WorldWideScience

Sample records for big island plant

  1. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  2. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  3. Surface urban heat island across 419 global big cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shushi; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ottle, Catherine; Bréon, François-Marie; Nan, Huijuan; Zhou, Liming; Myneni, Ranga B

    2012-01-17

    Urban heat island is among the most evident aspects of human impacts on the earth system. Here we assess the diurnal and seasonal variation of surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII) defined as the surface temperature difference between urban area and suburban area measured from the MODIS. Differences in SUHII are analyzed across 419 global big cities, and we assess several potential biophysical and socio-economic driving factors. Across the big cities, we show that the average annual daytime SUHII (1.5 ± 1.2 °C) is higher than the annual nighttime SUHII (1.1 ± 0.5 °C) (P < 0.001). But no correlation is found between daytime and nighttime SUHII across big cities (P = 0.84), suggesting different driving mechanisms between day and night. The distribution of nighttime SUHII correlates positively with the difference in albedo and nighttime light between urban area and suburban area, while the distribution of daytime SUHII correlates negatively across cities with the difference of vegetation cover and activity between urban and suburban areas. Our results emphasize the key role of vegetation feedbacks in attenuating SUHII of big cities during the day, in particular during the growing season, further highlighting that increasing urban vegetation cover could be one effective way to mitigate the urban heat island effect.

  4. Fishery Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  5. Seed bank and big sagebrush plant community composition in a range margin for big sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Trace E.; Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Burke, Ingrid C.; Laurenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    The potential influence of seed bank composition on range shifts of species due to climate change is unclear. Seed banks can provide a means of both species persistence in an area and local range expansion in the case of increasing habitat suitability, as may occur under future climate change. However, a mismatch between the seed bank and the established plant community may represent an obstacle to persistence and expansion. In big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plant communities in Montana, USA, we compared the seed bank to the established plant community. There was less than a 20% similarity in the relative abundance of species between the established plant community and the seed bank. This difference was primarily driven by an overrepresentation of native annual forbs and an underrepresentation of big sagebrush in the seed bank compared to the established plant community. Even though we expect an increase in habitat suitability for big sagebrush under future climate conditions at our sites, the current mismatch between the plant community and the seed bank could impede big sagebrush range expansion into increasingly suitable habitat in the future.

  6. Machine learning for Big Data analytics in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Zhang, Hao Helen; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2014-12-01

    Rapid advances in high-throughput genomic technology have enabled biology to enter the era of 'Big Data' (large datasets). The plant science community not only needs to build its own Big-Data-compatible parallel computing and data management infrastructures, but also to seek novel analytical paradigms to extract information from the overwhelming amounts of data. Machine learning offers promising computational and analytical solutions for the integrative analysis of large, heterogeneous and unstructured datasets on the Big-Data scale, and is gradually gaining popularity in biology. This review introduces the basic concepts and procedures of machine-learning applications and envisages how machine learning could interface with Big Data technology to facilitate basic research and biotechnology in the plant sciences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The lived experience of Pacific Island women with a “big body” size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafanua Braginsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study explored the lived experience with "big body" size of Pacific Island women who migrated to Hawaii. Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was utilized in this study. A purposive sample included six Pacific Island women. Five of the six women had migrated to Hawaii from the island nations of Micronesia. The sixth participant was a Native Hawaiian who had lived in Micronesia and had returned to Hawaii. The collection and transcription of data were done by the first author. Data were categorized into themes independently by the three authors and bracketing was maintained throughout the study. The women identified the dichotomy of "big body" versus "small body" and the connotation of each body size in how they viewed the world around them. They shared their lifestyle and transitional changes in trying to adapt and ‘fit’ into the new lifestyle in Hawaii. These changes impacted their eating habits and work schedule, level of activity, and financial security. The women identified biopsychosocial concerns in their lives and the need to re-evaluate their "big body" size in relation to their health and physical and psychosocial changes. Implications for future research are to include a diverse representation of women from island countries within the Pacific Basin. The results of this study provided valuable information related to cultural relevance and sensitivity in working with Pacific Island women in managing their health.

  8. The review of big photovoltaic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviews all the photovoltaic plants settled in France that have a power output greater than 250 kWc. 467 plants have been reported, they cumulate a total capacity of 824.5 MWc. For each plant the following information is given: 1) the names of the owner, the installer and the designer, 2) the power output, 3) the manufacturer of the equipment, 4) the technology used (monocrystalline - polycrystalline - amorphous silicon - CdTe - monocrystalline heterojunction - CIGS), 5) the type of installations (on the ground, on the roof or on the facade), 6) the predicted annual power output, and 7) the date of commissioning. (A.C.)

  9. Adaptive radiation of island plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulaceae) of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    evidence that such traits have been acquired through convergent evolution on islands comes from molecular phylogenies; however, direct evidence of their selective value rarely is obtained. The importance of hybridization in the evolution of island plants is also considered as part of a more general......The presence of diverse and species-rich plant lineages on oceanic islands is most often associated with adaptive radiation. Here we discuss the possible adaptive significance of some of the most prominent traits in island plants, including woodiness, monocarpy and sexual dimorphisms. Indirect...... discussion of the mechanisms governing radiations on islands. Most examples are from the Hawaiian and Canarian floras, and in particular from studies on the morphological, ecological and molecular diversification of the genus Aeonium, the largest plant radiation of the Canarian Islands....

  10. Big Data in Plant Science: Resources and Data Mining Tools for Plant Genomics and Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, George V; Noutsos, Christos; Popescu, Sorina C

    2016-01-01

    In modern plant biology, progress is increasingly defined by the scientists' ability to gather and analyze data sets of high volume and complexity, otherwise known as "big data". Arguably, the largest increase in the volume of plant data sets over the last decade is a consequence of the application of the next-generation sequencing and mass-spectrometry technologies to the study of experimental model and crop plants. The increase in quantity and complexity of biological data brings challenges, mostly associated with data acquisition, processing, and sharing within the scientific community. Nonetheless, big data in plant science create unique opportunities in advancing our understanding of complex biological processes at a level of accuracy without precedence, and establish a base for the plant systems biology. In this chapter, we summarize the major drivers of big data in plant science and big data initiatives in life sciences with a focus on the scope and impact of iPlant, a representative cyberinfrastructure platform for plant science.

  11. General description of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A general description of systems and components of the Three Mile Island-2 nuclear power plant is presented, for the primary system (NSSS), the secondary system (BOP), the energy generation system and for other auxiliaries in the plant. (author)

  12. FBSAB PREDATOR Reef Fish Belt Transect Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total two (2) sites: at 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big...

  13. How Big Science Came to Long Island: the Birth of Brookhaven Lab (429th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2007-01-01

    Robert P. Crease, historian for the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory and Chair of the Philosophy Department at Stony Brook University, will give two talks on the Laboratory's history on October 31 and December 12. Crease's October 31 talk, titled 'How Big Science Came to Long Island: The Birth of Brookhaven Lab,' will cover the founding of the Laboratory soon after World War II as a peacetime facility to construct and maintain basic research facilities, such as nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, that were too large for single institutions to build and operate. He will discuss the key figures involved in starting the Laboratory, including Nobel laureates I.I. Rabi and Norman Ramsey, as well as Donald Dexter Van Slyke, one of the most renowned medical researchers in American history. Crease also will focus on the many problems that had to be overcome in creating the Laboratory and designing its first big machines, as well as the evolving relations of the Laboratory with the surrounding Long Island community and news media. Throughout his talk, Crease will tell fascinating stories about Brookhaven's scientists and their research.

  14. Improved Governing of Kaplan Turbine Hydropower Plants Operating Island Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the consequences of a major fault in the electric power grid, functioning parts of the grid can be divided into smaller grid islands. The grid islands are operated isolated from the power network, which places new demands on a faster frequency regulation. This thesis investigates a Kaplan turbine hydropower plant operating an island grid. The Kaplan turbine has two control signals, the wicket gate and the turbine blade positions, controlling the mechanical power. The inputs are comb...

  15. Hydrogeologic data for the Big River-Mishnock River stream-aquifer system, central Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogeology, ground-water development alternatives, and water quality in the BigMishnock stream-aquifer system in central Rhode Island are being investigated as part of a long-term cooperative program between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board and the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the ground-water resources throughout Rhode Island. The study area includes the Big River drainage basin and that portion of the Mishnock River drainage basin upstream from the Mishnock River at State Route 3. This report presents geologic data and hydrologic and water-quality data for ground and surface water. Ground-water data were collected from July 1996 through September 1998 from a network of observation wells consisting of existing wells and wells installed for this study, which provided a broad distribution of data-collection sites throughout the study area. Streambed piezometers were used to obtain differences in head data between surface-water levels and ground-water levels to help evaluate stream-aquifer interactions throughout the study area. The types of data presented include monthly ground-water levels, average daily ground-water withdrawals, drawdown data from aquifer tests, and water-quality data. Historical water-level data from other wells within the study area also are presented in this report. Surface-water data were obtained from a network consisting of surface-water impoundments, such as ponds and reservoirs, existing and newly established partial-record stream-discharge sites, and synoptic surface-water-quality sites. Water levels were collected monthly from the surface-water impoundments. Stream-discharge measurements were made at partial-record sites to provide measurements of inflow, outflow, and internal flow throughout the study area. Specific conductance was measured monthly at partial-record sites during the study, and also during the fall and spring of 1997 and 1998 at 41 synoptic sites throughout the study area. General geologic data, such as

  16. 4-D Visualization of Seismic and Geodetic Data of the Big Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, J. A.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Aryal, A.

    2017-12-01

    For decades Hawai'i has served as a natural laboratory for studying complex interactions between magmatic and seismic processes. Investigating characteristics of these processes, as well as the crustal response to major Hawaiian earthquakes, requires a synthesis of seismic and geodetic data and models. Here, we present a 4-D visualization of the Big Island of Hawai'i that investigates geospatial and temporal relationships of seismicity, seismic velocity structure, and GPS crustal motions to known volcanic and seismically active features. Using the QPS Fledermaus visualization package, we compile 90 m resolution topographic data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and 50 m resolution bathymetric data from the Hawaiian Mapping Research Group (HMRG) with a high-precision earthquake catalog of more than 130,000 events from 1992-2009 [Matoza et al., 2013] and a 3-D seismic velocity model of Hawai'i [Lin et al., 2014] based on seismic data from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). Long-term crustal motion vectors are integrated into the visualization from HVO GPS time-series data. These interactive data sets reveal well-defined seismic structure near the summit areas of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, where high Vp and high Vp/Vs anomalies at 5-12 km depth, as well as clusters of low magnitude (M data are also used to help identify seismic clusters associated with the steady crustal detachment of the south flank of Kilauea's East Rift Zone. We also investigate the fault geometry of the 2006 M6.7 Kiholo Bay earthquake event by analyzing elastic dislocation deformation modeling results [Okada, 1985] and HVO GPS and seismic data of this event. We demonstrate the 3-D fault mechanisms of the Kiholo Bay main shock as a combination of strike-slip and dip-slip components (net slip 0.55 m) delineating a 30 km east-west striking, southward-dipping fault plane, occurring at 39 km depth. This visualization serves as a resource for advancing scientific analyses of

  17. Nutrients, temperature and salinity data for Honokohau Harbor, Kealakekua Bay, and Kailua Bay Big Island, Hawaii 2005-2007 (NODC Accession 0059191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was used as groundtruthing for low-altitude thermal infrared imagery of surface nearshore coastal waters of west Hawaii (the Big Island). Data are...

  18. Is fire exclusion in mountain big sagebrush communities prudent? Soil nutrient, plant diversity, and arthropod response to burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire has largely been excluded from many mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) communities. Land and wildlife managers are especially reluctant to reintroduce fire in mountain big sagebrush plant communities, especially those communities without significan...

  19. Numerical simulation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Big River Management Area, central Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board is considering use of groundwater resources from the Big River Management Area in central Rhode Island because increasing water demands in Rhode Island may exceed the capacity of current sources. Previous water-resources investigations in this glacially derived, valley-fill aquifer system have focused primarily on the effects of potential groundwater-pumping scenarios on streamflow depletion; however, the effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands have not been assessed, and such assessments are a requirement of the State’s permitting process to develop a water supply in this area. A need for an assessment of the potential effects of pumping on wetlands in the Big River Management Area led to a cooperative agreement in 2008 between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Rhode Island. This partnership was formed with the goal of developing methods for characterizing wetland vegetation, soil type, and hydrologic conditions, and monitoring and modeling water levels for pre- and post-water-supply development to assess potential effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands. This report describes the hydrogeology of the area and the numerical simulations that were used to analyze the interaction between groundwater and surface water in response to simulated groundwater withdrawals. The results of this analysis suggest that, given the hydrogeologic conditions in the Big River Management Area, a standard 5-day aquifer test may not be sufficient to determine the effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wetlands. Model simulations showed water levels beneath Reynolds Swamp declined by about 0.1 foot after 5 days of continuous pumping, but continued to decline by an additional 4 to 6 feet as pumping times were increased from a 5-day simulation period to a simulation period representative of long-term average monthly conditions. This continued decline in water levels with

  20. The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The sequence of events in the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, accident on the March 28, 1979 is analyzed. In this plant a loss of feed-water transient became a small LOCA that caused a serious core damage. A general emergency situation was declared after uncontrolled radioactive releases were detectec. (author)

  1. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  2. Santa Cruz thermic plant islanding with local loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, A R [Light Servicos de Eletricidade SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo C. de [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sereno, Marcos G [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This work looks into the feasibility of implementing a scheme for the islanding of the Santa Cruz Thermic Plant ( Rio de janeiro State) with LIGHT`s (Electric power public utility) loads fed by the Santa Cruz-Jacarepagua trunk connection, considering presently-existing system problems relative to a significant frequency drop when a loss occurs of a large generation block and which causes the blockade scheme of the mentioned Plant to work, thus aggravating the frequency control still further. An analysis is made of such scheme implementation implications on the scheme for islanding a Santa Cruz 84 MW machine to provide supply to the auxiliary services of The Angra dos Reis nuclear plant presently existing in the system. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Integrated plant-safety assessment, Systematic Evaluation Program: Big Rock Point Plant (Docket No. 50-155)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. This report documents the review of the Big Rock Point Plant, which is one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. It also addresses a majority of the pending licensing actions for Big Rock Point, which include TMI Action Plan requirements and implementation criteria for resolved generic issues. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  4. RETRAN operational transient analysis of the Big Rock Point plant boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawtelle, G.R.; Atchison, J.D.; Farman, R.F.; VandeWalle, D.J.; Bazydlo, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    Energy Incorporated used the RETRAN computer code to model and calculate nine Consumers Power Company Big Rock Point Nuclear Power Plant transients. RETRAN, a best-estimate, one-dimensional, homogeneous-flow thermal-equilibrium code, is applicable to FSAR Chapter 15 transients for Conditions 1 through IV. The BWR analyses were performed in accordance with USNRC Standard Review Plan criteria and in response to the USNRC Systematic Evaluation Program. The RETRAN Big Rock Point model was verified by comparison to plant startup test data. This paper discusses the unique modeling techniques used in RETRAN to model this steam-drum-type BWR. Transient analyses results are also presented

  5. Scientific information in support of water resource management of the Big River area, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Masterson, John P.; Robinson, Keith W.; Crawley, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB) is concerned that the demand for water may exceed the available public water supply in central and southern Rhode Island. Although water is often assumed to be plentiful in Rhode Island because of abundant rainfall, an adequate supply of water is not always available everywhere in the state during dry periods. Concerns that water demand may exceed supply are greatest during the summer, when lower water levels and increased drought potential combine with seasonal increases in peak water demand (Rhode Island Water Resources Board, 2012). High summer water demands are due to increases in outdoor water use, such as lawn watering and agricultural irrigation, and to increased summer population in coastal areas. Water-supply concerns are particularly acute in central and southern Rhode Island, where groundwater is the primary source of drinking water.

  6. PacIOOS Water Quality Buoy 04 (WQB-04): Hilo Bay, Big Island, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water quality buoys are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed points....

  7. PacIOOS Water Quality Buoy 03 (WQB-03): Kiholo Bay, Big Island, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water quality buoys are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed points....

  8. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  9. Aridity, desalination plants and tourism in the eastern Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-León García-Rodríguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the easternmost of the Canary Islands, and are located on the southern edge of the temperate zone, in the subtropical anticyclone belt. With less than 150 mm of rainfall a year, they are classified as an arid zone. Their inhabitants have devised original agricultural systems to combat the aridity, although low yields have historically limited socio-economic development and population growth. These systems were used until the introduction of seawater desalination plants and the arrival of tourism in the last third of the twentieth century, which improved living standards for the local population but also led to a cultural transition. Nevertheless, these farming systems have left behind an important regional heritage, with an environmental and scenic value that has played an integral role in the latest phase of development. The systems have become a tourist attraction and have been central to the two islands being designated biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This article aims to analyse the main socioeconomic and land-use changes that have come about as a result of desalination technology.

  10. Plant diversity on high elevation islands – drivers of species richness and endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin D.H. Irl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High elevation islands elicit fascination because of their large array of endemic species and strong environmental gradients. First, I define a high elevation island according to geographic and environmental characteristics. Then, within this high elevation island framework, I address local disturbance effects on plant distribution, drivers of diversity and endemism on the island scale, and global patterns of treeline elevation and climate change. Locally, introduced herbivores have strong negative effects on the summit scrub of my model island La Palma (Canary Islands, while roads have unexpected positive effects on endemics. On the island scale, topography and climate drive diversity and endemism. Hotspots of endemicity are found in summit regions – a general pattern on high elevation islands. The global pattern of treeline elevation behaves quite differently on islands than on the mainland. A thorough literature review and climate projections suggest that climate change will profoundly affect oceanic island floras.

  11. Cancer near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: radiation emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M C; Beyea, J; Nieves, J W; Susser, M

    1990-09-01

    As a public charge, cancers among the 159,684 residents living within a 10-mile (16-km) radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant were studied relative to releases of radiation during the March 28, 1979, accident as well as to routine plant emissions. The principal cancers considered were leukemia and childhood malignancies. Estimates of the emissions delivered to small geographic study tracts were derived from mathematical dispersion models which accounted for modifying factors such as wind and terrain; the model of accident emissions was validated by readings from off-site dosimeters. Incident cancers among area residents for the period 1975-1985 (n = 5,493) were identified by a review of the records at all local and regional hospitals; preaccident and postaccident trends in cancer rates were examined. For accident emissions, the authors failed to find definite effects of exposure on the cancer types and population subgroups thought to be most susceptible to radiation. No associations were seen for leukemia in adults or for childhood cancers as a group. For leukemia in children, the odds ratio was raised, but cases were few (n = 4), and the estimate was highly variable. Moreover, rates of childhood leukemia in the Three Mile Island area are low compared with national and regional rates. For exposure to routine emissions, the odds ratios were raised for childhood cancers as a whole and for childhood leukemia, but confidence intervals were wide and included 1.0. For leukemia in adults, there was a negative trend. Trends for two types of cancer ran counter to expectation. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed raised risks relative to both accident and routine emissions; lung cancer (adjusted only indirectly for smoking) showed raised risks relative to accident emissions, routine emissions, and background gamma radiation. Overall, the pattern of results does not provide convincing evidence that radiation releases from the Three Mile Island nuclear facility influenced

  12. Big Data-Based Approach to Detect, Locate, and Enhance the Stability of an Unplanned Microgrid Islanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huaiguang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, David Wenzhong; Muljadi, Eduard; Gu, Yi

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a big data-based approach is proposed for the security improvement of an unplanned microgrid islanding (UMI). The proposed approach contains two major steps: the first step is big data analysis of wide-area monitoring to detect a UMI and locate it; the second step is particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based stability enhancement for the UMI. First, an optimal synchrophasor measurement device selection (OSMDS) and matching pursuit decomposition (MPD)-based spatial-temporal analysis approach is proposed to significantly reduce the volume of data while keeping appropriate information from the synchrophasor measurements. Second, a random forest-based ensemble learning approach is trained to detect the UMI. When combined with grid topology, the UMI can be located. Then the stability problem of the UMI is formulated as an optimization problem and the PSO is used to find the optimal operational parameters of the UMI. An eigenvalue-based multiobjective function is proposed, which aims to improve the damping and dynamic characteristics of the UMI. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.

  13. Integrated plant safety assessment. Systematic evaluation program, Big Rock Point Plant (Docket No. 50-155). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. The review provides (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety when the supplement to the Final Integrated Plant Safety Assessment Report has been issued. This report documents the review of the Big Rock Point Plant, which is one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. It also addresses a majority of the pending licensing actions for Big Rock Point, which include TMI Action Plan requirements and implementation criteria for resolved generic issues. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  14. Three Mile Island Startup program and its contributions to plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, R.A.; Barton, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The General Public Utilities Service Corporation Startup Organization provided a specialized group for startup testing, coordination, and management of the Three Mile Island Unit No. 1 nuclear power plant. This organization conducted an extensive test program which contributed to Three Mile Island's high first year plant availability

  15. Cancer near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: Radiation emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, M.C.; Beyea, J.; Nieves, J.W.; Susser, M.

    1990-01-01

    As a public charge, cancers among the 159,684 residents living within a 10-mile (16-km) radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant were studied relative to releases of radiation during the March 28, 1979, accident as well as to routine plant emissions. The principal cancers considered were leukemia and childhood malignancies. Estimates of the emissions delivered to small geographic study tracts were derived from mathematical dispersion models which accounted for modifying factors such as wind and terrain; the model of accident emissions was validated by readings from off-site dosimeters. Incident cancers among area residents for the period 1975-1985 (n = 5,493) were identified by a review of the records at all local and regional hospitals; preaccident and postaccident trends in cancer rates were examined. For accident emissions, the authors failed to find definite effects of exposure on the cancer types and population subgroups thought to be most susceptible to radiation. No associations were seen for leukemia in adults or for childhood cancers as a group. For leukemia in children, the odds ratio was raised, but cases were few (n = 4), and the estimate was highly variable. Moreover, rates of childhood leukemia in the Three Mile Island area are low compared with national and regional rates. For exposure to routine emissions, the odds ratios were raised for childhood cancers as a whole and for childhood leukemia, but confidence intervals were wide and included 1.0. For leukemia in adults, there was a negative trend. Trends for two types of cancer ran counter to expectation. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed raised risks relative to both accident and routine emissions; lung cancer (adjusted only indirectly for smoking) showed raised risks relative to accident emissions, routine emissions, and background gamma radiation

  16. Valorisation of organic wastes: little biogas plant will grow big

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Aude; Talpin, Juliette; Tuille, Frederic; Courtel, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This set of articles first proposes a description of the operation principle of biogas production from the recovery of organic wastes from various origins to their processing to produce biogas and use this bio gas for fuel production or energy co-generation. It addresses the present situation in France where the publication of a new electricity purchase support mechanism is expected and will help reaching ambitious objectives defined in the French multi-year energy planning. The number of projects and the level of supports are indeed increasing. A third article presents an example of biogas production in a farm in Normandy, and outlines that this production is profitable. The next article evokes an Ademe's study which is to be published, which addresses returns on experience from small biogas production units (less than 75 kW), identifies that the liquid process gives a lower kWe cost than the dry process, and outlines the positive influence of new electricity purchase tariffs. An article outlines the role of cooperatives in the emergence of farm biogas production. Issues to be addressed and assessed before launching a project are evoked in an interview. An article then gives an historical overview of the development of waste-based biogas production in France since the 1970's: it was first considered only as a waste processing way, and became a mean for energy production. The types of installations and their share in heat production are indicated. The evolutions (in terms of number and of production) of farm-based installations, of centralised installation, of installations of processing domestic wastes, of industrial installations, of urban water treatment plants are indicated and commented. Finally, the Sinoe database is presented: it contains information about all biogas production installations in France

  17. Constraining Big Hurricanes: Remotely sensing Galveston Islands' changing coastal landscape from days to millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, A. J.; Choi, J. H.; Heo, S.; Dosseto, A.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change models forecast increased storm intensity, which will drive coastal erosion as sea-level rise accelerates with global warming. Over the last five years the largest hurricanes ever recorded in the Pacific (Patricia) and the Atlantic (Irma) occurred as well as the devastation of Harvey. The preceding decade was marked with Super Storm Sandy, Katrina and Ike. A century prior, the deadliest natural disaster in North America occurred as a category 4 hurricane known as `The 1900 Storm' hit Galveston Island. This research aims to contextualize the impact of storms long before infrastructure and historical/scientific accounts documented erosion. Unlike the majority of barrier islands in the US, Galveston built seaward over the Holocene. As the beach prograded it preserved a history of storms and shoreline change over millennia to the present-day. These systems (called prograded barriers) were first studied over 50 years ago using topographic profiles, sediment cores and radiocarbon dating. This research revisits some of these benchmark study sites to augment existing data utilizing state-of-the-art Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) techniques. In 2016 GPR and OSL data were collected from Galveston Island, with the aim to combine GPR, OSL and LiDAR (GOaL) to extract a high-resolution geologic record spanning 6,000 years. The resulting millennia-scale coastal evolution can be used to contextualize the impact of historic hurricanes over the past century (`The 1900 Storm'), decade (Ike in 2008) and year (now with Harvey). Preliminary results reveal a recent change in shoreline behaviour, and data from Harvey are currently being accessed within the perspective of these initial findings. This dataset will be discussed with respect to the other two benchmark prograded barriers studied in North America: Nayarit Barrier (Mexico) that Hurricane Patricia passed directly over in 2013 and

  18. Literature study of plants diversity in Sempu Island Nature Reserve, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONY IRAWANTO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Irawanto R, Abywijaya IK, Mudiana D. 2017. Literature study of plants diversity in Sempu Island Nature Reserve, East Java. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 138-146. Purwodadi Botanic Garden have the task of plant conservation through inventories, exploration, collection and maintenance of plants, especially on dry lowland plants. Exploration activities and plants collection aim to conserve and save the plants from extinction, as well as conduct research and documentation of plant diversity in a region. It's related of the global strategy for plant conservation (GSPC target is known and documentation of plants diversity, especially in threatened habitats could be a priority. Sempu island's status as a nature reserve has a diversity of ecosystem and biodiversity of flora and fauna that are endemic and unique. This study aims to determine the plant's diversity in Island Sempu Nature Reserve based on a literature review of various studies that have been done. This study is a database for planning exploration activities, collecting, and documenting the plant's diversity in Sempu Island - East Java. Based on the literature review there are 282 species of plant diversity in Sempu Island, included in 80 families, contained in 10 blocks/location areas, namely Telaga Lele, Telaga Sat, Telaga Dowo, Gladakan, Baru-baru, Gua Macan, Teluk Ra’as, Teluk Semut, Air Tawar, dan Waru-Waru.Tenth blocks represent plants vegetation of mangrove forest, coastal forest, lowland tropical forests, and meadows.

  19. Local Community Advocacy for the Thirty Meter Telescope on the Big Island of Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Ha, Richard; Imai-Hong, Amber; Silva, Jasmin; Stark, Chris; Naea Stevens, Dashiel

    2018-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope project is a next-generation ground-based optical/infrared telescope planned for construction on Mauna Kea. It is also a prominent social issue in Hawai’i, touching upon a wide range of island-specific issues, including economic/educational opportunities and justice, Hawaii’s long and proud history of astronomy/navigation, the cultural significance of Mauna Kea to some Hawaiians, and Hawaiian sovereignty. In this talk, we describe local community outreach carried out by Hawai’i island resident members of our group, Yes2TMT, and also by the pro-TMT Hawaiian group P.U.E.O based in Hilo. We have cultivated a substantial social media community and persistent on-the-ground advocacy that addresses the many misconceptions about TMT while providing an outlet for concerns from our neighbors. Since early 2016 and thanks to the efforts of many on Hawai’i, support for TMT has increased, especially from the Hawaiian community: the project is now favored by at least 70% of Hawaii’s residents. Our goal is to help bring TMT to Hawai’i under conditions deemed acceptable by the vast majority of the local community.

  20. The general dynamic model of island biogeography revisited on the level of major plant families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzner, Bernd; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Patrick, Weigelt

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The general dynamic model (GDM) proposed by Whittaker et al. (2008) is a widely accepted theoretical framework in island biogeography. In this study, we explore whether GDM predictions hold when overall plant diversity is deconstructed into major plant families. Location: 101 islands from 14...... oceanic archipelagos worldwide. Methods: Occurrence data for all species of nine large, cosmopolitan flowering plant families were used to test predictions derived from the GDM. We analyzed the effects of island area and age on species richness as well as number and percentage of single-island endemic...... species per family using mixed-effect models. Results: Total species and endemic richness as well as the percentage of endemic species showed a hump-shaped relationship with island age. The overall pattern was mainly driven by few species-rich plant families. Varying patterns were found for individual...

  1. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  2. Study on key technologies of optimization of big data for thermal power plant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mingyang; Xiao, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Thermal power generation accounts for 70% of China's power generation, the pollutants accounted for 40% of the same kind of emissions, thermal power efficiency optimization needs to monitor and understand the whole process of coal combustion and pollutant migration, power system performance data show explosive growth trend, The purpose is to study the integration of numerical simulation of big data technology, the development of thermal power plant efficiency data optimization platform and nitrogen oxide emission reduction system for the thermal power plant to improve efficiency, energy saving and emission reduction to provide reliable technical support. The method is big data technology represented by "multi-source heterogeneous data integration", "large data distributed storage" and "high-performance real-time and off-line computing", can greatly enhance the energy consumption capacity of thermal power plants and the level of intelligent decision-making, and then use the data mining algorithm to establish the boiler combustion mathematical model, mining power plant boiler efficiency data, combined with numerical simulation technology to find the boiler combustion and pollutant generation rules and combustion parameters of boiler combustion and pollutant generation Influence. The result is to optimize the boiler combustion parameters, which can achieve energy saving.

  3. An Engineering Technology Skills Framework that Reflects Workforce Needs on Maui and the Big Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagroves, S.; Hunter, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Akamai Workforce Initiative (AWI) is an interdisciplinary effort to improve science/engineering education in the state of Hawai'i, and to train a diverse population of local students in the skills needed for a high-tech economy. In 2009, the AWI undertook a survey of industry partners on Maui and the Big Island of Hawai'i to develop an engineering technology skills framework that will guide curriculum development at the U. of Hawai'i - Maui (formerly Maui Community College). This engineering skills framework builds directly on past engineering-education developments within the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program, and draws on curriculum development frameworks and engineering skills standards from the literature. Coupling that previous work with reviews of past Akamai Internship projects and information from previous conversations with the local high-tech community led to a structured-interview format where engineers and managers could contribute meaningful commentary to this framework. By incorporating these local high-tech companies' needs for entry-level engineers and technicians, a skills framework emerges that is unique and illuminating. Two surprising features arise in this framework: (1) "technician-like" skills of making existing technology work are on similar footing with "engineer-like" skills of creating new technology; in fact, both engineers and technicians at these workplaces use both sets of skills; and (2) project management skills are emphasized by employers even for entry-level positions.

  4. Big five general contractors dominate civil construction market of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The Japanese construction industry is a key industry accounting for about 20 % of the GNP, and the investment in construction amounted to 51,200 billion yen in fiscal 1984. 515,000 firms employing about 5.5 million workers belong to the industry. 99.4 % of these firms is the enterprises capitalized at less than 100 million yen, and most of them are small self-employment enterprises. The Construction Business Law provides that those who wish to engage in construction are required to obtain a permit from the Construction Ministry or from a local prefectural governor. There are big five and seven sub-major construction companies in Japan. The big five formed the tie-up relations with three nuclear reactor manufacturers. 76 civil engineering and construction companies recorded the sales related to nuclear power in 1983 amounting to 330.9 billion yen, equivalent to 21 % of the total nuclear-related sales. The construction of nuclear power plants and the characteristics of the construction, and the activities of the big five in the field of nuclear industry are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. The phytotronist and the phenotype: plant physiology, Big Science, and a Cold War biology of the whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, David P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment. Control meant that plant physiologists claimed to be able to produce a standard phenotype valid for experimental biology. Invoking the standards of the physical sciences, the plant physiologists heralded basic biological science from the phytotronic produced phenotype. In the context of the Cold War era, the ability to pursue basic science represented the highest pinnacle of standing within the scientific community. More broadly, I suggest that by recovering the history of an underappreciated discipline, plant physiology, and by establishing the centrality of the story of the plant sciences in the history of biology can historians understand the massive changes wrought to biology by the conceptual emergence of the molecular understanding of life, the dominance of the discipline of molecular biology, and the rise of biotechnology in the 1980s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Review on Applicability of Big Data Technology in Nuclear Power Plant : Focused on O and M Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jae-Min; Shin, Junguk Shin; Yeom, Choong-Sub [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    With the rapid growth of information and communication technology (ICT), data has been explosively increasing. It is the most important component of big data concept which derives values from the data. Recently, big data technology has been applied to plant industry such as oil and gas plant, steel and iron plant, and power plant as well as traditional industries including communication, manufacturing, distribution, banking, and so on. It means that the big data technology has a high opportunity to enhance operational performance from tremendous data collected from numerous sensors, which are generally attached to the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs). Gartner reported that 'the big data has high potential opportunities in Manufacturing and Natural Resource industry sector'. In the paper, we analyze the applicability of the big data technology in the NPP focusing on O and M phase. For this, the following sequence of process: Operational concept definition, Problem analysis, Needs derivation is conducted. This research has some limitations as follows. 1) Only monitoring and diagnosis part in the operational phase is considered in the whole plant lifecycle activities. That is, the necessity of big data should be derived in the comprehensive and diverse viewpoints. 2) Target interviewee is too small. That is, the more interviewee should be considered to increase the credibility of the research results. In the further study, to overcome the limitations of this research, we plan to validate the necessity via quantitative survey methods with more experts in the various plant cycles. We also attempt to show the practical impacts of big data through the practical application into the NPP.

