitat coverage and mixtures of plant functional subgroups to be present in a single model cell. RIP-ET also distinguishes between plant transpiration and bare-ground evaporation. Habitat areas are designated by polygons; each polygon can contain a mixture of PFSGs and bare ground, and is assigned a surface elevation. This process requires a determination of fractional coverage for each of the plant functional subgroups present in a polygon to account for the mixture of coverage types and resulting

  9. Constraint theory, singular lagrangians and multitemporal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, L.

    1988-01-01

    Singular Lagrangians and constraint theory permeate theoretical physics, as shown by the relevance of gauge theories, string models and general relativity. Their study used finite---dimensional models as a guide to develop the theory, but their main use was in classical field theory, due to the necessity of understanding their quantization. The covariant quantization of singular Lagrangians led to the BRST approach and to the theory of the effective action. On the other hand their phase---space formulation, culminated with the BFV approach for first class, second class and reducible constraints. It, in turn, gave new insights in the theory of singular Lagrangians and constraints and in their cohomological aspects. However the Hamiltonian approach to field theory is highly nontrivial, is open to criticism due to its problems with locality, geometry and manifest covariance and its canonical quantization has still to be developed, because there is no proof of the renormalizability of the Schroedinger representation of field theory. This paper discusses how, notwithstanding these developments, there is still a big amount of ambiguity at every level of the theory

  10. Big Bounce and inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizuela, David; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A; Pawlowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of an inhomogeneous universe is studied with the methods of loop quantum cosmology, via a so-called hybrid quantization, as an example of the quantization of vacuum cosmological spacetimes containing gravitational waves (Gowdy spacetimes). The analysis of this model with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, performed at the effective level, shows that (i) the initial Big Bang singularity is replaced (as in the case of homogeneous cosmological models) by a Big Bounce, joining deterministically two large universes, (ii) the universe size at the bounce is at least of the same order of magnitude as that of the background homogeneous universe and (iii) for each gravitational wave mode, the difference in amplitude at very early and very late times has a vanishing statistical average when the bounce dynamics is strongly dominated by the inhomogeneities, whereas this average is positive when the dynamics is in a near-vacuum regime, so that statistically the inhomogeneities are amplified. (fast track communication)

  11. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  12. Big bang models in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-11-07

    These proceedings are based on lectures delivered at the 'RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', CERN, 16-20 January 2006. The school was mainly aimed at PhD students and young postdocs. The lectures start with a brief introduction to spacetime singularities and the string theory resolution of certain static singularities. Then they discuss attempts to resolve cosmological singularities in string theory, mainly focusing on two specific examples: the Milne orbifold and the matrix big bang.

  13. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  14. Dyslexia singular brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habis, M.; Robichon, F.; Demonet, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Of late ten years, neurologists are studying the brain of the dyslectics. The cerebral imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography) has allowed to confirm the anatomical particularities discovered by some of them: asymmetry default of cerebral hemispheres, size abnormally large of the white substance mass which connect the two hemispheres. The functional imagery, when visualizing this singular brain at work, allows to understand why it labors to reading. (O.M.)

  15. Big data, big responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big data refers to the collection and aggregation of large quantities of data produced by and about people, things or the interactions between them. With the advent of cloud computing, specialised data centres with powerful computational hardware and software resources can be used for processing and analysing a humongous amount of aggregated data coming from a variety of different sources. The analysis of such data is all the more valuable to the extent that it allows for specific patterns to be found and new correlations to be made between different datasets, so as to eventually deduce or infer new information, as well as to potentially predict behaviours or assess the likelihood for a certain event to occur. This article will focus specifically on the legal and moral obligations of online operators collecting and processing large amounts of data, to investigate the potential implications of big data analysis on the privacy of individual users and on society as a whole.

  16. Bellman Ford algorithm - in Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krianto Sulaiman, Oris; Mahmud Siregar, Amir; Nasution, Khairuddin; Haramaini, Tasliyah

    2018-04-01

    In a large scale network need a routing that can handle a lot number of users, one of the solutions to cope with large scale network is by using a routing protocol, There are 2 types of routing protocol that is static and dynamic, Static routing is manually route input based on network admin, while dynamic routing is automatically route input formed based on existing network. Dynamic routing is efficient used to network extensively because of the input of route automatic formed, Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of dynamic routing that uses the bellman-ford algorithm where this algorithm will search for the best path that traversed the network by leveraging the value of each link, so with the bellman-ford algorithm owned by RIP can optimize existing networks.

  17. Degree of anisotropy as an automated indicator of rip channels in high resolution bathymetric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.; Bishop, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    A rip current is a concentrated seaward flow of water that forms in the surf zone of a beach as a result of alongshore variations in wave breaking. Rips can carry swimmers swiftly into deep water, and they are responsible for hundreds of fatal drownings and thousands of rescues worldwide each year. These currents form regularly alongside hard structures like piers and jetties, and can also form along sandy coasts when there is a three dimensional bar morphology. This latter rip type tends to be variable in strength and location, making them arguably the most dangerous to swimmers and most difficult to identify. These currents form in characteristic rip channels in surf zone bathymetry, in which the primary axis of self-similarity is oriented shore-normal. This paper demonstrates a new method for automating identification of such rip channels in bathymetric digital surface models (DSMs) using bathymetric data collected by various remote sensing methods. Degree of anisotropy is used to detect rip channels and distinguishes between sandbars, rip channels, and other beach features. This has implications for coastal geomorphology theory and safety practices. As technological advances increase access and accuracy of topobathy mapping methods in the surf zone, frequent nearshore bathymetric DSMs could be more easily captured and processed, then analyzed with this method to result in localized, automated, and frequent detection of rip channels. This could ultimately reduce rip-related fatalities worldwide (i) in present mitigation, by identifying the present location of rip channels, (ii) in forecasting, by tracking the channel's evolution through multiple DSMs, and (iii) in rip education by improving local lifeguard knowledge of the rip hazard. Although this paper on applies analysis of degree of anisotropy to the identification of rip channels, this parameter can be applied to multiple facets of barrier island morphological analysis.

  18. Big Bang or vacuum fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some general properties of vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theory are described. The connection between the ''energy dominance'' of the energy density of vacuum fluctuations in curved space-time and the presence of singularity is discussed. It is pointed out that a de-Sitter space-time (with the energy density of the vacuum fluctuations in the Einstein equations) that matches the expanding Friedman solution may describe the history of the Universe before the Big Bang. (P.L.)

  19. Big bang is not needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, A.D.

    1976-02-01

    Recent computer simulations indicate that a system of n gravitating masses breaks up, even when the total energy is negative. As a result, almost any initial phase-space distribution results in a universe that eventually expands under the Hubble law. Hence Hubble expansion implies little regarding an initial cosmic state. Especially it does not imply the singularly dense superpositioned state used in the big bang model.

  20. Big science

    CERN Multimedia

    Nadis, S

    2003-01-01

    " "Big science" is moving into astronomy, bringing large experimental teams, multi-year research projects, and big budgets. If this is the wave of the future, why are some astronomers bucking the trend?" (2 pages).

  1. Stochastic singular optics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roux Presented at the International Conference on Correlation Optics 2013 Chernivtsi, Ukraine 18-20 September 2013 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa – p. 1/24 Contents ⊲ Defining Stochastic Singular Optics (SSO) ⊲ Tools of Stochastic... of vortices: topological charge ±1 (higher order are unstable). Positive and negative vortex densities np(x, y, z) and nn(x, y, z) ⊲ Vortex density: V = np + nn ⊲ Topological charge density: T = np − nn – p. 4/24 Subfields of SSO ⊲ Homogeneous, normally...

  2. A Role of RIP3-Mediated Macrophage Necrosis in Atherosclerosis Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Juan; Li, Hanjie; Yang, Min; Ren, Junming; Huang, Zhe; Han, Felicia; Huang, Jian; Ma, Jianhui; Zhang, Duanwu; Zhang, Zhirong; Wu, Jianfeng; Huang, Deli; Qiao, Muzhen; Jin, Guanghui; Wu, Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Necrotic death of macrophages has long been known to be present in atherosclerotic lesions but has not been studied. We examined the role of receptor interacting protein (RIP) 3, a mediator of necrotic cell death, in atherosclerosis and found that RIP3−/−;Ldlr−/− mice were no different from RIP3+/+;Ldlr−/− mice in early atherosclerosis but had significant reduction in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Similar results were observed in Apoe−/− background mice. Bone marrow transplantation reveal...

  3. The effects and regulatory mechanism of RIP3 on RGC-5 necroptosis following elevated hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lei; Ding, Wei; Li, Na; Liao, Lvshuang; Chen, Dan; Huang, Jufang; Xiong, Kun

    2017-02-06

    Necroptosis is a type of regulated cell death that has been implicated in various diseases. Receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), a member of the RIP family, is an important mediator of the necroptotic pathway. Cleavage of RIP3 at Asp328 by caspase-8 abolishes the kinase activity of RIP3, which is critical for necroptosis. Moreover, RIP3 is significantly upregulated during the early stages of acute high intra-ocular pressure and oxygen glucose deprivation. In this study, the effects of RIP3 during elevated hydrostatic pressure (EHP) were investigated and the possible mechanism through which caspase-8 regulated RIP3 cleavage was explored. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the number of EHP-induced necrotic retinal ganglion cell 5 (RGC-5) cells was reduced after RIP3-knockdown. Furthermore, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL) activity in normal RGC-5 cells were much higher than those in RIP3-knockdown cells after EHP. EHP-induced RGC-5 necrosis was significantly reduced after treatment with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. MDA levels and PYGL activity were lower in normal RGC-5 cells than those in cells with caspase-8 inhibition after EHP. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the RIP3 cleavage product was upregulated in cells with caspase-8 inhibition. Additionally, flow cytometry analysis revealed that the number of EHP-induced necrotic RGC-5 cells was increased after caspase-8 inhibition. Our results suggested that RGC-5 necroptosis following EHP was mediated by RIP3 through induction of PYGL activity and subsequent ROS accumulation. Thus, caspase-8 may participate in the regulation of RGC-5 necroptosis via RIP3 cleavage. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Rip current related drowning deaths and rescues in Australia 2004-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, B.; Sherker, S.; Brander, R.; Thompson, M.; Bradstreet, A.

    2013-04-01

    Rip currents are a common hazard to beachgoers found on many beaches around the world, but it has proven difficult to accurately quantify the actual number of rip current related drowning deaths in many regions and countries. Consequently, reported estimates of rip current drowning can fluctuate considerably and are often based on anecdotal evidence. This study aims to quantify the incidence of rip current related drowning deaths and rescues in Australia from 2004 to 2011. A retrospective search was undertaken for fatal and non-fatal rip-related drowning incidents from Australia's National Coronial Information System (NCIS), Surf Life Saving Australia's (SLSA, 2005-2011) SurfGuard Incident Report Database (IRD), and Media Monitors for the period 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2011. In this time, rip currents were recorded as a factor in 142 fatalities of a total of 613 coastal drowning deaths (23.2%), an average of 21 per year. Rip currents were related to 44% of all beach-related drowning deaths and were involved in 57.4% of reported major rescues in Australian locations where rips occur. A comparison with international operational statistics over the same time period describes rip-related rescues as 53.7% of the total rescues in the US, 57.9% in the UK and 49.4% in New Zealand. The range 49-58% is much lower than 80-89% traditionally cited. The results reported are likely to underestimate the size of the rip current hazard, because we are limited by the completeness of data on rip-related events; however this is the most comprehensive estimate to date. Beach safety practitioners need improved data collection and standardized definitions across organisations. The collection of drowning data using consistent categories and the routine collection of rip current information will allow for more accurate global comparisons.

  5. Changes in nuclear receptor corepressor RIP140 do not influence mitochondrial content in the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Eric A F; Bonen, Arend; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-10-01

    Changes in nuclear receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140) influences mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle; however, the translation of these findings to the brain has not been investigated. The present study examined the impact of overexpressing and ablating RIP140 on mitochondrial content in muscle and the cortex through examining mRNA, mtDNA, and mitochondrial protein content. Our results show that changes in RIP140 expression significantly alters markers of mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle but not the brain.

  6. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  7. "Beyond the Big Bang: a new view of cosmology"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    and parameters? Can one conceive of a completion of the scenario which resolves the big bang singularity and explains the dark energy now coming to dominate? Are we forced to resort to anthropic explanations? In this talk, I will develop an alternate picture, in which the big bang singularity is resolved and in which the value of the dark energy might be fixed by physical processes. The key is a resolution of the singularity. Using a combination of arguments,involving M theory and holography as well as analytic continuation in time within the low energy effective theory, I argue that there is a unique way to match cosmic evolution across the big bang singularity. The latter is no longer the beginning of time but is instead the gateway to an eternal, cyclical universe. If time permits, I shall describe new work c...

  8. Higher spin resolution of a toy big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Roy, Shubho

    2013-08-01

    Diffeomorphisms preserve spacetime singularities, whereas higher spin symmetries need not. Since three-dimensional de Sitter space has quotients that have big-bang/big-crunch singularities and since dS3-gravity can be written as an SL(2,C) Chern-Simons theory, we investigate SL(3,C) Chern-Simons theory as a higher-spin context in which these singularities might get resolved. As in the case of higher spin black holes in AdS3, the solutions are invariantly characterized by their holonomies. We show that the dS3 quotient singularity can be desingularized by an SL(3,C) gauge transformation that preserves the holonomy: this is a higher spin resolution the cosmological singularity. Our work deals exclusively with the bulk theory, and is independent of the subtleties involved in defining a CFT2 dual to dS3 in the sense of dS/CFT.

  9. Quantum fate of singularities in a dark-energy dominated universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Kiefer, Claus; Sandhoefer, Barbara; Moniz, Paulo Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Classical models for dark energy can exhibit a variety of singularities, many of which occur for scale factors much bigger than the Planck length. We address here the issue of whether some of these singularities, the big freeze and the big demarrage, can be avoided in quantum cosmology. We use the framework of quantum geometrodynamics. We restrict our attention to a class of models whose matter content can be described by a generalized Chaplygin gas and be represented by a scalar field with an appropriate potential. Employing the DeWitt criterion that the wave function be zero at the classical singularity, we show that a class of solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation fulfilling this condition can be found. These solutions thus avoid the classical singularity. We discuss the reasons for the remaining ambiguity in fixing the solution.

  10. a New Look at the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    We give a mathematically exact and physically faithful embedding of curved 4D cosmology in a flat 5D space, thereby enabling visualization of the big bang in a new and informative way. In fact, in unified theories of fields and particles with real extra dimensions, it is possible to dispense with the initial singularity.

  11. Residues and duality for singularity categories of isolated Gorenstein singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Murfet, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We study Serre duality in the singularity category of an isolated Gorenstein singularity and find an explicit formula for the duality pairing in terms of generalised fractions and residues. For hypersurfaces we recover the residue formula of the string theorists Kapustin and Li. These results are obtained from an explicit construction of complete injective resolutions of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules.

  12. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple ;crossover model; without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  13. String wave function across a Kasner singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2010-01-01

    A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.

  14. Singular Poisson tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structures discovered by Morrison and Greene for various fluid equations were obtained by guessing a Hamiltonian and a suitable Poisson bracket formula, expressed in terms of noncanonical (but physical) coordinates. In general, such a procedure for obtaining a Hamiltonian system does not produce a Hamiltonian phase space in the usual sense (a symplectic manifold), but rather a family of symplectic manifolds. To state the matter in terms of a system with a finite number of degrees of freedom, the family of symplectic manifolds is parametrized by a set of Casimir functions, which are characterized by having vanishing Poisson brackets with all other functions. The number of independent Casimir functions is the corank of the Poisson tensor J/sup ij/, the components of which are the Poisson brackets of the coordinates among themselves. Thus, these Casimir functions exist only when the Poisson tensor is singular

  15. Ether-theoretic model of the universe without the ''big bang''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlaha, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    Authors rejecting singularities in the general theory of relativity still did not find a possibility of avoiding the ''time singularity'' known as the ''big bang''. Of course, mathematics and physics are two different things, and the existence of the ''time singularity'' as the mathematical solutions of the relativistic equations does not yet mean that the ''big bang'' actually happened. The author designs an alternative explanation of the galactic red shift and proposes a model of a universe in which no ''big bang'' exists. (Auth.)

  16. Inflation is the generic feature of phantom field-not the big-rip

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, Abhik Kumar

    2006-01-01

    A class of solutions for phantom field corresponding to a generalized k-essence lagrangian has been presented, employing a simple method which provides the scope to explore many such. All the solutions having dynamical state parameter are found to touch the magic line w = -1, asymptotically. The solutions with constant equation of state can represent phantom, quitessence or an ordinary scalar field cosmologies depending on the choice of a couple of parameters of the theory. For w approximatel...

  17. Cytosolic calcium mediates RIP1/RIP3 complex-dependent necroptosis through JNK activation and mitochondrial ROS production in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaxia; Gao, Hongwei; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Wenwen; Lu, Jin-Jian; Wang, Jinhua; Du, Guanhua; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-07-01

    Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrosis mediated by signaling complexes with receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 kinases as the main mediators. However, the underlying execution pathways of this phenomenon have yet to be elucidated in detail. In this study, a RIP1/RIP3 complex was formed in 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (MAM)-treated HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells. With this formation, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased, mitochondrial depolarization occurred, and ATP concentrations decreased. This process was identified as necroptosis. This finding was confirmed by experiments showing that MAM-induced cell death was attenuated by the pharmacological or genetic blockage of necroptosis signaling, including RIP1 inhibitor necrostatin-1s (Nec-1s) and siRNA-mediated gene silencing of RIP1 and RIP3, but was unaffected by caspase inhibitor z-vad-fmk or necrosis inhibitor 2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-3-pentylamino-maleimide (IM54). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis further revealed the ultrastructural features of MAM-induced necroptosis. MAM-induced RIP1/RIP3 complex triggered necroptosis through cytosolic calcium (Ca 2+ ) accumulation and sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Both calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and JNK inhibitor SP600125 could attenuate necroptotic features, including mitochondrial ROS elevation, mitochondrial depolarization, and ATP depletion. 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), which is a mitochondrial complex II inhibitor, was found to effectively reverse both MAM induced mitochondrial ROS generation and cell death, indicating the complex II was the ROS-producing site. The essential role of mitochondrial ROS was confirmed by the protective effect of overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). MAM-induced necroptosis was independent of TNFα, p53, MLKL, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization. In summary, our study demonstrated that RIP1/RIP3 complex-triggered cytosolic calcium

  18. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo, E-mail: Remo.Garattini@unibg.it [Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); I.N.F.N. – sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Majumder, Barun, E-mail: barunbasanta@iitgn.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India)

    2014-07-15

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  19. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-07-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheele-DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  20. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-01-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity

  1. The Big bang and the Quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2010-06-01

    General relativity predicts that space-time comes to an end and physics comes to a halt at the big-bang. Recent developments in loop quantum cosmology have shown that these predictions cannot be trusted. Quantum geometry effects can resolve singularities, thereby opening new vistas. Examples are: The big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce; the `horizon problem' disappears; immediately after the big bounce, there is a super-inflationary phase with its own phenomenological ramifications; and, in presence of a standard inflation potential, initial conditions are naturally set for a long, slow roll inflation independently of what happens in the pre-big bang branch. As in my talk at the conference, I will first discuss the foundational issues and then the implications of the new Planck scale physics near the Big Bang.

  2. Global fluctuation spectra in big-crunch-big-bang string vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2004-01-01

    We study big-crunch-big-bang cosmologies that correspond to exact world-sheet superconformal field theories of type II strings. The string theory spacetime contains a big crunch and a big bang cosmology, as well as additional 'whisker' asymptotic and intermediate regions. Within the context of free string theory, we compute, unambiguously, the scalar fluctuation spectrum in all regions of spacetime. Generically, the big crunch fluctuation spectrum is altered while passing through the bounce singularity. The change in the spectrum is characterized by a function Δ, which is momentum and time dependent. We compute Δ explicitly and demonstrate that it arises from the whisker regions. The whiskers are also shown to lead to 'entanglement' entropy in the big bang region. Finally, in the Milne orbifold limit of our superconformal vacua, we show that Δ→1 and, hence, the fluctuation spectrum is unaltered by the big-crunch-big-bang singularity. We comment on, but do not attempt to resolve, subtleties related to gravitational back reaction and light winding modes when interactions are taken into account

  3. Phantom inflation and the 'Big Trip'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.; Jimenez-Madrid, Jose A.

    2004-01-01

    Primordial inflation is regarded to be driven by a phantom field which is here implemented as a scalar field satisfying an equation of state p=ωρ, with ω-1. Being even aggravated by the weird properties of phantom energy, this will pose a serious problem with the exit from the inflationary phase. We argue, however, in favor of the speculation that a smooth exit from the phantom inflationary phase can still be tentatively recovered by considering a multiverse scenario where the primordial phantom universe would travel in time toward a future universe filled with usual radiation, before reaching the big rip. We call this transition the 'Big Trip' and assume it to take place with the help of some form of anthropic principle which chooses our current universe as being the final destination of the time transition

  4. Urbanising Big

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Development in China raises the question of how big a city can become, and at the same time be sustainable, writes Christer Ljungwall of the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.......Development in China raises the question of how big a city can become, and at the same time be sustainable, writes Christer Ljungwall of the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis....

  5. Big Argumentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Faltesek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Big Data is nothing new. Public concern regarding the mass diffusion of data has appeared repeatedly with computing innovations, in the formation before Big Data it was most recently referred to as the information explosion. In this essay, I argue that the appeal of Big Data is not a function of computational power, but of a synergistic relationship between aesthetic order and a politics evacuated of a meaningful public deliberation. Understanding, and challenging, Big Data requires an attention to the aesthetics of data visualization and the ways in which those aesthetics would seem to depoliticize information. The conclusion proposes an alternative argumentative aesthetic as the appropriate response to the depoliticization posed by the popular imaginary of Big Data.

  6. Big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed; Flyverbom, Mikkel; Hilbert, Martin

    2016-01-01

    is to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations......The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments contained in any big data practice. Second, it suggests a research agenda built around a set of subthemes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay between big data...

  7. Singularity resolution in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Winkler, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We examine the singularity resolution issue in quantum gravity by studying a new quantization of standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometrodynamics. The quantization procedure is inspired by the loop quantum gravity program, and is based on an alternative to the Schroedinger representation normally used in metric variable quantum cosmology. We show that in this representation for quantum geometrodynamics there exists a densely defined inverse scale factor operator, and that the Hamiltonian constraint acts as a difference operator on the basis states. We find that the cosmological singularity is avoided in the quantum dynamics. We discuss these results with a view to identifying the criteria that constitute 'singularity resolution' in quantum gravity

  8. The theory of singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    De Jager, E M

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this textbook is the mathematical theory of singular perturbations, which despite its respectable history is still in a state of vigorous development. Singular perturbations of cumulative and of boundary layer type are presented. Attention has been given to composite expansions of solutions of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations, linear as well as quasilinear; also turning points are discussed. The main emphasis lies on several methods of approximation for solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations and on the mathemat

  9. Van Hove singularities revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyaloshinskii, I.

    1987-07-01

    Beginning with the work of Hirsch and Scalapino the importance of ln 2 -Van Hove singularity in T c -enhancement in La 2 CuO 4 -based compounds was realized, which is nicely reviewed by Rice. However, the theoretical treatment carried out before is incomplete. Two things were apparently not paid due attention to: interplay of particle-particle and particle-hole channels and Umklapp processes. In what follows a two-dimensional weak coupling model of LaCuO 4 will be solved exactly in the ln 2 -approximation. The result in the Hubbard limit (one bare charge) is that the system is unstable at any sign of interaction. Symmetry breaking moreover is pretty peculiar. Of course, there are separate singlet superconducting pairings in the pp-channel (attraction) and SDW (repulsion) and CDW (attraction) in the ph-channel. It is natural that Umklapps produce an SDW + CDW mixture at either sign of the interaction. What is unusual is that both the pp-ph interplay and the Umklapps give rise to a monster-coherent SS + SDW + CDW mixture, again at either sign of the bare charge. In the general model where all 4 charges involved are substantially different, the system might remain metallic. A more realistic approach which takes into account dopping in La-M-Cu-O and interlayer interaction provides at least a qualitative understanding of the experimental picture. 10 refs, 5 figs

  10. How Big Is Too Big?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  11. Surf zone Exchange on a Rip Channeled Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, A.; Macmahan, J.

    2008-12-01

    The dispersion and surf zone exchange of GPS-equipped surface drifters observed during the Rip Current EXperiment (RCEX) is examined with help of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). LCSs allow for the detection of transport barriers in unsteady flows and are typically applied to shelf-scale circulation systems. Here LCSs are specifically computed to detect the effects of surfzone-originated Very Low Frequency motions (VLFs) with O(10) minute time scale on the cross-shore exchange of floating material using numerical model calculations of the Lagrangian surface velocity at the wave group timescale. After verification with RCEX field observations, the model is run for a range of environmental conditions experienced during the field experiment to assess the effects of VLFs on the cross-shore surf zone exchange. Results are relevant for (but not restricted to) sediment and nutrient exchange, human health, water clarity, and swimmer safety.

  12. Local and nonlocal space-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to subdivide the singularities into two classes: local and nonlocal, each of them to be defined independently, is proved. Both classes of the singularities are defined, and the relation between the definitions introduced and the standard definition of singularities, based on space-time, incompleteness, is established. The relation between definitions introduced and theorems on the singularity existence is also established

  13. Do sewn up singularities falsify the Palatini cosmology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, Marek [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Stachowski, Aleksander [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Borowiec, Andrzej [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Wojnar, Aneta [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    We investigate further (cf. Borowiec et al. JCAP 1601(01):040, 2016) the Starobinsky cosmological model R + γR{sup 2} in the Palatini formalism with a Chaplygin gas and baryonic matter as a source in the context of singularities. The dynamics reduces to the 2D sewn dynamical system of a Newtonian type (a piece-wise-smooth dynamical system). We demonstrate that the presence of a sewn up freeze singularity (glued freeze type singularities) for the positive γ is, in this case, a generic feature of the early evolution of the universe. It is demonstrated that γ equal zero is a bifurcation parameter and the dynamics qualitatively changes as the γ sign is changing. On the other side for the case of negative γ instead of the big bang the sudden bounce singularity of a finite scale factor does appear and there is a generic class of bouncing solutions. While the Ω{sub γ} > 0 is favored by data only very small values of Ω{sub γ} parameter are allowed if we require agreement with the ΛCDM model. From the statistical analysis of astronomical observations, we deduce that the case of only very small negative values of Ω{sub γ} cannot be rejected. Therefore, observation data favor the universe without the ghost states (f{sup '}(R) > 0) and tachyons (f''(R) > 0). (orig.)

