WorldWideScience

Sample records for big genomes facilitate

  1. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Zachary D; Lee, Skylar Y; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-07-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade. PMID:26151137

  2. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary D Stephens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade.

  3. Big Data Analysis of Human Genome Variations

    KAUST Repository

    Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-01-25

    Since the human genome draft sequence was in public for the first time in 2000, genomic analyses have been intensively extended to the population level. The following three international projects are good examples for large-scale studies of human genome variations: 1) HapMap Data (1,417 individuals) (http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/downloads/genotypes/2010-08_phaseII+III/forward/), 2) HGDP (Human Genome Diversity Project) Data (940 individuals) (http://www.hagsc.org/hgdp/files.html), 3) 1000 genomes Data (2,504 individuals) http://ftp.1000genomes.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp/release/20130502/ If we can integrate all three data into a single volume of data, we should be able to conduct a more detailed analysis of human genome variations for a total number of 4,861 individuals (= 1,417+940+2,504 individuals). In fact, we successfully integrated these three data sets by use of information on the reference human genome sequence, and we conducted the big data analysis. In particular, we constructed a phylogenetic tree of about 5,000 human individuals at the genome level. As a result, we were able to identify clusters of ethnic groups, with detectable admixture, that were not possible by an analysis of each of the three data sets. Here, we report the outcome of this kind of big data analyses and discuss evolutionary significance of human genomic variations. Note that the present study was conducted in collaboration with Katsuhiko Mineta and Kosuke Goto at KAUST.

  4. Complete Genome of Bacillus thuringiensis Myophage BigBertha

    OpenAIRE

    Ting, Jose H.; Smyth, Trinity B.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    BigBertha is a myophage of Bacillus thuringiensis, a widely used biocontrol agent that is active against many insect pests of plants. Here, we present the complete annotated genome of BigBertha. The genome shares 85.9% sequence identity with Bacillus cereus phage B4.

  5. 'Big data', Hadoop and cloud computing in genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Aisling; Daugelaite, Jurate; Sleator, Roy D

    2013-10-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome project at the turn of the Century, there has been an unprecedented proliferation of genomic sequence data. A consequence of this is that the medical discoveries of the future will largely depend on our ability to process and analyse large genomic data sets, which continue to expand as the cost of sequencing decreases. Herein, we provide an overview of cloud computing and big data technologies, and discuss how such expertise can be used to deal with biology's big data sets. In particular, big data technologies such as the Apache Hadoop project, which provides distributed and parallelised data processing and analysis of petabyte (PB) scale data sets will be discussed, together with an overview of the current usage of Hadoop within the bioinformatics community. PMID:23872175

  6. The NIH BD2K center for big data in translational genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, Benedict; Diekhans, Mark; Druker, Brian J; Friend, Stephen; Guinney, Justin; Gassner, Nadine; Guttman, Mitchell; Kent, W James; Mantey, Patrick; Margolin, Adam A; Massie, Matt; Novak, Adam M; Nothaft, Frank; Pachter, Lior; Patterson, David; Smuga-Otto, Maciej; Stuart, Joshua M; Van't Veer, Laura; Wold, Barbara; Haussler, David

    2015-11-01

    The world's genomics data will never be stored in a single repository - rather, it will be distributed among many sites in many countries. No one site will have enough data to explain genotype to phenotype relationships in rare diseases; therefore, sites must share data. To accomplish this, the genetics community must forge common standards and protocols to make sharing and computing data among many sites a seamless activity. Through the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, we are pioneering the development of shared application programming interfaces (APIs) to connect the world's genome repositories. In parallel, we are developing an open source software stack (ADAM) that uses these APIs. This combination will create a cohesive genome informatics ecosystem. Using containers, we are facilitating the deployment of this software in a diverse array of environments. Through benchmarking efforts and big data driver projects, we are ensuring ADAM's performance and utility. PMID:26174866

  7. Genome-Facilitated Analyses of Geomicrobial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth H. Nealson

    2012-05-02

    This project had the goal(s) of understanding the mechanism(s) of extracellular electron transport (EET) in the microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and a number of other strains and species in the genus Shewanella. The major accomplishments included sequencing, annotation, and analysis of more than 20 Shewanella genomes. The comparative genomics enabled the beginning of a systems biology approach to this genus. Another major contribution involved the study of gene regulation, primarily in the model organism, MR-1. As part of this work, we took advantage of special facilities at the DOE: e.g., the synchrotron radiation facility at ANL, where we successfully used this system for elemental characterization of single cells in different metabolic states (1). We began work with purified enzymes, and identification of partially purified enzymes, leading to initial characterization of several of the 42 c-type cytochromes from MR-1 (2). As the genome became annotated, we began experiments on transcriptome analysis under different conditions of growth, the first step towards systems biology (3,4). Conductive appendages of Shewanella, called bacterial nanowires were identified and characterized during this work (5, 11, 20,21). For the first time, it was possible to measure the electron transfer rate between single cells and a solid substrate (20), a rate that has been confirmed by several other laboratories. We also showed that MR-1 cells preferentially attach to cells at a given charge, and are not attracted, or even repelled by other charges. The interaction with the charged surfaces begins with a stimulation of motility (called electrokinesis), and eventually leads to attachment and growth. One of the things that genomics allows is the comparative analysis of the various Shewanella strains, which led to several important insights. First, while the genomes predicted that none of the strains looked like they should be able to degrade N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG), the monomer

  8. How big-science centres facilitate the creation of new technology-based firms.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Vetle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines how five intergovernmental big-science organizations facilitate the creation of new technology based firms. The context of intergovernmental research organization is underexplored in the literature when it comes to technology transfer in general, and no studies with the objective of comparing several organizations in this context have been performed prior to this study. The purpose of the thesis is hence to do to develop a better understanding of this context, with regard...

  9. Big data, open science and the brain: lessons learned from genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Suparna; Fishman, Jennifer R.; McGowan, Michelle L.; Juengst, Eric T

    2014-01-01

    The BRAIN Initiative aims to break new ground in the scale and speed of data collection in neuroscience, requiring tools to handle data in the magnitude of yottabytes (1024). The scale, investment and organization of it are being compared to the Human Genome Project (HGP), which has exemplified “big science” for biology. In line with the trend towards Big Data in genomic research, the promise of the BRAIN Initiative, as well as the European Human Brain Project, rests on the possibility to ama...

  10. Opportunities and challenges of big data for the social sciences: The case of genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hexuan; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we draw attention to one unique and valuable source of big data, genomic data, by demonstrating the opportunities they provide to social scientists. We discuss different types of large-scale genomic data and recent advances in statistical methods and computational infrastructure used to address challenges in managing and analyzing such data. We highlight how these data and methods can be used to benefit social science research. PMID:27480368

  11. Nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of an ophiovirus associated with lettuce big-vein disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilk, van der F.; Dullemans, A.M.; Verbeek, M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an ophiovirus associated with lettuce big-vein disease has been elucidated. The genome consisted of four RNA molecules of approximately 7ò8, 1ò7, 1ò5 and 1ò4 kb. Virus particles were shown to contain nearly equimolar amounts of RNA molecules of both polarities. Th

  12. The Burkholderia Genome Database: facilitating flexible queries and comparative analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Winsor, Geoffrey L.; Khaira, Bhavjinder; Van Rossum, Thea; Lo, Raymond; Whiteside, Matthew D.; Fiona S.L. Brinkman

    2008-01-01

    Summary: As the genome sequences of multiple strains of a given bacterial species are obtained, more generalized bacterial genome databases may be complemented by databases that are focused on providing more information geared for a distinct bacterial phylogenetic group and its associated research community. The Burkholderia Genome Database represents a model for such a database, providing a powerful, user-friendly search and comparative analysis interface that contains features not found in ...

  13. Mapping Our Genes: The Genome Projects: How Big, How Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    For the past 2 years, scientific and technical journals in biology and medicine have extensively covered a debate about whether and how to determine the function and order of human genes on human chromosomes and when to determine the sequence of molecular building blocks that comprise DNA in those chromosomes. In 1987, these issues rose to become part of the public agenda. The debate involves science, technology, and politics. Congress is responsible for �writing the rules� of what various federal agencies do and for funding their work. This report surveys the points made so far in the debate, focusing on those that most directly influence the policy options facing the US Congress. Congressional interest focused on how to assess the rationales for conducting human genome projects, how to fund human genome projects (at what level and through which mechanisms), how to coordinate the scientific and technical programs of the several federal agencies and private interests already supporting various genome projects, and how to strike a balance regarding the impact of genome projects on international scientific cooperation and international economic competition in biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) prepared this report with the assistance of several hundred experts throughout the world.

  14. Mapping our genes: The genome projects: How big, how fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1988-04-01

    For the past 2 years, scientific and technical journals in biology and medicine have extensively covered a debate about whether and how to determine the function and order of human genes on human chromosomes and when to determine the sequence of molecular building blocks that comprise DNA in those chromosomes. In 1987, these issues rose to become part of the public agenda. The debate involves science, technology, and politics. Congress is responsible for /open quotes/writing the rules/close quotes/ of what various federal agencies do and for funding their work. This report surveys the points made so far in the debate, focusing on those that most directly influence the policy options facing the US Congress. Congressional interest focused on how to assess the rationales for conducting human genome projects, how to fund human genome projects (at what level and through which mechanisms), how to coordinate the scientific and technical programs of the several federal agencies and private interests already supporting various genome projects, and how to strike a balance regarding the impact of genome projects on international scientific cooperation and international economic competition in biotechnology. OTA prepared this report with the assistance of several hundred experts throughout the world. 342 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. The membrane actions of estrogens can potentiate their lordosis behavior-facilitating genomic actions

    OpenAIRE

    Kow, Lee-Ming; Pfaff, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    The membrane actions of estrogens can facilitate their genomic actions. To determine whether this facilitation bears on CNS mechanisms for estrogen-dependent behaviors, ovariectomized rats were subjected to a two-pulse treatment of estrogen directly in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Two days later, each rat was given progesterone and then tested for lordosis behavior, the induction of which requires the genomic actions of estrogen. When estrogen was given in both pulses (15 min to 2 h...

  16. Barriers and Facilitators to Adoption of Genomic Services for Colorectal Care within the Veterans Health Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Sperber, Nina R.; Sara M. Andrews; Voils, Corrine I.; Gregory L. Green; Dawn Provenzale; Sara Knight

    2016-01-01

    We examined facilitators and barriers to adoption of genomic services for colorectal care, one of the first genomic medicine applications, within the Veterans Health Administration to shed light on areas for practice change. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 58 clinicians to understand use of the following genomic services for colorectal care: family health history documentation, molecular and genetic testing, and genetic counseling. Data collection and analysis were informed by tw...

  17. Figure 4 from Integrative Genomics Viewer: Visualizing Big Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene-list view of genomic data. The gene-list view allows users to compare data across a set of loci. The data in this figure includes copy number, mutation, and clinical data from 202 glioblastoma samples from TCGA. Adapted from Figure 7; Thorvaldsdottir H et al. 2012

  18. Figure 2 from Integrative Genomics Viewer: Visualizing Big Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouping and sorting genomic data in IGV. The IGV user interface displaying 202 glioblastoma samples from TCGA. Samples are grouped by tumor subtype (second annotation column) and data type (first annotation column) and sorted by copy number of the EGFR locus (middle column). Adapted from Figure 1; Robinson et al. 2011

  19. Figure 5 from Integrative Genomics Viewer: Visualizing Big Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Split-Screen View. The split-screen view is useful for exploring relationships of genomic features that are independent of chromosomal location. Color is used here to indicate mate pairs that map to different chromosomes, chromosomes 1 and 6, suggesting a translocation event. Adapted from Figure 8; Thorvaldsdottir H et al. 2012

  20. Big data, open science and the brain: lessons learned from genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna eChoudhury

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The BRAIN Initiative aims to break new ground in the scale and speed of data collection in neuroscience, requiring tools to handle data in the magnitude of yottabytes (1024. The scale, investment and organization of it are being compared to the Human Genome Project (HGP, which has exemplified ‘big science’ for biology. In line with the trend towards Big Data in genomic research, the promise of the BRAIN Initiative, as well as the European Human Brain Project, rests on the possibility to amass vast quantities of data to model the complex interactions between the brain and behaviour and inform the diagnosis and prevention of neurological disorders and psychiatric disease. Advocates of this ‘data driven’ paradigm in neuroscience argue that harnessing the large quantities of data generated across laboratories worldwide has numerous methodological, ethical and economic advantages, but it requires the neuroscience community to adopt a culture of data sharing and open access to benefit from them. In this article, we examine the rationale for data sharing among advocates and briefly exemplify these in terms of new ‘open neuroscience’ projects. Then, drawing on the frequently invoked model of data sharing in genomics, we go on to demonstrate the complexities of data sharing, shedding light on the sociological and ethical challenges within the realms of institutions, researchers and participants, namely dilemmas around public/private interests in data, (lack of motivation to share in the academic community, and potential loss of participant anonymity. Our paper serves to highlight some foreseeable tensions around data sharing relevant to the emergent ‘open neuroscience’ movement.

  1. The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-teleost comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Gehrke, Andrew R; Smith, Jeramiah J; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Manousaki, Tereza; Pasquier, Jeremy; Amores, Angel; Desvignes, Thomas; Batzel, Peter; Catchen, Julian; Berlin, Aaron M; Campbell, Michael S; Barrell, Daniel; Martin, Kyle J; Mulley, John F; Ravi, Vydianathan; Lee, Alison P; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Chalopin, Domitille; Fan, Shaohua; Wcisel, Dustin; Cañestro, Cristian; Sydes, Jason; Beaudry, Felix E G; Sun, Yi; Hertel, Jana; Beam, Michael J; Fasold, Mario; Ishiyama, Mikio; Johnson, Jeremy; Kehr, Steffi; Lara, Marcia; Letaw, John H; Litman, Gary W; Litman, Ronda T; Mikami, Masato; Ota, Tatsuya; Saha, Nil Ratan; Williams, Louise; Stadler, Peter F; Wang, Han; Taylor, John S; Fontenot, Quenton; Ferrara, Allyse; Searle, Stephen M J; Aken, Bronwen; Yandell, Mark; Schneider, Igor; Yoder, Jeffrey A; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Meyer, Axel; Amemiya, Chris T; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Holland, Peter W H; Guiguen, Yann; Bobe, Julien; Shubin, Neil H; Di Palma, Federica; Alföldi, Jessica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Postlethwait, John H

    2016-04-01

    To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by illuminating the evolution of immunity, mineralization and development (mediated, for example, by Hox, ParaHox and microRNA genes). Numerous conserved noncoding elements (CNEs; often cis regulatory) undetectable in direct human-teleost comparisons become apparent using gar: functional studies uncovered conserved roles for such cryptic CNEs, facilitating annotation of sequences identified in human genome-wide association studies. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the sums of expression domains and expression levels for duplicated teleost genes often approximate the patterns and levels of expression for gar genes, consistent with subfunctionalization. The gar genome provides a resource for understanding evolution after genome duplication, the origin of vertebrate genomes and the function of human regulatory sequences. PMID:26950095

  2. Crowd-funded micro-grants for genomics and "big data": an actionable idea connecting small (artisan) science, infrastructure science, and citizen philanthropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Badr, Kamal F; Dove, Edward S; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-04-01

    Biomedical science in the 21(st) century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and "Big Data" created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., "the lone genius" or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21(st) century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists-only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the "bottom one billion"-the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while sharing similar disease

  3. Barriers and Facilitators to Adoption of Genomic Services for Colorectal Care within the Veterans Health Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina R. Sperber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined facilitators and barriers to adoption of genomic services for colorectal care, one of the first genomic medicine applications, within the Veterans Health Administration to shed light on areas for practice change. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 58 clinicians to understand use of the following genomic services for colorectal care: family health history documentation, molecular and genetic testing, and genetic counseling. Data collection and analysis were informed by two conceptual frameworks, the Greenhalgh Diffusion of Innovation and Andersen Behavioral Model, to allow for concurrent examination of both access and innovation factors. Specialists were more likely than primary care clinicians to obtain family history to investigate hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC, but with limited detail; clinicians suggested templates to facilitate retrieval and documentation of family history according to guidelines. Clinicians identified advantage of molecular tumor analysis prior to genetic testing, but tumor testing was infrequently used due to perceived low disease burden. Support from genetic counselors was regarded as facilitative for considering hereditary basis of CRC diagnosis, but there was variability in awareness of and access to this expertise. Our data suggest the need for tools and policies to establish and disseminate well-defined processes for accessing services and adhering to guidelines.

  4. Barriers and Facilitators to Adoption of Genomic Services for Colorectal Care within the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Nina R; Andrews, Sara M; Voils, Corrine I; Green, Gregory L; Provenzale, Dawn; Knight, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We examined facilitators and barriers to adoption of genomic services for colorectal care, one of the first genomic medicine applications, within the Veterans Health Administration to shed light on areas for practice change. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 58 clinicians to understand use of the following genomic services for colorectal care: family health history documentation, molecular and genetic testing, and genetic counseling. Data collection and analysis were informed by two conceptual frameworks, the Greenhalgh Diffusion of Innovation and Andersen Behavioral Model, to allow for concurrent examination of both access and innovation factors. Specialists were more likely than primary care clinicians to obtain family history to investigate hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC), but with limited detail; clinicians suggested templates to facilitate retrieval and documentation of family history according to guidelines. Clinicians identified advantage of molecular tumor analysis prior to genetic testing, but tumor testing was infrequently used due to perceived low disease burden. Support from genetic counselors was regarded as facilitative for considering hereditary basis of CRC diagnosis, but there was variability in awareness of and access to this expertise. Our data suggest the need for tools and policies to establish and disseminate well-defined processes for accessing services and adhering to guidelines. PMID:27136589

  5. Genomic sequencing: assessing the health care system, policy, and big-data implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn A; Trosman, Julia R; Kelley, Robin K; Pletcher, Mark J; Douglas, Michael P; Weldon, Christine B

    2014-07-01

    New genomic sequencing technologies enable the high-speed analysis of multiple genes simultaneously, including all of those in a person's genome. Sequencing is a prominent example of a "big data" technology because of the massive amount of information it produces and its complexity, diversity, and timeliness. Our objective in this article is to provide a policy primer on sequencing and illustrate how it can affect health care system and policy issues. Toward this end, we developed an easily applied classification of sequencing based on inputs, methods, and outputs. We used it to examine the implications of sequencing for three health care system and policy issues: making care more patient-centered, developing coverage and reimbursement policies, and assessing economic value. We conclude that sequencing has great promise but that policy challenges include how to optimize patient engagement as well as privacy, develop coverage policies that distinguish research from clinical uses and account for bioinformatics costs, and determine the economic value of sequencing through complex economic models that take into account multiple findings and downstream costs. PMID:25006153

  6. Parallel and Space-Efficient Construction of Burrows-Wheeler Transform and Suffix Array for Big Genome Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchao; Hankeln, Thomas; Schmidt, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to the sequencing of more and more genomes, propelling related research into the era of big data. In this paper, we present ParaBWT, a parallelized Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) and suffix array construction algorithm for big genome data. In ParaBWT, we have investigated a progressive construction approach to constructing the BWT of single genome sequences in linear space complexity, but with a small constant factor. This approach has been further parallelized using multi-threading based on a master-slave coprocessing model. After gaining the BWT, the suffix array is constructed in a memory-efficient manner. The performance of ParaBWT has been evaluated using two sequences generated from two human genome assemblies: the Ensembl Homo sapiens assembly and the human reference genome. Our performance comparison to FMD-index and Bwt-disk reveals that on 12 CPU cores, ParaBWT runs up to 2.2× faster than FMD-index and up to 99.0× faster than Bwt-disk. BWT construction algorithms for very long genomic sequences are time consuming and (due to their incremental nature) inherently difficult to parallelize. Thus, their parallelization is challenging and even relatively small speedups like the ones of our method over FMD-index are of high importance to research. ParaBWT is written in C++, and is freely available at http://parabwt.sourceforge.net. PMID:27295644

  7. The Widening Gulf between Genomics Data Generation and Consumption: A Practical Guide to Big Data Transfer Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Feltus, Frank A.; Joseph R. Breen III; Juan Deng; Ryan S. Izard; Christopher A. Konger; Walter B. Ligon III; Don Preuss; Kuang-Ching Wang

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, high-throughput DNA sequencing has become a disruptive technology and pushed the life sciences into a distributed ecosystem of sequence data producers and consumers. Given the power of genomics and declining sequencing costs, biology is an emerging “Big Data” discipline that will soon enter the exabyte data range when all subdisciplines are combined. These datasets must be transferred across commercial and research networks in creative ways since sending data without thoug...

  8. UHRF1 is a genome caretaker that facilitates the DNA damage response to γ-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Helena

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs caused by ionizing radiation or by the stalling of DNA replication forks are among the most deleterious forms of DNA damage. The ability of cells to recognize and repair DSBs requires post-translational modifications to histones and other proteins that facilitate access to lesions in compacted chromatin, however our understanding of these processes remains incomplete. UHRF1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that has previously been linked to events that regulate chromatin remodeling and epigenetic maintenance. Previous studies have demonstrated that loss of UHRF1 increases the sensitivity of cells to DNA damage however the role of UHRF1 in this response is unclear. Results We demonstrate that UHRF1 plays a critical role for facilitating the response to DSB damage caused by γ-irradiation. UHRF1-depleted cells exhibit increased sensitivity to γ-irradiation, suggesting a compromised cellular response to DSBs. UHRF1-depleted cells show impaired cell cycle arrest and an impaired accumulation of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX in response to γ-irradiation compared to control cells. We also demonstrate that UHRF1 is required for genome integrity, in that UHRF1-depleted cells displayed an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations compared to control cells. Conclusions Our findings indicate a critical role for UHRF1 in maintenance of chromosome integrity and an optimal response to DSB damage.

  9. Crowd-Funded Micro-Grants for Genomics and “Big Data”: An Actionable Idea Connecting Small (Artisan) Science, Infrastructure Science, and Citizen Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Kamal F.; Dove, Edward S.; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J.; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N.; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N.; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K.; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biomedical science in the 21st century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and “Big Data” created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., “the lone genius” or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21st century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists—only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the “bottom one billion”—the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while

  10. Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi More

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Demand and spurt in collections and accumulation of data has coined new term “Big Data” has begun. Accidently, incidentally and by interaction of people, information so called data is massively generated. This BIG DATA is to be smartly and effectively used Computer scientists, physicists, economists, mathematicians, political scientists, bio-informaticists, sociologists and many Variety of Intellegesia debate over the potential benefits and costs of analysing information from Twitter, Google, Facebook, Wikipedia and every space where large groups of people leave digital traces and deposit data. Given the rise of Big Data as both a phenomenon and a methodological persuasion, it is time to start critically interrogating this phenomenon, its assumptions and its biases. Big data, which refers to the data sets that are too big to be handled using the existing database management tools, are emerging in many important applications, such as Internet search, business informatics, social networks, social media, genomics, and meteorology. Big data presents a grand challenge for database and data analytics research. This paper is a blend of non-technical and introductory-level technical detail, ideal for the novice. We conclude with some technical challenges as well as the solutions that can be used to these challenges. Big Data differs from other data with five characteristics like volume, variety, value, velocity and complexity. The article will focus on some current and future cases and causes for BIG DATA.

  11. The Widening Gulf between Genomics Data Generation and Consumption: A Practical Guide to Big Data Transfer Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltus, Frank A; Breen, Joseph R; Deng, Juan; Izard, Ryan S; Konger, Christopher A; Ligon, Walter B; Preuss, Don; Wang, Kuang-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, high-throughput DNA sequencing has become a disruptive technology and pushed the life sciences into a distributed ecosystem of sequence data producers and consumers. Given the power of genomics and declining sequencing costs, biology is an emerging "Big Data" discipline that will soon enter the exabyte data range when all subdisciplines are combined. These datasets must be transferred across commercial and research networks in creative ways since sending data without thought can have serious consequences on data processing time frames. Thus, it is imperative that biologists, bioinformaticians, and information technology engineers recalibrate data processing paradigms to fit this emerging reality. This review attempts to provide a snapshot of Big Data transfer across networks, which is often overlooked by many biologists. Specifically, we discuss four key areas: 1) data transfer networks, protocols, and applications; 2) data transfer security including encryption, access, firewalls, and the Science DMZ; 3) data flow control with software-defined networking; and 4) data storage, staging, archiving and access. A primary intention of this article is to orient the biologist in key aspects of the data transfer process in order to frame their genomics-oriented needs to enterprise IT professionals. PMID:26568680

  12. Big Data in Plant Science: Resources and Data Mining Tools for Plant Genomics and Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, George V; Noutsos, Christos; Popescu, Sorina C

    2016-01-01

    In modern plant biology, progress is increasingly defined by the scientists' ability to gather and analyze data sets of high volume and complexity, otherwise known as "big data". Arguably, the largest increase in the volume of plant data sets over the last decade is a consequence of the application of the next-generation sequencing and mass-spectrometry technologies to the study of experimental model and crop plants. The increase in quantity and complexity of biological data brings challenges, mostly associated with data acquisition, processing, and sharing within the scientific community. Nonetheless, big data in plant science create unique opportunities in advancing our understanding of complex biological processes at a level of accuracy without precedence, and establish a base for the plant systems biology. In this chapter, we summarize the major drivers of big data in plant science and big data initiatives in life sciences with a focus on the scope and impact of iPlant, a representative cyberinfrastructure platform for plant science. PMID:27115651

  13. MSeqDR: A Centralized Knowledge Repository and Bioinformatics Web Resource to Facilitate Genomic Investigations in Mitochondrial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lishuang; Diroma, Maria Angela; Gonzalez, Michael; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T; van Oven, Mannis; Wallace, Douglas C; Muraresku, Colleen Clarke; Zolkipli-Cunningham, Zarazuela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Attimonelli, Marcella; Zuchner, Stephan; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu

    2016-06-01

    MSeqDR is the Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource, a centralized and comprehensive genome and phenome bioinformatics resource built by the mitochondrial disease community to facilitate clinical diagnosis and research investigations of individual patient phenotypes, genomes, genes, and variants. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) integrates community knowledge from expert-curated databases with genomic and phenotype data shared by clinicians and researchers. MSeqDR also functions as a centralized application server for Web-based tools to analyze data across both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, including investigator-driven whole exome or genome dataset analyses through MSeqDR-Genesis. MSeqDR-GBrowse genome browser supports interactive genomic data exploration and visualization with custom tracks relevant to mtDNA variation and mitochondrial disease. MSeqDR-LSDB is a locus-specific database that currently manages 178 mitochondrial diseases, 1,363 genes associated with mitochondrial biology or disease, and 3,711 pathogenic variants in those genes. MSeqDR Disease Portal allows hierarchical tree-style disease exploration to evaluate their unique descriptions, phenotypes, and causative variants. Automated genomic data submission tools are provided that capture ClinVar compliant variant annotations. PhenoTips will be used for phenotypic data submission on deidentified patients using human phenotype ontology terminology. The development of a dynamic informed patient consent process to guide data access is underway to realize the full potential of these resources. PMID:26919060

  14. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  15. The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-teleost comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Braasch, Ingo; Gehrke, Andrew R; Smith, Jeramiah J.; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Manousaki, Tereza; Pasquier, Jeremy; Amores, Angel; Desvignes, Thomas; Batzel, Peter; Catchen, Julian; Berlin, Aaron M.; Campbell, Michael S; Barrell, Daniel; Martin, Kyle J.; Mulley, John F

    2016-01-01

    To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by illuminating the evolution of immunity, mineralization and development (mediated, for example, by Hox, ParaHox and microRNA genes). Numerous conse...

  16. Characterizing Big Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Rossi; Kechi Hirama

    2015-01-01

    Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: t...

  17. Synergy between Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics: Facilitating Genomic Medicine for Future Health Care

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martin-Sanchez, F.; Iakovidis, I.; Norager, S.; Maojo, V.; de Groen, P.; Van der Lei, J.; Jones, T.; Abraham-Fuchs, K.; Apweiler, R.; Babic, A.; Baud, R.; Breton, V.; Cinquin, P.; Doupi, P.; Dugas, M.; Eils, R.; Engelbrecht, R.; Ghazal, P.; Jehenson, P.; Kulikowski, C.; Lampe, K.; De Moor, G.; Orphanoudakis, S.; Rossing, N.; Sarachan, B.; Sousa, A.; Spekowius, G.; Thireos, G.; Zahlmann, G.; Zvárová, Jana; Hermosilla, I.; Vicente, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2004), s. 30-42. ISSN 1532-0464 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : bioinformatics * medical informatics * genomics * genomic medicine * biomedical informatics Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.013, year: 2004

  18. Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurélien; Pausch, Hubert;

    2014-01-01

    The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes...... project, we sequenced the whole genomes of 234 cattle to an average of 8.3-fold coverage. This sequencing includes data for 129 individuals from the global Holstein-Friesian population, 43 individuals from the Fleckvieh breed and 15 individuals from the Jersey breed. We identified a total of 28.3 million...... variants, with an average of 1.44 heterozygous sites per kilobase for each individual. We demonstrate the use of this database in identifying a recessive mutation underlying embryonic death and a dominant mutation underlying lethal chrondrodysplasia. We also performed genome-wide association studies for...