  7. A Review on Applicability of Big Data Technology in Nuclear Power Plant : Focused on O and M Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jae-Min; Shin, Junguk Shin; Yeom, Choong-Sub

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid growth of information and communication technology (ICT), data has been explosively increasing. It is the most important component of big data concept which derives values from the data. Recently, big data technology has been applied to plant industry such as oil and gas plant, steel and iron plant, and power plant as well as traditional industries including communication, manufacturing, distribution, banking, and so on. It means that the big data technology has a high opportunity to enhance operational performance from tremendous data collected from numerous sensors, which are generally attached to the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs). Gartner reported that 'the big data has high potential opportunities in Manufacturing and Natural Resource industry sector'. In the paper, we analyze the applicability of the big data technology in the NPP focusing on O and M phase. For this, the following sequence of process: Operational concept definition, Problem analysis, Needs derivation is conducted. This research has some limitations as follows. 1) Only monitoring and diagnosis part in the operational phase is considered in the whole plant lifecycle activities. That is, the necessity of big data should be derived in the comprehensive and diverse viewpoints. 2) Target interviewee is too small. That is, the more interviewee should be considered to increase the credibility of the research results. In the further study, to overcome the limitations of this research, we plan to validate the necessity via quantitative survey methods with more experts in the various plant cycles. We also attempt to show the practical impacts of big data through the practical application into the NPP

  8. New records of alien vascular plants from Marion and Prince Edward Islands, sub-Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, N.J.M.; Smith, V.

    1999-01-01

    A survey was made of the distribution of introduced vascular plants on Marion and Prince Edward Islands. The results of this survey were compared to results of previous surveys (1965/66, 1975, 1981, 1989). Four new introductions to Marion Island have taken place, three of which involved species that

  9. Plant dieback under exceptional drought driven by elevation, not by plant traits, in Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F. Waring

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA, experienced the most severe single year drought in its recorded history, resulting in significant plant mortality. We used this event to test how perennial plant response to drought varied across elevation, plant growth form and leaf traits. In October 2010 and October 2011, we measured plant cover by species at six evenly-spaced elevations ranging from Chihuahuan desert (666 m to oak forest in the Chisos mountains (1,920 m. We asked the following questions: what was the relationship between elevation and stem dieback and did susceptibility to drought differ among functional groups or by leaf traits? In 2010, pre-drought, we measured leaf mass per area (LMA on each species. In 2011, the percent of canopy dieback for each individual was visually estimated. Living canopy cover decreased significantly after the drought of 2011 and dieback decreased with elevation. There was no relationship between LMA and dieback within elevations. The negative relationship between proportional dieback and elevation was consistent in shrub and succulent species, which were the most common growth forms across elevations, indicating that dieback was largely driven by elevation and not by species traits. Growth form turnover did not influence canopy dieback; differences in canopy cover and proportional dieback among elevations were driven primarily by differences in drought severity. These results indicate that the 2011 drought in Big Bend National Park had a large effect on communities at all elevations with average dieback for all woody plants ranging from 8% dieback at the highest elevation to 83% dieback at lowest elevations.

  10. Lessons of the accident at Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measures taken in the USA for improving safety of NPPs after the accident at ''Three Mile Island'' nuclear power plant are considered. Activities, related to elimination of accident consequences are analyzed. Perspectives of resuming the NPP operation are discussed

  11. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: HABPT (Habitat and Plant Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare terrestrial plants in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector points...

  12. Non-native vascular plants from Canary Islands (Spain): nomenclatural and taxonomical adjustments

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F.

    2013-01-01

    Se propone correcciones taxonómicas y nomenclaturales respecto a 88 taxones no nativos de la lista de plantas vasculares de las Islas Canarias (España). Non-native vascular plants from Canary Islands (Spain): nomenclatural and taxonomical adjustments. Corrections and other adjustments are proposed for 88 non-native taxa from the checklist of vascular plants from the Canary Islands (Spain).

  13. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Big Island - The McKenzie River, Technical Report 1998-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglitz, Greg

    2001-03-01

    The Big Island site is located in the McKenzie River flood plain, containing remnant habitats of what was once more common in this area. A diverse array of flora and fauna, representing significant wildlife habitats, is present on the site. Stands of undisturbed forested wetlands, along with riparian shrub habitats and numerous streams and ponds, support a diversity of wildlife species, including neotropical migratory songbirds, raptors, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians (including two State-listed Sensitive Critical species). The project is located in eastern Springfield, Oregon (Figure 1). The project area encompasses 187 acres under several ownerships in Section 27 of Township 17S, Range 2W. Despite some invasion of non-native species, the site contains large areas of relatively undisturbed wildlife habitat. Over several site visits, a variety of wildlife and signs of wildlife were observed, including an active great blue heron rookery, red-Legged frog egg masses, signs of beaver, and a bald eagle, Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for the Willamette River Basin. Under this Plan, mitigation goals and objectives were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal hydroelectric facilities in the Willamette River Basin. Results of the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) will be used to: (1) determine the current habitat status of the study area and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area.

  14. [Edge effect of the plant community structure on land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Jin-Feng; Hu, Guang; Xu, Gao-Fu; Yu, Ming-Jian

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted on 29 land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake (TIL), where long-term monitoring plots were set up during 2009-2010. The community attributes including species richness, Shannon index, plant mean height, plant mean diameter at breast height (DBH) and plant density along the edge-interior gradient from edge to interior forest were calculated to investigate the edge effect. The results showed that the species richness and Shannon index were affected through the whole gradient (larger than 50 m), while the range of edge effect was 20-30 m on mean plant height, and 10 m on plant density and mean DBH. Community attributes differed significantly among the edge gradients. The species richness and Shannon index peaked at the intermediate edge gradient. Plant density decreased and plant mean height increased along the edge to interior gradient. All five community attributes were significantly associated with the edge gradient, also different functional groups, evergreen or deciduous species, trees or shrubs, shade tolerant or shade intolerant species, were differentially influenced by the edge effect. It was demonstrated the influence of edge effect on the fragmented forest community varied with community attributes and functional groups.

  15. A Study on SE Methodology for Design of Big Data Pilot Platform to Improve Nuclear Power Plant Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Junguk; Cha, Jae-Min; Kim, Jun-Young; Park, Sung-Ho; Yeom, Choong-Sub [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A big data concept is expected to have a large impact on the safety of the nuclear power plant (NPP) from the beginning of the big data era. Though there are high interests on the NPP safety with the big data, almost no studies on the logical and physical structures and the systematic design methods of the big data platform for the NPP safety have been conducted. For the current study, a new big data pilot platform for the NPP safety is designed with the main focus on the health monitoring and early warning systems, and a tailored design process based on the systems engineering approaches is proposed to manage inherent high complexity of the platform design. The big data concept is expected to have a large impact on the safety of the NPP. So, in this study, the big data pilot platform for the health monitoring and early warning of the NPP is designed. For this, the development process based on the SE approach for the pilot platform is proposed and the design results along with the proposed process are also presented. Implementation of the individual modules and integrations of those are in currently progress.

  16. A Study on SE Methodology for Design of Big Data Pilot Platform to Improve Nuclear Power Plant Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Junguk; Cha, Jae-Min; Kim, Jun-Young; Park, Sung-Ho; Yeom, Choong-Sub

    2016-01-01

    A big data concept is expected to have a large impact on the safety of the nuclear power plant (NPP) from the beginning of the big data era. Though there are high interests on the NPP safety with the big data, almost no studies on the logical and physical structures and the systematic design methods of the big data platform for the NPP safety have been conducted. For the current study, a new big data pilot platform for the NPP safety is designed with the main focus on the health monitoring and early warning systems, and a tailored design process based on the systems engineering approaches is proposed to manage inherent high complexity of the platform design. The big data concept is expected to have a large impact on the safety of the NPP. So, in this study, the big data pilot platform for the health monitoring and early warning of the NPP is designed. For this, the development process based on the SE approach for the pilot platform is proposed and the design results along with the proposed process are also presented. Implementation of the individual modules and integrations of those are in currently progress

  17. Evapotranspiration over spatially extensive plant communities in the Big Cypress National Preserve, southern Florida, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Lopez, Christian D.; Duever, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) was quantified over plant communities within the Big Cypress National Preserve (BCNP) using the eddy covariance method for a period of 3 years from October 2007 to September 2010. Plant communities selected for study included Pine Upland, Wet Prairie, Marsh, Cypress Swamp, and Dwarf Cypress. These plant communities are spatially extensive in southern Florida, and thus, the ET measurements described herein can be applied to other humid subtropical locations such as the Everglades.

  18. The soil and plant determinants of community structures of the dominant actinobacteria in Marion Island terrestrial habitats, Sub-Antarctica

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sanyika, TW

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marion Island is a Sub-Antarctic island made up of distinct ecological habitats based on soil physiochemical, plant cover and physical characteristics. The microbial diversity and ecological determinants in this harsh Sub-Antarctic environment...

  19. Island phytophagy: explaining the remarkable diversity of plant-feeding insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jeffrey B; Crespi, Bernard J

    2012-08-22

    Plant-feeding insects have undergone unparalleled diversification among different plant taxa, yet explanations for variation in their diversity lack a quantitative, predictive framework. Island biogeographic theory has been applied to spatially discrete habitats but not to habitats, such as host plants, separated by genetic distance. We show that relationships between the diversity of gall-inducing flies and their host plants meet several fundamental predictions from island biogeographic theory. First, plant-taxon genetic distinctiveness, an integrator for long-term evolutionary history of plant lineages, is a significant predictor of variance in the diversity of gall-inducing flies among host-plant taxa. Second, range size and structural complexity also explain significant proportions of the variance in diversity of gall-inducing flies among different host-plant taxa. Third, as with other island systems, plant-lineage age does not predict species diversity. Island biogeographic theory, applied to habitats defined by genetic distance, provides a novel, comprehensive framework for analysing and explaining the diversity of plant-feeding insects and other host-specific taxa.

  20. Spatial distribution of radionuclides in Lake Michigan biota near the Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Yaguchi, E.M.; Nelson, D.M.; Marshall, J.S.

    1974-01-01

    A survey was made of four groups of biota in the vicinity of the Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant near Charlevoix, Michigan, to determine their usefulness in locating possible sources of plutonium and other radionuclides to Lake Michigan. This 70 MW boiling-water reactor, located on the Lake Michigan shoreline, was chosen because its fuel contains recycled plutonium, and because it routinely discharges very low-level radioactive wastes into the lake. Samples of crayfish (Orconectes sp.), green algae (Chara sp. and Cladophora sp.), and an aquatic macrophyte (Potamogeton sp.) were collected in August 1973, at varying distances from the discharge and analyzed for 239 240 Pu, 90 Sr, and five gamma-emitting radionuclides. Comparison samples of reactor waste solution have also been analyzed for these radionuclides. Comparisons of the spatial distributions of the extremely low radionuclide concentrations in biota clearly indicated that 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 65 Zn, and 60 Co were released from the reactor; their concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the discharge. Conversely, concentrations of 239 240 Pu, 95 Zr, and 90 Sr showed no correlation with distance, suggesting any input from Big Rock was insignificant with respect to the atmospheric origin of these isotopes. The significance of these results is discussed, particularly with respect to current public debate over the possibility of local environmental hazards associated with the use of plutonium as a nuclear fuel. (U.S.)

  1. DATA MINING METHODS FOR OMICS AND KNOWLEDGE OF CRUDE MEDICINAL PLANTS TOWARD BIG DATA BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farit M. Afendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biological data has rapidly increased with the recent progress of the Omics fields, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that necessitates the development of databases and methods for efficient storage, retrieval, integration and analysis of massive data. The present study reviews the usage of KNApSAcK Family DB in metabolomics and related area, discusses several statistical methods for handling multivariate data and shows their application on Indonesian blended herbal medicines (Jamu as a case study. Exploration using Biplot reveals many plants are rarely utilized while some plants are highly utilized toward specific efficacy. Furthermore, the ingredients of Jamu formulas are modeled using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA in order to predict their efficacy. The plants used in each Jamu medicine served as the predictors, whereas the efficacy of each Jamu provided the responses. This model produces 71.6% correct classification in predicting efficacy. Permutation test then is used to determine plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu formula by evaluating the significance of the PLS-DA coefficients. Next, in order to explain the role of plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu medicines, information of pharmacological activity of the plants is added to the predictor block. Then N-PLS-DA model, multiway version of PLS-DA, is utilized to handle the three-dimensional array of the predictor block. The resulting N-PLS-DA model reveals that the effects of some pharmacological activities are specific for certain efficacy and the other activities are diverse toward many efficacies. Mathematical modeling introduced in the present study can be utilized in global analysis of big data targeting to reveal the underlying biology.

  2. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-01-01

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill

  3. Porosity and permeability evolution of vesicular basalt reservoirs with increasing depth: constraints from the Big Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, John; Haskins, Eric; Thomas, Donald; Jerram, Dougal; Planke, Sverre; Healy, Dave; Kück, Jochem; Rossetti, Lucas; Farrell, Natalie; Pierdominici, Simona

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic reservoirs are becoming increasingly important in the targeting of petroleum, geothermal and water resources globally. However, key areas of uncertainty in relation to volcanic reservoir properties during burial in different settings remain. In this contribution, we present results from borehole logging and sampling operations within two fully cored c. 1.5 km deep boreholes, PTA2 and KMA1, from the Humúula saddle region on the Big Island of Hawai'i. The boreholes were drilled as part of the Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project (HGRP) between 2013-2016 and provide unique insights into the evolution of pore structure with increasing burial in a basaltic dominated lava sequence. The boreholes encounter mixed sequences of 'a'ā, pāhoehoe and transitional lava flows along with subsidiary intrusions and sediments from the shield to post-shield phases of Mauna Kea. Borehole wireline data including sonic, spectral gamma and Televiewer imagery were collected along with density, porosity, permeability and ultrasonic velocity laboratory measurements from core samples. A range of intra-facies were sampled for analysis from various depths within the two boreholes. By comparison with core data, the potential for high resolution Televiewer imaging to reveal spectacular intra-facies features including individual vesicles, vesicle segregations, 'a'ā rubble zones, intrusive contacts, and intricate pāhoehoe lava flow lobe morphologies is demonstrated. High quality core data enables the calibration of Televiewer facies enabling improved interpretation of volcanic reservoir features in the more common exploration scenario where core is absent. Laboratory results record the ability of natural vesicular basalt samples to host very high porosity (>50%) and permeability (>10 darcies) within lava flow top facies which we demonstrate are associated with vesicle coalescence and not micro-fractures. These properties may be maintained to depths of c. 1.5 km in regions of limited

  4. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands...) Interagency Cooperation (Continued) § 17.99 Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai... habitat unit descriptions for the islands of Kauai and Niihau, HI. The following paragraphs contain the...

  5. The accident of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.

    1999-01-01

    This book questions which statement can be made twenty years after the accident of the Three Mile Island reactor (USA) on the performances of complex reactor safety systems and on their evolutions and improvements. It questions also todays limits of reactors security and how such a reactor accident can be possible today. It presents also an analysis of the organizations which propose new perspectives in nuclear safety. (J.S.)

  6. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  7. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. Flint; Meyer, Jean-Yves; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  8. Meeting changing conditoins at the Rhode Island Medical Center cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galamaga, D.P.; Bowen, P.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Rhode Island Department of Mental Health, Retardation and Hospitals is one state department in Rhode Island whose basic function is to provide services to seriously disabled individuals throughout the state. Savings in operating expenses from the Rhode Island Medical Center Central Power Plant have accruded to provide operating funds for the major programs. Operating under a Director who reports to the Governor of Rhode Island, the Department has three major divisions, approximately 2500 employees, and a budget of 200 million dollars. Its operations extend throughout the state and the major focus for hospital or institutional levels of care reside in three major locations, the Dr. U.E. Zambarano Memorial Hospital in northern Rhode Island, the Dr. Joseph Ladd Center in southern Rhode Island, and the Rhode Island Medical Center in the middle of the state. Besides these institution-based operations, the Department sponsors a wide range of rehabilitative programming in the community other through direct operations of facilities such as group homes or through contracts with private non-profit providers of service

  9. Accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, J.; Vamos, G.

    1979-01-01

    A short description of the TMI power plant is given. The course of events leading to the reactor accident and that of the first two weeks is described. The effect on the environment is estimated. The reasons and consequences of the accident are analysed. The probability of such an accident at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant is estimated. (R.J.)

  10. Plant colonization, succession and ecosystem development on Surtsey with reference to neighbouring islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnússon, B.; Magnússon, S. H.; Ólafsson, E.; Sigurdsson, B. D.

    2014-10-01

    Plant colonization and succession on the volcanic island of Surtsey, formed in 1963, have been closely followed. In 2013, a total of 69 vascular plant species had been discovered on the island; of these, 59 were present and 39 had established viable populations. Surtsey had more than twice the species of any of the comparable neighbouring islands, and all of their common species had established on Surtsey. The first colonizers were dispersed by sea, but, after 1985, bird dispersal became the principal pathway with the formation of a seagull colony on the island and consequent site amelioration. This allowed wind-dispersed species to establish after 1990. Since 2007, there has been a net loss of species on the island. A study of plant succession, soil formation and invertebrate communities in permanent plots on Surtsey and on two older neighbouring islands (plants and soil) has revealed that seabirds, through their transfer of nutrients from sea to land, are major drivers of development of these ecosystems. In the area impacted by seagulls, dense grassland swards have developed and plant cover, species richness, diversity, plant biomass and soil carbon become significantly higher than in low-impact areas, which remained relatively barren. A similar difference was found for the invertebrate fauna. After 2000, the vegetation of the oldest part of the seagull colony became increasingly dominated by long-lived, rhizomatous grasses (Festuca, Poa, Leymus) with a decline in species richness and diversity. Old grasslands of the neighbouring islands Elliđaey (puffin colony, high nutrient input) and Heimaey (no seabirds, low nutrient input) contrasted sharply. The puffin grassland of Elliđaey was very dense and species-poor. It was dominated by Festuca and Poa, and very similar to the seagull grassland developing on Surtsey. The Heimaey grassland was significantly higher in species richness and diversity, and had a more even cover of dominants (Festuca

  11. Commercialization of Medicinal Plants in Java Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Adi Nugroho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The benefit and transaction cost flow which people earn economically and socially from wild medicinal plant harvesting are addressed in this study. The objectives of this study are three aspects: defining how many users are involved in utilization of medicinal plant raw materials (MPRM, how users describing their perception and motivation and describing benefit and transaction cost which influence users to harvest the plants. Results showed that utilization of medicinal plants in Java is still widely used as commercial products then medical services. There are 41 stakeholders who involved in this study and the highest motivation and perception in production and industrial clusters are economic interest. But stakeholder's perception and motivation in traditional healthcare cluster is social interest. The different motivation and perception in both clusters causing stakeholder who are work in traditional healthcare lack of market information, but they are important if the government will improve the traditional medicine. Recommendation of this study is that medicinal plants need further research and product development which can help to expand the medicinal plant culture area in the natural forest. By this reason, government should develop good political will to increase the medicinal plant resources for public healthcare.

  12. The distribution and spread of alien vascular plants on Prince Edward Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, P.G.; Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of alien plants at subantarctic Prince Edward Island in 2001 show that the ranges of all three introduced species have increased since the last survey in 1998. Poa annua, the longest-established species, increased its range substantially after 1987, prior to which it was confined to a single

  13. Exergy analysis for a proposed binary geothermal power plant in Nisyros Island, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, Christopher; Polyzakis, A.; Xydis, George

    2017-01-01

    and a measure of the quality of the different forms of energy in relation to given environmental conditions. In this paper, data from an experimental geothermal drill in the Greek Island of Nisyros, located in the south of the Aegean Sea, have been used in order to estimate the maximum available work...... resulted supporting technical feasibility of the proposed geothermal plant....

  14. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  15. Medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island (Balikesir – Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bulut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and wild food plants have always played an important role in people’s lives especially in rural areas. Similar situation can be said for islands due to the reason of them being isolated from mainland. This paper reports an ethnobotanical investigations performed in 2009 and 2014 to determine medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island. A total of 30 individuals were interviewed (19 men, 11 women. Totally, 22 plants are recorded as used as traditional folk medicine for the region, and nine of these are also used as a source of wild food. Furthermore, 18 taxa are wild sources of nutrition for the area. The plants most commonly used in the region as medicinal remedies were Salvia fruticosa, Hypericum perforatum, Ficus carica, and Mentha spicata. Plants are mostly used for the treatment of abdominal pain, the common cold, and haemorrhoids. The species most commonly used for food are: Salvia fruticosa, Arbutus unedo, Rhus coriaria, and Rubus sanctus. This ethnobotanical study conducted in this island will enable the traditional use of wild plants both as food sources and herbal remedies to be passed on to future generations.

  16. Vegetation-environment relations of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen M. Poulos; Ann E. Camp

    2005-01-01

    The Sky Island Archipelagos of the Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental contain a unique array of endemic flora and fauna. Plant species composition in these elevationally restricted forests is thought to vary in relation to environmental gradients. This study quantifies plant population abundance and spatial distribution patterns in pine-oak woodlands of Big Bend...

  17. Plant invasion and speciation along elevational gradients on the oceanic island La Palma, Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Irl, Severin David Howard; González-Mancebo, Juana Maria

    2017-01-01

    and anthropogenic filters, thus controlling the dispersal and establishment of species. Here, we investigate speciation and invasion processes along elevational gradients. Methods: We assess the vascular plant species richness as well as the number and percentage of endemic species and non-native species...

  18. Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guézou

    Full Text Available As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated (73.3% and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree (22.1% as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch (13.2% as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides, one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum.

  19. Preventing Establishment: An Inventory of Introduced Plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum). PMID:17940606

  20. Pilot project concerning the establishment of a collective biomass conversion plant on the island of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This pilot project comprises a feasibility study in connection with plans to establish a biomass conversion plant, on the Danish island of Mors, which would provide methane to be used as fuel, in combination with natural gas, for a cogeneration plant serving six villages. The subjects of location, organization, the transportation of biomass, the design of the biomass conversion plant, economical aspects and conditions of the use of the methane are discussed as a basis for decisions in this respect. Environmental considerations are also dealt with. (AB)

  1. The impact of the accident at Three Mile Island on plant control and instumentation philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catlow, F.

    1983-01-01

    Independent commissions which were appointed to evaluate the causes of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in the USA exposed major weakness in the man/machine interface which they felt might be common to other similar plants. Strengthening this link is regarded as twofold: i) Educating the man to enhance his understanding of plant processes; ii) Improving the machine interface. The paper reviews suggested improvements in instumentation which would aid the control of a nuclear plant. These comprise mainly: a) The application of human factors engineering principles to control room design in order to make the 'machine' more manageable; b) improved data feedback so that the operator can make an accurate assessment of plant status at any instant. The author considers that there is a likelihood that the general philosophy of the man/machine interface being applied to the nuclear industry could be applied to some extent to conventional power plants and even other industries

  2. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  3. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M.; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing

  4. The invasive alien plants threatened the balance of ecosystem in conservative area in Ontoloe Island, Flores-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonius Mboka Segu Wake, Ignatius; Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri; Jumari

    2018-05-01

    Invasive alien plants threaten to biodiversity, particularly in small island with high endemicity values such as Ontoloe Island, a tourist destination area of Riung Seventeen Island in Flores. The study aims to characterized the invasive plants have attacked the conservative area in Ontoloe Island. The method used by combining the line method and the plot method with three observation stations in utilization block and four observation station in protection block. Plot of 1mx1m was used for the observation of ground cover plants and seedling, 5mx5m for the observation in stake level, 10mx10m for the observation in pole level, 20mx20m for the observation in tree level. The data level of the plants obtained then analyzed with Important Value Index (IVI). Result showed that Lamtoro plants (Leuchaena leucocephala) is the invasive alien species which has the highest IVI in both of utilization block and protection block in each level of tree, stake, and pole. There are other invasive alien plants such as Tembeleken (Lantana camara) and Bidara (Zizipus mauritiana) dominated in stake level and Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) dominated in seedling level. All the native plants in Ontoloe Island will be threatened their existing because of the less control of invasive alien plants. Therefore, needs serious handling by the government in order to keep the balanced of the ecosystems in Ontoloe Island to be maintained especially to not deviated from management objectives area of Komodo Dragons conservation (Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, 1912).

  5. Economy analysis on vertical layout of conventional island of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefeng; Liu Xiaoyun; Liu Jinwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the aboveground layout scheme and integral sinking layout scheme of conventional island of nuclear power plants. Technological-economic analysis formula are given, as a result, main factors influencing scheme selection is obtained. Determination of the layout scheme selection and optimization direction through the curve between the accumulative NPV and related factors is brought forward. The paper carries out the technological-economic comparison to the two schemes referred to a 1000 MW level nuclear power project as the example, getting the curve between the accumulative NPV and the plant ground elevation, and offering the method of selecting the vertical layout scheme of conventional island and vertical layout optimization direction. (authors)

  6. Environmental impact assessment for an OTEC plant in Martinique Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvray, Cedric; Ledoux, Sebastien; Diaz, Berenice; Yvon, Christophe; Pouget-Cuvelier, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy system that uses the temperature difference between the cold deep waters and warm surface waters to produce electricity. DCNS, a world-expert in naval defence and an innovator in energy has conducted technical, juridical and environmental feasibility studies of a plant offshore Martinique under an agreement with the Regional Council. In this context, DCNS realised a preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment in order to prepare public debate to be done further. Due to innovation of such a project, a specific methodology has been done for that. First step was to study bibliography in details, for site assessment of course, but also for impacts of other projects in the world that should present relevant similarities with OTEC (coastal thermal power plants for example). This bibliographic study dealt with thematic synthesis for each topic of physical, biological and human field that could be impacted by the project (total of 28 topics). The aim was to define priorities for specific assessments that have been done further: acoustic impacts, biogeochemical impacts of artificial upwelling, biofouling impacts, etc. Some of these topics are now on course with specific scientific research programs that have been launched at the end of this study. For each new topic, a specific methodology has been used or adapted for OTEC. These methods are made step by step, with a preliminary approach followed by a specific research program when it is necessary. Noise prediction has been done with a specific tool used for ship construction industry and a 3D propagation modelling. Biofouling has been assessed by a bibliographic approach and will be precised further with experimental moorings. Biogeochemical and biological impacts due to artificial and localised upwelling are now being studied in details with a double skill approach (physical modelling and plankton analysis), after preliminary water chemicals

  7. Resource-use efficiencies of three indigenous tree species planted in resource islands created by shrubs: implications for reforestation of subtropical degraded shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan Liu; Qinfeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Shrub resource islands are characterized by resources accumulated shrubby areas surrounded by relative barren soils. This research aims to determine resource-use efficiency of native trees species planted on shrub resource islands, and to determine how the planted trees may influence the resource islands in degraded shrublands in South China. Shrub (Rhodomyrtus...

  8. Cancer rates after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and proximity of residence to the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M C; Wallenstein, S; Beyea, J; Nieves, J W; Susser, M

    1991-06-01

    In the light of a possible link between stress and cancer promotion or progression, and of previously reported distress in residents near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, we attempted to evaluate the impact of the March 1979 accident on community cancer rates. Proximity of residence to the plant, which related to distress in previous studies, was taken as a possible indicator of accident stress; the postaccident pattern in cancer rates was examined in 69 "study tracts" within a 10-mile radius of TMI, in relation to residential proximity. A modest association was found between postaccident cancer rates and proximity (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.6). After adjusting for a gradient in cancer risk prior to the accident, the odds ratio contrasting those closest to the plant with those living farther out was 1.2 (95% CI = 1.0, 1.4). A postaccident increase in cancer rates near the Three Mile Island plant was notable in 1982, persisted for another year, and then declined. Radiation emissions, as modeled mathematically, did not account for the observed increase. Interpretation in terms of accident stress is limited by the lack of an individual measure of stress and by uncertainty about whether stress has a biological effect on cancer in humans. An alternative mechanism for the cancer increase near the plant is through changes in care-seeking and diagnostic practice arising from postaccident concern.

  9. Ethnobotanical survey of cosmetic plants used in Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Xénia; Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Butaud, Jean-François

    2016-11-29

    Cosmetic plants and their uses have often been neglected in ethnobotanical surveys which focus mainly on plants with medicinal or food uses. Thus, this survey was carried out to specifically investigate cosmetics in a small community and to establish a cosmetopoeia, based on the model of pharmacopoeia for medicinal plants. The geographic spread of the survey covered the Marquesas Islands, one of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean). This archipelago was also recently investigated for its pharmacopoeia. This survey is based on individual interviews of Marquesan informants on the islands of Tahiti (Society archipelago) and Nuku Hiva (Marquesas archipelago). The methodological approach was semi-directive with open-ended questions based on cosmetic criteria (application area, cosmetic use, plant). Before each interview, researchers and the informant signed a Prior Informed Consent (PIC). Quantitative analyses were performed using basic statistics and the indice of Fidelity Level (FL). Twenty-eight informants from five of the six inhabited Marquesan islands were interviewed and yielded more than 500 cosmetic recipes. Marquesan cosmetopoeia included 79 plant taxa, of which 5% are Marquesan endemics, 23% are indigenous, 28% are Polynesian introductions and 44% are modern introductions. Among the introduced species, half were cultivated whereas the other half were weedy species. Most of the plants were abundant and only eight species were considered rare, of which four were Marquesan endemics. Main cosmetic plants were identified through informant citations and fidelity levels, and included Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Citrus aurantiifolia, Cocos nucifera, Curcuma longa, Gardenia taitensis, Mentha spp., Ocimum basilicum, Rauvolfia nukuhivensis and Santalum insulare var. marchionense. The most referred application areas were skin, hair and private parts whereas the main cosmetic uses were perfume, hydration, medicinal care and healing

  10. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Medina; E. Cuevas; A.E. Lugo; E. Terezo; J. Jimenez-Osornio; P.A. Macario-Mendoza; P. Montanez

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N) of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatan, Mexico) and South America (State of Para, Brazil). The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large...

  11. Effects of using winter grazing as a fuel treatment on Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    More frequent wildfires and incidences of mega-fires have increased the pressure for fuel treatments in sagebrush (Artemisia) communities. Winter grazing has been one of many fuel treatments proposed for Wyoming big sagebrush (A. tridentata Nutt. subsp. wyomingensis Beetle and A. Young) communitie...

  12. Wyoming big sagebrush: Efforts towards development of target plants for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayla R. Herriman

    2009-01-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis) is a dominant shrub throughout much of the interior western United States. It is a key component of sagebrush steppe ecosystems, which have been degraded due to European settlement, improper land use, and changing fire regimes resulting from the invasion of exotic...

  13. Plant nodulation inducers enhance horizontal gene transfer of Azorhizobium caulinodans symbiosis island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jun; Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping; Li, Tao; Tang, Yu; Naseer, Nawar; Zheng, Huiming; Masson-Boivin, Catherine; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

    2016-11-29

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of genomic islands is a driving force of bacterial evolution. Many pathogens and symbionts use this mechanism to spread mobile genetic elements that carry genes important for interaction with their eukaryotic hosts. However, the role of the host in this process remains unclear. Here, we show that plant compounds inducing the nodulation process in the rhizobium-legume mutualistic symbiosis also enhance the transfer of symbiosis islands. We demonstrate that the symbiosis island of the Sesbania rostrata symbiont, Azorhizobium caulinodans, is an 87.6-kb integrative and conjugative element (ICE Ac ) that is able to excise, form a circular DNA, and conjugatively transfer to a specific site of gly-tRNA gene of other rhizobial genera, expanding their host range. The HGT frequency was significantly increased in the rhizosphere. An ICE Ac -located LysR-family transcriptional regulatory protein AhaR triggered the HGT process in response to plant flavonoids that induce the expression of nodulation genes through another LysR-type protein, NodD. Our study suggests that rhizobia may sense rhizosphere environments and transfer their symbiosis gene contents to other genera of rhizobia, thereby broadening rhizobial host-range specificity.

  14. Experimental study of the combined utilization of nuclear power heating plants for big towns and industrial complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, J.; Barabas, K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a comparison of nuclear power heating plants with an output corresponding to 1000MW(e) with plants of the same output using coal or oil. The economic aspects are compared, both as regards investment and operation costs. The comparison of the environmental aspects is performed on the atmospheric pollution from exhausts and gaseous emission and on the thermal pollutions in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Basic nuclear power plant schemes with two PWRs, each of 1500MW(th), are described. The plant supplies electric power and heat for factories and municipal heating systems (apartments, shops, and other auxiliary municipal facilities). At the same time the basic heat-flow diagram of a nuclear power heating plant is given, together with the relative losses. The study emphasizes the possible utilization of waste heat for heating glasshouses of 200m 2 . The problems of utilizing waste heat, and the needs of a big town and of industrial complexes in the vicinity of the nuclear power heating plant are also considered. (author)

  15. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites. Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.