  14. “I didn't know her, but…”: parasocial mourning of mediated deaths on Facebook RIP pages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klastrup, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the use of six Danish “Rest in Peace” or (RIP) memorial pages. The article focuses on the relation between news media and RIP page use, in relation to general communicative practices on these pages. Based on an analysis of press coverage of the deaths of six young people...... and a close analysis of 1,015 comments extracted from the RIP pages created to memorialize them, it is shown that their deaths attracted considerable media attention, as did the RIP pages themselves. Comment activity seem to reflect the news stories in the way the commenters refer to the context of death...... and the emotional distress they experience, but mainly comments on the RIP pages are conventional expressions of sympathy and “RIP” wishes. The article concludes that public RIP pages might be understood as virtual spontaneous shrines, affording an emerging practice of “RIP-ing.”...

  15. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  16. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2535 (United States); Chen, Shih-Hung [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Department of Physics and Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Turok, Neil [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2012-08-29

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  17. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  18. Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, Paul L.; Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c) 2 . At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios

  19. On the singularities of solutions to singular perturbation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, A; Schaefke, R

    2005-01-01

    We consider a singularly perturbed complex first order ODE εu ' Φ(x, u, a, ε), x, u element of C, ε > 0 is a small complex parameter and a element of C is a control parameter. It is proven that the singularities of some solutions are regularly spaced and that they move from one to the next as a runs about a loop of index one around a value of overstability. This gives a positive answer to a question of J. L. Callot

  20. On the singularities of solutions to singular perturbation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Informatique et Applications, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite de Haute Alsace, 4 rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse cedex (France); Schaefke, R [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene-Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    We consider a singularly perturbed complex first order ODE {epsilon}u ' {phi}(x, u, a, {epsilon}), x, u element of C, {epsilon} > 0 is a small complex parameter and a element of C is a control parameter. It is proven that the singularities of some solutions are regularly spaced and that they move from one to the next as a runs about a loop of index one around a value of overstability. This gives a positive answer to a question of J. L. Callot.

  1. Quantum nature of the big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Singh, Parampreet

    2006-04-14

    Some long-standing issues concerning the quantum nature of the big bang are resolved in the context of homogeneous isotropic models with a scalar field. Specifically, the known results on the resolution of the big-bang singularity in loop quantum cosmology are significantly extended as follows: (i) the scalar field is shown to serve as an internal clock, thereby providing a detailed realization of the "emergent time" idea; (ii) the physical Hilbert space, Dirac observables, and semiclassical states are constructed rigorously; (iii) the Hamiltonian constraint is solved numerically to show that the big bang is replaced by a big bounce. Thanks to the nonperturbative, background independent methods, unlike in other approaches the quantum evolution is deterministic across the deep Planck regime.

  2. An analytical model for the prediction of rip spacing in intermediate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    61

    study, an analytical model was presented to predict the spacing of channel rip currents (Srip) ... beach and normal wave incidence in two cases with the fixed breaking line and variable one .... On the other hand, in the above relations radiation.

  3. Rip current evidence by hydrodynamic simulations, bathymetric surveys and UAV observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Benassai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of the formation, spacing and location of rip currents is a scientific challenge that can be achieved by means of different complementary methods. In this paper the analysis of numerical and experimental data, including RPAS (remotely piloted aircraft systems observations, allowed us to detect the presence of rip currents and rip channels at the mouth of Sele River, in the Gulf of Salerno, southern Italy. The dataset used to analyze these phenomena consisted of two different bathymetric surveys, a detailed sediment analysis and a set of high-resolution wave numerical simulations, completed with Google EarthTM images and RPAS observations. The grain size trend analysis and the numerical simulations allowed us to identify the rip current occurrence, forced by topographically constrained channels incised on the seabed, which were compared with observations.

  4. XIAP Restricts TNF- and RIP3-Dependent Cell Death and Inflammasome Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yabal, Monica; Müller, Nicole; Adler, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    of XIAP or deletion of its RING domain lead to excessive cell death and IL-1β secretion from dendritic cells triggered by diverse Toll-like receptor stimuli. Aberrant IL-1β secretion is TNF dependent and requires RIP3 but is independent of cIAP1/cIAP2. The observed cell death also requires TNF and RIP3...... but proceeds independently of caspase-1/caspase-11 or caspase-8 function. Loss of XIAP results in aberrantly elevated ubiquitylation of RIP1 outside of TNFR complex I. Virally infected Xiap(-/-) mice present with symptoms reminiscent of XLP-2. Our data show that XIAP controls RIP3-dependent cell death and IL-1...

  5. Äripäev hakkab välja andma PR-ajakirja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Ilmuma hakkas Eesti esimene kommunikatsioonispetsialistidele ja -juhtidele mõeldud erialaajakiri Kaja, mille väljaandja on Äripäeva teabekirjastus koostöös Tallinna Ülikooli kommunikatsiooni instituudiga

  6. Influence of slope and gradation on rip rap stability and degradation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, G.; Rohan, K.; Belfahdel, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    A major investigation was undertaken at the La Grande hydroelectric complex with some 220 dikes and dams to study rip rap stability and repair. Degradation mechanisms were also studied under laboratory conditions to verify the main field study conclusions and to test different repair techniques. The result of both laboratory and field observation was that rip rap gradation has only marginal effect on slope stability and degradation mechanisms. On the other hand, the inclusion of even a small fraction of fine blocks (as little as 10 per cent) into the rip rap was shown to be very detrimental to the stability of steep rip rap but only marginally effective on flat slopes. 15 refs., 8 figs

  7. RIP3 attenuates the pancreatic damage induced by deletion of ATG7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Xie, Li; Xia, Leizhou; Bergmann, Frank; Büchler, Markus W; Kroemer, Guido; Hackert, Thilo; Fortunato, Franco

    2017-07-13

    Invalidation of pancreatic autophagy entails pancreatic atrophy, endocrine and exocrine insufficiency and pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether depletion of Rip3, which is involved in necroptotic signaling, may attenuate the pancreatic atrophy and pancreatitis resulting from autophagy inhibition. Autophagy and necroptosis signaling were evaluated in mice lacking expression of Rip3 in all organs and Atg7 in the pancreas. Acinar cell death, inflammation and fibrosis were evaluated by using of a compendium of immunofluorescence methods and immunoblots. Mice deficient for pancreatic Atg7 developed acute pancreatitis, which progressed to chronic pancreatitis. This phenotype reduces autophagy, increase apoptosis and necroptosis, inflammation and fibrosis, as well as premature death of the animals. Knockout of Rip3 exacerbated the apoptotic death of acinar cells, increased tissue damage, reduced macrophage infiltration and further accelerated the death of the mice with Atg7-deficient pancreas. The pancreatic degeneration induced by autophagy inhibition was exacerbated by Rip3 deletion.

  8. Is the cosmological singularity compulsory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.; Meisels, A.

    1980-01-01

    The cosmological singularity is inherent in all conventional general relativistic cosmological models. There can be no question that it is an unphysical feature; yet there does not seem to be any convervative way of eliminating it. Here we present singularity-free isotropic cosmological models which are indistinguishable from general relativistic ones at late times. They are based on the general theory of variable rest masses that we developed recently. Outside cosmology this theory simulates general relativity well. Thus it provides a framework incorporating those features which have made geneal relativity so sucessful while providing a way out of singularity dilemma. The cosmological models can be made to incorporate Dirac's large numbers hypothesis. G(now)/G(0)approx.10 -38

  9. History in Fiction:The Case of “Rip Van Winkle”%History in Fiction: The Case of “Rip Van Winkle”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun

    2009-01-01

    Washington Irving's "Rip Van Winkle" has been so ritualistically cited and discussed by historians,political scientists and literary scholars that it is no longer just a simple tale but a prominent text in American culture.The tale,as one critic proclaims,"presides over the birth of the American imagination" (Fiedler xx).This essay revisits "Rip Van Winkle" for the sole purpose of considering how this literary text can also stimulate critical thinking on the connection between fiction (or poetry) and history.

  10. A 1 + 5-dimensional gravitational-wave solution. Curvature singularity and spacetime singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Zhu [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Li, Wen-Du [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Dai, Wu-Sheng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University and Tianjin University, LiuHui Center for Applied Mathematics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-12-15

    We solve a 1 + 5-dimensional cylindrical gravitational-wave solution of the Einstein equation, in which there are two curvature singularities. Then we show that one of the curvature singularities can be removed by an extension of the spacetime. The result exemplifies that the curvature singularity is not always a spacetime singularity; in other words, the curvature singularity cannot serve as a criterion for spacetime singularities. (orig.)

  11. How quantum is the big bang?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2008-06-06

    When quantum gravity is used to discuss the big bang singularity, the most important, though rarely addressed, question is what role genuine quantum degrees of freedom play. Here, complete effective equations are derived for isotropic models with an interacting scalar to all orders in the expansions involved. The resulting coupling terms show that quantum fluctuations do not affect the bounce much. Quantum correlations, however, do have an important role and could even eliminate the bounce. How quantum gravity regularizes the big bang depends crucially on properties of the quantum state.

  12. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  13. 2-HG Inhibits Necroptosis by Stimulating DNMT1-Dependent Hypermethylation of the RIP3 Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhentao Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 2-hydroxyglutarate-(2-HG-mediated inhibition of TET2 activity influences DNA hypermethylation in cells harboring mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2. Here, we show that 2-HG also regulates DNA methylation mediated by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1. DNMT1-dependent hypermethylation of the RIP3 promoter occurred in both IDH1 R132Q knockin mutant mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEFs and 2-HG-treated wild-type (WT MEFs. We found that 2-HG bound to DNMT1 and stimulated its association with the RIP3 promoter, inducing hypermethylation that reduces RIP3 protein and consequently impaired RIP3-dependent necroptosis. In human glioma samples, RIP3 protein levels correlated negatively with IDH1 R132H levels. Furthermore, ectopic expression of RIP3 in transformed IDH1-mutated MEFs inhibited the growth of tumors derived from these cells following transplantation into nude mice. Thus, our research sheds light on a mechanism of 2-HG-induced DNA hypermethylation and suggests that impaired necroptosis contributes to the tumorigenesis driven by IDH1/2 mutations.

  14. Singularities in geodesic surface congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae

    2008-01-01

    In the stringy cosmology, we investigate singularities in geodesic surface congruences for the timelike and null strings to yield the Raychaudhuri type equations possessing correction terms associated with the novel features owing to the strings. Assuming the stringy strong energy condition, we have a Hawking-Penrose type inequality equation. If the initial expansion is negative so that the congruence is converging, we show that the expansion must pass through the singularity within a proper time. We observe that the stringy strong energy conditions of both the timelike and null string congruences produce the same inequality equation.

  15. Singular perturbation of simple eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlee, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    Two operator theoretic theorems which generalize those of asymptotic regular perturbation theory and which apply to singular perturbation problems are proved. Application of these theorems to concrete problems is involved, but the perturbation expansions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors are developed in terms of solutions of linear operator equations. The method of correctors, as well as traditional boundary layer techniques, can be used to apply these theorems. The current formulation should be applicable to highly singular ''hard core'' potential perturbations of the radial equation of quantum mechanics. The theorems are applied to a comparatively simple model problem whose analysis is basic to that of the quantum mechanical problem

  16. Singularity Theory and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian; Mond, David; Montaldi, James

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Singularities, Bifuraction and Dynamics was held at Warwick in July 1989, as part of a year-long symposium on Singularity Theory and its applications. The proceedings fall into two halves: Volume I mainly on connections with algebraic geometry and volume II on connections with dynamical systems theory, bifurcation theory and applications in the sciences. The papers are original research, stimulated by the symposium and workshop: All have been refereed and none will appear elsewhere. The main topic of volume II is new methods for the study of bifurcations in nonlinear dynamical systems, and applications of these.

  17. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  18. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  19. Singular moduli and Arakelov intersection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Lin.

    1994-05-01

    The value of the modular function j(τ) at imaginary quadratic arguments τ in the upper half plane is usually called singular moduli. In this paper, we use Arakelov intersection to give the prime factorizations of a certain combination of singular moduli, coming from the Hecke correspondence. Such a result may be considered as the degenerate one of Gross and Zagier on Heegner points and derivatives of L-series in their paper [GZ1], and is parallel to the result in [GZ2]. (author). 2 refs

  20. Singularities in minimax optimization of networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical treatment of singularities in nonlinear minimax optimization problems, which allows for a classification in regular and singular problems, is presented. A theorem for determining a singularity that is present in a given problem is formulated. A group of problems often used in the li......A theoretical treatment of singularities in nonlinear minimax optimization problems, which allows for a classification in regular and singular problems, is presented. A theorem for determining a singularity that is present in a given problem is formulated. A group of problems often used...

  1. A numerical simulation of pre-big bang cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Maharana, J P; Veneziano, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    We analyse numerically the onset of pre-big bang inflation in an inhomogeneous, spherically symmetric Universe. Adding a small dilatonic perturbation to a trivial (Milne) background, we find that suitable regions of space undergo dilaton-driven inflation and quickly become spatially flat ($\\Omega \\to 1$). Numerical calculations are pushed close enough to the big bang singularity to allow cross checks against previously proposed analytic asymptotic solutions.

  2. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  3. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which .... holes appear as stacks of a large number of D-branes wrapped in internal .... results into a well-known measure factor which makes the wave function into a.

  4. Charged singularities: the causality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-12-01

    A search is made for examples of particle trajectories which, approaching a naked singularity from infinity, make up for lost time before going back to infinity. In the Kerr-Newman metric a whole family of such trajectories is found showing that the causality violation is indeed a non-avoidable pathology.

  5. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  6. Big Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  7. Big Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-05-15

    Astronomy, like particle physics, has become Big Science where the demands of front line research can outstrip the science budgets of whole nations. Thus came into being the European Southern Observatory (ESO), founded in 1962 to provide European scientists with a major modern observatory to study the southern sky under optimal conditions.

  8. Computation at a coordinate singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Joseph M.

    2018-05-01

    Coordinate singularities are sometimes encountered in computational problems. An important example involves global atmospheric models used for climate and weather prediction. Classical spherical coordinates can be used to parameterize the manifold - that is, generate a grid for the computational spherical shell domain. This particular parameterization offers significant benefits such as orthogonality and exact representation of curvature and connection (Christoffel) coefficients. But it also exhibits two polar singularities and at or near these points typical continuity/integral constraints on dependent fields and their derivatives are generally inadequate and lead to poor model performance and erroneous results. Other parameterizations have been developed that eliminate polar singularities, but problems of weaker singularities and enhanced grid noise compared to spherical coordinates (away from the poles) persist. In this study reparameterization invariance of geometric objects (scalars, vectors and the forms generated by their covariant derivatives) is utilized to generate asymptotic forms for dependent fields of interest valid in the neighborhood of a pole. The central concept is that such objects cannot be altered by the metric structure of a parameterization. The new boundary conditions enforce symmetries that are required for transformations of geometric objects. They are implemented in an implicit polar filter of a structured grid, nonhydrostatic global atmospheric model that is simulating idealized Held-Suarez flows. A series of test simulations using different configurations of the asymptotic boundary conditions are made, along with control simulations that use the default model numerics with no absorber, at three different grid sizes. Typically the test simulations are ∼ 20% faster in wall clock time than the control-resulting from a decrease in noise at the poles in all cases. In the control simulations adverse numerical effects from the polar

  9. Remarks on gauge variables and singular Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Janica-de-la-Torre, R.; Kalnay, A.J.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Rodriguez-Nunez, J.; Tascon, R.

    1977-01-01

    The relevance is discussed of gauge theory, based on a singular Lagrangian density, to the foundations of field theory. The idea that gauge transformations could change the physics of systems where the Lagrangian is singular is examined. (author)

  10. Singular multiparameter dynamic equations with distributional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Singular multiparameter dynamic equations with distributional potentials on time scales. ... In this paper, we consider both singular single and several multiparameter ... multiple function which is of one sign and nonzero on the given time scale.

  11. SimBa: An Efficient Tool for Approximating Rips-Filtration Persistence via Simplicial Batch-Collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Tamal K.; Shi, Dayu; Wang, Yusu

    2016-01-01

    In topological data analysis, a point cloud data P extracted from a metric space is often analyzed by computing the persistence diagram or barcodes of a sequence of Rips complexes built on $P$ indexed by a scale parameter. Unfortunately, even for input of moderate size, the size of the Rips complex may become prohibitively large as the scale parameter increases. Starting with the Sparse Rips filtration introduced by Sheehy, some existing methods aim to reduce the size of the complex so as to ...

  12. The transcriptional co-factor RIP140 regulates mammary gland development by promoting the generation of key mitogenic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Jaya; Steel, Jennifer H; Mane, Meritxell Rosell; Oduwole, Olayiwola; Poliandri, Ariel; Alexi, Xanthippi; Wood, Nicholas; Poutanen, Matti; Zwart, Wilbert; Stingl, John; Parker, Malcolm G

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear receptor interacting protein (Nrip1), also known as RIP140, is a co-regulator for nuclear receptors that plays an essential role in ovulation by regulating the expression of the epidermal growth factor-like family of growth factors. Although several studies indicate a role for RIP140 in breast cancer, its role in the development of the mammary gland is unclear. By using RIP140-null and RIP140 transgenic mice, we demonstrate that RIP140 is an essential factor for normal mammary gland development and that it functions by mediating oestrogen signalling. RIP140-null mice exhibit minimal ductal elongation with no side-branching, whereas RIP140-overexpressing mice show increased cell proliferation and ductal branching with age. Tissue recombination experiments demonstrate that RIP140 expression is required in both the mammary epithelial and stromal compartments for ductal elongation during puberty and that loss of RIP140 leads to a catastrophic loss of the mammary epithelium, whereas RIP140 overexpression augments the mammary basal cell population and shifts the progenitor/differentiated cell balance within the luminal cell compartment towards the progenitors. For the first time, we present a genome-wide global view of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) binding events in the developing mammary gland, which unravels 881 ERα binding sites. Unbiased evaluation of several ERα binding sites for RIP140 co-occupancy reveals selectivity and demonstrates that RIP140 acts as a co-regulator with ERα to regulate directly the expression of amphiregulin (Areg), the progesterone receptor (Pgr) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (Stat5a), factors that influence key mitogenic pathways that regulate normal mammary gland development.

  13. The phytopathogenic virulent effector protein RipI induces apoptosis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng-Ying; Sun, Yun-Hao; Li, Pai; Fu, Bei; Shen, Dong; Lu, Yong-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Virulent protein toxins secreted by the bacterial pathogens can cause cytotoxicity by various molecular mechanisms to combat host cell defense. On the other hand, these proteins can also be used as probes to investigate the defense pathway of host innate immunity. Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most virulent bacterial phytopathogens, translocates more than 70 effector proteins via type III secretion system during infection. Here, we characterized the cytotoxicity of effector RipI in budding yeast Saccharomyce scerevisiae, an alternative host model. We found that over-expression of RipI resulted in severe growth defect and arginine (R) 117 within the predicted integrase motif was required for inhibition of yeast growth. The phenotype of death manifested the hallmarks of apoptosis. Our data also revealed that RipI-induced apoptosis was independent of Yca1 and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways because Δyca1 and Δaif1 were both sensitive to RipI as compared with the wild type. We further demonstrated that RipI was localized in the yeast nucleus and the N-terminal 1-174aa was required for the localization. High-throughput RNA sequencing analysis showed that upon RipI over-expression, 101 unigenes of yeast ribosome presented lower expression level, and 42 GO classes related to the nucleus or recombination were enriched with differential expression levels. Taken together, our data showed that a nuclear-targeting effector RipI triggers yeast apoptosis, potentially dependent on its integrase function. Our results also provided an alternative strategy to dissect the signaling pathway of cytotoxicity induced by the protein toxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rip3 knockdown rescues photoreceptor cell death in blind pde6c zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viringipurampeer, I A; Shan, X; Gregory-Evans, K; Zhang, J P; Mohammadi, Z; Gregory-Evans, C Y

    2014-05-01

    Achromatopsia is a progressive autosomal recessive retinal disease characterized by early loss of cone photoreceptors and later rod photoreceptor loss. In most cases, mutations have been identified in CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2, PDE6C or PDE6H genes. Owing to this genetic heterogeneity, mutation-independent therapeutic schemes aimed at preventing cone cell death are very attractive treatment strategies. In pde6c(w59) mutant zebrafish, cone photoreceptors expressed high levels of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) kinases, key regulators of necroptotic cell death. In contrast, rod photoreceptor cells were alternatively immunopositive for caspase-3 indicating activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis in these cells. Morpholino gene knockdown of rip3 in pde6c(w59) embryos rescued the dying cone photoreceptors by inhibiting the formation of reactive oxygen species and by inhibiting second-order neuron remodelling in the inner retina. In rip3 morphant larvae, visual function was restored in the cones by upregulation of the rod phosphodiesterase genes (pde6a and pde6b), compensating for the lack of cone pde6c suggesting that cones are able to adapt to their local environment. Furthermore, we demonstrated through pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 and RIP3 activity that cone cell death was also delayed. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the underlying mechanism of cone cell death in the pde6c(w59) mutant retina is through necroptosis, whereas rod photoreceptor bystander death occurs through a caspase-dependent mechanism. This suggests that targeting the RIP kinase signalling pathway could be an effective therapeutic intervention in retinal degeneration patients. As bystander cell death is an important feature of many retinal diseases, combinatorial approaches targeting different cell death pathways may evolve as an important general principle in treatment.

  15. Big Egos in Big Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Jeppesen, Jacob

    In this paper we investigate the micro-mechanisms governing structural evolution and performance of scientific collaboration. Scientific discovery tends not to be lead by so called lone ?stars?, or big egos, but instead by collaboration among groups of researchers, from a multitude of institutions...

  16. Big Data and Big Science

    OpenAIRE

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Brief introduction to the challenges of big data in scientific research based on the work done by the HEP community at CERN and how the CERN openlab promotes collaboration among research institutes and industrial IT companies. Presented at the FutureGov 2014 conference in Singapore.

  17. Analysis of singularity in redundant manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Koichi

    2000-03-01

    In the analysis of arm positions and configurations of redundant manipulators, the singularity avoidance problems are important themes. This report presents singularity avoidance computations of a 7 DOF manipulator by using a computer code based on human-arm models. The behavior of the arm escaping from the singular point can be identified satisfactorily through the use of 3-D plotting tools. (author)

  18. Relevance of Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) on a worldwide scale to assess soil vulnerability to 137Cs contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandebroek, Louis; Van Hees, May; Delvaux, Bruno; Spaargaren, Otto; Thiry, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The extent of radiocaesium retention in soil is important to quantify the risk of further foodchain contamination. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP –, Nature 335, 247–249) is an intrinsic soil parameter which can be used to categorize soils or minerals in terms of their capacity to selectively adsorb radiocaesium. In this study, we measured RIP for a large soil collection (88 soil samples) representative of major FAO soil reference groups on a worldwide scale and tested the possibility to predict the RIP on the basis of other easily accessible or measurable soil data. We also compared RIP values with those obtained from separate chemical extraction experiments. The range of measured RIP values (1.8–13300 mmol kg −1 ) was shown to include nearly all possible cases of agricultural soil contamination. Only Podzols, Andosols and Ferralsols were clearly characterized by a very low RIP ( −1 ). On a worldwide scale, RIP was in fact slightly related to soil reference type or other simple major physicochemical parameters such as clay percentage or organic matter. Conversely our results indicated a link between the RIP and radiocaesium extractability across very different soils. We showed that, with the proposed scale of RIP values, a simple acid extraction method can provide an operational result highly predictive of potential RIP despite very contrasting soil properties. The RIP could be estimated from the empirical equation: RIP = (−31.701 ∗ log(AER) + 58.886) 2 where AER is the fraction of acid-extractable radiocaesium. - Highlights: ► The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) is an intrinsic soil parameter. ► We measured RIP of 88 different soils representative of major FAO reference groups. ► The range of RIP (1.8–13 343 μmol g −1 ) extended over four orders of magnitude. ► Nearly all possible cases of agricultural soils contamination were represented. ► A simple acid extraction method could be used to predict potential RIP.

  19. Structures of the inactive and active states of RIP2 kinase inform on the mechanism of activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Innate immune receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial peptidoglycans leading to recruitment of adaptor kinase RIP2, which, upon phosphorylation and ubiquitination, becomes a scaffold for downstream effectors. The kinase domain (RIP2K is a pharmaceutical target for inflammatory diseases caused by aberrant NOD2-RIP2 signalling. Although structures of active RIP2K in complex with inhibitors have been reported, the mechanism of RIP2K activation remains to be elucidated. Here we analyse RIP2K activation by combining crystal structures of the active and inactive states with mass spectrometric characterization of their phosphorylation profiles. The active state has Helix αC inwardly displaced and the phosphorylated Activation Segment (AS disordered, whilst in the inactive state Helix αC is outwardly displaced and packed against the helical, non-phosphorylated AS. Biophysical measurements show that the active state is a stable dimer whilst the inactive kinase is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, consistent with the observed structural differences at the dimer interface. We conclude that RIP2 kinase auto-phosphorylation is intimately coupled to dimerization, similar to the case of BRAF. Our results will help drug design efforts targeting RIP2 as a potential treatment for NOD2-RIP2 related inflammatory diseases.

  20. Non-singular bounce transitions in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    According to classical GR, negative-energy (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by non-singular bounces. Here we explore possible dynamics of such bounces using a simple modification of the Friedmann equation, which ensures that the scale factor bounces when the matter density reaches some critical value ρ c . This is combined with a simple scalar field 'landscape', where the energy barriers between different vacua are small compared to ρ c . We find that the bounce typically results in a transition to another vacuum, with a scalar field displacement Δφ ∼ 1 in Planck units. If the new vacuum is AdS, we have another bounce, and so on, until the field finally transits to a positive-energy (de Sitter) vacuum. We also consider perturbations about the homogeneous solution and discuss some of their amplification mechanisms (e.g., tachyonic instability and parametric resonance). For a generic potential, these mechanisms are much less efficient than in models of slow-roll inflation. But the amplification may still be strong enough to cause the bubble to fragment into a mosaic of different vacua

  1. Non-singular bounce transitions in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    According to classical GR, negative-energy (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by non-singular bounces. Here we explore possible dynamics of such bounces using a simple modification of the Friedmann equation, which ensures that the scale factor bounces when the matter density reaches some critical value ρ{sub c}. This is combined with a simple scalar field 'landscape', where the energy barriers between different vacua are small compared to ρ{sub c}. We find that the bounce typically results in a transition to another vacuum, with a scalar field displacement Δφ ∼ 1 in Planck units. If the new vacuum is AdS, we have another bounce, and so on, until the field finally transits to a positive-energy (de Sitter) vacuum. We also consider perturbations about the homogeneous solution and discuss some of their amplification mechanisms (e.g., tachyonic instability and parametric resonance). For a generic potential, these mechanisms are much less efficient than in models of slow-roll inflation. But the amplification may still be strong enough to cause the bubble to fragment into a mosaic of different vacua.