  19. Facilitating a Culture of Responsible and Effective Sharing of Cancer Genome Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Lillian L.; Lawler, Mark; Haussler, David; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Lewin, Jeremy; Vis, Daniel J.; Liao, Rachel G.; Andre, Fabrice; Banks, Ian; Barrett, J. Carl; Caldas, Carlos; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.; Mao, Mao; Mattison, John E.; Pao, William; Sellers, William R.; Sullivan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean; Ward, Robyn; ZenKlusen, Jean Claude; Sawyers, Charles L; Voest, Emile E.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and affordable tumor molecular profiling has led to an explosion of clinical and genomic data poised to enhance diagnosis, prognostication and treatment of cancer. A critical point has now been reached where analysis and storage of annotated clinical and genomic information in unconnected silos will stall the advancement of precision cancer care. Information systems must be harmonized to overcome the multiple technical and logistical barriers for data sharing. Against this backdrop, the Global Alliance for Genomic Health (GA4GH) was established in 2013 to create a common framework that enables responsible, voluntary, and secure sharing of clinical and genomic data. This Perspective from the GA4GH Clinical Working Group Cancer Task Team highlights the data aggregation challenges faced by the field, suggests potential collaborative solutions, and describes how GA4GH can catalyze a harmonized data sharing culture. PMID:27149219

  20. Facilitating a culture of responsible and effective sharing of cancer genome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Lillian L; Lawler, Mark; Haussler, David; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Lewin, Jeremy; Vis, Daniel J; Liao, Rachel G; Andre, Fabrice; Banks, Ian; Barrett, J Carl; Caldas, Carlos; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Mao, Mao; Mattison, John E; Pao, William; Sellers, William R; Sullivan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean; Ward, Robyn L; ZenKlusen, Jean Claude; Sawyers, Charles L; Voest, Emile E

    2016-05-01

    Rapid and affordable tumor molecular profiling has led to an explosion of clinical and genomic data poised to enhance the diagnosis, prognostication and treatment of cancer. A critical point has now been reached at which the analysis and storage of annotated clinical and genomic information in unconnected silos will stall the advancement of precision cancer care. Information systems must be harmonized to overcome the multiple technical and logistical barriers to data sharing. Against this backdrop, the Global Alliance for Genomic Health (GA4GH) was established in 2013 to create a common framework that enables responsible, voluntary and secure sharing of clinical and genomic data. This Perspective from the GA4GH Clinical Working Group Cancer Task Team highlights the data-aggregation challenges faced by the field, suggests potential collaborative solutions and describes how GA4GH can catalyze a harmonized data-sharing culture. PMID:27149219

  1. Synergy between medical informatics and bioinformatics: facilitating genomic medicine for future health care

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Sanchez, F.; Iakovidis, I.; Norager, S.; Maojo, V; de Groen, P; Lei, J.; Jones, T.; Abraham-Fuchs, K.; Apweiler, R; Babic, A; Baud, R.; BRETON, Vincent; Cinquin, P.; Doupi, P; Dugas, M.

    2004-01-01

    Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) are two interdisciplinary areas located at the intersection between computer science and medicine and biology, respectively. Historically, they have been separated and only occasionally have researchers of both disciplines collaborated. The completion of the Human Genome Project has brought about in this post genomic era the need for a synergy of these two disciplines to further advance in the study of diseases by correlating essential genotypi...

  2. High Capsid–Genome Correlation Facilitates Creation of AAV Libraries for Directed Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, Mathieu; van Bakel, Harm; Hajjar, Roger J; Weber, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Directed evolution of adeno-associated virus (AAV) through successive rounds of phenotypic selection is a powerful method to isolate variants with improved properties from large libraries of capsid mutants. Importantly, AAV libraries used for directed evolution are based on the “natural” AAV genome organization where the capsid proteins are encoded in cis from replicating genomes. This is necessary to allow the recovery of the capsid DNA after each step of phenotypic selection. For directed evolution to be used successfully, it is essential to minimize the random mixing of capsomers and the encapsidation of nonmatching viral genomes during the production of the viral libraries. Here, we demonstrate that multiple AAV capsid variants expressed from Rep/Cap containing viral genomes result in near-homogeneous capsids that display an unexpectedly high capsid–DNA correlation. Next-generation sequencing of AAV progeny generated by bulk transfection of a semi-random peptide library showed a strong counter-selection of capsid variants encoding premature stop codons, which further supports a strong capsid–genome identity correlation. Overall, our observations demonstrate that production of “natural” AAVs results in low capsid mosaicism and high capsid–genome correlation. These unique properties allow the production of highly diverse AAV libraries in a one-step procedure with a minimal loss in phenotype–genotype correlation. PMID:25586687

  3. Single-Cell-Genomics-Facilitated Read Binning of Candidate Phylum EM19 Genomes from Geothermal Spring Metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Eric D; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Ohlsson, J Ingemar; Briggs, Brandon R; Kanbar, Jad; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen R; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P; Swingley, Wesley D

    2016-02-01

    The vast majority of microbial life remains uncatalogued due to the inability to cultivate these organisms in the laboratory. This "microbial dark matter" represents a substantial portion of the tree of life and of the populations that contribute to chemical cycling in many ecosystems. In this work, we leveraged an existing single-cell genomic data set representing the candidate bacterial phylum "Calescamantes" (EM19) to calibrate machine learning algorithms and define metagenomic bins directly from pyrosequencing reads derived from Great Boiling Spring in the U.S. Great Basin. Compared to other assembly-based methods, taxonomic binning with a read-based machine learning approach yielded final assemblies with the highest predicted genome completeness of any method tested. Read-first binning subsequently was used to extract Calescamantes bins from all metagenomes with abundant Calescamantes populations, including metagenomes from Octopus Spring and Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park and Gongxiaoshe Spring in Yunnan Province, China. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that Calescamantes are heterotrophic, facultative anaerobes, which can utilize oxidized nitrogen sources as terminal electron acceptors for respiration in the absence of oxygen and use proteins as their primary carbon source. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, the geographically separate Calescamantes populations were highly similar in their predicted metabolic capabilities and core gene content, respiring O2, or oxidized nitrogen species for energy conservation in distant but chemically similar hot springs. PMID:26637598

  4. A central support system can facilitate implementation and sustainability of a Classroom-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatto, David; Hauser, Charles; Jones, Christopher J; Paetkau, Don; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Dunbar, David; MacKinnon, Christy; Stamm, Joyce; Alvarez, Consuelo; Barnard, Daron; Bedard, James E J; Bednarski, April E; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John M; Burg, Martin; Chung, Hui-Min; DeJong, Randall J; DiAngelo, Justin R; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T; Emerson, Julia; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Johnson, Diana; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S Catherine Silver; Kokan, Nighat P; Kopp, Olga R; Kuleck, Gary A; Lopilato, Jane; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan C; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul J; Parrish, Susan; Preuss, Mary L; Reed, Laura D; Regisford, E Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklien-Canfield, Jennifer A; Rosenwald, Anne G; Rubin, Michael R; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim A; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D; Smith, Mary; Smith, Sheryl T; Spana, Eric P; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Wawersik, Matthew; Wolyniak, Michael J; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine; Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Threlfall, Jennifer; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2014-01-01

    In their 2012 report, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated "replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses"-a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the Genomics Education Partnership, a nationwide faculty consortium that aims to provide undergraduates with a research experience in genomics through a scheduled course (a classroom-based undergraduate research experience, or CURE). We examine the common barriers encountered in implementing a CURE, program elements of most value to faculty, ways in which a shared core support system can help, and the incentives for and rewards of establishing a CURE on our diverse campuses. While some of the barriers and rewards are specific to a research project utilizing a genomics approach, other lessons learned should be broadly applicable. We find that a central system that supports a shared investigation can mitigate some shortfalls in campus infrastructure (such as time for new curriculum development, availability of IT services) and provides collegial support for change. Our findings should be useful for designing similar supportive programs to facilitate change in the way we teach science for undergraduates. PMID:25452493

  5. Recombination and evolution of duplicate control regions in the mitochondrial genome of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenfei Zheng

    Full Text Available Complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequences with duplicate control regions (CRs have been detected in various animal species. In Testudines, duplicate mtCRs have been reported in the mtDNA of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum, which has three living subspecies. However, the evolutionary pattern of these CRs remains unclear. In this study, we report the completed sequences of duplicate CRs from 20 individuals belonging to three subspecies of this turtle and discuss the micro-evolutionary analysis of the evolution of duplicate CRs. Genetic distances calculated with MEGA 4.1 using the complete duplicate CR sequences revealed that within turtle subspecies, genetic distances between orthologous copies from different individuals were 0.63% for CR1 and 1.2% for CR2app:addword:respectively, and the average distance between paralogous copies of CR1 and CR2 was 4.8%. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed from the CR sequences, excluding the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs at the 3' end using three methods: neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood algorithm, and Bayesian inference. These data show that any two CRs within individuals were more genetically distant from orthologous genes in different individuals within the same subspecies. This suggests independent evolution of the two mtCRs within each P. megacephalum subspecies. Reconstruction of separate phylogenetic trees using different CR components (TAS, CD, CSB, and VNTRs suggested the role of recombination in the evolution of duplicate CRs. Consequently, recombination events were detected using RDP software with break points at ≈290 bp and ≈1,080 bp. Based on these results, we hypothesize that duplicate CRs in P. megacephalum originated from heterological ancestral recombination of mtDNA. Subsequent recombination could have resulted in homogenization during independent evolutionary events, thus maintaining the functions of duplicate CRs in the mtDNA of P

  6. Recombination Enhances HIV-1 Envelope Diversity by Facilitating the Survival of Latent Genomic Fragments in the Plasma Virus Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Taina T; Conway, Jessica M; Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Perelson, Alan S; Leitner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness

  7. The Translational Genomics Core at Partners Personalized Medicine: Facilitating the Transition of Research towards Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Ashley; Brown, Alison; Mahanta, Lisa; Amr, Sami S

    2016-01-01

    The Translational Genomics Core (TGC) at Partners Personalized Medicine (PPM) serves as a fee-for-service core laboratory for Partners Healthcare researchers, providing access to technology platforms and analysis pipelines for genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic research projects. The interaction of the TGC with various components of PPM provides it with a unique infrastructure that allows for greater IT and bioinformatics opportunities, such as sample tracking and data analysis. The following article describes some of the unique opportunities available to an academic research core operating within PPM, such the ability to develop analysis pipelines with a dedicated bioinformatics team and maintain a flexible Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) with the support of an internal IT team, as well as the operational challenges encountered to respond to emerging technologies, diverse investigator needs, and high staff turnover. In addition, the implementation and operational role of the TGC in the Partners Biobank genotyping project of over 25,000 samples is presented as an example of core activities working with other components of PPM. PMID:26927185

  8. Accurate Dna Assembly And Direct Genome Integration With Optimized Uracil Excision Cloning To Facilitate Engineering Of Escherichia Coli As A Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Nørholm, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce a vast diversity of valuable compounds with medical properties, but these are often difficult to purify from the natural source or produce by organic synthesis. An alternative is to transfer the biosynthetic pathways to an efficient production host like the bacterium Escherichia co......-excision-based cloning and combining it with a genome-engineering approach to allow direct integration of whole metabolic pathways into the genome of E. coli, to facilitate the advanced engineering of cell factories....

  9. Crowd-Funded Micro-Grants for Genomics and “Big Data”: An Actionable Idea Connecting Small (Artisan) Science, Infrastructure Science, and Citizen Philanthropy

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Vural; Badr, Kamal F.; Dove, Edward S; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J.; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N.; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N.; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical science in the 21st century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and “Big Data” created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., “the lone genius” or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21st century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars ...

  10. Machine learning for Big Data analytics in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Zhang, Hao Helen; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2014-12-01

    Rapid advances in high-throughput genomic technology have enabled biology to enter the era of 'Big Data' (large datasets). The plant science community not only needs to build its own Big-Data-compatible parallel computing and data management infrastructures, but also to seek novel analytical paradigms to extract information from the overwhelming amounts of data. Machine learning offers promising computational and analytical solutions for the integrative analysis of large, heterogeneous and unstructured datasets on the Big-Data scale, and is gradually gaining popularity in biology. This review introduces the basic concepts and procedures of machine-learning applications and envisages how machine learning could interface with Big Data technology to facilitate basic research and biotechnology in the plant sciences. PMID:25223304

  11. Incorporating prior knowledge to facilitate discoveries in a genome-wide association study on age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Wen-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial genotyping data produced by current high-throughput technologies have brought opportunities and difficulties. With the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs going into millions comes the harsh challenge of multiple-testing adjustment. However, even with the false discovery rate (FDR control approach, a genome-wide association study (GWAS may still fall short of discovering any true positive gene, particularly when it has a relatively small sample size. Findings To counteract such a harsh multiple-testing penalty, in this report, we incorporate findings from previous linkage and association studies to re-analyze a GWAS on age-related macular degeneration. While previous Bonferroni correction and the traditional FDR approach detected only one significant SNP (rs380390, here we have been able to detect seven significant SNPs with an easy-to-implement prioritized subset analysis (PSA with the overall FDR controlled at 0.05. These include SNPs within three genes: CFH, CFHR4, and SGCD. Conclusions Based on the success of this example, we advocate using the simple method of PSA to facilitate discoveries in future GWASs.

  12. Big data for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled. PMID:26173222

  13. Big Society, Big Deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  14. Från data till kunskap : En kvalitativ studie om interaktiv visualisering av big data genom dashboards

    OpenAIRE

    Agerberg, David; Eriksson, Linus

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growing volumes of data demands new solutions in terms of analysing and visualizing. The growing amount of data contains valuable information which organizations in a more digitized society need to manage. It is a major challenge to visualize data, both in a static and interactive way. Through visualization of big data follows several opportunities containing risk assessment and decision basis. Previous research indicates a lack of standards and guidelines considering the development of...

  15. Genome-scale reconstruction and analysis of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 metabolic network facilitates applications in biotechnology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Puchałka

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A cornerstone of biotechnology is the use of microorganisms for the efficient production of chemicals and the elimination of harmful waste. Pseudomonas putida is an archetype of such microbes due to its metabolic versatility, stress resistance, amenability to genetic modifications, and vast potential for environmental and industrial applications. To address both the elucidation of the metabolic wiring in P. putida and its uses in biocatalysis, in particular for the production of non-growth-related biochemicals, we developed and present here a genome-scale constraint-based model of the metabolism of P. putida KT2440. Network reconstruction and flux balance analysis (FBA enabled definition of the structure of the metabolic network, identification of knowledge gaps, and pin-pointing of essential metabolic functions, facilitating thereby the refinement of gene annotations. FBA and flux variability analysis were used to analyze the properties, potential, and limits of the model. These analyses allowed identification, under various conditions, of key features of metabolism such as growth yield, resource distribution, network robustness, and gene essentiality. The model was validated with data from continuous cell cultures, high-throughput phenotyping data, (13C-measurement of internal flux distributions, and specifically generated knock-out mutants. Auxotrophy was correctly predicted in 75% of the cases. These systematic analyses revealed that the metabolic network structure is the main factor determining the accuracy of predictions, whereas biomass composition has negligible influence. Finally, we drew on the model to devise metabolic engineering strategies to improve production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a class of biotechnologically useful compounds whose synthesis is not coupled to cell survival. The solidly validated model yields valuable insights into genotype-phenotype relationships and provides a sound framework to explore this versatile

  16. Parallel Histories of Horizontal Gene Transfer Facilitated Extreme Reduction of Endosymbiont Genomes in Sap-Feeding Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, Daniel B; Nakabachi, Atsushi; Richards, Stephen; Qu, Jiaxin; Murali, Shwetha Canchi; Gibbs, Richard A.; Moran, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria confined to intracellular environments experience extensive genome reduction. In extreme cases, insect endosymbionts have evolved genomes that are so gene-poor that they blur the distinction between bacteria and endosymbiotically derived organelles such as mitochondria and plastids. To understand the host’s role in this extreme gene loss, we analyzed gene content and expression in the nuclear genome of the psyllid Pachypsylla venusta, a sap-feeding insect that harbors an ancient endo...

  17. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training. PMID:25217972

  18. Big Data in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  19. Expression of IMP1 enhances production of murine leukemia virus vector by facilitating viral genomic RNA packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mai

    Full Text Available Murine leukemia virus (MLV-based retroviral vector is widely used for gene transfer. Efficient packaging of the genomic RNA is critical for production of high-titer virus. Here, we report that expression of the insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 1 (IMP1 enhanced the production of infectious MLV vector. Overexpression of IMP1 increased the stability of viral genomic RNA in virus producer cells and packaging of the RNA into progeny virus in a dose-dependent manner. Downregulation of IMP1 in virus producer cells resulted in reduced production of the retroviral vector. These results indicate that IMP1 plays a role in regulating the packaging of MLV genomic RNA and can be used for improving production of retroviral vectors.

  20. Discovery of Nigri/nox and Panto/pox site-specific recombinase systems facilitates advanced genome engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, Madina; Splith, Victoria; Karpinski, Janet; Pisabarro, M. Teresa; Buchholz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties. Here, we describe two novel tyrosine site-specific recombination systems designated Nigri/nox and Panto/pox. Nigri originates from Vibrio nigripulchritudo (plasmid VIBNI_pA) and recombines its target site nox with high efficiency and high target-site selectivity, without recombining target sites of the well established SSRs Cre, Dre, Vika and VCre. Panto, derived from Pantoea sp. aB, is less specific and in addition to its native target site, pox also recombines the target site for Dre recombinase, called rox. This relaxed specificity allowed the identification of residues that are involved in target site selectivity, thereby advancing our understanding of how SSRs recognize their respective DNA targets. PMID:27444945

  1. Discovery of Nigri/nox and Panto/pox site-specific recombinase systems facilitates advanced genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, Madina; Splith, Victoria; Karpinski, Janet; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Buchholz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties. Here, we describe two novel tyrosine site-specific recombination systems designated Nigri/nox and Panto/pox. Nigri originates from Vibrio nigripulchritudo (plasmid VIBNI_pA) and recombines its target site nox with high efficiency and high target-site selectivity, without recombining target sites of the well established SSRs Cre, Dre, Vika and VCre. Panto, derived from Pantoea sp. aB, is less specific and in addition to its native target site, pox also recombines the target site for Dre recombinase, called rox. This relaxed specificity allowed the identification of residues that are involved in target site selectivity, thereby advancing our understanding of how SSRs recognize their respective DNA targets. PMID:27444945

  2. The Drosophila melanogaster PeptideAtlas facilitates the use of peptide data for improved fly proteomics and genome annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Nichole L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucial foundations of any quantitative systems biology experiment are correct genome and proteome annotations. Protein databases compiled from high quality empirical protein identifications that are in turn based on correct gene models increase the correctness, sensitivity, and quantitative accuracy of systems biology genome-scale experiments. Results In this manuscript, we present the Drosophila melanogaster PeptideAtlas, a fly proteomics and genomics resource of unsurpassed depth. Based on peptide mass spectrometry data collected in our laboratory the portal http://www.drosophila-peptideatlas.org allows querying fly protein data observed with respect to gene model confirmation and splice site verification as well as for the identification of proteotypic peptides suited for targeted proteomics studies. Additionally, the database provides consensus mass spectra for observed peptides along with qualitative and quantitative information about the number of observations of a particular peptide and the sample(s in which it was observed. Conclusion PeptideAtlas is an open access database for the Drosophila community that has several features and applications that support (1 reduction of the complexity inherently associated with performing targeted proteomic studies, (2 designing and accelerating shotgun proteomics experiments, (3 confirming or questioning gene models, and (4 adjusting gene models such that they are in line with observed Drosophila peptides. While the database consists of proteomic data it is not required that the user is a proteomics expert.

  3. Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed; Flyverbom, Mikkel; Hilbert, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper is...... to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments contained in any big data practice. Second, it suggests a research agenda built around a set of subthemes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay between big...

  4. Moleculo long-read sequencing facilitates assembly and resolves functionally active genomic bins from complex soil metagenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard A.; Bottos, Eric M.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Zucker, Jeremy D.; Brislawn, Colin J.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Glass, Kevin A.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2016-07-28

    Soil metagenomics has been touted as the "grand challenge" for metagenomes, as the high microbial diversity, sample complexity, and spatial heterogeneity of soils makes them unamenable to current sequencing and assembly platforms. Here we aimed to improve soil metagenomic sequence assembly by applying a synthetic long read sequencing technology (i.e. Moleculo) from three locations within Konza native prairie station in Kansas. In total, we obtained 520 GB of raw sequence data; 239 GB of short read data from the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), an additional 97 GB from Moleculo sequencing, plus 184 GB of rapid mode sequence data. The Moleculo data alone yielded over 5,600 reads greater than 10 kbp in length, mapping over 95% of the total sequence data. Hybrid assembly of all data resulted in more than 10,000 contigs over 10 kbp in length. The Moleculo sub-assemblies captured much of the functional potential of the soil community, in that 92% of the functional enzyme commission numbers (EC) predicted from the metagenome were also detected in metatranscriptome data. The Moleculo sub-assembly enabled binning of more than 100 novel soil microbial genomic bins. Candidatus Pseudomonas janssonensis strain KNPRW21, was the first genome obtained from a native soil metagenome by direct binning. By mapping RNA-Seq (i.e. metatranscriptomic) sequence reads back to the bins, we found that several low abundance Acidobacteria bins were highly transcriptionally active, whereas the highly abundant Verruomicrobia bins were not. Using Moleculo long reads alone or combined with conventional short read metagenomic data is therefore a useful tool for resolving complex soil microbial communities.

  5. Big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed; Ruppert, Evelyn; Flyverbom, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper is...... to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments that is contained in any big data practice. Secondly, it suggest a research agenda built around a set of sub-themes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay...

  6. Big Egos in Big Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina; Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    utilize a stochastic actor oriented model (SAOM) to analyze both network endogeneous mechanisms and individual agency driving the collaboration network and further if being a Big Ego in Big Science translates to increasing performance. Our findings suggest that the selection of collaborators is not based...... on preferentialattachment, but more of an assortativity effect creating not merely a rich-gets-richer effect but an elitist network with high entry barriers. In this acclaimed democratic and collaborative environment of Big Science, the elite closes in on itself. We propose this tendency to be even...

  7. Synthetic RNA Polymerase III Promoters Facilitate High-Efficiency CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Cory M; Hussain, Murtaza Shabbir; Blenner, Mark; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-04-15

    The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a valuable microbial host for chemical production because it has a high capacity to synthesize, modify, and store intracellular lipids; however, rapid strain development has been hampered by the limited availability of genome engineering tools. We address this limitation by adapting the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes for markerless gene disruption and integration in Y. lipolytica. Single gene disruption efficiencies of 92% and higher were achieved when single guide RNAs (sgRNA) were transcribed with synthetic hybrid promoters that combine native RNA polymerase III (Pol III) promoters with tRNA. The Pol III-tRNA hybrid promoters exploit endogenous tRNA processing to produce mature sgRNA for Cas9 targeting. The highest efficiencies were achieved with a SCR1'-tRNA(Gly) promoter and Y. lipolytica codon-optimized Cas9 expressed from a UAS1B8-TEF promoter. Cotransformation of the Cas9 and sgRNA expressing plasmid with a homologous recombination donor plasmid resulted in markerless homologous recombination efficiency of over 64%. Homologous recombination was observed in 100% of transformants when nonhomologous end joining was disrupted. The end result of these studies was the development of pCRISPRyl, a modular tool for markerless gene disruption and integration in Y. lipolytica. PMID:26714206

  8. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  9. Big Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astronomy, like particle physics, has become Big Science where the demands of front line research can outstrip the science budgets of whole nations. Thus came into being the European Southern Observatory (ESO), founded in 1962 to provide European scientists with a major modern observatory to study the southern sky under optimal conditions

  10. Big Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  11. Genome-wide comparison of paired fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gliomas by custom BAC and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization: facilitating analysis of archival gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Gayatry; Engler, David A; Starbuck, Kristen D; Kim, James C; Bernay, Derek C; Scangas, George A; Rousseau, Audrey; Batchelor, Tracy T; Betensky, Rebecca A; Louis, David N

    2011-04-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting DNA copy number alterations (CNA). Because diffuse malignant gliomas are often sampled by small biopsies, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks are often the only tissue available for genetic analysis; FFPE tissues are also needed to study the intratumoral heterogeneity that characterizes these neoplasms. In this paper, we present a combination of evaluations and technical advances that provide strong support for the ready use of oligonucleotide aCGH on FFPE diffuse gliomas. We first compared aCGH using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays in 45 paired frozen and FFPE gliomas, and demonstrate a high concordance rate between FFPE and frozen DNA in an individual clone-level analysis of sensitivity and specificity, assuring that under certain array conditions, frozen and FFPE DNA can perform nearly identically. However, because oligonucleotide arrays offer advantages to BAC arrays in genomic coverage and practical availability, we next developed a method of labeling DNA from FFPE tissue that allows efficient hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. To demonstrate utility in FFPE tissues, we applied this approach to biphasic anaplastic oligoastrocytomas and demonstrate CNA differences between DNA obtained from the two components. Therefore, BAC and oligonucleotide aCGH can be sensitive and specific tools for detecting CNAs in FFPE DNA, and novel labeling techniques enable the routine use of oligonucleotide arrays for FFPE DNA. In combination, these advances should facilitate genome-wide analysis of rare, small and/or histologically heterogeneous gliomas from FFPE tissues. PMID:21080181

  12. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  13. Big Data and Big Science

    OpenAIRE

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Brief introduction to the challenges of big data in scientific research based on the work done by the HEP community at CERN and how the CERN openlab promotes collaboration among research institutes and industrial IT companies. Presented at the FutureGov 2014 conference in Singapore.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the cryptic "lineage B" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Yen, Ta-Chi; Chen, Ching-Hung; Ye, Jeng-Jia; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the cryptic "lineage B" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,694 bp, includes 13 protein coding genes, 25 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of "lineage B" S. lessoniana is 36.7% for A, 18.9 % for C, 34.5 % for T and 9.8 % for G and show 90% identities to "lineage C" S. lessoniana. It is also exhibits high T + A content (71.2%), two non-coding regions with TA tandem repeats. The complete mitogenome of the cryptic "lineage B" S. lessoniana provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for big-fin reef squid species complex. PMID:25418625

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the cryptic "lineage A" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chung-Der; Shen, Kang-Ning; Ching, Tzu-Yun; Wang, Ya-Hsien; Ye, Jeng-Jia; Tsai, Shiou-Yi; Wu, Shan-Chun; Chen, Ching-Hung; Wang, Chia-Hui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the cryptic "lineage A" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consists of 16,605 bp, which includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of "lineage A" S. lessoniana is 37.5% for A, 17.4% for C, 9.1% for G, and 35.9% for T and shows 87% identities to "lineage C" S. lessoniana. It is also noticed by its high T + A content (73.4%), two non-coding regions with TA tandem repeats. The complete mitogenome of the cryptic "lineage A" S. lessoniana provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for big-fin reef squid species complex. PMID:26016882

  16. Transforming Big Data into cancer-relevant insight: An initial, multi-tier approach to assess reproducibility and relevance | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Target Discovery and Development (CTD^2) Network was established to accelerate the transformation of "Big Data" into novel pharmacological targets, lead compounds, and biomarkers for rapid translation into improved patient outcomes. It rapidly became clear in this collaborative network that a key central issue was to define what constitutes sufficient computational or experimental evidence to support a biologically or clinically relevant finding.

  17. Big queues

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, Ayalvadi; Wischik, Damon

    2004-01-01

    Big Queues aims to give a simple and elegant account of how large deviations theory can be applied to queueing problems. Large deviations theory is a collection of powerful results and general techniques for studying rare events, and has been applied to queueing problems in a variety of ways. The strengths of large deviations theory are these: it is powerful enough that one can answer many questions which are hard to answer otherwise, and it is general enough that one can draw broad conclusions without relying on special case calculations.

  18. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  19. Trade Facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ujiie, Teruo

    2006-01-01

    The issue of trade facilitation has been increasingly highlighted among business and trading communities as they would like to reduce the costs of international transactions of goods and services. Trade facilitation is a broad term: there are a number of international agreements relating to trade facilitation, and a number of international organizations involved in this area. Recognizing the importance of trade facilitation and after several years of exploratory work on government trade facil...