    1976-11-01

    Environmental monitoring data for 1973 through 1975 pertaining to the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station (which began commercial operation in December 1973) were analyzed by the most practical qualitative and quantitative methods. Evaluations of aquatic and terrestrial biotic data are presented in this report. The data indicate no significant immediate deleterious effects on the biota from plant operation, thus confirming preoperational predictions. Although the station has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. Recommendations are suggested for improving monitoring techniques

  16. Towards a more holistic research approach to plant conservation: the case of rare plants on oceanic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Dias, Elisabete Furtado; Sardos, Julie; Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Schaefer, Hanno; Moura, Mónica

    2015-06-11

    Research dedicated to rare endemic plants is usually focused on one given aspect. However, holistic studies, addressing several key issues, might be more useful, supporting management programmes while unravelling basic knowledge about ecological and population-level processes. A more comprehensive approach to research is proposed, encompassing: phylogenetics/systematics, pollination biology and seed dispersal, propagation, population genetics, species distribution models (SDMs), threats and monitoring. We present a holistic study dedicated to Veronica dabneyi Hochst. ex Seub., an endangered chamaephyte endemic to the Azores. Veronica dabneyi was mainly found associated with other endemic taxa; however, invasive plants were also present and together with introduced cattle, goats and rabbits are a major threat. Most populations grow at somewhat rocky and steep locations that appeared to work as refuges. Seed set in the wild was generally high and recruitment of young plants from seed seemed to be frequent. In the laboratory, it was possible to germinate and fully develop V. dabneyi seedlings, which were planted at their site of origin. No dormancy was detected and time for 50 % germination was affected by incubation temperature. Eight new microsatellite markers were applied to 72 individuals from 7 sites. A considerable degree of admixture was found between samples from the two islands Flores and Corvo, with 98 % of the genetic variability allocated within populations. Levels of heterozygosity were high and no evidence of inbreeding was found. Species distribution models based on climatic and topographic variables allowed the estimation of the potential distribution of V. dabneyi on Flores and Corvo using ecological niche factor analysis and Maxent. The inclusion of land-use variables only slightly increased the information explained by the models. Projection of the expected habitat in Faial largely coincided with the only historic record of V. dabneyi on that island

  17. Radiological survey of plants, animals, and soil at Christmas Island and seven atolls in the Marshall Islands. Progress report for 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Division of Operational Safety or DOS (now Safety Standards and Compliance) portion of the Laboratory of Radiation Ecology (LRE) Pacific Radiocology Program (formerly Johnston Atoll Program) began on 1 July 1974 and is continuing. The purpose of this program is to determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides distributed in the foods, plants, animals, and soil of the Central Pacific, especially the Marshall Islands. Five field trips were conducted for this program between April 1974 and August 1975, and about 600 samples were collected. Results of the analyses indicate that 90 Sr and 137 Cs are dominant in the terrestrial environment and, in addition, 241 Am and /sup 239,240/Pu are also important in the soil from Bikini and Rongelap atolls. Cobalt-60 and 55 Fe are predominant in the marine environment together with naturally occurring 40 K. Amounts of radioactivity vary between atolls and between islands within an atoll in relation to the distance from the nuclear weapons test sites. Bikini atoll has the highest amounts of radioactivity, but the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll have only slightly lower amounts. Rongerik and Ailinginae atolls and the southern islands of Rongelap Atoll have similar amounts of radioactivity which are lower than Bikini by factors of 5 to 10 or more. Values at Utirik Atoll are lower still, but are higher than amounts at Wotho and Kwajalein atolls. Christmas Island in the Line Islands has the least amount of radioactivity of the areas surveyed for this report

  18. Bird Pollinator Visitation is Equivalent in Island and Plantation Planting Designs in Tropical Forest Restoration Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginger M. Thurston

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Active restoration is one strategy to reverse tropical forest loss. Given the dynamic nature of climates, human populations, and other ecosystem components, the past practice of using historical reference sites as restoration targets is unlikely to result in self-sustaining ecosystems. Restoring sustainable ecological processes like pollination is a more feasible goal. We investigated how flower cover, planting design, and landscape forest cover influenced bird pollinator visits to Inga edulis trees in young restoration sites in Costa Rica. I. edulis trees were located in island plantings, where seedlings had been planted in patches, or in plantation plantings, where seedlings were planted to cover the restoration area. Sites were located in landscapes with scant (10–21% or moderate (35–76% forest cover. Trees with greater flower cover received more visits from pollinating birds; neither planting design nor landscape forest cover influenced the number of pollinator visits. Resident hummingbirds and a migratory bird species were the most frequent bird pollinators. Pollination in the early years following planting may not be as affected by details of restoration design as other ecological processes like seed dispersal. Future work to assess the quality of various pollinator species will be important in assessing this idea.

  19. Estimation of the economic impacts of Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Aya; Fujimoto, Noboru; Fukuda, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident had an immediate negative impact on the economy of the seven-country area which surrounds the plant site. In order to estimate the social effect of the nuclear power plant accident economically, immediate and short term economical impacts on some industrial classification have been evaluated. The economical effect to Metropolitan Edison Co., the circumstantial payment of the insurance and the lawsuit for the compensation for damages, etc. have been estimated at dollar 90 million for the manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industry, dollar 5 million for the tourist industry and dollar 50,000 for agriculture. The total loss for the state and country governments is about dollar 90,000. Metropolitan Edison Co. expended also dollar 111 million for the substitute energy and dollar 760 million for the decontamination cost. Since the lawsuit for the compensation for damages is still continuing, the total impacts cost is calculated more than a billion dollar. (author)

  20. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in the US Virgin Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Davis, Olasee; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    West Indies (now US Virgin Islands), we identify pre-1900 medicinal plants and their historical uses, and trace their status in the traditional medicine of St. Croix today (2014). By a combined historical and ethnobotanical approach we assess the scale of loss and preservation of traditional medicinal...... knowledge on St. Croix, and explore the drivers involved in the disappearance of knowledge in the oral tradition of medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Names, uses and identities of 18th and 19th century medicinal plant uses in the Danish West Indies were derived from manuscripts and publications of Von Rohr...... (1757/58), Oldendorp (1777), West (1793), Benzon (1822), Riise (1853), Eggers (1876;1879) and Berg and Eggers (1888). The presence of the plant species in the pre-1900 Danish West Indies was confirmed by review of herbarium specimens in the University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C). The same species were...

  1. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn, Mceachern A.; Thomson, D.M.; Chess, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate

  2. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A Kathryn; Thomson, Diane M; Chess, Katherine A

    2009-09-01

    Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate

  3. Efficiency of producing anion and relative humidity of the indigenous woody plants in Jeju islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.-G.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, C.-M.; Byun, K.-O.

    2009-04-01

    This study is to evaluate the ability of interior plants to produce anion and relative humidity that can purify polluted indoor air. Four indigenous woody plants in Jeju islands such as Sarcandra glaber (Thunb.) Nakai, Illicium anisatum L, Cleyera japonica Thunb. and Ilex rotunda Thunb. were used. Sansevieria trifasciata cv. Laurentii was also used as a comparative plant. The amount of anion and increment of relative humidity produced by five species of indoor plants was assessed by anion measurement (ITC-201A)in a sealed acryl chamber (118Ã-118Ã-119.5cm). The highest amount of anion was 515 ea/cm3produced by I. rotunda. The amounts of anion were 293 ea/cm3, 273 ea/cm3, and 211 ea/cm3 in S. glaber, I. anisatum and C. japonica, respecively while it was 220 ea/cm3 in S. trifasciata. The increment of relative humidity was highest in I. anisatum as 27.4% while it was lowest in S. trifasciata as 14.0%. This result suggested that all four indigenous plants tested were more effective to purify the indoor polluted air than S. trifasciata. Key words: interior plant, S. glaber, I. anisatum, C. japonica, I. rotunda, indoor polluted air

  4. Uptake of 40K and 137Cs in native plants of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S L; Graham, J C; Terp, S D

    2002-01-01

    Uptake of 137Cs and 40K was studied in seven native plant species of the Marshall Islands. Plant and soil samples were obtained across a broad range of soil 137Cs concentrations (0.08-3900 Bq/kg) and a narrower range of 40K soil concentrations (2.3-55 Bq/kg), but with no systematic variation of 40K relative to 137Cs. Potassium-40 concentrations in plants varied little within the range of 40K soil concentrations observed. Unlike the case for 40K, 137Cs concentrations increased in plants with increasing 137Cs soil concentrations though not precisely in a proportionate manner. The best-fit relationship between soil and plant concentrations was P = aSb where a and b are regression coefficients and P and S are plant and soil concentrations, respectively. The exponent b for 40K was zero, implying plant concentrations were a single value, while b for 137Cs varied between 0.51 and 0.82, depending on the species. For both 40K and 137Cs, we observed a decreasing concentration ratio (where concentration ratio=plant concentration/soil concentration) with increasing soil concentrations. For the CR values, the best-fit relationship was of the form CR = aSb/S = aSb(-1). For the 40K CR functions, the exponent b - 1 was close to - 1 for all species. For the 137Cs CR functions, the exponent b - 1 varied from -0.19 to -0.48. The findings presented here, aswell as those by other investigators, collectively argue against the usefulness of simplistic ratio models to accurately predict uptake of either 40K or 137Cs in plants over wide ranges of soil concentration.

  5. Uptake of {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in native plants of the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, S.L.; Graham, J.C.; Terp, S.D

    2002-07-01

    Uptake of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K was studied in seven native plant species of the Marshall Islands. Plant and soil samples were obtained across a broad range of soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations (0.08-3900 Bq/kg) and a narrower range of {sup 40}K soil concentrations (2.3-55 Bq/kg), but with no systematic variation of {sup 40}K relative to {sup 137}Cs. Potassium-40 concentrations in plants varied little within the range of {sup 40}K soil concentrations observed. Unlike the case for {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs concentrations increased in plants with increasing {sup 137}Cs soil concentrations though not precisely in a proportionate manner. The best-fit relationship between soil and plant concentrations was P=aS{sup b} where a and b are regression coefficients and P and S are plant and soil concentrations, respectively. The exponent b for {sup 40}K was zero, implying plant concentrations were a single value, while b for {sup 137}Cs varied between 0.51 and 0.82, depending on the species. For both {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs, we observed a decreasing concentration ratio (where concentration ratio=plant concentration/soil concentration) with increasing soil concentrations. For the CR values, the best-fit relationship was of the form CR=aS{sup b}/S=aS{sup b-1}. For the {sup 40}K CR functions, the exponent b-1 was close to -1 for all species. For the {sup 137}Cs CR functions, the exponent b-1 varied from -0.19 to -0.48. The findings presented here, as well as those by other investigators, collectively argue against the usefulness of simplistic ratio models to accurately predict uptake of either {sup 40}K or {sup 137}Cs in plants over wide ranges of soil concentration.

  6. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Eastern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Esperança; Vallès, Joan

    2012-06-14

    This paper represents the first large-scale ethnobotanical study in the island of Mallorca, and provides significant information on pharmaceutical plant uses, built up from interviews with native people from this touristic hotspot, demonstrating its ethnopharmacological importance. To collect, analyse and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge concerning medicinal plants in a north-eastern Mallorcan area (municipalities of Artà, Capdepera and Son Servera; 298 km2, 31,764 inhabitants). We performed semi-structured interviews with 42 informants (mean age 77; 40% women, 60% men), identified the plant taxa reported and analysed the results, comparing them with those found in the current Mallorcan ethnobotanical information and in other territories. The informants reported data on 121 human medicinal plants representing 64 botanical families. Around 45 medicinal uses reported, concerning 37 species, have not or have very rarely been cited as medicinal. An index of medicinal importance is proposed. All efforts addressed to compiling ethnobotanical information in industrialised or touristised areas such as Eastern Mallorca are still valuable. New possibilities can be explored to give practical value to Mallorcan ethnobotanical data in the frame of considering traditional plant knowledge as part of the islanders’ lifestyle and healthy habits.

  7. The effect of environmental change on vascular plant and cryptogam communities from the Falkland Islands and the Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Convey Peter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antarctic terrestrial vegetation is subject to one of the most extreme climates on Earth. Currently, parts of Antarctica are one of the fastest warming regions on the planet. During 3 growing seasons, we investigated the effect of experimental warming on the diversity and abundance of coastal plant communities in the Maritime Antarctic region (cryptogams only and the Falkland Islands (vascular plants only. We compared communities from the Falkland Islands (51°S, mean annual temperature 7.9°C, with those of Signy Island (60°S, -2.1°C and Anchorage Island (67°S, -2.6°C, and experimental temperature manipulations at each of the three islands using Open Top Chambers (OTCs. Results Despite the strong difference in plant growth form dominance between the Falkland Islands and the Maritime Antarctic, communities across the gradient did not differ in total diversity and species number. During the summer months, the experimental temperature increase at 5 cm height in the vegetation was similar between the locations (0.7°C across the study. In general, the response to this experimental warming was low. Total lichen cover showed a non-significant decreasing trend at Signy Island (p Conclusion These results suggest that small temperature increases may rapidly lead to decreased soil moisture, resulting in more stressful conditions for plants. The more open plant communities (grass and lichen appeared more negatively affected by such changes than dense communities (dwarf shrub and moss.

  8. Climate vs. topography – spatial patterns of plant species diversity and endemism on a high-elevation island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irl, Severin David Howard; Harter, David E. V.; Steinbauer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    the independent contribution of climatic and topographic variables to spatial diversity patterns. We constructed a presence/absence matrix of perennial endemic and native vascular plant species (including subspecies) in 890 plots on the environmentally very heterogeneous island of La Palma, Canary Islands......Climate and topography are among the most fundamental drivers of plant diversity. Here, we assessed the importance of climate and topography in explaining diversity patterns of species richness, endemic richness and endemicity on the landscape scale of an oceanic island and evaluated...... to ecological speciation and specialization to local conditions. We highlight the importance of incorporating climatic variability into future studies of plant species diversity and endemism. The spatial incongruence in hot spots of species richness, endemic richness and endemicity emphasizes the need...

  9. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  10. On the island biogeography of aliens: a global analysis of the richness of alien plant and bird species on oceanic islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, T. M.; Delean, S.; Pyšek, Petr; Cassey, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 7 (2016), s. 859-868 ISSN 1466-822X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plants * birds * island invasions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.045, year: 2016

  11. Technical evaluation of the proposed changes in the technical specifications for emergency power sources for the Big Rock Point nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.

    1979-12-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the proposed changes to the Technical Specifications for emergency power sources for the Big Rock Point nuclear power plant. The criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the changes include those delineated in IEEE Std-308-1974, and IEEE Std-450-1975 as endorsed by US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.129

  12. Success Continues: NASA-Developed Plant Health Measurement Technology is Becoming Big Business for Illinois Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Originally produced in 2001, sales of Spectrum Technologies' CM 1000 chlorophyll meter have now topped $290,000 on 140 units. Up-to-date sales figures for 2003 have shown an almost 50% increase over the combined sales totals of 2001 and 2002. The CM 1000 chlorophyll meter identifies the failing health of a plant based on the chlorophyll content of the plant up to 16 days before it is physically detectable by the human eye. Poor health, 'stress' in a plant, is a result of unfavorable growing conditions; lack of nutrients, insufficient water, disease or insect damage.

  13. A multicriteria approach to evaluate wind energy plants on an Italian island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallaro, Fausto; Ciraolo, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The decision-making process regarding the choice of alternative energy is multidimensional, made up of a number of aspects at different levels--economic, technical, environmental, and social. In this respect multicriteria analysis appears to be the most appropriate tool to understand all the different perspectives involved and to support those concerned with the decision making process by creating a set of relationships between the various alternatives. The main aim of this paper is to make a preliminary assessment regarding the feasibility of installing some wind energy turbines in a site on the island of Salina (Aeolian islands-Italy). Thus, a multicriteria method will be applied in order to support the selection and evaluation of one or more of the solutions proposed. Having analysed the local environmental conditions and its energy profile, four wind turbine configurations were postulated as options. These options were then appraised by comparison against a family of criteria and calculations were performed using a multicriteria algorithm to rank the solutions, from the best to worst. The option at the top of the ranking refers to the installation of a plant of 150 kW and this emerged as the right compromise between the costs of realization, local energy requirements and the need to conserve the area and the environment especially in view of the high/medium-bracket tourism business on the island. The sensitivity analysis performed subsequently backed up the findings. As this work demonstrates, multicriteria analysis can provide a valid tool to aid decision making for achieving targets relating to more sustainable green energy

  14. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  15. 75 FR 44292 - Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... and DPR-60] Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... assessment, and behavioral observation) of the unescorted access authorization program when making the... under consideration to determine whether it met the criteria established in NRC Management Directive (MD...

  16. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. The environmental performance of three alcohol fuel plants producers of small, medium and big scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrero, Manuel Antonio Valdes; Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira; Miranda, Evaristo Eduardo de

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of alcohol fuel plants producers: sizing; performance; natural resources; environmental aspects; and electric power generation. The environmental performance concept is introduced and a performance evaluation methodology are presented and applied. The results are also presented and criticized

  18. An assessment of urban heat island effect adopting urban parameterizations in COSMO-CLM simulations over big cities in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesarchio, Myriam; Rianna, Guido; Mercogliano, Paola; Castellari, Sergio; Schiano, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, about 80% of people live in urban areas, which most of them can be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts (e.g. high air temperatures along with heat waves, flooding due to intense precipitation events, water scarcity and droughts). In fact, the density of people and assets within relatively small geographic areas, such as an urban settlements, mean more risk exposure than in rural areas. Therefore, reliable numerical climate models are needed for elaborating climate risk assessment at urban scale. These models must take into account the effects of the complex three-dimensional structure of urban settlements, combined with the mixture of surface types with contrasting radiative, thermal and moisture characteristics. In this respect, previous studies (e.g. Trusilova et al., 2013) have already assessed the importance to consider urban properties in very high resolution regional climate modeling to better reproduce the features of urban climate, especially in terms of urban heat island effect. In this work, two different configurations of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at the horizontal resolution of 0.02° (about 2.2km), one including urban parameterization scheme and another without including them, have been applied in order to perform two different climate simulations covering the entire northern Italy. In particular, the present study is focused on large urban settlements such as Milan and Turin. Due to high computational cost required to run very high resolution simulations, the results of the two simulations have been compared over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1989. Preliminary results indicate that the modification of climate conditions, due to the presence of urban areas, is present mainly in the areas covered by big cities and surrounding them, or rather the presence of urban areas induces modification mainly in their local climate. Other evidences are that the simulation including urban parameterization scheme shows, in general

  19. Field Surveys of Rare Plants on Santa Cruz Island, California, 2003-2006: Historical Records and Current Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the northern Channel Islands located off the coast of California. It is owned and managed as a conservation reserve by The Nature Conservancy and the Channel Islands National Park. The island is home to nine plant taxa listed in 1997 as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act, because of declines related to nearly 150 years of ranching on the island. Feral livestock were removed from the island as a major conservation step, which was part of a program completed in early 2007 with the eradication of pigs and turkeys. For the first time in more than a century, the rare plants of Santa Cruz Island have a chance to recover in the wild. This study provides survey information and living plant materials needed for recovery management of the listed taxa. We developed a database containing information about historical collections of the nine taxa and used it to plan a survey strategy. Our objectives were to relocate as many of the previously known populations as possible, with emphasis on documenting sites not visited in several decades, sites that were poorly documented in the historical record, and sites spanning the range of environmental conditions inhabited by the taxa. From 2003 through 2006, we searched for and found 39 populations of the taxa, indicating that nearly 80 percent of the populations known earlier in the 1900s still existed. Most populations are small and isolated, occupying native-dominated habitat patches in a highly fragmented and invaded landscape; they are still at risk of declining through population losses. Most are not expanding beyond the edges of their habitat patches. However, most taxa appeared to have good seed production and a range of size classes in populations, indicating a good capacity for plant recruitment and population growth in these restricted sites. For these taxa, seed collection and outplanting might be a good strategy to increase numbers of populations for species

  20. Radwaste reduction experience at Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1993-01-01

    True radwaste minimization at an operating nuclear power plant means straddling the line between ''what is'' and ''what-can-be'' and then regularly moving that line so that dreams become reality. This effort involves keeping track of and maintaining successful programs of the past while searching out and incorporating the best of the upcoming processes, equipment, and contractors. Some of the tactics used for waste minimization have appreciable results and some have small direct results. But even those with small results add to a final total of volume saved. In addition, the approaches with smaller results demonstrate an unmistakable attitude on the part of management that any unnecessary radwaste production is not acceptable. This attitude is understood and assimilated by engineering, operations, and maintenance in such a way that it becomes a matter of pride to reduce radwaste production to quantities below those officially projected. The GPUN plants at Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island Unit-1 limit the quantity of materials allowed onsite under the premise that an item that stays out of contaminated areas cannot become radwaste. For material exiting contaminated zones, the plants have used a combination of preventative avoidance of radwaste generation and careful processing. This includes sorting and screening of materials leaving contaminated areas to reduce the number of items to eventually be treated, preplanning of work efforts to minimize radwaste that must be generated, wood planning, onsite decontamination units, onsite contractor supplied equipment, and offsite radwaste processors in order to minimize the final amount of radwaste to be buried. Sometimes when employing one of these methods, it is necessary to consider not only the waste generated by the process directly but also secondary wastes caused by interactions with other areas of plant operation, such as equipment maintenance

  1. Influences of micro-geomorphology on the stoichiometry of C, N and P in Chenier Island soils and plants in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fanzhu; Meng, Ling; Yu, Junbao; Liu, Jingtao; Sun, Jingkuan; Yang, Hongjun; Dong, Linshui

    2017-01-01

    Studies have indicated that consistent or well-constrained (relatively low variability) carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) ratios exist in large-scale ecosystems, including both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Little is known about the C, N and P stoichiometric ratios that exist in the soils and plants of Chenier Island in the Yellow River Delta (YRD). We examined the distribution patterns and relationships of C, N and P stoichiometry in the soils and plants of Chenier Island, as well as the potential influences of the island's micro-geomorphology. Based on a study of four soil profile categories and Phragmites australis and Suaeda heteroptera plant tissues, our results showed that micro-geomorphology could leave a distinct imprint on the soil and plant elemental stoichiometry of Chenier Island; significant variation in the atomic C:N:P ratios (RCNP) existed in soils and plants, indicating that the RCNP values in both the soil and plants are not well constrained at the Chenier Island scale. RCN and RCP in Chenier Island soils were high, whereas the RNP values were comparatively low, indicating that the ecosystems of Chenier Island are nutrient-limited by N and P. However, the RNP values in P. australis and S. heteroptera plant tissues were high, suggesting that the plants of Chenier Island are nutrient-limited by P. Finally, we suggest that soil and plant N:P ratios may be good indicators of the soil and plant nutrient status during soil development and plant growth, which could be a useful reference for restoring the degraded soils of Chenier Island.

  2. Big universe, big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Stensbo-Smidt, Kristoffer; Gieseke, Fabian Cristian

    2017-01-01

    , modern astronomy requires big data know-how, in particular it demands highly efficient machine learning and image analysis algorithms. But scalability is not the only challenge: Astronomy applications touch several current machine learning research questions, such as learning from biased data and dealing......, and highlight some recent methodological advancements in machine learning and image analysis triggered by astronomical applications....

  3. Environmental monitoring and ecological studies program. 1974 annual report for the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant near Red Wing, Minnesota. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented from studies on the effects of thermal effluents from the Prairie Island nuclear power plant on fish and invertebrate populations in the Mississippi River in the vicinity of the plant. Populations of aquatic and terrestrial plants and birds in the immediate vicinity of the plant were also characterized. (U.S.)

  4. Invasive exotic plants in the tropical Pacific Islands: Patterns of Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Denslow; J.C. Space; P.A. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Oceanic islands are good model systems with which to explore factors affecting exotic species diversity. Islands vary in size, topography, substrate type, degree of isolation, native species diversity, history, human population characteristics, and economic development. Moreover, islands are highly vulnerable to exotic species establishment. We used AICc analyses of...

  5. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in the US Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, J; Davis, O; Jäger, A K

    2016-11-04

    Hidden in the documents of the dark past of the trans-Atlantic slavery are gems of ethnomedicinal observations, supported by herbarium specimens, which tell of the traditional medicine of a by-gone slave society in the Caribbean. In the context of the former Danish West Indies (now US Virgin Islands), we identify pre-1900 medicinal plants and their historical uses, and trace their status in the traditional medicine of St. Croix today (2014). By a combined historical and ethnobotanical approach we assess the scale of loss and preservation of traditional medicinal knowledge on St. Croix, and explore the drivers involved in the disappearance of knowledge in the oral tradition of medicine. Names, uses and identities of 18th and 19th century medicinal plant uses in the Danish West Indies were derived from manuscripts and publications of Von Rohr (1757/58), Oldendorp (1777), West (1793), Benzon (1822), Riise (1853), Eggers (1876;1879) and Berg and Eggers (1888). The presence of the plant species in the pre-1900 Danish West Indies was confirmed by review of herbarium specimens in the University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C). The same species were collected on St. Croix in 2014 or their ecological status discussed with local specialists. Semi-structured interviews supported by photographs and specimens were conducted with six medicinal plant specialist on St. Croix, to document and compare contemporary names and uses of the historically used medicinal plants. The historic ethnomedicinal sources revealed 102 medicinal uses of 64 plant species. Thirty-eight (37%) of the pre-1900 medicinal uses were traced in interviews, while sixty-four uses (63%) appear to be forgotten, discontinued or otherwise lost. Thirteen species appear to have entirely lost their status as medicinal plants on St. Croix, while 32 species (50%) have lost uses while retaining or gaining others. While 20% of the lost medicinal plant uses can be explained by biodiversity loss, and others likely have become

  6. Big data, big responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big data refers to the collection and aggregation of large quantities of data produced by and about people, things or the interactions between them. With the advent of cloud computing, specialised data centres with powerful computational hardware and software resources can be used for processing and analysing a humongous amount of aggregated data coming from a variety of different sources. The analysis of such data is all the more valuable to the extent that it allows for specific patterns to be found and new correlations to be made between different datasets, so as to eventually deduce or infer new information, as well as to potentially predict behaviours or assess the likelihood for a certain event to occur. This article will focus specifically on the legal and moral obligations of online operators collecting and processing large amounts of data, to investigate the potential implications of big data analysis on the privacy of individual users and on society as a whole.

  7. Ecological systems as computer networks: Long distance sea dispersal as a communication medium between island plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaa, Adnen; Ben Abid, Samir; Boulila, Abdennacer; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Ben Fadhel, Najeh

    2016-06-01

    Ecological systems are known to exchange genetic material through animal species migration and seed dispersal for plants. Isolated plant populations have developed long distance dispersal as a means of propagation which rely on meteorological such as anemochory and hydrochory for coast, island and river bank dwelling species. Long distance dispersal by water, in particular, in the case of water current bound islands, calls for the analogy with computer networks, where each island and nearby mainland site plays the role of a network node, the water currents play the role of a transmission channel, and water borne seeds as data packets. In this paper we explore this analogy to model long distance dispersal of seeds among island and mainland populations, when traversed with water currents, in order to model and predict their future genetic diversity. The case of Pancratium maritimum L. populations in Tunisia is used as a proof of concept, where their genetic diversity is extrapolated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Big science

    CERN Multimedia

    Nadis, S

    2003-01-01

    " "Big science" is moving into astronomy, bringing large experimental teams, multi-year research projects, and big budgets. If this is the wave of the future, why are some astronomers bucking the trend?" (2 pages).

  9. Creating new populations of Apium bermejoi (Apiaceae, a critically endangered endemic plant on Menorca (Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apium bermejoi is a stoloniferous plant endemic to the island of Menorca (Balearic Islands. It is found only at one locality, and it is listed as Critically Endangered (according to the IUCN criteria. We describe the main results of population restoration actions undertaken under the Recovery Plan for this species, including the following: 1 introduction at two new localities (2008, 2 reinforcement of the original wild and the introduced populations, and 3 a programme for monitoring population dynamics (including both wild and introduced populations spanning four years (2006-2010. The plant material for the introduction and reinforcement projects was generated from seeds gathered in the wild. We carried out a monthly census of all of the individuals/patches and emerged seedlings, from which we assessed their survival at 3-4months. The survival rates of the planted individuals in the two new localities after three months were found to be 59.0% and 56.3%, and more than 80% of the surviving plants produced fruits. A seasonal pattern was observed based on the minimum cover values recorded in the censuses taken at the end of summer, with an increase detected during autumn, and maximal cover values recorded during May/June. The A. bermejoi populations showed large inter-annual fluctuations in both the number of patches and area of occupancy. The number of seedlings varied across the study years, and their survival was linked to specific meteorological events, such as severe storms and dry and hot spells during autumn. The initial phase of introduction for this species has been overall successful, but a final evaluation can only be made on a longterm basis.Apium bermejoi, planta estolonífera endémica de Menorca (Islas Baleares, de la que se conoce una sola localidad en el medio natural, está considerada en Peligro Crítico de extinción (según criterios UICN. Se presentan los principales resultados de las acciones de restauración de las

  10. Tapping an Amazônian plethora: four medicinal plants of Marajó Island, Pará (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, M L; Johns, E A

    1993-09-01

    This study focused its attention on four medicinal plants (Carapa guianensis, Elephantopus scaber, Piper umbellatum, Stachytarpheta cayenensis) used by Caboclo communities on Marajó, the main island of the Amazon delta. In the field, interviews were conducted with Caboclos and the medicinal usages and preparation procedures of the four plants were recorded. In the laboratory, the plant extracts were subjected to bioassays and their crude chemical composition was established. All four plants showed significant bioactivity and the chemical tests confirmed the presence of bioactive compounds. In addition, the results of both the field and laboratory studies corresponded well with those of a literature search. The ethnopharmacological significance of the four plants is discussed.

  11. Design of nuclear desalination concentrate plant by using zero discharge desalination concept for Bangka Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlan Dewita, Siti Alimah

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is a process to separate salt of seawater by using nuclear energy. Desalination concentrate is a problem in nuclear desalination. Desalination concentrate is sometimes discharged directly into the seawater, therefore it can affects the water quality of beach and rise negative effects on the biota in the vicinity of the output. ZDD (Zero Discharge Desalination) concept can be applied to minimized environment impact. This study is conducted by using PWR type NPP as nuclear heat source and using ZDD concept to process desalination waste. ZDD is a concept for processing of desalination concentrate into salt and chemical products which have economic values. Objectives of this study is to design nuclear desalination concentrate processing plant in Bangka Island. The methodology is literature assessment and calculation with excel programme. The results of this study shows that the main the products are NaCl (pharmaceutical salt) and cakes BaSO4, Mg(OH)2BaCO3 as by products. (author)

  12. Quality assurance system for conventional island erection of Daya Day Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongliang, Shi; Suozhi, Wu; Xiangke, Meng [Shandong Electric Power Construction Corp. Nuclear Power Construction Company (China)

    1994-12-01

    The process concerning the establishment, operation and perfection of Quality Assurance System (QA system) experienced by Shandong Electric Power Construction Corporation, Nuclear Power Construction Company (SEPC-NPCC) during the implementation of Conventional Island Erection (CIE) in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant is introduced. Apart from systematic description of the principle for working out QA programme and QA procedures and their main contents, it is also detailed, on a combination of theory with practice basis, how the major departments constituting the QA system such as Quality Assurance, Quality Control, Construction and Administration and Business Departments have made fruitful efforts as per the individual responsibility for ensuring the work quality and having in mind the principles specified by QA programme and the requirements of QA procedures. As a result of the reasonable combination of the 3 crucial points and the 4 essential elements of the QA system, high quality of CI erection has been realized. The importance of quality supervision and management review by the owner and upper levels of authorities for ensuring effective operation of QA system is affirmed. The practical experience of CIE project proves that the strict inspection/surveillance on all activities and service affecting quality carried out by QA Department independent of project management and QC Dept, independent of construction management are of quite importance for ensuring the project quality. (4 tabs.).

  13. Quality assurance system for conventional island erection of Daya Day Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongliang; Wu Suozhi; Meng Xiangke

    1994-12-01

    The process concerning the establishment, operation and perfection of Quality Assurance System (QA system) experienced by Shandong Electric Power Construction Corporation, Nuclear Power Construction Company (SEPC-NPCC) during the implementation of Conventional Island Erection (CIE) in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant is introduced. Apart from systematic description of the principle for working out QA programme and QA procedures and their main contents, it is also detailed, on a combination of theory with practice basis, how the major departments constituting the QA system such as Quality Assurance, Quality Control, Construction and Administration and Business Departments have made fruitful efforts as per the individual responsibility for ensuring the work quality and having in mind the principles specified by QA programme and the requirements of QA procedures. As a result of the reasonable combination of the 3 crucial points and the 4 essential elements of the QA system, high quality of CI erection has been realized. The importance of quality supervision and management review by the owner and upper levels of authorities for ensuring effective operation of QA system is affirmed. The practical experience of CIE project proves that the strict inspection/surveillance on all activities and service affecting quality carried out by QA Department independent of project management and QC Dept, independent of construction management are of quite importance for ensuring the project quality. (4 tabs.)

  14. Evaluation of the radionuclide concentrations in soil and plants from the 1975 terrestrial survey of Bikini and Eneu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colsher, C.S.; Robison, W.L.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    In June 1975 a radiological survey was conducted of the terrestrial environment of Bikini and Eneu islands (Bikini Atoll) to evaluate the potential radiation dose to the returning Bikini population. In this report, we present measurements of the radionuclide concentration in soil profiles and in dominant species of edible and nonedible, indicator plants. The use of these data to derive relationships to predict the plant uptake of radionuclides from soil is described. Approximately 620 soil and vegetation samples from Bikini and Eneu Islands were analyzed by Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry. The predominant radionuclides in these samples were 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, 241 Pu, and 241 Am

  15. Modeling of the Nuclear Power Plant Life cycle for 'Big Data' Management System: A Systems Engineering Viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Bui Hoang; Khanh, Tran Quang Diep; Shakirah, Wan; Kahar, Wan Abdul; Jung, Jae Cheon

    2012-01-01

    Together with the significant development of Internet and Web technologies, the rapid evolution of 'Big Data' idea has been observed since it is first introduced in 1941 as an 'information explosion'(OED). Using the '3Vs' model, as proposed by Gartner, 'Big Data' can be defined as 'high volume, high velocity, and/or high variety information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced decision making, insight discovery and process optimization.' Big Data technologies and tools have been developed to address the way large quantities of data are stored, accessed and presented for manipulation or analysis. The idea also focuses on how the users can easily access and extract the 'useful and right' data, information, or even knowledge from the 'Big Data'.

  16. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites: the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.

    1976-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data for the years 1973 and 1974 pertaining to the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 1, which began operation in early 1974, were analyzed by the most practical qualitative and quantitative methods. Terrestrial biotic resources were considered for this plant. The effects of the operation of Unit 1 on the local terrestrial organisms were found to be undetectable. Although the plant has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, the present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. The data acquired, method of analysis, and results obtained are presented in detail along with recommendations for improving monitoring techniques

  17. Study and discussion on management of nuclear island in-service inspection procedure system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueliang; Fan Yancheng

    2014-01-01

    In-service inspection of nuclear island is the important way for keeping safety operation of nuclear power plant. Taking Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant as example, the management problems of in-service inspection system was studied and discussed from the angle of references, contents, classifications etc. Based on comparison with French practice, some points of view on perfection of in-service inspection system and improvement of management ability under future multi-bases and multi-units management mode were presented. (authors)

  18. Ethnobotany of Canarium plant species used by Tobelo Dalam (Togutil ethnic community of Halmahera Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NASIR TAMALENE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tamalene MN, Al-Muhdhar MHI, Suarsini E, Rahman F, Hasan S. 2016. Ethnobotany of Canarium plant species used by Tobelo Dalam (Togutil ethnic community of Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 61-69. Tobelo Dalam (Togutil ethnic group has been using local plants for years; one of them is Canarium. The ethnic are nomads and live in conservation forests. Data on ethnobotanical knowledge was collected through interview technique with “work in the wood” method. There were three types of informant: main informants, key informants, and recommended informants. Main informants were chosen through purposive sampling technique while key informants and recommended informants were chosen through snowball sampling technique. The informants in this study were grouped based on their age: 14 children (5-11 years, 18 teenagers (12-25 years, 13 adults (26-45 years, nine elder (46-65 years and three old age (≥ 65 years. The result of fidelity level analysis (FL% indicated that all age groups had FL value of 100% in utilizing walnut as local food. Regarding the use of skin exocarp the result was as follow: children (FL: 28.57%, teenagers (FL: 77.77%, adults (FL: 69.23%, and elder and old age (FL: 100%. Whereas, the use of Shell endocarp among the age groups was as follow: children (FL: 14.28%, teenagers (FL: 66.66%, adults (FL: 46.15%, elder (FL: 33.33%, and old age (FL: 100%. Canarium bark had value of FL% in children (FL: 35.71%, teenagers (FL: 61.11%, adults (FL: 92.3%, elder (FL: 33.33%, and old age (FL: 100%. The use of resin by the groups was children (FL: 50%, teenagers (FL: 83.33%, adults (FL: 92.3%, elder and old age (FL: 100%. The use of Canarium root among the groups was children (FL: 14.28%, teenagers (FL: 61.11%, adults (FL: 92.3%, elder (FL: 33.33%, and old age (FL: 100%. The use of plant’s trunk was as follow: children (FL: 50%, teenagers (FL: 77.77%, adults, elder, and old age (FL: 100%. The research indicated that walnut

  19. Plant speciation in continental island floras as exemplified by Nigella in the Aegean Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Comes, Hans Peter; Tribsch, Andreas; Bittkau, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Continental shelf island systems, created by rising sea levels, provide a premier setting for studying the effects of geographical isolation on non-adaptive radiation and allopatric speciation brought about by genetic drift. The Aegean Archipelago forms a highly fragmented complex of mostly continental shelf islands that have become disconnected from each other and the mainland in relatively recent geological times (ca

  20. Fisheries Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit and Predator Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Surveys at Big Island (Hawaii Island) in May-June 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites: at 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big...