  2. Big inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, B [Lancaster Univ. (UK)

    1979-06-28

    The recently published report entitled 'The Big Public Inquiry' from the Council for Science and Society and the Outer Circle Policy Unit is considered, with especial reference to any future enquiry which may take place into the first commercial fast breeder reactor. Proposals embodied in the report include stronger rights for objectors and an attempt is made to tackle the problem that participation in a public inquiry is far too late to be objective. It is felt by the author that the CSS/OCPU report is a constructive contribution to the debate about big technology inquiries but that it fails to understand the deeper currents in the economic and political structure of technology which so influence the consequences of whatever formal procedures are evolved.

  3. Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bútora, Matúš

    2017-01-01

    Cieľom bakalárskej práca je popísať problematiku Big Data a agregačné operácie OLAP pre podporu rozhodovania, ktoré sú na ne aplikované pomocou technológie Apache Hadoop. Prevažná časť práce je venovaná popisu práve tejto technológie. Posledná kapitola sa zaoberá spôsobom aplikovania agregačných operácií a problematikou ich realizácie. Nasleduje celkové zhodnotenie práce a možnosti využitia výsledného systému do budúcna. The aim of the bachelor thesis is to describe the Big Data issue and ...

  4. BIG DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Dubey

    2018-01-01

    The term 'Big Data' portrays inventive methods and advances to catch, store, disseminate, oversee and break down petabyte-or bigger estimated sets of data with high-speed & diverted structures. Enormous information can be organized, non-structured or half-organized, bringing about inadequacy of routine information administration techniques. Information is produced from different distinctive sources and can touch base in the framework at different rates. With a specific end goal to handle this...

  5. Activation of hypothalamic RIP-Cre neurons promotes beiging of WAT via sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baile; Li, Ang; Li, Xiaomu; Ho, Philip Wl; Wu, Donghai; Wang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Zhuohao; Wu, Kelvin Kl; Yau, Sonata Sy; Xu, Aimin; Cheng, Kenneth Ky

    2018-04-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige fat by cold increases energy expenditure. Although their activation is known to be differentially regulated in part by hypothalamus, the underlying neural pathways and populations remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of rat-insulin-promoter-Cre (RIP-Cre) neurons in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) preferentially promotes recruitment of beige fat via a selective control of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) outflow to subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), but has no effect on BAT Genetic ablation of APPL2 in RIP-Cre neurons diminishes beiging in sWAT without affecting BAT, leading to cold intolerance and obesity in mice. Such defects are reversed by activation of RIP-Cre neurons, inactivation of VMH AMPK, or treatment with a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist. Hypothalamic APPL2 enhances neuronal activation in VMH RIP-Cre neurons and raphe pallidus, thereby eliciting SNS outflow to sWAT and subsequent beiging. These data suggest that beige fat can be selectively activated by VMH RIP-Cre neurons, in which the APPL2-AMPK signaling axis is crucial for this defending mechanism to cold and obesity. © 2018 The Authors.

  6. RIP studies at AREVA: R&D and applications for Niger and Canada projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Y.; Durupt, N.; Banton, N.

    2010-01-01

    Cominak in Niger owns a large stock of high grade fines which cumulated originally from underground mining discharge water. This ore is too fine to be treated with the current process because it readily blocks the cloths of the belt filters. Cominak plans to build a Resin-In-Pulp (RIP) plant. The RIP technology permits to recover U values without filtration. Some bench scale studies (at AREVA-SEPA) and two trial campaigns (on site) had been successfully conducted to implement the RIP process, which further allows, from economic point of view, a positive feasibility evaluation. As part of the Kiggavik Project managed by Areva Resources Canada (ARC), AREVA-SEPA is also being actively involved in developing a practical, cost-effective and environmentally sound process flowsheet. RIP technology has drawn significant attention due to the relatively low water consumption and capital cost. SEPA's experience with RIP technology together with the newer and better-performance resins makes this technology a viable choice. Three pilot campaigns have been accomplished at SEPA, which is believed to be of great help to reduce technical risk as well as capital risk in the decision making for Kiggavik project. (author)

  7. Drug dealers' rational choices on which customers to rip-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Scott; Allen, Andrea; Wright, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Drug dealers are infamous for overcharging customers and handing over less than owed. One reason rip-offs frequently occur is blackmarket participants have limited access to formal means of dispute resolution and, as such, are attractive prey. Yet drug dealers do not cheat every customer. Though this is implicitly understood in the literature, sparse theoretical attention has been given to which customers are ripped-off and why. To address that lacuna, this paper uses the rationality perspective to analyze qualitative data obtained in interviews with 25 unincarcerated drug sellers operating in disadvantaged neighborhoods of St. Louis, Missouri. We find that dealers typically rip-off six types of customers: persons who are strangers, first-time or irregular customers; do not have sufficient money on hand to make a purchase; are uninformed about going market rates; are deemed unlikely to retaliate; are offensive; or are addicted to drugs. Dealers target these groups due to perceiving them as unlikely to be repeat business; not worth the hassle of doing business with; unlikely to realize they are being ripped-off; in the wrong and thus deserving of payback; and, unwilling to retaliate or take their money elsewhere. Our findings are discussed in relation to their practical implications, including the importance of giving blackmarket participants greater access to law, and how customers may prevent being ripped-off. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy conditions and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, a number of theorems are proven which collectively show that singularities will occur in spacetime under weaker energy conditions than the strong energy condition. In particular, the Penrose theorem, which uses only the weak energy condition but which applies only to open universes, is extended to all closed universes which have a Cauchy surface whose universal covering manifold is not a three-sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the strong energy condition in the Hawking-Penrose theorem can be replaced by the weak energy condition and the assumption that the strong energy condition holds only on the average. In addition, it is demonstrated that if the Universe is closed, then the existence of singularities follows from the averaged strong energy condition alone. It is argued that any globally hyperbolic spacetime which satisfies the weak energy condition and which contains a black hole must be null geodesically incomplete

  9. Multidimensional singular integrals and integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhlin, Solomon Grigorievich; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Multidimensional Singular Integrals and Integral Equations presents the results of the theory of multidimensional singular integrals and of equations containing such integrals. Emphasis is on singular integrals taken over Euclidean space or in the closed manifold of Liapounov and equations containing such integrals. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of some theorems on linear equations in Banach spaces, followed by a discussion on the simplest properties of multidimensional singular integrals. Subsequent chapters deal with compounding of singular integrals

  10. Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selesi, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. → Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. → Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. → Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. → Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P(ω, D) ◊ u(x, ω) = A(x, ω) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P(ω, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A ◊ I ◊(-1) , where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.

  11. Why the Singularity Cannot Happen

    OpenAIRE

    Modis, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a Singularity as described in Ray Kurzweil's book cannot happen for a number of reasons. One reason is that all natural growth processes that follow exponential patterns eventually reveal themselves to be following S-curves thus excluding runaway situations. The remaining growth potential from Kurzweil's ''knee'', which could be approximated as the moment when an S-curve pattern begins deviating from the corresponding exponential, is a factor of only one order of magnitude grea...

  12. Black holes, singularities and predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper favours the view that singularities may play a central role in quantum gravity. The author reviews the arguments leading to the conclusion, that in the process of black hole formation and evaporation, an initial pure state evolves to a final density matrix, thus signaling a breakdown in ordinary quantum dynamical evolution. Some related issues dealing with predictability in the dynamical evolution, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  13. On singularities of lattice varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Toric varieties associated with distributive lattices arise as a fibre of a flat degeneration of a Schubert variety in a minuscule. The singular locus of these varieties has been studied by various authors. In this article we prove that the number of diamonds incident on a lattice point $\\a$ in a product of chain lattices is more than or equal to the codimension of the lattice. Using this we also show that the lattice varieties associated with product of chain lattices is smooth.

  14. pp wave big bangs: Matrix strings and shrinking fuzzy spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sumit R.; Michelson, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    We find pp wave solutions in string theory with null-like linear dilatons. These provide toy models of big bang cosmologies. We formulate matrix string theory in these backgrounds. Near the big bang 'singularity', the string theory becomes strongly coupled but the Yang-Mills description of the matrix string is weakly coupled. The presence of a second length scale allows us to focus on a specific class of non-Abelian configurations, viz. fuzzy cylinders, for a suitable regime of parameters. We show that, for a class of pp waves, fuzzy cylinders which start out big at early times dynamically shrink into usual strings at sufficiently late times

  15. D-branes in a big bang/big crunch universe: Misner space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikida, Yasuaki; Nayak, Rashmi R.; Panigrahi, Kamal L.

    2005-01-01

    We study D-branes in a two-dimensional lorentzian orbifold R 1,1 /Γ with a discrete boost Γ. This space is known as Misner or Milne space, and includes big crunch/big bang singularity. In this space, there are D0-branes in spiral orbits and D1-branes with or without flux on them. In particular, we observe imaginary parts of partition functions, and interpret them as the rates of open string pair creation for D0-branes and emission of winding closed strings for D1-branes. These phenomena occur due to the time-dependence of the background. Open string 2→2 scattering amplitude on a D1-brane is also computed and found to be less singular than closed string case

  16. D-branes in a big bang/big crunch universe: Misner space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikida, Yasuaki [Theory Group, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nayak, Rashmi R. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, ' Tor Vergata' , Rome 00133 (Italy); Panigrahi, Kamal L. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, ' Tor Vergata' , Rome 00133 (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    We study D-branes in a two-dimensional lorentzian orbifold R{sup 1,1}/{gamma} with a discrete boost {gamma}. This space is known as Misner or Milne space, and includes big crunch/big bang singularity. In this space, there are D0-branes in spiral orbits and D1-branes with or without flux on them. In particular, we observe imaginary parts of partition functions, and interpret them as the rates of open string pair creation for D0-branes and emission of winding closed strings for D1-branes. These phenomena occur due to the time-dependence of the background. Open string 2{yields}2 scattering amplitude on a D1-brane is also computed and found to be less singular than closed string case.

  17. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-07

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  18. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-01-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe

  19. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  20. Cosmological singularities in electrovacuum spacetimes with two-parameter spacelike isometry groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The big bang singularities occurring in an infinite-dimensional class of solutions to the source-free Einstein-Maxwell equations are presented. These solutions are essentially Gowdy three-torus universes (not necessarily polarized) with electromagnetic radiation added. The problem is reformulated in terms of complex potentials analogous to those used by Ernst in the study of stationary axisymmetric metrics. It is shown that in these new variables the problem admits a harmonic map formulation. Its general solution is written as a perturbation series, where the background solutions being perturbed are a special class of real analytic functions obtained by evolving analytic data specified right at the singularity. The perturbation problem is solved to all orders, and terms which dominate as the singularity is approached are identified at each order. It is possible to sum the dominant terms, and thereby obtain explicit expressions representing the asymptotic structure of the singularities. This representation of asymptotic structure is developed into a simple geometric model. Specializing to the case of no electromagnetic fields, the model is then used to determine asymptotic metric and curvature properties in Gowdy spacetimes. The Gowdy metrics are Kasner-like near their singularity, which is generically a curvature singularity. Curvature-nonsingular solutions can be constructed, and extended into the past beyond a Cauchy horizon. However, such solutions are unstable, a fact which is consistent with Strong Cosmic Censorship

  1. D-branes in a big bang/big crunch universe: Nappi-Witten gauged WZW model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikida, Yasuaki [School of Physics and BK-21 Physics Division, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Nayak, Rashmi R. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome 00133 (Italy); Panigrahi, Kamal L. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, ' Tor Vergata' , Rome 00133 (Italy)

    2005-05-01

    We study D-branes in the Nappi-Witten model, which is a gauged WZW model based on (SL(2,R) x SU(2))/(U(1) x U(1)). The model describes a four dimensional space-time consisting of cosmological regions with big bang/big crunch singularities and static regions with closed time-like curves. The aim of this paper is to investigate by D-brane probes whether there are pathologies associated with the cosmological singularities and the closed time-like curves. We first classify D-branes in a group theoretical way, and then examine DBI actions for effective theories on the D-branes. In particular, we show that D-brane metric from the DBI action does not include singularities, and wave functions on the D-branes are well behaved even in the presence of closed time-like curves.

  2. Environmental Information System Baden-Wuerttemberg, RIPS 2016. Spatial information and planning system; Umweltinformationssystem Baden-Wuerttemberg. Konzeption RIPS 2016. Raeumliches Informations- und Planungssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenbach, Kurt; Czommer, Olaf; Ellmenreich, Bastian (eds.)

    2016-04-21

    The Spatial Information and Planning System (RIPS), as the overarching component of the Environmental Information System Baden-Wuerttemberg (UIS BW), implements the environmental and nature conservation-specific geoinformation-related requirements taking into account applicable framework conditions. To this end, RIPS offers tailor-made services on the basis of a standardized and in transnational cooperation developed technical kit for the areas of geodata processing and management as well as the development and provision of software components with geo-functions and geodata services as part of the technical and information procedures. The coordination and steering takes place via project development offices, working groups and committees in close coordination with the departments of environmental and nature conservation administration as well as further cooperation and in coordination with other specialist administrations. Taking into account changed framework conditions and new geo-referenced requirements in UIS BW, the present RIPS concept focuses on future-oriented geofunction and geodata management in the field of environmental and nature conservation management as well as the provision of geo-specialized environmental and nature conservation data for policy makers, administrators and the public on innovative technologies Applications and Services. [German] Das Raeumliche Informations- und Planungssystem (RIPS) setzt als uebergreifende Komponente des Umweltinformationssystems Baden-Wuerttemberg (UIS BW) die umwelt- und naturschutzspezifischen geoinformationsbezogenen Anforderungen unter Beruecksichtigung geltender Rahmenbedingungen um. Hierzu bietet RIPS massgeschneiderte Dienstleistungen auf der Basis eines standardisierten und in laenderuebergreifenden Kooperationen entwickelten technischen Baukastens fuer die Bereiche Geodatenverarbeitung und -management sowie die Entwicklung und Bereitstellung von Softwarekomponenten mit Geofunktionen und Geodatendiensten

  3. Keynote: Big Data, Big Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Borgman, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    The enthusiasm for big data is obscuring the complexity and diversity of data in scholarship and the challenges for stewardship. Inside the black box of data are a plethora of research, technology, and policy issues. Data are not shiny objects that are easily exchanged. Rather, data are representations of observations, objects, or other entities used as evidence of phenomena for the purposes of research or scholarship. Data practices are local, varying from field to field, individual to indiv...

  4. Singularities in Free Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet Suresh

    Free surface flows where the shape of the interface separating two or more phases or liquids are unknown apriori, are commonplace in industrial applications and nature. Distribution of drop sizes, coalescence rate of drops, and the behavior of thin liquid films are crucial to understanding and enhancing industrial practices such as ink-jet printing, spraying, separations of chemicals, and coating flows. When a contiguous mass of liquid such as a drop, filament or a film undergoes breakup to give rise to multiple masses, the topological transition is accompanied with a finite-time singularity . Such singularity also arises when two or more masses of liquid merge into each other or coalesce. Thus the dynamics close to singularity determines the fate of about-to-form drops or films and applications they are involved in, and therefore needs to be analyzed precisely. The primary goal of this thesis is to resolve and analyze the dynamics close to singularity when free surface flows experience a topological transition, using a combination of theory, experiments, and numerical simulations. The first problem under consideration focuses on the dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling applications that are relevant to pharmaceutical and consumer products industry, using numerical techniques based on Galerkin Finite Element Methods (GFEM). The second problem addresses the dual flow behavior of aqueous foams that are observed in oil and gas fields and estimates the relevant parameters that describe such flows through a series of experiments. The third problem aims at understanding the drop formation of Newtonian and Carreau fluids, computationally using GFEM. The drops are formed as a result of imposed flow rates or expanding bubbles similar to those of piezo actuated and thermal ink-jet nozzles. The focus of fourth problem is on the evolution of thinning threads of Newtonian fluids and suspensions towards singularity, using computations based on GFEM and experimental

  5. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  6. DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2008-09-01

    We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.

  7. DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.

  8. Mathematical models with singularities a zoo of singular creatures

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    The book aims to provide an unifying view of a variety (a 'zoo') of mathematical models with some kind of singular nonlinearity, in the sense that it becomes infinite when the state variable approaches a certain point. Up to 11 different concrete models are analyzed in separate chapters. Each chapter starts with a discussion of the basic model and its physical significance. Then the main results and typical proofs are outlined, followed by open problems. Each chapter is closed by a suitable list of references. The book may serve as a guide for researchers interested in the modelling of real world processes.

  9. RapidRIP quantifies the intracellular metabolome of 7 industrial strains of E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Xu, Julia; Schrübbers, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Fast metabolite quantification methods are required for high throughput screening of microbial strains obtained by combinatorial or evolutionary engineering approaches. In this study, a rapid RIP-LC-MS/MS (RapidRIP) method for high-throughput quantitative metabolomics was developed and validated...... to quantify the metabolome of seven industrial strains of E. coli revealing significant differences in glycolytic, pentose phosphate, TCA cycle, amino acid, and energy and cofactor metabolites were found. These differences translated to statistically and biologically significant differences in thermodynamics...

  10. Structural insights into RipC, a putative citrate lyase β subunit from a Yersinia pestis virulence operon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Rodrigo; Chim, Nicholas; Sankaran, Banumathi; Pujol, Céline; Bliska, James B.; Goulding, Celia W.

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of the 2.45 Å resolution crystal structure of homotrimeric RipC, a putative citrate lyase β subunit from Y. pestis, with structural homologs reveals conserved RipC residues that are implicated in CoA binding. Yersinia pestis remains a threat, with outbreaks of plague occurring in rural areas and its emergence as a weapon of bioterrorism; thus, an improved understanding of its various pathogenicity pathways is warranted. The rip (required for intracellular proliferation) virulence operon is required for Y. pestis survival in interferon-γ-treated macrophages and has been implicated in lowering macrophage-produced nitric oxide levels. RipC, one of three gene products from the rip operon, is annotated as a citrate lyase β subunit. Furthermore, the Y. pestis genome lacks genes that encode citrate lyase α and γ subunits, suggesting a unique functional role of RipC in the Y. pestisrip-mediated survival pathway. Here, the 2.45 Å resolution crystal structure of RipC revealed a homotrimer in which each monomer consists of a (β/α) 8 TIM-barrel fold. Furthermore, the trimeric state was confirmed in solution by size-exclusion chromatography. Through sequence and structure comparisons with homologous proteins, it is proposed that RipC is a putative CoA- or CoA-derivative binding protein

  11. Numerical analysis of the big bounce in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) homogeneous models with a massless scalar field show that the big-bang singularity can be replaced by a big quantum bounce. To gain further insight on the nature of this bounce, we study the semidiscrete loop quantum gravity Hamiltonian constraint equation from the point of view of numerical analysis. For illustration purposes, we establish a numerical analogy between the quantum bounces and reflections in finite difference discretizations of wave equations triggered by the use of nonuniform grids or, equivalently, reflections found when solving numerically wave equations with varying coefficients. We show that the bounce is closely related to the method for the temporal update of the system and demonstrate that explicit time-updates in general yield bounces. Finally, we present an example of an implicit time-update devoid of bounces and show back-in-time, deterministic evolutions that reach and partially jump over the big-bang singularity

  12. On important precursor of singular optics (tutorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskii, Peter V.; Felde, Christina V.; Bogatyryova, Halina V.; Konovchuk, Alexey V.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of singular optics is usually associated with the seminal paper by J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 336, 165-189 (1974)]. Intense development of this area of modern photonics has started since the early eighties of the XX century due to invention of the interfrence technique for detection and diagnostics of phase singularities, such as optical vortices in complex speckle-structured light fields. The next powerful incentive for formation of singular optics into separate area of the science on light was connectected with discovering of very practical technique for creation of singular optical beams of various kinds on the base of computer-generated holograms. In the eghties and ninetieth of the XX century, singular optics evolved, almost entirely, under the approximation of complete coherency of light field. Only at the threshold of the XXI century, it has been comprehended that the singular-optics approaches can be fruitfully expanded onto partially spatially coherent, partially polarized and polychromatic light fields supporting singularities of new kinds, that has been resulted in establishing of correlation singular optics. Here we show that correlation singular optics has much deeper roots, ascending to "pre-singular" and even pre-laser epoch and associated with the concept of partial coherence and polarization. It is remarcable that correlation singular optics in its present interpretation has forestalled the standard coherent singular optics. This paper is timed to the sixtieth anniversary of the most profound precursor of modern correlation singular optics [J. Opt. Soc. Am., 47, 895-902 (1957)].

  13. Creation-field cosmology: A possible solution to singularity, horizon, and flatness problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, J.V.; Padmanabhan, T.

    1985-01-01

    A solution of Einstein's equations which admits radiation and a negative-energy massless scalar creation field as a source is presented. It is shown that the cosmological model based on this solution satisfies all the observational tests and thus is a viable alternative to the standard big-bang model. The present model is free from singularity and particle horizon and provides a natural explanation for the flatness problem. We argue that these features make the creation-field cosmological model theoretically superior to the big-bang model

  14. Ground state solutions for Choquard type equations with a singular potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the Choquard type equation $$ -\\Delta u+V(xu=\\Big(\\int_{\\mathbb{R}^N}\\frac{|u(y|^p}{|x-y|^{N-\\alpha}}dy\\Big |u|^{p-2}u,\\quad x\\in \\mathbb{R}^N, $$ where $N\\geq3$, $\\alpha\\in ((N-4_+,N$, $2\\leq p <(N+\\alpha/(N-2$ and V(x is a possibly singular potential and may be unbounded below. Applying a variant of the Lions' concentration-compactness principle, we prove the existence of ground state solution of the above equations.

  15. Structural snapshots along the reaction pathway of Yersinia pestis RipA, a putative butyryl-CoA transferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Rodrigo; Lan, Benson; Latif, Yama; Chim, Nicholas [UC Irvine, 2212 Natural Sciences I, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Goulding, Celia W., E-mail: celia.goulding@uci.edu [UC Irvine, 2212 Natural Sciences I, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); UC Irvine, 2302 Natural Sciences I, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The crystal structures of Y. pestis RipA mutants were determined to provide insights into the CoA transferase reaction pathway. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, is able to survive in both extracellular and intracellular environments within the human host, although its intracellular survival within macrophages is poorly understood. A novel Y. pestis three-gene rip (required for intracellular proliferation) operon, and in particular ripA, has been shown to be essential for survival and replication in interferon γ-induced macrophages. RipA was previously characterized as a putative butyryl-CoA transferase proposed to yield butyrate, a known anti-inflammatory shown to lower macrophage-produced NO levels. RipA belongs to the family I CoA transferases, which share structural homology, a conserved catalytic glutamate which forms a covalent CoA-thioester intermediate and a flexible loop adjacent to the active site known as the G(V/I)G loop. Here, functional and structural analyses of several RipA mutants are presented in an effort to dissect the CoA transferase mechanism of RipA. In particular, E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants show increased butyryl-CoA transferase activities when compared with wild-type RipA. Furthermore, the X-ray crystal structures of E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants, when compared with the wild-type RipA structure, reveal important conformational changes orchestrated by a conserved acyl-group binding-pocket phenylalanine, Phe85, and the G(V/I)G loop. Binary structures of M31G RipA and F60M RipA with two distinct CoA substrate conformations are also presented. Taken together, these data provide CoA transferase reaction snapshots of an open apo RipA, a closed glutamyl-anhydride intermediate and an open CoA-thioester intermediate. Furthermore, biochemical analyses support essential roles for both the catalytic glutamate and the flexible G(V/I)G loop along the reaction pathway, although further research is required to fully

  16. Structural snapshots along the reaction pathway of Yersinia pestis RipA, a putative butyryl-CoA transferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Rodrigo; Lan, Benson; Latif, Yama; Chim, Nicholas; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structures of Y. pestis RipA mutants were determined to provide insights into the CoA transferase reaction pathway. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, is able to survive in both extracellular and intracellular environments within the human host, although its intracellular survival within macrophages is poorly understood. A novel Y. pestis three-gene rip (required for intracellular proliferation) operon, and in particular ripA, has been shown to be essential for survival and replication in interferon γ-induced macrophages. RipA was previously characterized as a putative butyryl-CoA transferase proposed to yield butyrate, a known anti-inflammatory shown to lower macrophage-produced NO levels. RipA belongs to the family I CoA transferases, which share structural homology, a conserved catalytic glutamate which forms a covalent CoA-thioester intermediate and a flexible loop adjacent to the active site known as the G(V/I)G loop. Here, functional and structural analyses of several RipA mutants are presented in an effort to dissect the CoA transferase mechanism of RipA. In particular, E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants show increased butyryl-CoA transferase activities when compared with wild-type RipA. Furthermore, the X-ray crystal structures of E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants, when compared with the wild-type RipA structure, reveal important conformational changes orchestrated by a conserved acyl-group binding-pocket phenylalanine, Phe85, and the G(V/I)G loop. Binary structures of M31G RipA and F60M RipA with two distinct CoA substrate conformations are also presented. Taken together, these data provide CoA transferase reaction snapshots of an open apo RipA, a closed glutamyl-anhydride intermediate and an open CoA-thioester intermediate. Furthermore, biochemical analyses support essential roles for both the catalytic glutamate and the flexible G(V/I)G loop along the reaction pathway, although further research is required to fully

  17. Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Jon; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    2016-01-01

    Big Data byder sig til som en af tidens mest hypede teknologiske innovationer, udråbt til at rumme kimen til nye, værdifulde operationelle indsigter for private virksomheder og offentlige organisationer. Mens de optimistiske udmeldinger er mange, er forskningen i Big Data i den offentlige sektor...... indtil videre begrænset. Denne artikel belyser, hvordan den offentlige sundhedssektor kan genanvende og udnytte en stadig større mængde data under hensyntagen til offentlige værdier. Artiklen bygger på et casestudie af anvendelsen af store mængder sundhedsdata i Dansk AlmenMedicinsk Database (DAMD......). Analysen viser, at (gen)brug af data i nye sammenhænge er en flerspektret afvejning mellem ikke alene økonomiske rationaler og kvalitetshensyn, men også kontrol over personfølsomme data og etiske implikationer for borgeren. I DAMD-casen benyttes data på den ene side ”i den gode sags tjeneste” til...