  20. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Belle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  1. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  2. Enhancement of β-catenin activity by BIG1 plus BIG2 via Arf activation and cAMP signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Chun; Le, Kang; Kato, Jiro; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2016-05-24

    Multifunctional β-catenin, with critical roles in both cell-cell adhesion and Wnt-signaling pathways, was among HeLa cell proteins coimmunoprecipitated by antibodies against brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors 1 and 2 (BIG1 or BIG2) that activate ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) by accelerating the replacement of bound GDP with GTP. BIG proteins also contain A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) sequences that can act as scaffolds for multimolecular assemblies that facilitate and limit cAMP signaling temporally and spatially. Direct interaction of BIG1 N-terminal sequence with β-catenin was confirmed using yeast two-hybrid assays and in vitro synthesized proteins. Depletion of BIG1 and/or BIG2 or overexpression of guanine nucleotide-exchange factor inactive mutant, but not wild-type, proteins interfered with β-catenin trafficking, leading to accumulation at perinuclear Golgi structures. Both phospholipase D activity and vesicular trafficking were required for effects of BIG1 and BIG2 on β-catenin activation. Levels of PKA-phosphorylated β-catenin S675 and β-catenin association with PKA, BIG1, and BIG2 were also diminished after BIG1/BIG2 depletion. Inferring a requirement for BIG1 and/or BIG2 AKAP sequence in PKA modification of β-catenin and its effect on transcription activation, we confirmed dependence of S675 phosphorylation and transcription coactivator function on BIG2 AKAP-C sequence. PMID:27162341

  3. Big data analytics turning big data into big money

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlhorst, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Unique insights to implement big data analytics and reap big returns to your bottom line Focusing on the business and financial value of big data analytics, respected technology journalist Frank J. Ohlhorst shares his insights on the newly emerging field of big data analytics in Big Data Analytics. This breakthrough book demonstrates the importance of analytics, defines the processes, highlights the tangible and intangible values and discusses how you can turn a business liability into actionable material that can be used to redefine markets, improve profits and identify new business opportuni

  4. Big Data Application in Biomedical Research and Health Care: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Wu, Min; Gopukumar, Deepika; Zhao, Yiqing

    2016-01-01

    Big data technologies are increasingly used for biomedical and health-care informatics research. Large amounts of biological and clinical data have been generated and collected at an unprecedented speed and scale. For example, the new generation of sequencing technologies enables the processing of billions of DNA sequence data per day, and the application of electronic health records (EHRs) is documenting large amounts of patient data. The cost of acquiring and analyzing biomedical data is expected to decrease dramatically with the help of technology upgrades, such as the emergence of new sequencing machines, the development of novel hardware and software for parallel computing, and the extensive expansion of EHRs. Big data applications present new opportunities to discover new knowledge and create novel methods to improve the quality of health care. The application of big data in health care is a fast-growing field, with many new discoveries and methodologies published in the last five years. In this paper, we review and discuss big data application in four major biomedical subdisciplines: (1) bioinformatics, (2) clinical informatics, (3) imaging informatics, and (4) public health informatics. Specifically, in bioinformatics, high-throughput experiments facilitate the research of new genome-wide association studies of diseases, and with clinical informatics, the clinical field benefits from the vast amount of collected patient data for making intelligent decisions. Imaging informatics is now more rapidly integrated with cloud platforms to share medical image data and workflows, and public health informatics leverages big data techniques for predicting and monitoring infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola. In this paper, we review the recent progress and breakthroughs of big data applications in these health-care domains and summarize the challenges, gaps, and opportunities to improve and advance big data applications in health care. PMID:26843812

  5. Big Data Application in Biomedical Research and Health Care: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Wu, Min; Gopukumar, Deepika; Zhao, Yiqing

    2016-01-01

    Big data technologies are increasingly used for biomedical and health-care informatics research. Large amounts of biological and clinical data have been generated and collected at an unprecedented speed and scale. For example, the new generation of sequencing technologies enables the processing of billions of DNA sequence data per day, and the application of electronic health records (EHRs) is documenting large amounts of patient data. The cost of acquiring and analyzing biomedical data is expected to decrease dramatically with the help of technology upgrades, such as the emergence of new sequencing machines, the development of novel hardware and software for parallel computing, and the extensive expansion of EHRs. Big data applications present new opportunities to discover new knowledge and create novel methods to improve the quality of health care. The application of big data in health care is a fast-growing field, with many new discoveries and methodologies published in the last five years. In this paper, we review and discuss big data application in four major biomedical subdisciplines: (1) bioinformatics, (2) clinical informatics, (3) imaging informatics, and (4) public health informatics. Specifically, in bioinformatics, high-throughput experiments facilitate the research of new genome-wide association studies of diseases, and with clinical informatics, the clinical field benefits from the vast amount of collected patient data for making intelligent decisions. Imaging informatics is now more rapidly integrated with cloud platforms to share medical image data and workflows, and public health informatics leverages big data techniques for predicting and monitoring infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola. In this paper, we review the recent progress and breakthroughs of big data applications in these health-care domains and summarize the challenges, gaps, and opportunities to improve and advance big data applications in health care. PMID:26843812

  6. Low-pass shotgun sequencing of the barley genome facilitates rapid identification of genes, conserved non-coding sequences and novel repeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Barley has one of the largest and most complex genomes of all economically important food crops. The rise of new short read sequencing technologies such as Illumina/Solexa permits such large genomes to be effectively sampled at relatively low costs. An MDR (Mathematically Defined Repeat)...

  7. Databases and Web Tools for Cancer Genomics Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yadong Yang; Xunong Dong; Bingbing Xie; Nan Ding; Juan Chen; Yongjun Li; Qian Zhang; Hongzhu Qu; Xiangdong Fang

    2015-01-01

    Publicly-accessible resources have promoted the advance of scientific discovery. The era of genomics and big data has brought the need for collaboration and data sharing in order to make effective use of this new knowledge. Here, we describe the web resources for cancer genomics research and rate them on the basis of the diversity of cancer types, sample size, omics data com-prehensiveness, and user experience. The resources reviewed include data repository and analysis tools;and we hope such introduction will promote the awareness and facilitate the usage of these resources in the cancer research community.

  8. Big data are coming to psychiatry: a general introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Bauer, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Big data are coming to the study of bipolar disorder and all of psychiatry. Data are coming from providers and payers (including EMR, imaging, insurance claims and pharmacy data), from omics (genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data), and from patients and non-providers (data from smart phone and Internet activities, sensors and monitoring tools). Analysis of the big data will provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration, descriptive observation, hypothesis generation, and prediction, and the results of big data studies will be incorporated into clinical practice. Technical challenges remain in the quality, analysis and management of big data. This paper discusses some of the fundamental opportunities and challenges of big data for psychiatry. PMID:26440506

  9. CasEMBLR: Cas9-Facilitated Multiloci Genomic Integration of in Vivo Assembled DNA Parts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociunas, Tadas; Rajkumar, Arun Stephen; Zhang, Jie;

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been harnessed for both plasmid construction and chromosomal integration of foreign DNA. Still, native HR machinery is not efficient enough for complex and marker-free genome engineering required for modern metabolic engineering. Here...... method CasEMBLR and validate its applicability for genome engineering and cell factory development in two ways: (i) introduction of the carotenoid pathway from 15 DNA parts into three targeted loci, and (ii) creation of a tyrosine production strain using ten parts into two loci, simultaneously knocking...... out two genes. This method complements and improves the current set of tools available for genome engineering in S. cerevisiae....

  10. Big Data : Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Sunny Gupta; Anuradha Singhal

    2014-01-01

    Big data is data that exceeds the processing capacity of traditional databases. The data is too big to be processed by a single machine. New and innovative methods are required to process and store such large volumes of data. This paper provides an overview on big data, its importance in our live and some technologies to handle big data.

  11. Big Data: Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Sunny; Singhal, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Big data is data that exceeds the processing capacity of traditional databases. The data is too big to be processed by a single machine. New and innovative methods are required to process and store such large volumes of data. This paper provides an overview on big data, its importance in our live and some technologies to handle big data.

  12. Low-pass shotgun sequencing of the barley genome facilitates rapid identification of genes, conserved non-coding sequences and novel repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graner Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley has one of the largest and most complex genomes of all economically important food crops. The rise of new short read sequencing technologies such as Illumina/Solexa permits such large genomes to be effectively sampled at relatively low cost. Based on the corresponding sequence reads a Mathematically Defined Repeat (MDR index can be generated to map repetitive regions in genomic sequences. Results We have generated 574 Mbp of Illumina/Solexa sequences from barley total genomic DNA, representing about 10% of a genome equivalent. From these sequences we generated an MDR index which was then used to identify and mark repetitive regions in the barley genome. Comparison of the MDR plots with expert repeat annotation drawing on the information already available for known repetitive elements revealed a significant correspondence between the two methods. MDR-based annotation allowed for the identification of dozens of novel repeat sequences, though, which were not recognised by hand-annotation. The MDR data was also used to identify gene-containing regions by masking of repetitive sequences in eight de-novo sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones. For half of the identified candidate gene islands indeed gene sequences could be identified. MDR data were only of limited use, when mapped on genomic sequences from the closely related species Triticum monococcum as only a fraction of the repetitive sequences was recognised. Conclusion An MDR index for barley, which was obtained by whole-genome Illumina/Solexa sequencing, proved as efficient in repeat identification as manual expert annotation. Circumventing the labour-intensive step of producing a specific repeat library for expert annotation, an MDR index provides an elegant and efficient resource for the identification of repetitive and low-copy (i.e. potentially gene-containing sequences regions in uncharacterised genomic sequences. The restriction that a particular

  13. The big bang of genome editing technology: development and application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in disease animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming; Xu, Tian-Rui; Chen, Ce-Shi

    2016-07-18

    Targeted genome editing technology has been widely used in biomedical studies. The CRISPR-associated RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has become a versatile genome editing tool. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is useful for studying gene function through efficient knock-out, knock-in or chromatin modification of the targeted gene loci in various cell types and organisms. It can be applied in a number of fields, such as genetic breeding, disease treatment and gene functional investigation. In this review, we introduce the most recent developments and applications, the challenges, and future directions of Cas9 in generating disease animal model. Derived from the CRISPR adaptive immune system of bacteria, the development trend of Cas9 will inevitably fuel the vital applications from basic research to biotechnology and bio-medicine. PMID:27469250

  14. The big bang of genome editing technology: development and application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in disease animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAO, Ming; XU, Tian-Rui; CHEN, Ce-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Targeted genome editing technology has been widely used in biomedical studies. The CRISPR-associated RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has become a versatile genome editing tool. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is useful for studying gene function through efficient knock-out, knock-in or chromatin modification of the targeted gene loci in various cell types and organisms. It can be applied in a number of fields, such as genetic breeding, disease treatment and gene functional investigation. In this review, we introduce the most recent developments and applications, the challenges, and future directions of Cas9 in generating disease animal model. Derived from the CRISPR adaptive immune system of bacteria, the development trend of Cas9 will inevitably fuel the vital applications from basic research to biotechnology and biomedicine. PMID:27469250

  15. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Rapid Evolution of an Extreme-Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Chua, Song Lin; Liu, Yang;

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of extreme-drug-resistant (EDR) bacterial strains in hospital and nonhospital clinical settings is a big and growing public health threat. Understanding the antibiotic resistance mechanisms at the genomic levels can facilitate the development of next-generation agents. Here, compara......The emergence of extreme-drug-resistant (EDR) bacterial strains in hospital and nonhospital clinical settings is a big and growing public health threat. Understanding the antibiotic resistance mechanisms at the genomic levels can facilitate the development of next-generation agents. Here...... that a putative porin protein was down-regulated when A. baumannii 53264 was exposed to antimicrobials, which may reduce the entry of antibiotics into the bacterial cell....

  16. Genome-wide comparison of paired fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gliomas by custom BAC and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization: facilitating analysis of archival gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Gayatry; Engler, David A.; Starbuck, Kristen D.; Kim, James C.; Bernay, Derek C.; Scangas, George A.; Rousseau, Audrey; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Louis, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of cancer is rapidly evolving as a result of improvement in genomic technologies and the growing applicability of such analyses to clinical oncology. Array based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting DNA copy number alterations (CNA), particularly in solid tumors, and has been applied to the study of malignant gliomas. In the clinical setting, however, gliomas are often sampled by small biopsies and thus formalin-fixed paraffin-em...

  17. Indian microchip for Big Bang research in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Bhabani, Soudhriti

    2007-01-01

    "A premier nuclear physics institute here has come up with India's first indigenously designed microchip that will facilitate research on the Big Bang theory in Geneva's CERN, the world's largest particle physics laboratory." (1 page)

  18. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  19. Five Big Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  20. Canine genome assembly correction facilitates identification of a MAP9 deletion as a potential age of onset modifier for RPGRIP1-associated canine retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Oliver P; Hitti, Rebekkah J; Boursnell, Mike; Miyadera, Keiko; Sargan, David; Mellersh, Cathryn

    2016-06-01

    Retinal degeneration (RD) in the Miniature Long Haired Dachshund (MLHD) is a cone-rod dystrophy resulting in eventual blindness in affected individuals. In a previous study, a 44-nucleotide insertion (ins44) in exon 2 of RPGRIP1 was associated with RD. However, results on an extended population of MLHD revealed a variable RD onset age for ins44 homozygous dogs. Further investigations using a genome-wide association study comparing early onset and late onset RD cases identified an age of onset modifying locus for RD, approximately 30 Mb upstream of RPGRIP1 on chr15. In this investigation, target enriched sequencing identified a MAP9 deletion spanning approximately 22 kb associated with early RD onset. Identification of the deletion required correction to the CanFam3.1 genome build as canine MAP9 is part of a historic tandem duplication, resulting in incomplete assembly of this genome region. The deletion breakpoints were identified in MAP9 intron 10 and in a downstream partial MAP9 pseudogene. The fusion of these two genes, which we have called MAP9 EORD (microtubule-associated protein, early onset retinal degeneration), is in frame and is expressed at the RNA level, with the 3' region containing several predicted deleterious variants. We speculate that MAP9 associates with α-tubulin in the basal body of the cilium. RPGRIP1 is also known to locate to the cilium, where it is closely associated with RPGR. RPGRIP1 mutations also cause redistribution of α-tubulin away from the ciliary region in photoreceptors. Hence, a MAP9 partial deficit is a particularly attractive candidate to synergise with a partial RPGRIP1 deficit to cause a more serious disease. PMID:27017229

  1. Microsoft big data solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,

  2. Big data computing

    CERN Document Server

    Akerkar, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Due to market forces and technological evolution, Big Data computing is developing at an increasing rate. A wide variety of novel approaches and tools have emerged to tackle the challenges of Big Data, creating both more opportunities and more challenges for students and professionals in the field of data computation and analysis. Presenting a mix of industry cases and theory, Big Data Computing discusses the technical and practical issues related to Big Data in intelligent information management. Emphasizing the adoption and diffusion of Big Data tools and technologies in industry, the book i

  3. The coffee genome hub : a resource for coffee genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub ( ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="http://coffee-genome.org/" xlink:type="simple">http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilit...

  4. Mining "big data" using big data services

    OpenAIRE

    Reips, UD; Matzat, U Uwe

    2014-01-01

    While many colleagues within science are fed up with the “big data fad”, empirical analyses we conducted for the current editorial actually show an inconsistent picture: we use big data services to determine whether there really is an increase in writing about big data or even widespread use of the term. Google Correlate (http://www.google.com/trends/correlate/), the first free tool we are presenting here, doesn’t list the term, showing that number of searches for it are below an absolute min...

  5. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV strains worldwide.Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population.This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain information about both genome segments of IBDV for

  6. Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource (MSeqDR): a global grass-roots consortium to facilitate deposition, curation, annotation, and integrated analysis of genomic data for the mitochondrial disease clinical and research communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Marni J; Shen, Lishuang; Gonzalez, Michael; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T; Stassen, Alphons P M; Diroma, Maria Angela; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Yeske, Philip; Bai, Renkui; Boles, Richard G; Brilhante, Virginia; Ralph, David; DaRe, Jeana T; Shelton, Robert; Terry, Sharon F; Zhang, Zhe; Copeland, William C; van Oven, Mannis; Prokisch, Holger; Wallace, Douglas C; Attimonelli, Marcella; Krotoski, Danuta; Zuchner, Stephan; Gai, Xiaowu

    2015-03-01

    Success rates for genomic analyses of highly heterogeneous disorders can be greatly improved if a large cohort of patient data is assembled to enhance collective capabilities for accurate sequence variant annotation, analysis, and interpretation. Indeed, molecular diagnostics requires the establishment of robust data resources to enable data sharing that informs accurate understanding of genes, variants, and phenotypes. The "Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource (MSeqDR) Consortium" is a grass-roots effort facilitated by the United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation to identify and prioritize specific genomic data analysis needs of the global mitochondrial disease clinical and research community. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) facilitates the coherent compilation, organization, annotation, and analysis of sequence data from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of individuals and families with suspected mitochondrial disease. This Web portal provides users with a flexible and expandable suite of resources to enable variant-, gene-, and exome-level sequence analysis in a secure, Web-based, and user-friendly fashion. Users can also elect to share data with other MSeqDR Consortium members, or even the general public, either by custom annotation tracks or through the use of a convenient distributed annotation system (DAS) mechanism. A range of data visualization and analysis tools are provided to facilitate user interrogation and understanding of genomic, and ultimately phenotypic, data of relevance to mitochondrial biology and disease. Currently available tools for nuclear and mitochondrial gene analyses include an MSeqDR GBrowse instance that hosts optimized mitochondrial disease and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) specific annotation tracks, as well as an MSeqDR locus-specific database (LSDB) that curates variant data on more than 1300 genes that have been implicated in mitochondrial disease and/or encode mitochondria-localized proteins. MSeqDR is

  7. From Big Crunch to Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Justin; Ovrut, Burt A.; Seiberg, Nathan; Steinhardt, Paul J.(Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA); Turok, Neil

    2001-01-01

    We consider conditions under which a universe contracting towards a big crunch can make a transition to an expanding big bang universe. A promising example is 11-dimensional M-theory in which the eleventh dimension collapses, bounces, and re-expands. At the bounce, the model can reduce to a weakly coupled heterotic string theory and, we conjecture, it may be possible to follow the transition from contraction to expansion. The possibility opens the door to new classes of cosmological models. F...

  8. Big data: survey, technologies, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. PMID:25136682

  9. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawsher Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data.

  10. Big fundamental groups: generalizing homotopy and big homotopy

    OpenAIRE

    Penrod, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The concept of big homotopy theory was introduced by J. Cannon and G. Conner using big intervals of arbitrarily large cardinality to detect big loops. We find, for each space, a canonical cardinal that is sufficient to detect all big loops and all big homotopies in the space.

  11. ANALYSIS OF BIG DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Sharma; Preeti Gulia

    2014-01-01

    Big Data is data that either is too large, grows too fast, or does not fit into traditional architectures. Within such data can be valuable information that can be discovered through data analysis [1]. Big data is a collection of complex and large data sets that are difficult to process and mine for patterns and knowledge using traditional database management tools or data processing and mining systems. Big Data is data whose scale, diversity and complexity require new architecture, technique...

  12. Matrix Big Brunch

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.; Ward, J.

    2007-01-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...

  13. The big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the 'Big Bang' theory of the creation of the Universe 15 thousand million years ago, and traces events which physicists predict occurred soon after the creation. Unified theory of the moment of creation, evidence of an expanding Universe, the X-boson -the particle produced very soon after the big bang and which vanished from the Universe one-hundredth of a second after the big bang, and the fate of the Universe, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Summary big data

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of Cukier the book: "Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How we Live, Work, and Think" by Viktor Mayer-Schonberg and Kenneth. Summary of the ideas in Viktor Mayer-Schonberg's and Kenneth Cukier's book: " Big Data " explains that big data is where we use huge quantities of data to make better predictions based on the fact we identify patters in the data rather than trying to understand the underlying causes in more detail. This summary highlights that big data will be a source of new economic value and innovation in the future. Moreover, it shows that it will

  15. Development of Self-Compressing BLSOM for Comprehensive Analysis of Big Sequence Data

    OpenAIRE

    Akihito Kikuchi; Toshimichi Ikemura; Takashi Abe

    2015-01-01

    With the remarkable increase in genomic sequence data from various organisms, novel tools are needed for comprehensive analyses of available big sequence data. We previously developed a Batch-Learning Self-Organizing Map (BLSOM), which can cluster genomic fragment sequences according to phylotype solely dependent on oligonucleotide composition and applied to genome and metagenomic studies. BLSOM is suitable for high-performance parallel-computing and can analyze big data simultaneously, but a...

  16. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory

  17. Bliver big data til big business?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge.......Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge....

  18. Big Ideas in Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how she was able to discover some big ideas about art education. She relates how she found great ideas to improve her teaching from the book "Rethinking Curriculum in Art." She also shares how she designed a "Big Idea" unit in her class.

  19. Big data integration: scalability and sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2016-01-26

    Integration of various types of omics data is critically indispensable for addressing most important and complex biological questions. In the era of big data, however, data integration becomes increasingly tedious, time-consuming and expensive, posing a significant obstacle to fully exploit the wealth of big biological data. Here we propose a scalable and sustainable architecture that integrates big omics data through community-contributed modules. Community modules are contributed and maintained by different committed groups and each module corresponds to a specific data type, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. Based on this community-based architecture, we build Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase that integrates a variety of rice omics data from multiple community modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures, and community annotations. Taken together, such architecture achieves integration of different types of data from multiple community-contributed modules and accordingly features scalable, sustainable and collaborative integration of big data as well as low costs for database update and maintenance, thus helpful for building IC4R into a comprehensive knowledgebase covering all aspects of rice data and beneficial for both basic and translational researches.

  20. Some experiences and opportunities for big data in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Christopher G; Ullman-Cullere, Mollie; Wood, Grant M; Lin, Simon M; He, Min; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2013-10-01

    Health care has become increasingly information intensive. The advent of genomic data, integrated into patient care, significantly accelerates the complexity and amount of clinical data. Translational research in the present day increasingly embraces new biomedical discovery in this data-intensive world, thus entering the domain of "big data." The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics consortium has taught us many lessons, while simultaneously advances in commodity computing methods enable the academic community to affordably manage and process big data. Although great promise can emerge from the adoption of big data methods and philosophy, the heterogeneity and complexity of clinical data, in particular, pose additional challenges for big data inferencing and clinical application. However, the ultimate comparability and consistency of heterogeneous clinical information sources can be enhanced by existing and emerging data standards, which promise to bring order to clinical data chaos. Meaningful Use data standards in particular have already simplified the task of identifying clinical phenotyping patterns in electronic health records. PMID:24008998

  1. Big Data in Caenorhabditis elegans: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Harald; Moerman, Donald

    2015-11-01

    A clear definition of what constitutes "Big Data" is difficult to identify, but we find it most useful to define Big Data as a data collection that is complete. By this criterion, researchers on Caenorhabditis elegans have a long history of collecting Big Data, since the organism was selected with the idea of obtaining a complete biological description and understanding of development. The complete wiring diagram of the nervous system, the complete cell lineage, and the complete genome sequence provide a framework to phrase and test hypotheses. Given this history, it might be surprising that the number of "complete" data sets for this organism is actually rather small--not because of lack of effort, but because most types of biological experiments are not currently amenable to complete large-scale data collection. Many are also not inherently limited, so that it becomes difficult to even define completeness. At present, we only have partial data on mutated genes and their phenotypes, gene expression, and protein-protein interaction--important data for many biological questions. Big Data can point toward unexpected correlations, and these unexpected correlations can lead to novel investigations; however, Big Data cannot establish causation. As a result, there is much excitement about Big Data, but there is also a discussion on just what Big Data contributes to solving a biological problem. Because of its relative simplicity, C. elegans is an ideal test bed to explore this issue and at the same time determine what is necessary to build a multicellular organism from a single cell. PMID:26543198

  2. Big Data, Big Knowledge: Big Data for Personalized Healthcare.

    OpenAIRE

    Viceconti, M.; Hunter, P.; Hose, R.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine soluti...

  3. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority. PMID:26218867

  4. BigDog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  5. Big data a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Prachet; Chenthati, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of chapters written by experts on various aspects of big data. The book aims to explain what big data is and how it is stored and used. The book starts from  the fundamentals and builds up from there. It is intended to serve as a review of the state-of-the-practice in the field of big data handling. The traditional framework of relational databases can no longer provide appropriate solutions for handling big data and making it available and useful to users scattered around the globe. The study of big data covers a wide range of issues including management of heterogeneous data, big data frameworks, change management, finding patterns in data usage and evolution, data as a service, service-generated data, service management, privacy and security. All of these aspects are touched upon in this book. It also discusses big data applications in different domains. The book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing database and networking engineers.

  6. Recht voor big data, big data voor recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafarre, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is een niet meer weg te denken fenomeen in onze maatschappij. Het is de hype cycle voorbij en de eerste implementaties van big data-technieken worden uitgevoerd. Maar wat is nu precies big data? Wat houden de vijf V's in die vaak genoemd worden in relatie tot big data? Ter inleiding van dez

  7. Assessing Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, big data has been one of the most controversially discussed technologies in terms of its possible positive and negative impact. Therefore, the need for technology assessments is obvious. This paper first provides, based on the results of a technology assessment study, an overview...... of the potential and challenges associated with big data and then describes the problems experienced during the study as well as methods found helpful to address them. The paper concludes with reflections on how the insights from the technology assessment study may have an impact on the future governance of big...... data....

  8. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precision of measurements in modern cosmology has made huge strides in recent years, with measurements of the cosmic microwave background and the determination of the Hubble constant now rivaling the level of precision of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis. However, these results are not necessarily consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model of big bang nucleosynthesis. Reconciling these discrepancies may require extensions of the basic tenets of the model, and possibly of the reaction rates that determine the big bang abundances

  9. Big data for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kaufman, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Find the right big data solution for your business or organization Big data management is one of the major challenges facing business, industry, and not-for-profit organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather patterns monitored by meteorologists, or social network activity can quickly outpace the capacity of traditional data management tools. If you need to develop or manage big data solutions, you'll appreciate how these four experts define, explain, and guide you through this new and often confusing concept. You'll learn what it is, why it m

  10. The Big Bang Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  11. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-01

    The volume and variety of data being generated using computersis doubling every two years. It is estimated that in 2015,8 Zettabytes (Zetta=1021) were generated which consistedmostly of unstructured data such as emails, blogs, Twitter,Facebook posts, images, and videos. This is called big data. Itis possible to analyse such huge data collections with clustersof thousands of inexpensive computers to discover patterns inthe data that have many applications. But analysing massiveamounts of data available in the Internet has the potential ofimpinging on our privacy. Inappropriate analysis of big datacan lead to misleading conclusions. In this article, we explainwhat is big data, how it is analysed, and give some case studiesillustrating the potentials and pitfalls of big data analytics.

  12. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    ’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  13. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along...

  14. Big data opportunities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This ebook aims to give practical guidance for all those who want to understand big data better and learn how to make the most of it. Topics range from big data analysis, mobile big data and managing unstructured data to technologies, governance and intellectual property and security issues surrounding big data.

  15. Sharing big biomedical data

    OpenAIRE

    Toga, Arthur W.; Dinov, Ivo D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Findings Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent data...

  16. Testing Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Steigman, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), along with the cosmic background radiation and the Hubble expansion, is one of the pillars ofthe standard, hot, big bang cosmology since the primordial synthesis of the light nuclides (D, $^3$He, $^4$He, $^7$Li) must have occurred during the early evolution of a universe described by this model. The overall consistency between the predicted and observed abundances of the light nuclides, each of which spans a range of some nine orders of magnitude, provides impr...

  17. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  18. Big Bang baryosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures I briefly review Big Bang baryosynthesis. In the first lecture I discuss the evidence which exists for the BAU, the failure of non-GUT symmetrical cosmologies, the qualitative picture of baryosynthesis, and numerical results of detailed baryosynthesis calculations. In the second lecture I discuss the requisite CP violation in some detail, further the statistical mechanics of baryosynthesis, possible complications to the simplest scenario, and one cosmological implication of Big Bang baryosynthesis. (orig./HSI)

  19. Conociendo Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Camargo-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la importancia que ha adquirido el término Big Data, la presente investigación buscó estudiar y analizar de manera exhaustiva el estado del arte del Big Data; además, y como segundo objetivo, analizó las características, las herramientas, las tecnologías, los modelos y los estándares relacionados con Big Data, y por último buscó identificar las características más relevantes en la gestión de Big Data, para que con ello se pueda conocer todo lo concerniente al tema central de la investigación.La metodología utilizada incluyó revisar el estado del arte de Big Data y enseñar su situación actual; conocer las tecnologías de Big Data; presentar algunas de las bases de datos NoSQL, que son las que permiten procesar datos con formatos no estructurados, y mostrar los modelos de datos y las tecnologías de análisis de ellos, para terminar con algunos beneficios de Big Data.El diseño metodológico usado para la investigación fue no experimental, pues no se manipulan variables, y de tipo exploratorio, debido a que con esta investigación se empieza a conocer el ambiente del Big Data.

  20. Big Data Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on key issues of our paper New games, new rules: big data and the changing context of strategy as a means of addressing some of the concerns raised by the paper’s commentators. We initially deal with the issue of social data and the role it plays in the current data revolution....... The massive involvement of lay publics as instrumented by social media breaks with the strong expert cultures that have underlain the production and use of data in modern organizations. It also sets apart the interactive and communicative processes by which social data is produced from sensor data...... and the technological recording of facts. We further discuss the significance of the very mechanisms by which big data is produced as distinct from the very attributes of big data, often discussed in the literature. In the final section of the paper, we qualify the alleged importance of algorithms and claim...

  1. Big Data and Peacebuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Hattotuwa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Any peace process is an exercise in the negotiation of big data. From centuries old communal hagiography to the reams of official texts, media coverage and social media updates, peace negotiations generate data. Peacebuilding and peacekeeping today are informed by, often respond and contribute to big data. This is no easy task. As recently as a few years ago, before the term big data embraced the virtual on the web, what informed peace process design and implementation was in the physical domain – from contested borders and resources to background information in the form of text. The move from analogue, face-to-face negotiations to online, asynchronous, web-mediated negotiations – which can still include real world meetings – has profound implications for how peace is strengthened in fragile democracies.

  2. Big data in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science. PMID:24183925

  3. Primordial Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Keith A.

    1999-01-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is the theory of the production of the the light element isotopes of D, He3, He4, and Li7. After a brief review of the essential elements of the standard Big Bang model at a temperature of about 1 MeV, the theoretical input and predictions of BBN are discussed. The theory is tested by the observational determinations of the light element abundances and the current status of these observations is reviewed. Concordance of standard model and the related observations is f...

  4. Networks & big data

    OpenAIRE

    Litvak, Nelly; Meulen, van der, P.

    2015-01-01

    Once a year, the NWO cluster Stochastics – Theoretical and Applied Research (STAR) organises a STAR Outreach Day, a one-day event around a theme that is of a broad interest to the stochastics community in the Netherlands. The last Outreach Day took place at Eurandom on 12 December 2014. The theme of the day was ‘Networks & Big Data’. The topic is very timely. The Vision document 2025 of the PlatformWiskunde Nederland (PWN) mentions big data as one of the six “major societal and scientific tre...