  1. Evaluation of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of Plants and Ornamental Shrubs in Enugu City: Implications for Urban Heat Island Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI of five plant species and five ornamental shrubs in Enugu Urban Center. Laboratory analysis was performed on the four physiological and biological parameters including leaf relative water content (RWC, ascorbic acid (AA content, total leaf chlorophyll (TCH and leaf extract pH. These parameters were used to develop an air pollution tolerance index. Factor analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized in the analysis to examine the interactions between these parameters. Vegetation monitoring in terms of its APTI acts as a \\'Bioindicator\\' of air pollution. The study also showed the possibility of utilizing APTI as a tool for selecting plants or ornamental shrubs for urban heat Island mitigation in Enugu City. The result of APTI showed order of tolerance for plants as Anacarduim occidentale (23.20, Pinus spp (22.35, Catalpa burgei (22.57, Magifera indica (23.37, and Psidum guajava (24.15.The result of APTI showed increasing order of sensitivity for ornamental shrubs from ixora red (14.32, yellow ficus(12.63, masquerade pine(12.26, Tuja pine(11.000,to Yellow bush(10.60. The APTI of all the plants examined were higher than those of ornamental shrubs. Thus suggesting that plants in general were more tolerant to air pollution than ornamental shrubs. The ornamental shrubs with lower APTI values (sensitive were recommended as bioindicator of poor urban air quality while plants with high APTI values (tolerant are planted around areas anticipated to have high air pollution load. The result of this current study is therefore handy for future planning and as well provides tolerant species for streetscape and urban heat island mitigation.

  2. Human-induced hybridization among congeneric endemic plants on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, T.; Lachmuth, S.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; den Nijs, J.C.M.; Meirmans, P.G.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Endemic genera on oceanic islands often evolved striking morphological and ecological differences among species, with weak postzygotic reproductive isolation. Human activities can lead to increased connectivity and can thereby promote secondary contact and hybridization between previously isolated

  3. Antimalarial efficacy of nine medicinal plants traditionally used by the Karens of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Punnam Chander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antimalarial activity of nine medicinal plants used by Karens of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and in vitro antimalarial activity was assessed using M-III method. The results indicated that out of nine plant species tested, four plants, viz., Z. spectabilis, S. wallichiana, C. pulcherrima and Amomum sp. demonstrated significant antimalarial activity (50% inhibitory concentration values were 5.5 ± 0.7, 12.0 ± 2.5, 14.6 ± 1.3 and 37.3 ± 2.5 μg/mL respectively with no toxicity effect on erythrocytes.

  4. Big Rock Point: 35 years of electrical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosky, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    On September 27, 1962, the 75 MWe boiling water reactor, designed and built by General Electric, of the Big Rock Point Nuclear Power Station went critical for the first time. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the plant operator, Consumers Power, had designed the plant also as a research reactor. The first studies were devoted to fuel behavior, higher burnup, and materials research. The reactor was also used for medical technology: Co-60 radiation sources were produced for the treatment of more than 120,000 cancer patients. After the accident at the Three Mile Island-2 nuclear generating unit in 1979, Big Rock Point went through an extensive backfitting phase. Personnel from numerous other American nuclear power plants were trained at the simulator of Big Rock Point. The plant was decommissioned permanently on August 29, 1997 after more than 35 years of operation and a cumulated electric power production of 13,291 GWh. A period of five to seven years is estimated for decommissioning and demolition work up to the 'green field' stage. (orig.) [de

  5. Urbanising Big

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Development in China raises the question of how big a city can become, and at the same time be sustainable, writes Christer Ljungwall of the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.......Development in China raises the question of how big a city can become, and at the same time be sustainable, writes Christer Ljungwall of the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis....

  6. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) in cabbage on Prince Edward Island: observations on planting date and variety choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Suzanne; Ryan, Andrew; Adams, Shelley; Driscoll, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) can be a pest in organic onion production on Prince Edward Island. This study was to examine the effect of planting time and variety on infestation levels and damage by onion thrips on cabbage (Brassicae oleracea capitala (L.)). A field site was planted with 2 main and 8 lesser varieties of cabbage over 4 planting dates. Some varieties were short season and harvested on July 31 with longer season varieties harvested on September 2. Blue sticky traps were used to capture thrips migrating into the field site from July 22-September 2. Traps were counted weekly and cabbage heads within the field site were visually surveyed for thrips. At harvest, heads were weighed and measured, thrips damage was assessed then the head was dissected and thrips counted on the first four layers of the head. Thrips exhibited a preference for Lennox over Bronco throughout the season although thrips populations were not high enough to effect economic damage in 2014. Planting date influenced cabbage head weight and size with later plantings yielding the largest heads. Use of planting date and variety to avoid thrips populations is discussed.

  7. Big Argumentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Faltesek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Big Data is nothing new. Public concern regarding the mass diffusion of data has appeared repeatedly with computing innovations, in the formation before Big Data it was most recently referred to as the information explosion. In this essay, I argue that the appeal of Big Data is not a function of computational power, but of a synergistic relationship between aesthetic order and a politics evacuated of a meaningful public deliberation. Understanding, and challenging, Big Data requires an attention to the aesthetics of data visualization and the ways in which those aesthetics would seem to depoliticize information. The conclusion proposes an alternative argumentative aesthetic as the appropriate response to the depoliticization posed by the popular imaginary of Big Data.

  8. Big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed; Flyverbom, Mikkel; Hilbert, Martin

    2016-01-01

    is to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations......The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments contained in any big data practice. Second, it suggests a research agenda built around a set of subthemes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay between big data...

  9. Prevention, early detection and containment of invasive, nonnative plants in the Hawaiian Islands: current efforts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph Kueffer,; Loope, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive, non-native plants (or environmental weeds) have long been recognized as a major threat to the native biodiversity of oceanic islands (Cronk & Fuller, 1995; Denslow, 2003). Globally, several hundred non-native plant species have been reported to have major impacts on natural areas on oceanic islands (Kueffer et al., 2009). In Hawaii, at least some 50 non-native plant species reach dominance in natural areas (Kueffer et al., 2009) and many of them are known to impact ecosystem processes or biodiversity. One example is the invasive Australian tree fern (Cyathea cooperi), which has been shown to be very efficient at utilizing soil nitrogen and can grow six times as rapidly in height, maintain four times more fronds, and produce significantly more fertile fronds per month than the native Hawaiian endemic tree ferns, Cibotium spp. (Durand & Goldstein, 2001a, b). Additionally, while native tree ferns provide an ideal substrate for epiphytic growth of many understory ferns and flowering plants, the Australian tree fern has the effect of impoverishing the understory and failing to support an abundance of native epiphytes (Medeiros & Loope, 1993). Other notorious examples of invasive plant species problematic for biodiversity and ecosystem processes in Hawaii include miconia (Miconia calvescens), strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum), albizia (Falcataria moluccana), firetree (Morella faya), clidemia (Clidemia hirta), kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum), and fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), to name just a few. Fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis) is a recent example of a seriously problematic invasive species for Hawaii’s agriculture and is damaging certain high-elevations native ecosystems as well.

  10. Ethnopharmacological appraisal of culturally important medicinal plants and polyherbal formulas used against communicable diseases in Rodrigues Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoisy, Anne Kathie; Mahomoodally, Fawzi

    2016-12-24

    The tropical island of Rodrigues is one of three islands that constitute the Mascarene archipelago in the Indian Ocean. Currently considered as a biodiversity hotspot, the island has also a resilient history in the use of traditional medicine. However, there has been no ethnopharmacological study to document quantitatively such traditional practice against communicable diseases (CD), which currently accounts for 6.61% annual death and 30.7% attendances in public hospitals. The aim of the present study was to collect, analyse, and document traditionally used medicinal plants (MP) and polyherbal formulas from key informants and traditional medicine practitioners (TMP) in Rodrigues to treat and/or manage common CD. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews with MP users (n=113) and TMP (n=9) from 17 key sites. Seven quantitative ethnopharmacological indices, namely family use value (FUV), use value (UV), informant agreement ratio (IAR), relative frequency of citation (RFC), fidelity level (FL), relative importance (RI), and ethnobotanicity index (EI) were calculated. Ninety-seven plants belonging to 49 families were recorded to be in common use as monotherapy (80 plants) and/or as part of polyherbal preparation (23 plants) for the treatment and/or management of 16 different CD. Thirteen MPs were found to have a maximum FL of 100% for CD. The highest IAR (0.98) was observed for diseases of the eye and adnexa and skin and subcutaneous tissue. The highest FUV was for Arecaceae. Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M. king et H.Rob. scored the highest UV (UV=2.72). Seven endemic medicinal plants have been recorded to be employed in cultural rituals for the management of common CDs, whereas 14 polyherbal preparations were used to treat and/or manage 6 different types of CDs. Side effects were also reported following use of some these medicinal plants. Given the dearth of updated information on traditional medicine from Rodrigues, this work has provided an

  11. Landscape-seascape dynamics in the isthmus between Sørkapp Land and the rest of Spitsbergen: Will a new big Arctic island form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, Wieslaw; Ostafin, Krzysztof

    2015-05-01

    Transformation of the glaciated isthmus between Sørkapp Land and the rest of Spitsbergen since 1900 is described. The landscape-seascape dynamics depends on the glacial recession determined by climate warming after the Little Ice Age (i.e., since the beginning of the twentieth century, and especially since the 1980s). The isthmus has been narrowed from 28 km in 1899-1900 to 6.2 km in 2013, and lowered by 60-200 m from 1936 to 2005. Two isthmus' glaciers will have melted, given the current thermic conditions, by 2030-2035. It cannot be ruled out that Sørkapp Land will become an island after that period, because the altitude of the glaciers' bedrock is close to the sea level. The disappearance of this huge ice mass, even without origin of a sound and island, will lead to a great transformation of the landscape and the ecosystem.

  12. Radiological survey of plants, animals, and soil at five atolls in the Marshall Islands; September--October 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Division of Operational Safety's portion of the Pacific Radioecology Program began in 1974 and it is a continuing program to determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides distributed in the foods, plants, animals, and soils of the Central Pacific, especially the Marshall Islands. As part of this program, Wotje, Ailuk, Utirik, Rongelap, and Bikini tolls were visited in 1976 and samples collected. Results of the radiometric analyses of the samples are presented. Results of these analyses indicate that 90 Sr and 137 Cs are predominant in the terrestrial environment and, in addition, 241 Am and 239 240 Pu are also important in the soil from Rongelap and Bikini Atols. Naturally occurring 40 K is the predominant radionuclide in marine organisms, while 60 Co is significant in the tridacnid clams. Amounts of radioactivity vary with distance from the Bikini test site and in relation to the fallout pattern from the March 1954 Bravo test. Thus, samples from Bikini Atol had the greatest amounts of radioactivity while the northern islands of Rongelap had slightly lower amounts. The southern islands of Rongelap Atoll and Utirik Atoll had intermediate amounts of radioactivity while Ailuk and Wotje atolls had the least radioactivity of the atolls visited

  13. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; Warshauer, F. R.; Price, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  14. How Big Is Too Big?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  15. Environmental monitoring and ecological studies program. 1974 annual report for the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant near Red Wing, Minnesota. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented from studies on the effects of thermal effluents from the Prairie Island nuclear power plant on water temperature and primary productivity of phytoplankton in the Mississippi River downstream from the site. Results of measurements showed that plant-heated waters had dropped to near normal temperatures at the end of the discharge canal. The size and shape of the thermal plume at Prairie Island were determined. The chemical composition of water samples collected upstream was compared to that of samples collected downstream from the plant. Plankton species and seasonal succession patterns were characterized both at the plant site and downstream from the plant for any evidence of changes resulting from plant operations. The effects of entrainment of plankton in the cooling water system was also studied. Data are included on invertebrates in water samples collected at various locations. (U.S.)

  16. 77 FR 70915 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Main Hawaiian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... listing decision we now refer to the Hawaiian insular false killer whale as the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI... relevant data concerning any threats to the MHI insular false killer whale DPS; (3) the range, distribution... regulatory mechanisms; or (E) other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence (16 U.S.C...

  17. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  18. Off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower plant to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Inês; Gueifão, Carlos; Ferreira de Jesus, J.

    2017-04-01

    In order to reduce the high dependence on imported fuels and to meet the ongoing growth of electricity demand, Cape Verde government set the goal to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island until 2020. To help maximize renewable energy penetration, an off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plant will be installed in Santiago, in one of the following locations: Chã Gonçalves, Mato Sancho and Ribeira dos Picos. This paper summarizes the studies carried out to find the optimal location and connection point of the PSH plant in Santiago’s electricity network. This goal was achieved by assessing the impact of the PSH plant, in each location, on power system stability. The simulation tool PSS/E of Siemens was used to study the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the future (2020) Santiago MV grid. Different scenarios of demand and renewable resources were created. Each hydro unit of the PSH plant was modeled as an adjustable speed reversible turbine employing a DFIM. The results show that Santiago’s grid with the PSH plant in Chã Gonçalves is the one that has the best performance.

  19. Polyglutamine variation in a flowering time protein correlates with island age in a Hawaiian plant radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laakkonen Liisa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A controversial topic in evolutionary developmental biology is whether morphological diversification in natural populations can be driven by expansions and contractions of amino acid repeats in proteins. To promote adaptation, selection on protein length variation must overcome deleterious effects of multiple correlated traits (pleiotropy. Thus far, systems that demonstrate this capacity include only ancient or artificial morphological diversifications. The Hawaiian Islands, with their linear geological sequence, present a unique environment to study recent, natural radiations. We have focused our research on the Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae, a large and diverse lineage with paradoxically low genetic variation, in order to test whether a direct relationship between coding-sequence repeat diversity and morphological change can be observed in an actively evolving system. Results Here we show that in the Hawaiian mints, extensive polyglutamine (CAG codon repeat polymorphism within a homolog of the pleiotropic flowering time protein and abscisic acid receptor FCA tracks the natural environmental cline of the island chain, consequent with island age, across a period of 5 million years. CAG expansions, perhaps following their natural tendency to elongate, are more frequent in colonists of recently-formed, nutrient-rich islands than in their forebears on older, nutrient-poor islands. Values for several quantitative morphological variables related to reproductive investment, known from Arabidopsis fca mutant studies, weakly though positively correlate with increasing glutamine tract length. Together with protein modeling of FCA, which indicates that longer polyglutamine tracts could induce suboptimally mobile functional domains, we suggest that CAG expansions may form slightly deleterious alleles (with respect to protein function that become fixed in founder populations. Conclusion In the Hawaiian mint FCA system, we infer that

  20. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily D. Fountain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk, which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1 these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2 the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3 the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units.

  1. Ecology and conservation of threatened plants in Tapkeshwari Hill ranges in the Kachchh Island, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Joshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The survey was conducted in Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR areas, wherever threatened plant species were said to exist, based on secondary information in literature. Thirteen plant species categorized as ‘Threatened’ by the World Conservation Monitoring centre (WCMC 1994 and also listed under various threat categories in the Red Data Book of Indian Plants (Nayar & Sastry 1988 were surveyed in the THR. All the RET plants reported from the study area occupied eight major habitat types. Thorn mixed forests harbored the highest number of individuals (560 of all RET plants, followed by open scrubs (345 individuals, Acacia senegal forests (328 and thorn mixed scrubs (293. Field observations showed that except Helichrysum cutchicum, all the other RET plant species were reported with very low seedlings and regeneration ratio. This paper discusses the status, distribution and threats faced and the conservation implications at border regions of some of the threatened plants of the arid Kachchh district.

  2. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Li people in Ledong, Hainan Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents on the uses of traditional medicinal plants used for treating human ailments in three villages of Ledong, a county inhabited by Li ethnic group in the southwest of Hainan Province, China. Semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews and participatory observations were used to collect ethnobotanical data from February to March 2012 and in July 2013. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Thirty native knowledgeable people were interviewed. The Li community uses 50 plant species in 36 families for medicinal purposes. The most common medicinal plant families were Leguminosae (14%, Compositae (6%, and Euphorbiaceae (6%, and the most common preparations methods were decoction (84%, crushing (38%, and poultice (34%. The traditional medicinal plants were mainly used for hemostasis (12.9%, body pains (11.4%, gastrointestinal disorders (11.4%, and trauma (10%. Twenty-four species of medicinal plants (48% have never been reported in the literature of Li medicines. In addition, 22 species (44% have already been studied by researchers and their extracts or compounds were good bio-actives. However, the rapid socio-economic development in the county is the main threat to the conservation of Li medicine and has resulted in the decrease in the abundance and use of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Other factors accounting for a decrease in the use of Li medicinal plants like loss of plant diversity, change of land use, and threatened traditional knowledge were equally discussed.

  3. Hawaii hydrogen energy economy: production and distribution of hydrogen and oxygen in the district of north Kohala, the Big Island of Hawaii: a global prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper shows how a community which is totally oil dependent can be transformed into a hydrogen fuel based economy by using the concept of setting hydrogen zones, with the use of off-peak hydro-electrical power and renewable energies. An existing hydro-electric plant in Hawaii could serve as a local prototype. 2 figs

  4. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island) for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7) by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 μg/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values 15 mm and MIC values ≤ 250 μg/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 μg/ml). Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide

  5. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  6. Effect of fly ash from a fuel oil power station on heavy metal content of wild plants at Tenerife island, the Canarian archipelago, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.E.; Fernandez, M.; Iglesias, E.; Perez, N.; Snelling, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy metal analysis have been carried out in wild plants around a Power Station located at the southeastern area of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The concentrations of Fe, Ni, and V in the leaves and terminal stems of three wild plants (Euphorbia obtusifolia, Kleinia neriifolia, and Plocama pendula) which were collected during the spring of 1988 are reported from four different allotments. These sampling sites were located at distances of 0.4, 1, 1, 25, and 34 km from the Electric Generating Facility, and at elevations of 60, 120, 180 and 60 m, respectively. Results show a potential contamination of vanadium in E. obtusifolia and P. pendula plants located close to the Power Station, probably due to dry deposition on fly ash in the surrounding area. The levels of iron and nickel concentrations in the same type of plants did not show any geographical relationship with respect to the location of the Power Station. 19 refs., 4 figs

  7. Reclamation after oil and gas development does not speed up succession or plant community recovery in big sagebrush ecosystems in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottler, Caitlin M.; Burke, Ingrid C.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2018-01-01

    Article for intended outlet: Restoration Ecology. Abstract: Reclamation is an application of treatment(s) following a disturbance to promote succession and accelerate the return of target conditions. Previous studies have framed reclamation in the context of succession by studying its effectiveness in re-establishing late-successional plant communities. Re-establishment of these plant communities is especially important and potentially challenging in regions such as drylands and shrub steppe ecosystems where succession proceeds slowly. Dryland shrub steppe ecosystems are frequently associated with areas rich in fossil-fuel energy sources, and as such the need for effective reclamation after disturbance from fossil-fuel-related energy development is great. Past research in this field has focused primarily on coal mines; few researchers have studied reclamation after oil and gas development. To address this research gap and to better understand the effect of reclamation on rates of succession in dryland shrub steppe ecosystems, we sampled oil and gas wellpads and adjacent undisturbed big sagebrush plant communities in Wyoming, USA and quantified the extent of recovery for major functional groups on reclaimed and unreclaimed (recovered via natural succession) wellpads relative to the undisturbed plant community. Reclamation increased the rate of recovery for all forb and grass species as a group and for perennial grasses, but did not affect other functional groups. Rather, analyses comparing recovery to environmental variables and time since wellpad abandonment showed that recovery of other groups were affected primarily by soil texture and time since wellpad abandonment. This is consistent with studies in other ecosystems where reclamation has been implemented, suggesting that reclamation may not help re-establish late-successional plant communities more quickly than they would re-establish naturally.

  8. A nuclear power unit with a Babcock type steam generating system-analysis of the break-down in the Three Mile Island power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, A.

    1980-01-01

    Installations of the primary and the secondary circuits and basic automatic control and protection systems for a nuclear power unit with Babcock type vertical, once-through steam generator are described. On this background the course of the break-down in the Three Mile Island power plant at Harrisburg is presented and analysed. (author)

  9. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: HABITATS (Habitat and Plant Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for eelgrass, macroalgae, submerged aquatic vegetation, and rare terrestrial plants in coastal Rhode...

  10. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  11. Frequência de Lettuce big-vein associated virus e Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus em Plantas de alface no Estado de São Paulo e transmissão através de extrato vegetal e solo Frequency of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus in symptomatic and assymptomatic lettuce plants and sap and soil transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Martinello Sanches

    2007-12-01

    condições de laboratório.The occurrence of big vein disease symptoms and the association of Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV was evaluated by RT-PCR using specific primers for both viruses. A total of 366 symptomatic plants were collected during June and September 2004 and during April and July 2005 at Bauru, Campinas and Mogi das Cruzes in São Paulo state, and 18 symptomless plants were collected in Mogi das Cruzes on December 2004. Mixed infection was detected in 76,2% of the symptomatic plants, 11,5% had only MLBVV and 6,6% had only LBVaV. In the symptomless plants collected in areas with high incidence of the disease throughout the winter, MLBVV was found in 9 plants and LBVaV in 7 plants. Four plants had both viruses, indicating that symptom development depends on abiotic factors, such as temperature. Plants with MLBVV and LBVaV (mixed infection were used as source of virus in a host range assay at 16C/ 10°C (day/ night and 11h light period. MLBVV was transmitted to Nicotiana tabacum TNN, N. rustica, N. occidentalis, Chenopodium quinoa and lettuce cv. Trocadero and White Boston, while LBVaV was transmitted only to lettuce cv. White Boston. No symptons could be verified for these plants with the exception of C. quinoa that showed local lesions. Transmission through soil in areas with high incidence of the disease was observed for LBVaV to lettuce cv. White Boston and MLBVV for lettuce cv. Trocadero and White Boston, but only cv. White Boston showed symptoms. Together, these results demonstrate the difficulties in transmitting both viruses, even under controlled laboratory conditions.

  12. Seed dispersal and establishment of endangered plants on Oceanic Islands: the Janzen-Connell model, and the use of ecological analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis M Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Janzen-Connell model states that plant-specific natural enemies may have a disproportionately large negative effect on progeny close to maternal trees. The majority of experimental and theoretical studies addressing the Janzen-Connell model have explored how it can explain existing patterns of species diversity in tropical mainland areas. Very few studies have investigated how the model's predictions apply to isolated oceanic islands, or to the conservation management of endangered plants. Here, we provide the first experimental investigation of the predictions of the Janzen-Connell model on an oceanic island, in a conservation context. In addition, we experimentally evaluate the use of ecological analogue animals to resurrect the functional component of extinct frugivores that could have dispersed seeds away from maternal trees. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Mauritius, we investigated seed germination and seedling survival patterns of the critically endangered endemic plant Syzygium mamillatum (Myrtaceae in relation to proximity to maternal trees. We found strong negative effects of proximity to maternal trees on growth and survival of seedlings. We successfully used giant Aldabran tortoises as ecological analogues for extinct Mauritian frugivores. Effects of gut-passage were negative at the seed germination stage, but seedlings from gut-passed seeds grew taller, had more leaves, and suffered less damage from natural enemies than any of the other seedlings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first experimental evidence of a distance-dependent Janzen-Connell effect on an oceanic island. Our results potentially have serious implications for the conservation management of rare plant species on oceanic islands, which harbour a disproportionately large fraction of the world's endemic and endangered plants. Furthermore, in contrast to recent controversy about the use of non-indigenous extant megafauna for re

  13. Siting of nuclear power plants on artificial islands: the Belgian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The building of nuclear stations on the national territory involves reticences of an ecological nature which have induced technicians to consider other siting facilities. The creation of artificial islands, in particular nuclear stations, is therefore suggested. In the present state of the law of the sea, such construction gives rise to some intricate legal problems and leads to consideration of every notion, from the territorial sea to the exclusive economic zone. Especially regarding Belgium, the problem is to know where the legal competence for these facilities will lie. After analysis, it has been estimated that regional bodies have no specific powers in this regard and that no norm with a restricted territorial scope may be applied. (Auth) [fr

  14. Haida Gwaii / Queen Charlotte Islands demonstration tidal power plant feasibility study : summary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, A. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Remote communities may benefit from using tidal energy in terms of reduced diesel fuel consumption and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. A study was conducted to assess the feasibility for a tidal demonstration project on the Haida Gwaii, Queen Charlotte Islands. Candidate communities were scanned for resource potential, load profile, infrastructure distribution and community interest. This presentation focused on choosing an appropriate site for a given tidal power technology. Three hotspots in Masset Sound were identified as well as one hotspot at Juskatla Narrows. Technology providers were solicited for information on unit performance, cost, and trials to date. The presentation noted that demonstration or future commercial deployment is limited by resource and by the ability of the grid to accommodate tidal power. The presentation concluded with next steps which include publishing the study. tabs., figs.

  15. Big Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  16. Big Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-05-15

    Astronomy, like particle physics, has become Big Science where the demands of front line research can outstrip the science budgets of whole nations. Thus came into being the European Southern Observatory (ESO), founded in 1962 to provide European scientists with a major modern observatory to study the southern sky under optimal conditions.

  17. One Isotope, Two Tales: using plant and cosmogenic 14C to constrain Holocene glacier activity on Baffin Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, S.; Miller, G. H.; Lifton, N. A.; Young, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    As the cryosphere continues to undergo rapid and accelerating change, it is more important than ever to understand past glacier activity to predict the future of the cryosphere. However, continuous Holocene glacier records are notoriously difficult to reconstruct because an advancing glacier will re-incorporate previous deposits so that moraines typically only record the farthest downvalley glacier expansion. Here we combine dates of ice margin advance from in situ dead vegetation with in situ cosmogenic 14C (in situ 14C) from preserved bedrock surfaces at the same locations to further constrain the timing of ice-free episodes during the Holocene following deglaciation on southern Baffin Island. Radiocarbon ages from recently exposed in situ plants suggest that ice last advanced over sample locations at 9.4, 9.2, 9.0, and 3.7 ka and that they remained ice covered until modern times. Associated in situ 14C inventories are variable, but well above background levels, suggesting some amount of Holocene in situ 14C production. Using plant 14C ages representing the beginning of ice coverage and in situ 14C inventories representative of exposure prior to ice coverage, a simple model of cosmogenic in situ 14C production (accounting for muon production through ice) provides constraints timing and duration of ice-free times at sample locations prior to their most recent burial. Using conservative Holocene ice thicknesses, the locations buried at 9.4, 9.2, and 9.0 ka require, at minimum, 1000 years of pre-burial exposure to match the observed in situ 14C inventory. This suggests these locations were ice free by at least 10 ka and likely earlier. The in situ 14C inventory at the location buried at 3.7 ka limits prior exposure to 2000 years, suggesting that this location experienced more complex Holocene ice cover/burial history. These pilot data show that valuable information regarding periods of exposure is contained within in situ 14C inventories. Additional paired plant and

  18. Assessment of the in Vitro Antiprotozoal and Cytotoxic Potential of 20 Selected Medicinal Plants from the Island of Soqotra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Maes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis continue to be major public health problems in need of new and more effective drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty endemic medicinal plants collected from the island of Soqotra in the Indian Ocean. The plant materials were extracted with methanol and tested for antiplasmodial activity against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, for antileishmanial activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and for antitrypanosomal activity against intracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined against MRC-5 fibroblasts. Selective activity was obtained for Punica protopunica against Plasmodium (IC50 2.2 µg/mL while Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens displayed activity against the three kinetoplastid parasites (IC50 < 10 µg/mL. Acridocarpus socotranus showed activity against T. brucei and T. cruzi (IC50 3.5 and 8.4 µg/mL. Ballochia atrovirgata, Dendrosicycos socotrana, Dracaena cinnabari and Euphorbia socotrana displayed non-specific inhibition of the parasites related to high cytotoxicity.

  19. Mercury contamination in soil, tailing and plants on agricultural fields near closed gold mine in Buru Island, Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginawanti Hindersah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity in Buru Island, Maluku is threatened by tailings which are generated from formerly gold mine in Botak Mountain in Wamsait Village. Gold that extracted by using mercury was carried out in mining area as well agricultural field.  High content of mercury in tailings and agricultural field pose a serious problem of food production and quality; and further endangers human health. The purpose of this research was to determine the contaminant level of mercury in tailing, soil and its accumulation in edible part of some food crops. Soil, tailing and plant samples for Hg testing were taken by purposive method based on mining activities in Waelata, Waeapo and Namlea sub district. Six soil samples had been analyzed for their chemical properties. Total mercury levels in tailings and plants were measured by Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. This study showed that agricultural field where tailings were deposited contained Hg above the threshold but agricultural area which is far from hot spot did not. Most edible parts of food crops accumulated mercury more than Indonesian threshold for mercury content in food. This evidence explained that tailings deposited on the surface of agricultural field had an impact on soil quality and crop quality. Tailing accumulated on soil will decreased soil quality since naturally soil fertility in agricultural field in Buru is low.

  20. Accident at Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafi, A.; Farnoudi, F.; Tochai, M.T.M.; Mirhabibi, N.

    1986-01-01

    On March 28, 1979, the TMI, unit 2 nuclear power plant experienced a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) which has had a major impact among the others, upon the safety of nuclear power plants. Although a small part of the reactor core melted in this accident, but due to well performance of the vital safety equipment, there was no serious radioactivity release to the environment, and the accident has had no impact on the basic safety goals. A brief scenario of the accident, its consequences and the lessons learned are discussed

  1. Wind Power Plant Evaluation Naval Auxiliary Landing Field, San Clemente Island, California: Period of Performance 24 September 1999--15 December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; Gulman, P.J.; McKenna, E.

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the wind power benefits and impacts to the San Clement Island wind power system, including energy savings, emissions reduction, system stability, and decreased naval dependence on fossil fuel at the island. The primary goal of the SCI wind power system has been to operate with the existing diesel power plant and provide equivalent or better power quality and system reliability than the existing diesel system. The wind system is intended to reduce, as far as possible, the use of diesel fuel and the inherent generation of nitrogen oxide emissions and other pollutants.

  2. Big Egos in Big Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Jeppesen, Jacob

    In this paper we investigate the micro-mechanisms governing structural evolution and performance of scientific collaboration. Scientific discovery tends not to be lead by so called lone ?stars?, or big egos, but instead by collaboration among groups of researchers, from a multitude of institutions...

  3. Big Data and Big Science

    OpenAIRE

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Brief introduction to the challenges of big data in scientific research based on the work done by the HEP community at CERN and how the CERN openlab promotes collaboration among research institutes and industrial IT companies. Presented at the FutureGov 2014 conference in Singapore.

  4. Factors influencing smallholder commercial tree planting in Isabel Province, the Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Stephanie; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2017-01-01

    and multiple regression models, and qualitative analysis were used to generate results. The study finds that a market for existing planted timber resources, improved extension services and, in the longer-term, more livelihood-appropriate small-scale (agro)forestry systems are critical to facilitate the ongoing...

  5. Magnetostratigraphy of a Marine Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Section, Kennecott Point, Queen Charlotte Islands: Implications for the Temporal Correlation of a 'Big Five' Mass Extinction Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, I. A.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Ward, P. D.; Haggart, J. W.; Raub, T. D.