  18. Big data analytics turning big data into big money

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlhorst, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Unique insights to implement big data analytics and reap big returns to your bottom line Focusing on the business and financial value of big data analytics, respected technology journalist Frank J. Ohlhorst shares his insights on the newly emerging field of big data analytics in Big Data Analytics. This breakthrough book demonstrates the importance of analytics, defines the processes, highlights the tangible and intangible values and discusses how you can turn a business liability into actionable material that can be used to redefine markets, improve profits and identify new business opportuni

  19. Symmetry generators in singular theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrov, P.M.; Tyutin, I.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is proved that in the singular nondegenerate theories any symmetry of the lagrangian under non-point transformations of lagrangian variables with the open (in the general case) algebra in the hamiltonian approach generates corresponding transformations of canonical variables the generator of which is the Noether charge with respect to the Dirac brackets. On the surface of all constraints these transformations leave the hamiltonian invariant and the algebra of the Noether charges is closed. As a consequence it is shown that the nilpotent BRST charge operator always exists in gauge theories of the general form (if possible anomalies are not taken into account)

  20. Phantom inflation and the 'Big Trip'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es; Jimenez-Madrid, Jose A. [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-08-19

    Primordial inflation is regarded to be driven by a phantom field which is here implemented as a scalar field satisfying an equation of state p={omega}{rho}, with {omega}-1. Being even aggravated by the weird properties of phantom energy, this will pose a serious problem with the exit from the inflationary phase. We argue, however, in favor of the speculation that a smooth exit from the phantom inflationary phase can still be tentatively recovered by considering a multiverse scenario where the primordial phantom universe would travel in time toward a future universe filled with usual radiation, before reaching the big rip. We call this transition the 'Big Trip' and assume it to take place with the help of some form of anthropic principle which chooses our current universe as being the final destination of the time transition.

  1. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-01

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  2. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-21

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric S U ( 2 ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  3. Singularities of Type-Q ABS Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Atkinson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The type-Q equations lie on the top level of the hierarchy introduced by Adler, Bobenko and Suris (ABS in their classification of discrete counterparts of KdV-type integrable partial differential equations. We ask what singularities are possible in the solutions of these equations, and examine the relationship between the singularities and the principal integrability feature of multidimensional consistency. These questions are considered in the global setting and therefore extend previous considerations of singularities which have been local. What emerges are some simple geometric criteria that determine the allowed singularities, and the interesting discovery that generically the presence of singularities leads to a breakdown in the global consistency of such systems despite their local consistency property. This failure to be globally consistent is quantified by introducing a natural notion of monodromy for isolated singularities.

  4. The dominant balance at cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Barrow, John D

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of a finite-time singularity of a vector field and then discuss a technique suitable for the asymptotic analysis of vector fields and their integral curves in the neighborhood of such a singularity. Having in mind the application of this method to cosmology, we also provide an analysis of the time singularities of an isotropic universe filled with a perfect fluid in general relativity

  5. Exact solutions and singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail

  6. Dressing up a Kerr naked singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1979-06-11

    The evolution of a naked singularity surrounded by an accreting disk of matter is studied; two kinds of disks are considered: the standard thin-disk model and the thick barytropic model, for several initial conditions. It is shown that any Kerr naked singularity slows down in a finite time to a maximal Kerr black hole. The final mass, the luminosity and the time of evolution of the singularity are evaluated.

  7. Naked singularity, firewall, and Hawking radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-21

    Spacetime singularity has always been of interest since the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorem. Naked singularity naturally emerges from reasonable initial conditions in the collapsing process. A recent interesting approach in black hole information problem implies that we need a firewall to break the surplus entanglements among the Hawking photons. Classically, the firewall becomes a naked singularity. We find some vacuum analytical solutions in R n -gravity of the firewall-type and use these solutions as concrete models to study the naked singularities. By using standard quantum theory, we investigate the Hawking radiation emitted from the black holes with naked singularities. Here we show that the singularity itself does not destroy information. A unitary quantum theory works well around a firewall-type singularity. We discuss the validity of our result in general relativity. Further our result demonstrates that the temperature of the Hawking radiation still can be expressed in the form of the surface gravity divided by 2π. This indicates that a naked singularity may not compromise the Hakwing evaporation process.

  8. On local invariants of singular symplectic forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrz, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    We find a complete set of local invariants of singular symplectic forms with the structurally stable Martinet hypersurface on a 2 n-dimensional manifold. In the C-analytic category this set consists of the Martinet hypersurface Σ2, the restriction of the singular symplectic form ω to TΣ2 and the kernel of ω n - 1 at the point p ∈Σ2. In the R-analytic and smooth categories this set contains one more invariant: the canonical orientation of Σ2. We find the conditions to determine the kernel of ω n - 1 at p by the other invariants. In dimension 4 we find sufficient conditions to determine the equivalence class of a singular symplectic form-germ with the structurally smooth Martinet hypersurface by the Martinet hypersurface and the restriction of the singular symplectic form to it. We also study the singular symplectic forms with singular Martinet hypersurfaces. We prove that the equivalence class of such singular symplectic form-germ is determined by the Martinet hypersurface, the canonical orientation of its regular part and the restriction of the singular symplectic form to its regular part if the Martinet hypersurface is a quasi-homogeneous hypersurface with an isolated singularity.

  9. Coupled singular and non singular thermoelastic system and double lapalce decomposition methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Gadain; Hassan Gadain

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the double Laplace decomposition methods are applied to solve the non singular and singular one dimensional thermo-elasticity coupled system and. The technique is described and illustrated with some examples

  10. Äripäev surub end naisteajakirjade turule / Krista Taim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taim, Krista

    2005-01-01

    Äripäev hakkab välja andma naisteajakirja Dilemma, lootes saada viiendiku reklaamiturust. Diagramm: Naisteajakirjade reklaamituru jagunemine. Vt. samas: Dilemma hakkab ilmuma kaheksa korda aastas; Eesti Päevaleht ja Eesti Meedia hakkavad tasuta ajalehte välja andma

  11. The role of RIP3 mediated necroptosis in ouabain-induced spiral ganglion neurons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Ye; Ding, Zhong-jia; Yue, Bo; Zhang, Peng-zhi; Chen, Xiao-dong; Chen, Xin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Fu-quan; Chen, Yang; Wang, Ren-feng; Mi, Wen-juan; Lin, Ying; Wang, Jie; Qiu, Jian-hua

    2014-08-22

    Spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) injury is a generally accepted precursor of auditory neuropathy. Receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) has been reported as an important necroptosis pathway mediator that can be blocked by necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). In our study, we sought to identify whether necroptosis participated in SGN injury. Ouabain was applied to establish an SGN injury model. We measured the auditory brain-stem response (ABR) threshold shift as an indicator of the auditory conditions. Positive β3-tubulin immunofluorescence staining indicated the surviving SGNs. RIP3 expression was evaluated using immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. SGN injury promoted an increase in RIP3 expression that could be suppressed by application of the necroptosis inhibitor Nec-1. A decreased ABR threshold shift and increased SGN density were observed when Nec-1 was administered with apoptosis inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD). These results demonstrated that necroptosis is an indispensable pathway separately from apoptosis leading to SGN death pathway, in which RIP3 plays an important role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from bitter gourd: Molecular basis of non-toxicity, conformational selection and glycan structure. MS accepted http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. THYAGESHWAR CHANDRAN, ALOK SHARMA and M VIJAYAN. J. Biosci. 40(5), October 2015, 929–941, © Indian Academy of ...

  13. Biochemical, structural and molecular dynamics analyses of the potential virulence factor RipA from Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Torres

    Full Text Available Human diseases are attributed in part to the ability of pathogens to evade the eukaryotic immune systems. A subset of these pathogens has developed mechanisms to survive in human macrophages. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the bubonic plague, is a predominately extracellular pathogen with the ability to survive and replicate intracellularly. A previous study has shown that a novel rip (required for intracellular proliferation operon (ripA, ripB and ripC is essential for replication and survival of Y. pestis in postactivated macrophages, by playing a role in lowering macrophage-produced nitric oxide (NO levels. A bioinformatics analysis indicates that the rip operon is conserved among a distally related subset of macrophage-residing pathogens, including Burkholderia and Salmonella species, and suggests that this previously uncharacterized pathway is also required for intracellular survival of these pathogens. The focus of this study is ripA, which encodes for a protein highly homologous to 4-hydroxybutyrate-CoA transferase; however, biochemical analysis suggests that RipA functions as a butyryl-CoA transferase. The 1.9 Å X-ray crystal structure reveals that RipA belongs to the class of Family I CoA transferases and exhibits a unique tetrameric state. Molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with RipA tetramer formation and suggest a possible gating mechanism for CoA binding mediated by Val227. Together, our structural characterization and molecular dynamic simulations offer insights into acyl-CoA specificity within the active site binding pocket, and support biochemical results that RipA is a butyryl-CoA transferase. We hypothesize that the end product of the rip operon is butyrate, a known anti-inflammatory, which has been shown to lower NO levels in macrophages. Thus, the results of this molecular study of Y. pestis RipA provide a structural platform for rational inhibitor design, which may lead to a greater understanding of the

  14. Reducing the age range of tsunami deposits by 14C dating of rip-up clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhisa; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke; Sawada, Chikako; Takada, Keita

    2018-02-01

    Erosion by tsunami waves represents an important issue when determining the age of a tsunami deposit, because the age is usually estimated using dating of sediments above and below the deposit. Dating of material within the tsunami deposit, if suitable material is obtainable, can be used to further constrain its age. Eroded sediments are sometimes incorporated within the tsunami deposits as rip-up clasts, which might therefore be used as minimum age dating material. However, the single calibrated 14C age often shows a wide age range because of fluctuations in the calibration curve. Therefore, it remains uncertain whether rip-up clast measurements are useful to constrain the depositional age of tsunami deposits, or not. In this study, we carried out high-resolution 14C dating of tsunami deposits, including rip-up clasts of peat, in Rikuzentakata, northeastern Japan, where numerous rip-up clasts were observed within a tsunami deposit. Sediments above and below the tsunami deposit and a 5 cm large rip-up clast were dated sequentially. Comparison of these dating results with the calibration curve revealed that the clast was inverted. Its age was better constrained based on the stratigraphic order, and we infer that the clast corresponds to approximately 100 years of sedimentation. The oldest age of the clast was consistent with the age of the peat immediately below the tsunami deposit, suggesting that surface sediments probably formed the rip-up clast at the time of the tsunami. Thus, the dating of the rip-up clast was useful to further constrain the depositional age of the tsunami deposit, as we narrowed the tsunami deposit age range by approximately 100 years. Results show that ignoring tsunami-related erosion might lead to overestimation of the tsunami deposit age. For this reason, an appropriate dating site, which is less affected by minor tsunami-related erosion with regards to the paleo-topography, should be explored. We therefore propose a more effective

  15. Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollier, G.P.

    1986-11-01

    Following Papapetrou (1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)), a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture.

  16. The Semantics of Plurals: A Defense of Singularism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I defend "semantic singularism", which is the view that syntactically plural terms, such as "they" or "Russell and Whitehead", are semantically singular. A semantically singular term is a term that denotes a single entity. Semantic singularism is to be distinguished from "syntactic singularism", according to which…

  17. Stable singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspinwall, P.S.; Morrison, D.R.; Gross, M.

    1996-01-01

    We study a topological obstruction of a very stringy nature concerned with deforming the target space of an N=2 non-linear σ-model. This target space has a singularity which may be smoothed away according to the conventional rules of geometry, but when one studies the associated conformal field theory one sees that such a deformation is not possible without a discontinuous change in some of the correlation functions. This obstruction appears to come from torsion in the homology of the target space (which is seen by deforming the theory by an irrelevant operator). We discuss the link between this phenomenon and orbifolds with discrete torsion as studied by Vafa and Witten. (orig.). With 3 figs

  18. Economías singulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Alccinelli

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendemos mostrar que le conjunto de las economías singulares, si bien pequeño desde el punto de vista de la topología y/o desde el punto de vista de la teoría de la medida, tiene importantes efectos en el desarrollo de los regímenes económicos. Es el responsable de los cambios abruptos en los estados de equilibrio y de la multiplicidad de tales estados. Permite además establecer a partir de los tipos de singularidades posibles, una partición del conjunto de economías según tenga lugar uno u otro tipo de singularidad cuya presencia o no, caracteriza el comportamiento posible de la economía en cuestión.

  19. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick, E-mail: sebastian.bramberger@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: thomas.hertog@kuleuven.be, E-mail: jlehners@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: yannick.vreys@kuleuven.be [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-07-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  20. Coulomb branches with complex singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario

    2018-06-01

    We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.

  1. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick

    2017-01-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  2. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...

  3. Building Reproducible Science with Singularity Containers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Michael Bauer first began working with containers at GSI national lab in Darmstadt, Germany, in 2017 while taking a semester off of school at the University of Michigan. Michael met Greg Kurtzer, project lead of Singularity, during his time at GSI and he began contributing heavily to the Singularity project. At the start of summer 2017, Greg hired Michael to work at the ...

  4. Reasons for singularity in robot teleoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhenke, Ilka; Fischer, Kerstin; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the causes for singularity of a robot arm in teleoperation for robot learning from demonstration are analyzed. Singularity is the alignment of robot joints, which prevents the configuration of the inverse kinematics. Inspired by users' own hypotheses, we investigated speed and dela...

  5. The Geometry of Black Hole Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Cristinel Stoica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results show that important singularities in General Relativity can be naturally described in terms of finite and invariant canonical geometric objects. Consequently, one can write field equations which are equivalent to Einstein's at nonsingular points but, in addition remain well-defined and smooth at singularities. The black hole singularities appear to be less undesirable than it was thought, especially after we remove the part of the singularity due to the coordinate system. Black hole singularities are then compatible with global hyperbolicity and do not make the evolution equations break down, when these are expressed in terms of the appropriate variables. The charged black holes turn out to have smooth potential and electromagnetic fields in the new atlas. Classical charged particles can be modeled, in General Relativity, as charged black hole solutions. Since black hole singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction, this should affect Feynman's path integrals. Therefore, it is expected that singularities induce dimensional reduction effects in Quantum Gravity. These dimensional reduction effects are very similar to those postulated in some approaches to make Quantum Gravity perturbatively renormalizable. This may provide a way to test indirectly the effects of singularities, otherwise inaccessible.

  6. Singularities in the nonisotropic Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.; Martiarena, M.L.; Zanette, D.

    1987-09-01

    We consider solutions of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation (NLBE) with anisotropic singular initial conditions, which give a simplified model for the penetration of a monochromatic beam on a rarified target. The NLBE is transformed into an integral equation which is solved iteratively and the evolution of the initial singularities is discussed. (author). 5 refs

  7. Cold atoms in singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, J. P.

    1998-09-01

    We studied both theoretically and experimentally the interaction between cold Li atoms from a magnetic-optical trap (MOT) and a charged or current-carrying wire. With this system, we were able to realize 1/r 2 and 1/r potentials in two dimensions and to observe the motion of cold atoms in both potentials. For an atom in an attractive 1/r 2 potential, there exist no stable trajectories, instead there is a characteristic class of trajectories for which atoms fall into the singularity. We were able to observe this falling of atoms into the center of the potential. Moreover, by probing the singular 1/r 2 potential with atomic clouds of varying size and temperature we extracted scaling properties of the atom-wire interaction. For very cold atoms, and very thin wires the motion of the atoms must be treated quantum mechanically. Here we predict that the absorption cross section for the 1/r 2 potential should exhibit quantum steps. These quantum steps are a manifestation of the quantum mechanical decomposition of plane waves into partial waves. For the second part of this work, we realized a two dimensional 1/r potential for cold atoms. If the potential is attractive, the atoms can be bound and follow Kepler-like orbits around the wire. The motion in the third dimension along the wire is free. We were able to exploit this property and constructed a novel cold atom guide, the 'Kepler guide'. We also demonstrated another type of atom guide (the 'side guide'), by combining the magnetic field of the wire with a homogeneous offset magnetic field. In this case, the atoms are held in a potential 'tube' on the side of the wire. The versatility, simplicity, and scaling properties of this guide make it an interesting technique. (author)

  8. An adaptive singular ES-FEM for mechanics problems with singular field of arbitrary order

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Xuan, H.; Liu, G. R.; Bordas, Stéphane; Natarajan, S.; Rabczuk, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a singular edge-based smoothed finite element method (sES-FEM) for mechanics problems with singular stress fields of arbitrary order. The sES-FEM uses a basic mesh of three-noded linear triangular (T3) elements and a special layer of five-noded singular triangular elements (sT5) connected to the singular-point of the stress field. The sT5 element has an additional node on each of the two edges connected to the singular-point. It allows us to represent simple and efficient ...

  9. A singularity extraction technique for computation of antenna aperture fields from singular plane wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    An effective technique for extracting the singularity of plane wave spectra in the computation of antenna aperture fields is proposed. The singular spectrum is first factorized into a product of a finite function and a singular function. The finite function is inverse Fourier transformed...... numerically using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform, while the singular function is inverse Fourier transformed analytically, using the Weyl-identity, and the two resulting spatial functions are then convolved to produce the antenna aperture field. This article formulates the theory of the singularity...

  10. Biclustering via Sparse Singular Value Decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Mihee

    2010-02-16

    Sparse singular value decomposition (SSVD) is proposed as a new exploratory analysis tool for biclustering or identifying interpretable row-column associations within high-dimensional data matrices. SSVD seeks a low-rank, checkerboard structured matrix approximation to data matrices. The desired checkerboard structure is achieved by forcing both the left- and right-singular vectors to be sparse, that is, having many zero entries. By interpreting singular vectors as regression coefficient vectors for certain linear regressions, sparsity-inducing regularization penalties are imposed to the least squares regression to produce sparse singular vectors. An efficient iterative algorithm is proposed for computing the sparse singular vectors, along with some discussion of penalty parameter selection. A lung cancer microarray dataset and a food nutrition dataset are used to illustrate SSVD as a biclustering method. SSVD is also compared with some existing biclustering methods using simulated datasets. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  11. One dimensional systems with singular perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J J; Gadella, M; Nieto, L M; Glasser, L M; Lara, L P

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some one dimensional quantum models with singular perturbations. Eventually, a mass discontinuity is added at the points that support the singular perturbations. The simplest model includes an attractive singular potential with a mass jump both located at the origin. We study the form of the only bound state. Another model exhibits a hard core at the origin plus one or more repulsive deltas with mass jumps at the points supporting these deltas. We study the location and the multiplicity of these resonances for the case of one or two deltas and settle the basis for a generalization. Finally, we consider the harmonic oscillator and the infinite square well plus a singular potential at the origin. We see how the energy of bound states is affected by the singular perturbation.

  12. Noncrossing timelike singularities of irrotational dust collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.T.

    1979-01-01

    Known naked singularities in spherical dust collapse are either due to shell-crossing or localized to the central world line. They will probably be destroyed by pressure gradients or blue-shift instabilities. To violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis in a more convincing and general context, collapse solutions with naked singularities that are at least nonshell-crossing and nonlocalized need to be constructed. Some results concerning the probable structure of a class of nonshellcrossing and nonlocalized timelike singularities are reviewed. The cylindrical dust model is considered but this model is not asymptotically flat. To make these noncrossing singularities viable counter examples to the cosmic censorship hypothesis, the occurrence of such singularities in asymptotically flat collapse needs to be demonstrated. (UK)

  13. Quantum computation in decoherence-free subspace via cavity-decay-assisted adiabatic passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Xunli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The scalar phantom field Φ leads to various catastrophic fates of the universe including big rip,little rip and other future singularity depending on the choice of its potential.For example,little rip stems from a quadratic potential in general relativity.We suggest a new mechanism to avoid little rip in the 1/R gravity.The phantom field with different potentials,including quadratic,cubic and quantic potentials are studied via numerical calculation in the 1/R gravity with R2 correction.The singularity is avoidable under all these potentials.

  14. Minimal solution for inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nikuie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy matrix equations $Ailde{X}=ilde{Y}$ is called a singular fuzzy matrix equations while the coefficients matrix of its equivalent crisp matrix equations be a singular matrix. The singular fuzzy matrix equations are divided into two parts: consistent singular matrix equations and inconsistent fuzzy matrix equations. In this paper, the inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations is studied and the effect of generalized inverses in finding minimal solution of an inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations are investigated.

  15. Pre-big bang cosmology: A long history of time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, G.

    1999-01-01

    The popular myth according to which the Universe - and time itself - started with/near a big bang singularity is questioned. After claiming that the two main puzzles of standard cosmology allow for two possible logical answers, I will argue that superstring theory strongly favours the the pre-big bang (PBB) alternative. I will then explain why PBB inflation is as generic as classical gravitational collapse, and why, as a result of symmetries in the latter problem, recent fine-tuning objections to the PBB scenario are unfounded. A hot big bang state naturally results from the powerful amplification of vacuum quantum fluctuations before the big bang, a phenomenon whose observable consequences will be briefly summarized. (author)

  16. Non-singular and cyclic universe from the modified GUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, Maha; Hammad, Fayçal; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of a new version of the generalized uncertainty principle (modified GUP) on the dynamics of the Universe. As the modified GUP will modify the relation between the entropy and area of the apparent horizon, it will also deform the Friedmann equations within Jacobson's approach. We explicitly find these deformed Friedmann equations governing the modified GUP-corrected dynamics of such a Universe. It is shown that the modified GUP-deformed Jacobson's approach implies an upper bound for the density of such a Universe. The Big Bang singularity can therefore also be avoided using the modified GUP-corrections to horizons' thermodynamics. In fact, we are able to analyze the pre Big Bang state of the Universe. Furthermore, the equations imply that the expansion of the Universe will come to a halt and then will immediately be followed by a contracting phase. When the equations are extrapolated beyond the maximum rate of contraction, a cyclic Universe scenario emerges.

  17. Non-singular and cyclic universe from the modified GUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Maha; Hammad, Fayçal; Faizal, Mir; Farag Ali, Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of a new version of the generalized uncertainty principle (modified GUP) on the dynamics of the Universe. As the modified GUP will modify the relation between the entropy and area of the apparent horizon, it will also deform the Friedmann equations within Jacobson's approach. We explicitly find these deformed Friedmann equations governing the modified GUP-corrected dynamics of such a Universe. It is shown that the modified GUP-deformed Jacobson's approach implies an upper bound for the density of such a Universe. The Big Bang singularity can therefore also be avoided using the modified GUP-corrections to horizons' thermodynamics. In fact, we are able to analyze the pre Big Bang state of the Universe. Furthermore, the equations imply that the expansion of the Universe will come to a halt and then will immediately be followed by a contracting phase. When the equations are extrapolated beyond the maximum rate of contraction, a cyclic Universe scenario emerges.

  18. Non-singular and cyclic universe from the modified GUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Maha [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt. (Egypt); Hammad, Fayçal [Physics Department and STAR Research Cluster, Bishop' s University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke (QC), J1M 1Z7 (Canada); Faizal, Mir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: abdelmoneim.maha@gmail.com, E-mail: fhammad@ubishops.ca, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt)

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of a new version of the generalized uncertainty principle (modified GUP) on the dynamics of the Universe. As the modified GUP will modify the relation between the entropy and area of the apparent horizon, it will also deform the Friedmann equations within Jacobson's approach. We explicitly find these deformed Friedmann equations governing the modified GUP-corrected dynamics of such a Universe. It is shown that the modified GUP-deformed Jacobson's approach implies an upper bound for the density of such a Universe. The Big Bang singularity can therefore also be avoided using the modified GUP-corrections to horizons' thermodynamics. In fact, we are able to analyze the pre Big Bang state of the Universe. Furthermore, the equations imply that the expansion of the Universe will come to a halt and then will immediately be followed by a contracting phase. When the equations are extrapolated beyond the maximum rate of contraction, a cyclic Universe scenario emerges.

  19. RIP Input Tables From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Continuous Pre-Closure Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the creation of .tables for input into Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) from Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. ''Software Routine Report for WAPDEG'' (Version 3.09)) simulations. This calculation details the creation of the RIP input tables (representing waste package corrosion degradation over time) for the License Application Design Selection (LADS) analysis of the effects of continuous pre-closure ventilation. Ventilation during the operational phase of the repository could remove considerable water from the system, as well as reduce temperatures. Pre-closure ventilation is LADS Design Feature 7

  20. Development of heading/ripping systems and immediate roadway support (Report on ECSC contract 6220-62/8/801)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The development of a combined heading and ripping system to enable the heading to be advanced while the coal and dirt were taken and discharged separately is discussed. A rotary head ripping machine fitted with cutting picks, dirt stowing machinery and ancillary equipment were developed. Work on the design and testing of powered roadway supports around roadheading machines showed that the problems arising may outweigh any of the possible advantages.

  1. Initial singularity and pure geometric field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, M. I.; Kamal, Mona M.; Dabash, Tahia F.

    2018-01-01

    In the present article we use a modified version of the geodesic equation, together with a modified version of the Raychaudhuri equation, to study initial singularities. These modified equations are used to account for the effect of the spin-torsion interaction on the existence of initial singularities in cosmological models. Such models are the results of solutions of the field equations of a class of field theories termed pure geometric. The geometric structure used in this study is an absolute parallelism structure satisfying the cosmological principle. It is shown that the existence of initial singularities is subject to some mathematical (geometric) conditions. The scheme suggested for this study can be easily generalized.

  2. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...... solely on an orthogonal polynomial basis is adequate, provided the Gauss-Lobatto or Gauss-Radau quadrature rule is used. This ensures that the mesh contains the singular points and by simply discarding the DVR functions corresponding to those points, all matrix elements become well behaved. the boundary...

  3. Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz

    2008-11-15

    We propose a method for eliminating a class of singularities in optical media where the refractive index goes to zero or infinity at one or more isolated points. Employing transformation optics, we find a refractive index distribution equivalent to the original one that is nonsingular but shows a slight anisotropy. In this way, the original singularity is 'transmuted' into another, weaker type of singularity where the permittivity and permeability tensors are discontinuous at one point. The method is likely to find applications in designing and improving optical devices by making them easier to implement or to operate in a broad band of the spectrum.

  4. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Casals

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space–time with a negative cosmological constant in (2+1-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress–energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space–time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak cosmic censorship.