  5. The Zen of Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Joellen P.; Simmons, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes between training and facilitation, examines the belief system of a facilitator, and shares a process for moving from the familiar mind-set of the trainer to the zen (the practice of seeking the truth) of facilitation. (GLR)

  6. BIG Data – A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Bhatia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As more data becomes available from an abundance of sources both within and outside, organizations are seeking to use those abundant resources to increase innovation, retain customers, and increase operational efficiency. At the same time, organizations are challenged by their end users, who are demanding greater capability and integration to mine and analyze burgeoning new sources of information. Big Data provides opportunities for business users to ask questions they never were able to ask before. How can a financial organization find better ways to detect fraud? How can an insurance company gain a deeper insight into its customers to see who may be the least economical to insure? How does a software company find its most at-risk customers those who are about to deploy a competitive product? They need to integrate Big Data techniques with their current enterprise data to gain that competitive advantage. Heterogeneity, scale, timeliness, complexity, and privacy problems with Big Data impede progress at all phases of the pipeline that can create value from data. The problems start right away during data acquisition, when the data tsunami requires us to make decisions, currently in an ad hoc manner, about what data to keep and what to discard, and how to store what we keep reliably with the right metadata. Much data today is not natively in structured format; for example, tweets and blogs are weakly structured pieces of text, while images and video are structured for storage and display, but not for semantic content and search: transforming such content into a structured format for later analysis is a major challenge. The value of data explodes when it can be linked with other data, thus data integration is a major creator of value. Since most data is directly generated in digital format today, we have the opportunity and the challenge both to influence the creation to facilitate later linkage and to automatically link previously created data

  7. Big Data ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with sp

  8. Space big book

    CERN Document Server

    Homer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Our Combined resource includes all necessary areas of Space for grades five to eight. Get the big picture about the Solar System, Galaxies and the Universe as your students become fascinated by the interesting information about the Sun, Earth, Moon, Comets, Asteroids Meteoroids, Stars and Constellations. Also, thrill your young astronomers as they connect Earth and space cycles with their daily life.

  9. The Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Moods, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    How did the Universe begin? The favoured theory is that everything - space, time, matter - came into existence at the same moment, around 13.7 thousand million years ago. This event was scornfully referred to as the "Big Bang" by Sir Fred Hoyle, who did not believe in it and maintained that the Universe had always existed.

  10. A Big Bang Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  11. Governing Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej J. Zwitter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created every day through pictures, messages, gps-data, etc. "Big Data" is seen simultaneously as the new Philosophers Stone and Pandora's box: a source of great knowledge and power, but equally, the root of serious problems.

  12. The big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event that set the universe in motion. Joseph Silk begins his story with the first microseconds of the big bang, on through the evolution of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, and into the distant future of our universe. He also explores the fascinating evidence for the big bang model and recounts the history of cosmological speculation. Revised and updated, this new edition features all the most recent astronomical advances, including: Photos and measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE), and Infrared Space Observatory; the latest estimates of the age of the universe; new ideas in string and superstring theory; recent experiments on neutrino detection; new theories about the presence of dark matter in galaxies; new developments in the theory of the formation and evolution of galaxies; the latest ideas about black holes, worm holes, quantum foam, and multiple universes.

  13. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  14. Big is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.P.

    2007-06-08

    Although big solar systems are both effective and architecturally pleasing, they are still not widespread in Germany. Recently, politicians reacted by improving funding conditions. In order to prevent planning errors, planners and fitters must be better trained, and standardisation of systems must be enhanced. (orig.)

  15. Big ideas: innovation policy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Reenen, John

    2011-01-01

    In the last CentrePiece, John Van Reenen stressed the importance of competition and labour market flexibility for productivity growth. His latest in CEP's 'big ideas' series describes the impact of research on how policy-makers can influence innovation more directly - through tax credits for business spending on research and development.

  16. Business and Science - Big Data, Big Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Data Science is more than the creation, manipulation, and transformation of data. It is more than Big Data. The business world seems to have a hold on the term 'data science' and, for now, they define what it means. But business is very different than science. In this talk, I address how large datasets, Big Data, and data science are conceptually different in business and science worlds. I focus on the types of questions each realm asks, the data needed, and the consequences of findings. Gone are the days of datasets being created or collected to serve only one purpose or project. The trick with data reuse is to become familiar enough with a dataset to be able to combine it with other data and extract accurate results. As a Data Curator for the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS), my specialty is communication. Our team enables Arctic sciences by ensuring datasets are well documented and can be understood by reusers. Previously, I served as a data community liaison for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Again, my specialty was communicating complex instructions and ideas to a broad audience of data users. Before entering the science world, I was an entrepreneur. I have a bachelor's degree in economics and a master's degree in environmental social science. I am currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Geography. Because my background has embraced both the business and science worlds, I would like to share my perspectives on data, data reuse, data documentation, and the presentation or communication of findings. My experiences show that each can inform and support the other.

  17. Big Data and Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  18. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  19. Identifying Dwarfs Workloads in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...

  20. Spaces of genomics : exploring the innovation journey of genomics in research on common disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitsch, L.

    2013-01-01

    Genomics was introduced with big promises and expectations of its future contribution to our society. Medical genomics was introduced as that which would lay the foundation for a revolution in our management of common diseases. Genomics would lead the way towards a future of personalised medicine. D

  1. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asst. Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, sentiment analysis, social networking analysis to name a few. Therefore, there are a number of requirements for moving beyond standard data mining technique. Purpose of this paper is to understand various techniques to analysis data.

  2. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, sentiment analysis, social networking analysis to name a few. Therefore, there are a number of requirements for moving beyond standard data mining technique. Purpose of this paper is to understand various techniques to analysis data.

  3. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects......This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... of the international development agenda to algorithms that synthesize large-scale data, (3) novel ways of rationalizing knowledge claims that underlie development policies, and (4) shifts in professional and organizational identities of those concerned with producing and processing data for development. Our discussion...

  4. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Klinkby Madsen, Anders; Rasche, Andreas

    data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects......This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... of international development agendas to algorithms that synthesize large-scale data, (3) novel ways of rationalizing knowledge claims that underlie development efforts, and (4) shifts in professional and organizational identities of those concerned with producing and processing data for development. Our discussion...

  5. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  6. Big Data Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Boiten, Eerke Albert

    2016-01-01

    "Big data" has become a major area of research and associated funding, as well as a focus of utopian thinking. In the still growing research community, one of the favourite optimistic analogies for data processing is that of the oil refinery, extracting the essence out of the raw data. Pessimists look for their imagery to the other end of the petrol cycle, and talk about the "data exhausts" of our society. Obviously, the refinement community knows how to do "refining". This paper explores...

  7. DARPA's Big Mechanism program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul R.

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  8. Canonical Big Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Bertot, Yves; Gonthier, Georges; Ould Biha, Sidi; Pasca, Ioana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to describe uniformly iterated “big” operations and to provide lemmas that encapsulate all the commonly used reasoning steps on these constructs. We show that these iterated operations can be handled generically using the syntactic notation and canonical structure facilities provided by the Coq system. We then show how these canonical big operations played a crucial enabling role in the study of various parts of linear algebra and multi-dimensional real a...

  9. Big Bang 6

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 6 RG behandelt die Gravitation, Schwingungen und Wellen, Thermodynamik und eine Einführung in die Elektrizität anhand von Alltagsbeispielen und Querverbindungen zu anderen Disziplinen.

  10. Big Bang 7

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. In Band 7 werden neben einer Einführung auch viele aktuelle Aspekte von Quantenmechanik (z. Beamen) und Elektrodynamik (zB Elektrosmog), sowie die Klimaproblematik und die Chaostheorie behandelt.

  11. Big Bang 8

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Band 8 vermittelt auf verständliche Weise Relativitätstheorie, Kern- und Teilchenphysik (und deren Anwendungen in der Kosmologie und Astrophysik), Nanotechnologie sowie Bionik.

  12. Big Bang 5

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 5 RG behandelt die Grundlagen (Maßsystem, Größenordnungen) und die Mechanik (Translation, Rotation, Kraft, Erhaltungssätze).

  13. Think Small Go Big

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤维维

    2006-01-01

    Vepoo公司在创立之前,经历了三次创业转型。用他们的话来说,从“think big go small”转到“think small go big”用了一年的时间。这期间他们耗尽了初期筹备资金,幸运的是在最后一刻迎来了黎明的曙光。

  14. The NOAA Big Data Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a Big Data producer, generating tens of terabytes per day from hundreds of sensors on satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, and buoys, and from numerical models. These data are of critical importance and value for NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts. In order to facilitate extracting additional value from this information, NOAA has established Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with five Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers — Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, Open Cloud Consortium — to determine whether hosting NOAA data in publicly-accessible Clouds alongside on-demand computational capability stimulates the creation of new value-added products and services and lines of business based on the data, and if the revenue generated by these new applications can support the costs of data transmission and hosting. Each IaaS provider is the anchor of a "Data Alliance" which organizations or entrepreneurs can join to develop and test new business or research avenues. This presentation will report on progress and lessons learned during the first 6 months of the 3-year CRADAs.

  15. A Statistical Survey on Imperial Data Handling in Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Princess Raichel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the world has generated 1ZB of data and expected that it will generate 7ZB in 2014.So that it will generate devices of network that includes Embedded Sensors, Smart Phones & Tablet computers it will be an opportunity in human genomics,healthcare,economical,cultural,oil and gas,political stage,surveillance,finance.Big Data technologies describe a new generation of Technologies & Architecture.Big data requires a change in computing Architecture to customers so that they can handle data storage and server processing heavily. Most of the companies reply on applications for communication and to provide service to the customers. So big data is a big challenge for companies which deal with large data and fast growing information.Big data has a direct impact on Applications, Services and Software technologies in the view of Technical,Legal,Social & market related aspects.The data storage is a major issue for owners, so efficient and scalable technology for data management and storage is no longer issue in big data. The data is generated on daily basis by all the sectors in the whole world.

  16. A Statistical Survey on Imperial Data Handling in Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    T. Princess Raichel; S.Kokila; N Sowmya

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 the world has generated 1ZB of data and expected that it will generate 7ZB in 2014.So that it will generate devices of network that includes Embedded Sensors, Smart Phones & Tablet computers it will be an opportunity in human genomics,healthcare,economical,cultural,oil and gas,political stage,surveillance,finance.Big Data technologies describe a new generation of Technologies & Architecture.Big data requires a change in computing Architecture to customers so that they can handle data ...

  17. Leveraging Big Data to Transform Target Selection and Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Butte, AJ

    2016-01-01

    The advances of genomics, sequencing, and high throughput technologies have led to the creation of large volumes of diverse datasets for drug discovery. Analyzing these datasets to better understand disease and discover new drugs is becoming more common. Recent open data initiatives in basic and clinical research have dramatically increased the types of data available to the public. The past few years have witnessed successful use of big data in many sectors across the whole drug discovery pipeline. In this review, we will highlight the state of the art in leveraging big data to identify new targets, drug indications, and drug response biomarkers in this era of precision medicine. PMID:26659699

  18. From Big Bang to Big Crunch and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Elitzur, S.; Giveon, A.; Kutasov, D.; Rabinovici, E.

    2002-01-01

    We study a quotient Conformal Field Theory, which describes a 3+1 dimensional cosmological spacetime. Part of this spacetime is the Nappi-Witten (NW) universe, which starts at a ``big bang'' singularity, expands and then contracts to a ``big crunch'' singularity at a finite time. The gauged WZW model contains a number of copies of the NW spacetime, with each copy connected to the preceeding one and to the next one at the respective big bang/big crunch singularities. The sequence of NW spaceti...

  19. Asymmetric author-topic model for knowledge discovering of big data in toxicogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hua eChung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of high-throughput screening technologies facilitates the generation of massive amount of biological data, a big data phenomena in biomedical science. Yet, researchers still heavily rely on keyword search and/or literature review to navigate the databases and analyses are often done in rather small-scale. As a result, the rich information of a database has not been fully utilized, particularly for the information embedded in the interactive nature between data points that are largely ignored and buried. For the past ten years, probabilistic topic modeling has been recognized as an effective machine learning algorithm to annotate the hidden thematic structure of massive collection of documents. The analogy between text corpus and large-scale genomic data enables the application of text mining tools, like probabilistic topic models, to explore hidden patterns of genomic data and to the extension of altered biological functions. In this paper, we developed a generalized probabilistic topic model to analyze a toxicogenomics dataset that consists of a large number of gene expression data from the rat livers treated with drugs in multiple dose and time-points. We discovered the hidden patterns in gene expression associated with the effect of doses and time-points of treatment. Finally, we illustrated the ability of our model to identify the evidence of potential reduction of animal use.

  20. Single-cell Transcriptome Study as Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingjian Yu; Wei Lin

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of single-cell RNA-seq studies (scRNA-seq) demands efficient data storage, processing, and analysis. Big-data technology provides a framework that facilitates the comprehensive discovery of biological signals from inter-institutional scRNA-seq datasets. The strategies to solve the stochastic and heterogeneous single-cell transcriptome signal are discussed in this article. After extensively reviewing the available big-data applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies, we propose a workflow that accounts for the unique characteris-tics of scRNA-seq data and primary objectives of single-cell studies.

  1. Single-cell Transcriptome Study as Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pingjian; Lin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of single-cell RNA-seq studies (scRNA-seq) demands efficient data storage, processing, and analysis. Big-data technology provides a framework that facilitates the comprehensive discovery of biological signals from inter-institutional scRNA-seq datasets. The strategies to solve the stochastic and heterogeneous single-cell transcriptome signal are discussed in this article. After extensively reviewing the available big-data applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies, we propose a workflow that accounts for the unique characteristics of scRNA-seq data and primary objectives of single-cell studies. PMID:26876720

  2. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  3. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Kurki-Suonio, H

    2001-01-01

    I review standard big bang nucleosynthesis and some versions of nonstandard BBN. The abundances of the primordial isotopes D, He-3, and Li-7 produced in standard BBN can be calculated as a function of the baryon density with an accuracy of about 10%. For He-4 the accuracy is better than 1%. The calculated abundances agree fairly well with observations, but the baryon density of the universe cannot be determined with high precision. Possibilities for nonstandard BBN include inhomogeneous and antimatter BBN and nonzero neutrino chemical potentials.

  4. A Matrix Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matr...

  5. Big and little OER

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Much of the attention around OERs has been on institutional projects which make explicit learning content available. These can be classified as ‘big OER’, but another form of OER is that of small scale, individually produced resources using web 2.0 type services, which are classified as ‘little OER’. This paper examines some of the differences between the use of these two types of OER to highlight issues in open education. These include attitudes towards reputation, the intentionality of the ...

  6. Big Red Telephone, Gone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toni Piech

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese big red telephones looked exactly as Iimagined the ones servicing the direct emergen line between the Kreml and the White House duing the cold-war era would have look like. But here in China, every kio seemed to have such a device in t1990s, and anyone could use it for ju 0.2 yuan. The government did not juinstall public phones on street corner but they let small-business owners pa ticipate in telecommunication. Supply and demand were juggled by a kind of Hutong capitalism.

  7. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  8. Privacy and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri

  9. Bigness in compatible systems

    OpenAIRE

    Snowden, Andrew; Wiles, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Clozel, Harris and Taylor have recently proved a modularity lifting theorem of the following general form: if rho is an l-adic representation of the absolute Galois group of a number field for which the residual representation rho-bar comes from a modular form then so does rho. This theorem has numerous hypotheses; a crucial one is that the image of rho-bar must be "big," a technical condition on subgroups of GL(n). In this paper we investigate this condition in compatible systems. Our main r...

  10. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M; Unni, Deepak R; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  11. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an overview of the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), which describes the production of the light elements in the early universe. The theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li is discussed. We emphasize the role of key nuclear reactions and the methods by which experimental cross section uncertainties are propagated into uncertainties in the predicted abundances. The observational determination of the light nuclides is also discussed. Particular attention is given to the comparison between the predicted and observed abundances, which yields a measurement of the cosmic baryon content. The spectrum of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) now independently measures the baryon density to high precision; we show how the CMB data test BBN, and find that the CMB and the D and 4He observations paint a consistent picture. This concordance stands as a major success of the hot big bang. On the other hand, 7Li remains discrepant with the CMB-preferred baryon density; possible explanations are reviewed. Finally, moving beyond the standard model, primordial nucleosynthesis constraints on early universe and particle physics are also briefly discussed

  12. Big Rock Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant is the second oldest operating nuclear power plant in the United States. Its 25-yr history is an embodiment of the history of commercial nuclear power. In some respects, its situation today - 5 yr past the midpoint of its design life - can provide operators of other nuclear plants a glimpse of where they will be in another decade. Construction on Big Rock Point began in 1960. It was completed just 2 1/2 yr later at a cost of $27 million. The plant is a General Electric (GE)-designed boiling water direct cycle, forced circulation, high power density reactor. Its construction was undertaken by Consumers Power under the third round of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC's) Power Demonstration Reactor Program. It was an advanced version of GE's Vallecitos boiling water reactor. The plant's fuel was GE's responsibility and, under contract with the AEC, it conducted a fuel research and development (RandD) program involving the plant. Although the plant was designed for research - its original electrical capacity was set at 50 MW(electric) - the unit was subsequently uprated to 69 MW(net electric). The original plant staff included only 44 people and minimal security. Mirroring the industry experience, the number of people on-site had quadrupled

  13. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  14. Passport to the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Le 2 juin 2013, le CERN inaugure le projet Passeport Big Bang lors d'un grand événement public. Affiche et programme. On 2 June 2013 CERN launches a scientific tourist trail through the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva known as the Passport to the Big Bang. Poster and Programme.

  15. IZVEDBENI ELEMENTI U BIG BROTHERU

    OpenAIRE

    Radman, Korana

    2009-01-01

    Big Brother publici nudi "ultimativnu stvarnost" osiguranu cjelodnevnim nadzorom televizijskih kamera, o čemu je polemizirano od početka njegova prikazivanja u Europi i svijetu. Imajući to na umu, ovaj rad je pristupio Big Brotheru iz perspektive izvedbenih studija, pokušavajući u njemu prepoznati neke od mogućih izvedbi.

  16. The Big Read: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  17. Resources: Building Big (and Small)

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    The article offers a set of videos and web resources for elementary teachers to help them explore five different structures, including bridges, domes, skyscrapers, dams, and tunnels, that have been built big to meet the human needs and wants. It includes the miniseries video "Building Big" by David Macaulay and the website www.pbs.org/buildingbig.com.

  18. Genome Maps, a new generation genome browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Ignacio; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; de Maria, Alejandro; Alonso, Roberto; Escobar, Pablo; Bleda, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2013-07-01

    Genome browsers have gained importance as more genomes and related genomic information become available. However, the increase of information brought about by new generation sequencing technologies is, at the same time, causing a subtle but continuous decrease in the efficiency of conventional genome browsers. Here, we present Genome Maps, a genome browser that implements an innovative model of data transfer and management. The program uses highly efficient technologies from the new HTML5 standard, such as scalable vector graphics, that optimize workloads at both server and client sides and ensure future scalability. Thus, data management and representation are entirely carried out by the browser, without the need of any Java Applet, Flash or other plug-in technology installation. Relevant biological data on genes, transcripts, exons, regulatory features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, karyotype and so forth, are imported from web services and are available as tracks. In addition, several DAS servers are already included in Genome Maps. As a novelty, this web-based genome browser allows the local upload of huge genomic data files (e.g. VCF or BAM) that can be dynamically visualized in real time at the client side, thus facilitating the management of medical data affected by privacy restrictions. Finally, Genome Maps can easily be integrated in any web application by including only a few lines of code. Genome Maps is an open source collaborative initiative available in the GitHub repository (https://github.com/compbio-bigdata-viz/genome-maps). Genome Maps is available at: http://www.genomemaps.org. PMID:23748955

  19. Genome Maps, a new generation genome browser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Ignacio; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; de Maria, Alejandro; Alonso, Roberto; Escobar, Pablo; Bleda, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Genome browsers have gained importance as more genomes and related genomic information become available. However, the increase of information brought about by new generation sequencing technologies is, at the same time, causing a subtle but continuous decrease in the efficiency of conventional genome browsers. Here, we present Genome Maps, a genome browser that implements an innovative model of data transfer and management. The program uses highly efficient technologies from the new HTML5 standard, such as scalable vector graphics, that optimize workloads at both server and client sides and ensure future scalability. Thus, data management and representation are entirely carried out by the browser, without the need of any Java Applet, Flash or other plug-in technology installation. Relevant biological data on genes, transcripts, exons, regulatory features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, karyotype and so forth, are imported from web services and are available as tracks. In addition, several DAS servers are already included in Genome Maps. As a novelty, this web-based genome browser allows the local upload of huge genomic data files (e.g. VCF or BAM) that can be dynamically visualized in real time at the client side, thus facilitating the management of medical data affected by privacy restrictions. Finally, Genome Maps can easily be integrated in any web application by including only a few lines of code. Genome Maps is an open source collaborative initiative available in the GitHub repository (https://github.com/compbio-bigdata-viz/genome-maps). Genome Maps is available at: http://www.genomemaps.org. PMID:23748955

  20. Big Bounce Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Changhong; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E

    2014-01-01

    We report on the possibility to use dark matter mass and its interaction cross section as a smoking gun signal of the existence of a big bounce at the early stage in the evolution of our currently observed universe. A model independent study of dark matter production in the contraction and expansion phases of the bounce universe reveals a new venue for achieving the observed relic abundance in which a significantly smaller amount of dark matter--compared to the standard cosmology--is produced and survives until today, diluted only by the cosmic expansion since the radiation dominated era. Once DM mass and its interaction strength with ordinary matter are determined by experiments, this alternative route becomes a signature of the bounce universe scenario.

  1. A matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control

  2. A Matrix Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, B; Verlinde, E; Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  3. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  4. DPF Big One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its latest venue at Fermilab from 10-14 November, the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields meeting entered a new dimension. These regular meetings, which allow younger researchers to communicate with their peers, have been gaining popularity over the years (this was the seventh in the series), but nobody had expected almost a thousand participants and nearly 500 requests to give talks. Thus Fermilab's 800-seat auditorium had to be supplemented with another room with a video hookup, while the parallel sessions were organized into nine bewildering streams covering fourteen major physics topics. With the conventionality of the Standard Model virtually unchallenged, physics does not move fast these days. While most of the physics results had already been covered in principle at the International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Dallas in August (October, page 1), the Fermilab DPF meeting had a very different atmosphere. Major international meetings like Dallas attract big names from far and wide, and it is difficult in such an august atmosphere for young researchers to find a receptive audience. This was not the case at the DPF parallel sessions. The meeting also adopted a novel approach, with the parallels sandwiched between an initial day of plenaries to set the scene, and a final day of summaries. With the whole world waiting for the sixth ('top') quark to be discovered at Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, the meeting began with updates from Avi Yagil and Ronald Madaras from the big detectors, CDF and DO respectively. Although rumours flew thick and fast, the Tevatron has not yet reached the top, although Yagil could show one intriguing event of a type expected from the heaviest quark

  5. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian;

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  6. From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, N.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming ‘big science’. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet....

  7. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    OpenAIRE

    Cronn Richard C; Price Jared C; Richardson Bryce A; Bajgain Prabin; Udall Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary his...

  8. Mining “Big Data” using Big Data Services

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    While many colleagues within science are fed up with the “big data fad”, empirical analyses we conducted for the current editorial actually show an inconsistent picture: we use big data services to determine whether there really is an increase in writing about big data or even widespread use of the term. Google Correlate (http://www.google.com/trends/correlate/), the first free tool we are presenting here, doesn’t list the term, showing that number of searches for it are below an absolute min...

  9. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe

  10. Seeking Relationships in Big Data: A Bayesian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Singpurwalla, Nozer

    2014-01-01

    The real purpose of collecting big data is to identify causality in the hope that this will facilitate credible predictivity . But the search for causality can trap one into infinite regress, and thus one takes refuge in seeking associations between variables in data sets. Regrettably, the mere knowledge of associations does not enable predictivity. Associations need to be embedded within the framework of probability calculus to make coherent predictions. This is so because ...

  11. BigOP: Generating Comprehensive Big Data Workloads as a Benchmarking Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yuqing; Zhan, Jianfeng; Weng, Chuliang; Nambiar, Raghunath; Zhang, Jinchao; Chen, Xingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Big Data is considered proprietary asset of companies, organizations, and even nations. Turning big data into real treasure requires the support of big data systems. A variety of commercial and open source products have been unleashed for big data storage and processing. While big data users are facing the choice of which system best suits their needs, big data system developers are facing the question of how to evaluate their systems with regard to general big data processing needs. System b...

  12. From big bang to big crunch and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a quotient Conformal Field Theory, which describes a 3+1 dimensional cosmological spacetime. Part of this spacetime is the Nappi-Witten (NW) universe, which starts at a 'big bang' singularity, expands and then contracts to a 'big crunch' singularity at a finite time. The gauged WZW model contains a number of copies of the NW spacetime, with each copy connected to the preceding one and to the next one at the respective big bang/big crunch singularities. The sequence of NW spacetimes is further connected at the singularities to a series of non-compact static regions with closed timelike curves. These regions contain boundaries, on which the observables of the theory live. This suggests a holographic interpretation of the physics. (author)

  13. The challenges of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  14. Big Data Mining: Tools & Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Shiraz Hashmi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We are now in Big Data era, and there is a growing demand for tools which can process and analyze it. Big data analytics deals with extracting valuable information from that complex data which can’t be handled by traditional data mining tools. This paper surveys the available tools which can handle large volumes of data as well as evolving data streams. The data mining tools and algorithms which can handle big data have also been summarized, and one of the tools has been used for mining of large datasets using distributed algorithms.

  15. Google BigQuery analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Tigani, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    How to effectively use BigQuery, avoid common mistakes, and execute sophisticated queries against large datasets Google BigQuery Analytics is the perfect guide for business and data analysts who want the latest tips on running complex queries and writing code to communicate with the BigQuery API. The book uses real-world examples to demonstrate current best practices and techniques, and also explains and demonstrates streaming ingestion, transformation via Hadoop in Google Compute engine, AppEngine datastore integration, and using GViz with Tableau to generate charts of query results. In addit

  16. The challenges of big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  17. Big Data: present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Raducu TRIFU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the importance of the Big Data concept, a concept that even now, after years of development, is for the most companies just a cool keyword. The paper also describes the level of the actual big data development and the things it can do, and also the things that can be done in the near future. The paper focuses on explaining to nontechnical and non-database related technical specialists what basically is big data, presents the three most important V's, as well as the new ones, the most important solutions used by companies like Google or Amazon, as well as some interesting perceptions based on this subject.

  18. Detecting and understanding big events in big cities

    OpenAIRE

    Furletti, Barbara; Trasarti, Roberto; Gabrielli, Lorenzo; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Vanhoof, Maarten; Ziemlicki, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the great potential of big data such as mobile phone location data to model human behavior. Big data allow to analyze people presence in a territory in a fast and effective way with respect to the classical surveys (diaries or questionnaires). One of the drawbacks of these collection systems is incompleteness of the users' traces; people are localized only when they are using their phones. In this work we define a data mining method for identifying people presence an...

  19. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    OpenAIRE

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.(Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA); Turok, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition...

  20. Quantum Fields in a Big Crunch/Big Bang Spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Tolley, Andrew J.; Turok, Neil

    2002-01-01

    We consider quantum field theory on a spacetime representing the Big Crunch/Big Bang transition postulated in the ekpyrotic or cyclic cosmologies. We show via several independent methods that an essentially unique matching rule holds connecting the incoming state, in which a single extra dimension shrinks to zero, to the outgoing state in which it re-expands at the same rate. For free fields in our construction there is no particle production from the incoming adiabatic vacuum. When interacti...

  1. Sailing through the big crunch-big bang transition

    OpenAIRE

    Bars, Itzhak; Steinhardt, Paul; Turok, Neil

    2013-01-01

    In a recent series of papers, we have shown that theories with scalar fields coupled to gravity (e.g., the standard model) can be lifted to a Weyl-invariant equivalent theory in which it is possible to unambiguously trace the classical cosmological evolution through the transition from big crunch to big bang. The key was identifying a sufficient number of finite, Weyl-invariant conserved quantities to uniquely match the fundamental cosmological degrees of freedom across the transition. In so ...