    2008-12-01

    Several causes have been proposed for Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary extinctions, including global ocean anoxia/euxinia, an impact event, and/or eruption of the massive Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), but poor intercontinental correlation makes testing these difficult. Sections at Kennecott Point, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia span the late Norian through Rhaetian (Triassic) and into the earliest Hettangian (Jurassic) and provide the best integrated magneto- and chemostratigraphic framework for placing necessary temporal constraints upon the T-J mass extinctions. At Kennecott Point, turnover of radiolaria and ammonoids define the T-J boundary marine extinction and are coincident with a 2 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg similar in magnitude to that observed at Ferguson Hill (Muller Canyon), Nevada (1, 2). With Conodont Alteration Index values in the 1-2 range, Kennecott Point provides the ideal setting for use of magnetostratigraphy to tie the marine isotope excursion into the chronostratigraphic framework of the Newark, Hartford, and Fundy Basins. In the summer of 2005, we collected a ~1m resolution magnetostratigraphic section from 105 m of deep marine, silt- and sandstone turbidites and interbedded mudstones, spanning the T-J boundary at Kennecott Point. Hybrid progressive demagnetization - including zero-field, low-temperature cycling; low-field AF cleaning; and thermal demagnetization in ~25°C steps to 445°C under flowing N2 gas (3) - first removed a Northerly, steeply inclined component interpreted to be a Tertiary overprint, revealing an underlying dual-polarity component of moderate inclination. Five major polarity zones extend through our section, with several short, one-sample reversals interspersed amongst them. Comparison of this pattern with other T-J boundary sections (4-6) argues for a Northern hemisphere origin of our site, albeit with large vertical-axis rotations. A long normal chron bounds the T-J boundary punctuated

  6. The Petit Canal Sea water pumped storage plant in Guadeloupe island: a tool to allow the intermittent renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Pierre; Mahiou, Bernard; Ayoub, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the 2011 call for proposal 'Energy storage' launched by the ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, EDF aims to propose a 50 MW seawater pumped storage project for the island of Guadeloupe. The project, named SEPMERI (in French Stockage d'Energie par Pompage en Mer permettant le developpement des Energies Renouvelables Intermittentes), or SPSIRE (in English Seawater Pumped Storage allowing the development of Intermittent Renewable Energy). This project needs to build an upper reservoir with a capacity of 4.7 Mm 3 storing 0.6 GWh (12 hour time duration service at full load) with embankments and an overall watertightness. The average water-head is 67 m. This innovating scheme, equipped with pumps as turbines hosted in an iron pre-cast powerhouse at the foot of the cliff will be able to store energy and to smooth the intermittent renewable energy generation. Such project will improve the hosting capacity for the intermittent generation upper the legal limit of 30% applied to preserve the safety of power systems in French insular systems. In 2050, the need of storage with seawater pumped power plants could reach some thousand of MW in France and in boundary European countries and ten times more in the rest of the world. The number of sites which could be developed for seawater pumped storage power plants is very important (about several thousand), even taking into account all the constraints. The technological option using an iron pre-cast powerhouse can be deployed in the majority of market cases (low and medium water-head) with equipment either pump as turbines, either reversible turbines/pumps. It has been shown that the learning curve could lead to construction costs lower than 1500 Euros/kW (excluding grid connection) competitive with those of on shore pumped storage projects based on upgrading existing hydro power plants. (authors)

  7. Big inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, B [Lancaster Univ. (UK)

    1979-06-28

    The recently published report entitled 'The Big Public Inquiry' from the Council for Science and Society and the Outer Circle Policy Unit is considered, with especial reference to any future enquiry which may take place into the first commercial fast breeder reactor. Proposals embodied in the report include stronger rights for objectors and an attempt is made to tackle the problem that participation in a public inquiry is far too late to be objective. It is felt by the author that the CSS/OCPU report is a constructive contribution to the debate about big technology inquiries but that it fails to understand the deeper currents in the economic and political structure of technology which so influence the consequences of whatever formal procedures are evolved.

  8. Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bútora, Matúš

    2017-01-01

    Cieľom bakalárskej práca je popísať problematiku Big Data a agregačné operácie OLAP pre podporu rozhodovania, ktoré sú na ne aplikované pomocou technológie Apache Hadoop. Prevažná časť práce je venovaná popisu práve tejto technológie. Posledná kapitola sa zaoberá spôsobom aplikovania agregačných operácií a problematikou ich realizácie. Nasleduje celkové zhodnotenie práce a možnosti využitia výsledného systému do budúcna. The aim of the bachelor thesis is to describe the Big Data issue and ...

  9. BIG DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Dubey

    2018-01-01

    The term 'Big Data' portrays inventive methods and advances to catch, store, disseminate, oversee and break down petabyte-or bigger estimated sets of data with high-speed & diverted structures. Enormous information can be organized, non-structured or half-organized, bringing about inadequacy of routine information administration techniques. Information is produced from different distinctive sources and can touch base in the framework at different rates. With a specific end goal to handle this...

  10. An Extreme Meteorological Events Analysis For Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Siting Project at Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiadi, Deni; S, Yarianto Sugeng B.; Sriyana; Anzhar, Kurnia; Suntoko, Hadi

    2018-03-01

    The potential sources of meteorological phenomena in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) area of interest are identified and the extreme values of the possible resulting hazards associated which such phenomena are evaluated to derive the appropriate design bases for the NPP. The appropriate design bases shall be determined according to the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (Bapeten) applicable regulations, which presently do not indicate quantitative criteria for purposes of determining the design bases for meteorological hazards. These meteorological investigations are also carried out to evaluate the regional and site specific meteorological parameters which affect the transport and dispersion of radioactive effluents on the environment of the region around the NPP site. The meteorological hazards are to be monitored and assessed periodically over the lifetime of the plant to ensure that consistency with the design assumptions is maintained throughout the full lifetime of the facility.

  11. Study on a heat recovery system for the thermal power plant utilizing air cooling island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Fu, Lin; Sun, Fangtian; Zhang, Shigang

    2014-01-01

    A new heat recovery system for CHP (combined heat and power) systems named HRU (heat recovery unit) is presented, which could recover the low grade heat of exhausted steam from the turbine at the thermal power plant directly. Heat recovery of exhausted steam is often accomplished by recovering the heat of cooling water in current systems. Therefore, two processes of heat transfer is needed at least. However, exhausted steam could be condensed in the evaporator of HRU directly, which reduce one process of heat transfer. A special evaporator is designed condense the exhausted steam directly. Simulated results are compared to experiments, which could include the calculation of heat transfer coefficients of different parts of HRU. It is found that about 25Mw of exhausted steam is recovered by this system. HRU could be promising for conventional CHP systems, which could increase the total energy efficiency obviously and enlarge the heating capacity of a built CHP system. - Highlights: • A new heat recovery system for thermal power plant is presented. • A mathematical model including heat transfer coefficients calculation is given. • This heat recovery system is experimented at a thermal power plant. • Performances of this system under different working conditions are simulated

  12. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarski Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7 by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 μg/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values ≤ 250 μg/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential

  13. The Last Big Bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, Austin D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    As one of the very few people in the world to give the “go/no go” decision to detonate a nuclear device, Austin “Mac” McGuire holds a very special place in the history of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the world. As Commander of Joint Task Force Unit 8.1.1, on Christmas Island in the spring and summer of 1962, Mac directed the Los Alamos data collection efforts for twelve of the last atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted by the United States. Since data collection was at the heart of nuclear weapon testing, it fell to Mac to make the ultimate decision to detonate each test device. He calls his experience THE LAST BIG BANG, since these tests, part of Operation Dominic, were characterized by the dramatic displays of the heat, light, and sounds unique to atmospheric nuclear detonations – never, perhaps, to be witnessed again.

  14. Keynote: Big Data, Big Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Borgman, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    The enthusiasm for big data is obscuring the complexity and diversity of data in scholarship and the challenges for stewardship. Inside the black box of data are a plethora of research, technology, and policy issues. Data are not shiny objects that are easily exchanged. Rather, data are representations of observations, objects, or other entities used as evidence of phenomena for the purposes of research or scholarship. Data practices are local, varying from field to field, individual to indiv...

  15. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  16. Geographical origin and sexual-system evolution of the androdioecious plant Gynochthodes boninensis (Rubiaceae), endemic to the Bonin Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Emiko; Sugawara, Takashi; Peng, Ching-I; Yang, T Y Aleck; Murakami, Noriaki

    2013-09-01

    Gynochthodes boninensis is a woody climber endemic to the Bonin Islands, Japan. It is characterized by an androdioecious sexual system, which is rare in angiosperms. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 29 taxa including 61 samples from the tribe Morindeae to elucidate the geographical origin of G. boninensis by determining its progenitor species. We also investigated evolutionary transitions among different sexual systems within this plant group. The combined ETS, ITS, and trnT-F sequence data showed that G. boninensis formed a monophyletic group, but it did not form a clade with G. umbellata, which was treated as the same species, whereas it formed a clade with G. parvifolia, which is distributed in southeastern Asia. This suggests that G. boninensis evolved independently from G. umbellata, and probably originated from a progenitor native to southeastern Asia. In the clade composed of the three species of G. boninensis, G. parvifolia, and G. umbellata, only G. boninensis is androdioecious, whereas the others are dioecious. Thus, the androdioecious sexual system of G. boninensis may have evolved from dioecy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Vaughan, D.S.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Kumar, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas

  18. Parallel island genetic algorithm applied to a nuclear power plant auxiliary feedwater system surveillance tests policy optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Lapa, Celso M.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we focus the application of an Island Genetic Algorithm (IGA), a coarse-grained parallel genetic algorithm (PGA) model, to a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) surveillance tests policy optimization. Here, the main objective is to outline, by means of comparisons, the advantages of the IGA over the simple (non-parallel) genetic algorithm (GA), which has been successfully applied in the solution of such kind of problem. The goal of the optimization is to maximize the system's average availability for a given period of time, considering realistic features such as: i) aging effects on standby components during the tests; ii) revealing failures in the tests implies on corrective maintenance, increasing outage times; iii) components have distinct test parameters (outage time, aging factors, etc.) and iv) tests are not necessarily periodic. In our experiments, which were made in a cluster comprised by 8 1-GHz personal computers, we could clearly observe gains not only in the computational time, which reduced linearly with the number of computers, but in the optimization outcome

  19. Narrow hybrid zone between two subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata: Asteraceae): XI. Plant-insect interactions in reciprocal transplant gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Graham; E. Durant McArthur; D. Carl Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) hybridize in a narrow zone near Salt Creek, Utah. Reciprocal transplant experiments in this hybrid zone demonstrate that hybrids are more fit than either parental subspecies, but only in the hybrid zone. Do hybrids experience greater, or lesser, use by...

  20. Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Jon; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    2016-01-01

    Big Data byder sig til som en af tidens mest hypede teknologiske innovationer, udråbt til at rumme kimen til nye, værdifulde operationelle indsigter for private virksomheder og offentlige organisationer. Mens de optimistiske udmeldinger er mange, er forskningen i Big Data i den offentlige sektor...... indtil videre begrænset. Denne artikel belyser, hvordan den offentlige sundhedssektor kan genanvende og udnytte en stadig større mængde data under hensyntagen til offentlige værdier. Artiklen bygger på et casestudie af anvendelsen af store mængder sundhedsdata i Dansk AlmenMedicinsk Database (DAMD......). Analysen viser, at (gen)brug af data i nye sammenhænge er en flerspektret afvejning mellem ikke alene økonomiske rationaler og kvalitetshensyn, men også kontrol over personfølsomme data og etiske implikationer for borgeren. I DAMD-casen benyttes data på den ene side ”i den gode sags tjeneste” til...

  1. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  2. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  3. Big data analytics turning big data into big money

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlhorst, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Unique insights to implement big data analytics and reap big returns to your bottom line Focusing on the business and financial value of big data analytics, respected technology journalist Frank J. Ohlhorst shares his insights on the newly emerging field of big data analytics in Big Data Analytics. This breakthrough book demonstrates the importance of analytics, defines the processes, highlights the tangible and intangible values and discusses how you can turn a business liability into actionable material that can be used to redefine markets, improve profits and identify new business opportuni

  4. Distribution of birds and plants at the western and southern edges of the Madrean Sky Islands in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron D. Flesch; Lisa A. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    The western and southern edges of the Madrean Sky Island region are poorly defined and have received little study. After exploring mountains in these areas, we documented range extensions and additional records for several species of interest. Although many of these disjunct mountains have not been considered Sky Islands, their flora and fauna are similar to other...

  5. Paenibacillus aceris sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Acer okamotoanum, a plant native to Ulleungdo Island, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ye-Ji; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2017-04-01

    Strain KUDC4121 T was isolated from the rhizosphere of Acer okamotoanum, a plant native to the Korean island of Ulleungdo. The strain was a Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can grow at 18-37 °C and pH 6.0-7.5, with optimum growth at 30 °C and pH 7.0. It grew on tryptic soy agar containing less than 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl and in R2A broth. Cell length ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 µm. Strain KUDC4121 T was oxidase- and catalase-positive and did not hydrolyse starch or casein. The genomic G+C content was 48.8 mol%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KUDC4121 T belongs to the genus Paenibacillus. The closest type strain was Paenibacillus chondroitinus DSM 5051 T , with 97.8 % similarity, followed by Paenibacillus alginolyticus DSM 5050 T (97.6 %), Paenibacillus ferrarius CY1 T (97.5 %), Paenibacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 1138 T (97.5 %), Paenibacillus frigoriresistens YIM 016 T (97.5 %), Paenibacillus pectinilyticus RCB-08 T (97.2 %) and Paenibacillus aestuarii CJ25 T (96.9 %). Based on its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic and genetic data, strain KUDC4121 T should be considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus aceris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KUDC4121 T (=KCTC 13870 T =DSM 24950 T ).

  6. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  7. Modeling of the Nuclear Power Plant Life cycle for 'Big Data' Management System: A Systems Engineering Viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Bui Hoang; Khanh, Tran Quang Diep; Shakirah, Wan; Kahar, Wan Abdul; Jung, Jae Cheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Together with the significant development of Internet and Web technologies, the rapid evolution of 'Big Data' idea has been observed since it is first introduced in 1941 as an 'information explosion'(OED). Using the '3Vs' model, as proposed by Gartner, 'Big Data' can be defined as 'high volume, high velocity, and/or high variety information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced decision making, insight discovery and process optimization.' Big Data technologies and tools have been developed to address the way large quantities of data are stored, accessed and presented for manipulation or analysis. The idea also focuses on how the users can easily access and extract the 'useful and right' data, information, or even knowledge from the 'Big Data'.

  8. [Contemplation on the application of big data in clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Medicine is another area where big data is being used. The link between clinical treatment and outcome is the key step when applying big data in medicine. In the era of big data, it is critical to collect complete outcome data. Patient follow-up, comprehensive integration of data resources, quality control and standardized data management are the predominant approaches to avoid missing data and data island. Therefore, establishment of systemic patients follow-up protocol and prospective data management strategy are the important aspects of big data in medicine.

  9. Potential impacts of sea level rise on native plant communities and associated cultural sites in coastal areas of the main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Warshauer, Frederick R.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian coastal vegetation is comprised of plant species that are adapted to growing in extremely harsh conditions (salt spray, wave wash, wind, and substrates with limited nutrients) found in this habitat zone. Prior to human colonization of Hawai‘i coastal vegetation extended as a continuous ring around each of the islands, broken only by stretches of recent lava flows or unstable cliff faces. However, since humans arrived in Hawai‘i many areas that originally supported native coastal plant communities have been highly altered or the native vegetation totally removed for agriculture, housing, or resort development, destroyed by fire, displaced by invasive plants, eaten by introduced mammals, or damaged by recreational use. This study was focused on identifying sites that still retain relatively intact and highly diverse native coastal plant communities throughout the main Hawaiian Islands that may be further impacted by projected sea level rise. Approximately 40 percent of Hawai‘i’s coastlines were found to still contain high quality native coastal plant communities. Most of these sites were located in areas where the coastal vegetation can still migrate inshore in response to rising sea level and associated inundation by waves. However, six sites with high-quality native coastal vegetation were found on low-lying offshore islets that will be totally inundated with a one meter increase in sea level and thirty sites were found to have some type of fixed barrier, such as a paved road or structure, which would restrict the plants from colonizing the adjacent inland areas. Many of these sites also have other cultural resources that are fixed in place and will definitely be impacted by rising sea level. The results of this study can help refine our understanding of Hawai‘i’s remaining native coastal vegetation and aid with the development of management and restoration strategies to ensure the long-term survival of these unique plant communities.

  10. 77 FR 56858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... particular species. Species' History We listed four of the six subspecies of island fox endemic to the... consistent with long-term viability; and 2. Land managers are able to respond in a timely fashion to...

  11. Systematization of the protein sequence diversity in enzymes related to secondary metabolic pathways in plants, in the context of big data biology inspired by the KNApSAcK motorcycle database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shun; Abe, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukiko; Kibinge, Nelson; Hirai Morita, Aki; Nakatani, Atsushi; Ono, Naoaki; Ikemura, Toshimichi; Nakamura, Kensuke; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-05-01

    Biology is increasingly becoming a data-intensive science with the recent progress of the omics fields, e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The species-metabolite relationship database, KNApSAcK Core, has been widely utilized and cited in metabolomics research, and chronological analysis of that research work has helped to reveal recent trends in metabolomics research. To meet the needs of these trends, the KNApSAcK database has been extended by incorporating a secondary metabolic pathway database called Motorcycle DB. We examined the enzyme sequence diversity related to secondary metabolism by means of batch-learning self-organizing maps (BL-SOMs). Initially, we constructed a map by using a big data matrix consisting of the frequencies of all possible dipeptides in the protein sequence segments of plants and bacteria. The enzyme sequence diversity of the secondary metabolic pathways was examined by identifying clusters of segments associated with certain enzyme groups in the resulting map. The extent of diversity of 15 secondary metabolic enzyme groups is discussed. Data-intensive approaches such as BL-SOM applied to big data matrices are needed for systematizing protein sequences. Handling big data has become an inevitable part of biology.

  12. Climate shapes the novel plant communities that form after deforestation in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Eileen Helmer; H. Marcano-Vega; Ariel E. Lugo

    2009-01-01

    Environmental and past land use controls on tree species assemblages on the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized to determine whether biophysical factors or land-use history has been more important in determining the species composition of secondary tropical forests after large-scale forest clearing for agriculture, widespread...

  13. Investigation: revelations about Three Mile Island disaster raise doubts over nuclear plant safety: a special facing south investigation by Sue Sturgis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Sue

    2009-01-01

    A series of mishaps in a reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant led to the 1979 meltdown of almost half the uranium fuel and uncontrolled releases of radiation into the air and surrounding Susquehanna River. It was the single worst disaster ever to befall the U.S. nuclear power industry. Health physics technician Randall Thompson's story about what he witnessed while monitoring radiation there after the incident is being publicly disclosed for the first time. It is supported by a growing body of evidence and it contradicts the U.S. government's contention that the TMI accident posed no threat to the public. Thompson and his wife, a nuclear health physicist who also worked at TMI in the disaster's wake, warn that the government's failure to acknowledge the full scope of the disaster is leading officials to underestimate the risks posed by a new generation of nuclear power plants.

  14. Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya | Etayeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya. ... They provide food, shelter and nesting grounds for many avifauna during their migration ... northern part of the island and at Ras-Attalgha, beside the plant cover of the island itself.

  15. Justifications of policy-error correction: a case study of error correction in the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.P.

    1982-01-01

    The sensational Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Accident of 1979 raised many policy problems. Since the TMI accident, many authorities in the nation, including the President's Commission on TMI, Congress, GAO, as well as NRC, have researched lessons and recommended various corrective measures for the improvement of nuclear regulatory policy. As an effort to translate the recommendations into effective actions, the NRC developed the TMI Action Plan. How sound are these corrective actions. The NRC approach to the TMI Action Plan is justifiable to the extent that decisions were reached by procedures to reduce the effects of judgmental bias. Major findings from the NRC's effort to justify the corrective actions include: (A) The deficiencies and errors in the operations at the Three Mile Island Plant were not defined through a process of comprehensive analysis. (B) Instead, problems were identified pragmatically and segmentally, through empirical investigations. These problems tended to take one of two forms - determinate problems subject to regulatory correction on the basis of available causal knowledge, and indeterminate problems solved by interim rules plus continuing study. The information to justify the solution was adjusted to the problem characteristics. (C) Finally, uncertainty in the determinate problems was resolved by seeking more causal information, while efforts to resolve indeterminate problems relied upon collective judgment and a consensus rule governing decisions about interim resolutions

  16. Big Data, Big Problems: A Healthcare Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa S; Aldosari, Bakheet; Alanazi, Abdullah; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written on the benefits of big data for healthcare such as improving patient outcomes, public health surveillance, and healthcare policy decisions. Over the past five years, Big Data, and the data sciences field in general, has been hyped as the "Holy Grail" for the healthcare industry promising a more efficient healthcare system with the promise of improved healthcare outcomes. However, more recently, healthcare researchers are exposing the potential and harmful effects Big Data can have on patient care associating it with increased medical costs, patient mortality, and misguided decision making by clinicians and healthcare policy makers. In this paper, we review the current Big Data trends with a specific focus on the inadvertent negative impacts that Big Data could have on healthcare, in general, and specifically, as it relates to patient and clinical care. Our study results show that although Big Data is built up to be as a the "Holy Grail" for healthcare, small data techniques using traditional statistical methods are, in many cases, more accurate and can lead to more improved healthcare outcomes than Big Data methods. In sum, Big Data for healthcare may cause more problems for the healthcare industry than solutions, and in short, when it comes to the use of data in healthcare, "size isn't everything."

  17. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  18. Stalin's Big Fleet Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauner, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Although Dr. Milan Hauner's study 'Stalin's Big Fleet program' has focused primarily on the formation of Big Fleets during the Tsarist and Soviet periods of Russia's naval history, there are important lessons...

  19. Big Data Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceravolo, Paolo; Azzini, Antonia; Angelini, Marco; Catarci, Tiziana; Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Damiani, Ernesto; Mazak, Alexandra; van Keulen, Maurice; Jarrar, Mustafa; Santucci, Giuseppe; Sattler, Kai-Uwe; Scannapieco, Monica; Wimmer, Manuel; Wrembel, Robert; Zaraket, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    Big Data technology has discarded traditional data modeling approaches as no longer applicable to distributed data processing. It is, however, largely recognized that Big Data impose novel challenges in data and infrastructure management. Indeed, multiple components and procedures must be

  20. Characterizing Big Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Rossi; Kechi Hirama

    2015-01-01

    Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: t...

  1. Radiocesium fallout in the grasslands on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan Islands due to Fukushima accident: the radioactive contamination of soil and plants in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, V.; Barkovsky, A.; Goncharova, Yu.; Gromov, A.; Kaduka, M.; Romanovich, I.

    2013-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has resulted in radioactive contamination of environmental media and food in the Far East of Russia, particularly in the Sakhalin Region. To obtain the knowledge about the 134 Cs and 137 Cs spatial distribution in the Sakhalin Region, soil samples were collected at 31 representative grassland sites on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan islands (43.80°–46.40° N and 142.73°–146.84° E) in the middle of May and around the end of September to early October 2011. In the autumn, vegetation samples (mixed grass/forb crop and bamboo, Sasa sp.) were collected together with soil samples. Maximum measured activity concentrations (on dry weight) of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in soil were 30 Bq kg −1 and 210 Bq kg −1 , respectively. Within soil profile, 134 Cs activity concentrations declined rapidly with depth. Although for both sampling occasions (in the spring and autumn) the radionuclide was completely retained in the upper 3–4 cm of soil, a deeper penetration of the contaminant into the ground was observed in the autumn. In contrast with 134 Cs, activity concentrations of 137 Cs demonstrated a broad range of the vertical distribution in soil; at most sites, the radionuclide was found down to a depth of 20 cm. This resulted from interfering the aged pre-accidental 137 Cs and the new Fukushima-borne 137 Cs. To calculate contribution of these sources to the inventory of 137 Cs, the 134 Cs: 137 Cs activity ratio of 1:1 in Fukushima fallout (the reference date 15 March 2011) was used. The maximum deposition density of Fukushima-derived 137 Cs was found on Shikotan and Kunashir Islands with average density of 0.124 ± 0.018 kBq m −2 and 0.086 ± 0.026 kBq m −2 , respectively. Sakhalin Island was less contaminated by Fukushima-derived 137 Cs of 0.021 ± 0.018 kBq m −2 . For the south of Sakhalin Island, the reference inventory of pre-Fukushima 137 Cs was calculated as 1.93 ± 0.25 kBq m −2 (reference date 15

  2. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  3. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  4. Baseline element concentrations in soils and plants, Wattenmeer National Park, North and East Frisian Islands, Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.; van den Boom, G.

    1992-01-01

    Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.

  5. Solar thermal power stations for activities implemented jointly. The Theseus 50 MWe solar thermal power plant for the island of Crete, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakmann, Georg [Fichtner, Stuttgart (Germany); Aringhoff, Rainer [Pilkington Solar International (United Kingdom); Cobi, Arend [PreussenElektra (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    THESEUS, the proposed commercial 50 MWe (net) Thermal Solar European Power Station for the Island of Crete is a solar hybrid plant with parabolic trough collectors and an advanced high efficiency Rankine reheat steam cycle. At the end of 1996 the DG XVII (Energy) of the European Commission has accepted the THERMIE application of the THESEUS consortium for the design phase. THESEUS reduces the required oil imports by 28 000 t/a, thereby saving the Greek economy every year 4 million ECU in foreign currency. During its 25 years technical lifetime 2.2 million tons of CO{sub 2} emissions will be avoided. Supply, construction, erection and operation of THESEUS creates 2 000 qualified employments (man-years). Because of the high manpower intensity of solar plants and their larger capital income from interest payments in contrast to the high fuel import intensity of fossil plants, THESEUS will generate larger tax revenues for Greece and for the supplier`s countries. The investment cost of THESEUS is some 135 million ECU. Even without any subsidies this would result in electricity generation cost of some 0.085 ECY/kWh, which is lower than the current average cost from the existing power plants of Crete. (author)

  6. Transferring and implementing the general dynamic model of oceanic island biogeography at the scale of island fragments: the role of geological age and topography in plant diversification in the Canaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Rüdiger; Whittaker, Robert J.; von Gaisberg, Markus

    2016-01-01

    ontogenies, featuring surfaces of varying age. Here, we extend the GDM to apply at a local scale within islands, and test the predictions analytically within individual islands. Location El Hierro, La Palma and Tenerife (Canary Islands). Methods Following the GDM logic, we derive predictions...

  7. Big data computing

    CERN Document Server

    Akerkar, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Due to market forces and technological evolution, Big Data computing is developing at an increasing rate. A wide variety of novel approaches and tools have emerged to tackle the challenges of Big Data, creating both more opportunities and more challenges for students and professionals in the field of data computation and analysis. Presenting a mix of industry cases and theory, Big Data Computing discusses the technical and practical issues related to Big Data in intelligent information management. Emphasizing the adoption and diffusion of Big Data tools and technologies in industry, the book i

  8. Microsoft big data solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,

  9. Determination of heavy metals in medicinal plants from the wild and cultivated garden in Wilberforce Island, Niger Delta region, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edebi N. Vaikosen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adverse effects from herbal medicines may be partly due to the association of heavy metals with medicinal plants. Aims: To determine residual levels of Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in nine selected medicinal plant species and the surrounding soils collected from the Faculty of Pharmacy medicinal garden and College of Health Sciences residential quarters, Amassoma, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Methods: Nine plant species: Jatropha tanjorensis, Ipomoea batatas, Celosia argentea, Zea mays, Colocasia esculenta, Corchorus olitorius, Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum and Talinum triangulare were collected with their surrounding soil samples. The samples were dried and subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS to determine the heavy metal concentrations. Results: The detection frequencies of heavy metals in medicinal plants were: Cd – 100%, Pb – 11%, Ni – 0% and Cr – 0%. The residential quarter was more contaminated than cultivated medicinal garden. Order of residual concentration in bulk soils was Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Bioaccumulation factor ranged from 0 – 25.93 for foliar tissues. Cadmium in plant species ranged from 0.23 to 2.44 µg/g with > 88% exceeding the WHO maximum limit for medicinal plant materials. Conclusions: The heavy metal concentrations in medicinal plants were dependent on the collection sites, plant species and physico-chemical properties of soil. Cd exhibited the greatest bioavailability in the investigated plants and soils. Cd and Pb found in plant foliage were due to uptake from soil and aerial deposition, respectively.

  10. Characterizing Big Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rossi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: technology, people and processes. Hence, this article discusses these dimensions: the technological dimension that is related to storage, analytics and visualization of big data; the human aspects of big data; and, in addition, the process management dimension that involves in a technological and business approach the aspects of big data management.

  11. Traditional knowledge and uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the islands of the São Francisco river, Brazil and preliminary analysis of Rhaphiodon echinus (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. S. L. Pio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to carry out an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by inhabitants of the Rodeadouro Island, Jatoba Island and Massangano Island, located in The Submedium São Francisco River Valley. Also phytochemicals and preliminary pharmacological tests were performed to species most cited by the community. Ethnobotanical data were collected through observation visits and semi-structured interviews with 12 key informants. We calculated the relative importance (RI, the percentage of agreement related to the main uses (cAMU and use value (UV. The aerial parts of Rhaphiodon echinus (Ness & Mart. Schauer were used to obtain the lyophilizate (LYO-Re, crude ethanol extract (CEE-Re and their hexanic (HEX-Re, chloroform (CLO-Re and ethyl acetate (EA-Re fractions. The microdilution technique was used for determining Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for selected microorganisms. Already the spasmolytic effect was evaluated in isolated uterus fragments of Wistar rats, pre contracted with KCl 60 mM. We found 34 species cited, belonging to 22 families. The most plants were grown by locals. There were 51 different diseases, but the main indication was infectious and parasitic diseases. The species R. echinus was the most reported and it was indicated for urinary tract infection and dysmenorrhea. The screening revealed a higher prevalence of flavonoids, tannins, lignans and saponins in LYO-Re and AE-Re. Already terpene compounds were more present in HEX-Re and CLO-Re. The RE-Re fraction stood out with strong effect against E. coli and S. aureus while CEE-Re has moderate effect against gram-negative bacteria. The evaluation of the spasmolytic activity showed that LYO-Re, CEE-Re and HEX-Re fractions have similar activity, with partial effect and concentration-dependent response. This work brought about knowledge and use of medicinal plants by the riparian of the São Francisco River. It also revealed the importance of other

  12. Aerial radiological survey of the Three Mile Island Station Nuclear Power Plant (Goldsboro, Pennsylvania). Date of survey: August 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1977-03-01

    An airborne radiological survey of an 2143 km 2 area surrounding the Three Mile Island Station was made during August 2 to August 4, 1976. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. Areal average exposure rates equivalent to one meter above the ground are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Geological data are presented in an isopleth map of rock and soil types; a brief description of the vegetation and terrain surrounding the site is also included

  13. 77 FR 5628 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel BIG GAME is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing charter boat.'' Geographic Region: ``Rhode Island...

  14. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  15. 75 FR 6225 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ...). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and... cultural resources. There would be no impact to socioeconomic resources. Therefore, no changes to or...

  16. The big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chown, Marcus.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the 'Big Bang' theory of the creation of the Universe 15 thousand million years ago, and traces events which physicists predict occurred soon after the creation. Unified theory of the moment of creation, evidence of an expanding Universe, the X-boson -the particle produced very soon after the big bang and which vanished from the Universe one-hundredth of a second after the big bang, and the fate of the Universe, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Summary big data

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of Cukier the book: "Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How we Live, Work, and Think" by Viktor Mayer-Schonberg and Kenneth. Summary of the ideas in Viktor Mayer-Schonberg's and Kenneth Cukier's book: " Big Data " explains that big data is where we use huge quantities of data to make better predictions based on the fact we identify patters in the data rather than trying to understand the underlying causes in more detail. This summary highlights that big data will be a source of new economic value and innovation in the future. Moreover, it shows that it will

  18. Data: Big and Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. A Big Video Manifesto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcilvenny, Paul Bruce; Davidsen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    and beautiful visualisations. However, we also need to ask what the tools of big data can do both for the Humanities and for more interpretative approaches and methods. Thus, we prefer to explore how the power of computation, new sensor technologies and massive storage can also help with video-based qualitative......For the last few years, we have witnessed a hype about the potential results and insights that quantitative big data can bring to the social sciences. The wonder of big data has moved into education, traffic planning, and disease control with a promise of making things better with big numbers...

  20. Bliver big data til big business?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge.......Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge....

  1. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory

  2. Status assessment of the Saddlepeak Dewflower (Murdannia saddlepeakensis Ramana & Nandikar: Commelinaceae: an endemic spiderwort plant of Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johny Kumar Tagore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution and threat assessment of Murdannia saddlepeakensis Ramana & Nandikar (Commelinaceae, an endemic plant of Saddle Peak National Park, northern Andaman is presented here.  The data available from field surveys indicate that this species is Critically Endangered according to the 2011 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. 

  3. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  4. Big data for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  5. Control of VSC-HVDC in offshore AC islands with wind power plants: Comparison of two alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Hesselbæk, Bo; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the control of offshore AC collection and export networks behind a voltage source converter based high voltage direct current transmission system. The inertia-less nature of such grids makes the control of voltages and power flows potentially more flexible......, but at the same time more prone to instabilities. Focus in this paper is on a voltage source converter based high voltage direct current connected wind power plant. Two state-of-art controllers for the offshore high voltage direct current converter station are compared, both at no-load and when wind turbine...... converters are producing power and controlled with usual vector current control. Sensitivity analyses help identify critical factors influencing stability. The influence of lumping the wind power plant into one converter is assessed by comparison with the full model. The conclusions identify the preferred...

  6. Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of endemic plant species of Tenerife (Canary Islands): relationship to vegetation zones and environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry

    2008-01-01

    , molecular analysis of fungal communities was determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using universal and specific primers for Trichoderma. The highly diverse fungal communities were mainly characterized by ectomycorrhiza-forming Basidiomycota and a high proportion of yet......-unidentified species. Besides, Trichoderma-specific SSCP resulted in low diversity of mainly cosmopolitan species, for example Hypocrea lixii/T. harzianum. The dominance of T. harzianum was confirmed by cultivation. All Trichoderma isolates show an extraordinarily high antagonistic potential towards different groups...... of plant pathogens, supporting the hypothesis of extensive colonization by highly competitive Trichoderma species from the continent. In contrast, biodiversity patterns of the whole fungal and plant communities follow the same ecological rules. Furthermore, a high statistical correlation between fungal...

  7. From Big Data to Big Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Idea in Brief: Problem: There is an enormous profit potential for manufacturing firms in big data, but one of the key barriers to obtaining data-driven growth is the lack of knowledge about which capabilities are needed to extract value and profit from data. Solution: We (BDBB research group at C...

  8. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  9. A reevaluation of cancer incidence near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: the collision of evidence and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, S; Richardson, D; Armstrong, D; Crawford-Brown, D

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies concluded that there was no evidence that the 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) affected cancer incidence in the surrounding area; however, there were logical and methodological problems in earlier reports that led us to reconsider data previously collected. A 10-mile area around TMI was divided into 69 study tracts, which were assigned radiation dose estimates based on radiation reading and models of atmospheric dispersion. Incident cancers from 1975 to 1985 were ascertained from hospital records and assigned to study tracts. Associations between accident doses and incidence rates of leukemia, lung cancer, and all cancer were assessed using relative dose estimates calculated by the earlier investigators. Adjustments were made for age, sex, socioeconomic characteristics, and preaccident variation in incidence. Considering a 2-year latency, the estimated percent increase per dose unit +/- standard error was 0.020 +/- 0.012 for all cancer, 0.082 +/- 0.032 for lung cancer, and 0.116 +/- 0.067 for leukemia. Adjustment for socioeconomic variables increased the estimates to 0.034 +/- 0.013, 0.103 +/- 0.035, and 0.139 +/- 0.073 for all cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia, respectively. Associations were generally larger considering a 5-year latency, but were based on smaller numbers of cases. Results support the hypothesis that radiation doses are related to increased cancer incidence around TMI. The analysis avoids medical detection bias, but suffers from inaccurate dose classification; therefore, results may underestimate the magnitude of the association between radiation and cancer incidence. These associations would not be expected, based on previous estimates of near-background levels of radiation exposure following the accident.