  5. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco; Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard A.; Sá nchez-Morgado, Hé ctor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  6. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco

    2016-11-22

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  7. RIP3 Inhibits Inflammatory Hepatocarcinogenesis but Promotes Cholestasis by Controlling Caspase-8- and JNK-Dependent Compensatory Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Vucur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For years, the term “apoptosis” was used synonymously with programmed cell death. However, it was recently discovered that receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3-dependent “necroptosis” represents an alternative programmed cell death pathway activated in many inflamed tissues. Here, we show in a genetic model of chronic hepatic inflammation that activation of RIP3 limits immune responses and compensatory proliferation of liver parenchymal cells (LPC by inhibiting Caspase-8-dependent activation of Jun-(N-terminal kinase in LPC and nonparenchymal liver cells. In this way, RIP3 inhibits intrahepatic tumor growth and impedes the Caspase-8-dependent establishment of specific chromosomal aberrations that mediate resistance to tumor-necrosis-factor-induced apoptosis and underlie hepatocarcinogenesis. Moreover, RIP3 promotes the development of jaundice and cholestasis, because its activation suppresses compensatory proliferation of cholangiocytes and hepatic stem cells. These findings demonstrate a function of RIP3 in regulating carcinogenesis and cholestasis. Controlling RIP3 or Caspase-8 might represent a chemopreventive or therapeutic strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma and biliary disease.

  8. RIP2 Is a Critical Regulator for NLRs Signaling and MHC Antigen Presentation but Not for MAPK and PI3K/Akt Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao Man; Chen, Wen Qin; Hu, Yi Wei; Cao, Lu; Nie, Pin; Chang, Ming Xian

    2018-01-01

    RIP2 is an adaptor protein which is essential for the activation of NF-κB and NOD1- and NOD2-dependent signaling. Although NOD-RIP2 axis conservatively existed in the teleost, the function of RIP2 was only reported in zebrafish, goldfish, and rainbow trout in vitro . Very little is known about the role and mechanisms of piscine NOD-RIP2 axis in vivo . Our previous study showed the protective role of zebrafish NOD1 in larval survival through CD44a-mediated activation of PI3K-Akt signaling. In this study, we examined whether RIP2 was required for larval survival with or without pathogen infection, and determined the signaling pathways modulated by RIP2. Based on our previous report and the present study, our data demonstrated that NOD1-RIP2 axis was important for larval survival in the early ontogenesis. Similar to NOD1, RIP2 deficiency significantly affected immune system processes. The significantly enriched pathways were mainly involved in immune system, such as "Antigen processing and presentation" and "NOD-like receptor signaling pathway" and so on. Furthermore, both transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR revealed that RIP2 was a critical regulator for expression of NLRs (NOD-like receptors) and those genes involved in MHC antigen presentation. Different from NOD1, the present study showed that NOD1, but not RIP2 deficiency significantly impaired protein levels of MAPK pathways. Although RIP2 deficiency also significantly impaired the expression of CD44a, the downstream signaling of CD44a-Lck-PI3K-Akt pathway remained unchanged. Collectively, our works highlight the similarity and discrepancy of NOD1 and RIP2 in the regulation of immune signaling pathways in the zebrafish early ontogenesis, and confirm the crucial role of RIP2 in NLRs signaling and MHC antigen presentation, but not for MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  9. Environmental Information System Baden-Wuerttemberg, RIPS 2016. Spatial information and planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenbach, Kurt; Czommer, Olaf; Ellmenreich, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    The Spatial Information and Planning System (RIPS), as the overarching component of the Environmental Information System Baden-Wuerttemberg (UIS BW), implements the environmental and nature conservation-specific geoinformation-related requirements taking into account applicable framework conditions. To this end, RIPS offers tailor-made services on the basis of a standardized and in transnational cooperation developed technical kit for the areas of geodata processing and management as well as the development and provision of software components with geo-functions and geodata services as part of the technical and information procedures. The coordination and steering takes place via project development offices, working groups and committees in close coordination with the departments of environmental and nature conservation administration as well as further cooperation and in coordination with other specialist administrations. Taking into account changed framework conditions and new geo-referenced requirements in UIS BW, the present RIPS concept focuses on future-oriented geofunction and geodata management in the field of environmental and nature conservation management as well as the provision of geo-specialized environmental and nature conservation data for policy makers, administrators and the public on innovative technologies Applications and Services. [de

  10. Structure and functional regulation of RipA, a mycobacterial enzyme essential for daughter cell separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Marasco, Daniela; Squeglia, Flavia; Soldini, Silvia; Pedone, Emilia; Pedone, Carlo; Berisio, Rita

    2010-09-08

    Cell separation depends on cell-wall hydrolases that cleave the peptidoglycan layer connecting daughter cells. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this process is governed by the predicted endopeptidase RipA. In the absence of this enzyme, the bacterium is unable to divide and exhibits an abnormal phenotype. We here report the crystal structure of a relevant portion of RipA, containing its catalytic-domain and an extra-domain of hitherto unknown function. The structure clearly demonstrates that RipA is produced as a zymogen, which needs to be activated to achieve cell-division. Bacterial cell-wall degradation assays and proteolysis experiments strongly suggest that activation occurs via proteolytic processing of a fully solvent exposed loop identified in the crystal structure. Indeed, proteolytic cleavage at this loop produces an activated form, consisting of the sole catalytic domain. Our work provides the first evidence of self-inhibition in cell-disconnecting enzymes and opens a field for the design of novel antitubercular therapeutics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RIP and OSPF protocols Analysis through GNS-3 and OPNET UMTS Model Suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Directing concerning astuteness packages proceed with one concerning Great key systems in amazing web. A coordination tradition démontrâtes Great procédure for correspondance among switches used as a section concerning noteworthy undirected toward affiliation concerning frameworks. On the off chance that you will organizing customs Application Virtualization web like OSPF, RIP, EIGRP, OPNET, IGRP, in like way so on. Great continuation reprobation Convention (RIP goes down from separation route tally in like way noteworthy. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF proceed with an affiliation distance planning estimation. Third time (3G remote frameworks are impressive coordinated toward give spot on remote Internet win, Impressive frameworks are planned for mixed media pacified (Voiced, essence in like way make a recording, enormous core gauge associations, bundle core associations as an outcome area associations. In UMTS fundamental need concerning system proceed coordinated toward give achievable unflactuating concerning Qi’s, for giving Great put down for unflactuating concerning associations, noteworthy UMTS required a fit procédure in like way an apparatus stage. In any case regarding amazing certainty all together that RIP in like way EIGRP depend on upon essentially indistinguishable segment state coordination, Great capabilities in noteworthy convention execution methods can escort coordinated toward fundamental show differentials. Impressive conventions are inspected in light concerning ‘activity sent (packs/seconds’ in like way ’advancement had gotten (bunches/seconds, past moving amazing sum concerning undirected towards, rate in like way break time.

  12. Complete conformal classification of the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker solutions with a linear equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B. J.; Igata, Takahisa

    2018-05-01

    We completely classify Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker solutions with spatial curvature and equation of state , according to their conformal structure, singularities and trapping horizons. We do not assume any energy conditions and allow , thereby going beyond the usual well-known solutions. For each spatial curvature, there is an initial spacelike big-bang singularity for w  >  ‑1/3 and , while there is no big-bang singularity for w  big-bang singularity. For each spatial curvature, there is a final spacelike future big-rip singularity for w  big-rip singularity, then bounces and blows up at a final spacelike future big-rip singularity. For w    ‑1/3, the universe contracts from infinity, then bounces and expands to infinity; for  ‑1  big-bang singularity and contracts to a big-crunch singularity; for w  <  ‑1, it expands from a regular null hypersurface and contracts to another regular null hypersurface.

  13. Singularities: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.J.S.; Schmidt, B.G.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, but precise and unified account is given of the results that have been rigorously established at the time of writing concerning the existence and nature of singularities in classical relativity. (author)

  14. Technological Singularity: What Do We Really Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Potapov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the technological singularity is frequently reified. Futurist forecasts inferred from this imprecise reification are then criticized, and the reified ideas are incorporated in the core concept. In this paper, I try to disentangle the facts related to the technological singularity from more speculative beliefs about the possibility of creating artificial general intelligence. I use the theory of metasystem transitions and the concept of universal evolution to analyze some misconceptions about the technological singularity. While it may be neither purely technological, nor truly singular, we can predict that the next transition will take place, and that the emerged metasystem will demonstrate exponential growth in complexity with a doubling time of less than half a year, exceeding the complexity of the existing cybernetic systems in few decades.

  15. Algunas aclaraciones acerca del conocimiento del singular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llano Cifuentes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Llano tries to explain the main purpose of El Conocimiento del Singular, showing how the individuals about which the book is concerned are basically human individuals: people as decision makers.

  16. Topological Signals of Singularities in Ricci Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Alsing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We implement methods from computational homology to obtain a topological signal of singularity formation in a selection of geometries evolved numerically by Ricci flow. Our approach, based on persistent homology, produces precise, quantitative measures describing the behavior of an entire collection of data across a discrete sample of times. We analyze the topological signals of geometric criticality obtained numerically from the application of persistent homology to models manifesting singularities under Ricci flow. The results we obtain for these numerical models suggest that the topological signals distinguish global singularity formation (collapse to a round point from local singularity formation (neckpinch. Finally, we discuss the interpretation and implication of these results and future applications.

  17. Asymptotic safety, singularities, and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Mirza, Behrouz

    2011-01-01

    Asymptotic safety (an ultraviolet fixed point with finite-dimensional critical surface) offers the possibility that a predictive theory of quantum gravity can be obtained from the quantization of classical general relativity. However, it is unclear what becomes of the singularities of classical general relativity, which, it is hoped, might be resolved by quantum effects. We study dust collapse with a running gravitational coupling and find that a future singularity can be avoided if the coupling becomes exactly zero at some finite energy scale. The singularity can also be avoided (pushed off to infinite proper time) if the coupling approaches zero sufficiently rapidly at high energies. However, the evolution deduced from perturbation theory still implies a singularity at finite proper time.

  18. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  19. Big Data, Big Problems: A Healthcare Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa S; Aldosari, Bakheet; Alanazi, Abdullah; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written on the benefits of big data for healthcare such as improving patient outcomes, public health surveillance, and healthcare policy decisions. Over the past five years, Big Data, and the data sciences field in general, has been hyped as the "Holy Grail" for the healthcare industry promising a more efficient healthcare system with the promise of improved healthcare outcomes. However, more recently, healthcare researchers are exposing the potential and harmful effects Big Data can have on patient care associating it with increased medical costs, patient mortality, and misguided decision making by clinicians and healthcare policy makers. In this paper, we review the current Big Data trends with a specific focus on the inadvertent negative impacts that Big Data could have on healthcare, in general, and specifically, as it relates to patient and clinical care. Our study results show that although Big Data is built up to be as a the "Holy Grail" for healthcare, small data techniques using traditional statistical methods are, in many cases, more accurate and can lead to more improved healthcare outcomes than Big Data methods. In sum, Big Data for healthcare may cause more problems for the healthcare industry than solutions, and in short, when it comes to the use of data in healthcare, "size isn't everything."

  20. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  1. Stalin's Big Fleet Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauner, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Although Dr. Milan Hauner's study 'Stalin's Big Fleet program' has focused primarily on the formation of Big Fleets during the Tsarist and Soviet periods of Russia's naval history, there are important lessons...

  2. Big Data Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceravolo, Paolo; Azzini, Antonia; Angelini, Marco; Catarci, Tiziana; Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Damiani, Ernesto; Mazak, Alexandra; van Keulen, Maurice; Jarrar, Mustafa; Santucci, Giuseppe; Sattler, Kai-Uwe; Scannapieco, Monica; Wimmer, Manuel; Wrembel, Robert; Zaraket, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    Big Data technology has discarded traditional data modeling approaches as no longer applicable to distributed data processing. It is, however, largely recognized that Big Data impose novel challenges in data and infrastructure management. Indeed, multiple components and procedures must be

  3. On Borel singularities in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, S.; Olesen, P.

    1977-10-01

    The authors consider the effective one-loop Lagrangian in a constant electric field. It is shown that perturbation theory behaves as n factorial giving rise to singularities in the Borel plane. Comparing with the known exact result it is shown how to integrate these singularities. It is suggested that renormalons in QED and QCD should be integrated in a similar way. A speculation is made on a possible interpretation of this integration. (Auth.)

  4. Singularity theorems from weakened energy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewster, Christopher J; Galloway, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    We establish analogues of the Hawking and Penrose singularity theorems based on (a) averaged energy conditions with exponential damping; (b) conditions on local stress-energy averages inspired by the quantum energy inequalities satisfied by a number of quantum field theories. As particular applications, we establish singularity theorems for the Einstein equations coupled to a classical scalar field, which violates the strong energy condition, and the nonminimally coupled scalar field, which also violates the null energy condition.

  5. Characterizing Big Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Rossi; Kechi Hirama

    2015-01-01

    Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: t...

  6. Observational constraints on cosmological future singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose [Aix Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France); Lazkoz, Ruth [Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Bilbao (Spain); Saez-Gomez, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Salzano, Vincenzo [University of Szczecin, Institute of Physics, Szczecin (Poland)

    2016-11-15

    In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such a kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies with phantom fields, theories of modified gravity or models with interacting dark matter/dark energy. We briefly review the physical consequences of these cosmological evolution regarding geodesic completeness and the divergence of tidal forces in order to emphasize under which circumstances the singularities in some cosmological quantities correspond to actual singular spacetimes. We then introduce several phenomenological parameterizations of the Hubble expansion rate to model different singularities existing in the literature and use SN Ia, BAO and H(z) data to constrain how far in the future the singularity needs to be (under some reasonable assumptions on the behavior of the Hubble factor). We show that, for our family of parameterizations, the lower bound for the singularity time cannot be smaller than about 1.2 times the age of the universe, what roughly speaking means ∝2.8 Gyrs from the present time. (orig.)

  7. Observational constraints on cosmological future singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose; Lazkoz, Ruth; Saez-Gomez, Diego; Salzano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such a kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies with phantom fields, theories of modified gravity or models with interacting dark matter/dark energy. We briefly review the physical consequences of these cosmological evolution regarding geodesic completeness and the divergence of tidal forces in order to emphasize under which circumstances the singularities in some cosmological quantities correspond to actual singular spacetimes. We then introduce several phenomenological parameterizations of the Hubble expansion rate to model different singularities existing in the literature and use SN Ia, BAO and H(z) data to constrain how far in the future the singularity needs to be (under some reasonable assumptions on the behavior of the Hubble factor). We show that, for our family of parameterizations, the lower bound for the singularity time cannot be smaller than about 1.2 times the age of the universe, what roughly speaking means ∝2.8 Gyrs from the present time. (orig.)

  8. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  9. Naked singularities and cosmic censorship: comment on the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The current discussion is mainly concerned with how, or indeed, whether space-times possessing naked singularities can be ruled out as being too unrealistic or not being singular at all. The present position is summarized, with references, under the following headings: the Hawking-Penrose existence theorems, hydrodynamical singularities and the strength of naked singularities. (UK)

  10. Exact string theory model of closed timelike curves and cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.; Svendsen, Harald G.

    2004-01-01

    We study an exact model of string theory propagating in a space-time containing regions with closed timelike curves (CTCs) separated from a finite cosmological region bounded by a big bang and a big crunch. The model is an nontrivial embedding of the Taub-NUT geometry into heterotic string theory with a full conformal field theory (CFT) definition, discovered over a decade ago as a heterotic coset model. Having a CFT definition makes this an excellent laboratory for the study of the stringy fate of CTCs, the Taub cosmology, and the Milne/Misner-type chronology horizon which separates them. In an effort to uncover the role of stringy corrections to such geometries, we calculate the complete set of α ' corrections to the geometry. We observe that the key features of Taub-NUT persist in the exact theory, together with the emergence of a region of space with Euclidean signature bounded by timelike curvature singularities. Although such remarks are premature, their persistence in the exact geometry is suggestive that string theory is able to make physical sense of the Milne/Misner singularities and the CTCs, despite their pathological character in general relativity. This may also support the possibility that CTCs may be viable in some physical situations, and may be a natural ingredient in pre-big bang cosmological scenarios

  11. Big data computing

    CERN Document Server

    Akerkar, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Due to market forces and technological evolution, Big Data computing is developing at an increasing rate. A wide variety of novel approaches and tools have emerged to tackle the challenges of Big Data, creating both more opportunities and more challenges for students and professionals in the field of data computation and analysis. Presenting a mix of industry cases and theory, Big Data Computing discusses the technical and practical issues related to Big Data in intelligent information management. Emphasizing the adoption and diffusion of Big Data tools and technologies in industry, the book i

  12. Microsoft big data solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,

  13. Towards a resolution of the cosmological singularity in non-local higher derivative theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Tirthabir; Koivisto, Tomi; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest problems of standard cosmology is the Big Bang singularity. Previously it has been shown that non-local ghostfree higher-derivative modifications of Einstein gravity in the ultra-violet regime can admit non-singular bouncing solutions. In this paper we study in more details the dynamical properties of the equations of motion for these theories of gravity in presence of positive and negative cosmological constants and radiation. We find stable inflationary attractor solutions in the presence of a positive cosmological constant which renders inflation geodesically complete, while in the presence of a negative cosmological constant a cyclic universe emerges. We also provide an algorithm for tracking the super-Hubble perturbations during the bounce and show that the bouncing solutions are free from any perturbative instability

  14. Cosmologies with quasiregular singularities. II. Stability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkowski, D.A.; Helliwell, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    The stability properties of a class of spacetimes with quasiregular singularities is discussed. Quasiregular singularities are the end points of incomplete, inextendible geodesics at which the Riemann tensor and its derivatives remain at least bounded in all parallel-propagated orthonormal (PPON) frames; observers approaching such a singularity would find that their world lines come to an end in a finite proper time. The Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino)-type cosmologies investigated are R 1 x T 3 and R 3 x S 1 flat Kasner spacetimes, the two-parameter family of spatially homogeneous but anisotropic Bianchi type-IX Taub-NUT spacetimes, and an infinite-dimensional family of Einstein-Rosen-Gowdy spacetimes studied by Moncrief. The behavior of matter near the quasiregular singularity in each of these spacetimes is explored through an examination of the behavior of the stress-energy tensors and scalars for conformally coupled and minimally coupled, massive and massless scalar waves as observed in both coordinate and PPON frames. A conjecture is postulated concerning the stability of the nature of the singularity in these spacetimes. The conjecture for a Taub-NUT-type background spacetime is that if a test-field stress-energy tensor evaluated in a PPON frame mimics the behavior of the Riemann tensor components which indicate a particular type of singularity (quasiregular, nonscalar curvature, or scalar curvature), then a complete nonlinear backreaction calculation, in which the fields are allowed to influence the geometry, would show that this type of singularity actually occurs. Evidence supporting the conjecture is presented for spacetimes whose symmetries are unchanged when fields with the same symmetries are added

  15. Characterizing Big Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rossi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: technology, people and processes. Hence, this article discusses these dimensions: the technological dimension that is related to storage, analytics and visualization of big data; the human aspects of big data; and, in addition, the process management dimension that involves in a technological and business approach the aspects of big data management.

  16. In silico reversal of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP identifies the origins of repeat families and uncovers obscured duplicated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hane James K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP is a fungal genome defence mechanism guarding against transposon invasion. RIP mutates the sequence of repeated DNA and over time renders the affected regions unrecognisable by similarity search tools such as BLAST. Results DeRIP is a new software tool developed to predict the original sequence of a RIP-mutated region prior to the occurrence of RIP. In this study, we apply deRIP to the genome of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum SN15 and predict the origin of several previously uncharacterised classes of repetitive DNA. Conclusions Five new classes of transposon repeats and four classes of endogenous gene repeats were identified after deRIP. The deRIP process is a new tool for fungal genomics that facilitates the identification and understanding of the role and origin of fungal repetitive DNA. DeRIP is open-source and is available as part of the RIPCAL suite at http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/ripcal.

  17. Prolactin receptors in Rip-cre cells, but not in AgRP neurones, are involved in energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, S R; MacLeod, M A; Khant Aung, Z; Knowles, P; Phillipps, H R; Brown, R S E; Grattan, D R

    2017-10-01

    Among its many functions, prolactin has been implicated in energy homeostasis, particularly during pregnancy and lactation. The arcuate nucleus is a key site in the regulation of energy balance. The present study aimed to examine whether arcuate nucleus neuronal populations involved in energy homeostasis are prolactin responsive and whether they can mediate the effects of prolactin on energy homeostasis. To determine whether Agrp neurones or Rip-Cre neurones are prolactin responsive, transgenic mice expressing the reporter td-tomato in Agrp neurones (td-tomato/Agrp-Cre) or Rip-Cre neurones (td-tomato/Rip-Cre) were treated with prolactin and perfused 45 minutes later. Brains were processed for double-labelled immunohistochemistry for pSTAT5, a marker of prolactin-induced intracellular signalling, and td-tomato. In addition, Agrp-Cre mice and Rip-Cre mice were crossed with mice in which the prolactin receptor gene (Prlr) was flanked with LoxP sites (Prlr lox/lox mice). The Prlr lox/lox construct was designed such that Cre-mediated recombination resulted in deletion of the Prlr and expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in its place. In td-tomato/Rip-Cre mice, prolactin-induced pSTAT5 was co-localised with td-tomato, indicating that there is a subpopulation of Rip-Cre neurones in the arcuate nucleus that respond to prolactin. Furthermore, mice with a specific deletion of Prlr in Rip-Cre neurones had lower body weights, increased oxygen consumption, increased running wheel activity and numerous cells in the arcuate nucleus had positive GFP staining indicating deletion of Prlr from Rip-Cre neurones. By contrast, no co-localisation of td-tomato and pSTAT5 was observed in td-tomato/Agrp-Cre mice after prolactin treatment. Moreover, Prlr lox/lox /Agrp-Cre mice had no positive GFP staining in the arcuate nucleus and did not differ in body weight compared to littermate controls. Overall, these results indicate that Rip-Cre neurones in the arcuate nucleus are

  18. Membrane-bound transcription factors: regulated release by RIP or RUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, T; Rape, M; Jentsch, S

    2001-06-01

    Regulated nuclear transport of transcription factors from cytoplasmic pools is a major route by which eukaryotes control gene expression. Exquisite examples are transcription factors that are kept in a dormant state in the cytosol by membrane anchors; such proteins are released from membranes by proteolytic cleavage, which enables these transcription factors to enter the nucleus. Cleavage can be mediated either by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) catalysed by specific membrane-bound proteases or by regulated ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP). In both cases processing can be controlled by cues that originate at or in the vicinity of the membrane.

  19. Search for the neutron-rich nuclei in RIKEN-RIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notani, Masahiro; Aoi, Nori; Fukuda, Naoki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics] [and others

    1997-05-01

    {sup 64}Ni and {sup 181}Ta target were irradiated with {sup 48}Ca beam (70 AMeV) by R201N experiment in this paper. The production cross sections and yields of F, Ne, Na and Al isotopes were determined by particle identification of RIPS. New three nuclei, {sup 38}Mg and {sup 40},{sup 41}Al were found. Moreover, unstable nuclear isomer {sup 32m}Al was studied by measuring {gamma}-ray emission energy spectrum. The life and rate of isomer were determined. The rate of isomer was different from that of other systems. (S.Y.)

  20. Radioanatomy of the singular nerve canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muren, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Sabbatsbergs Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadin, K. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Dimopoulos, P. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1991-08-01

    The singular canal conveys vestibular nerve fibers from the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal to the posteroinferior border of the internal auditory meatus. Radiographic identification of this anatomic structure helps to distinguish it from a fracture. It is also a landmark in certain surgical procedures. Computed tomography (CT) examinations of deep-frozen temporal bone specimens were compared with subsequently prepared plastic casts of these bones, showing good correlation between the anatomy and the images. The singular canal and its variable anatomy were studied in CT examinations of 107 patients. The singular canal could be identified, in both the axial and in the coronal planes. Its point of entry into the internal auditory meatus varied considerably. (orig.)

  1. Enveloping branes and brane-world singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN-Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Samos (Greece)

    2014-12-01

    The existence of envelopes is studied for systems of differential equations in connection with the method of asymptotic splittings which allows one to determine the singularity structure of the solutions. The result is applied to brane-worlds consisting of a 3-brane in a five-dimensional bulk, in the presence of an analog of a bulk perfect fluid parameterizing a generic class of bulk matter. We find that all flat brane solutions suffer from a finite-distance singularity contrary to previous claims. We then study the possibility of avoiding finite-distance singularities by cutting the bulk and gluing regular solutions at the position of the brane. Further imposing physical conditions such as finite Planck mass on the brane and positive energy conditions on the bulk fluid, excludes, however, this possibility as well. (orig.)

  2. Global embeddings for branes at toric singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; Braun, Volker; García-Etxebarria, Iñaki

    2012-01-01

    We describe how local toric singularities, including the Toric Lego construction, can be embedded in compact Calabi-Yau manifolds. We study in detail the addition of D-branes, including non-compact flavor branes as typically used in semi-realistic model building. The global geometry provides constraints on allowable local models. As an illustration of our discussion we focus on D3 and D7-branes on (the partially resolved) (dP0)^3 singularity, its embedding in a specific Calabi-Yau manifold as a hypersurface in a toric variety, the related type IIB orientifold compactification, as well as the corresponding F-theory uplift. Our techniques generalize naturally to complete intersections, and to a large class of F-theory backgrounds with singularities.

  3. Holographic subregion complexity for singular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhshaei, Elaheh [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mollabashi, Ali [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirzad, Ahmad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Recently holographic prescriptions were proposed to compute the quantum complexity of a given state in the boundary theory. A specific proposal known as 'holographic subregion complexity' is supposed to calculate the complexity of a reduced density matrix corresponding to a static subregion. We study different families of singular subregions in the dual field theory and find the divergence structure and universal terms of holographic subregion complexity for these singular surfaces. We find that there are new universal terms, logarithmic in the UV cut-off, due to the singularities of a family of surfaces including a kink in (2 + 1) dimensions and cones in even dimensional field theories. We also find examples of new divergent terms such as squared logarithm and negative powers times the logarithm of the UV cut-off parameter. (orig.)

  4. Singularity hypotheses a scientific and philosophical assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.

  5. Singularities in four-body final-state amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    Like three-body amplitudes, four-body amplitudes have subenergy threshold singularities over and above total-energy singularities. In the four-body problem we encounter a new type of subenergy singularity besides the usual two- and three-body subenergy threshold singularities. This singularity will be referred to as ''independent-pair threshold singularity'' and involves pair-subenergy threshold singularities in each of the two independent pair subenergies in four-body final states. We also study the particularly interesting case of resonant two- and three-body interactions in the four-body isobar model and the rapid (singular) dependence of the isobar amplitudes they generate in the four-body phase space. All these singularities are analyzed in the multiple-scattering formalism and it is shown that they arise from the ''next-to-last'' rescattering and hence may be represented correctly by an approximate amplitude which has that rescattering

  6. Endpoint singularities in unintegrated parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Hautmann, F

    2007-01-01

    We examine the singular behavior from the endpoint region x -> 1 in parton distributions unintegrated in both longitudinal and transverse momenta. We identify and regularize the singularities by using the subtraction method, and compare this with the cut-off regularization method. The counterterms for the distributions with subtractive regularization are given in coordinate space by compact all-order expressions in terms of eikonal-line operators. We carry out an explicit calculation at one loop for the unintegrated quark distribution. We discuss the relation of the unintegrated parton distributions in subtractive regularization with the ordinary parton distributions.