  2. Boosting Big National Lab Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-21

    Introduction: Big data. Love it or hate it, solving the world’s most intractable problems requires the ability to make sense of huge and complex sets of data and do it quickly. Speeding up the process – from hours to minutes or from weeks to days – is key to our success. One major source of such big data are physical experiments. As many will know, these physical experiments are commonly used to solve challenges in fields such as energy security, manufacturing, medicine, pharmacology, environmental protection and national security. Experiments use different instruments and sensor types to research for example the validity of new drugs, the base cause for diseases, more efficient energy sources, new materials for every day goods, effective methods for environmental cleanup, the optimal ingredients composition for chocolate or determine how to preserve valuable antics. This is done by experimentally determining the structure, properties and processes that govern biological systems, chemical processes and materials. The speed and quality at which we can acquire new insights from experiments directly influences the rate of scientific progress, industrial innovation and competitiveness. And gaining new groundbreaking insights, faster, is key to the economic success of our nations. Recent years have seen incredible advances in sensor technologies, from house size detector systems in large experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider and the ‘Eye of Gaia’ billion pixel camera detector to high throughput genome sequencing. These developments have led to an exponential increase in data volumes, rates and variety produced by instruments used for experimental work. This increase is coinciding with a need to analyze the experimental results at the time they are collected. This speed is required to optimize the data taking and quality, and also to enable new adaptive experiments, where the sample is manipulated as it is observed, e.g. a substance is injected into a

  3. Hey, big spender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Business to business electronic commerce is looming large in the future of the oil industry. It is estimated that by adopting e-commerce the industry could achieve bottom line savings of between $1.8 to $ 3.4 billion a year on annual gross revenues in excess of $ 30 billion. At present there are several teething problems to overcome such as inter-operability standards, which are at least two or three years away. Tying in electronically with specific suppliers is also an expensive proposition, although the big benefits are in fact in doing business with the same suppliers on a continuing basis. Despite these problems, 14 of the world's largest energy and petrochemical companies joined forces in mid-April to create a single Internet procurement marketplace for the industry's complex supply chain. The exchange was designed by B2B (business-to-business) software provider, Commerce One Inc., ; it will leverage the buying clout of these industry giants (BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell Group, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Phillips Petroleum, Unocal Corporation and Statoil among them), currently about $ 125 billion on procurement per year; they hope to save between 5 to 30 per cent depending on the product and the region involved. Other similar schemes such as Chevron and partners' Petrocosm Marketplace, Network Oil, a Houston-based Internet portal aimed at smaller petroleum companies, are also doing business in the $ 10 billion per annum range. e-Energy, a cooperative project between IBM Ericson and Telus Advertising is another neutral, virtual marketplace targeted at the oil and gas sector. PetroTRAX, a Calgary-based website plans to take online procurement and auction sales a big step forward by establishing a portal to handle any oil company's asset management needs. There are also a number of websites targeting specific needs: IndigoPool.com (acquisitions and divestitures) and WellBid.com (products related to upstream oil and gas operators) are just two examples. All in

  4. Big bang darkleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Krnjaic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis, a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN, in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD, which generically yields large (≫MeV/dark-nucleon binding energies. These bounds further suggest the mediator is relatively weakly coupled, so repulsive forces between dark-sector nuclei are much weaker than Coulomb repulsion between standard-model nuclei, which results in an exponential barrier-tunneling enhancement over standard BBN. Thus, darklei are easier to make and harder to break than visible species with comparable mass numbers. This process can efficiently yield a dominant population of states with masses significantly greater than the confinement scale and, in contrast to dark matter that is a fundamental particle, may allow the dominant form of dark matter to have high spin (S≫3/2, whose discovery would be smoking gun evidence for dark nuclei.

  5. The BigBOSS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  6. Big Lake Dam Inspection Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes an inspection of the Big Lake Dam that was done in September of 1983. The inspection did not reveal any conditions that constitute and...

  7. Le Big Bang en laboratoire

    CERN Multimedia

    Roy, Christelle

    2006-01-01

    Physiciens have been dreaming of it for 30 years; Thanks to huge particle accelerators, they were able to observe the matter such as it was some instants after the Big Bang (three different articles in 10 pages)

  8. Facilitation of CRISPR adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    CRISPR systems, as bacterial defenses against phages, logically must display in their functioning a sequence of at least three major steps. These, in order of occurrence, are “facilitation,” adaptation and interference, where the facilitation step is the main issue considered in this commentary. Interference is the blocking of phage infections as mediated in part by CRISPR spacer sequences. Adaptation, at least as narrowly defined, is the acquisition of these spacer sequences by CRISPR loci. ...

  9. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  10. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Belle; Raghuram Thiagarajan; S. M. Reza Soroushmehr; Fatemeh Navidi; Daniel A Beard; Kayvan Najarian

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is sti...

  11. Big Data and Ambulatory Care

    OpenAIRE

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an ov...

  12. The role of big laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward. (paper)

  13. The role of big laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Heuer, Rolf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward.

  14. Rice functional genomics research in China

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Bin; Xue, Yongbiao; Li, Jiayang; Deng, Xing-Wang; Zhang, Qifa

    2007-01-01

    Rice functional genomics is a scientific approach that seeks to identify and define the function of rice genes, and uncover when and how genes work together to produce phenotypic traits. Rapid progress in rice genome sequencing has facilitated research in rice functional genomics in China. The Ministry of Science and Technology of China has funded two major rice functional genomics research programmes for building up the infrastructures of the functional genomics study such as developing rice...

  15. Transposable elements: powerful facilitators of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Keith R; Greene, Wayne K

    2009-07-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are powerful facilitators of genome evolution, and hence of phenotypic diversity as they can cause genetic changes of great magnitude and variety. TEs are ubiquitous and extremely ancient, and although harmful to some individuals, they can be very beneficial to lineages. TEs can build, sculpt, and reformat genomes by both active and passive means. Lineages with active TEs or with abundant homogeneous inactive populations of TEs that can act passively by causing ectopic recombination are potentially fecund, adaptable, and taxonate readily. Conversely, taxa deficient in TEs or possessing heterogeneous populations of inactive TEs may be well adapted in their niche, but tend to prolonged stasis and may risk extinction by lacking the capacity to adapt to change, or diversify. Because of recurring intermittent waves of TE infestation, available data indicate a compatibility with punctuated equilibrium, in keeping with widely accepted interpretations of evidence from the fossil record. We propose a general and holistic synthesis on how the presence of TEs within genomes makes them flexible and dynamic, so that genomes themselves are powerful facilitators of their own evolution. PMID:19415638

  16. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  17. Comparative Genome Viewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of information about genomes, both in the form of complete sequences and annotations, has been exponentially increasing in the last few years. As a result there is the need for tools providing a graphical representation of such information that should be comprehensive and intuitive. Visual representation is especially important in the comparative genomics field since it should provide a combined view of data belonging to different genomes. We believe that existing tools are limited in this respect as they focus on a single genome at a time (conservation histograms) or compress alignment representation to a single dimension. We have therefore developed a web-based tool called Comparative Genome Viewer (Cgv): it integrates a bidimensional representation of alignments between two regions, both at small and big scales, with the richness of annotations present in other genome browsers. We give access to our system through a web-based interface that provides the user with an interactive representation that can be updated in real time using the mouse to move from region to region and to zoom in on interesting details.

  18. Evaluation of Operations Scenarios for Managing the Big Creek Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian; Rahman, Masihur; Wychreschuk, Jeremy; Lebedyk, Dan; Bolisetti, Tirupati

    2013-04-01

    Wetland management in changing climate is important for maintaining sustainable ecosystem as well as for reducing the impact of climate change on the environment as wetlands act as natural carbon sinks. The Big Creek Marsh within the Essex County is a Provincially Significant Wetland (PSW) in Ontario, Canada. The marsh is approximately 900 hectares in area and is primarily fed by streamflow from the Big Creek Watershed. The water level of this wetland has been managed by the stakeholders using a system of pumps, dykes and a controlled outlet to the Lake Erie. In order to adequately manage the Big Creek Marsh and conserve diverse aquatic plant species, Essex Region Conservation Authority (ERCA), Ontario has embarked on developing an Operations Plan to maintain desire water depths during different marsh phases, viz., Open water, Hemi and Overgrown marsh phases. The objective of the study is to evaluate the alternatives for managing water level of the Big Creek Marsh in different marsh phases. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a continuous simulation model was used to simulate streamflow entering into the marsh from the Big Creek watershed. A Water Budget (WB) model was developed for the Big Creek Marsh to facilitate in operational management of the marsh. The WB model was applied to simulate the marsh level based on operations schedules, and available weather and hydrologic data aiming to attain the target water depths for the marsh phases. This paper presents the results of simulated and target water levels, streamflow entering into the marsh, water releasing from the marsh, and water pumping into and out of the marsh under different hydrologic conditions.

  19. Intelligent Decisional Assistant that Facilitate the Choice of a Proper Computer System Applied in Busines

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae MARGINEAN

    2009-01-01

    The choice of a proper computer system is not an easy task for a decider. One reason could be the present market development of computer systems applied in business. The big number of the Romanian market players determines a big number of computerized products, with a multitude of various properties. Our proposal tries to optimize and facilitate this decisional process within an e-shop where are sold IT packets applied in business, building an online decisional assistant, a special component ...

  20. Between two fern genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Emily B; Banks, Jo Ann; Barker, Michael S; Der, Joshua P; Duffy, Aaron M; Graham, Sean W; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Langdale, Jane; Li, Fay-Wei; Marchant, D Blaine; Pryer, Kathleen M; Rothfels, Carl J; Roux, Stanley J; Salmi, Mari L; Sigel, Erin M; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Stevenson, Dennis W; Wolf, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are the only major lineage of vascular plants not represented by a sequenced nuclear genome. This lack of genome sequence information significantly impedes our ability to understand and reconstruct genome evolution not only in ferns, but across all land plants. Azolla and Ceratopteris are ideal and complementary candidates to be the first ferns to have their nuclear genomes sequenced. They differ dramatically in genome size, life history, and habit, and thus represent the immense diversity of extant ferns. Together, this pair of genomes will facilitate myriad large-scale comparative analyses across ferns and all land plants. Here we review the unique biological characteristics of ferns and describe a number of outstanding questions in plant biology that will benefit from the addition of ferns to the set of taxa with sequenced nuclear genomes. We explain why the fern clade is pivotal for understanding genome evolution across land plants, and we provide a rationale for how knowledge of fern genomes will enable progress in research beyond the ferns themselves. PMID:25324969

  1. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  2. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  3. Programs | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCG facilitates cancer genomics research through a series of highly-focused programs. These programs generate and disseminate genomic data for use by the cancer research community. OCG programs also promote advances in technology-based infrastructure and create valuable experimental reagents and tools. OCG programs encourage collaboration by interconnecting with other genomics and cancer projects in order to accelerate translation of findings into the clinic. Below are OCG’s current, completed, and initiated programs:

  4. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process. PMID:27068058

  5. [Big data in official statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany. PMID:26077871

  6. Dual of Big-bang and Big-crunch

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Dongsu

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by procedure of the double anaytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are non singular at all as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological sing...

  7. Turning big bang into big bounce: II. Quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the big bounce transition of the quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model in the setting of the nonstandard loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Elementary observables are used to quantize composite observables. The spectrum of the energy density operator is bounded and continuous. The spectrum of the volume operator is bounded from below and discrete. It has equally distant levels defining a quantum of the volume. The discreteness may imply a foamy structure of spacetime at a semiclassical level which may be detected in astro-cosmo observations. The nonstandard LQC method has a free parameter that should be fixed in some way to specify the big bounce transition.

  8. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  9. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  10. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching and...

  11. CLOUD COMPUTING WITH BIG DATA: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali; Er. Amandeep Kaur; Mrs. Shakshi

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a collection of huge quantities of data. Big data is the process of examining large amounts of data. Big data and Cloud computing are the hot issues in Information Technology. Big data is the one of the main problem now a day’s. Researchers focusing how to handle huge amount of data with cloud computing and how to gain a perfect security for big data in cloud computing. To handle the Big Data problem Hadoop framework is used in which data is fragmented and executed parallel....

  12. The life cycle of a genome project: perspectives and guidelines inspired by insect genome projects

    OpenAIRE

    Alexie Papanicolaou

    2016-01-01

    Many research programs on non-model species biology have been empowered by genomics. In turn, genomics is underpinned by a reference sequence and ancillary information created by so-called “genome projects”. The most reliable genome projects are the ones created as part of an active research program and designed to address specific questions but their life extends past publication. In this opinion paper I outline four key insights that have facilitated maintaining genomic communities: the key...

  13. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  14. Sosiaalinen asiakassuhdejohtaminen ja big data

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Topi-Antti

    2015-01-01

    Tässä tutkielmassa käsitellään sosiaalista asiakassuhdejohtamista sekä hyötyjä, joita siihen voidaan saada big datan avulla. Sosiaalinen asiakassuhdejohtaminen on terminä uusi ja monille tuntematon. Tutkimusta motivoi aiheen vähäinen tutkimus, suomenkielisen tutkimuksen puuttuminen kokonaan sekä sosiaalisen asiakassuhdejohtamisen mahdollinen olennainen rooli yritysten toiminnassa tulevaisuudessa. Big dataa käsittelevissä tutkimuksissa keskitytään monesti sen tekniseen puoleen, eikä sovellutuk...

  15. AAPOR Report on Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Task Force Members Include: Lilli Japec; Frauke Kreuter; Marcus Berg; Paul Biemer; Paul Decker; Cliff Lampe; Julia Lane; Cathy O'Neil; Abe Usher

    2015-01-01

    In recent years we have seen an increase in the amount of statistics in society describing different phenomena based on so called Big Data. The term Big Data is used for a variety of data as explained in the report, many of them characterized not just by their large volume, but also by their variety and velocity, the organic way in which they are created, and the new types of processes needed to analyze them and make inference from them. The change in the nature of the new types of data, thei...

  16. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  17. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-01

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented. PMID:26614539

  18. The BigBOSS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Prieto, C. Allende; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Baltay, S. Bailey. C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra...

  19. Release plan for Big Pete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This release plan is to provide instructions for the Radiological Control Technician (RCT) to conduct surveys for the unconditional release of ''Big Pete,'' which was used in the removal of ''Spacers'' from the N-Reactor. Prior to performing surveys on the rear end portion of ''Big Pete,'' it shall be cleaned (i.e., free of oil, grease, caked soil, heavy dust). If no contamination is found, the vehicle may be released with the permission of the area RCT Supervisor. If contamination is found by any of the surveys, contact the cognizant Radiological Engineer for decontamination instructions

  20. Big society, big data. The radicalisation of the network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, V.

    2011-01-01

    During the British election campaign of 2010, David Cameron produced the idea of the ‘Big Society’ as a cornerstone of his political agenda. At the core of the idea is a stronger civil society and local community coupled with a more withdrawn government. Although many commentators have dismissed thi

  1. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice to that of...

  2. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  3. Pillow seal system at the BigRIPS separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Inabe, N.; Yoshida, K.; Kusaka, K.; Kubo, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have designed and installed a pillow seal system for the BigRIPS fragment separator at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) to facilitate remote maintenance in a radioactive environment. The pillow seal system is a device to connect a vacuum chamber and a beam tube. It allows quick attachment and detachment of vacuum connections in the BigRIPS separator and consists of a double diaphragm with a differential pumping system. The leakage rate achieved with this system is as low as 10-9 Pa m3/s. We have also designed and installed a local radiation-shielding system, integrated with the pillow seal system, to protect the superconducting magnets and to reduce the heat load on the cryogenic system. We present an overview of the pillow seal and the local shielding systems.

  4. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  5. Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159241.html Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues? Smaller baby bottles ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Feeding babies formula from a big bottle might put them at higher risk for ...

  6. Big data e data science

    OpenAIRE

    Cavique, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Neste artigo foram apresentados os conceitos básicos de Big Data e a nova área a que deu origem, a Data Science. Em Data Science foi discutida e exemplificada a noção de redução da dimensionalidade dos dados.

  7. Do big gods cause anything?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2014-01-01

    Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere....

  8. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  9. YOUNG CITY,BIG PARTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Shenzhen Universiade unites the world’s young people through sports with none of the usual hoop-la, no fireworks, no grand performances by celebrities and superstars, the Shenzhen Summer Universiade lowered the curtain on a big party for youth and college students on August 23.

  10. BIG DATA IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dealing with a lot of data originating from social media sites and mobile communications among data from business environments and institutions, lead to the definition of a new concept, known as Big Data. The economic impact of the sheer amount of data produced in a last two years has increased rapidly. It is necessary to aggregate all types of data (structured and unstructured in order to improve current transactions, to develop new business models, to provide a real image of the supply and demand and thereby, generate market advantages. So, the companies that turn to Big Data have a competitive advantage over other firms. Looking from the perspective of IT organizations, they must accommodate the storage and processing Big Data, and provide analysis tools that are easily integrated into business processes. This paper aims to discuss aspects regarding the Big Data concept, the principles to build, organize and analyse huge datasets in the business environment, offering a three-layer architecture, based on actual software solutions. Also, the article refers to the graphical tools for exploring and representing unstructured data, Gephi and NodeXL.

  11. Characterizing and Subsetting Big Data Workloads

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Zhen; Zhan, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Han, Rui; Mckee, Sally A.; Yang, Qiang; Luo, Chunjie; Li, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    Big data benchmark suites must include a diversity of data and workloads to be useful in fairly evaluating big data systems and architectures. However, using truly comprehensive benchmarks poses great challenges for the architecture community. First, we need to thoroughly understand the behaviors of a variety of workloads. Second, our usual simulation-based research methods become prohibitively expensive for big data. As big data is an emerging field, more and more software stacks are being p...

  12. Big Graph Mining: Frameworks and Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Aridhi, Sabeur; Nguifo, Engelbert Mephu

    2016-01-01

    Big graph mining is an important research area and it has attracted considerable attention. It allows to process, analyze, and extract meaningful information from large amounts of graph data. Big graph mining has been highly motivated not only by the tremendously increasing size of graphs but also by its huge number of applications. Such applications include bioinformatics, chemoinformatics and social networks. One of the most challenging tasks in big graph mining is pattern mining in big gra...

  13. The BigBoss Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  14. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study the...... behaviour of one expert and two novice facilitators during a Viable System Model workshop. The findings suggest common facilitation patterns in the behaviour of experts and novices. This contrasts literature claiming that experts and novices behave and use their available knowledge differently, and...... facilitation strategies in contexts in which external, expert facilitation is not always possible are also discussed, and limitations of this study are provided....

  15. Judging Big Deals: Challenges, Outcomes, and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of five Big Deal electronic journal packages to which Hofstra University's Axinn Library subscribes. COUNTER usage reports were used to judge the value of each Big Deal. Limitations of usage statistics are also discussed. In the end, the author concludes that four of the five Big Deals are good…

  16. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  17. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  18. "Big Data" - Grosse Daten, viel Wissen?

    OpenAIRE

    Hothorn, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Since a couple of years, the term Big Data describes technologies to extract knowledge from data. Applications of Big Data and their consequences are also increasingly discussed in the mass media. Because medicine is an empirical science, we discuss the meaning of Big Data and its potential for future medical research.

  19. The BigBoss Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = λ/Δλ = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 max = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (kmax = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  20. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  1. HaloWeb: the haloarchaeal genomes database

    OpenAIRE

    DasSarma, Satyajit L; Capes, Melinda D; DasSarma, Priya; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2010-01-01

    Background Complete genome sequencing together with post-genomic studies provide the opportunity for a comprehensive 'systems biology' understanding of model organisms. For maximum effectiveness, an integrated database containing genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data is necessary. Description To improve data access and facilitate functional genomic studies on haloarchaea in our laboratory, a dedicated database and website, named HaloWeb, was developed. It incorporates all finished and p...

  2. Facilitated Asymmetric Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Alan; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a class of facilitated asymmetric exclusion processes in which particles are pushed by neighbors from behind. For the simplest version in which a particle can hop to its vacant right neighbor only if its left neighbor is occupied, we determine the steady state current and the distribution of cluster sizes on a ring. We show that an initial density downstep develops into a rarefaction wave that can have a jump discontinuity at the leading edge, while an upstep results in a shock w...

  3. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  4. Global Fluctuation Spectra in Big Crunch/Big Bang String Vacua

    OpenAIRE

    Craps, Ben; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2003-01-01

    We study Big Crunch/Big Bang cosmologies that correspond to exact world-sheet superconformal field theories of type II strings. The string theory spacetime contains a Big Crunch and a Big Bang cosmology, as well as additional ``whisker'' asymptotic and intermediate regions. Within the context of free string theory, we compute, unambiguously, the scalar fluctuation spectrum in all regions of spacetime. Generically, the Big Crunch fluctuation spectrum is altered while passing through the bounce...

  5. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  6. Perspectives on Big Data and Big Data Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geanina ULARU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays companies are starting to realize the importance of using more data in order to support decision for their strategies. It was said and proved through study cases that “More data usually beats better algorithms”. With this statement companies started to realize that they can chose to invest more in processing larger sets of data rather than investing in expensive algorithms. The large quantity of data is better used as a whole because of the possible correlations on a larger amount, correlations that can never be found if the data is analyzed on separate sets or on a smaller set. A larger amount of data gives a better output but also working with it can become a challenge due to processing limitations. This article intends to define the concept of Big Data and stress the importance of Big Data Analytics.

  7. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  8. Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c)2. At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios

  9. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2535 (United States); Chen, Shih-Hung [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Department of Physics and Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Turok, Neil [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2012-08-29

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  10. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  11. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak; Steinhardt, Paul J; Turok, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  12. Web Science Big Wins: Information Big Bang & Fundamental Constants

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Les

    2010-01-01

    We take for granted a Web that provides free and unrestricted information exchange, but the Web is under pressure to change in order to respond to issues of security, commerce, criminality, privacy. Web Science needs to explain how the Web impacts society and predict the outcomes of proposed changes to Web infrastructure on business and society. Using the analogy of the Big Bang, this presentation describes how the Web spread the conditions of its initial creation throughout the whole of soci...

  13. Big Data – Big Deal for Organization Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Janne J. Korhonen

    2014-01-01

    Analytics is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage. It has even been posited that big data will be the next strategic emphasis of organizations and that analytics capability will be manifested in organizational structure. In this article, I explore how analytics capability might be reflected in organizational structure using the notion of  “requisite organization” developed by Jaques (1998). Requisite organization argues that a new strategic emphasis requires the addition ...

  14. Nástroje pro Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The thesis covers the term for specific data analysis called Big Data. The thesis firstly defines the term Big Data and the need for its creation because of the rising need for deeper data processing and analysis tools and methods. The thesis also covers some of the technical aspects of Big Data tools, focusing on Apache Hadoop in detail. The later chapters contain Big Data market analysis and describe the biggest Big Data competitors and tools. The practical part of the thesis presents a way...

  15. ISSUES, CHALLENGES, AND SOLUTIONS: BIG DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaseena K.U.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Data has become an indispensable part of every economy, industry, organization, business function and individual. Big Data is a term used to identify the datasets that whose size is beyond the ability of typical database software tools to store, manage and analyze. The Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This paper presents the literature review about the Big data Mining and the issues and challenges with emphasis on the distinguished features of Big Data. It also discusses some methods to deal with big data.

  16. AN AI PLANNING APPROACH FOR GENERATING BIG DATA WORKFLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Deneke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scale of big data causes the compositions of extract-transform-load (ETL workflows to grow increasingly complex. With the turnaround time for delivering solutions becoming a greater emphasis, stakeholders cannot continue to afford to wait the hundreds of hours it takes for domain experts to manually compose a workflow solution. This paper describes a novel AI planning approach that facilitates rapid composition and maintenance of ETL workflows. The workflow engine is evaluated on real-world scenarios from an industrial partner and results gathered from a prototype are reported to demonstrate the validity of the approach.

  17. Big data is not a monolith

    CERN Document Server

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Mattioli, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Big data is ubiquitous but heterogeneous. Big data can be used to tally clicks and traffic on web pages, find patterns in stock trades, track consumer preferences, identify linguistic correlations in large corpuses of texts. This book examines big data not as an undifferentiated whole but contextually, investigating the varied challenges posed by big data for health, science, law, commerce, and politics. Taken together, the chapters reveal a complex set of problems, practices, and policies. The advent of big data methodologies has challenged the theory-driven approach to scientific knowledge in favor of a data-driven one. Social media platforms and self-tracking tools change the way we see ourselves and others. The collection of data by corporations and government threatens privacy while promoting transparency. Meanwhile, politicians, policy makers, and ethicists are ill-prepared to deal with big data's ramifications. The contributors look at big data's effect on individuals as it exerts social control throu...

  18. Big Numbers in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schellekens, A N

    2016-01-01

    This paper contains some personal reflections on several computational contributions to what is now known as the "String Theory Landscape". It consists of two parts. The first part concerns the origin of big numbers, and especially the number $10^{1500}$ that appeared in work on the covariant lattice construction (with W. Lerche and D. Luest). This part contains some new results. I correct a huge but inconsequential error, discuss some more accurate estimates, and compare with the counting for free fermion constructions. In particular I prove that the latter only provide an exponentially small fraction of all even self-dual lattices for large lattice dimensions. The second part of the paper concerns dealing with big numbers, and contains some lessons learned from various vacuum scanning projects.

  19. George and the big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2012-01-01

    George has problems. He has twin baby sisters at home who demand his parents’ attention. His beloved pig Freddy has been exiled to a farm, where he’s miserable. And worst of all, his best friend, Annie, has made a new friend whom she seems to like more than George. So George jumps at the chance to help Eric with his plans to run a big experiment in Switzerland that seeks to explore the earliest moment of the universe. But there is a conspiracy afoot, and a group of evildoers is planning to sabotage the experiment. Can George repair his friendship with Annie and piece together the clues before Eric’s experiment is destroyed forever? This engaging adventure features essays by Professor Stephen Hawking and other eminent physicists about the origins of the universe and ends with a twenty-page graphic novel that explains how the Big Bang happened—in reverse!

  20. The big wheels of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS cavern is filling up at an impressive rate. The installation of the first of the big wheels of the muon spectrometer, a thin gap chamber (TGC) wheel, was completed in September. The muon spectrometer will include four big moving wheels at each end, each measuring 25 metres in diameter. Of the eight wheels in total, six will be composed of thin gap chambers for the muon trigger system and the other two will consist of monitored drift tubes (MDTs) to measure the position of the muons (see Bulletin No. 13/2006). The installation of the 688 muon chambers in the barrel is progressing well, with three-quarters of them already installed between the coils of the toroid magnet.

  1. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research. PMID:26844660

  2. Big Bounce in Dipole Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Battisti, Marco Valerio; Marciano, Antonino

    2010-01-01

    We derive the cosmological Big Bounce scenario from the dipole approximation of Loop Quantum Gravity. We show that a non-singular evolution takes place for any matter field and that, by considering a massless scalar field as a relational clock for the dynamics, the semi-classical proprieties of an initial state are preserved on the other side of the bounce. This model thus enhances the relation between Loop Quantum Cosmology and the full theory.

  3. BIG DATA IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Logica BANICA; Alina HAGIU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, dealing with a lot of data originating from social media sites and mobile communications among data from business environments and institutions, lead to the definition of a new concept, known as Big Data. The economic impact of the sheer amount of data produced in a last two years has increased rapidly. It is necessary to aggregate all types of data (structured and unstructured) in order to improve current transactions, to develop new business models, to provide a real image ...

  4. BIG Data – A Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha Bhatia; Gaurav Vaswani

    2013-01-01

    As more data becomes available from an abundance of sources both within and outside, organizations are seeking to use those abundant resources to increase innovation, retain customers, and increase operational efficiency. At the same time, organizations are challenged by their end users, who are demanding greater capability and integration to mine and analyze burgeoning new sources of information. Big Data provides opportunities for business users to ask questions they never were able to ask ...

  5. Big data processing with Hadoop

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    Computing technology has changed the way we work, study, and live. The distributed data processing technology is one of the popular topics in the IT field. It provides a simple and centralized computing platform by reducing the cost of the hardware. The characteristics of distributed data processing technology have changed the whole industry. Hadoop, as the open source project of Apache foundation, is the most representative platform of distributed big data processing. The Hadoop distribu...

  6. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Keith A.; Scully, Sean T.

    1995-01-01

    WThe current status of big bang nucleosynthesis is reviewed with an emphasis on the comparison between the observational determination of the light element abundances of \\D, \\he3, \\he4 and \\li7 and the predictions from theory. In particular, we present new analyses for \\he4 and \\li7. Implications for physics beyond the standard model are also discussed. Limits on the effective number of neutrino flavors are also updated.

  7. Industrialization and the Big Push

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores Rosenstein-Rodman's (1943) idea that simultaneous industrialization of many sectors of the economy can be profitable for all of them, even when no sector can break even industrializing alone. We analyze this ides in the context of an imperfectly competitive economy with aggregate demand spillovers, and interpret the big push into industrialization as a move from a bad to a good equilibrium. We show that for two equilibria to exist, it must be the case that an industrializi...

  8. Pragmatic Interaction between Big Powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Lu. It is very difficult to summarize the relationship among big powers in 2004. Looking east, there existed a """"small cold war"""" named by some media between Europe and Russia and between the United States and Russia; with regard to the """"orange revolution"""" in Ukraine at the end of the year, a rival show rope and Russia. Looking east, awas displayed between America, Eufresh scent seems to fill the air.

  9. The BigBOSS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Schlegel, D; Abraham, T; Ahn, C; Prieto, C Allende; Annis, J; Aubourg, E; Azzaro, M; Baltay, S Bailey C; Baugh, C; Bebek, C; Becerril, S; Blanton, M; Bolton, A; Bromley, B; Cahn, R; Carton, P -H; Cervantes-Cota, J L; Chu, Y; Cortes, M; Dawson, K; Dey, A; Dickinson, M; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Ealet, A; Edelstein, J; Eppelle, D; Escoffier, S; Evrard, A; Faccioli, L; Frenk, C; Geha, M; Gerdes, D; Gondolo, P; Gonzalez-Arroyo, A; Grossan, B; Heckman, T; Heetderks, H; Ho, S; Honscheid, K; Huterer, D; Ilbert, O; Ivans, I; Jelinsky, P; Jing, Y; Joyce, D; Kennedy, R; Kent, S; Kieda, D; Kim, A; Kim, C; Kneib, J -P; Kong, X; Kosowsky, A; Krishnan, K; Lahav, O; Lampton, M; LeBohec, S; Brun, V Le; Levi, M; Li, C; Liang, M; Lim, H; Lin, W; Linder, E; Lorenzon, W; de la Macorra, A; Magneville, Ch; Malina, R; Marinoni, C; Martinez, V; Majewski, S; Matheson, T; McCloskey, R; McDonald, P; McKay, T; McMahon, J; Menard, B; Miralda-Escude, J; Modjaz, M; Montero-Dorta, A; Morales, I; Mostek, N; Newman, J; Nichol, R; Nugent, P; Olsen, K; Padmanabhan, N; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Park, I; Peacock, J; Percival, W; Perlmutter, S; Peroux, C; Petitjean, P; Prada, F; Prieto, E; Prochaska, J; Reil, K; Rockosi, C; Roe, N; Rollinde, E; Roodman, A; Ross, N; Rudnick, G; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Sanchez, J; Sawyer, D; Schimd, C; Schubnell, M; Scoccimaro, R; Seljak, U; Seo, H; Sheldon, E; Sholl, M; Shulte-Ladbeck, R; Slosar, A; Smith, D S; Smoot, G; Springer, W; Stril, A; Szalay, A S; Tao, C; Tarle, G; Taylor, E; Tilquin, A; Tinker, J; Valdes, F; Wang, J; Wang, T; Weaver, B A; Weinberg, D; White, M; Wood-Vasey, M; Yang, J; Yeche, X Yang Ch; Zakamska, N; Zentner, A; Zhai, C; Zhang, P

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy red...