  10. A reevaluation of cancer incidence near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: The collision of evidence and assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, S.; Richardson, D.; Armstrong, D.; Crawford-Brown, D.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies concluded that there was no evidence that the 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) affected cancer incidence in the surrounding area; however, there were logical and methodological problems in earlier reports that led us to reconsider data previously collected. A 10-mile area around TMI was divided into 69 study tracts, which were assigned radiation dose estimates based on radiation readings and models of atmospheric dispersion. Incident cancers from 1975 to 1985 were ascertained from hospital records and assigned to study tracts. Associations between accident doses and incidence rates of leukemia, lung cancer, and all cancer were assessed using relative dose estimates calculated by the earlier investigators. Adjustments were made for age, sex, socioeconomic characteristics, and preaccident variation in incidence. Considering a 2-year latency, the estimated percent increase per dose unit ± standard error was 0.020 ± 0.012 for all cancer, 0.082 ± 0.032 for lung cancer, and 0.116 ± 0.067 for leukemia. Adjustment for socioeconomic variables increased the estimates to 0.034 ± 0.013, 0.103 ± 0.035, and 0.139 ± 0.073 for all cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia, respectively. Associations were generally larger considering a 5-year latency, but were based on smaller numbers of cases. Results support the hypothesis that radiation doses are related to increased cancer incidence around TMI. The analysis avoids medical detection bias, but suffers from inaccurate dose classification; therefore, results may underestimate the magnitude of the association between radiation and cancer incidence. These associations would not be expected, based on previous estimates of near-background levels of radiation exposure following the accident. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Big Data in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  12. Big data a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Prachet; Chenthati, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of chapters written by experts on various aspects of big data. The book aims to explain what big data is and how it is stored and used. The book starts from  the fundamentals and builds up from there. It is intended to serve as a review of the state-of-the-practice in the field of big data handling. The traditional framework of relational databases can no longer provide appropriate solutions for handling big data and making it available and useful to users scattered around the globe. The study of big data covers a wide range of issues including management of heterogeneous data, big data frameworks, change management, finding patterns in data usage and evolution, data as a service, service-generated data, service management, privacy and security. All of these aspects are touched upon in this book. It also discusses big data applications in different domains. The book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing database and networking engineers.

  13. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  14. Recht voor big data, big data voor recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafarre, Anne

    Big data is een niet meer weg te denken fenomeen in onze maatschappij. Het is de hype cycle voorbij en de eerste implementaties van big data-technieken worden uitgevoerd. Maar wat is nu precies big data? Wat houden de vijf V's in die vaak genoemd worden in relatie tot big data? Ter inleiding van

  15. Conceptual changes in nuclear power plant safety as a result of the Three Mile Island-2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladek, V.; Kandrac, J.

    1982-01-01

    The results are summed up of the work of an interdisciplinary team set up by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, which were published in October 1979. On the basis of an analysis of all favourable and unfavourable circumstances, conditions and impacts the team drew up recommendations and indicated trends of development of operating reliability and nuclear safety. It recommended that attention should primarily be devoted to training, qualification testing, updating, to the working conditions of operators and of other nuclear power plant personnel, to the exchange of operating experience and to the operatorsm cooperation with automatic safety systems. (Ha)

  16. Assessing Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, big data has been one of the most controversially discussed technologies in terms of its possible positive and negative impact. Therefore, the need for technology assessments is obvious. This paper first provides, based on the results of a technology assessment study, an overview...... of the potential and challenges associated with big data and then describes the problems experienced during the study as well as methods found helpful to address them. The paper concludes with reflections on how the insights from the technology assessment study may have an impact on the future governance of big...... data....

  17. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Richard N.

    2001-01-01

    The precision of measurements in modern cosmology has made huge strides in recent years, with measurements of the cosmic microwave background and the determination of the Hubble constant now rivaling the level of precision of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis. However, these results are not necessarily consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model of big bang nucleosynthesis. Reconciling these discrepancies may require extensions of the basic tenets of the model, and possibly of the reaction rates that determine the big bang abundances

  18. Big data for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kaufman, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Find the right big data solution for your business or organization Big data management is one of the major challenges facing business, industry, and not-for-profit organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather patterns monitored by meteorologists, or social network activity can quickly outpace the capacity of traditional data management tools. If you need to develop or manage big data solutions, you'll appreciate how these four experts define, explain, and guide you through this new and often confusing concept. You'll learn what it is, why it m

  19. Big Data, indispensable today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ioan ENACHE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big data is and will be used more in the future as a tool for everything that happens both online and offline. Of course , online is a real hobbit, Big Data is found in this medium , offering many advantages , being a real help for all consumers. In this paper we talked about Big Data as being a plus in developing new applications, by gathering useful information about the users and their behaviour.We've also presented the key aspects of real-time monitoring and the architecture principles of this technology. The most important benefit brought to this paper is presented in the cloud section.

  20. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  1. A human reliability analysis of the Three Mile power plant accident considering the THERP and ATHEANA methodologies; Uma analise da confiabilidade humana do acidente na Usina de Three Mile Island II considerando as metodologias Therp e Atheana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Renato Alves da

    2004-03-15

    The main purpose of this work is the study of human reliability using the THERP (Technique for Human Error Prediction) and ATHEANA methods (A Technique for Human Error Analysis), and some tables and also, from case studies presented on the THERP Handbook to develop a qualitative and quantitative study of nuclear power plant accident. This accident occurred in the TMI (Three Mile Island Unit 2) power plant, PWR type plant, on March 28th, 1979. The accident analysis has revealed a series of incorrect actions, which resulted in the Unit 2 shut down and permanent loss of the reactor. This study also aims at enhancing the understanding of the THERP method and ATHEANA, and of its practical applications. In addition, it is possible to understand the influence of plant operational status on human failures and of these on equipment of a system, in this case, a nuclear power plant. (author)

  2. Big Data in der Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)......Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)...

  3. Small Big Data Congress 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2017-01-01

    TNO, in collaboration with the Big Data Value Center, presents the fourth Small Big Data Congress! Our congress aims at providing an overview of practical and innovative applications based on big data. Do you want to know what is happening in applied research with big data? And what can already be

  4. Cryptography for Big Data Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Cryptography for Big Data Security Book Chapter for Big Data: Storage, Sharing, and Security (3S) Distribution A: Public Release Ariel Hamlin1 Nabil...Email: arkady@ll.mit.edu ii Contents 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1 1.1 Introduction...48 Chapter 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1.1 Introduction With the amount

  5. Big data opportunities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This ebook aims to give practical guidance for all those who want to understand big data better and learn how to make the most of it. Topics range from big data analysis, mobile big data and managing unstructured data to technologies, governance and intellectual property and security issues surrounding big data.

  6. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects...... shows that big data problematizes selected aspects of traditional ways to collect and analyze data for development (e.g. via household surveys). We also demonstrate that using big data analyses to address development challenges raises a number of questions that can deteriorate its impact....

  7. Big Data Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on key issues of our paper New games, new rules: big data and the changing context of strategy as a means of addressing some of the concerns raised by the paper’s commentators. We initially deal with the issue of social data and the role it plays in the current data revolution...... and the technological recording of facts. We further discuss the significance of the very mechanisms by which big data is produced as distinct from the very attributes of big data, often discussed in the literature. In the final section of the paper, we qualify the alleged importance of algorithms and claim...... that the structures of data capture and the architectures in which data generation is embedded are fundamental to the phenomenon of big data....

  8. The Big Bang Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  9. BigDansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair; Ilyas, Ihab F.; Jindal, Alekh; Madden, Samuel; Ouzzani, Mourad; Papotti, Paolo; Quiané -Ruiz, Jorge-Arnulfo; Tang, Nan; Yin, Si

    2015-01-01

    of the underlying distributed platform. BigDansing takes these rules into a series of transformations that enable distributed computations and several optimizations, such as shared scans and specialized joins operators. Experimental results on both synthetic

  10. Boarding to Big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Claudia BRATOSIN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today Big data is an emerging topic, as the quantity of the information grows exponentially, laying the foundation for its main challenge, the value of the information. The information value is not only defined by the value extraction from huge data sets, as fast and optimal as possible, but also by the value extraction from uncertain and inaccurate data, in an innovative manner using Big data analytics. At this point, the main challenge of the businesses that use Big data tools is to clearly define the scope and the necessary output of the business so that the real value can be gained. This article aims to explain the Big data concept, its various classifications criteria, architecture, as well as the impact in the world wide processes.

  11. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  12. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-01-01

    on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also

  13. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  14. Conociendo Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Camargo-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la importancia que ha adquirido el término Big Data, la presente investigación buscó estudiar y analizar de manera exhaustiva el estado del arte del Big Data; además, y como segundo objetivo, analizó las características, las herramientas, las tecnologías, los modelos y los estándares relacionados con Big Data, y por último buscó identificar las características más relevantes en la gestión de Big Data, para que con ello se pueda conocer todo lo concerniente al tema central de la investigación.La metodología utilizada incluyó revisar el estado del arte de Big Data y enseñar su situación actual; conocer las tecnologías de Big Data; presentar algunas de las bases de datos NoSQL, que son las que permiten procesar datos con formatos no estructurados, y mostrar los modelos de datos y las tecnologías de análisis de ellos, para terminar con algunos beneficios de Big Data.El diseño metodológico usado para la investigación fue no experimental, pues no se manipulan variables, y de tipo exploratorio, debido a que con esta investigación se empieza a conocer el ambiente del Big Data.

  15. Big Bang baryosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures I briefly review Big Bang baryosynthesis. In the first lecture I discuss the evidence which exists for the BAU, the failure of non-GUT symmetrical cosmologies, the qualitative picture of baryosynthesis, and numerical results of detailed baryosynthesis calculations. In the second lecture I discuss the requisite CP violation in some detail, further the statistical mechanics of baryosynthesis, possible complications to the simplest scenario, and one cosmological implication of Big Bang baryosynthesis. (orig./HSI)

  16. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  17. Big data need big theory too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Peter V; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R

    2016-11-13

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their 'depth' and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote 'blind' big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Big Data and medicine: a big deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Schönberger, V; Ingelsson, E

    2018-05-01

    Big Data promises huge benefits for medical research. Looking beyond superficial increases in the amount of data collected, we identify three key areas where Big Data differs from conventional analyses of data samples: (i) data are captured more comprehensively relative to the phenomenon under study; this reduces some bias but surfaces important trade-offs, such as between data quantity and data quality; (ii) data are often analysed using machine learning tools, such as neural networks rather than conventional statistical methods resulting in systems that over time capture insights implicit in data, but remain black boxes, rarely revealing causal connections; and (iii) the purpose of the analyses of data is no longer simply answering existing questions, but hinting at novel ones and generating promising new hypotheses. As a consequence, when performed right, Big Data analyses can accelerate research. Because Big Data approaches differ so fundamentally from small data ones, research structures, processes and mindsets need to adjust. The latent value of data is being reaped through repeated reuse of data, which runs counter to existing practices not only regarding data privacy, but data management more generally. Consequently, we suggest a number of adjustments such as boards reviewing responsible data use, and incentives to facilitate comprehensive data sharing. As data's role changes to a resource of insight, we also need to acknowledge the importance of collecting and making data available as a crucial part of our research endeavours, and reassess our formal processes from career advancement to treatment approval. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Big data uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugis, Pierre-André G

    2018-07-01

    Big data-the idea that an always-larger volume of information is being constantly recorded-suggests that new problems can now be subjected to scientific scrutiny. However, can classical statistical methods be used directly on big data? We analyze the problem by looking at two known pitfalls of big datasets. First, that they are biased, in the sense that they do not offer a complete view of the populations under consideration. Second, that they present a weak but pervasive level of dependence between all their components. In both cases we observe that the uncertainty of the conclusion obtained by statistical methods is increased when used on big data, either because of a systematic error (bias), or because of a larger degree of randomness (increased variance). We argue that the key challenge raised by big data is not only how to use big data to tackle new problems, but to develop tools and methods able to rigorously articulate the new risks therein. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Big data integration: scalability and sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2016-01-26

    Integration of various types of omics data is critically indispensable for addressing most important and complex biological questions. In the era of big data, however, data integration becomes increasingly tedious, time-consuming and expensive, posing a significant obstacle to fully exploit the wealth of big biological data. Here we propose a scalable and sustainable architecture that integrates big omics data through community-contributed modules. Community modules are contributed and maintained by different committed groups and each module corresponds to a specific data type, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. Based on this community-based architecture, we build Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase that integrates a variety of rice omics data from multiple community modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures, and community annotations. Taken together, such architecture achieves integration of different types of data from multiple community-contributed modules and accordingly features scalable, sustainable and collaborative integration of big data as well as low costs for database update and maintenance, thus helpful for building IC4R into a comprehensive knowledgebase covering all aspects of rice data and beneficial for both basic and translational researches.

  1. BigDansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2015-06-02

    Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to scaling to big datasets. This presents a serious impediment since data cleansing often involves costly computations such as enumerating pairs of tuples, handling inequality joins, and dealing with user-defined functions. In this paper, we present BigDansing, a Big Data Cleansing system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing. The system can run on top of most common general purpose data processing platforms, ranging from DBMSs to MapReduce-like frameworks. A user-friendly programming interface allows users to express data quality rules both declaratively and procedurally, with no requirement of being aware of the underlying distributed platform. BigDansing takes these rules into a series of transformations that enable distributed computations and several optimizations, such as shared scans and specialized joins operators. Experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets show that BigDansing outperforms existing baseline systems up to more than two orders of magnitude without sacrificing the quality provided by the repair algorithms.

  2. Genetic analysis of environmental strains of the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici reveals heterogeneous repertoire of effectors and possible effector evolution via genomic island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, María Josefina; Pascuan, Cecilia; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a virulent oomycete pathogen of many vegetable crops. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the recognition of the RXLR effector AVR3a1 of P. capsici (PcAVR3a1) triggers a hypersensitive response and plays a critical role in mediating non-host resistance. Here, we analyzed the occurrence of PcAVR3a1 in 57 isolates of P. capsici derived from globe squash, eggplant, tomato and bell pepper cocultivated in a small geographical area. The occurrence of PcAVR3a1 in environmental strains of P. capsici was confirmed by PCR in only 21 of these pathogen isolates. To understand the presence-absence pattern of PcAVR3a1 in environmental strains, the flanking region of this gene was sequenced. PcAVR3a1 was found within a genetic element that we named PcAVR3a1-GI (PcAVR3a1 genomic island). PcAVR3a1-GI was flanked by a 22-bp direct repeat, which is related to its site-specific recombination site. In addition to the PcAVR3a1 gene, PcAVR3a1-GI also encoded a phage integrase probably associated with the excision and integration of this mobile element. Exposure to plant induced the presence of an episomal circular intermediate of PcAVR3a1-GI, indicating that this mobile element is functional. Collectively, these findings provide evidence of PcAVR3a1 evolution via mobile elements in environmental strains of Phytophthora. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Big data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  4. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  5. Big data in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Big data bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Casey S; Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Moore, Jason H; Cheng, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Recent technological advances allow for high throughput profiling of biological systems in a cost-efficient manner. The low cost of data generation is leading us to the "big data" era. The availability of big data provides unprecedented opportunities but also raises new challenges for data mining and analysis. In this review, we introduce key concepts in the analysis of big data, including both "machine learning" algorithms as well as "unsupervised" and "supervised" examples of each. We note packages for the R programming language that are available to perform machine learning analyses. In addition to programming based solutions, we review webservers that allow users with limited or no programming background to perform these analyses on large data compendia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Big Rock Point severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, B.A.; Gabor, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    December 1994, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) issued guidance relative to the formal industry position on Severe Accident Management (SAM) approved by the NEI Strategic Issues Advisory Committee on November 4, 1994. This paper summarizes how Big Rock Point (BRP) has and continues to address SAM strategies. The historical accounting portion of this presentation includes a description of how the following projects identified and defined the current Big Rock Point SAM strategies: the 1981 Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment performance; the development of the Plant Specific Technical Guidelines from which the symptom oriented Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) were developed; the Control Room Design Review; and, the recent completion of the Individual Plant Evaluation (IPE). In addition to the historical presentation deliberation, this paper the present activities that continue to stress SAM strategies

  8. The BIG Data Center: from deposition to integration to translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-04

    Biological data are generated at unprecedentedly exponential rates, posing considerable challenges in big data deposition, integration and translation. The BIG Data Center, established at Beijing Institute of Genomics (BIG), Chinese Academy of Sciences, provides a suite of database resources, including (i) Genome Sequence Archive, a data repository specialized for archiving raw sequence reads, (ii) Gene Expression Nebulas, a data portal of gene expression profiles based entirely on RNA-Seq data, (iii) Genome Variation Map, a comprehensive collection of genome variations for featured species, (iv) Genome Warehouse, a centralized resource housing genome-scale data with particular focus on economically important animals and plants, (v) Methylation Bank, an integrated database of whole-genome single-base resolution methylomes and (vi) Science Wikis, a central access point for biological wikis developed for community annotations. The BIG Data Center is dedicated to constructing and maintaining biological databases through big data integration and value-added curation, conducting basic research to translate big data into big knowledge and providing freely open access to a variety of data resources in support of worldwide research activities in both academia and industry. All of these resources are publicly available and can be found at http://bigd.big.ac.cn. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Greece, Milos Island Geothermal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    On Milos island (Aegean Sea) a high enthalpy, water dominated geothermal field of high salinity exists. At 1985, a 2MW geothermoelectric pilot plant was installed on the island. This plant has been provided by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan under a contract with Public Power Corporation of Greece. Due to high salinity of the geothermal fluid, unforeseen problems (scaling mainly) arisen in both steam and brine cycles. As a consequence, the operation (trial mainly) of the power plant have been interrupted several times for long periods, in order to identify the arisen, each time, problems and find the most appropriate technical solution. The above fact, as well as, some unfortunate coincidences described in this paper, led Milos people to react against geothermal development in their island. The sequence of the events, technical and non-technical, their approach and the relevant conclusions are reported in this presentation

  10. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1996-03-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  11. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances

  12. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances

  13. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  14. Study of Marine Ecotourism Potential of Cubadak Island West Sumatera Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yulan, Nofri Andri; Nasution, Syafruddin; Yoswaty, Dessy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study is to identify tourist object of Cubadak island and its potential level for marine ecotourism by used of survey method. Both primary and secondary data were collected by meaning, interviewing, and investigating directly. Interviewing sampling method was used purposively, particularly for tourist sample were used as accidental sampling. The result showed that Cubadak Island has a big potential in marine tourism and possess a big chance to develop in marine ecotourism sector. I...

  15. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  16. Big ideas: innovation policy

    OpenAIRE

    John Van Reenen

    2011-01-01

    In the last CentrePiece, John Van Reenen stressed the importance of competition and labour market flexibility for productivity growth. His latest in CEP's 'big ideas' series describes the impact of research on how policy-makers can influence innovation more directly - through tax credits for business spending on research and development.

  17. Big Data ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with

  18. Big data in history

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Big Data in History introduces the project to create a world-historical archive, tracing the last four centuries of historical dynamics and change. Chapters address the archive's overall plan, how to interpret the past through a global archive, the missions of gathering records, linking local data into global patterns, and exploring the results.

  19. The Big Sky inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  20. Moving Another Big Desk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Gay

    1996-01-01

    New ways of thinking about leadership require that leaders move their big desks and establish environments that encourage trust and open communication. Educational leaders must trust their colleagues to make wise choices. When teachers are treated democratically as leaders, classrooms will also become democratic learning organizations. (SM)

  1. A Big Bang Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  2. New 'bigs' in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, Artyom V.; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper contains a detailed discussion on new cosmic solutions describing the early and late evolution of a universe that is filled with a kind of dark energy that may or may not satisfy the energy conditions. The main distinctive property of the resulting space-times is that they make to appear twice the single singular events predicted by the corresponding quintessential (phantom) models in a manner which can be made symmetric with respect to the origin of cosmic time. Thus, big bang and big rip singularity are shown to take place twice, one on the positive branch of time and the other on the negative one. We have also considered dark energy and phantom energy accretion onto black holes and wormholes in the context of these new cosmic solutions. It is seen that the space-times of these holes would then undergo swelling processes leading to big trip and big hole events taking place on distinct epochs along the evolution of the universe. In this way, the possibility is considered that the past and future be connected in a non-paradoxical manner in the universes described by means of the new symmetric solutions

  3. The Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Moods, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    How did the Universe begin? The favoured theory is that everything - space, time, matter - came into existence at the same moment, around 13.7 thousand million years ago. This event was scornfully referred to as the "Big Bang" by Sir Fred Hoyle, who did not believe in it and maintained that the Universe had always existed.

  4. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The volume and variety of data being generated using computersis doubling every two years. It is estimated that in 2015,8 Zettabytes (Zetta=1021) were generated which consistedmostly of unstructured data such as emails, blogs, Twitter,Facebook posts, images, and videos. This is called big data. Itis possible to analyse ...

  5. Identifying Dwarfs Workloads in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...

  6. Big Data and Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  7. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-07-31

    Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to big data scaling. This presents a serious impediment since identify- ing and repairing dirty data often involves processing huge input datasets, handling sophisticated error discovery approaches and managing huge arbitrary errors. With large datasets, error detection becomes overly expensive and complicated especially when considering user-defined functions. Furthermore, a distinctive algorithm is de- sired to optimize inequality joins in sophisticated error discovery rather than na ̈ıvely parallelizing them. Also, when repairing large errors, their skewed distribution may obstruct effective error repairs. In this dissertation, I present solutions to overcome the above three problems in scaling data cleansing. First, I present BigDansing as a general system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing for Big Data. It automatically parallelizes the user’s code on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also enables parallel execution of serial repair algorithms by exploiting the graph representation of discovered errors. The experimental results show that BigDansing outperforms existing baselines up to more than two orders of magnitude. Although BigDansing scales cleansing jobs, it still lacks the ability to handle sophisticated error discovery requiring inequality joins. Therefore, I developed IEJoin as an algorithm for fast inequality joins. It is based on sorted arrays and space efficient bit-arrays to reduce the problem’s search space. By comparing IEJoin against well- known optimizations, I show that it is more scalable, and several orders of magnitude faster. BigDansing depends on vertex-centric graph systems, i.e., Pregel

  8. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own…

  9. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  10. Big Data-Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.G. Aruna Sri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Big data is the term for any gathering of information sets, so expensive and complex, that it gets to be hard to process for utilizing customary information handling applications. The difficulties incorporate investigation, catch, duration, inquiry, sharing, stockpiling, Exchange, perception, and protection infringement. To reduce spot business patterns, anticipate diseases, conflict etc., we require bigger data sets when compared with the smaller data sets. Enormous information is hard to work with utilizing most social database administration frameworks and desktop measurements and perception bundles, needing rather enormously parallel programming running on tens, hundreds, or even a large number of servers. In this paper there was an observation on Hadoop architecture, different tools used for big data and its security issues.

  11. Finding the big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Lyman A; Partridge, R Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Cosmology, the study of the universe as a whole, has become a precise physical science, the foundation of which is our understanding of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) left from the big bang. The story of the discovery and exploration of the CMBR in the 1960s is recalled for the first time in this collection of 44 essays by eminent scientists who pioneered the work. Two introductory chapters put the essays in context, explaining the general ideas behind the expanding universe and fossil remnants from the early stages of the expanding universe. The last chapter describes how the confusion of ideas and measurements in the 1960s grew into the present tight network of tests that demonstrate the accuracy of the big bang theory. This book is valuable to anyone interested in how science is done, and what it has taught us about the large-scale nature of the physical universe.

  12. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Klinkby Madsen, Anders; Rasche, Andreas

    data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects......This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... of international development agendas to algorithms that synthesize large-scale data, (3) novel ways of rationalizing knowledge claims that underlie development efforts, and (4) shifts in professional and organizational identities of those concerned with producing and processing data for development. Our discussion...

  13. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.; Billingon, D.E.; Cameron, R.F.; Curl, S.J.

    1983-09-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but just imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the risks of nuclear power. The paper reviews the way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past and makes recommendations for the future, including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'loss of life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and 'equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking'. The paper presents mathematical arguments, which show the derivation and validity of the proposed methods of presenting the consequences of imaginable big nuclear accidents. (author)

  14. Big Bounce and inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizuela, David; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A; Pawlowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of an inhomogeneous universe is studied with the methods of loop quantum cosmology, via a so-called hybrid quantization, as an example of the quantization of vacuum cosmological spacetimes containing gravitational waves (Gowdy spacetimes). The analysis of this model with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, performed at the effective level, shows that (i) the initial Big Bang singularity is replaced (as in the case of homogeneous cosmological models) by a Big Bounce, joining deterministically two large universes, (ii) the universe size at the bounce is at least of the same order of magnitude as that of the background homogeneous universe and (iii) for each gravitational wave mode, the difference in amplitude at very early and very late times has a vanishing statistical average when the bounce dynamics is strongly dominated by the inhomogeneities, whereas this average is positive when the dynamics is in a near-vacuum regime, so that statistically the inhomogeneities are amplified. (fast track communication)

  15. Big Data and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Shaw

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequencers, Twitter, MRIs, Facebook, particle accelerators, Google Books, radio telescopes, Tumblr: what do these things have in common? According to the evangelists of “data science,” all of these are instruments for observing reality at unprecedentedly large scales and fine granularities. This perspective ignores the social reality of these very different technological systems, ignoring how they are made, how they work, and what they mean in favor of an exclusive focus on what they generate: Big Data. But no data, big or small, can be interpreted without an understanding of the process that generated them. Statistical data science is applicable to systems that have been designed as scientific instruments, but is likely to lead to confusion when applied to systems that have not. In those cases, a historical inquiry is preferable.

  16. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  17. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  18. Plutonium isotopes and 241Am in surface sediments off the coast of the Japanese islands before and soon after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of 239+240 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am in the sediments at the coast of Japanese islands from 2008 to 2011 varied widely from one sampling site to another and were generally lower in sandy sediments at shallower sites, and higher in clayey sediments at deeper sites. In contrast, there seemed to be no temporal variation in the concentrations during the survey period. The 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu activity ratio was relatively higher than the global fallout presumably owing to the ingrowth of 241 Am from the ancestor, 241 Pu originating mainly from the hydrogen bomb explosion tests in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s. (author)

  19. Big Bang Circus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Big Bang Circus is an opera I composed in 2001 and which was premiered at the Venice Biennale Contemporary Music Festival in 2002. A chamber group, four singers and a ringmaster stage the story of the Universe confronting and interweaving two threads: how early man imagined it and how scientists described it. Surprisingly enough fancy, myths and scientific explanations often end up using the same images, metaphors and sometimes even words: a strong tension, a drumskin starting to vibrate, a shout…

  20. Big Bang 5

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 5 RG behandelt die Grundlagen (Maßsystem, Größenordnungen) und die Mechanik (Translation, Rotation, Kraft, Erhaltungssätze).

  1. Big Bang 8

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Band 8 vermittelt auf verständliche Weise Relativitätstheorie, Kern- und Teilchenphysik (und deren Anwendungen in der Kosmologie und Astrophysik), Nanotechnologie sowie Bionik.

  2. Big Bang 6

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 6 RG behandelt die Gravitation, Schwingungen und Wellen, Thermodynamik und eine Einführung in die Elektrizität anhand von Alltagsbeispielen und Querverbindungen zu anderen Disziplinen.

  3. Big Bang 7

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. In Band 7 werden neben einer Einführung auch viele aktuelle Aspekte von Quantenmechanik (z. Beamen) und Elektrodynamik (zB Elektrosmog), sowie die Klimaproblematik und die Chaostheorie behandelt.

  4. Big Bang Darkleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaic, Gordan; Sigurdson, Kris

    2014-01-01

    In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis , a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD , which generica...

  5. Big³. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C U; Séroussi, B; Jaulent, M-C

    2014-05-22

    To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. 'Big Data' has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that 'Big Data' will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics - some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of 'Big Data' today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016.

  6. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  7. Recent big flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Fumio; Miyazawa, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Yoshisuke

    1978-01-01

    The features of three big solar flares observed at Tokyo Observatory are described in this paper. The active region, McMath 14943, caused a big flare on September 16, 1977. The flare appeared on both sides of a long dark line which runs along the boundary of the magnetic field. Two-ribbon structure was seen. The electron density of the flare observed at Norikura Corona Observatory was 3 x 10 12 /cc. Several arc lines which connect both bright regions of different magnetic polarity were seen in H-α monochrome image. The active region, McMath 15056, caused a big flare on December 10, 1977. At the beginning, several bright spots were observed in the region between two main solar spots. Then, the area and the brightness increased, and the bright spots became two ribbon-shaped bands. A solar flare was observed on April 8, 1978. At first, several bright spots were seen around the solar spot in the active region, McMath 15221. Then, these bright spots developed to a large bright region. On both sides of a dark line along the magnetic neutral line, bright regions were generated. These developed to a two-ribbon flare. The time required for growth was more than one hour. A bright arc which connects two ribbons was seen, and this arc may be a loop prominence system. (Kato, T.)

  8. Big Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Dagliati, Arianna; Sacchi, Lucia; Segagni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The so-called big data revolution provides substantial opportunities to diabetes management. At least 3 important directions are currently of great interest. First, the integration of different sources of information, from primary and secondary care to administrative information, may allow depicting a novel view of patient’s care processes and of single patient’s behaviors, taking into account the multifaceted nature of chronic care. Second, the availability of novel diabetes technologies, able to gather large amounts of real-time data, requires the implementation of distributed platforms for data analysis and decision support. Finally, the inclusion of geographical and environmental information into such complex IT systems may further increase the capability of interpreting the data gathered and extract new knowledge from them. This article reviews the main concepts and definitions related to big data, it presents some efforts in health care, and discusses the potential role of big data in diabetes care. Finally, as an example, it describes the research efforts carried on in the MOSAIC project, funded by the European Commission. PMID:25910540

  9. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C; Rodríguez-Gómez, D; Ward, J

    2007-01-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...

  10. Data mining for clustering naming of the village at Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan Abdullah, Atje; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi; Hidayat, Akik; Akmal; Setiana, Deni

    2017-10-01

    Clustering of query based data mining to identify the meaning of the naming of the village in Java island, done by exploring the database village with three categories namely: prefix in the naming of the village, syllables contained in the naming of the village, and full word naming of the village which is actually used. While syllables contained in the naming of the village are classified by the behaviour of the culture and character of each province that describes the business, feelings, circumstances, places, nature, respect, plants, fruits, and animals. Sources of data used for the clustering of the naming of the village on the island of Java was obtained from Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) in the form of a complete village name data with the coordinates in six provinces in Java, which is arranged in a hierarchy of provinces, districts / cities, districts and villages. The research method using KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Database) through the process of preprocessing, data mining and postprocessing to obtain knowledge. In this study, data mining applications to facilitate the search query based on the name of the village, using Java software. While the contours of a map is processed using ArcGIS software. The results of the research can give recommendations to stakeholders such as the Department of Tourism to describe the meaning of the classification of naming the village according to the character in each province at Java island.

  11. Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV): Natural occurrence and efficacy as a biological insecticide on young banana plants in greenhouse and open-field conditions on the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ernesto Gabriel; Hernández-Suárez, Estrella; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2017-01-01

    Chrysodeixis chalcites, an important pest of banana crops on the Canary Islands, is usually controlled by chemical insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the most prevalent isolate of the Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV, Baculoviridae) as a biological insecticide. Overall the prevalence of ChchNPV infection in C. chalcites populations was 2.3% (103 infected larvae out of 4,438 sampled), but varied from 0-4.8% on Tenerife and was usually low (0-2%) on the other islands. On Tenerife, infected larvae were present at 11 out of 17 plantations sampled. The prevalence of infection in larvae on bananas grown under greenhouse structures was significantly higher (3%) than in open-field sites (1.4%). The ChchNPV-TF1 isolate was the most abundant and widespread of four genetic variants of the virus. Application of 1.0x109 viral occlusion bodies (OBs)/l of ChchNPV-TF1 significantly reduced C. chalcites foliar damage in young banana plants as did commonly used pesticides, both in greenhouse and open-field sites. The insecticidal efficacy of ChchNPV-TF1 was similar to that of indoxacarb and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based insecticide in one year of trials and similar to Bt in the following year of trails in greenhouse and field crops. However, larvae collected at different time intervals following virus treatments and reared in the laboratory experienced 2-7 fold more mortality than insects from conventional insecticide treatments. This suggests that the acquisition of lethal dose occurred over an extended period (up to 7 days) compared to a brief peak in larvae on plants treated with conventional insecticides. These results should prove useful for the registration of a ChchNPV-based insecticide for integrated management of this pest in banana crops on the Canary Islands.

  12. Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV: Natural occurrence and efficacy as a biological insecticide on young banana plants in greenhouse and open-field conditions on the Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Gabriel Fuentes

    Full Text Available Chrysodeixis chalcites, an important pest of banana crops on the Canary Islands, is usually controlled by chemical insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the most prevalent isolate of the Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV, Baculoviridae as a biological insecticide. Overall the prevalence of ChchNPV infection in C. chalcites populations was 2.3% (103 infected larvae out of 4,438 sampled, but varied from 0-4.8% on Tenerife and was usually low (0-2% on the other islands. On Tenerife, infected larvae were present at 11 out of 17 plantations sampled. The prevalence of infection in larvae on bananas grown under greenhouse structures was significantly higher (3% than in open-field sites (1.4%. The ChchNPV-TF1 isolate was the most abundant and widespread of four genetic variants of the virus. Application of 1.0x109 viral occlusion bodies (OBs/l of ChchNPV-TF1 significantly reduced C. chalcites foliar damage in young banana plants as did commonly used pesticides, both in greenhouse and open-field sites. The insecticidal efficacy of ChchNPV-TF1 was similar to that of indoxacarb and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based insecticide in one year of trials and similar to Bt in the following year of trails in greenhouse and field crops. However, larvae collected at different time intervals following virus treatments and reared in the laboratory experienced 2-7 fold more mortality than insects from conventional insecticide treatments. This suggests that the acquisition of lethal dose occurred over an extended period (up to 7 days compared to a brief peak in larvae on plants treated with conventional insecticides. These results should prove useful for the registration of a ChchNPV-based insecticide for integrated management of this pest in banana crops on the Canary Islands.