  7. Characteristic classes, singular embeddings, and intersection homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, S E; Shaneson, J L

    1987-06-01

    This note announces some results on the relationship between global invariants and local topological structure. The first section gives a local-global formula for Pontrjagin classes or L-classes. The second section describes a corresponding decomposition theorem on the level of complexes of sheaves. A final section mentions some related aspects of "singular knot theory" and the study of nonisolated singularities. Analogous equivariant analogues, with local-global formulas for Atiyah-Singer classes and their relations to G-signatures, will be presented in a future paper.

  8. Cosmic censorship and the strengths of singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the principal definitions concerning limiting curvature strength on geodesics, and on non-spacelike geodesics in particular. They are formulated in terms of focussing conditions. Two definitions suggest themselves, and these are given in terms of a concept of a generalized Jacobi field. An historical survey is presented on some important developments concerning examples of naked singularities. The historical context is recalled in which these models, and cosmic censorship in general, have arisen. It is the author's opinion that one can expect to obtain theoretical limitations on the strengths of any naked singularities which do occur

  9. Matter sources for a null big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, K A; Zaslavskii, O B

    2008-01-01

    We consider the properties of stress-energy tensors compatible with a null big bang, i.e., cosmological evolution starting from a Killing horizon rather than a singularity. For Kantowski-Sachs cosmologies, it is shown that if matter satisfies the null energy condition, then (i) regular cosmological evolution can only start from a Killing horizon, (ii) matter is absent at the horizon and (iii) matter can only appear in the cosmological region due to interaction with vacuum. The latter is understood phenomenologically as a fluid whose stress tensor is insensitive to boosts in a particular direction. We also argue that matter is absent in a static region beyond the horizon. All this generalizes the observations recently obtained for a mixture of dust and a vacuum fluid. If, however, we admit the existence of phantom matter, its certain special kinds (with the parameter w ≤ -3) are consistent with a null big bang without interaction with vacuum (or without vacuum fluid at all). Then in the static region there is matter with w ≥ -1/3. Alternatively, the evolution can begin from a horizon in an infinitely remote past, leading to a scenario combining the features of a null big bang and an emergent universe

  10. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  11. Holder continuity of bounded weak solutions to generalized parabolic p-Laplacian equations II: singular case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjung Hwang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we generalize quasilinear parabolic p-Laplacian type equations to obtain the prototype equation $$ u_t - \\hbox{div} \\Big(\\frac{g(|Du|}{|Du|} Du\\Big = 0, $$ where g is a nonnegative, increasing, and continuous function trapped in between two power functions $|Du|^{g_0 -1}$ and $|Du|^{g_1 -1}$ with $1singular types. By using geometric characters, our proof does not rely on any of alternatives which is based on the size of solutions.

  12. The big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chown, Marcus.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the 'Big Bang' theory of the creation of the Universe 15 thousand million years ago, and traces events which physicists predict occurred soon after the creation. Unified theory of the moment of creation, evidence of an expanding Universe, the X-boson -the particle produced very soon after the big bang and which vanished from the Universe one-hundredth of a second after the big bang, and the fate of the Universe, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Isolation and characterization of an RIP (ribosome-inactivating protein)-like protein from tobacco with dual enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelam; Park, Sang-Wook; Vepachedu, Ramarao; Barbieri, Luigi; Ciani, Marialibera; Stirpe, Fiorenzo; Savary, Brett J; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2004-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases that remove a specific adenine from the sarcin/ricin loop of the large rRNA, thus arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. In the present study, a protein termed tobacco RIP (TRIP) was isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography in combination with yeast ribosome depurination assays. TRIP has a molecular mass of 26 kD as evidenced by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed strong N-glycosidase activity as manifested by the depurination of yeast rRNA. Purified TRIP showed immunoreactivity with antibodies of RIPs from Mirabilis expansa. TRIP released fewer amounts of adenine residues from ribosomal (Artemia sp. and rat ribosomes) and non-ribosomal substrates (herring sperm DNA, rRNA, and tRNA) compared with other RIPs. TRIP inhibited translation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) germ more efficiently than in rabbit reticulocytes, showing an IC50 at 30 ng in the former system. Antimicrobial assays using highly purified TRIP (50 microg mL(-1)) conducted against various fungi and bacterial pathogens showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Trichoderma reesei and Pseudomonas solancearum. A 15-amino acid internal polypeptide sequence of TRIP was identical with the internal sequences of the iron-superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) from wild tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia), Arabidopsis, and potato (Solanum tuberosum). Purified TRIP showed SOD activity, and Escherichia coli Fe-SOD was observed to have RIP activity too. Thus, TRIP may be considered a dual activity enzyme showing RIP-like activity and Fe-SOD characteristics.

  14. Summary big data

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of Cukier the book: "Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How we Live, Work, and Think" by Viktor Mayer-Schonberg and Kenneth. Summary of the ideas in Viktor Mayer-Schonberg's and Kenneth Cukier's book: " Big Data " explains that big data is where we use huge quantities of data to make better predictions based on the fact we identify patters in the data rather than trying to understand the underlying causes in more detail. This summary highlights that big data will be a source of new economic value and innovation in the future. Moreover, it shows that it will

  15. Data: Big and Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. A Big Video Manifesto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcilvenny, Paul Bruce; Davidsen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    and beautiful visualisations. However, we also need to ask what the tools of big data can do both for the Humanities and for more interpretative approaches and methods. Thus, we prefer to explore how the power of computation, new sensor technologies and massive storage can also help with video-based qualitative......For the last few years, we have witnessed a hype about the potential results and insights that quantitative big data can bring to the social sciences. The wonder of big data has moved into education, traffic planning, and disease control with a promise of making things better with big numbers...

  17. Tamoxifen-independent recombination in the RIP-CreER mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The inducible Cre-lox system is a valuable tool to study gene function in a spatial and time restricted fashion in mouse models. This strategy relies on the limited background activity of the modified Cre recombinase (CreER in the absence of its inducer, the competitive estrogen receptor ligand, tamoxifen. The RIP-CreER mouse (Tg (Ins2-cre/Esr1 1Dam is among the few available β-cell specific CreER mouse lines and thus it has been often used to manipulate gene expression in the insulin-producing cells of the endocrine pancreas. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the detection of tamoxifen-independent Cre activity as early as 2 months of age in RIP-CreER mice crossed with three distinct reporter strains. SIGNIFICANCE: Evidence of Cre-mediated recombination of floxed alleles even in the absence of tamoxifen administration should warrant cautious use of this mouse for the study of pancreatic β-cells.

  18. Apicomplexa-specific tRip facilitates import of exogenous tRNAs into malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, Tania; Mahmoudi, Nassira; Kapps, Delphine; Thiberge, Sabine; Bargieri, Daniel; Ménard, Robert; Frugier, Magali

    2016-04-26

    The malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes. To support their growth and replication, these intracellular parasites, which belong to the phylum Apicomplexa, have developed mechanisms to exploit their hosts. These mechanisms include expropriation of small metabolites from infected host cells, such as purine nucleotides and amino acids. Heretofore, no evidence suggested that transfer RNAs (tRNAs) could also be exploited. We identified an unusual gene in Apicomplexa with a coding sequence for membrane-docking and structure-specific tRNA binding. This Apicomplexa protein-designated tRip (tRNA import protein)-is anchored to the parasite plasma membrane and directs import of exogenous tRNAs. In the absence of tRip, the fitness of the parasite stage that multiplies in the blood is significantly reduced, indicating that the parasite may need host tRNAs to sustain its own translation and/or as regulatory RNAs. Plasmodium is thus the first example, to our knowledge, of a cell importing exogenous tRNAs, suggesting a remarkable adaptation of this parasite to extend its reach into host cell biology.

  19. k-essence in the DGP brane-world cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Chimento, Luis P.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) brane filled with a k-essence field and assume the k field evolving linearly with the cosmic time of the brane. We then solve analytically the Friedmann equation and deduce the different behavior of the brane at the low- and the high-energy regimes. The asymptotic behavior can be quite different involving accelerating branes, big bangs, big crunches, big rips, or quiescent singularities. The latter correspond to a type of sudden singularity.

  20. Singular Linear Differential Equations in Two Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, B.L.J.; Put, M. van der

    2008-01-01

    The formal and analytic classification of integrable singular linear differential equations has been studied among others by R. Gerard and Y. Sibuya. We provide a simple proof of their main result, namely: For certain irregular systems in two variables there is no Stokes phenomenon, i.e. there is no

  1. Singular continuous spectrum for palindromic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, A.; Knill, O.; Simon, B.

    1995-01-01

    We give new examples of discrete Schroedinger operators with potentials taking finitely many values that have purely singular continuous spectrum. If the hull X of the potential is strictly ergodic, then the existence of just one potential x in X for which the operator has no eigenvalues implies that there is a generic set in X for which the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum. A sufficient condition for the existence of such an x is that there is a z element of X that contains arbitrarily long palindromes. Thus we can define a large class of primitive substitutions for which the operators are purely singularly continuous for a generic subset in X. The class includes well-known substitutions like Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, Period Doubling, binary non-Pisot and ternary non-Pisot. We also show that the operator has no absolutely continuous spectrum for all x element of X if X derives from a primitive substitution. For potentials defined by circle maps, x n =l J (θ 0 +nα), we show that the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum for a generic subset in X for all irrational α and every half-open interval J. (orig.)

  2. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints

  3. Mobile communications technology: The singular factor responsible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the factors responsible for the growth of Internet usage on the African continent. The principal finding was that increasing growth of Internet usage is also down to one singular factor: mobile communications technology. The proliferation of mobile phone usage in Africa has resulted in the sustained ...

  4. Diamagnetism of quantum gases with singular potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briet, Philippe; Cornean, Horia; Savoie, Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    We consider a gas of quasi-free quantum particles confined to a finite box, subjected to singular magnetic and electric fields. We prove in great generality that the finite volume grand-canonical pressure is analytic with respect to the chemical potential and the intensity of the external magnetic...

  5. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics under point singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Takashi; Tsutsui, Izumi

    2003-01-01

    We provide a systematic study on the possibility of supersymmetry (SUSY) for one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems consisting of a pair of lines R or intervals [-l, l] each having a point singularity. We consider the most general singularities and walls (boundaries) at x = ±l admitted quantum mechanically, using a U(2) family of parameters to specify one singularity and similarly a U(1) family of parameters to specify one wall. With these parameter freedoms, we find that for a certain subfamily the line systems acquire an N = 1 SUSY which can be enhanced to N = 4 if the parameters are further tuned, and that these SUSY are generically broken except for a special case. The interval systems, on the other hand, can accommodate N = 2 or N = 4 SUSY, broken or unbroken, and exhibit a rich variety of (degenerate) spectra. Our SUSY systems include the familiar SUSY systems with the Dirac δ(x)-potential, and hence are extensions of the known SUSY quantum mechanics to those with general point singularities and walls. The self-adjointness of the supercharge in relation to the self-adjointness of the Hamiltonian is also discussed

  6. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2007 physics pp. 31–47. A singularity theorem based on spatial ... In this paper I would like to present a result which confirms – at least partially – ... A detailed analysis of how the model fits in with the .... Further, the statement that the spatial average ...... Financial support under grants FIS2004-01626 and no.

  7. Symmetries and singularities in Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains several results concerning the role of symmetries and singularities in the mathematical formulation of many physical systems. We concentrate in systems which find their mathematical model on a symplectic or Poisson manifold and we present old and new results from a global perspective.

  8. Singular interactions supported by embedded curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O Teoman

    2012-01-01

    In this work, singular interactions supported by embedded curves on Riemannian manifolds are discussed from a more direct and physical perspective, via the heat kernel approach. We show that the renormalized problem is well defined, the ground state is finite and the corresponding wavefunction is positive. The renormalization group invariance of the model is also discussed. (paper)

  9. Resolving curvature singularities in holomorphic gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantz, C.L.M.; Prokopec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We formulate a holomorphic theory of gravity and study how the holomorphy symmetry alters the two most important singular solutions of general relativity: black holes and cosmology. We show that typical observers (freely) falling into a holomorphic black hole do not encounter a curvature

  10. Classical resolution of singularities in dilaton cosmologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, EA; Collinucci, A; Roest, D; Russo, JG; Townsend, PK

    2005-01-01

    For models of dilaton gravity with a possible exponential potential, such as the tensor-scalar sector of ITA supergravity, we show how cosmological solutions correspond to trajectories in a 2D Milne space (parametrized by the dilaton and the scale factor). Cosmological singularities correspond to

  11. Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative–nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov–Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov–Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov–Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative–nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results. (paper)

  12. Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative-nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov-Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov-Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov-Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative-nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results.

  13. A Systolic Architecture for Singular Value Decomposition,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Presented at the 1 st International Colloquium on Vector and Parallel Computing in Scientific Applications, Paris, March 191J Contract N00014-82-K.0703...Gene Golub. Private comunication . given inputs x and n 2 , compute 2 2 2 2 /6/ G. H. Golub and F. T. Luk : "Singular Value I + X1 Decomposition

  14. Sporadic simple groups and quotient singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, I A; Shramov, C A

    2013-01-01

    We show that if a faithful irreducible representation of a central extension of a sporadic simple group with centre contained in the commutator subgroup gives rise to an exceptional (resp. weakly exceptional but not exceptional) quotient singularity, then that simple group is the Hall-Janko group (resp. the Suzuki group)

  15. Singularity is the Future of ICT Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... innovation if the black race are not to be left one hundred years ... aspects of innovation in mechatronics design philosophy which illustrate the benefits obtainable by an a priori ..... An overview of models of technological singularity ... the Singularity—representing a profound and disruptive transformation in.

  16. Mega-History and the 21st century singularity puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akop P. Nazaretyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of calculations carried out independently by the Australian, Russian and American re- searchers have demonstrated that a crucial global polyfurcation is expected near the middle of the 21st century. This result is drawn by extrapolating into the future the logarithmic acceleration law, which involves the phase transitions in the evolution of biosphere and anthroposphere. The paper investigates the palliatives of the planetary civilization beyond the big evolutionary Singularity in the context of Mega-history and complexity theory worldviews. It gives the mathematical deduction a universal ground and besides, helps involve some recent discoveries in psychology and cultural anthropology to tracing the forecasting attractors and scenarios. The destiny of the Earth (as well as any other planetary civilization may conclusively depend on whether or not the intellectual ac- tor succeeds in developing his inner regulation to balance the potentially unlimited developments in technological power. Particularly, this includes overcoming the macro-group identities, religious and quasi-religious ideologies, which always suggest a friend-or-foe discrimination matrix.

  17. Generalized Parton Distributions and their Singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2011-04-01

    A new approach to building models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is discussed that is based on the factorized DD (double distribution) Ansatz within the single-DD formalism. The latter was not used before, because reconstructing GPDs from the forward limit one should start in this case with a very singular function $f(\\beta)/\\beta$ rather than with the usual parton density $f(\\beta)$. This results in a non-integrable singularity at $\\beta=0$ exaggerated by the fact that $f(\\beta)$'s, on their own, have a singular $\\beta^{-a}$ Regge behavior for small $\\beta$. It is shown that the singularity is regulated within the GPD model of Szczepaniak et al., in which the Regge behavior is implanted through a subtracted dispersion relation for the hadron-parton scattering amplitude. It is demonstrated that using proper softening of the quark-hadron vertices in the regions of large parton virtualities results in model GPDs $H(x,\\xi)$ that are finite and continuous at the "border point'' $x=\\xi$. Using a simple input forward distribution, we illustrate the implementation of the new approach for explicit construction of model GPDs. As a further development, a more general method of regulating the $\\beta=0$ singularities is proposed that is based on the separation of the initial single DD $f(\\beta, \\alpha)$ into the "plus'' part $[f(\\beta,\\alpha)]_{+}$ and the $D$-term. It is demonstrated that the "DD+D'' separation method allows to (re)derive GPD sum rules that relate the difference between the forward distribution $f(x)=H(x,0)$ and the border function $H(x,x)$ with the $D$-term function $D(\\alpha)$.

  18. São Carlos Workshop on Real and Complex Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ruas, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The São Carlos Workshop on Real and Complex Singularities is the longest running workshop in singularities. It is held every two years and is a key international event for people working in the field. This volume contains papers presented at the eighth workshop, held at the IML, Marseille, July 19–23, 2004. The workshop offers the opportunity to establish the state of the art and to present new trends, new ideas and new results in all of the branches of singularities. This is reflected by the contributions in this book. The main topics discussed are equisingularity of sets and mappings, geometry of singular complex analytic sets, singularities of mappings, characteristic classes, classification of singularities, interaction of singularity theory with some of the new ideas in algebraic geometry imported from theoretical physics, and applications of singularity theory to geometry of surfaces in low dimensional euclidean spaces, to differential equations and to bifurcation theory.

  19. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    solutions of singularly perturbed nonlinear differential equations. ... for solving generalized Burgers-Huxley equation but this equation is not singularly ...... Solitary waves solutions of the generalized Burger Huxley equations, Journal of.

  20. EDITORIAL: The plurality of optical singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael; Dennis, Mark; Soskin, Marat

    2004-05-01

    This collection of papers arose from an Advanced Research Workshop on Singular Optics, held at the Bogolyubov Institute in Kiev, Ukraine, during 24-28 June 2003. The workshop was generously financed by NATO, with welcome additional support from Institute of Physics Publishing and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. There had been two previous international meetings devoted to singular optics, in Crimea in 1997 and 2000, reflecting the strong involvement of former Soviet Union countries in this research. Awareness of singular optics is growing within the wider optics community, indicated by symposia on the subject at several general optics meetings. As the papers demonstrate, the field of singular optics has reached maturity. Although the subject originated in an observation on ultrasound, it has been largely theory-driven until recently. Now, however, there is close contact between theory and experiment, and we speculate that this is one reason for its accelerated development. To single out particular papers for mention here would be invidious, and since the papers speak for themselves it is not necessary to describe them all. Instead, we will confine ourselves to a brief description of the main areas included in singular optics, to illustrate the broad scope of the subject. Optical vortices are lines of phase singularity: nodal lines where the intensity of the light, represented by a complex scalar field, vanishes. The subject has emerged from flatland, where the vortices are points characterized by topological charges, into the much richer world of vortex lines in three dimensions. By combining Laguerre-Gauss or Bessel beams, or reflecting light from plates with spiral steps, intricate arrangements can be generated, with vortices that are curved, looped, knotted, linked or braided. With light whose state of polarization varies with position, different singularities occur, associated with the vector nature of light. These are also lines, on which the

  1. Bliver big data til big business?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge.......Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge....

  2. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  3. Big data for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  4. On Weakly Singular Versions of Discrete Nonlinear Inequalities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new weakly singular versions of discrete nonlinear inequalities are established, which generalize some existing weakly singular inequalities and can be used in the analysis of nonlinear Volterra type difference equations with weakly singular kernels. A few applications to the upper bound and the uniqueness of solutions of nonlinear difference equations are also involved.

  5. THE EXT RACORPOREAL FERTILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AND THE SINGULARITY PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Denysenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of modern medicine development connected with the technological and informative singularity are analyzed. The risks of realization of extracorporeal fertilization are examined from positions of development of informative singularity. The warning problems of origin of singularity are discussed on t h e base of t h e newest technologies development.

  6. On the nature of naked singularities in Vaidya spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, I.H. (Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics); Joshi, P.S. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1989-11-01

    The Vaidya-Papapetrou model containing a naked singularity is analysed for outgoing causal geodesics joining the singularity. The curvature growth along these trajectories is examined to show that this is a strong curvature singularity, providing a counter-example to certain forms of cosmic censorship hypotheses. (author).

  7. On the nature of naked singularities in Vaidya spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, I.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Vaidya-Papapetrou model containing a naked singularity is analysed for outgoing causal geodesics joining the singularity. The curvature growth along these trajectories is examined to show that this is a strong curvature singularity, providing a counter-example to certain forms of cosmic censorship hypotheses. (author)

  8. 7 CFR 1200.50 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 1200.50 Section 1200.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING....50 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import...

  9. 7 CFR 900.1 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.1 Section 900.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  10. 7 CFR 900.20 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.20 Section 900.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 900.20 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to...

  11. 7 CFR 900.36 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.36 Section 900.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Marketing Orders § 900.36 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be...

  12. 7 CFR 900.100 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.100 Section 900.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  13. 7 CFR 46.1 - Words in singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in singular form. 46.1 Section 46.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Words in singular form. Words in this part in the singular form shall be deemed to import the plural...

  14. 7 CFR 900.50 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.50 Section 900.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  15. 7 CFR 61.1 - Words in singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in singular form. 61.1 Section 61.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Words in singular form. Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form shall be...

  16. Singularities and the geometry of spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this essay is to investigate certain aspects of the geometry of the spacetime manifold in the General Theory of Relativity with particular reference to the occurrence of singularities in cosmological solutions and their relation with other global properties. Section 2 gives a brief outline of Riemannian geometry. In Section 3, the General Theory of Relativity is presented in the form of two postulates and two requirements which are common to it and to the Special Theory of Relativity, and a third requirement, the Einstein field equations, which distinguish it from the Special Theory. There does not seem to be any alternative set of field equations which would not have some undeseriable features. Some exact solutions are described. In Section 4, the physical significance of curvature is investigated using the deviation equation for timelike and null curves. The Riemann tensor is decomposed into the Ricci tensor which represents the gravitational effect at a point of matter at that point and the Welyl tensor which represents the effect at a point of gravitational radiation and matter at other points. The two tensors are related by the Bianchi identities which are presented in a form analogous to the Maxwell equations. Some lemmas are given for the occurrence of conjugate points on timelike and null geodesics and their relation with the variation of timelike and null curves is established. Section 5 is concerned with properties of causal relations between points of spacetime. It is shown that these could be used to determine physically the manifold structure of spacetime if the strong causality assumption held. The concepts of a null horizon and a partial Cauchy surface are introduced and are used to prove a number of lemmas relating to the existence of a timelike curve of maximum length between two sets. In Section 6, the definition of a singularity of spacetime is given in terms of geodesic incompleteness. The various energy assumptions needed to prove

  17. Pontryagin-Thom-Szucs type construction for non-positive codimensional singular maps with prescribed singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmar, Boldizsar

    2006-01-01

    We give a Pontryagin-Thom-Szucs type construction for non-positive codimensional singular maps, and obtain results about cobordism and bordism groups of -1 codimensional stable maps with prescribed singular fibers.

  18. From Big Data to Big Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Idea in Brief: Problem: There is an enormous profit potential for manufacturing firms in big data, but one of the key barriers to obtaining data-driven growth is the lack of knowledge about which capabilities are needed to extract value and profit from data. Solution: We (BDBB research group at C...

  19. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  20. Rock gabion, rip-rap, and culvert treatments: Successes and failures in post-fire erosion mitigation, Schultz Fire 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Karen A. Koestner

    2011-01-01

    Following the Schultz Fire in June of 2010, several erosion mitigation efforts were undertaken to reduce the impacts of post-fire flooding expected during the 2010 monsoon. One treatment consisted of the placement of large rock rip-rap on targeted fill slopes of a high elevation forest road that contains a buried pipeline supplying water to the city of Flagstaff....

  1. Nec-1 Enhances Shikonin-Induced Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells by Inhibition of RIP-1 and ERK1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Pan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1 inhibits necroptosis by allosterically inhibiting the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1, which plays a critical role in necroptosis. RIP1 is a crucial adaptor kinase involved in the activation of NF-κB, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs. NF-κB, ROS and MAPKs all play important roles in apoptotic signaling. Nec-1 was regarded as having no effect on apoptosis. Here, we report that Nec-1 increased the rate of nuclear condensation and caspases activation induced by a low concentration of shikonin (SHK in HL60, K562 and primary leukemia cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of RIP1 significantly enhanced shikonin-induced apoptosis in K562 and HL60 cells. Shikonin treatment alone could slightly inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in leukemia cells, and the inhibitory effect on ERK1/2 was significantly augmented by Nec-1. We also found that Nec-1 could inhibit NF-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus at a later stage of SHK treatment. In conclusion, we found that Nec-1 can promote shikonin-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. The mechanism by which Nec-1 sensitizes shikonin-induced apoptosis appears to be the inhibition of RIP1 kinase-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document Nec-1 sensitizes cancer cells to apoptosis.

  2. The dimerization of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex is an early event and is independent of Rip1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Annalea; Papa, Benedetta; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the mature cytochrome bc1 complex exists as an obligate homo-dimer in which each monomer consists of ten distinct protein subunits inserted into or bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Among them, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (Rip1), besides its catalytic role in electron transfer, may be implicated in the bc1 complex dimerization. Indeed, Rip1 has the globular domain containing the catalytic center in one monomer while the transmembrane helix interacts with the adjacent monomer. In addition, the lack of Rip1 leads to the accumulation of an immature bc1 intermediate, only loosely associated with cytochrome c oxidase. In this study we have investigated the biogenesis of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex using epitope tagged proteins to purify native assembly intermediates. We showed that the dimerization process is an early event during bc1 complex biogenesis and that the presence of Rip1, differently from previous proposals, is not essential for this process. We also investigated the multi-step model of bc1 assembly thereby lending further support to the existence of bona fide subcomplexes during bc1 maturation in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Finally, a new model of cytochrome bc1 complex assembly, in which distinct intermediates sequentially interact during bc1 maturation, has been proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. General relativity cosmological models without the big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, N.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the so-called standard model of the universe in the framework of the general theory of relativity. This model is taken to be homogeneous and isotropic and filled with an ideal fluid characterized by a density and a pressure. Taking into consideration, however, the assumption that the universe began in a singular state, it is found hard to understand why the universe is so nearly homogeneous and isotropic at present for a singularity represents a breakdown of physical laws, and the initial singularity cannot, therefore, predetermine the subsequent symmetries of the universe. The present investigation has the objective to find a way of avoiding this initial singularity, i.e., to look for a cosmological model without the big bang. The idea is proposed that there exists a limiting density of matter of the order of magnitude of the Planck density, and that this was the density of matter at the moment at which the universe began to expand

  4. Out of the white hole: a holographic origin for the Big Bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourhasan, Razieh; Afshordi, Niayesh; Mann, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    While most of the singularities of General Relativity are expected to be safely hidden behind event horizons by the cosmic censorship conjecture, we happen to live in the causal future of the classical Big Bang singularity, whose resolution constitutes the active field of early universe cosmology. Could the Big Bang be also hidden behind a causal horizon, making us immune to the decadent impacts of a naked singularity? We describe a braneworld description of cosmology with both 4d induced and 5D bulk gravity (otherwise known as Dvali-Gabadadze-Porati, or DGP model), which exhibits this feature: the universe emerges as a spherical 3-brane out of the formation of a 5D Schwarzschild black hole. In particular, we show that a pressure singularity of the holographic fluid, discovered earlier, happens inside the white hole horizon, and thus need not be real or imply any pathology. Furthermore, we outline a novel mechanism through which any thermal atmosphere for the brane, with comoving temperature of ∼20% of the 5D Planck mass can induce scale-invariant primordial curvature perturbations on the brane, circumventing the need for a separate process (such as cosmic inflation) to explain current cosmological observations. Finally, we note that 5D space-time is asymptotically flat, and thus potentially allows an S-matrix or (after minor modifications) an AdS/CFT description of the cosmological Big Bang

  5. Out of the white hole: a holographic origin for the Big Bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhasan, Razieh; Afshordi, Niayesh; Mann, Robert B., E-mail: rpourhasan@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: nafshordi@pitp.ca, E-mail: rbmann@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 Canada (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    While most of the singularities of General Relativity are expected to be safely hidden behind event horizons by the cosmic censorship conjecture, we happen to live in the causal future of the classical Big Bang singularity, whose resolution constitutes the active field of early universe cosmology. Could the Big Bang be also hidden behind a causal horizon, making us immune to the decadent impacts of a naked singularity? We describe a braneworld description of cosmology with both 4d induced and 5D bulk gravity (otherwise known as Dvali-Gabadadze-Porati, or DGP model), which exhibits this feature: the universe emerges as a spherical 3-brane out of the formation of a 5D Schwarzschild black hole. In particular, we show that a pressure singularity of the holographic fluid, discovered earlier, happens inside the white hole horizon, and thus need not be real or imply any pathology. Furthermore, we outline a novel mechanism through which any thermal atmosphere for the brane, with comoving temperature of ∼20% of the 5D Planck mass can induce scale-invariant primordial curvature perturbations on the brane, circumventing the need for a separate process (such as cosmic inflation) to explain current cosmological observations. Finally, we note that 5D space-time is asymptotically flat, and thus potentially allows an S-matrix or (after minor modifications) an AdS/CFT description of the cosmological Big Bang.