  10. Big data: the management revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Andrew; Brynjolfsson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Big data, the authors write, is far more powerful than the analytics of the past. Executives can measure and therefore manage more precisely than ever before. They can make better predictions and smarter decisions. They can target more-effective interventions in areas that so far have been dominated by gut and intuition rather than by data and rigor. The differences between big data and analytics are a matter of volume, velocity, and variety: More data now cross the internet every second than were stored in the entire internet 20 years ago. Nearly real-time information makes it possible for a company to be much more agile than its competitors. And that information can come from social networks, images, sensors, the web, or other unstructured sources. The managerial challenges, however, are very real. Senior decision makers have to learn to ask the right questions and embrace evidence-based decision making. Organizations must hire scientists who can find patterns in very large data sets and translate them into useful business information. IT departments have to work hard to integrate all the relevant internal and external sources of data. The authors offer two success stories to illustrate how companies are using big data: PASSUR Aerospace enables airlines to match their actual and estimated arrival times. Sears Holdings directly analyzes its incoming store data to make promotions much more precise and faster. PMID:23074865

  11. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... root architecture, exudation of growth stimulating substances, and biofumigation. Facilitative root interactions are most likely to be of importance in nutrient poor soils and in low-input agroecosystems due to critical interspecific competition for plant growth factors. However, studies from more...

  12. Perspective: Materials informatics and big data: Realization of the "fourth paradigm" of science in materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok

    2016-05-01

    Our ability to collect "big data" has greatly surpassed our capability to analyze it, underscoring the emergence of the fourth paradigm of science, which is data-driven discovery. The need for data informatics is also emphasized by the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI), further boosting the emerging field of materials informatics. In this article, we look at how data-driven techniques are playing a big role in deciphering processing-structure-property-performance relationships in materials, with illustrative examples of both forward models (property prediction) and inverse models (materials discovery). Such analytics can significantly reduce time-to-insight and accelerate cost-effective materials discovery, which is the goal of MGI.

  13. [Big data, medical language and biomedical terminology systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; López-García, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    A variety of rich terminology systems, such as thesauri, classifications, nomenclatures and ontologies support information and knowledge processing in health care and biomedical research. Nevertheless, human language, manifested as individually written texts, persists as the primary carrier of information, in the description of disease courses or treatment episodes in electronic medical records, and in the description of biomedical research in scientific publications. In the context of the discussion about big data in biomedicine, we hypothesize that the abstraction of the individuality of natural language utterances into structured and semantically normalized information facilitates the use of statistical data analytics to distil new knowledge out of textual data from biomedical research and clinical routine. Computerized human language technologies are constantly evolving and are increasingly ready to annotate narratives with codes from biomedical terminology. However, this depends heavily on linguistic and terminological resources. The creation and maintenance of such resources is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, it is sensible to assume that big data methods can be used to support this process. Examples include the learning of hierarchical relationships, the grouping of synonymous terms into concepts and the disambiguation of homonyms. Although clear evidence is still lacking, the combination of natural language technologies, semantic resources, and big data analytics is promising. PMID:26077872

  14. Personal Spaces in Public Repositories as a Facilitator for Open Educational Resource Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Reisman, Sorel; Sperling, Barbra Bied

    2015-01-01

    Learning object repositories are a shared, open and public space; however, the possibility and ability of personal expression in an open, global, public space is crucial. The aim of this study is to explore personal spaces in a big learning object repository as a facilitator for adoption of Open Educational Resources (OER) into teaching practices…

  15. Re-evaluation of the immunological Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajnik, Martin F

    2014-11-01

    Classically the immunological 'Big Bang' of adaptive immunity was believed to have resulted from the insertion of a transposon into an immunoglobulin superfamily gene member, initiating antigen receptor gene rearrangement via the RAG recombinase in an ancestor of jawed vertebrates. However, the discovery of a second, convergent adaptive immune system in jawless fish, focused on the so-called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), was arguably the most exciting finding of the past decade in immunology and has drastically changed the view of immune origins. The recent report of a new lymphocyte lineage in lampreys, defined by the antigen receptor VLRC, suggests that there were three lymphocyte lineages in the common ancestor of jawless and jawed vertebrates that co-opted different antigen receptor supertypes. The transcriptional control of these lineages during development is predicted to be remarkably similar in both the jawless (agnathan) and jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, suggesting that an early 'division of labor' among lymphocytes was a driving force in the emergence of adaptive immunity. The recent cartilaginous fish genome project suggests that most effector cytokines and chemokines were also present in these fish, and further studies of the lamprey and hagfish genomes will determine just how explosive the Big Bang actually was. PMID:25517375

  16. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC) optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response ...

  17. Big Geo Data Management: AN Exploration with Social Media and Telecommunications Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Munoz, C.; Brovelli, M. A.; Corti, S.; Zamboni, G.

    2016-06-01

    The term Big Data has been recently used to define big, highly varied, complex data sets, which are created and updated at a high speed and require faster processing, namely, a reduced time to filter and analyse relevant data. These data is also increasingly becoming Open Data (data that can be freely distributed) made public by the government, agencies, private enterprises and among others. There are at least two issues that can obstruct the availability and use of Open Big Datasets: Firstly, the gathering and geoprocessing of these datasets are very computationally intensive; hence, it is necessary to integrate high-performance solutions, preferably internet based, to achieve the goals. Secondly, the problems of heterogeneity and inconsistency in geospatial data are well known and affect the data integration process, but is particularly problematic for Big Geo Data. Therefore, Big Geo Data integration will be one of the most challenging issues to solve. With these applications, we demonstrate that is possible to provide processed Big Geo Data to common users, using open geospatial standards and technologies. NoSQL databases like MongoDB and frameworks like RASDAMAN could offer different functionalities that facilitate working with larger volumes and more heterogeneous geospatial data sources.

  18. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  19. Earth Science Data Analysis in the Era of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K.-S.; Clune, T. L.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-01-01

    Anyone with even a cursory interest in information technology cannot help but recognize that "Big Data" is one of the most fashionable catchphrases of late. From accurate voice and facial recognition, language translation, and airfare prediction and comparison, to monitoring the real-time spread of flu, Big Data techniques have been applied to many seemingly intractable problems with spectacular successes. They appear to be a rewarding way to approach many currently unsolved problems. Few fields of research can claim a longer history with problems involving voluminous data than Earth science. The problems we are facing today with our Earth's future are more complex and carry potentially graver consequences than the examples given above. How has our climate changed? Beside natural variations, what is causing these changes? What are the processes involved and through what mechanisms are these connected? How will they impact life as we know it? In attempts to answer these questions, we have resorted to observations and numerical simulations with ever-finer resolutions, which continue to feed the "data deluge." Plausibly, many Earth scientists are wondering: How will Big Data technologies benefit Earth science research? As an example from the global water cycle, one subdomain among many in Earth science, how would these technologies accelerate the analysis of decades of global precipitation to ascertain the changes in its characteristics, to validate these changes in predictive climate models, and to infer the implications of these changes to ecosystems, economies, and public health? Earth science researchers need a viable way to harness the power of Big Data technologies to analyze large volumes and varieties of data with velocity and veracity. Beyond providing speedy data analysis capabilities, Big Data technologies can also play a crucial, albeit indirect, role in boosting scientific productivity by facilitating effective collaboration within an analysis environment

  20. An Effective Big Data Supervised Imbalanced Classification Approach for Ortholog Detection in Related Yeast Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Galpert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthology detection requires more effective scaling algorithms. In this paper, a set of gene pair features based on similarity measures (alignment scores, sequence length, gene membership to conserved regions, and physicochemical profiles are combined in a supervised pairwise ortholog detection approach to improve effectiveness considering low ortholog ratios in relation to the possible pairwise comparison between two genomes. In this scenario, big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance between ortholog and nonortholog pair classes allow for an effective scaling solution built from two genomes and extended to other genome pairs. The supervised approach was compared with RBH, RSD, and OMA algorithms by using the following yeast genome pairs: Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Candida glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Schizosaccharomyces pombe as benchmark datasets. Because of the large amount of imbalanced data, the building and testing of the supervised model were only possible by using big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance. Evaluation metrics taking low ortholog ratios into account were applied. From the effectiveness perspective, MapReduce Random Oversampling combined with Spark SVM outperformed RBH, RSD, and OMA, probably because of the consideration of gene pair features beyond alignment similarities combined with the advances in big data supervised classification.

  1. Pillow seal system at the BigRIPS separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pillow seal system has been installed for a high-intensity RI-beam facility at RIKEN. • It is aimed at facilitating remote maintenance under high residual radiation. • Local radiation shields are integrated with one of the pillow seals. • Pillow seals have been aligned to the beam axis within 1mm accuracy. • A leakage rate of 10–9 Pa m3/s has been achieved with our pillow seal system. -- Abstract: We have designed and installed a pillow seal system for the BigRIPS fragment separator at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) to facilitate remote maintenance in a radioactive environment. The pillow seal system is a device to connect a vacuum chamber and a beam tube. It allows quick attachment and detachment of vacuum connections in the BigRIPS separator and consists of a double diaphragm with a differential pumping system. The leakage rate achieved with this system is as low as 10–9 Pa m3/s. We have also designed and installed a local radiation-shielding system, integrated with the pillow seal system, to protect the superconducting magnets and to reduce the heat load on the cryogenic system. We present an overview of the pillow seal and the local shielding systems

  2. Big defensins, a diverse family of antimicrobial peptides that follows different patterns of expression in hemocytes of the oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D Rosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Big defensin is an antimicrobial peptide composed of a highly hydrophobic N-terminal region and a cationic C-terminal region containing six cysteine residues involved in three internal disulfide bridges. While big defensin sequences have been reported in various mollusk species, few studies have been devoted to their sequence diversity, gene organization and their expression in response to microbial infections. FINDINGS: Using the high-throughput Digital Gene Expression approach, we have identified in Crassostrea gigas oysters several sequences coding for big defensins induced in response to a Vibrio infection. We showed that the oyster big defensin family is composed of three members (named Cg-BigDef1, Cg-BigDef2 and Cg-BigDef3 that are encoded by distinct genomic sequences. All Cg-BigDefs contain a hydrophobic N-terminal domain and a cationic C-terminal domain that resembles vertebrate β-defensins. Both domains are encoded by separate exons. We found that big defensins form a group predominantly present in mollusks and closer to vertebrate defensins than to invertebrate and fungi CSαβ-containing defensins. Moreover, we showed that Cg-BigDefs are expressed in oyster hemocytes only and follow different patterns of gene expression. While Cg-BigDef3 is non-regulated, both Cg-BigDef1 and Cg-BigDef2 transcripts are strongly induced in response to bacterial challenge. Induction was dependent on pathogen associated molecular patterns but not damage-dependent. The inducibility of Cg-BigDef1 was confirmed by HPLC and mass spectrometry, since ions with a molecular mass compatible with mature Cg-BigDef1 (10.7 kDa were present in immune-challenged oysters only. From our biochemical data, native Cg-BigDef1 would result from the elimination of a prepropeptide sequence and the cyclization of the resulting N-terminal glutamine residue into a pyroglutamic acid. CONCLUSIONS: We provide here the first report showing that big defensins form a family

  3. An Overview of Big Data Privacy Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Hung

    2013-01-01

    Big data is the term for a collection of large and complex datasets from different sources that is difficult to process using traditional data management and processing applications. In these datasets, some information must be kept secret from others. On the other hand, some information has to be released for acquainting information or big data analytical services. The research challenge is how to protect the private information in the context of big data. Privacy is described by the ability ...

  4. Social Big Data and Privacy Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Based on the rapid development of Big Data, the data from the online social network becomea major part of it. Big data make the social networks became data-oriented rather than social-oriented. Taking this into account, this dissertation presents a qualitative study to research howdoes the data-oriented social network affect its users’ privacy management for nowadays. Within this dissertation, an overview of Big Data and privacy issues on the social network waspresented as a background study. ...

  5. Development and validation of Big Four personality scales for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality--Second Edition (SNAP-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, William R; Rudick, Monica M; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna

    2012-09-01

    Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)--such as the Big Three, Big Four, and Big Five trait models--have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality--Second Edition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five, as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural validity and external validity were supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing big-trait models. PMID:22250598

  6. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  7. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  8. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  9. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  10. Fitting ERGMs on big networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Weihua

    2016-09-01

    The exponential random graph model (ERGM) has become a valuable tool for modeling social networks. In particular, ERGM provides great flexibility to account for both covariates effects on tie formations and endogenous network formation processes. However, there are both conceptual and computational issues for fitting ERGMs on big networks. This paper describes a framework and a series of methods (based on existent algorithms) to address these issues. It also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and the conditions to which they are most applicable. Selected methods are illustrated through examples. PMID:27480375

  11. Big deformation in 17C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction and interaction cross sections of 17C on a carbon target have been re-analyzed using the modified Glauber model. The analysis with a deformed Woods-Saxon density/potential suggests a big deformation structure for 17C. The existence of a tail in the density distribution supports the possibility of it being a one-neutron halo structure. Under a deformed core plus a single-particle assumption, analysis shows a dominant d-wave of the valence neutron in 17C. (authors)

  12. Big bang nucleosynthesis: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An update on the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is presented. With the value of the baryon-tophoton ratio determined to high precision by WMAP, standard BBN is a parameter-free theory. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, 4He, and 7Li is discussed and compared to their observational determination. While concordance for D and 4He is satisfactory, the prediction for 7Li exceeds the observational determination by a factor of about four. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed

  13. Big Five -persoonallisuuspiirteiden yhteydet unettomuuteen

    OpenAIRE

    Aronen, Aino

    2015-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittÀÀ, ovatko Big Five -persoonallisuuspiirteet (neuroottisuus, ulospÀinsuuntautuneisuus, tunnollisuus, avoimuus kokemuksille ja sovinnollisuus) yhteydessÀ unettomuuden oireisiin, joita olivat nukahtamisvaikeudet, herÀilyt, vaikeudet pysyÀ unessa ja vÀsyneenÀ herÀÀmiset normaalipituisten unien jÀlkeen. Unettomuutta koskevien teorioiden mukaan korkea neuroottisuus, matala ulospÀinsuuntautuneisuus, matala tunnollisuus ja matala sovinnollisuus voivat...

  14. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  15. Big Data Analytics Using Cloud and Crowd

    OpenAIRE

    Allahbakhsh, Mohammad; Arbabi, Saeed; Motahari-Nezhad, Hamid-Reza; Benatallah, Boualem

    2016-01-01

    The increasing application of social and human-enabled systems in people's daily life from one side and from the other side the fast growth of mobile and smart phones technologies have resulted in generating tremendous amount of data, also referred to as big data, and a need for analyzing these data, i.e., big data analytics. Recently a trend has emerged to incorporate human computing power into big data analytics to solve some shortcomings of existing big data analytics such as dealing with ...

  16. Big data optimization recent developments and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to provide the necessary background to work with big data by introducing some novel optimization algorithms and codes capable of working in the big data setting as well as introducing some applications in big data optimization for both academics and practitioners interested, and to benefit society, industry, academia, and government. Presenting applications in a variety of industries, this book will be useful for the researchers aiming to analyses large scale data. Several optimization algorithms for big data including convergent parallel algorithms, limited memory bundle algorithm, diagonal bundle method, convergent parallel algorithms, network analytics, and many more have been explored in this book.

  17. Big data: an introduction for librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Modern life produces data at an astounding rate and shows no signs of slowing. This has lead to new advances in data storage and analysis and the concept of "big data," that is, massive data sets that can yield surprising insights when analyzed. This column will briefly describe what big data is and why it is important. It will also briefly explore the possibilities and problems of big data and the implications it has for librarians. A list of big data projects and resources is also included. PMID:25023020

  18. Big data analytics with R and Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Prajapati, Vignesh

    2013-01-01

    Big Data Analytics with R and Hadoop is a tutorial style book that focuses on all the powerful big data tasks that can be achieved by integrating R and Hadoop.This book is ideal for R developers who are looking for a way to perform big data analytics with Hadoop. This book is also aimed at those who know Hadoop and want to build some intelligent applications over Big data with R packages. It would be helpful if readers have basic knowledge of R.

  19. Urgent Call for Nursing Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Connie W

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this panel is to expand internationally a National Action Plan for sharable and comparable nursing data for quality improvement and big data science. There is an urgent need to assure that nursing has sharable and comparable data for quality improvement and big data science. A national collaborative - Nursing Knowledge and Big Data Science includes multi-stakeholder groups focused on a National Action Plan toward implementing and using sharable and comparable nursing big data. Panelists will share accomplishments and future plans with an eye toward international collaboration. This presentation is suitable for any audience attending the NI2016 conference. PMID:27332330

  20. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  1. BigDataBench: a Big Data Benchmark Suite from Internet Services

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Jianfeng; Luo, Chunjie; Zhu, Yuqing; Yang, Qiang; He, Yongqiang; Gao, Wanling; Jia, Zhen; Shi, Yingjie; Zhang, Shujie; Zheng, Chen; Lu, Gang; Zhan, Kent; Li, Xiaona; Qiu, Bizhu

    2014-01-01

    As architecture, systems, and data management communities pay greater attention to innovative big data systems and architectures, the pressure of benchmarking and evaluating these systems rises. Considering the broad use of big data systems, big data benchmarks must include diversity of data and workloads. Most of the state-of-the-art big data benchmarking efforts target evaluating specific types of applications or system software stacks, and hence they are not qualified for serving the purpo...

  2. Big Data; A Management Revolution : The emerging role of big data in businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Blasiak, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Big data is a term that was coined in 2012 and has since then emerged to one of the top trends in business and technology. Big data is an agglomeration of different technologies resulting in data processing capabilities that have been unreached before. Big data is generally characterized by 4 factors. Volume, velocity and variety. These three factors distinct it from the traditional data use. The possibilities to utilize this technology are vast. Big data technology has touch points in differ...

  3. CloudJet4BigData: Streamlining Big Data via an accelerated socket interface

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Z.Wang

    2014-01-01

    Big data needs to feed users with fresh processing results and cloud platforms can be used to speed up big data applications. This paper describes a new data communication protocol (CloudJet) for long distance and large volume big data accessing operations to alleviate the large latencies encountered in sharing big data resources in the clouds. It encapsulates a dynamic multi-stream/multi-path engine at the socket level, which conforms to Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) and thereb...

  4. CloudJet4BigData: Streamlining Big Data via an Accelerated Socket Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Frank Zhigang; Dimitrakos, Theo; Helian, Na; Wu, Sining; Li, Ling; Yates, Rodric

    2014-01-01

    Big data needs to feed users with fresh processing results and cloud platforms can be used to speed up big data applications. This paper describes a new data communication protocol (CloudJet) for long distance and large volume big data accessing operations to alleviate the large latencies encountered in sharing big data resources in the clouds. It encapsulates a dynamic multi-stream/multi-path engine at the socket level, which conforms to Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) and thereb...

  5. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Register (73 FR 76677) on December 17, 2008. For more about the initial process and the history of this... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife...

  6. Comparative validity of brief to medium-length Big Five and Big Six personality questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Thalmayer; G. Saucier; A. Eigenhuis

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five

  7. Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are…

  8. Astronomical surveys and big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ -rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ -ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS), and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  9. Georges et le big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Georges et Annie, sa meilleure amie, sont sur le point d'assister à l'une des plus importantes expériences scientifiques de tous les temps : explorer les premiers instants de l'Univers, le Big Bang ! Grâce à Cosmos, leur super ordinateur, et au Grand Collisionneur de hadrons créé par Éric, le père d'Annie, ils vont enfin pouvoir répondre à cette question essentielle : pourquoi existons nous ? Mais Georges et Annie découvrent qu'un complot diabolique se trame. Pire, c'est toute la recherche scientifique qui est en péril ! Entraîné dans d'incroyables aventures, Georges ira jusqu'aux confins de la galaxie pour sauver ses amis...Une plongée passionnante au coeur du Big Bang. Les toutes dernières théories de Stephen Hawking et des plus grands scientifiques actuels.

  10. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  11. An analysis of cross-sectional differences in big and non-big public accounting firms' audit programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokdijk, J.H. (Hans); Drieenhuizen, F.; Stein, M.T.; Simunic, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant body of prior research has shown that audits by the Big 5 (now Big 4) public accounting firms are quality differentiated relative to non-Big 5 audits. This result can be derived analytically by assuming that Big 5 and non-Big 5 firms face different loss functions for "audit failures" a

  12. Privacy-Preserving Computation of Disease Risk by Using Genomic, Clinical, and Environmental Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ayday, Erman; Raisaro, Jean Louis; Laren, Mc; Jack, Paul; Fellay, Jacques; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    According to many scientists and clinicians, genomics is the "next big thing" in the field of medicine. On one hand, decreasing costs in genome sequencing has been paving the way to better preventive and personalized medicine. On the other hand, genomic data also raises serious privacy concerns, as it is the ultimate identifier of an individual and it contains privacy-sensitive data (e.g., disease predispositions, ancestry information). Thus, it is necessary to find ways of using genomic data...

  13. Why Big Data Is a Big Deal (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new group of data mining technologies promises to change forever the way we sift through our vast stores of data,making it faster and cheaper.Some of the technologies are actively being used by people on the bleeding edge who need the technology now,like those involved in creating Web-based services that are driven by social media.They're also heavily contributing to these projects.In other vertical industries,businesses are realizing that much more of their value proposition is informationbased than they had previously thought,which will allow big data technologies to gain traction quickly,Olofson says.Couple that with affordable hardware and software,and enterprises find themselves in a perfect storm of business transformation opportunities.

  14. Cancer genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Bodil; Guldberg, Per; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner

    2007-01-01

    Almost all cells in the human body contain a complete copy of the genome with an estimated number of 25,000 genes. The sequences of these genes make up about three percent of the genome and comprise the inherited set of genetic information. The genome also contains information that determines whe...

  15. Unlocking the Power of Big Data at the National Institutes of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Meghan F; Leerkes, Maarten R; Barnett, Jason; Gabrielian, Andrei E; Noble, Karlynn; Weber, M Nick; Huyen, Yentram

    2013-09-01

    The era of "big data" presents immense opportunities for scientific discovery and technological progress, with the potential to have enormous impact on research and development in the public sector. In order to capitalize on these benefits, there are significant challenges to overcome in data analytics. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases held a symposium entitled "Data Science: Unlocking the Power of Big Data" to create a forum for big data experts to present and share some of the creative and innovative methods to gleaning valuable knowledge from an overwhelming flood of biological data. A significant investment in infrastructure and tool development, along with more and better-trained data scientists, may facilitate methods for assimilation of data and machine learning, to overcome obstacles such as data security, data cleaning, and data integration. PMID:27442200

  16. Research Progress of the Application of Big Data in China’s Urban Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dang; Anrong; Xu; Jian; Tong; Biao; Li; Juan; Qian; Fang

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of the big data era facilitates the reform on related research and its application in the fi eld of urban planning from the mode of thinking to the technical method, which provides a technical foundation and platform for supporting the demands of residents as micro subjects in the process of city development. Beginning with analyzing the changes in urban planning thoughts under the infl uence of big data, this paper then summarizes the major reforms in urban planning research methodology and a city’s plan formulation process caused by the application of big data, such as thinking mode, researching method, and planning process, based on which relevant issues like publicity and sharing of data, authenticity of data, and security of data that need to be further discussed and solved are analyzed, with the expectation of promoting the development of urban planning research and application in this new era.

  17. The ethics of Big data: analytical survey

    OpenAIRE

    GIBER L.; KAZANTSEV N.

    2015-01-01

    The number of recent publications on the matter of ethical challenges of the implementation of Big Data has signified the growing interest to all the aspects of this issue. The proposed study specifically aims at analyzing ethical issues connected with Big Data.

  18. A New Look at Big History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out a "big history" which resonates with the priorities of our own time. A globalizing world calls for new spacial scales to underpin what the history curriculum addresses, "big history" calls for new temporal scales, while concern over climate change calls for a new look at subject boundaries. The article…

  19. The Big Sleep in the Woods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉峰

    2002-01-01

    Now it's the time of the big sleep for the bees and the bears. Even the buds of the plants whose leaves fall off share in it. But the intensity of this winter sleep, or hibernation, depends on who's doing it.The big sleep of the bears ,for instance ,would probably be thought of as a

  20. Big Science and Long-tail Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Jim Downing and I were privileged to be the guests of Salavtore Mele at CERN yesterday and to see the Atlas detector of the Large Hadron Collider . This is a wow experience - although I knew it was big, I hadnt realised how big.

  1. An embedding for the big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    A cosmological model is given that has good physical properties for the early and late universe but is a hypersurface in a flat five-dimensional manifold. The big bang can therefore be regarded as an effect of a choice of coordinates in a truncated higher-dimensional geometry. Thus the big bang is in some sense a geometrical illusion.

  2. Big Red: A Development Environment for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faithfull, Alexander John; Perrone, Gian David; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present Big Red, a visual editor for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems, based upon Eclipse. The editor integrates with several existing bigraph tools to permit simulation and model-checking of bigraphical models. We give a brief introduction to the bigraphs formalism, and show how these...... concepts manifest within the tool using a small motivating example bigraphical model developed in Big Red....

  3. Hom-Big Brackets: Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Liqiang; Sheng, Yunhe

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of hom-big brackets, which is a generalization of Kosmann-Schwarzbach's big brackets. We show that it gives rise to a graded hom-Lie algebra. Thus, it is a useful tool to study hom-structures. In particular, we use it to describe hom-Lie bialgebras and hom-Nijenhuis operators.

  4. Big system: Interactive graphics for the engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenneville, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The BCS Interactive Graphics System (BIG System) approach to graphics was presented, along with several significant engineering applications. The BIG System precompiler, the graphics support library, and the function requirements of graphics applications are discussed. It was concluded that graphics standardization and a device independent code can be developed to assure maximum graphic terminal transferability.

  5. What is beyond the big five?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, G; Goldberg, L R

    1998-08-01

    Previous investigators have proposed that various kinds of person-descriptive content--such as differences in attitudes or values, in sheer evaluation, in attractiveness, or in height and girth--are not adequately captured by the Big Five Model. We report on a rather exhaustive search for reliable sources of Big Five-independent variation in data from person-descriptive adjectives. Fifty-three candidate clusters were developed in a college sample using diverse approaches and sources. In a nonstudent adult sample, clusters were evaluated with respect to a minimax criterion: minimum multiple correlation with factors from Big Five markers and maximum reliability. The most clearly Big Five-independent clusters referred to Height, Girth, Religiousness, Employment Status, Youthfulness and Negative Valence (or low-base-rate attributes). Clusters referring to Fashionableness, Sensuality/Seductiveness, Beauty, Masculinity, Frugality, Humor, Wealth, Prejudice, Folksiness, Cunning, and Luck appeared to be potentially beyond the Big Five, although each of these clusters demonstrated Big Five multiple correlations of .30 to .45, and at least one correlation of .20 and over with a Big Five factor. Of all these content areas, Religiousness, Negative Valence, and the various aspects of Attractiveness were found to be represented by a substantial number of distinct, common adjectives. Results suggest directions for supplementing the Big Five when one wishes to extend variable selection outside the domain of personality traits as conventionally defined. PMID:9728415

  6. Kansen voor Big data – WPA Vertrouwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.A. van den; Roosendaal, A.P.C.; Veenstra, A.F.E. van; Nunen, A.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Big data is expected to become a driver for economic growth, but this can only be achieved when services based on (big) data are accepted by citizens and consumers. In a recent policy brief, the Cabinet Office mentions trust as one of the three pillars (the others being transparency and control) for

  7. Big Food, Food Systems, and Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckler, David; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, guest editors David Stuckler and Marion Nestle lay out why more examination of the food industry is necessary, and offer three competing views on how public health professionals might engage with Big Food.

  8. Probing the pre-big bang universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superstring theory suggests a new cosmology whereby a long inflationary phase preceded a non singular big bang-like event. After discussing how pre-big bang inflation naturally arises from an almost trivial initial state of the Universe, I will describe how present or near-future experiments can provide sensitive probes of how the Universe behaved in the pre-bang era

  9. Lecture 10: The European Bioinformatics Institute - "Big data" for biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Dana, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Big data for biomedical sciences (Tom Hancocks) Ten years ago witnessed the completion of the first international 'Big Biology' project that sequenced the human genome. In the years since biological sciences, have seen a vast growth in data. In the coming years advances will come from integration of experimental approaches and the translation into applied technologies is the hospital, clinic and even at home. This talk will examine the development of infrastructure, physical and virtual, that will allow millions of life scientists across Europe better access to biological data Tom studied Human Genetics at the University of Leeds and McMaster University, before completing an MSc in Analytical Genomics at the University of Birmingham. He has worked for the UK National Health Service in diagnostic genetics and in training healthcare scientists and clinicians in bioinformatics. Tom joined the EBI in 2012 and is responsible for the scientific development and delivery of training for the BioMedBridges pr...

  10. Automated correction of genome sequence errors

    OpenAIRE

    Gajer, Pawel; Schatz, Michael; Salzberg, Steven L

    2004-01-01

    By using information from an assembly of a genome, a new program called AutoEditor significantly improves base calling accuracy over that achieved by previous algorithms. This in turn improves the overall accuracy of genome sequences and facilitates the use of these sequences for polymorphism discovery. We describe the algorithm and its application in a large set of recent genome sequencing projects. The number of erroneous base calls in these projects was reduced by 80%. In an analysis of ov...