  13. Disaggregating asthma: Big investigation versus big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. C-CAP Land Cover, Big Island, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  15. Big data and educational research

    OpenAIRE

    Beneito-Montagut, Roser

    2017-01-01

    Big data and data analytics offer the promise to enhance teaching and learning, improve educational research and progress education governance. This chapter aims to contribute to the conceptual and methodological understanding of big data and analytics within educational research. It describes the opportunities and challenges that big data and analytics bring to education as well as critically explore the perils of applying a data driven approach to education. Despite the claimed value of the...

  16. The trashing of Big Green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature

  17. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East... within Big Lagoon; (iii) The areas within 200 feet from the remnants of the old fishing pier and within 200 feet from the new fishing pier at Fort Pickens; and (iv) Within 200 feet of non-motorized vessels...

  18. Big data in fashion industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.; Bruniaux, J.; Zeng, X.; Bruniaux, P.

    2017-10-01

    Significant work has been done in the field of big data in last decade. The concept of big data includes analysing voluminous data to extract valuable information. In the fashion world, big data is increasingly playing a part in trend forecasting, analysing consumer behaviour, preference and emotions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the term fashion data and why it can be considered as big data. It also gives a broad classification of the types of fashion data and briefly defines them. Also, the methodology and working of a system that will use this data is briefly described.

  19. Big Data Analytics An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Dwivedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a data beyond the storage capacity and beyond the processing power is called big data. Big data term is used for data sets its so large or complex that traditional data it involves data sets with sizes. Big data size is a constantly moving target year by year ranging from a few dozen terabytes to many petabytes of data means like social networking sites the amount of data produced by people is growing rapidly every year. Big data is not only a data rather it become a complete subject which includes various tools techniques and framework. It defines the epidemic possibility and evolvement of data both structured and unstructured. Big data is a set of techniques and technologies that require new forms of assimilate to uncover large hidden values from large datasets that are diverse complex and of a massive scale. It is difficult to work with using most relational database management systems and desktop statistics and visualization packages exacting preferably massively parallel software running on tens hundreds or even thousands of servers. Big data environment is used to grab organize and resolve the various types of data. In this paper we describe applications problems and tools of big data and gives overview of big data.

  20. Was there a big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, J.

    1981-01-01

    In discussing the viability of the big-bang model of the Universe relative evidence is examined including the discrepancies in the age of the big-bang Universe, the red shifts of quasars, the microwave background radiation, general theory of relativity aspects such as the change of the gravitational constant with time, and quantum theory considerations. It is felt that the arguments considered show that the big-bang picture is not as soundly established, either theoretically or observationally, as it is usually claimed to be, that the cosmological problem is still wide open and alternatives to the standard big-bang picture should be seriously investigated. (U.K.)

  1. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  2. Influence of container size on Wyoming big sagebrush seedling morphology and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayla R. Herriman; Anthony S. Davis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is a key component of sagebrush steppe ecosystems and is a dominant shrub throughout the western United States. Our objective was to identify the effect of container size on plant morphology of Wyoming big sagebrush. We used three different stocktypes (45/340 ml [20 in3], 60/250 ml [15 in3], 112/105 ml [6....

  3. Privacy and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri

  4. Visualizing big energy data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyndman, Rob J.; Liu, Xueqin Amy; Pinson, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Visualization is a crucial component of data analysis. It is always a good idea to plot the data before fitting models, making predictions, or drawing conclusions. As sensors of the electric grid are collecting large volumes of data from various sources, power industry professionals are facing th...... the challenge of visualizing such data in a timely fashion. In this article, we demonstrate several data-visualization solutions for big energy data through three case studies involving smart-meter data, phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, and probabilistic forecasts, respectively....

  5. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  6. Big data naturally rescaled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoop, Ruedi; Kanders, Karlis; Lorimer, Tom; Held, Jenny; Albert, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We propose that a handle could be put on big data by looking at the systems that actually generate the data, rather than the data itself, realizing that there may be only few generic processes involved in this, each one imprinting its very specific structures in the space of systems, the traces of which translate into feature space. From this, we propose a practical computational clustering approach, optimized for coping with such data, inspired by how the human cortex is known to approach the problem.

  7. A Matrix Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matr...

  8. BIG Data - BIG Gains? Understanding the Link Between Big Data Analytics and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Niebel, Thomas; Rasel, Fabienne; Viete, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between firms’ use of big data analytics and their innovative performance for product innovations. Since big data technologies provide new data information practices, they create new decision-making possibilities, which firms can use to realize innovations. Applying German firm-level data we find suggestive evidence that big data analytics matters for the likelihood of becoming a product innovator as well as the market success of the firms’ product innovat...

  9. BIG data - BIG gains? Empirical evidence on the link between big data analytics and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Niebel, Thomas; Rasel, Fabienne; Viete, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between firms’ use of big data analytics and their innovative performance in terms of product innovations. Since big data technologies provide new data information practices, they create novel decision-making possibilities, which are widely believed to support firms’ innovation process. Applying German firm-level data within a knowledge production function framework we find suggestive evidence that big data analytics is a relevant determinant for the likel...

  10. [Big data in imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerin, Philipp; Ostendorf, Benedikt; Hueber, Axel J; Kleyer, Arnd

    2018-04-01

    Until now, most major medical advancements have been achieved through hypothesis-driven research within the scope of clinical trials. However, due to a multitude of variables, only a certain number of research questions could be addressed during a single study, thus rendering these studies expensive and time consuming. Big data acquisition enables a new data-based approach in which large volumes of data can be used to investigate all variables, thus opening new horizons. Due to universal digitalization of the data as well as ever-improving hard- and software solutions, imaging would appear to be predestined for such analyses. Several small studies have already demonstrated that automated analysis algorithms and artificial intelligence can identify pathologies with high precision. Such automated systems would also seem well suited for rheumatology imaging, since a method for individualized risk stratification has long been sought for these patients. However, despite all the promising options, the heterogeneity of the data and highly complex regulations covering data protection in Germany would still render a big data solution for imaging difficult today. Overcoming these boundaries is challenging, but the enormous potential advances in clinical management and science render pursuit of this goal worthwhile.

  11. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.

    2006-01-01

    We present an overview of the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), which describes the production of the light elements in the early universe. The theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, 3 He, 4 He, and 7 Li is discussed. We emphasize the role of key nuclear reactions and the methods by which experimental cross section uncertainties are propagated into uncertainties in the predicted abundances. The observational determination of the light nuclides is also discussed. Particular attention is given to the comparison between the predicted and observed abundances, which yields a measurement of the cosmic baryon content. The spectrum of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) now independently measures the baryon density to high precision; we show how the CMB data test BBN, and find that the CMB and the D and 4 He observations paint a consistent picture. This concordance stands as a major success of the hot big bang. On the other hand, 7 Li remains discrepant with the CMB-preferred baryon density; possible explanations are reviewed. Finally, moving beyond the standard model, primordial nucleosynthesis constraints on early universe and particle physics are also briefly discussed

  12. Nursing Needs Big Data and Big Data Needs Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary big data initiatives in health care will benefit from greater integration with nursing science and nursing practice; in turn, nursing science and nursing practice has much to gain from the data science initiatives. Big data arises secondary to scholarly inquiry (e.g., -omics) and everyday observations like cardiac flow sensors or Twitter feeds. Data science methods that are emerging ensure that these data be leveraged to improve patient care. Big data encompasses data that exceed human comprehension, that exist at a volume unmanageable by standard computer systems, that arrive at a velocity not under the control of the investigator and possess a level of imprecision not found in traditional inquiry. Data science methods are emerging to manage and gain insights from big data. The primary methods included investigation of emerging federal big data initiatives, and exploration of exemplars from nursing informatics research to benchmark where nursing is already poised to participate in the big data revolution. We provide observations and reflections on experiences in the emerging big data initiatives. Existing approaches to large data set analysis provide a necessary but not sufficient foundation for nursing to participate in the big data revolution. Nursing's Social Policy Statement guides a principled, ethical perspective on big data and data science. There are implications for basic and advanced practice clinical nurses in practice, for the nurse scientist who collaborates with data scientists, and for the nurse data scientist. Big data and data science has the potential to provide greater richness in understanding patient phenomena and in tailoring interventional strategies that are personalized to the patient. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Big data of tree species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Enquist, Brian J.; Maitner, Brian

    2018-01-01

    are currently available in big databases, several challenges hamper their use, notably geolocation problems and taxonomic uncertainty. Further, we lack a complete picture of the data coverage and quality assessment for open/public databases of tree occurrences. Methods: We combined data from five major...... and data aggregation, especially from national forest inventory programs, to improve the current publicly available data.......Background: Trees play crucial roles in the biosphere and societies worldwide, with a total of 60,065 tree species currently identified. Increasingly, a large amount of data on tree species occurrences is being generated worldwide: from inventories to pressed plants. While many of these data...

  14. Was the big bang hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The author considers experiments to confirm the substantial deviations from a Planck curve in the Woody and Richards spectrum of the microwave background, and search for conducting needles in our galaxy. Spectral deviations and needle-shaped grains are expected for a cold Big Bang, but are not required by a hot Big Bang. (Auth.)

  15. Ethische aspecten van big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. (Niek) van Antwerpen; Klaas Jan Mollema

    2017-01-01

    Big data heeft niet alleen geleid tot uitdagende technische vraagstukken, ook gaat het gepaard met allerlei nieuwe ethische en morele kwesties. Om verantwoord met big data om te gaan, moet ook over deze kwesties worden nagedacht. Want slecht datagebruik kan nadelige gevolgen hebben voor

  16. Fremtidens landbrug bliver big business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Landbrugets omverdensforhold og konkurrencevilkår ændres, og det vil nødvendiggøre en udvikling i retning af “big business“, hvor landbrugene bliver endnu større, mere industrialiserede og koncentrerede. Big business bliver en dominerende udvikling i dansk landbrug - men ikke den eneste...

  17. Human factors in Big Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J. de

    2016-01-01

    Since 2014 I am involved in various (research) projects that try to make the hype around Big Data more concrete and tangible for the industry and government. Big Data is about multiple sources of (real-time) data that can be analysed, transformed to information and be used to make 'smart' decisions.

  18. Passport to the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Le 2 juin 2013, le CERN inaugure le projet Passeport Big Bang lors d'un grand événement public. Affiche et programme. On 2 June 2013 CERN launches a scientific tourist trail through the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva known as the Passport to the Big Bang. Poster and Programme.

  19. Applications of Big Data in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Kalota

    2015-01-01

    Big Data and analytics have gained a huge momentum in recent years. Big Data feeds into the field of Learning Analytics (LA) that may allow academic institutions to better understand the learners' needs and proactively address them. Hence, it is important to have an understanding of Big Data and its applications. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to provide an overview of Big Data, the technologies used in Big Data, and some of the applications of Big Data in educa...

  20. Farewell to a Big and Rich Nuclear Power Club?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, A.

    2001-01-01

    For the last few decades of the 20th, century, we have seen a large number of big nuclear power plants being built and operated in a few rich countries like the United States, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Japan. They have standardized the 1000 MWe-type light water reactors, which have the actual generating capacity of more than 1100 MW. (author)

  1. Exploring complex and big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanowski Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how big data analysis opens a range of research and technological problems and calls for new approaches. We start with defining the essential properties of big data and discussing the main types of data involved. We then survey the dedicated solutions for storing and processing big data, including a data lake, virtual integration, and a polystore architecture. Difficulties in managing data quality and provenance are also highlighted. The characteristics of big data imply also specific requirements and challenges for data mining algorithms, which we address as well. The links with related areas, including data streams and deep learning, are discussed. The common theme that naturally emerges from this characterization is complexity. All in all, we consider it to be the truly defining feature of big data (posing particular research and technological challenges, which ultimately seems to be of greater importance than the sheer data volume.

  2. Risks due to fires at Big Rock Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinsfield, W.A.; Blanchard, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    The unique and older designs of the Big Rock Point nuclear plant is such that fires contribute significantly to the probability of core damage predicted in the probabilistic risk assessment performed for this plant. The methodology employed to determine this contribution reflects the unique, as constructed, plant design, while systematically and logically addressing the true effect of fires on the operation of the plant and the safety of the public. As a result of the methodology utilized in the PRA, recommendations are made which minimize the risk of core damage due to fires. Included in these recommendations is a proposal for equipment and controls to be included on the Big Rock Point alternate shutdown panel

  3. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  4. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  5. Mountain big sagebrush age distribution and relationships on the northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista L. Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted within the Gardiner Basin, an especially critical wintering area for native ungulates utilizing the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Mountain big sagebrush plants on 33 sites were classified as large (≥22 cm canopy cover), small (

  6. Short-term regeneration dynamics of Wyoming big sagebrush at two sites in northern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    The herbicide tebuthiuron has been used historically to control cover of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis - complete taxonomic designation), a widespread shrub across the western United States, with the intent of increasing herbaceous plant cover. Although the tebuthiur...

  7. The big data telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    On a flat, red mulga plain in the outback of Western Australia, preparations are under way to build the most audacious telescope astronomers have ever dreamed of - the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Next-generation telescopes usually aim to double the performance of their predecessors. The Australian arm of SKA will deliver a 168-fold leap on the best technology available today, to show us the universe as never before. It will tune into signals emitted just a million years after the Big Bang, when the universe was a sea of hydrogen gas, slowly percolating with the first galaxies. Their starlight illuminated the fledgling universe in what is referred to as the “cosmic dawn”.

  8. The Big Optical Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Simon, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the capabilities of the Naval Research Laboratory Big Optical Array (BOA), an interferometric optical array for high-resolution imaging of stars, stellar systems, and other celestial objects. There are four important differences between the BOA design and the design of Mark III Optical Interferometer on Mount Wilson (California). These include a long passive delay line which will be used in BOA to do most of the delay compensation, so that the fast delay line will have a very short travel; the beam combination in BOA will be done in triplets, to allow measurement of closure phase; the same light will be used for both star and fringe tracking; and the fringe tracker will use several wavelength channels

  9. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1983-01-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  10. Nonstandard big bang models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvao, M.O.; Lima, J.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The usual FRW hot big-bang cosmologies have been generalized by considering the equation of state ρ = Anm +(γ-1) -1 p, where m is the rest mass of the fluid particles and A is a dimensionless constant. Explicit analytic solutions are given for the flat case (ε=O). For large cosmological times these extended models behave as the standard Einstein-de Sitter universes regardless of the values of A and γ. Unlike the usual FRW flat case the deceleration parameter q is a time-dependent function and its present value, q≅ 1, obtained from the luminosity distance versus redshift relation, may be fitted by taking, for instance, A=1 and γ = 5/3 (monatomic relativistic gas with >> k B T). In all cases the universe cools obeying the same temperature law of the FRW models and it is shown that the age of the universe is only slightly modified. (author) [pt

  11. A matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control

  12. A matrix big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Verlinde, Erik [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  13. DPF Big One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    At its latest venue at Fermilab from 10-14 November, the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields meeting entered a new dimension. These regular meetings, which allow younger researchers to communicate with their peers, have been gaining popularity over the years (this was the seventh in the series), but nobody had expected almost a thousand participants and nearly 500 requests to give talks. Thus Fermilab's 800-seat auditorium had to be supplemented with another room with a video hookup, while the parallel sessions were organized into nine bewildering streams covering fourteen major physics topics. With the conventionality of the Standard Model virtually unchallenged, physics does not move fast these days. While most of the physics results had already been covered in principle at the International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Dallas in August (October, page 1), the Fermilab DPF meeting had a very different atmosphere. Major international meetings like Dallas attract big names from far and wide, and it is difficult in such an august atmosphere for young researchers to find a receptive audience. This was not the case at the DPF parallel sessions. The meeting also adopted a novel approach, with the parallels sandwiched between an initial day of plenaries to set the scene, and a final day of summaries. With the whole world waiting for the sixth ('top') quark to be discovered at Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, the meeting began with updates from Avi Yagil and Ronald Madaras from the big detectors, CDF and DO respectively. Although rumours flew thick and fast, the Tevatron has not yet reached the top, although Yagil could show one intriguing event of a type expected from the heaviest quark

  14. DPF Big One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-01-15

    At its latest venue at Fermilab from 10-14 November, the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields meeting entered a new dimension. These regular meetings, which allow younger researchers to communicate with their peers, have been gaining popularity over the years (this was the seventh in the series), but nobody had expected almost a thousand participants and nearly 500 requests to give talks. Thus Fermilab's 800-seat auditorium had to be supplemented with another room with a video hookup, while the parallel sessions were organized into nine bewildering streams covering fourteen major physics topics. With the conventionality of the Standard Model virtually unchallenged, physics does not move fast these days. While most of the physics results had already been covered in principle at the International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Dallas in August (October, page 1), the Fermilab DPF meeting had a very different atmosphere. Major international meetings like Dallas attract big names from far and wide, and it is difficult in such an august atmosphere for young researchers to find a receptive audience. This was not the case at the DPF parallel sessions. The meeting also adopted a novel approach, with the parallels sandwiched between an initial day of plenaries to set the scene, and a final day of summaries. With the whole world waiting for the sixth ('top') quark to be discovered at Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, the meeting began with updates from Avi Yagil and Ronald Madaras from the big detectors, CDF and DO respectively. Although rumours flew thick and fast, the Tevatron has not yet reached the top, although Yagil could show one intriguing event of a type expected from the heaviest quark.

  15. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.

    2007-01-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe

  16. Good Engineering + Poor Communication = Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, J. C.

    The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant resulted from a communication failure. Following an incident at an Ohio plant a year and a half earlier, B. M. Dunn, manager of Emergency Core Cooling Systems Analysis at Babcock and Wilcox (engineers), wrote a memorandum making specific recommendations on written instructions for nuclear…

  17. Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean:Present situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. The infection is widely seen in tropical Latin and South American countries and results in several problems in that area. In addition, the previous big outbreak in many island countries in Pacific region brings attention to the further expansion of the infection worldwide. The specific situation of the infection in island countries is very interesting. Here, the current situation (in 2016) of Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean is summarized and presented. Although there is still no current problem in the Asian island countries in Indian Ocean, the appearance of infection in the sea resorts of countries lining Indian Ocean is a big concern. Due to the high volume of traveler to sea resorts, emergence of the new disease in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean can be expected.

  18. BigOP: Generating Comprehensive Big Data Workloads as a Benchmarking Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yuqing; Zhan, Jianfeng; Weng, Chuliang; Nambiar, Raghunath; Zhang, Jinchao; Chen, Xingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Big Data is considered proprietary asset of companies, organizations, and even nations. Turning big data into real treasure requires the support of big data systems. A variety of commercial and open source products have been unleashed for big data storage and processing. While big data users are facing the choice of which system best suits their needs, big data system developers are facing the question of how to evaluate their systems with regard to general big data processing needs. System b...

  19. Vegetation assessment of forests of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Marianas Expedition Wildlife Surveys-2010, the forest vegetation of the island of Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), was sampled with a series of systematic plots along 13 transects established for monitoring forest bird populations. Shrubland and grassland were also sampled in the northern half of the island. Data collected were woody plant density, tree diameter at breast height, woody plant density in height classes below 2 m, and ground cover measured with the point-intercept method. Coconut forests (Cocos nucifera) were generally found to have low native tree diversity, little regeneration of trees and shrubs in the forest understory, and little live ground cover. The sole exception was a coconut-dominated forest of the northeast side of the island that exhibited high native tree diversity and a large number of young native trees in the understory. Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) forests on the northern half of the island were nearly monocultures with almost no trees other than ironwood in vegetation plots, few woody plants in the understory, and low ground cover dominated by native ferns. Mixed native forests of both northern and southern sections of the island had a diversity of native tree species in both the canopy and the sparse understory. Ground cover of native forests in the north had a mix of native and alien species, but that of the southern half of the island was dominated by native ferns and woody plants.

  20. From big bang to big crunch and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, Shmuel; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Giveon, Amit; Kutasov, David

    2002-01-01

    We study a quotient Conformal Field Theory, which describes a 3+1 dimensional cosmological spacetime. Part of this spacetime is the Nappi-Witten (NW) universe, which starts at a 'big bang' singularity, expands and then contracts to a 'big crunch' singularity at a finite time. The gauged WZW model contains a number of copies of the NW spacetime, with each copy connected to the preceding one and to the next one at the respective big bang/big crunch singularities. The sequence of NW spacetimes is further connected at the singularities to a series of non-compact static regions with closed timelike curves. These regions contain boundaries, on which the observables of the theory live. This suggests a holographic interpretation of the physics. (author)

  1. Databases in the documentation management for big industrial projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauchet, A.; Chevillard, F.; Parisot, Y.; Tirefort, C.

    1990-05-01

    The documentation management of a big industrial project involves a continuous update of information, both in the study and realization phase or in the operation phase. The organization of the technical documentation for big industrial projects requests complex information systems. In the first part of this paper are presented the methods appropriate for the analysis of documentation management procedures and in the second part are presented the tools by the combination of which a documentation system for the user is provided. The case of the documentation centres for the Hague reprocessing plant is described

  2. Google BigQuery analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Tigani, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    How to effectively use BigQuery, avoid common mistakes, and execute sophisticated queries against large datasets Google BigQuery Analytics is the perfect guide for business and data analysts who want the latest tips on running complex queries and writing code to communicate with the BigQuery API. The book uses real-world examples to demonstrate current best practices and techniques, and also explains and demonstrates streaming ingestion, transformation via Hadoop in Google Compute engine, AppEngine datastore integration, and using GViz with Tableau to generate charts of query results. In addit

  3. Empathy and the Big Five

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Del Barrio et al. (2004) haben vor mehr als 10 Jahren versucht, eine direkte Beziehung zwischen Empathie und den Big Five herzustellen. Im Mittel hatten in ihrer Stichprobe Frauen höhere Werte in der Empathie und auf den Big Five-Faktoren mit Ausnahme des Faktors Neurotizismus. Zusammenhänge zu Empathie fanden sie in den Bereichen Offenheit, Verträglichkeit, Gewissenhaftigkeit und Extraversion. In unseren Daten besitzen Frauen sowohl in der Empathie als auch den Big Five signifikant höhere We...

  4. "Big data" in economic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Myron P; Merchant, Emily Klancher; Roberts, Evan

    2018-03-01

    Big data is an exciting prospect for the field of economic history, which has long depended on the acquisition, keying, and cleaning of scarce numerical information about the past. This article examines two areas in which economic historians are already using big data - population and environment - discussing ways in which increased frequency of observation, denser samples, and smaller geographic units allow us to analyze the past with greater precision and often to track individuals, places, and phenomena across time. We also explore promising new sources of big data: organically created economic data, high resolution images, and textual corpora.

  5. Big Data as Information Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers analysis of ‘Big Data’ which has been discussed over last 10 years. The reasons and factors for the issue are revealed. It has proved that the factors creating ‘Big Data’ issue has existed for quite a long time, and from time to time, would cause the informational barriers. Such barriers were successfully overcome through the science and technologies. The conducted analysis refers the “Big Data” issue to a form of informative barrier. This issue may be solved correctly and encourages development of scientific and calculating methods.

  6. Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behaviour is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

  7. Big Data in Space Science

    OpenAIRE

    Barmby, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    It seems like “big data” is everywhere these days. In planetary science and astronomy, we’ve been dealing with large datasets for a long time. So how “big” is our data? How does it compare to the big data that a bank or an airline might have? What new tools do we need to analyze big datasets, and how can we make better use of existing tools? What kinds of science problems can we address with these? I’ll address these questions with examples including ESA’s Gaia mission, ...

  8. Rate Change Big Bang Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The Rate Change Big Bang Theory redefines the birth of the universe with a dramatic shift in energy direction and a new vision of the first moments. With rate change graph technology (RCGT) we can look back 13.7 billion years and experience every step of the big bang through geometrical intersection technology. The analysis of the Big Bang includes a visualization of the first objects, their properties, the astounding event that created space and time as well as a solution to the mystery of anti-matter.

  9. Big Data is invading big places as CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Big Data technologies are becoming more popular with the constant grow of data generation in different fields such as social networks, internet of things and laboratories like CERN. How is CERN making use of such technologies? How machine learning is applied at CERN with Big Data technologies? How much data we move and how it is analyzed? All these questions will be answered during the talk.

  10. The ethics of big data in big agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell (Isabelle M.)

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the ethics of big data in agriculture, focusing on the power asymmetry between farmers and large agribusinesses like Monsanto. Following the recent purchase of Climate Corp., Monsanto is currently the most prominent biotech agribusiness to buy into big data. With wireless sensors on tractors monitoring or dictating every decision a farmer makes, Monsanto can now aggregate large quantities of previously proprietary farming data, enabling a privileged position with unique in...

  11. Big climate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudelsee, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The Big Data era has begun also in the climate sciences, not only in economics or molecular biology. We measure climate at increasing spatial resolution by means of satellites and look farther back in time at increasing temporal resolution by means of natural archives and proxy data. We use powerful supercomputers to run climate models. The model output of the calculations made for the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report amounts to ~650 TB. The 'scientific evolution' of grid computing has started, and the 'scientific revolution' of quantum computing is being prepared. This will increase computing power, and data amount, by several orders of magnitude in the future. However, more data does not automatically mean more knowledge. We need statisticians, who are at the core of transforming data into knowledge. Statisticians notably also explore the limits of our knowledge (uncertainties, that is, confidence intervals and P-values). Mudelsee (2014 Climate Time Series Analysis: Classical Statistical and Bootstrap Methods. Second edition. Springer, Cham, xxxii + 454 pp.) coined the term 'optimal estimation'. Consider the hyperspace of climate estimation. It has many, but not infinite, dimensions. It consists of the three subspaces Monte Carlo design, method and measure. The Monte Carlo design describes the data generating process. The method subspace describes the estimation and confidence interval construction. The measure subspace describes how to detect the optimal estimation method for the Monte Carlo experiment. The envisaged large increase in computing power may bring the following idea of optimal climate estimation into existence. Given a data sample, some prior information (e.g. measurement standard errors) and a set of questions (parameters to be estimated), the first task is simple: perform an initial estimation on basis of existing knowledge and experience with such types of estimation problems. The second task requires the computing power: explore the hyperspace to

  12. Hey, big spender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2000-04-01

    Business to business electronic commerce is looming large in the future of the oil industry. It is estimated that by adopting e-commerce the industry could achieve bottom line savings of between $1.8 to $ 3.4 billion a year on annual gross revenues in excess of $ 30 billion. At present there are several teething problems to overcome such as inter-operability standards, which are at least two or three years away. Tying in electronically with specific suppliers is also an expensive proposition, although the big benefits are in fact in doing business with the same suppliers on a continuing basis. Despite these problems, 14 of the world's largest energy and petrochemical companies joined forces in mid-April to create a single Internet procurement marketplace for the industry's complex supply chain. The exchange was designed by B2B (business-to-business) software provider, Commerce One Inc., ; it will leverage the buying clout of these industry giants (BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell Group, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Phillips Petroleum, Unocal Corporation and Statoil among them), currently about $ 125 billion on procurement per year; they hope to save between 5 to 30 per cent depending on the product and the region involved. Other similar schemes such as Chevron and partners' Petrocosm Marketplace, Network Oil, a Houston-based Internet portal aimed at smaller petroleum companies, are also doing business in the $ 10 billion per annum range. e-Energy, a cooperative project between IBM Ericson and Telus Advertising is another neutral, virtual marketplace targeted at the oil and gas sector. PetroTRAX, a Calgary-based website plans to take online procurement and auction sales a big step forward by establishing a portal to handle any oil company's asset management needs. There are also a number of websites targeting specific needs: IndigoPool.com (acquisitions and divestitures) and WellBid.com (products related to upstream oil and gas operators) are just

  13. Hey, big spender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, G.

    2000-01-01

    Business to business electronic commerce is looming large in the future of the oil industry. It is estimated that by adopting e-commerce the industry could achieve bottom line savings of between $1.8 to $ 3.4 billion a year on annual gross revenues in excess of $ 30 billion. At present there are several teething problems to overcome such as inter-operability standards, which are at least two or three years away. Tying in electronically with specific suppliers is also an expensive proposition, although the big benefits are in fact in doing business with the same suppliers on a continuing basis. Despite these problems, 14 of the world's largest energy and petrochemical companies joined forces in mid-April to create a single Internet procurement marketplace for the industry's complex supply chain. The exchange was designed by B2B (business-to-business) software provider, Commerce One Inc., ; it will leverage the buying clout of these industry giants (BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell Group, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Phillips Petroleum, Unocal Corporation and Statoil among them), currently about $ 125 billion on procurement per year; they hope to save between 5 to 30 per cent depending on the product and the region involved. Other similar schemes such as Chevron and partners' Petrocosm Marketplace, Network Oil, a Houston-based Internet portal aimed at smaller petroleum companies, are also doing business in the $ 10 billion per annum range. e-Energy, a cooperative project between IBM Ericson and Telus Advertising is another neutral, virtual marketplace targeted at the oil and gas sector. PetroTRAX, a Calgary-based website plans to take online procurement and auction sales a big step forward by establishing a portal to handle any oil company's asset management needs. There are also a number of websites targeting specific needs: IndigoPool.com (acquisitions and divestitures) and WellBid.com (products related to upstream oil and gas operators) are just two examples. All in

  14. Biological survey of the Prince Edward Islands, December 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biological survey of the Prince Edward Islands took place in December 2008. The survey repeated an earlier survey of the populations of surface-nesting seabirds on both islands and of fur seals (Arctocephalus spp. and alien plants on Prince Edward Island in December 2001. Observations on burrowing seabirds, macro-invertebrates and plant communities on Prince Edward Island and an oceanographic survey of surrounding waters were also included. The survey confirmed many of the observations made on the earlier survey and permitted an assessment of trends in the abundance and distribution of biota since 2001.

  15. Methods and tools for big data visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Zubova, Jelena; Kurasova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, methods and tools for big data visualization have been investigated. Challenges faced by the big data analysis and visualization have been identified. Technologies for big data analysis have been discussed. A review of methods and tools for big data visualization has been done. Functionalities of the tools have been demonstrated by examples in order to highlight their advantages and disadvantages.

  16. Measuring the Promise of Big Data Syllabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alon

    2018-01-01

    Growing interest in Big Data is leading industries, academics and governments to accelerate Big Data research. However, how teachers should teach Big Data has not been fully examined. This article suggests criteria for redesigning Big Data syllabi in public and private degree-awarding higher education establishments. The author conducted a survey…

  17. The Three Mile Island crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI

  18. The BigBOSS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  19. Biophotonics: the big picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Popp, Jürgen; Wilson, Brian C.

    2018-02-01

    The 5th International Conference on Biophotonics (ICOB) held April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia, brought together opinion leaders to discuss future directions for the field and opportunities to consider. The first session of the conference, "How to Set a Big Picture Biophotonics Agenda," was focused on setting the stage for developing a vision and strategies for translation and impact on society of biophotonic technologies. The invited speakers, panelists, and attendees engaged in discussions that focused on opportunities and promising applications for biophotonic techniques, challenges when working at the confluence of the physical and biological sciences, driving factors for advances of biophotonic technologies, and educational opportunities. We share a summary of the presentations and discussions. Three main themes from the conference are presented in this position paper that capture the current status, opportunities, challenges, and future directions of biophotonics research and key areas of applications: (1) biophotonics at the nano- to microscale level; (2) biophotonics at meso- to macroscale level; and (3) biophotonics and the clinical translation conundrum.

  20. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  1. Big bang darkleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Krnjaic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis, a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN, in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD, which generically yields large (≫MeV/dark-nucleon binding energies. These bounds further suggest the mediator is relatively weakly coupled, so repulsive forces between dark-sector nuclei are much weaker than Coulomb repulsion between standard-model nuclei, which results in an exponential barrier-tunneling enhancement over standard BBN. Thus, darklei are easier to make and harder to break than visible species with comparable mass numbers. This process can efficiently yield a dominant population of states with masses significantly greater than the confinement scale and, in contrast to dark matter that is a fundamental particle, may allow the dominant form of dark matter to have high spin (S≫3/2, whose discovery would be smoking gun evidence for dark nuclei.

  2. Predicting big bang deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, N.; Scherrer, R.J.; Steigman, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, T.P. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    We present new upper and lower bounds to the primordial abundances of deuterium and {sup 3}He based on observational data from the solar system and the interstellar medium. Independent of any model for the primordial production of the elements we find (at the 95{percent} C.L.): 1.5{times}10{sup {minus}5}{le}(D/H){sub {ital P}}{le}10.0{times}10{sup {minus}5} and ({sup 3}He/H){sub {ital P}}{le}2.6{times}10{sup {minus}5}. When combined with the predictions of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, these constraints lead to a 95{percent} C.L. bound on the primordial abundance deuterium: (D/H){sub best}=(3.5{sup +2.7}{sub {minus}1.8}){times}10{sup {minus}5}. Measurements of deuterium absorption in the spectra of high-redshift QSOs will directly test this prediction. The implications of this prediction for the primordial abundances of {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li are discussed, as well as those for the universal density of baryons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  3. Big bang darkleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnjaic, Gordan; Sigurdson, Kris

    2015-12-01

    In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis, a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD, which generically yields large (≫MeV /dark-nucleon) binding energies. These bounds further suggest the mediator is relatively weakly coupled, so repulsive forces between dark-sector nuclei are much weaker than Coulomb repulsion between standard-model nuclei, which results in an exponential barrier-tunneling enhancement over standard BBN. Thus, darklei are easier to make and harder to break than visible species with comparable mass numbers. This process can efficiently yield a dominant population of states with masses significantly greater than the confinement scale and, in contrast to dark matter that is a fundamental particle, may allow the dominant form of dark matter to have high spin (S ≫ 3 / 2), whose discovery would be smoking gun evidence for dark nuclei.

  4. The role of big laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Heuer, Rolf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward.