  6. Out of the white hole: a holographic origin for the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhasan, Razieh; Afshordi, Niayesh; Mann, Robert B.

    2014-04-01

    While most of the singularities of General Relativity are expected to be safely hidden behind event horizons by the cosmic censorship conjecture, we happen to live in the causal future of the classical Big Bang singularity, whose resolution constitutes the active field of early universe cosmology. Could the Big Bang be also hidden behind a causal horizon, making us immune to the decadent impacts of a naked singularity? We describe a braneworld description of cosmology with both 4d induced and 5D bulk gravity (otherwise known as Dvali-Gabadadze-Porati, or DGP model), which exhibits this feature: the universe emerges as a spherical 3-brane out of the formation of a 5D Schwarzschild black hole. In particular, we show that a pressure singularity of the holographic fluid, discovered earlier, happens inside the white hole horizon, and thus need not be real or imply any pathology. Furthermore, we outline a novel mechanism through which any thermal atmosphere for the brane, with comoving temperature of ~20% of the 5D Planck mass can induce scale-invariant primordial curvature perturbations on the brane, circumventing the need for a separate process (such as cosmic inflation) to explain current cosmological observations. Finally, we note that 5D space-time is asymptotically flat, and thus potentially allows an S-matrix or (after minor modifications) an AdS/CFT description of the cosmological Big Bang.

  7. Big Data in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  8. Big data a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Prachet; Chenthati, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of chapters written by experts on various aspects of big data. The book aims to explain what big data is and how it is stored and used. The book starts from  the fundamentals and builds up from there. It is intended to serve as a review of the state-of-the-practice in the field of big data handling. The traditional framework of relational databases can no longer provide appropriate solutions for handling big data and making it available and useful to users scattered around the globe. The study of big data covers a wide range of issues including management of heterogeneous data, big data frameworks, change management, finding patterns in data usage and evolution, data as a service, service-generated data, service management, privacy and security. All of these aspects are touched upon in this book. It also discusses big data applications in different domains. The book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing database and networking engineers.

  9. Recht voor big data, big data voor recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafarre, Anne

    Big data is een niet meer weg te denken fenomeen in onze maatschappij. Het is de hype cycle voorbij en de eerste implementaties van big data-technieken worden uitgevoerd. Maar wat is nu precies big data? Wat houden de vijf V's in die vaak genoemd worden in relatie tot big data? Ter inleiding van

  10. Friedmann-like cosmological models without singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchowicz, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation ('general relativity with spin') provides a specific spin-spin contact interaction of matter, in addition to the usual long-range gravity. This new interaction enables us to prevent singularities in cosmological models. it is shown how this mechanism works in the case when the standard Einstein-Cartan equations are valid at a micro-physical level, and some spin-spin terms remain from the averaging procedure for randomly distributed spins. In contrast with the case of aligned spin distributions, it is possible to take over the isotropic and spatially homogeneous (i.e., Friedmannian) models into the Einstein-Cartan theory. These models can be made free from singularity, thanks to the self-interaction of spinning fluid. (author)

  11. Singularities in the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    'Regular solutions of Einstein's equations' mean very different things. In the case of the empty-space equations, Rsub(ik) = o, such solutions must be metrics gsub(ik)(xsup(l)) without additionaly singular 'field sources' (Einstein's 'Particle problem'). However the 'phenomenological matter' is defined by the Einstein equations Rsub(ik) - 1/2gsub(ik)R = -kappaTsub(ik) itselves. Therefore if 10 regular functions gsub(ik)(xsup(l)) are given (which the inequalities of Lorentz-signature fulfil) then these gsub(ik) define 10 functions Tsub(ik)(xsup(l)) without singularities. But, the matter-tensor Tsub(ik) must fulfil the two inequalities T >= o, T 0 0 >= 1/2 T only and therefore the Einstein-equations with 'phenomenological matter' mean the two inequalities R >= o, R 0 0 <= o which are incompatible with a permanently regular metric with Lorentz-signature, generally. (author)

  12. Singularity theory and equivariant symplectic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Thomas J

    1993-01-01

    The monograph is a study of the local bifurcations of multiparameter symplectic maps of arbitrary dimension in the neighborhood of a fixed point.The problem is reduced to a study of critical points of an equivariant gradient bifurcation problem, using the correspondence between orbits ofa symplectic map and critical points of an action functional. New results onsingularity theory for equivariant gradient bifurcation problems are obtained and then used to classify singularities of bifurcating period-q points. Of particular interest is that a general framework for analyzing group-theoretic aspects and singularities of symplectic maps (particularly period-q points) is presented. Topics include: bifurcations when the symplectic map has spatial symmetry and a theory for the collision of multipliers near rational points with and without spatial symmetry. The monograph also includes 11 self-contained appendices each with a basic result on symplectic maps. The monograph will appeal to researchers and graduate student...

  13. Dirac operator on spaces with conical singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Dirac operator on compact spaces with conical singularities is studied via the separation of variables formula and the functional calculus of the Dirac Laplacian on the cone. A Bochner type vanishing theorem which gives topological obstructions to the existence of non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 in the singular case is proved. An index formula relating the index of the Dirac operator to the A-genus and Eta-invariant similar to that of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer is obtained. In an appendix, manifolds with boundary with non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 are studied, and several new results on constructing complete metrics with k greater than or equal to on them are obtained

  14. Singular tachyon kinks from regular profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Saffin, P.M.; Steer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate how Sen's singular kink solution of the Born-Infeld tachyon action can be constructed by taking the appropriate limit of initially regular profiles. It is shown that the order in which different limits are taken plays an important role in determining whether or not such a solution is obtained for a wide class of potentials. Indeed, by introducing a small parameter into the action, we are able circumvent the results of a recent paper which derived two conditions on the asymptotic tachyon potential such that the singular kink could be recovered in the large amplitude limit of periodic solutions. We show that this is explained by the non-commuting nature of two limits, and that Sen's solution is recovered if the order of the limits is chosen appropriately

  15. Autophagy suppresses RIP kinase-dependent necrosis enabling survival to mTOR inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bray

    Full Text Available mTOR inhibitors are used clinically to treat renal cancer but are not curative. Here we show that autophagy is a resistance mechanism of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC cell lines to mTOR inhibitors. RCC cell lines have high basal autophagy that is required for survival to mTOR inhibition. In RCC4 cells, inhibition of mTOR with CCI-779 stimulates autophagy and eliminates RIP kinases (RIPKs and this is blocked by autophagy inhibition, which induces RIPK- and ROS-dependent necroptosis in vitro and suppresses xenograft growth. Autophagy of mitochondria is required for cell survival since mTOR inhibition turns off Nrf2 antioxidant defense. Thus, coordinate mTOR and autophagy inhibition leads to an imbalance between ROS production and defense, causing necroptosis that may enhance cancer treatment efficacy.

  16. TRACE/PARCS modelling of rips trip transients for Lungmen ABWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. Y. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing-Hua Univ., No.101, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, H. T.; Wang, J. R. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wenhua Rd., Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Shih, C. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, Dept. of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua Univ., No.101, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to examine the performances of the steady-state results calculated by the Lungmen TRACE/PARCS model compared to SIMULATE-3 code, as well as to use the analytical results of the final safety analysis report (FSAR) to benchmark the Lungmen TRACE/PARCS model. In this study, three power generation methods in TRACE were utilized to analyze the three reactor internal pumps (RIPs) trip transient for the purpose of validating the TRACE/PARCS model. In general, the comparisons show that the transient responses of key system parameters agree well with the FSAR results, including core power, core inlet flow, reactivity, etc. Further studies will be performed in the future using Lungmen TRACE/PARCS model. After the commercial operation of Lungmen nuclear power plant, TRACE/PARCS model will be verified. (authors)

  17. Implementation and modification of a three-dimensional radiation stress formulation for surf zone and rip-current applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v 3.0), a three-dimensional numerical ocean model, was previously enhanced for shallow water applications by including wave-induced radiation stress forcing provided through coupling to wave propagation models (SWAN, REF/DIF). This enhancement made it suitable for surf zone applications as demonstrated using examples of obliquely incident waves on a planar beach and rip current formation in longshore bar trough morphology (Haas and Warner, 2009). In this contribution, we present an update to the coupled model which implements a wave roller model and also a modified method of the radiation stress term based on Mellor (2008, 2011a,b,in press) that includes a vertical distribution which better simulates non-conservative (i.e., wave breaking) processes and appears to be more appropriate for sigma coordinates in very shallow waters where wave breaking conditions dominate. The improvements of the modified model are shown through simulations of several cases that include: (a) obliquely incident spectral waves on a planar beach; (b) obliquely incident spectral waves on a natural barred beach (DUCK'94 experiment); (c) alongshore variable offshore wave forcing on a planar beach; (d) alongshore varying bathymetry with constant offshore wave forcing; and (e) nearshore barred morphology with rip-channels. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons to previous analytical, numerical, laboratory studies and field measurements show that the modified model replicates surf zone recirculation patterns (onshore drift at the surface and undertow at the bottom) more accurately than previous formulations based on radiation stress (Haas and Warner, 2009). The results of the model and test cases are further explored for identifying the forces operating in rip current development and the potential implication for sediment transport and rip channel development. Also, model analysis showed that rip current strength is higher when waves approach at angles of 5

  18. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Nabipour; Majid Assadi

    2016-01-01

    The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested th...

  19. Non-singular spiked harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Guardiola, R.

    1990-01-01

    A perturbative study of a class of non-singular spiked harmonic oscillators defined by the hamiltonian H = d sup(2)/dr sup(2) + r sup(2) + λ/r sup(α) in the domain [0,∞] is carried out, in the two extremes of a weak coupling and a strong coupling regimes. A path has been found to connect both expansions for α near 2. (author)

  20. Singular reduction of Nambu-Poisson manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Apurba

    The version of Marsden-Ratiu Poisson reduction theorem for Nambu-Poisson manifolds by a regular foliation have been studied by Ibáñez et al. In this paper, we show that this reduction procedure can be extended to the singular case. Under a suitable notion of Hamiltonian flow on the reduced space, we show that a set of Hamiltonians on a Nambu-Poisson manifold can also be reduced.

  1. The universe before the Big Bang cosmology and string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Terms such as "expanding Universe", "big bang", and "initial singularity", are nowadays part of our common language. The idea that the Universe we observe today originated from an enormous explosion (big bang) is now well known and widely accepted, at all levels, in modern popular culture. But what happens to the Universe before the big bang? And would it make any sense at all to ask such a question? In fact, recent progress in theoretical physics, and in particular in String Theory, suggests answers to the above questions, providing us with mathematical tools able in principle to reconstruct the history of the Universe even for times before the big bang. In the emerging cosmological scenario the Universe, at the epoch of the big bang, instead of being a "new born baby" was actually a rather "aged" creature in the middle of its possibly infinitely enduring evolution. The aim of this book is to convey this picture in non-technical language accessibile also to non-specialists. The author, himself a leading cosm...

  2. Assessing Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, big data has been one of the most controversially discussed technologies in terms of its possible positive and negative impact. Therefore, the need for technology assessments is obvious. This paper first provides, based on the results of a technology assessment study, an overview...... of the potential and challenges associated with big data and then describes the problems experienced during the study as well as methods found helpful to address them. The paper concludes with reflections on how the insights from the technology assessment study may have an impact on the future governance of big...... data....

  3. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Richard N.

    2001-01-01

    The precision of measurements in modern cosmology has made huge strides in recent years, with measurements of the cosmic microwave background and the determination of the Hubble constant now rivaling the level of precision of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis. However, these results are not necessarily consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model of big bang nucleosynthesis. Reconciling these discrepancies may require extensions of the basic tenets of the model, and possibly of the reaction rates that determine the big bang abundances

  4. Big data for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kaufman, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Find the right big data solution for your business or organization Big data management is one of the major challenges facing business, industry, and not-for-profit organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather patterns monitored by meteorologists, or social network activity can quickly outpace the capacity of traditional data management tools. If you need to develop or manage big data solutions, you'll appreciate how these four experts define, explain, and guide you through this new and often confusing concept. You'll learn what it is, why it m

  5. Big Data, indispensable today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ioan ENACHE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big data is and will be used more in the future as a tool for everything that happens both online and offline. Of course , online is a real hobbit, Big Data is found in this medium , offering many advantages , being a real help for all consumers. In this paper we talked about Big Data as being a plus in developing new applications, by gathering useful information about the users and their behaviour.We've also presented the key aspects of real-time monitoring and the architecture principles of this technology. The most important benefit brought to this paper is presented in the cloud section.

  6. Insulin promotes Rip11 accumulation at the plasma membrane by inhibiting a dynamin- and PI3-kinase-dependent, but Akt-independent, internalisation event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Frédéric; Hodgson, Lorna R; Reed, Sam E; Yarwood, Sophie E; Just, Victoria J; Stephens, David J; McCaffrey, Mary W; Tavaré, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    Rip11 is a Rab11 effector protein that has been shown to be important in controlling the trafficking of several intracellular cargoes, including the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36, V-ATPase and the glucose transporter GLUT4. We have previously demonstrated that Rip11 translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin and here we examine the basis of this regulated phenomenon in more detail. We show that Rip11 rapidly recycles between the cell interior and surface, and that the ability of insulin to increase the appearance of Rip11 at the cell surface involves an inhibition of Rip11 internalisation from the plasma membrane. By contrast the hormone has no effect on the rate of Rip11 translocation towards the plasma membrane. The ability of insulin to inhibit Rip11 internalisation requires dynamin and class I PI3-kinases, but is independent of the activation of the protein kinase Akt; characteristics which are very similar to the mechanism by which insulin inhibits GLUT4 endocytosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. An Exact Solution of the Binary Singular Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Singularity problem exists in various branches of applied mathematics. Such ordinary differential equations accompany singular coefficients. In this paper, by using the properties of reproducing kernel, the exact solution expressions of dual singular problem are given in the reproducing kernel space and studied, also for a class of singular problem. For the binary equation of singular points, I put it into the singular problem first, and then reuse some excellent properties which are applied to solve the method of solving differential equations for its exact solution expression of binary singular integral equation in reproducing kernel space, and then obtain its approximate solution through the evaluation of exact solutions. Numerical examples will show the effectiveness of this method.

  8. NOD1CARD Might Be Using Multiple Interfaces for RIP2-Mediated CARD-CARD Interaction: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Maharana

    Full Text Available The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-containing protein 1 (NOD1 plays the pivotal role in host-pathogen interface of innate immunity and triggers immune signalling pathways for the maturation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Upon the recognition of iE-DAP, NOD1 self-oligomerizes in an ATP-dependent fashion and interacts with adaptor molecule receptor-interacting protein 2 (RIP2 for the propagation of innate immune signalling and initiation of pro-inflammatory immune responses. This interaction (mediated by NOD1 and RIP2 helps in transmitting the downstream signals for the activation of NF-κB signalling pathway, and has been arbitrated by respective caspase-recruitment domains (CARDs. The so-called CARD-CARD interaction still remained contradictory due to inconsistent results. Henceforth, to understand the mode and the nature of the interaction, structural bioinformatics approaches were employed. MD simulation of modelled 1:1 heterodimeric complexes revealed that the type-Ia interface of NOD1CARD and the type-Ib interface of RIP2CARD might be the suitable interfaces for the said interaction. Moreover, we perceived three dynamically stable heterotrimeric complexes with an NOD1:RIP2 ratio of 1:2 (two numbers and 2:1. Out of which, in the first trimeric complex, a type-I NOD1-RIP2 heterodimer was found interacting with an RIP2CARD using their type-IIa and IIIa interfaces. However, in the second and third heterotrimer, we observed type-I homodimers of NOD1 and RIP2 CARDs were interacting individually with RIP2CARD and NOD1CARD (in type-II and type-III interface, respectively. Overall, this study provides structural and dynamic insights into the NOD1-RIP2 oligomer formation, which will be crucial in understanding the molecular basis of NOD1-mediated CARD-CARD interaction in higher and lower eukaryotes.

  9. Big Data in der Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)......Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)...

  10. Small Big Data Congress 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2017-01-01

    TNO, in collaboration with the Big Data Value Center, presents the fourth Small Big Data Congress! Our congress aims at providing an overview of practical and innovative applications based on big data. Do you want to know what is happening in applied research with big data? And what can already be

  11. Cryptography for Big Data Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Cryptography for Big Data Security Book Chapter for Big Data: Storage, Sharing, and Security (3S) Distribution A: Public Release Ariel Hamlin1 Nabil...Email: arkady@ll.mit.edu ii Contents 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1 1.1 Introduction...48 Chapter 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1.1 Introduction With the amount

  12. Big data opportunities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This ebook aims to give practical guidance for all those who want to understand big data better and learn how to make the most of it. Topics range from big data analysis, mobile big data and managing unstructured data to technologies, governance and intellectual property and security issues surrounding big data.

  13. Cosmological space-times with resolved Big Bang in Yang-Mills matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacker, Harold C.

    2018-02-01

    We present simple solutions of IKKT-type matrix models that can be viewed as quantized homogeneous and isotropic cosmological space-times, with finite density of microstates and a regular Big Bang (BB). The BB arises from a signature change of the effective metric on a fuzzy brane embedded in Lorentzian target space, in the presence of a quantized 4-volume form. The Hubble parameter is singular at the BB, and becomes small at late times. There is no singularity from the target space point of view, and the brane is Euclidean "before" the BB. Both recollapsing and expanding universe solutions are obtained, depending on the mass parameters.

  14. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects...... shows that big data problematizes selected aspects of traditional ways to collect and analyze data for development (e.g. via household surveys). We also demonstrate that using big data analyses to address development challenges raises a number of questions that can deteriorate its impact....

  15. Big Data Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on key issues of our paper New games, new rules: big data and the changing context of strategy as a means of addressing some of the concerns raised by the paper’s commentators. We initially deal with the issue of social data and the role it plays in the current data revolution...... and the technological recording of facts. We further discuss the significance of the very mechanisms by which big data is produced as distinct from the very attributes of big data, often discussed in the literature. In the final section of the paper, we qualify the alleged importance of algorithms and claim...... that the structures of data capture and the architectures in which data generation is embedded are fundamental to the phenomenon of big data....

  16. BigDansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair; Ilyas, Ihab F.; Jindal, Alekh; Madden, Samuel; Ouzzani, Mourad; Papotti, Paolo; Quiané -Ruiz, Jorge-Arnulfo; Tang, Nan; Yin, Si

    2015-01-01

    of the underlying distributed platform. BigDansing takes these rules into a series of transformations that enable distributed computations and several optimizations, such as shared scans and specialized joins operators. Experimental results on both synthetic

  17. Boarding to Big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Claudia BRATOSIN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today Big data is an emerging topic, as the quantity of the information grows exponentially, laying the foundation for its main challenge, the value of the information. The information value is not only defined by the value extraction from huge data sets, as fast and optimal as possible, but also by the value extraction from uncertain and inaccurate data, in an innovative manner using Big data analytics. At this point, the main challenge of the businesses that use Big data tools is to clearly define the scope and the necessary output of the business so that the real value can be gained. This article aims to explain the Big data concept, its various classifications criteria, architecture, as well as the impact in the world wide processes.

  18. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  19. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-01-01

    on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also

  20. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  1. Conociendo Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Camargo-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la importancia que ha adquirido el término Big Data, la presente investigación buscó estudiar y analizar de manera exhaustiva el estado del arte del Big Data; además, y como segundo objetivo, analizó las características, las herramientas, las tecnologías, los modelos y los estándares relacionados con Big Data, y por último buscó identificar las características más relevantes en la gestión de Big Data, para que con ello se pueda conocer todo lo concerniente al tema central de la investigación.La metodología utilizada incluyó revisar el estado del arte de Big Data y enseñar su situación actual; conocer las tecnologías de Big Data; presentar algunas de las bases de datos NoSQL, que son las que permiten procesar datos con formatos no estructurados, y mostrar los modelos de datos y las tecnologías de análisis de ellos, para terminar con algunos beneficios de Big Data.El diseño metodológico usado para la investigación fue no experimental, pues no se manipulan variables, y de tipo exploratorio, debido a que con esta investigación se empieza a conocer el ambiente del Big Data.

  2. Big Bang baryosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures I briefly review Big Bang baryosynthesis. In the first lecture I discuss the evidence which exists for the BAU, the failure of non-GUT symmetrical cosmologies, the qualitative picture of baryosynthesis, and numerical results of detailed baryosynthesis calculations. In the second lecture I discuss the requisite CP violation in some detail, further the statistical mechanics of baryosynthesis, possible complications to the simplest scenario, and one cosmological implication of Big Bang baryosynthesis. (orig./HSI)

  3. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF RIP-V1 AND OSPF-V2 PROTOCOL WITH CONSIDERATION OF CONVERGENCE CRITERIA AND SENDING PROTOCOLS TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Jelodar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Routing Protocols are underlying principles in networks like internet, transport and mobile. Routing Protocols include a series of rules and algorithms that consider routing metric and select the best way for sending healthy data packets from origin to destination. Dynamic routing protocol compatible to topology has a changeable state. RIP and OSPF are dynamic routing protocol that we consider criteria like convergence and sending protocols traffic assessment RIP first version and OSPF second version. By the test we have done on OPNET stimulation we understood that the OSPF protocol was more efficient than RIP protocol.

  5. Big data need big theory too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Peter V; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R

    2016-11-13

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their 'depth' and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote 'blind' big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Big Data and medicine: a big deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Schönberger, V; Ingelsson, E

    2018-05-01

    Big Data promises huge benefits for medical research. Looking beyond superficial increases in the amount of data collected, we identify three key areas where Big Data differs from conventional analyses of data samples: (i) data are captured more comprehensively relative to the phenomenon under study; this reduces some bias but surfaces important trade-offs, such as between data quantity and data quality; (ii) data are often analysed using machine learning tools, such as neural networks rather than conventional statistical methods resulting in systems that over time capture insights implicit in data, but remain black boxes, rarely revealing causal connections; and (iii) the purpose of the analyses of data is no longer simply answering existing questions, but hinting at novel ones and generating promising new hypotheses. As a consequence, when performed right, Big Data analyses can accelerate research. Because Big Data approaches differ so fundamentally from small data ones, research structures, processes and mindsets need to adjust. The latent value of data is being reaped through repeated reuse of data, which runs counter to existing practices not only regarding data privacy, but data management more generally. Consequently, we suggest a number of adjustments such as boards reviewing responsible data use, and incentives to facilitate comprehensive data sharing. As data's role changes to a resource of insight, we also need to acknowledge the importance of collecting and making data available as a crucial part of our research endeavours, and reassess our formal processes from career advancement to treatment approval. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  7. Big data uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugis, Pierre-André G

    2018-07-01

    Big data-the idea that an always-larger volume of information is being constantly recorded-suggests that new problems can now be subjected to scientific scrutiny. However, can classical statistical methods be used directly on big data? We analyze the problem by looking at two known pitfalls of big datasets. First, that they are biased, in the sense that they do not offer a complete view of the populations under consideration. Second, that they present a weak but pervasive level of dependence between all their components. In both cases we observe that the uncertainty of the conclusion obtained by statistical methods is increased when used on big data, either because of a systematic error (bias), or because of a larger degree of randomness (increased variance). We argue that the key challenge raised by big data is not only how to use big data to tackle new problems, but to develop tools and methods able to rigorously articulate the new risks therein. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Singular Spectrum Near a Singular Point of Friedrichs Model Operators of Absolute Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iakovlev, Serguei I.

    2006-01-01

    In L 2 (R) we consider a family of self adjoint operators of the Friedrichs model: A m =|t| m +V. Here |t| m is the operator of multiplication by the corresponding function of the independent variable t element of R, and (perturbation) is a trace-class integral operator with a continuous Hermitian kernel ν(t,x) satisfying some smoothness condition. These absolute type operators have one singular point of order m>0. Conditions on the kernel ν(t,x) are found guaranteeing the absence of the point spectrum and the singular continuous one of such operators near the origin. These conditions are actually necessary and sufficient. They depend on the finiteness of the rank of a perturbation operator and on the order of singularity. The sharpness of these conditions is confirmed by counterexamples

  9. [Algorithms, machine intelligence, big data : general considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, F J

    2015-08-01

    We are experiencing astonishing developments in the areas of big data and artificial intelligence. They follow a pattern that we have now been observing for decades: according to Moore's Law,the performance and efficiency in the area of elementary arithmetic operations increases a thousand-fold every 20 years. Although we have not achieved the status where in the singular sense machines have become as "intelligent" as people, machines are becoming increasingly better. The Internet of Things has again helped to massively increase the efficiency of machines. Big data and suitable analytics do the same. If we let these processes simply continue, our civilization may be endangerd in many instances. If the "containment" of these processes succeeds in the context of a reasonable political global governance, a worldwide eco-social market economy, andan economy of green and inclusive markets, many desirable developments that are advantageous for our future may result. Then, at some point in time, the constant need for more and faster innovation may even stop. However, this is anything but certain. We are facing huge challenges.