  11. Big Data Initiatives for Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAL has developed a workspace for research groups associated with the i5k initiative, which aims to sequence the genomes of all insesct species known to be important to worldwide agriculture, food safety, medicine, and energy production; all those used as models in biology; the most abundant in worl...

  12. The ethics of biomedical big data

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstadt, Brent Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. ‘Biomedical Big Data’ refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use/re-purposing of data, in areas such as privacy, consent, professionalism, power relationships, and ethical governance of Big Data platforms. Approaches and methods are discussed that can be used to address these problems to achieve the appropriate balance between the social goods of biomedical Big Data research and the safety and privacy of individuals. Seventeen original contributions analyse the ethical, social and related policy implications of the analysis and curation of biomedical Big Data, written by leading experts in the areas of biomedical research, medical and technology ethics, privacy, governance and data protection. The book advances our understan...

  13. Cloud Based Big Data Infrastructure: Architectural Components and Automated Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    Demchenko, Yuri; Turkmen, Fatih; Blanchet, Christophe; Loomis, Charles; Laat, Caees de

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the general architecture and functional components of the cloud based Big Data Infrastructure (BDI). The proposed BDI architecture is based on the analysis of the emerging Big Data and data intensive technologies and supported by the definition of the Big Data Architecture Framework (BDAF) that defines the following components of the Big Data technologies: Big Data definition, Data Management including data lifecycle and data structures, Big Data Infrastructure (generical...

  14. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  15. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Muin J.

    2015-01-01

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommend...

  16. Using Globus GridFTP to Transfer and Share Big Data | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer, and Mark Wance, Guest Writer; photo by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer Transferring big data, such as the genomics data delivered to customers from the Center for Cancer Research Sequencing Facility (CCR SF), has been difficult in the past because the transfer systems have not kept pace with the size of the data. However, the situation is changing as a result of the Globus GridFTP project.

  17. Application Research on Agricultural Big Data%农业领域大数据的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    光峰; 姚程宽; 王维进

    2015-01-01

    本文将大数据技术在农业中的特点、应用领域进行了详细的阐述,并指出了发展中面临的问题。%With the development of Internet technology and communication technology , human community has entered the era of huge amounts of data .The term “big data” has been very popular in the fields of industry and commerce.Although China is a big agricultural country , the foundation of agriculture is weak and the agricultural productivity is low .Big data technology applied in agriculture can facilitate the improvement of agricultural produc-tion conditions and the increase of farming population ’ s income.In this paper, the characteristics, application fields, as well as the current difficulties of big data applied in agriculture are detailed .

  18. Evidence of the Big Fix

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-01-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value $v_{h}$. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self coupling are fixed when we vary $v_{h}$. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental low in our case.

  19. Big data ja yrityksen markkinointi

    OpenAIRE

    Perolainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä oli tavoitteena tutkia big datan hyödyntämistä yrityksen myyntityössä ja markkinoinnissa. Yrityksillä on mahdollisuuksia käyttää omista tai ulkoisista lähteistä kerättyä tietoa toimintansa tehostamiseen. Yrityksen omat tiedot ovat lähinnä transaktiotietoja, asiakaskorttitietoa, logistiikkadataa tai anturidataa. Kameratallenteet ovat myös osa yritysten keräämää dataa, lainsäädännössä tämä data lasketaan henkilörekisteritiedoksi. Yritysten on mahdollista kerätä, käsitellä ja yhd...

  20. Spinoffs of big nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinoffs so far used to be discussed only in connection with space travel. The question is well worth investigating wether also big nuclear projects, such as the advanced reactor lines or the nuclear fuel cycle, produce technical spinoffs. One misunderstanding should be cleared right at the beginning: man did not travel to the moon to invent the teflon coated frying pan. Nor is nuclear spinoff the actual purpose of the exercise. The high temperature reactor and the fast breeder reactor, or the closing of the nuclear fuel cycle, are justified independent goals of energy policy. However, if the overall benefit to the national economy of nuclear high technology is to be evaluated, also the question of technical spinoff must be considered. (orig.)

  1. Was the Big Bang hot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for verifying the spectrum defined by Woody and Richards (WR, 1981), which serves as a base for dust-distorted models of the 3 K background, are discussed. WR detected a sharp deviation from the Planck curve in the 3 K background. The absolute intensity of the background may be determined by the frequency dependence of the dipole anisotropy of the background or the frequency dependence effect in galactic clusters. Both methods involve the Doppler shift; analytical formulae are defined for characterization of the dipole anisotropy. The measurement of the 30-300 GHz spectra of cold galactic dust may reveal the presence of significant amounts of needle-shaped grains, which would in turn support a theory of a cold Big Bang.

  2. Advancements in Big Data Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing volumes of scientific data present new challenges for Distributed Computing and Grid-technologies. The emerging Big Data revolution drives new discoveries in scientific fields including nanotechnology, astrophysics, high-energy physics, biology and medicine. New initiatives are transforming data-driven scientific fields by pushing Bid Data limits enabling massive data analysis in new ways. In petascale data processing scientists deal with datasets, not individual files. As a result, a task (comprised of many jobs) became a unit of petascale data processing on the Grid. Splitting of a large data processing task into jobs enabled fine-granularity checkpointing analogous to the splitting of a large file into smaller TCP/IP packets during data transfers. Transferring large data in small packets achieves reliability through automatic re-sending of the dropped TCP/IP packets. Similarly, transient job failures on the Grid can be recovered by automatic re-tries to achieve reliable Six Sigma produc...

  3. Big Book of Apple Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Seibold, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Bigger in size, longer in length, broader in scope, and even more useful than our original Mac OS X Hacks, the new Big Book of Apple Hacks offers a grab bag of tips, tricks and hacks to get the most out of Mac OS X Leopard, as well as the new line of iPods, iPhone, and Apple TV. With 125 entirely new hacks presented in step-by-step fashion, this practical book is for serious Apple computer and gadget users who really want to take control of these systems. Many of the hacks take you under the hood and show you how to tweak system preferences, alter or add keyboard shortcuts, mount drives and

  4. Big Bang nucleosynthesis in crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new evaluation of the constraint on the number of light neutrino species (Nν) from big bang nucleosynthesis suggests a discrepancy between the predicted light element abundances and those inferred from observations, unless the inferred primordial 4He abundance has been underestimated by 0.014±0.004 (1σ) or less than 10% (95% C.L.) of 3He survives stellar processing. With the quoted systematic errors in the observed abundances and a conservative chemical evolution parametrization, the best fit to the combined data is Nν=2.1±0.3 (1σ) and the upper limit is Nνν=3) at the 98.6% C.L. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  5. The safety of big workmanship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together the contributions of a colloquium given in memory of Pierre Londe (1922-1999) and dealing with the safety of big workmanship. The main topics concern: the 3-D under pressure water flow inside fractured environments; Rion-Antarion bridge: reliability and para-seismic design of foundations; Rion-Antarion bridge: design and realization; geology and safety of dams; risk assessment; salt storage cavities: evaluation of tightness; safety of tunnels supporting in deformed rock massifs: application to the El Achir tunnel; instability risk of rock formations on the natural slopes of the Alps; safety approach applied to the civil engineering of nuclear facilities; lessons learnt from the accidents of offshore platforms; the engineer in front of the natural hazards; science and regulation. (J.S.)

  6. Exploring Relationships in Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Crichton, D. J.; Cinquini, L.; Kelly, S.; Colbert, M. A.; Kincaid, H.

    2015-12-01

    Big Data are characterized by several different 'V's. Volume, Veracity, Volatility, Value and so on. For many datasets inflated Volumes through redundant features often make the data more noisy and difficult to extract Value out of. This is especially true if one is comparing/combining different datasets, and the metadata are diverse. We have been exploring ways to exploit such datasets through a variety of statistical machinery, and visualization. We show how we have applied it to time-series from large astronomical sky-surveys. This was done in the Virtual Observatory framework. More recently we have been doing similar work for a completely different domain viz. biology/cancer. The methodology reuse involves application to diverse datasets gathered through the various centers associated with the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) for cancer, an initiative of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Application to Geo datasets is a natural extension.

  7. Hypergraph visualization and enrichment statistics: how the EGAN paradigm facilitates organic discovery from big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Jesse; Tokuyasu, Taku

    2011-03-01

    The EGAN software is a functional implementation of a simple yet powerful paradigm for exploration of large empirical data sets downstream from computational analysis. By focusing on systems-level analysis via enrichment statistics, EGAN enables a human domain expert to transform high-throughput analysis results into hypergraph visualizations: concept maps that leverage the expert's semantic understanding of metadata and relationships to produce insight.

  8. [Bioinformatics of tumor molecular targets from big data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinyan; Yu, Yingyan

    2015-01-01

    The big data from high throughput research disclosed 4V features: volume of data, variety of data, value for deep mining, and velocity of processing speed. Regarding the whole genome sequencing for human sample, at average 30x of coverage, a total of 100 GB of original data (compression FASTQ format) could be produced. Replying to the binary BAM format, a total of 150 GB data could be produced. In the analysis of high throughput data, we need to combine both clinical information and pathological features. In addition, the data sources of medical research involved in ethical and privacy of patients. At present, the costs are gradually cheaper. For example, a whole genome sequencing by Illumina X Ten with 30x coverage costs about 10,000 RMB, and RNA-seq costs 5000 RMB for a single sample. Therefore, cancer genome research provides opportunities for discovery of molecular targets, but also brings enormous challenges on the data integration and utilization. This article introduces methodologies for high throughput data analysis and processing, and explains possible application on molecular target discovery. PMID:25656022

  9. Competing Distractors Facilitate Visual Search in Heterogeneous Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Garry; Alais, David; Van der Burg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examine how observers search among complex displays. Participants were asked to search for a big red horizontal line among 119 distractor lines of various sizes, orientations and colours, leading to 36 different feature combinations. To understand how people search in such a heterogeneous display, we evolved the search display by using a genetic algorithm (Experiment 1). The best displays (i.e., displays corresponding to the fastest reaction times) were selected and combined to create new, evolved displays. Search times declined over generations. Results show that items sharing the same colour and orientation as the target disappeared over generations, implying they interfered with search, but items sharing the same colour and were 12.5° different in orientation only interfered if they were also the same size. Furthermore, and inconsistent with most dominant visual search theories, we found that non-red horizontal distractors increased over generations, indicating that these distractors facilitated visual search while participants were searching for a big red horizontally oriented target. In Experiments 2 and 3, we replicated these results using conventional, factorial experiments. Interestingly, in Experiment 4, we found that this facilitation effect was only present when the displays were very heterogeneous. While current models of visual search are able to successfully describe search in homogeneous displays, our results challenge the ability of these models to describe visual search in heterogeneous environments. PMID:27508298

  10. The evolution of the Anopheles 16 genomes project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neafsey, Daniel E.; Christophides, George K.; Collins, Frank H.; Emrich, Scott J.; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W.; Howell, Paul I.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Lawson, Daniel; Muskavitch, Marc A. T.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Williams, Louise J.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the imminent completion of a set of reference genome assemblies for 16 species of Anopheles mosquitoes. In addition to providing a generally useful resource for comparative genomic analyses, these genome sequences will greatly facilitate exploration of the capacity exhibited by some Anophe

  11. Design and development of a medical big data processing system based on Hadoop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qin; Tian, Yu; Li, Peng-Fei; Tian, Li-Li; Qian, Yang-Ming; Li, Jing-Song

    2015-03-01

    Secondary use of medical big data is increasingly popular in healthcare services and clinical research. Understanding the logic behind medical big data demonstrates tendencies in hospital information technology and shows great significance for hospital information systems that are designing and expanding services. Big data has four characteristics--Volume, Variety, Velocity and Value (the 4 Vs)--that make traditional systems incapable of processing these data using standalones. Apache Hadoop MapReduce is a promising software framework for developing applications that process vast amounts of data in parallel with large clusters of commodity hardware in a reliable, fault-tolerant manner. With the Hadoop framework and MapReduce application program interface (API), we can more easily develop our own MapReduce applications to run on a Hadoop framework that can scale up from a single node to thousands of machines. This paper investigates a practical case of a Hadoop-based medical big data processing system. We developed this system to intelligently process medical big data and uncover some features of hospital information system user behaviors. This paper studies user behaviors regarding various data produced by different hospital information systems for daily work. In this paper, we also built a five-node Hadoop cluster to execute distributed MapReduce algorithms. Our distributed algorithms show promise in facilitating efficient data processing with medical big data in healthcare services and clinical research compared with single nodes. Additionally, with medical big data analytics, we can design our hospital information systems to be much more intelligent and easier to use by making personalized recommendations. PMID:25666927

  12. Success factors in cluster initiative management: Mapping out the ‘big five’

    OpenAIRE

    Klofsten, Magnus; Bienkowska, Dzamila; Laur, Inessa; Sölvell, Ingela

    2015-01-01

    Cluster development is prioritized in policy programmes as a means to facilitate regional growth and job creation. Triple Helix actors are often involved in so-called cluster initiatives – intermediary organizations having the objective of the development of a local or regional cluster. This paper maps out the ‘big five’ qualitative success factors in cluster initiative management: the idea; driving forces and commitment; activities; critical mass; and organization. The proposed framework ena...

  13. SMART: An application framework for real time big data analysis on heterogeneous cloud environments

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Julio C.S. dos; Assunção, Marcos D.; Bez, Jean; Geyer, Claudio; Pignaton de Freitas, Edison; Carissimi, Alexandre; Costa, João Paulo C. L.; Fedak, Gilles; Freitag, Fèlix; Markl, Volker; Fergus, Paul; Pereira, Rubem

    2015-01-01

    The amount of data that human activities generate poses a challenge to current computer systems. Big data processing techniques are evolving to address this challenge, with analysis increasingly being performed using cloud-based systems. Emerging services, however, require additional enhancements in order to ensure their applicability to highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments and facilitate their use by Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Observing this landscape in emerging compu...

  14. SMART: An Application Framework for Real Time Big Data Analysis on Heterogeneous Cloud Environments

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. dos Anjos, Julio; Dias De Assuncao, Marcos; Bez, Jean; Geyer, Claudio; Pignaton de Freitas, Edison; Carissimi, Alexandre; Paulo C.L. Costa, João; Fedak, Gilles; Freitag, Felix; Markl, Volker; Fergus, Paul; Pereira, Rubem

    2015-01-01

    The amount of data that human activities generate poses a challenge to current computer systems. Big data processing techniques are evolving to address this challenge, with analysis increasingly being performed using cloud-based systems. Emerging services, however, require additional enhancements in order to ensure their applicability to highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments and facilitate their use by Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Observing this landscape in emerging compu...

  15. Comparing and evaluating terminology services application programming interfaces: RxNav, UMLSKS and LexBIG

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Peters, Lee; Christopher G Chute; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate the integration of terminologies into applications, various terminology services application programming interfaces (API) have been developed in the recent past. In this study, three publicly available terminology services API, RxNav, UMLSKS and LexBIG, are compared and functionally evaluated with respect to the retrieval of information from one biomedical terminology, RxNorm, to which all three services provide access. A list of queries is established covering a wide spectrum o...

  16. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A; Salomon, Matthew P; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-03-01

    What happens in early, still undetectable human malignancies is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a 'Big Bang' model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed subclones that are not subject to stringent selection and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors showed an absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and subclone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear 'born to be bad', with subclone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH, with important clinical implications. PMID:25665006

  17. Big questions, big science: meeting the challenges of global ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, David; Keller, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Ecologists are increasingly tackling questions that require significant infrastucture, large experiments, networks of observations, and complex data and computation. Key hypotheses in ecology increasingly require more investment, and larger data sets to be tested than can be collected by a single investigator's or s group of investigator's labs, sustained for longer than a typical grant. Large-scale projects are expensive, so their scientific return on the investment has to justify the opportunity cost-the science foregone because resources were expended on a large project rather than supporting a number of individual projects. In addition, their management must be accountable and efficient in the use of significant resources, requiring the use of formal systems engineering and project management to mitigate risk of failure. Mapping the scientific method into formal project management requires both scientists able to work in the context, and a project implementation team sensitive to the unique requirements of ecology. Sponsoring agencies, under pressure from external and internal forces, experience many pressures that push them towards counterproductive project management but a scientific community aware and experienced in large project science can mitigate these tendencies. For big ecology to result in great science, ecologists must become informed, aware and engaged in the advocacy and governance of large ecological projects. PMID:25680334

  18. Big data and the electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Steve G; Buntrock, James D

    2014-01-01

    The electronic medical record has evolved from a digital representation of individual patient results and documents to information of large scale and complexity. Big Data refers to new technologies providing management and processing capabilities, targeting massive and disparate data sets. For an individual patient, techniques such as Natural Language Processing allow the integration and analysis of textual reports with structured results. For groups of patients, Big Data offers the promise of large-scale analysis of outcomes, patterns, temporal trends, and correlations. The evolution of Big Data analytics moves us from description and reporting to forecasting, predictive modeling, and decision optimization. PMID:24887521

  19. BLENDING IOT AND BIG DATA ANALYTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Tulasi.B*; Girish J Vemulkar

    2016-01-01

    Internet is continuously evolving and changing. Internet of Things (IoT) can be considered as the future of Internet applications which involves machine to machine learning (M2M). The actionable intelligence can be derived through fusion of Big Data and real time analytics with IoT. Big Data and IoT can be viewed as two sides of a coin. With the connection between Big Data and the objects on Internet benefits of IoT can be easily reaped. The applications of IoT spread across various domains l...

  20. Big data governance an emerging imperative

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Written by a leading expert in the field, this guide focuses on the convergence of two major trends in information management-big data and information governance-by taking a strategic approach oriented around business cases and industry imperatives. With the advent of new technologies, enterprises are expanding and handling very large volumes of data; this book, nontechnical in nature and geared toward business audiences, encourages the practice of establishing appropriate governance over big data initiatives and addresses how to manage and govern big data, highlighting the relevant processes,

  1. Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.

  2. ESGF: Wrangling Big Science Data with an Elastic Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G. M.; Cinquini, L.; Harney, J.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    The challenges of "big data" managing, accessing, analyzing, and understanding ever-expanding files of information confound scientists across many research domains. One area that has found a solution to this vexing problem is global climate research. Some of the largest-ever collaborative efforts in computational science such as the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that forms the basis of the periodic assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change depend on the open-source Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) to secure, hold, and disseminate data. For CMIP5 alone, the federated archive may eventually amount to three petabytes or more, and growing lists of other climate projects further expand the library. ESGF offers the flexible infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale, even as data files grow exponentially. ESGF is a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, independently administered yet united by common protocols and interfaces that allows access to global atmospheric, land, ocean, and sea-ice model data generated by satellite observations and complex computer simulations. With this peer-to-peer infrastructure, scientists are gaining an unprecedented understanding of climate change, extreme weather events, and environmental science. Access is available not just for scientists but also for resource managers, policymakers, and citizens who choose to study climate change. Adding to the capabilities of ESGF, we are providing an integrated "big data" compute stack. This suite of distributed algorithms and tools will give scientists a powerful platform on which to do computation efficiently and cooperatively over these large data collections. This talk will describe the ESGF architecture and tools and discuss how it enables big scientific data analytics.

  3. Secure Genomic Computation through Site-Wise Encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongan; Wang, XiaoFeng; Tang, Haixu

    2015-01-01

    Commercial clouds provide on-demand IT services for big-data analysis, which have become an attractive option for users who have no access to comparable infrastructure. However, utilizing these services for human genome analysis is highly risky, as human genomic data contains identifiable information of human individuals and their disease susceptibility. Therefore, currently, no computation on personal human genomic data is conducted on public clouds. To address this issue, here we present a site-wise encryption approach to encrypt whole human genome sequences, which can be subject to secure searching of genomic signatures on public clouds. We implemented this method within the Hadoop framework, and tested it on the case of searching disease markers retrieved from the ClinVar database against patients' genomic sequences. The secure search runs only one order of magnitude slower than the simple search without encryption, indicating our method is ready to be used for secure genomic computation on public clouds. PMID:26306278

  4. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement...

  5. BIG DATA, BIG CONSEQUENCES? EEN VERKENNING NAAR PRIVACY EN BIG DATA GEBRUIK BINNEN DE OPSPORING, VERVOLGING EN RECHTSPRAAK

    OpenAIRE

    Lodder, A.R.; Meulen, van der, N.; Wisman, T.H.A.; Meij, Lisette; Zwinkels, C.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In deze verkenning is ingegaan op de privacy aspecten van Big Data analysis binnen het domein Veiligheid en Justitie. Besproken zijn toepassingen binnen de rechtspraak zoals voorspellen van uitspraken en gebruik in rechtszaken. Met betrekking tot opsporing is onder andere ingegaan op predictive policing en internetopsporing. Na een uiteenzetting van de privacynormen en toepassingsmogelijkheden, zijn de volgende zes uitgangspunten voor Big Data toepassingen voorgesteld: 7 A.R. Lodder e.a. ‐ Bi...

  6. NOAA Big Data Partnership RFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a Big Data Request for Information (RFI) from industry and other organizations (e.g., non-profits, research laboratories, and universities) to assess capability and interest in establishing partnerships to position a copy of NOAA's vast data holdings in the Cloud, co-located with easy and affordable access to analytical capabilities. This RFI was motivated by a number of concerns. First, NOAA's data facilities do not necessarily have sufficient network infrastructure to transmit all available observations and numerical model outputs to all potential users, or sufficient infrastructure to support simultaneous computation by many users. Second, the available data are distributed across multiple services and data facilities, making it difficult to find and integrate data for cross-domain analysis and decision-making. Third, large datasets require users to have substantial network, storage, and computing capabilities of their own in order to fully interact with and exploit the latent value of the data. Finally, there may be commercial opportunities for value-added products and services derived from our data. Putting a working copy of data in the Cloud outside of NOAA's internal networks and infrastructures should reduce demands and risks on our systems, and should enable users to interact with multiple datasets and create new lines of business (much like the industries built on government-furnished weather or GPS data). The NOAA Big Data RFI therefore solicited information on technical and business approaches regarding possible partnership(s) that -- at no net cost to the government and minimum impact on existing data facilities -- would unleash the commercial potential of its environmental observations and model outputs. NOAA would retain the master archival copy of its data. Commercial partners would not be permitted to charge fees for access to the NOAA data they receive, but

  7. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  8. Soil biogeochemistry in the age of big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Plante, Alain; Rasse, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Data is becoming one of the key resource of the XXIst century. Soil biogeochemistry is not spared by this new movement. The conservation of soils and their services recently came into the political agenda. However, clear knowledge on the links between soil characteristics and the various processes ensuring the provision of soil services is rare at the molecular or the plot scale, and does not exist at the landscape scale. This split between society's expectations on its natural capital, and scientific knowledge on the most complex material on earth has lead to an increasing number of studies on soils, using an increasing number of techniques of increasing complexity, with an increasing spatial and temporal coverage. From data scarcity with a basic data management system, soil biogeochemistry is now facing a proliferation of data, with few quality controls from data collection to publication and few skills to deal with them. Based on this observation, here we (1) address how big data could help in making sense of all these soil biogeochemical data, (2) point out several shortcomings of big data that most biogeochemists will experience in their future career. Massive storage of data is now common and recent opportunities for cloud storage enables data sharing among researchers all over the world. The need for integrative and collaborative computational databases in soil biogeochemistry is emerging through pioneering initiatives in this direction (molTERdb; earthcube), following soil microbiologists (GenBank). We expect that a series of data storage and management systems will rapidly revolutionize the way of accessing raw biogeochemical data, published or not. Data mining techniques combined with cluster or cloud computing hold significant promises for facilitating the use of complex analytical methods, and for revealing new insights previously hidden in complex data on soil mineralogy, organic matter and biodiversity. Indeed, important scientific advances have

  9. Facilitation Skills for Library Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Anne; Matheson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Session summary: Brainstorming, problem-solving, team-building and group communication – all of these things can be made easier through facilitation! Come to this fun, interactive workshop to learn techniques and exercises to boost your group meetings. Taught by two information professionals with formal facilitation training and experience, this workshop will give you theory, hands-on practice time and feedback. What participants will learn: Participants will learn techniques to he...

  10. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response of FIR filters and error graph. The BB-BC seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design especially in a dynamic environment where filter coefficients have to be adapted and fast convergence is of importance.

  11. Distributed and Big Data Storage Management in Grid Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Big data storage management is one of the most challenging issues for Grid computing environments, since large amount of data intensive applications frequently involve a high degree of data access locality. Grid applications typically deal with large amounts of data. In traditional approaches high-performance computing consists dedicated servers that are used to data storage and data replication. In this paper we present a new mechanism for distributed and big data storage and resource discovery services. Here we proposed an architecture named Dynamic and Scalable Storage Management (DSSM architecture in grid environments. This allows in grid computing not only sharing the computational cycles, but also share the storage space. The storage can be transparently accessed from any grid machine, allowing easy data sharing among grid users and applications. The concept of virtual ids that, allows the creation of virtual spaces has been introduced and used. The DSSM divides all Grid Oriented Storage devices (nodes into multiple geographically distributed domains and to facilitate the locality and simplify the intra-domain storage management. Grid service based storage resources are adopted to stack simple modular service piece by piece as demand grows. To this end, we propose four axes that define: DSSM architecture and algorithms description, Storage resources and resource discovery into Grid service, Evaluate purpose prototype system, dynamically, scalability, and bandwidth, and Discuss results. Algorithms at bottom and upper level for standardization dynamic and scalable storage management, along with higher bandwidths have been designed.

  12. The life cycle of a genome project: perspectives and guidelines inspired by insect genome projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, Alexie

    2016-01-01

    Many research programs on non-model species biology have been empowered by genomics. In turn, genomics is underpinned by a reference sequence and ancillary information created by so-called "genome projects". The most reliable genome projects are the ones created as part of an active research program and designed to address specific questions but their life extends past publication. In this opinion paper I outline four key insights that have facilitated maintaining genomic communities: the key role of computational capability, the iterative process of building genomic resources, the value of community participation and the importance of manual curation. Taken together, these ideas can and do ensure the longevity of genome projects and the growing non-model species community can use them to focus a discussion with regards to its future genomic infrastructure. PMID:27006757

  13. BDGS: A Scalable Big Data Generator Suite in Big Data Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Zijian; Luo, Chunjie; Gao, Wanling; Han, Rui; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Lei; Zhan, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Data generation is a key issue in big data benchmarking that aims to generate application-specific data sets to meet the 4V requirements of big data. Specifically, big data generators need to generate scalable data (Volume) of different types (Variety) under controllable generation rates (Velocity) while keeping the important characteristics of raw data (Veracity). This gives rise to various new challenges about how we design generators efficiently and successfully. To date, most existing tec...

  14. HOW BIG ARE ’BIG FOUR’ COMPANIES – EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    SORIN ROMULUS BERINDE

    2013-01-01

    The audit market is divided between two main categories of auditors: Big Four auditors and Non Big Four auditors. The general accepted opinion is that the former cover most audit services. The objective of the study is to quantify the share covered by Big Four auditors at the level of Romanian market. In this respect one collected and processed data obtained from the audited companies from the North-West Region of Romania which is considered representative for extrapolating the results at nat...

  15. BigDataBench: a Big Data Benchmark Suite from Web Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Zhu, Yuqing; Jia, Zhen; Luo, Chunjie; Wang, Lei; Li, Zhiguo; Zhan, Jianfeng; Qi, Yong; He, Yongqiang; Gong, Shiming; Li, Xiaona; Zhang, Shujie; Qiu, Bizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents our joint research efforts on big data benchmarking with several industrial partners. Considering the complexity, diversity, workload churns, and rapid evolution of big data systems, we take an incremental approach in big data benchmarking. For the first step, we pay attention to search engines, which are the most important domain in Internet services in terms of the number of page views and daily visitors. However, search engine service providers treat data, applications,...

  16. "Big Data" : big gaps of knowledge in the field of internet science

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, CCP Chris; Matzat, U Uwe; Reips, UD

    2012-01-01

    Research on so-called 'Big Data' has received a considerable momentum and is expected to grow in the future. One very interesting stream of research on Big Data analyzes online networks. Many online networks are known to have some typical macro-characteristics, such as 'small world' properties. Much less is known about underlying micro-processes leading to these properties. The models used by Big Data researchers usually are inspired by mathematical ease of exposition. We propose to follow in...

  17. 6 Top Tools for Taming Big Data%6Top Tools for Taming Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JakoB BJ orklund

    2012-01-01

    The industry now has a buzzword,"big data," for how we're going to do something with the huge amount of information piling up."Big data" is replacing "business intelligence,"which subsumed "reporting," which put a nicer gloss on "spreadsheets," which beat out the old-fashioned "printouts."Managers who long ago studied printouts are now hiring mathematicians who claim to be big data specialists to help them solve the same old problem:What's selling and why?

  18. 'Big bang' of quantum universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reparametrization-invariant generating functional for the unitary and causal perturbation theory in general relativity in a finite space-time is obtained. The classical cosmology of a Universe and the Faddeev-Popov-DeWitt functional correspond to different orders of decomposition of this functional over the inverse 'mass' of a Universe. It is shown that the invariant content of general relativity as a constrained system can be covered by two 'equivalent' unconstrained systems: the 'dynamic' (with 'dynamic' time as the cosmic scale factor and conformal field variables) and 'geometric' (given by the Levi-Civita type canonical transformation to the action-angle variables which determine initial cosmological states with the arrow of the proper time measured by the watch of an observer in the comoving frame). 'Big Bang', the Hubble evolution, and creation of 'dynamic' particles by the 'geometric' vacuum are determined by 'relations' between the dynamic and geometric systems as pure relativistic phenomena, like the Lorentz-type 'relation' between the rest and comoving frames in special relativity

  19. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  20. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  1. Big-bang nucleosynthesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Walker, Terry P.