  5. The role of big laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, R-D

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward. (paper)

  6. Sable Island: A heritage to preserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, C.

    1997-09-01

    Sable Island is strategically located on the edge of the teeming fisheries of the Newfoundland Grand Banks and near one of the main sea routes between North America and Europe. It has been the bane of navigators from 1583 onward, with 250 ships running aground, the latest in 1947. Marine productivity around Sable Island is very high owing to the temperature differences between the currents and the adjacent underwater topography. Dolphins and whales abound in the area known as the `Gully`, and there are no fewer than 36 fish species present in the waters surrounding the Island. Approximately 35 per cent of the Island is covered by vegetation which is limited to species adapted to sandy soil containing little organic matter and few nutrients. Some plants, such as the American beachgrass, grow in dense colonies and help to stabilize the dunes. Bird diversity is limited to species adapted to open areas, ponds and the littoral. Some 324 species have been recorded on the Island, but only 25 are known to nest there. The Island is one of world`s most important breeding sites for grey seals where they can be observed in great numbers during mating, whelping and moulting season. Among the many introduced animals only the legendary horses of Sable Island remain to this day. Despite its remoteness and isolation, the Island faces many threats, one of the most worrysome being the erosion of the eastern extremity of the Island during severe winter storms. The Island benefits from its status as a Migratory Bird Sanctuary, and is legally protected under Sable Island Regulations of the Navigation Act.

  7. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  8. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  9. Three Mile Island update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  10. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  11. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  12. Generalized formal model of Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhovska, N.; Veres, O.; Hirnyak, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article dwells on the basic characteristic features of the Big Data technologies. It is analyzed the existing definition of the “big data” term. The article proposes and describes the elements of the generalized formal model of big data. It is analyzed the peculiarities of the application of the proposed model components. It is described the fundamental differences between Big Data technology and business analytics. Big Data is supported by the distributed file system Google File System ...

  13. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopu Venkadesaperumal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp. of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system.

  14. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkadesaperumal, Gopu; Amaresan, Natrajan; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans) and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp.) of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato) inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system.

  15. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    has significant potential to sequester large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations conducted to evaluate mineral trapping potential of mafic volcanic rock formations located in the Idaho province suggest that supercritical CO{sub 2} is converted to solid carbonate mineral within a few hundred years and permanently entombs the carbon. Although MMV for this rock type may be challenging, a carefully chosen combination of geophysical and geochemical techniques should allow assessment of the fate of CO{sub 2} in deep basalt hosted aquifers. Terrestrial carbon sequestration relies on land management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2} where it is stored in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration can be implemented today and is on the front line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil Carbon (C) on rangelands, and forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Rangelands can store up to an additional 0.05 mt C/ha/yr, while the croplands are on average four times that amount. Estimates of technical potential for soil sequestration within the region in cropland are in the range of 2.0 M mt C/yr over 20 year time horizon. This is equivalent to approximately 7.0 M mt CO{sub 2}e/yr. The forestry sinks are well documented, and the potential in the Big Sky region ranges from 9-15 M mt CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. Value-added benefits include enhanced yields, reduced erosion, and increased wildlife habitat. Thus the terrestrial sinks provide a viable, environmentally beneficial, and relatively low cost sink that is available to sequester C in the current time frame. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts

  16. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  17. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  18. Host-guest interaction on Bruny and Magnetic Islands, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Moyle, Brent Don

    2017-01-01

    Islands are integral to the earth’s biodiversity, with their distinct environments offering a haven for a variety of threatened species of plants, wildlife and unique human cultures. Worldwide, tourism activity profoundly impacts upon destinations, but the impacts on islands are noticeably more acute due to their fragile environments and isolated communities. Research has found that tourism can impact island communities in a variety of ways, including economically, socially and environmentall...

  19. Aira (Poaceae: a new generic record for Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vinod Chhotupuri Gosavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During plant exploration of Andaman and Nicobar in 2014, we were collected some interesting grass specimens from Kamorta Islands of Nicobar. After critical study and taxonomic analysis the unidentified grass species has identified as an Aira caryophyllea L.  Perusals of relevant literature were revealed that, the genus Aira L. has so far not reported from Andaman and Nicobar islands. Hence, it is reported in present communication for new record to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  20. [Big data in official statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany.

  1. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  2. Official statistics and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Struijs

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Big Data changes the context in which organisations producing official statistics operate. Big Data provides opportunities, but in order to make optimal use of Big Data, a number of challenges have to be addressed. This stimulates increased collaboration between National Statistical Institutes, Big Data holders, businesses and universities. In time, this may lead to a shift in the role of statistical institutes in the provision of high-quality and impartial statistical information to society. In this paper, the changes in context, the opportunities, the challenges and the way to collaborate are addressed. The collaboration between the various stakeholders will involve each partner building on and contributing different strengths. For national statistical offices, traditional strengths include, on the one hand, the ability to collect data and combine data sources with statistical products and, on the other hand, their focus on quality, transparency and sound methodology. In the Big Data era of competing and multiplying data sources, they continue to have a unique knowledge of official statistical production methods. And their impartiality and respect for privacy as enshrined in law uniquely position them as a trusted third party. Based on this, they may advise on the quality and validity of information of various sources. By thus positioning themselves, they will be able to play their role as key information providers in a changing society.

  3. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  4. Quantum fields in a big-crunch-big-bang spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolley, Andrew J.; Turok, Neil

    2002-01-01

    We consider quantum field theory on a spacetime representing the big-crunch-big-bang transition postulated in ekpyrotic or cyclic cosmologies. We show via several independent methods that an essentially unique matching rule holds connecting the incoming state, in which a single extra dimension shrinks to zero, to the outgoing state in which it reexpands at the same rate. For free fields in our construction there is no particle production from the incoming adiabatic vacuum. When interactions are included the particle production for fixed external momentum is finite at the tree level. We discuss a formal correspondence between our construction and quantum field theory on de Sitter spacetime

  5. Poker Player Behavior After Big Wins and Big Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Smith; Michael Levere; Robert Kurtzman

    2009-01-01

    We find that experienced poker players typically change their style of play after winning or losing a big pot--most notably, playing less cautiously after a big loss, evidently hoping for lucky cards that will erase their loss. This finding is consistent with Kahneman and Tversky's (Kahneman, D., A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47(2) 263-292) break-even hypothesis and suggests that when investors incur a large loss, it might be time to take ...

  6. Turning big bang into big bounce: II. Quantum dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: pmalk@fuw.edu.p, E-mail: piech@fuw.edu.p [Theoretical Physics Department, Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-11-21

    We analyze the big bounce transition of the quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model in the setting of the nonstandard loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Elementary observables are used to quantize composite observables. The spectrum of the energy density operator is bounded and continuous. The spectrum of the volume operator is bounded from below and discrete. It has equally distant levels defining a quantum of the volume. The discreteness may imply a foamy structure of spacetime at a semiclassical level which may be detected in astro-cosmo observations. The nonstandard LQC method has a free parameter that should be fixed in some way to specify the big bounce transition.

  7. Big Data Analytics in Medicine and Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevski, Blagoj; Chen, Ming

    2018-05-10

    This paper surveys big data with highlighting the big data analytics in medicine and healthcare. Big data characteristics: value, volume, velocity, variety, veracity and variability are described. Big data analytics in medicine and healthcare covers integration and analysis of large amount of complex heterogeneous data such as various - omics data (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, interactomics, pharmacogenomics, diseasomics), biomedical data and electronic health records data. We underline the challenging issues about big data privacy and security. Regarding big data characteristics, some directions of using suitable and promising open-source distributed data processing software platform are given.

  8. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  9. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  10. The challenges of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  12. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  13. The lichen and bryophyte vegetation of Cuverville Island, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, C; Aptroot, A; van Zanten, B

    1998-01-01

    In the Antarctic summer of 1993 the vegetation of Cuverville Island, a small island near the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, was mapped and described. Eleven different plant communities of algae, lichens, bryophytes and spermatophytes have been distinguished. The 51 species Vary from endemic

  14. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  15. Sosiaalinen asiakassuhdejohtaminen ja big data

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Topi-Antti

    2015-01-01

    Tässä tutkielmassa käsitellään sosiaalista asiakassuhdejohtamista sekä hyötyjä, joita siihen voidaan saada big datan avulla. Sosiaalinen asiakassuhdejohtaminen on terminä uusi ja monille tuntematon. Tutkimusta motivoi aiheen vähäinen tutkimus, suomenkielisen tutkimuksen puuttuminen kokonaan sekä sosiaalisen asiakassuhdejohtamisen mahdollinen olennainen rooli yritysten toiminnassa tulevaisuudessa. Big dataa käsittelevissä tutkimuksissa keskitytään monesti sen tekniseen puoleen, eikä sovellutuk...

  16. Do big gods cause anything?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2014-01-01

    Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere.......Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere....

  17. Big Data and Social Media

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    A critical analysis of the "keep everything" Big Data era, the impact on our lives of the information, at first glance "convenient for future use" that we make known about ourselves on the network. NB! The lecture will be recorded like all Academic Training lectures. Lecturer's biography: Father of the Internet, see https://internethalloffame.org/inductees/vint-cerf or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vint_Cerf The video on slide number 9 is from page https://www.gapminder.org/tools/#$state$time$value=2018&value;;&chart-type=bubbles   Keywords: Big Data, Internet, History, Applications, tools, privacy, technology, preservation, surveillance, google, Arpanet, CERN, Web  

  18. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)

  19. Release plan for Big Pete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    This release plan is to provide instructions for the Radiological Control Technician (RCT) to conduct surveys for the unconditional release of ''Big Pete,'' which was used in the removal of ''Spacers'' from the N-Reactor. Prior to performing surveys on the rear end portion of ''Big Pete,'' it shall be cleaned (i.e., free of oil, grease, caked soil, heavy dust). If no contamination is found, the vehicle may be released with the permission of the area RCT Supervisor. If contamination is found by any of the surveys, contact the cognizant Radiological Engineer for decontamination instructions

  20. Small quarks make big nuggets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deligeorges, S.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief recall on the classification of subatomic particles, this paper deals with quark nuggets, particle with more than three quarks, a big bag, which is called ''nuclearite''. Neutron stars, in fact, are big sacks of quarks, gigantic nuggets. Now, physicists try to calculate which type of nuggets of strange quark matter is stable, what has been the influence of quark nuggets on the primordial nucleosynthesis. At the present time, one says that if these ''nuggets'' exist, and in a large proportion, they may be candidates for the missing mass [fr

  1. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-06

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented.

  2. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  3. The Inverted Big-Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Vaas, Ruediger

    2004-01-01

    Our universe appears to have been created not out of nothing but from a strange space-time dust. Quantum geometry (loop quantum gravity) makes it possible to avoid the ominous beginning of our universe with its physically unrealistic (i.e. infinite) curvature, extreme temperature, and energy density. This could be the long sought after explanation of the big-bang and perhaps even opens a window into a time before the big-bang: Space itself may have come from an earlier collapsing universe tha...

  4. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Roux; P. G. Ryan; S. J. Milton; C. L. Moloney

    1992-01-01

    The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan...

  5. FBSAD Reef Fish-Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat quadrats were surveyed at 8-13 m depths using shore-based transects swum at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the...

  6. FBSAB Recruit Fish Habitat Use Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Recruit-habitat relations (habitat use by recruits) were surveyed at 1 to ~5 m depths based on all "Encounters" of singletons and "groups" (where a group comprised...

  7. Big Cities, Big Problems: Reason for the Elderly to Move?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, T.; de Jong-Gierveld, J.; Nijkamp, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many European countries, data on geographical patterns of internal elderly migration show that the elderly (55+) are more likely to leave than to move to the big cities. Besides emphasising the attractive features of the destination areas (pull factors), it is often assumed that this negative

  8. Big-Eyed Bugs Have Big Appetite for Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of arthropod natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) inhabit crop fields in Arizona and can have a large negative impact on several pest insect species that also infest these crops. Geocoris spp., commonly known as big-eyed bugs, are among the most abundant insect predators in field c...

  9. Quality of slaughter material ? BIG 6 heavy turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Kryza; Marian Pietrzak; Ewa Gornowicz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a randomized assessment of slaughter material in the form of intensively farmed turkeys obtained by large poultry slaughter and meat processing plants. The assessment involved determining the slaughter value and physical characteristics of the meat. Samples (23 male and 12 female turkeys) were collected from the processing line of a large commercial poultry processing facility, and hybrid turkeys of a BIG 6 heavy breeding line came from different producers....

  10. Economic analysis of power generation from parabolic trough solar thermal plants for the Mediterranean region. A case study for the island of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poullikkas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    In this work a feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate whether the installation of a parabolic trough solar thermal technology for power generation in the Mediterranean region is economically feasible. The case study takes into account the available solar potential for Cyprus, as well as all available data concerning current renewable energy sources policy of the Cyprus Government, including the relevant feed-in tariff. In order to identify the least cost feasible option for the installation of the parabolic trough solar thermal plant a parametric cost-benefit analysis is carried out by varying parameters, such as, parabolic trough solar thermal plant capacity, parabolic trough solar thermal capital investment, operating hours, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, etc. For all above cases the electricity unit cost or benefit before tax, as well as after tax cash flow, net present value, internal rate of return and payback period are calculated. The results indicate that under certain conditions such projects can be profitable. (author)

  11. A survey on Big Data Stream Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Big Data can be static on one machine or distributed ... decision making, and process automation. Big data .... Concept Drifting: concept drifting mean the classifier .... transactions generated by a prefix tree structure. EstDec ...

  12. BIG DATA-DRIVEN MARKETING: AN ABSTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Suoniemi, Samppa; Meyer-Waarden, Lars; Munzel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Customer information plays a key role in managing successful relationships with valuable customers. Big data customer analytics use (BD use), i.e., the extent to which customer information derived from big data analytics guides marketing decisions, helps firms better meet customer needs for competitive advantage. This study addresses three research questions: What are the key antecedents of big data customer analytics use? How, and to what extent, does big data customer an...

  13. Big data in Finnish financial services

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, M. (Mikko)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aims to explore the concept of big data, and create understanding of big data maturity in the Finnish financial services industry. The research questions of this thesis are “What kind of big data solutions are being implemented in the Finnish financial services sector?” and “Which factors impede faster implementation of big data solutions in the Finnish financial services sector?”. ...

  14. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sensitive/rare coastal plants and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) for Long Island, New York. Vector...

  15. Contamination level of natural 238U and 232Th radionuclides in offshore of coal power plant (assessment at offshore of Panjang Island and Lada Bay, Banten)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabam Parsaoran Situmorang; Harpasis Selamet Sanusi; June Mellawati

    2011-01-01

    This study had been carried out by collecting sample of the surficial sediments, sea water, seaweeds, anchovies (Stolephorus and Anchoa) and mussels (Codakia) from 4 locations in waters of Pulau Panjang and coastal of Lada Bay (as control/comparison site), Banten in June - July 2010. Natural radionuclides (Th) concentration in samples was measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The results showed that the total radionuclides concentration in sediment ( 238 U: 18.6160 - 35.0013 Bq/kg; 232 Th: 11.2020 - 35.6685 Bq/kg), seawater ( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 0.0790 - 0.1299 Bq/l), cultivation seaweeds ( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 3.6735 - 4.8345 Bq/kg), natural seaweeds ( 238 U: 3.6851 - 48.0430 Bq/kg; 232 Th: 3.9941 - 9.0788 Bq/kg), Stolephorus ( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 3.3078 Bq/kg) and Codakia ( 238 U: 6.8903 Bq/kg; 232 Th: 3.6023 Bq/kg) in Pulau Panjang, Banten around Suralaya coal power plant higher than control site that were around the Labuan coal power plant, namely in sediments ( 238 U: 10.4253 Bq/kg; 232 Th: 16.5952 Bq/kg), seawater( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 0.0671 Bq/l), cultivation seaweeds ( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 2.3005 Bq/kg), natural seaweeds ( 238 U: 19.5367 Bq/kg; 232 Th: 2.6729 Bq/kg) and Anchoa ( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 2.0603 Bq/kg). (author)

  16. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  17. Big data and urban governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, L.; Richter, C.; Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, K.; Verrest, H.; Ros-Tonen, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the ways in which big data is involved in the rise of smart cities. Mobile phones, sensors and online applications produce streams of data which are used to regulate and plan the city, often in real time, but which presents challenges as to how the city’s functions are seen and

  18. Big Data for personalized healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemons, Liseth; Sieverink, Floor; Vollenbroek, Wouter; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Braakman-Jansen, Annemarie; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette

    2016-01-01

    Big Data, often defined according to the 5V model (volume, velocity, variety, veracity and value), is seen as the key towards personalized healthcare. However, it also confronts us with new technological and ethical challenges that require more sophisticated data management tools and data analysis

  19. Big data en gelijke behandeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; Blok, P.H.; Blok, P.H.

    2017-01-01

    In dit hoofdstuk bekijken we allereerst de voornaamste basisbegrippen inzake gelijke behandeling en discriminatie (paragraaf 6.2). Vervolgens kijken we haar het Nederlandse en Europese juridisch kader inzake non-discriminatie (paragraaf 6.3-6.5) en hoe die regels moeten worden toegepast op big

  20. Research Ethics in Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2017-05-01

    The ethical conduct of research includes, in part, patient agreement to participate in studies and the protection of health information. In the evolving world of data science and the accessibility of large quantities of web-based data created by millions of individuals, novel methodologic approaches to answering research questions are emerging. This article explores research ethics in the context of big data.

  1. Big data e data science

    OpenAIRE

    Cavique, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Neste artigo foram apresentados os conceitos básicos de Big Data e a nova área a que deu origem, a Data Science. Em Data Science foi discutida e exemplificada a noção de redução da dimensionalidade dos dados.

  2. The Case for "Big History."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  3. Finding errors in big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puts, Marco; Daas, Piet; de Waal, A.G.

    No data source is perfect. Mistakes inevitably creep in. Spotting errors is hard enough when dealing with survey responses from several thousand people, but the difficulty is multiplied hugely when that mysterious beast Big Data comes into play. Statistics Netherlands is about to publish its first

  4. Sampling Operations on Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-29

    gories. These include edge sampling methods where edges are selected by a predetermined criteria; snowball sampling methods where algorithms start... Sampling Operations on Big Data Vijay Gadepally, Taylor Herr, Luke Johnson, Lauren Milechin, Maja Milosavljevic, Benjamin A. Miller Lincoln...process and disseminate information for discovery and exploration under real-time constraints. Common signal processing operations such as sampling and

  5. The International Big History Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  6. NASA's Big Data Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. P.; Kinter, J. L.; Beebe, R. F.; Feigelson, E.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Mentzel, C.; Smith, G.; Tino, C.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Two years ago NASA established the Ad Hoc Big Data Task Force (BDTF - https://science.nasa.gov/science-committee/subcommittees/big-data-task-force), an advisory working group with the NASA Advisory Council system. The scope of the Task Force included all NASA Big Data programs, projects, missions, and activities. The Task Force focused on such topics as exploring the existing and planned evolution of NASA's science data cyber-infrastructure that supports broad access to data repositories for NASA Science Mission Directorate missions; best practices within NASA, other Federal agencies, private industry and research institutions; and Federal initiatives related to big data and data access. The BDTF has completed its two-year term and produced several recommendations plus four white papers for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This presentation will discuss the activities and results of the TF including summaries of key points from its focused study topics. The paper serves as an introduction to the papers following in this ESSI session.

  7. Big Math for Little Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, Carole; Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Balfanz, Robert

    2004-01-01

    "Big Math for Little Kids," a comprehensive program for 4- and 5-year-olds, develops and expands on the mathematics that children know and are capable of doing. The program uses activities and stories to develop ideas about number, shape, pattern, logical reasoning, measurement, operations on numbers, and space. The activities introduce the…

  8. BIG DATA IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dealing with a lot of data originating from social media sites and mobile communications among data from business environments and institutions, lead to the definition of a new concept, known as Big Data. The economic impact of the sheer amount of data produced in a last two years has increased rapidly. It is necessary to aggregate all types of data (structured and unstructured in order to improve current transactions, to develop new business models, to provide a real image of the supply and demand and thereby, generate market advantages. So, the companies that turn to Big Data have a competitive advantage over other firms. Looking from the perspective of IT organizations, they must accommodate the storage and processing Big Data, and provide analysis tools that are easily integrated into business processes. This paper aims to discuss aspects regarding the Big Data concept, the principles to build, organize and analyse huge datasets in the business environment, offering a three-layer architecture, based on actual software solutions. Also, the article refers to the graphical tools for exploring and representing unstructured data, Gephi and NodeXL.

  9. From Big Bang to Eternity?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    at different distances (that is, at different epochs in the past) to come to this ... that the expansion started billions of years ago from an explosive Big Bang. Recent research sheds new light on the key cosmological question about the distant ...

  10. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  11. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  12. Big data: een zoektocht naar instituties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, H.G.; Crompvoets, J

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a well-known phenomenon, even a buzzword nowadays. It refers to an abundance of data and new possibilities to process and use them. Big data is subject of many publications. Some pay attention to the many possibilities of big data, others warn us for their consequences. This special

  13. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  14. Data, Data, Data : Big, Linked & Open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Krukkert, D.; Eckartz, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    De gehele business en IT-wereld praat op dit moment over Big Data, een trend die medio 2013 Cloud Computing is gepasseerd (op basis van Google Trends). Ook beleidsmakers houden zich actief bezig met Big Data. Neelie Kroes, vice-president van de Europese Commissie, spreekt over de ‘Big Data

  15. A survey of big data research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Chanpaul Jin; Daneshmand, Mahmoud; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Honggang

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions. PMID:26504265

  16. A Hybrid Multilevel Storage Architecture for Electric Power Dispatching Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hu; Huang, Bibin; Hong, Bowen; Hu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Electric power dispatching is the center of the whole power system. In the long run time, the power dispatching center has accumulated a large amount of data. These data are now stored in different power professional systems and form lots of information isolated islands. Integrating these data and do comprehensive analysis can greatly improve the intelligent level of power dispatching. In this paper, a hybrid multilevel storage architecture for electrical power dispatching big data is proposed. It introduces relational database and NoSQL database to establish a power grid panoramic data center, effectively meet power dispatching big data storage needs, including the unified storage of structured and unstructured data fast access of massive real-time data, data version management and so on. It can be solid foundation for follow-up depth analysis of power dispatching big data.

  17. 2006 EM300 and EM3002D Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise Hi'ialakai HI-06-14 - Main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EM300 and EM3002D multibeam data were collected from 8 Nov to 13 Nov 2006 aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai at Maui Island and Hawaii's Big Island in the Central Pacific...

  18. The BigBoss Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  19. Optimized Dispatch Schedule for Autonomous Grids in Isolated Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liuyang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of wind power provides a new solution for power supply of isolated island. However, due to the intermittent and stochastic nature of renewable energy resources (RES, the energy storage unit (ESU is required for power grid reliability. This paper proposed an automatic programming method for autonomous grid in isolated islands. The sea water pumped storage plant serves as ESU to counter-balance the fluctuations of RESs. The penetration level of RES and the profit of the Island system operator (ISO increase significantly. With the geographical and historical data of an island in China, the effectiveness of the proposed method is testified.

  20. Big Data - Smart Health Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To select best papers published in 2013 in the field of big data and smart health strategies, and summarize outstanding research efforts. Methods A systematic search was performed using two major bibliographic databases for relevant journal papers. The references obtained were reviewed in a two-stage process, starting with a blinded review performed by the two section editors, and followed by a peer review process operated by external reviewers recognized as experts in the field. Results The complete review process selected four best papers, illustrating various aspects of the special theme, among them: (a) using large volumes of unstructured data and, specifically, clinical notes from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) for pharmacovigilance; (b) knowledge discovery via querying large volumes of complex (both structured and unstructured) biological data using big data technologies and relevant tools; (c) methodologies for applying cloud computing and big data technologies in the field of genomics, and (d) system architectures enabling high-performance access to and processing of large datasets extracted from EHRs. Conclusions The potential of big data in biomedicine has been pinpointed in various viewpoint papers and editorials. The review of current scientific literature illustrated a variety of interesting methods and applications in the field, but still the promises exceed the current outcomes. As we are getting closer towards a solid foundation with respect to common understanding of relevant concepts and technical aspects, and the use of standardized technologies and tools, we can anticipate to reach the potential that big data offer for personalized medicine and smart health strategies in the near future. PMID:25123721

  1. Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrow, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

  2. Nuclear accidents. Three mile Island (United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the accident of Three Miles Island power plant which occurred the 28 march 1979 in the United States. The accident scenario, the consequences and the reactor core and vessel, after the accident, are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  3. Climate change in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Giardina; Frank Hays; Jim Jacobi; Randall Kosaki; Loyal Mehrhoff; Stephen Miller

    2008-01-01

    In Hawai‘i, the seasonal and geographic distribution of rainfall and temperature has combined with steep, mountainous terrain to produce a wide array of island-scale climate regimes. These varying regimes in turn have supported the diversification of Hawai‘i native plants and animals. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic greenhouse gases will likely alter the...

  4. The Three-Mile Island incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, L.M.

    1979-10-01

    A description is given of the engineering design principles of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) of the Three Mile Island-2 power plant. The successive stages of the incident are recounted, with diagrammatic illustrations, and graphs showing the reactor coolant system parameters at various times after the incident. The consequential events and core damage are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  6. Spatiotemporal distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the sea surrounding Japanese Islands in the decades before the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Teruhisa, E-mail: watabe@kaiseiken.or.jp; Oikawa, Shinji; Isoyama, Naohiko; Suzuki, Chiyoshi; Misonoo, Jun; Morizono, Shigemitsu

    2013-10-01

    The historic spatiotemporal distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the seawaters and sea-floor sediments adjacent to nuclear power plants in Japan are summarized, using data obtained over a period of time more than 20 years prior to the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Relatively uniform distributions of {sup 137}Cs were observed both in the surface seawaters (1 m in depth) and in deeper seawaters (10 to 30 m above the seabed and ranging from tens to hundreds of meters in depth) independent of the geographical position, although lower concentrations were observed in significantly deeper bottom seawaters. Conversely, there were wide variations in {sup 137}Cs levels between sediments, such that higher {sup 137}Cs concentrations were observed in the deeper sampling locations. A mathematical model describing the successive transfer of {sup 137}Cs from surface waters through deeper waters to sediments suggested that the transfer rate of {sup 137}Cs from deep water to the sediments, and the loss rate from bottom sediments, were both greater than the transfer rate from surface water to deeper water. It was found that the calculated regression lines for {sup 137}Cs depletion rates over time for surface waters, deeper waters, and sediments were approximately parallel when plotted on a semi-logarithmic coordinate system, regardless of the sampling location. A radionuclide depletion half-life was calculated to be 4 months to 16 years with the geometric mean of 2.22 y for the sediments in the Fukushima region, suggesting that nuclear contamination will be remediated over time through sediment redistribution processes such as remobilization, bioturbation, and migration due to sea currents. - Highlights: • We review data of monitoring in the sea over more than 20 years before 2011. • We develop a simplified model on the vertical transfer of {sup 137}Cs in the sea. • Half-lives of {sup 137}Cs in surface waters are larger than those in deeper samples.

  7. Small becomes big

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, W.L.; Brooks, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The owner of an old-line manufacturing company arranged with a waste hauler to dispose of six 208-L (55-gal) drums of mixed waste, including at least two containing used oils from transformers or gear boxes. A lab analysis was run but the last item on the list, PCBs, was not checked. The hauler transferred the contents to 3 different tanks before taking them to a cement plant kiln that was permitted to burn EPA-approved wastes for supplementary fuel. The kiln's lab analysis identified PCB contamination and they refused to take the load. The hauler returned the load to his storage facility, unloaded it into storage tanks, and called EPA who told him the owner was legally responsible for disposal. The disposal problem had grown much larger than the original two drums. Initially it would have cost about $600/drum to properly analyze and dispose of the wastes. In the end, the final cost was $470,000. As this case study illustrates, getting environmental advice often is viewed as an expensive answer to an environmental problem by most business owners, but in the final analysis, it is the most economical thing to do

  8. Big-Leaf Mahogany on CITES Appendix II: Big Challenge, Big Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAMES GROGAN; PAULO BARRETO

    2005-01-01

    On 15 November 2003, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae), the most valuable widely traded Neotropical timber tree, gained strengthened regulatory protection from its listing on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species ofWild Fauna and Flora (CITES). CITES is a United Nations-chartered agreement signed by 164...

  9. Island forming processes in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. S.; Humphries, M. S.; Mahomed, I.; Le Roux, P.; Verhagen, B. Th.

    2012-12-01

    The Okavango Delta in Botswana is a large (40,000 km2) alluvial fan that is characterised by the presence of numerous tree-covered islands. Thought to originate from the mound-building activities of termites or through fluvial processes associated with development of scroll bars and inverted channels, islands have been shown to play an important role in the structure and functioning of the Delta through the creation of habitat diversity, focusing of nutrients, and disposal of toxic salts. This study investigates the processes responsible for the maintenance and growth of two such islands in the seasonal swamps. Transpiration by vegetation is shown to result in substantial increases in groundwater salinity beneath the islands, contributing to their growth through chemical precipitation. Detailed chemical analyses revealed that the precipitation of magnesian calcite and silica within the island soils contributes 30-40% of the total island volume. Isotopic analyses of carbonate samples show that vegetation plays an important role in providing carbon for carbonate precipitation. Variations in δ13C carbonate values appear to reflect the relative proportion of C3 to C4 plants on the island, with C4 species becoming more dominant toward island centres in response to increases in groundwater salinity. The study suggests that continued island growth is also related to the deposition of aerosols and the accumulation of dust preferentially on islands and possibly to ongoing termite activity. Tall trees that characterise the island margins trap dust carried from the floodplains, resulting particularly in the lateral growth of islands. Islands in the Okavango are considered to be the product of long-term aggradation processes, with the two islands studied estimated to be in the order of tens of thousands of years old.

  10. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  11. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  12. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2535 (United States); Chen, Shih-Hung [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Department of Physics and Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Turok, Neil [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2012-08-29

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  13. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  14. Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, Paul L.; Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c) 2 . At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios

  15. The ethics of big data in big agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M. Carbonell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of big data in agriculture, focusing on the power asymmetry between farmers and large agribusinesses like Monsanto. Following the recent purchase of Climate Corp., Monsanto is currently the most prominent biotech agribusiness to buy into big data. With wireless sensors on tractors monitoring or dictating every decision a farmer makes, Monsanto can now aggregate large quantities of previously proprietary farming data, enabling a privileged position with unique insights on a field-by-field basis into a third or more of the US farmland. This power asymmetry may be rebalanced through open-sourced data, and publicly-funded data analytic tools which rival Climate Corp. in complexity and innovation for use in the public domain.

  16. The Analysis of Geospatial Information for Validating Some Numbers of Islands in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukendra - Martha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a comparison of various numbers of islands in Indonesia; and it addresses a valid method of accounting or enumerating numbers of islands in Indonesia. Methodology used is an analysis to compare the different number of islands from various sources.  First, some numbers of  Indonesian islands were derived from: (i Centre for Survey and Mapping- Indonesian Arm Forces (Pussurta ABRI recorded as 17,508 islands; (ii Agency for Geospatial Information (BIG previously known as National Coordinating Agency for Surveys and Mapping (Bakosurtanal as national mapping authority reported with 17,506 islands (after loosing islands of  Sipadan and Ligitan; (iii Ministry of Internal Affair published 17,504 islands. Many parties have referred the number of 17,504 islands even though it has not yet been supported by back-up documents; (iv Hidrographic Office of Indonesian Navy has released with numbers of 17,499; (v Other sources indicated different numbers of islands, and indeed will imply to people confusion. In the other hand, the number of 13,466 named islands has a strong document (Gazetteer. Second, enumerating the total number of islands in Indonesia can be proposed by three ways: (i island census through toponimic survey, (ii using map, and (iii applying remote sensing images. Third, the procedures of searching valid result in number of islands is by remote sensing approach - high resolution satellite images. The result of this work implies the needs of one geospatial data source (including total numbers of islands in the form of ‘One Map Policy’ that will impact in the improvement of  Indonesian geographic data administration.

  17. Professional operation and management of nuclear island installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Limin

    2011-01-01

    As an important part of nuclear power plant construction, nuclear island installation mainly involves main equipment installation, pipeline installation, associated procedure examination and other important tasks. However, due to the nuclear island installation management changing from single project to multi-projects, the problems such as professional management of nuclear island installation and the lack of technical staff become more and more prominent and become one of the key restricts to the work of nuclear island installation. Based on analysis of the single project, single-base nuclear island installation management and practice, combined with the current situation that multi-project and multi-base construction of nuclear power are carrying out at the same time, this paper proposes a new management model of nuclear island installation. (author)

  18. Big Data – Big Deal for Organization Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Janne J. Korhonen

    2014-01-01

    Analytics is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage. It has even been posited that big data will be the next strategic emphasis of organizations and that analytics capability will be manifested in organizational structure. In this article, I explore how analytics capability might be reflected in organizational structure using the notion of  “requisite organization” developed by Jaques (1998). Requisite organization argues that a new strategic emphasis requires the addition ...

  19. Nowcasting using news topics Big Data versus big bank

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsrud, Leif Anders

    2016-01-01

    The agents in the economy use a plethora of high frequency information, including news media, to guide their actions and thereby shape aggregate economic fluctuations. Traditional nowcasting approches have to a relatively little degree made use of such information. In this paper, I show how unstructured textual information in a business newspaper can be decomposed into daily news topics and used to nowcast quarterly GDP growth. Compared with a big bank of experts, here represented by o cial c...

  20. Big Data in Medicine is Driving Big Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspoor, K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarise current research that takes advantage of “Big Data” in health and biomedical informatics applications. Methods Survey of trends in this work, and exploration of literature describing how large-scale structured and unstructured data sources are being used to support applications from clinical decision making and health policy, to drug design and pharmacovigilance, and further to systems biology and genetics. Results The survey highlights ongoing development of powerful new methods for turning that large-scale, and often complex, data into information that provides new insights into human health, in a range of different areas. Consideration of this body of work identifies several important paradigm shifts that are facilitated by Big Data resources and methods: in clinical and translational research, from hypothesis-driven research to data-driven research, and in medicine, from evidence-based practice to practice-based evidence. Conclusions The increasing scale and availability of large quantities of health data require strategies for data management, data linkage, and data integration beyond the limits of many existing information systems, and substantial effort is underway to meet those needs. As our ability to make sense of that data improves, the value of the data will continue to increase. Health systems, genetics and genomics, population and public health; all areas of biomedicine stand to benefit from Big Data and the associated technologies. PMID:25123716