  10. Spectral asymptotics for nonsmooth singular Green operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    is a singular Green operator. It is well-known in smooth cases that when G is of negative order −t on a bounded domain, its eigenvalues ors-numbers have the behavior (*)s j (G) ∼ cj −t/(n−1) for j → ∞, governed by the boundary dimension n − 1. In some nonsmooth cases, upper estimates (**)s j (G) ≤ Cj −t/(n−1...

  11. Singularity spectrum of self-organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.

    1992-10-01

    I introduce a simple continuous probability theory based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation that provides for the first time a common analytical basis to relate and describe the main features of two seemingly different phenomena of condensed-matter physics, namely self-organized criticality and multifractality. Numerical support is given by a comparison with reported simulation data. Within the theory the origin of self-organized critical phenomena is analysed in terms of a nonlinear singularity spectrum different form the typical convex shape due to multifractal measures. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs

  12. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  13. The Singularity May Never Be Near

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2017-01-01

    There is both much optimisim and pessimism around artificial intelligence (AI) today. The optimists are investing millions of dollars, and even in some cases billions of dollars into AI. The pessimists, on the other hand, predict that AI will end many things: jobs, warfare, and even the human race. Both the optimists and the pessimists often appeal to the idea of a technological singularity, a point in time where machine intelligence starts to run away, and a new, more in- telligent “species”...

  14. Compacted dimensions and singular plasmonic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, J. B.; Huidobro, Paloma Arroyo; Luo, Yu; Galiffi, Emanuele

    2017-11-01

    In advanced field theories, there can be more than four dimensions to space, the excess dimensions described as compacted and unobservable on everyday length scales. We report a simple model, unconnected to field theory, for a compacted dimension realized in a metallic metasurface periodically structured in the form of a grating comprising a series of singularities. An extra dimension of the grating is hidden, and the surface plasmon excitations, though localized at the surface, are characterized by three wave vectors rather than the two of typical two-dimensional metal grating. We propose an experimental realization in a doped graphene layer.

  15. Beyond the singularity of the 2-D charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giveon, Amit; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Sever, Amit

    2003-01-01

    Two dimensional charged black holes in string theory can be obtained as exact SL(2,R) x U(1)/U(1) quotient CFTs. The geometry of the quotient is induced from that of the group, and in particular includes regions beyond the black hole singularities. Moreover, wavefunctions in such black holes are obtained from gauge invariant vertex operators in the SL(2,R) CFT, hence their behavior beyond the singularity is determined. When the black hole is charged we find that the wavefunctions are smooth at the singularities. Unlike the uncharged case, scattering waves prepared beyond the singularity are not fully reflected; part of the wave is transmitted through the singularity. Hence, the physics outside the horizon of a charged black hole is sensitive to conditions set behind the past singularity. (author)

  16. BigDansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2015-06-02

    Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to scaling to big datasets. This presents a serious impediment since data cleansing often involves costly computations such as enumerating pairs of tuples, handling inequality joins, and dealing with user-defined functions. In this paper, we present BigDansing, a Big Data Cleansing system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing. The system can run on top of most common general purpose data processing platforms, ranging from DBMSs to MapReduce-like frameworks. A user-friendly programming interface allows users to express data quality rules both declaratively and procedurally, with no requirement of being aware of the underlying distributed platform. BigDansing takes these rules into a series of transformations that enable distributed computations and several optimizations, such as shared scans and specialized joins operators. Experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets show that BigDansing outperforms existing baseline systems up to more than two orders of magnitude without sacrificing the quality provided by the repair algorithms.

  17. Método Expedito para a Análise de Qualidade Ambiental em Zonas Ripárias Urbanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Siloto da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde o estabelecimento das primeiras cidades, as áreas marginais aos rios são amplamente incorporadas na produção do espaço urbano. Visando contribuir para a reversão dos impactos da urbanização sobre estas áreas,  o trabalho apresenta  um método expedito para análise da qualidade ambiental nas zonas ripárias urbanas. Foi definido um conjunto de variáveis interdisciplinares e critérios de análise, e foram coletados dados em córregos localizados em cidades distintas. Como resultados parciais, o estudo identificou dificuldades quanto ao procedimento de coleta de dados  o que conduziu a alteração dos critérios de análise para o sistema canal fluvial-zona ripária.

  18. Analysis of LOF/TOP excursions in the SNR-300 Zielkern core with a stress controlled rip extension after failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1987-07-01

    An unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident can result in energetic power excursions due to reactivity effects from in-pile fuel motion and compaction after a near midplane failure of fuel pins in unvoided regions of the core (loss of flow driven transient overpower or LOF/TOP excursions). These excursions are strongly mitigated by a propagation of the failure rip, which reduces the fuel compaction and enhances fuel sweep-out. A simple model has been introduced into the SAS3D code in which this propagation is restricted to the expansion of the void zone that is firmed in the coolant channel due to thermal interactions of fuel and sodium (FCI) after failure. The rip propagation is demonstrated in this report in all investigated cases to be a strong mitigator that will limit the fuel compaction effects in the region where they originate

  19. Logarithmic of mass singularities theorem in non massive quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares G, R.; Luna, H.

    1997-01-01

    We give an explicit example of the use of dimensional regularization to calculate in a unified approach, all the ultraviolet, infrared and mass singularities, by considering the LMS (logarithms of mass singularities) theorem in the frame of massless QED (Quantum electrodynamics). In the calculation of the divergent part of the cross section, all singularities are found to cancel provided soft and hard photon emission are both taken into account. (Author)

  20. Singular vectors of Malikov-Fagin-Fux in topological theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Coincidence of singular vectors in relation to the sl(2) Katza-Mudi algebra and the algebra of the N=2 (twisted) supersymmetry is established. On the base of the Kazama-Suzuki simplest model is obtained a representation for the sl(2) currents in terms of an interacting with mater gravitation. From the Malikov-Fagin-Fux formulae for the sl(2) singular currents is obtained the general expression for singular vectors in topological theories

  1. Observer-dependent sign inversions of polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2014-10-15

    We describe observer-dependent sign inversions of the topological charges of vector field polarization singularities: C points (points of circular polarization), L points (points of linear polarization), and two virtually unknown singularities we call γ(C) and α(L) points. In all cases, the sign of the charge seen by an observer can change as she changes the direction from which she views the singularity. Analytic formulas are given for all C and all L point sign inversions.

  2. Transmutation of planar media singularities in a conformal cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichao; Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Ma, Yungui; Ong, C K

    2013-11-01

    Invisibility cloaking based on optical transformation involves materials singularity at the branch cut points. Many interesting optical devices, such as the Eaton lens, also require planar media index singularities in their implementation. We show a method to transmute two singularities simultaneously into harmless topological defects formed by anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors. Numerical simulation is performed to verify the functionality of the transmuted conformal cloak consisting of two kissing Maxwell fish eyes.

  3. Deficiency indices and singular boundary conditions in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulla, W.

    1984-01-01

    We consider Schroedinger operators H in L 2 (Rsup(n)), n from IN, with countably infinitely many local singularities of the potential which are separated from each other by a positive distance. It is proved that due to locality each singularity yields a separate contribution to the deficiency index of H. In the special case where the singularities are pointlike and the potential exhibits certain symmetries near these points we give an explicit construction of self-adjoint boundary conditions

  4. Naked singularities in self-similar spherical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ori, A.; Piran, T.

    1987-01-01

    We present general-relativistic solutions of self-similar spherical collapse of an adiabatic perfect fluid. We show that if the equation of state is soft enough (Γ-1<<1), a naked singularity forms. The singularity resembles the shell-focusing naked singularities that arise in dust collapse. This solution increases significantly the range of matter fields that should be ruled out in order that the cosmic-censorship hypothesis will hold

  5. 7 CFR 900.80 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.80 Section 900.80....C. 608b(b) and 7 U.S.C. 608e Covering Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts § 900.80 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the plural, and vice versa...

  6. To Make Long Character-Marked Cuttings From Low-Grade Yellow-Poplar Lumber - Rip First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1979-01-01

    Long, character-marked furniture cuttings are easily obtained when low-grade (2A and 2B Common) yellow-poplar lumber is first ripped into strips and then crosscut to remove objectionable defects. Overall yields of character-marked material using this procedure were 78% from 1 Common and 2A Common and 70% from 2B Common yellow-poplar lumber. Furthermore, 82% of the 1...

  7. Quantum singularities in the FRW universe revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.; Pitelli, Joao Paulo M.

    2010-01-01

    The components of the Riemann tensor in the tetrad basis are quantized and, through the Einstein equation, we find the local expectation value in the ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics of the energy density and pressure of a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(1/3)ρ in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker quantum cosmological model. The quantum behavior of the equation of state and energy conditions are then studied, and it is shown that the energy conditions are violated since the singularity is removed with the introduction of quantum cosmology, but in the classical limit both the equation of state and the energy conditions behave as in the classical model. We also calculate the expectation value of the scale factor for several wave packets in the many-worlds interpretation in order to show the independence of the nonsingular character of the quantum cosmological model with respect to the wave packet representing the wave function of the Universe. It is also shown that, with the introduction of nonnormalizable wave packets, solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the singular character of the scale factor, can be recovered in the ontological interpretation.

  8. Finite-time singularity signature of hyperinflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Takayasu, H.; Zhou, W.-X.

    2003-07-01

    We present a novel analysis extending the recent work of Mizuno et al. (Physica A 308 (2002) 411) on the hyperinflations of Germany (1920/1/1-1923/11/1), Hungary (1945/4/30-1946/7/15), Brazil (1969-1994), Israel (1969-1985), Nicaragua (1969-1991), Peru (1969-1990) and Bolivia (1969-1985). On the basis of a generalization of Cagan's model of inflation based on the mechanism of “inflationary expectation” of positive feedbacks between realized growth rate and people's expected growth rate, we find that hyperinflations can be characterized by a power law singularity culminating at a critical time tc. Mizuno et al.'s double-exponential function can be seen as a discrete time-step approximation of our more general non-linear ODE formulation of the price dynamics which exhibits a finite-time singular behavior. This extension of Cagan's model, which makes natural the appearance of a critical time tc, has the advantage of providing a well-defined end of the clearly unsustainable hyperinflation regime. We find an excellent and reliable agreement between theory and data for Germany, Hungary, Peru and Bolivia. For Brazil, Israel and Nicaragua, the super-exponential growth seems to be already contaminated significantly by the existence of a cross-over to a stationary regime.

  9. Consideration on Singularities in Learning Theory and the Learning Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Aoyagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the learning coefficients in learning theory and give two new methods for obtaining these coefficients in a homogeneous case: a method for finding a deepest singular point and a method to add variables. In application to Vandermonde matrix-type singularities, we show that these methods are effective. The learning coefficient of the generalization error in Bayesian estimation serves to measure the learning efficiency in singular learning models. Mathematically, the learning coefficient corresponds to a real log canonical threshold of singularities for the Kullback functions (relative entropy in learning theory.

  10. Identification of discrete chaotic maps with singular points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Akishin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ability of artificial neural networks to reconstruct discrete chaotic maps with singular points. We use as a simple test model the Cusp map. We compare the traditional Multilayer Perceptron, the Chebyshev Neural Network and the Wavelet Neural Network. The numerical scheme for the accurate determination of a singular point is also developed. We show that combining a neural network with the numerical algorithm for the determination of the singular point we are able to accurately approximate discrete chaotic maps with singularities.

  11. Numerical investigation of stress singularities in cracked bimaterial body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Šestáková, Lucie; Hutař, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 385-387, - (2008), s. 125-128 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /7./. Seoul, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200410803; GA ČR GP106/06/P239; GA ČR GA106/08/1409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : bimaterial interface * stress singularity exponent * corner singularity * vertex singularity * general singular stress concentrator Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  12. Quantum Big Bang without fine-tuning in a toy-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The question of possible physics before Big Bang (or after Big Crunch) is addressed via a schematic non-covariant simulation of the loss of observability of the Universe. Our model is drastically simplified by the reduction of its degrees of freedom to the mere finite number. The Hilbert space of states is then allowed time-dependent and singular at the critical time t = t c . This option circumvents several traditional theoretical difficulties in a way illustrated via solvable examples. In particular, the unitary evolution of our toy-model quantum Universe is shown interruptible, without any fine-tuning, at the instant of its bang or collapse t = t c .

  13. Quantum Big Bang without fine-tuning in a toy-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2012-02-01

    The question of possible physics before Big Bang (or after Big Crunch) is addressed via a schematic non-covariant simulation of the loss of observability of the Universe. Our model is drastically simplified by the reduction of its degrees of freedom to the mere finite number. The Hilbert space of states is then allowed time-dependent and singular at the critical time t = tc. This option circumvents several traditional theoretical difficulties in a way illustrated via solvable examples. In particular, the unitary evolution of our toy-model quantum Universe is shown interruptible, without any fine-tuning, at the instant of its bang or collapse t = tc.

  14. Big data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  15. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  16. Big data in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Big data bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Casey S; Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Moore, Jason H; Cheng, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Recent technological advances allow for high throughput profiling of biological systems in a cost-efficient manner. The low cost of data generation is leading us to the "big data" era. The availability of big data provides unprecedented opportunities but also raises new challenges for data mining and analysis. In this review, we introduce key concepts in the analysis of big data, including both "machine learning" algorithms as well as "unsupervised" and "supervised" examples of each. We note packages for the R programming language that are available to perform machine learning analyses. In addition to programming based solutions, we review webservers that allow users with limited or no programming background to perform these analyses on large data compendia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A dark energy multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Perez, Salvador; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F

    2007-01-01

    We present cosmic solutions corresponding to universes filled with dark and phantom energy, all having a negative cosmological constant. All such solutions contain infinite singularities, successively and equally distributed along time, which can be either big bang/crunches or big rips singularities. Classically these solutions can be regarded as associated with multiverse scenarios, being those corresponding to phantom energy that may describe the current accelerating universe. (fast track communication)

  19. A dark energy multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Perez, Salvador; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-05-21

    We present cosmic solutions corresponding to universes filled with dark and phantom energy, all having a negative cosmological constant. All such solutions contain infinite singularities, successively and equally distributed along time, which can be either big bang/crunches or big rips singularities. Classically these solutions can be regarded as associated with multiverse scenarios, being those corresponding to phantom energy that may describe the current accelerating universe. (fast track communication)

  20. RIP1 regulates TNF-α-mediated lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in gallbladder cancer by modulating the NF-κB-VEGF-C pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Zong; Jiang, Xiao-Jie; Lin, Bin; Hong, Hai-Jie; Zhu, Si-Yuan; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Tang, Nan-Hong; She, Fei-Fei; Chen, Yan-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) enhances lymphangiogenesis in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) via activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB)-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). Receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) is a multifunctional protein in the TNF-α signaling pathway and is highly expressed in GBC. However, whether RIP1 participates in the signaling pathway of TNF-α-mediated VEGF-C expression that enhances lymphangiogenesis in GBC remains unclear. The RIP1 protein levels in the GBC-SD and NOZ cells upon stimulation with increasing concentrations of TNF-α as indicated was examined using Western blot. Lentiviral RIP1 shRNA and siIκBα were constructed and transduced respectively them into NOZ and GBC-SD cells, and then PcDNA3.1-RIP1 vectors was transduced into siRIP1 cell lines to reverse RIP1 expression. The protein expression of RIP1, inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα), p-IκBα, TAK1, NF-κB essential modulator were examined through immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation. Moreover, VEGF-C mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, VEGF-C protein levels were measured by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and VEGF-C promoter and NF-κB activities were quantified using a dual luciferase reporter assay. The association of NF-κB with the VEGF-C promoter was analysed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. A three-dimensional coculture method and orthotopic transplantation nude mice model were used to evaluate lymphatic tube-forming and metastasis ability in GBC cells. The expression of RIP1 protein, TNF-α protein and lymphatic vessels in human GBC tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry, and the dependence between RIP1 protein with TNF-α protein and lymphatic vessel density was analysed. TNF-α dose- and time-dependently increased RIP1 protein expression in the GBC-SD and NOZ cells of GBC, and the strongest effect was observed with a concentration of 50 ng/ml. RIP1 is fundamental

  1. RIP Input Tables from WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.M. Monib

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. ''Software Routine Report for WAPDEG'' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II-3. The aging period in the EDA II design (CRWMS M and O 1999f. ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'', Item 1 Row 9 Column 3) was replaced in the case of EDA II-3 with 25 years preclosure ventilation, leading to a total of 50 years preclosure ventilation. The waste packages are line loaded in the repository and no backfill is used

  2. RIP Input Tables From Wapdeg For LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon; K.G. Mast; J.H. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. 'Software Routine Report for WAPDEG' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages over which they are placed. The waste packages are composed of two corrosion resistant materials (CRM) barriers. The outer barrier is composed of 2 cm of Alloy 22 and the inner barrier is composed of 1.5 cm of titanium grade 7. The WAPDEG simulation results are post-processed into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb

  3. RIP INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR LA DESIGN SELECTION: ENHANCED DESIGN ALTERNATIVE V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Mon

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b, Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. Performance credit of the inner barrier material is not taken in this calculation. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative V are provided in a Design Input Request (CRWMS M and O 1999e, Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations, Item 3)

  4. May the Soul of the IFS Financial System Definition RIP in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we dissect with great acuteness contemporary insufficiencies of the IFS (2008 definition of the financial system and conclude from sound theoretical underpinnings and empirical justifications that the foundation, on which it is based, while solid for developed countries, holds less ground in developing countries. Perhaps one of the deepest empirical hollows in the financial development literature has been the equation of financial depth in the perspective of money supply to liquid liabilities. This equation has put on the margin (and skewed burgeoning phenomena of mobile banking, knowledge economy (KE, inequality…etc. We conclude that the informal financial sector, a previously missing component in the IFS conception and definition of the financial system can only be marginalized at the cost of misunderstanding recent burgeoning trends in mobile phone penetration, KE and poverty. Hence, the IFS definition has incontrovertibly fought its final dead battle and lost in the face of soaring trends highlighted above. Despite the plethora of econometric and policy-making sins the definition has committed in developing countries through bias estimates and misleading inferences, may its soul RIP.

  5. Screening strategy to generate cell specific recombination: a case report with the RIP-Cre mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Valeria; Martin, Céline; Dorchies, Emilie; Vallez, Emmanuelle; Dehondt, Hélène; Trabelsi, Mohamed-Sami; Tailleux, Anne; Caron, Sandrine; Staels, Bart

    2015-10-01

    Conditional gene knockout technology is a powerful tool to study the function of a gene in a specific tissue, organ or cell lineage. The most commonly used procedure applies the Cre-LoxP strategy, where the choice of the Cre driver promoter is critical to determine the efficiency and specificity of the system. However, a considered choice of an appropriate promoter does not always protect against the risk of unwanted recombination and the consequent deletion of the gene in other tissues than the desired one(s), due to phenomena of non-specific activation of the Cre transgene. Furthermore, the causes of these phenomena are not completely understood and this can potentially affect every strain of Cre-mice. In our study on the deletion of a same gene in two different tissues, we show that the incidence rate of non-specific recombination in unwanted tissues depends on the Cre driver strain, ranging from 100%, rendering it useless (aP2-Cre strain), to ~5%, which is still compatible with their use (RIP-Cre strain). The use of a simple PCR strategy conceived to detect this occurrence is indispensable when producing a tissue-specific knockout mouse. Therefore, when choosing the Cre-driver promoter, researchers not only have to be careful about its tissue-specificity and timing of activation, but should also include a systematical screening in order to exclude mice in which atypical recombination has occurred and to limit the unnecessary use of laboratory animals in uninterpretable experiments.

  6. Mechanical quadrature method as applied to singular integral equations with logarithmic singularity on the right-hand side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjanyan, A. A.; Sahakyan, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    A singular integral equation with a Cauchy kernel and a logarithmic singularity on its righthand side is considered on a finite interval. An algorithm is proposed for the numerical solution of this equation. The contact elasticity problem of a П-shaped rigid punch indented into a half-plane is solved in the case of a uniform hydrostatic pressure occurring under the punch, which leads to a logarithmic singularity at an endpoint of the integration interval. The numerical solution of this problem shows the efficiency of the proposed approach and suggests that the singularity has to be taken into account in solving the equation.

  7. Coupled RipCAS-DFLOW (CoRD) Software and Data Management System for Reproducible Floodplain Vegetation Succession Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. A.; Miller, S.; Gregory, A.; Cadol, D. D.; Stone, M. C.; Sheneman, L.

    2016-12-01

    We present the Coupled RipCAS-DFLOW (CoRD) modeling system created to encapsulate the workflow to analyze the effects of stream flooding on vegetation succession. CoRD provides an intuitive command-line and web interface to run DFLOW and RipCAS in succession over many years automatically, which is a challenge because, for our application, DFLOW must be run on a supercomputing cluster via the PBS job scheduler. RipCAS is a vegetation succession model, and DFLOW is a 2D open channel flow model. Data adaptors have been developed to seamlessly connect DFLOW output data to be RipCAS inputs, and vice-versa. CoRD provides automated statistical analysis and visualization, plus automatic syncing of input and output files and model run metadata to the hydrological data management system HydroShare using its excellent Python REST client. This combination of technologies and data management techniques allows the results to be shared with collaborators and eventually published. Perhaps most importantly, it allows results to be easily reproduced via either the command-line or web user interface. This system is a result of collaboration between software developers and hydrologists participating in the Western Consortium for Watershed Analysis, Visualization, and Exploration (WC-WAVE). Because of the computing-intensive nature of this particular workflow, including automating job submission/monitoring and data adaptors, software engineering expertise is required. However, the hydrologists provide the software developers with a purpose and ensure a useful, intuitive tool is developed. Our hydrologists contribute software, too: RipCAS was developed from scratch by hydrologists on the team as a specialized, open-source version of the Computer Aided Simulation Model for Instream Flow and Riparia (CASiMiR) vegetation model; our hydrologists running DFLOW provided numerous examples and help with the supercomputing system. This project is written in Python, a popular language in the

  8. A vida singular de um jovem militante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Maria Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo é fruto de uma pesquisa realizada no período de 2007 a 2010, junto a jovens militantes da cidade de Campinas, com o objetivo de compreender as diferentes maneiras que conduziam esses jovens tanto a reproduzir um modelo de vida quanto a criar outras possibilidades de militância na relação com esse modelo. Entre as histórias orais de vida narradas por jovens que militavam em diferentes grupos ou instituições, escolhi a vida de Biula, representante do movimento estudantil secundarista, procurando evidenciar que a singularidade desta vida, como também e a de outros jovens, estava conectada à problematização que faziam no interior de certas práticas, histórica e culturalmente constituídas, possibilitando a criação de novas formas de subjetivação nas quais se modificava a experiência que tinham deles mesmos na relação com os seus heróis ou modelos de referência. Palavras-chave: história oral – transcriação – heróis – resistência - processos de singularização.   THE SINGULAR LIFE OF A YOUNG MILITANT ABSTRACT   This article is the result of a research carried out from 2007 to 2010 with   young militants in the city of Campinas, aiming to understand the different ways which conducted these youngsters to both reproduce a life model and create other possibilities of militancy in the relationship with this model. Among oral stories narrated by young militants from different groups or institutions, I have chosen the life of Biula, a representative of the secondary students’ movement, trying to show that the singularity of this life and other youngsters’ lives was connected to the problematization they promoted within certain practices, historically and culturally built, thus enabling the creation of new subjectification modes in which the experience they had of themselves in the relationship with their heroes or reference models has changed. Key words: oral history -  transcreation – heroes

  9. On the Geocentric Nature of the Big Bang Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling Jun

    2008-04-01

    An expanding universe with all heavenly bodies moving isotropically away from the earth seems to suggest a geocentric theory which is evidently false. To defend the Big Bang Theory (BBT) from falling into a geocentric theory, it is argued that if the universe is expanding linearly from the singularity, the heavenly bodies would appear to be leaving away from each other with isotropic velocity distribution with respect to any observer. In this presentation we will prove rigorously with both classical and relativistic analysis that even strict linearity of Hubble's law would not save the Big Bang from falling into a geocentric theory. The key of the analysis rests on the two crucial necessary conditions for the raisin-pudding model: 1) The velocities and the positions of the earth and the galaxies must be measured simultaneously; 2) The velocity transformation between the reference frame of the earth and that of the singularity must be linear. The first condition can not be satisfied due to the speed limit of light; and the second condition can not be satisfied due to non linear velocity transformation of relativity. The whole problem is originated from the Doppler shift explanation of the red shift. Wang's Dispersive Extinction Theory (DET), however, interprets the red shift as being caused by the dispersive extinction of the star light by the space medium, and therefore does not lead to a geocentric universe. This lends a strong support to DET over BBT.

  10. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  11. Big ideas: innovation policy

    OpenAIRE

    John Van Reenen

    2011-01-01

    In the last CentrePiece, John Van Reenen stressed the importance of competition and labour market flexibility for productivity growth. His latest in CEP's 'big ideas' series describes the impact of research on how policy-makers can influence innovation more directly - through tax credits for business spending on research and development.

  12. Big Data ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with

  13. Big data in history

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Big Data in History introduces the project to create a world-historical archive, tracing the last four centuries of historical dynamics and change. Chapters address the archive's overall plan, how to interpret the past through a global archive, the missions of gathering records, linking local data into global patterns, and exploring the results.

  14. The Big Sky inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  15. Moving Another Big Desk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Gay

    1996-01-01

    New ways of thinking about leadership require that leaders move their big desks and establish environments that encourage trust and open communication. Educational leaders must trust their colleagues to make wise choices. When teachers are treated democratically as leaders, classrooms will also become democratic learning organizations. (SM)

  16. A Big Bang Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  17. The Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Moods, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    How did the Universe begin? The favoured theory is that everything - space, time, matter - came into existence at the same moment, around 13.7 thousand million years ago. This event was scornfully referred to as the "Big Bang" by Sir Fred Hoyle, who did not believe in it and maintained that the Universe had always existed.

  18. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The volume and variety of data being generated using computersis doubling every two years. It is estimated that in 2015,8 Zettabytes (Zetta=1021) were generated which consistedmostly of unstructured data such as emails, blogs, Twitter,Facebook posts, images, and videos. This is called big data. Itis possible to analyse ...

  19. Identifying Dwarfs Workloads in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...

  20. Big Data and Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…