    1989-01-01

    The homogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis yields of D, He-3, He-4, and Li-7 are computed taking into account recent measurements of the neutron mean-life as well as updates of several nuclear reaction rates which primarily affect the production of Li-7. The extraction of primordial abundances from observation and the likelihood that the primordial mass fraction of He-4, Y(sub p) is less than or equal to 0.24 are discussed. Using the primordial abundances of D + He-3 and Li-7 we limit the baryon-to-photon ratio (eta in units of 10 exp -10) 2.6 less than or equal to eta(sub 10) less than or equal to 4.3; which we use to argue that baryons contribute between 0.02 and 0.11 to the critical energy density of the universe. An upper limit to Y(sub p) of 0.24 constrains the number of light neutrinos to N(sub nu) less than or equal to 3.4, in excellent agreement with the LEP and SLC collider results. We turn this argument around to show that the collider limit of 3 neutrino species can be used to bound the primordial abundance of He-4: 0.235 less than or equal to Y(sub p) less than or equal to 0.245.

  2. Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mickaelian, A M

    2015-01-01

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum are reviewed, from Gamma-ray to radio, such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in Gamma-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and II based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio and many others, as well as most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS) and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era. Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics play a...

  3. Deuterium and big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of deuterium absorption in high redshift quasar absorption systems provide a direct inference of the deuterium abundance produced by big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). With measurements and limits from five independent absorption systems, we place strong constraints on the primordial ratio of deuterium to hydrogen, (D/H)p = 3.4 ± 0.3 x 10-5 [1,2]. We employ a direct numerical treatment to improve the estimates of critical reaction rates and reduce the uncertainties in BBN predictions of D/H and 7Li/H by a factor of three[3] over previous efforts[4]. Using our measurements of (D/H)p and new BBN predictions, we find at 95% confidence the baryon density ρb = (3.6 ± 0.4) x 10-31 g cm-3 (Ωbh265 = 0.045 ± 0.006 in units of the critical density), and cosmological baryon-photon ratio η = (5.1 ± 0.6) x 10-10

  4. Swine Genome Science Comes of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang, Max F. Rothschild

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigs were among the first animals to be domesticated and pork is one of the most widely eaten meats in the world today. The pig has also been an excellent biomedical model for understanding a variety of human health issues such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, female reproductive health, cardiovascular disease, and infectious diseases. Genome sequencing, mapping, expression and functional analyses have significantly advanced our ability to unravel the secrets of the pig. Therefore, this edition, with six reviews from leading scientists, offers the opportunity for all interested researchers and readers to see the big picture of porcine genomics.

  5. Tick-Borne Diseases: The Big Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... muscle pain. The red-spotted rash usually happens 2 to 5 days after the fever begins. Antibiotics ...

  6. ARC Code TI: BigView

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BigView allows for interactive panning and zooming of images of arbitrary size on desktop PCs running linux. Additionally, it can work in a multi-screen environment...

  7. Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159744.html Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats Kids, elderly among those ... can be inherently dangerous, but the initial heat waves every summer can be particularly perilous to those ...

  8. Scaling big data with Hadoop and Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Karambelkar, Hrishikesh Vijay

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at developers, designers, and architects who would like to build big data enterprise search solutions for their customers or organizations. No prior knowledge of Apache Hadoop and Apache Solr/Lucene technologies is required.

  9. Cosmic relics from the big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief introduction to the big bang picture of the early universe is given. Dark matter is discussed; particularly its implications for elementary particle physics. A classification scheme for dark matter relics is given. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  10. Fisicos argentinos reproduciran el Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    De Ambrosio, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of argentine physicists from La Plata and Buenos Aires Universities work in a sery of experiments who while recreate the conditions of the big explosion that was at the origin of the universe. (1 page)

  11. Soft computing in big data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Seung-Jong; Lee, Jee-Hyong

    2014-01-01

    Big data is an essential key to build a smart world as a meaning of the streaming, continuous integration of large volume and high velocity data covering from all sources to final destinations. The big data range from data mining, data analysis and decision making, by drawing statistical rules and mathematical patterns through systematical or automatically reasoning. The big data helps serve our life better, clarify our future and deliver greater value. We can discover how to capture and analyze data. Readers will be guided to processing system integrity and implementing intelligent systems. With intelligent systems, we deal with the fundamental data management and visualization challenges in effective management of dynamic and large-scale data, and efficient processing of real-time and spatio-temporal data. Advanced intelligent systems have led to managing the data monitoring, data processing and decision-making in realistic and effective way. Considering a big size of data, variety of data and frequent chan...

  12. Big Fish and Prized Trees Gain Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fred Pearce; 吴敏

    2004-01-01

    @@ Decisions made at a key conservation① meeting are good news for big and quirky② fish and commercially prized trees. Several species will enjoy extra protection against trade following rulings made at the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

  13. Hunting Plan : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge Hunting Plan provides guidance for the management of hunting on the refuge. Hunting program objectives include providing a...

  14. Conjecture on Avoidance of Big Crunch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Yi; ZHANG De-Hai

    2006-01-01

    By conjecturing the physics at the Planck scale, we modify the definition of the Hawking temperature and modify the Friedmann equation. It is found that we can avoid the singularity of the big crunch and obtain a bouncing cosmological model.

  15. 76 FR 7837 - Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 4, 2011, Big Rivers Electric Corporation (Big Rivers) filed a notice of cancellation of its Second Revised and Restated Open Access Transmission Tariff. Big Rivers also requests waiver of the...

  16. Analysis of the Thermotoga maritima genome combining a variety of sequence similarity and genome context tools

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ouzounis, Christos A; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Vonstein, Veronika; Overbeek, Ross

    2000-01-01

    The proliferation of genome sequence data has led to the development of a number of tools and strategies that facilitate computational analysis. These methods include the identification of motif patterns, membership of the query sequences in family databases, metabolic pathway involvement and gene proximity. We re-examined the completely sequenced genome of Thermotoga maritima by employing the combined use of the above methods. By analyzing all 1877 proteins encoded in this genome, we identif...

  17. From data quality to big data quality

    OpenAIRE

    Batini, C; Rula, A; Scannapieco, M; Viscusi, G

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the evolution of data quality issues from traditional structured data managed in relational databases to Big Data. In particular, the paper examines the nature of the relationship between Data Quality and several research coordinates that are relevant in Big Data, such as the variety of data types, data sources and application domains, focusing on maps, semi-structured texts, linked open data, sensor &sensor networks and official statistics. Consequently a set of str...

  18. Adapting bioinformatics curricula for big data

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Anna C.; Giffin, Kristine A.; Greene, Casey S; Jason H Moore

    2015-01-01

    Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these...

  19. Mining Big Data to Predicting Future

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Amit K.; Priya, R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to technological advances, vast data sets (e.g. big data) are increasing now days. Big Data a new term; is used to identify the collected datasets. But due to their large size and complexity, we cannot manage with our current methodologies or data mining software tools to extract those datasets. Such datasets provide us with unparalleled opportunities for modelling and predicting of future with new challenges. So as an awareness of this and weaknesses as well as the possibilit...

  20. Scientific Big Data Analytics by HPC

    OpenAIRE

    Lippert, Thomas; Mallmann, Daniel; Riedel, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Storing, managing, sharing, curating and especially analysing huge amounts of data face animmense visibility and importance in industry and economy as well as in science and research.Industry and economy exploit "Big Data" for predictive analysis, to increase the efficiency ofinfrastructures, customer segmentation, and tailored services. In science, Big Data allows foraddressing problems with complexities that were impossible to deal with so far. The amountsof data are growing exponentially i...

  1. Effective Dynamics of the Matrix Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Craps, Ben; Rajaraman, Arvind; Sethi, Savdeep

    2006-01-01

    We study the leading quantum effects in the recently introduced Matrix Big Bang model. This amounts to a study of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory compactified on the Milne orbifold. We find a one-loop potential that is attractive near the Big Bang. Surprisingly, the potential decays very rapidly at late times, where it appears to be generated by D-brane effects. Usually, general covariance constrains the form of any effective action generated by renormalization group flow. However, the form ...

  2. Dark energy, wormholes, and the Big Rip

    OpenAIRE

    Faraoni, Valerio; Israel, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The time evolution of a wormhole in a Friedmann universe approaching the Big Rip is studied. The wormhole is modeled by a thin spherical shell accreting the superquintessence fluid - two different models are presented. Contrary to recent claims that the wormhole overtakes the expansion of the universe and engulfs it before the Big Rip is reached, it is found that the wormhole becomes asymptotically comoving with the cosmic fluid and the future evolution of the universe is fully causal.

  3. COBE looks back to the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA-Goddard's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the first NASA satellite designed to observe the primeval explosion of the universe. The spacecraft carries three extremely sensitive IR and microwave instruments designed to measure the faint residual radiation from the Big Bang and to search for the formation of the first galaxies. COBE's far IR absolute spectrophotometer has shown that the Big Bang radiation has a blackbody spectrum, proving that there was no large energy release after the explosion.

  4. Leading Undergraduate Students to Big Data Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jianjun; Shen, Ju

    2015-01-01

    People are facing a flood of data today. Data are being collected at unprecedented scale in many areas, such as networking, image processing, virtualization, scientific computation, and algorithms. The huge data nowadays are called Big Data. Big data is an all encompassing term for any collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process them using traditional data processing applications. In this article, the authors present a unique way which uses network simula...

  5. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  6. The Death of the Big Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Keir

    2010-01-01

    Recently Tolai people og Papua New Guinea have adopted the term 'Big Shot' to decribe an emerging post-colonial political elite. The mergence of the term is a negative moral evaluation of new social possibilities that have arisen as a consequence of the Big Shots' privileged position within a...... example of a global proces in which key lexical categories that contest, trace and shape how global historical change is experienced and constituted through linguistic categories....

  7. Data Confidentiality Challenges in Big Data Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Jian; Zhao, Dongfang

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we address the problem of data confidentiality in big data analytics. In many fields, much useful patterns can be extracted by applying machine learning techniques to big data. However, data confidentiality must be protected. In many scenarios, data confidentiality could well be a prerequisite for data to be shared. We present a scheme to provide provable secure data confidentiality and discuss various techniques to optimize performance of such a system.

  8. Big-Learn: Towards a Tool Based on Big Data to Improve Research in an E-Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Aoulad Abdelouarit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the area of data management for information system and especially at the level of e-learning platforms, the Big Data phenomenon makes the data difficult to deal with standard database or information management tools. Indeed, for educational purposes and especially in a distance training or online research, the learner that uses the e-learning platform is left with a heterogeneous set of data such as files of all kinds, curves, course materials, quizzes, etc. This requires a specialized fusion system to combine the variety of data and improve the performance, robustness, flexibility, consistency and scalability, so that they can provide the best result to the learner The user of the e-learning platform. In this context, it is proposed to develop a tool called "Big-Learn" based on a technique to integrate the mixing of structured and unstructured data in one data layer, and, in order to facilitate access more optimal search relevance with adequate and consistent results according to the expectations of the learner. The methodology adopted will consist initially in a quantitative and qualitative study of the variety of data and their typology, followed by a detailed analysis of the structure and harmonization of the data to finally find a fictional model for their treatment. This conceptual work will be crowned with a working prototype as a tool achieved with UML and Java technology.

  9. Main Issues in Big Data Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Data is currently one of the most important assets for companies in every field. The continuous growth in the importance and volume of data has created a new problem: it cannot be handled by traditional analysis techniques. This problem was, therefore, solved through the creation of a new paradigm: Big Data. However, Big Data originated new issues related not only to the volume or the variety of the data, but also to data security and privacy. In order to obtain a full perspective of the problem, we decided to carry out an investigation with the objective of highlighting the main issues regarding Big Data security, and also the solutions proposed by the scientific community to solve them. In this paper, we explain the results obtained after applying a systematic mapping study to security in the Big Data ecosystem. It is almost impossible to carry out detailed research into the entire topic of security, and the outcome of this research is, therefore, a big picture of the main problems related to security in a Big Data system, along with the principal solutions to them proposed by the research community.

  10. «Sochi Goes International» – Required Actions to be Taken to Facilitate the Stay for International Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Besel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As host city of many big international sport events, Sochi's publicity is increasing and people from all over the world will discover it as a new travel destination. To guarantee and enlarge the attractiveness and popularity of the city, some essential improvements, which would facilitate the stay for international tourists, are recommended.

  11. Single virus genomics: a new tool for virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zeigler Allen

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA. The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable.

  12. Figure 1 from Integrative Genomics Viewer: Visualizing Big Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A screenshot of the IGV user interface at the chromosome view. IGV user interface showing five data types (copy number, methylation, gene expression, and loss of heterozygosity; mutations are overlaid with black boxes) from approximately 80 glioblastoma multiforme samples. Adapted from Figure S1; Robinson et al. 2011

  13. Intelligent Decisional Assistant that Facilitate the Choice of a Proper Computer System Applied in Busines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae MARGINEAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a proper computer system is not an easy task for a decider. One reason could be the present market development of computer systems applied in business. The big number of the Romanian market players determines a big number of computerized products, with a multitude of various properties. Our proposal tries to optimize and facilitate this decisional process within an e-shop where are sold IT packets applied in business, building an online decisional assistant, a special component conceived to facilitate the decision making needed for the selection of the pertinent IT package that fits the requirements of one certain business, described by the decider. The user interacts with the system as an online buyer that visit an e-shop where are sold IT package applied in economy.

  14. Molecular evolution of colorectal cancer: from multistep carcinogenesis to the big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Adriana; Chiara, Silvana; Pfeffer, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is characterized by exquisite genomic instability either in the form of microsatellite instability or chromosomal instability. Microsatellite instability is the result of mutation of mismatch repair genes or their silencing through promoter methylation as a consequence of the CpG island methylator phenotype. The molecular causes of chromosomal instability are less well characterized. Genomic instability and field cancerization lead to a high degree of intratumoral heterogeneity and determine the formation of cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition mediated by the TGF-β and APC pathways. Recent analyses using integrated genomics reveal different phases of colorectal cancer evolution. An initial phase of genomic instability that yields many clones with different mutations (big bang) is followed by an important, previously not detected phase of cancer evolution that consists in the stabilization of several clones and a relatively flat outgrowth. The big bang model can best explain the coexistence of several stable clones and is compatible with the fact that the analysis of the bulk of the primary tumor yields prognostic information. PMID:26947218

  15. Analyzing Big Data with the Hybrid Interval Regression Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hui Huang; Keng-Chieh Yang; Han-Ying Kao

    2014-01-01

    Big data is a new trend at present, forcing the significant impacts on information technologies. In big data applications, one of the most concerned issues is dealing with large-scale data sets that often require computation resources provided by public cloud services. How to analyze big data efficiently becomes a big challenge. In this paper, we collaborate interval regression with the smooth support vector machine (SSVM) to analyze big data. Recently, the smooth support vector machine (SSVM...

  16. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  17. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  18. Small government or big government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEO SPAHO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century, economists and philosophers were polarizedon their positions beyond the role that the government should have in the economy. On one hand John Maynard Keynes represented, within the optics of market economy, a position where the state should intervene in the economy to maintain the aggregate demand and the employment in the country, without hesitation in creating budget deficits and public debt expansion. This approach happens especially in the moments when the domestic economy and global economic trends show a weak growth or a recession. This means a heavy interference inthe economy, with higher income but with high expenditure to GDP too. On the other side, Liberals and Neoliberalsled by Friedrich Hayek advocated a withdrawal of the government from economic activity not just in moments of economic growth but also during the crisis, believing that the market has self-regulating mechanisms within itself. The government, as a result will have a smaller dimension with lower income and also low expenditures compared to the GDP of the country. We took the South-Eastern Europe countries distinguishing those with a "Big Government" or countries with "Small Government". There are analyzed the economic performances during the global crisis (2007-2014. In which countries the public debt grew less? Which country managed to attract more investments and which were the countries that preserved the purchasing power of their consumers? We shall see if during the economic crisis in Eastern Europe the Great Government or the Liberal and "Small" one has been the most successful the model.

  19. Big bang nucleosynthesis: Present status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Yeh, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of the lightest nuclides via a dynamic interplay among the four fundamental forces during the first seconds of cosmic time. A brief overview of the essentials of this physics is given, and new calculations presented of light-element abundances through 6Li and 7Li, with updated nuclear reactions and uncertainties including those in the neutron lifetime. Fits are provided for these results as a function of baryon density and of the number of neutrino flavors Nν. Recent developments are reviewed in BBN, particularly new, precision Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements that now probe the baryon density, helium content, and the effective number of degrees of freedom Neff. These measurements allow for a tight test of BBN and cosmology using CMB data alone. Our likelihood analysis convolves the 2015 Planck data chains with our BBN output and observational data. Adding astronomical measurements of light elements strengthens the power of BBN. A new determination of the primordial helium abundance is included in our likelihood analysis. New D/H observations are now more precise than the corresponding theoretical predictions and are consistent with the standard model and the Planck baryon density. Moreover, D/H now provides a tight measurement of Nν when combined with the CMB baryon density and provides a 2 σ upper limit Nνdata. In contrast with D/H and 4He, 7Li predictions continue to disagree with observations, perhaps pointing to new physics. This paper concludes with a look at future directions including key nuclear reactions, astronomical observations, and theoretical issues.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Haemophilus parasuis SH0165▿

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Min; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jian; Bei, Weicheng; Cai, Xuwang; Chen, Lihong; Dong, Jie; Zhou, Rui; Jin, Meilin; Jin, Qi; Chen, Huanchun

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer's disease, which produces big losses in swine populations worldwide. H. parasuis SH0165, belonging to the dominant serovar 5 in China, is a clinically isolated strain with high-level virulence. Here, we report the first completed genome sequence of this species.

  1. Taming the genome: towards better genetic test interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Caleshu, Colleen; Ashley, Euan A.

    2016-01-01

    Editorial summary Advances in sequencing technology have taught us much about the human genome, including how difficult it is to interpret rare variation. Improvements in genetic test interpretation are likely to come through data sharing, international collaborative efforts to develop disease–gene specific guidelines, and computational analyses using big data.

  2. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  3. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  4. Genome sequence and analysis of Lactobacillus helveticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PaolaCremonesi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological characterization of lactobacilli is historically well developed, but the genomic analysis is recent. Because of the widespread use of L. helveticus in cheese technology, information concerning the heterogeneity in this species is accumulating rapidly. Recently, the genome of five L. helveticus strains was sequenced to completion and compared with other genomically characterized lactobacilli. The genomic analysis of the first sequenced strain, L. helveticus DPC 4571, isolated from cheese and selected for its characteristics of rapid lysis and high proteolytic activity, has revealed a plethora of genes with industrial potential including those responsible for key metabolic functions such as proteolysis, lipolysis, and cell lysis. These genes and their derived enzymes can facilitate the production of cheese and cheese derivatives with potential for use as ingredients in consumer foods. In addition, L. helveticus has the potential to produce peptides with a biological function, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity, in fermented dairy products, demonstrating the therapeutic value of this species. A most intriguing feature of the genome of L. helveticus is the remarkable similarity in gene content with many intestinal lactobacilli. Comparative genomics has allowed the identification of key gene sets that facilitate a variety of lifestyles including adaptation to food matrices or the gastrointestinal tract. As genome sequence and functional genomic information continues to explode, key features of the genomes of L. helveticus strains continue to be discovered, answering many questions but also raising many new ones.

  5. Do Customs Trade Facilitation Programmes Help Reduce Customs-Related Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Bryane; Popov, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Customs-related corruption costs World Customs Organisation (WCO) members at least $2 billion in customs revenue each year. Using recent data only about bribe payers’ actual experiences in paying bribes, we show that trade facilitation would only help reduce corruption and improve efficiency – in a large number of customs agencies -- if the customs agency’s director undertakes a big-bang approach to reform. We also find support for the corruption clubs theory – that customs agencies in the pr...

  6. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-01

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning. PMID:27050014

  7. Big Data Analytics for Disaster Preparedness and Response of Mobile Communication Infrastructure during Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Takano, K.; Ji, Y.; Yamada, S.

    2015-12-01

    The disruption of telecommunications is one of the most critical disasters during natural hazards. As the rapid expanding of mobile communications, the mobile communication infrastructure plays a very fundamental role in the disaster response and recovery activities. For this reason, its disruption will lead to loss of life and property, due to information delays and errors. Therefore, disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure itself is quite important. In many cases of experienced disasters, the disruption of mobile communication networks is usually caused by the network congestion and afterward long-term power outage. In order to reduce this disruption, the knowledge of communication demands during disasters is necessary. And big data analytics will provide a very promising way to predict the communication demands by analyzing the big amount of operational data of mobile users in a large-scale mobile network. Under the US-Japan collaborative project on 'Big Data and Disaster Research (BDD)' supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and National Science Foundation (NSF), we are going to investigate the application of big data techniques in the disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure. Specifically, in this research, we have considered to exploit the big amount of operational information of mobile users for predicting the communications needs in different time and locations. By incorporating with other data such as shake distribution of an estimated major earthquake and the power outage map, we are able to provide the prediction information of stranded people who are difficult to confirm safety or ask for help due to network disruption. In addition, this result could further facilitate the network operators to assess the vulnerability of their infrastructure and make suitable decision for the disaster preparedness and response. In this presentation, we are going to introduce the

  8. Five Big, Big Five Issues : Rationale, Content, Structure, Status, and Crosscultural Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, Boele

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the rationale, content, structure, status, and crosscultural assessment of the Big Five trait factors, focusing on topics of dispute and misunderstanding. Taxonomic restrictions of the original Big Five forerunner, the "Norman Five," are discussed, and criticisms regarding the

  9. 大数据,大变革%Big Data Big Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爽

    2014-01-01

    Big data are always happen in people’s side, big data era has arrived. This paper has described the characteristics of big data, analyzed big data research status and future application direction. Only to understand big data again, change the thinking of big data, adapt to changes in business model, innovative big data management, strengthen institution construction, enhance law awareness, ensure the personal and national security, it can continuously promote the healthy development of big data.%大数据正时刻发生在人们的身边,大数据时代已经到来。本文通过对大数据特点的描述,分析了大数据在国内外的研究现状以及未来的应用方向,只有重新认识大数据,从思维上变革对大数据的认识,从商业模式上适应大数据的变化,创新大数据管理模式,加强制度建设,增强法律意识,保证个人和国家的安全,才能不断推动大数据的健康发展。

  10. Big Data Big Changes%大数据,大变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爽

    2014-01-01

    大数据正时刻发生在人们的身边,大数据时代已经到来。本文通过对大数据特点的描述,分析了大数据在国内外的研究现状以及未来的应用方向,只有重新认识大数据,从思维上变革对大数据的认识,从商业模式上适应大数据的变化,创新大数据管理模式,加强制度建设,增强法律意识,保证个人和国家的安全,才能不断推动大数据的健康发展。%Big data are always happen in people’s side, big data era has arrived. This paper has described the characteristics of big data, analyzed big data research status and future application direction. Only to understand big data again, change the thinking of big data, adapt to changes in business model, innovative big data management, strengthen institution construction, enhance law awareness, ensure the personal and national security, it can continuously promote the healthy development of big data.

  11. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Vermeulen

    Full Text Available With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  12. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Chee So

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air. Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2 without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper. Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation.

  13. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  14. Corpus Linguistics Facilitates English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思亲

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been widely applied in English teaching. Corpus linguistics has changed the way to teach English. The essay discusses two approaches in English teaching based on corpus, corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach. It finds out that both corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach facilitate English teaching in their own ways.

  15. Evaluation of the mobile content in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 genome using bioinformatical approaches reveals a new genome size for the magnetosome island

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bin Thani; Essam Ghanem; Mohamed Bououdina; Salwa Al-Thawadi; Ahmed Al-Saie; Suad Rashdan

    2015-01-01

    After completing its sequence/annotation in 2005, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 had become one of the most important magnetotactic genomes used to facilitate analysis of the magnetosome formation process. In this paper we investigate the genome contents of AMB-1 and other magnetotactic bacteria to demonstrate the size of mobile genome and number of conserved genes in M. magneticum AMB-1. The preliminary analysis presented here shows the mosaic structure of these genomes. 100 genomic islan...

  16. Perspectives of integrative cancer genomics in next generation sequencing era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Mee; Cho, Hyunwoo; Choi, Ji Hye; Jee, Byul A; Jo, Yuna; Woo, Hyun Goo

    2012-06-01

    The explosive development of genomics technologies including microarrays and next generation sequencing (NGS) has provided comprehensive maps of cancer genomes, including the expression of mRNAs and microRNAs, DNA copy numbers, sequence variations, and epigenetic changes. These genome-wide profiles of the genetic aberrations could reveal the candidates for diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers as well as mechanistic insights into tumor development and progression. Recent efforts to establish the huge cancer genome compendium and integrative omics analyses, so-called "integromics", have extended our understanding on the cancer genome, showing its daunting complexity and heterogeneity. However, the challenges of the structured integration, sharing, and interpretation of the big omics data still remain to be resolved. Here, we review several issues raised in cancer omics data analysis, including NGS, focusing particularly on the study design and analysis strategies. This might be helpful to understand the current trends and strategies of the rapidly evolving cancer genomics research. PMID:23105932

  17. Big data analytics a management perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Corea, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book is about innovation, big data, and data science seen from a business perspective. Big data is a buzzword nowadays, and there is a growing necessity within practitioners to understand better the phenomenon, starting from a clear stated definition. This book aims to be a starting reading for executives who want (and need) to keep the pace with the technological breakthrough introduced by new analytical techniques and piles of data. Common myths about big data will be explained, and a series of different strategic approaches will be provided. By browsing the book, it will be possible to learn how to implement a big data strategy and how to use a maturity framework to monitor the progress of the data science team, as well as how to move forward from one stage to the next. Crucial challenges related to big data will be discussed, where some of them are more general - such as ethics, privacy, and ownership – while others concern more specific business situations (e.g., initial public offering, growth st...

  18. Herbarium genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Freek T.; Lei, Di; Yu, Jiaying;

    2016-01-01

    Herbarium genomics is proving promising as next-generation sequencing approaches are well suited to deal with the usually fragmented nature of archival DNA. We show that routine assembly of partial plastome sequences from herbarium specimens is feasible, from total DNA extracts and with specimens...... up to 146 years old. We use genome skimming and an automated assembly pipeline, Iterative Organelle Genome Assembly, that assembles paired-end reads into a series of candidate assemblies, the best one of which is selected based on likelihood estimation. We used 93 specimens from 12 different...... correlation between plastome coverage and nuclear genome size (C value) in our samples, but the range of C values included is limited. Finally, we conclude that routine plastome sequencing from herbarium specimens is feasible and cost-effective (compared with Sanger sequencing or plastome...

  19. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  20. Big Data, Big machines, Big Science : vers une société sans sujet et sans causalité ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ibekwe-SanJuan, Fidelia

    2014-01-01

    International audience Les dernières " avancées " en matière des Technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) ont accéléré la virtualisation de nombreux secteurs d'activité. Le Big Data, le Cloud computing, l'Open Data et le web participatif entraînent des bouleversements importants en science et en société. Un des effets qui suscite de l'inquiétude est le recours croissant aux algorithmes de traitement des données massives (Big data) comme mode de pilotage des affaires. Le B...

  1. GeNemo: a search engine for web-based functional genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqing; Cao, Xiaoyi; Zhong, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    A set of new data types emerged from functional genomic assays, including ChIP-seq, DNase-seq, FAIRE-seq and others. The results are typically stored as genome-wide intensities (WIG/bigWig files) or functional genomic regions (peak/BED files). These data types present new challenges to big data science. Here, we present GeNemo, a web-based search engine for functional genomic data. GeNemo searches user-input data against online functional genomic datasets, including the entire collection of ENCODE and mouse ENCODE datasets. Unlike text-based search engines, GeNemo's searches are based on pattern matching of functional genomic regions. This distinguishes GeNemo from text or DNA sequence searches. The user can input any complete or partial functional genomic dataset, for example, a binding intensity file (bigWig) or a peak file. GeNemo reports any genomic regions, ranging from hundred bases to hundred thousand bases, from any of the online ENCODE datasets that share similar functional (binding, modification, accessibility) patterns. This is enabled by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo-based maximization process, executed on up to 24 parallel computing threads. By clicking on a search result, the user can visually compare her/his data with the found datasets and navigate the identified genomic regions. GeNemo is available at www.genemo.org. PMID:27098038

  2. About Big Data and its Challenges and Benefits in Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan NEDELCU

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show the importance of Big Data and its growing influence on companies. It also shows what kind of big data is currently generated and how much big data is estimated to be generated. We can also see how much are the companies willing to invest in big data and how much are they currently gaining from their big data. There are also shown some major influences that big data has over one major segment in the industry (manufacturing) and the challenges that appear.

  3. Bohmian Quantization of the Big Rip

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto-Neto, Nelson; 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.083509

    2009-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that minisuperspace quantization of homogeneous and isotropic geometries with phantom scalar fields, when examined in the light of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation of quantum mechanics, does not eliminate, in general, the classical big rip singularity present in the classical model. For some values of the Hamilton-Jacobi separation constant present in a class of quantum state solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the big rip can be either completely eliminated or may still constitute a future attractor for all expanding solutions. This is contrary to the conclusion presented in Ref.[1], using a different interpretation of the wave function, where the big rip singularity is completely eliminated ("smoothed out") through quantization, independently of such separation constant and for all members of the above mentioned class of solutions. This is an example of the very peculiar situation where different interpretations of the same quantum state of a system are predicting different...

  4. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe

  5. One Second After the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    A new experiment called PTOLEMY (Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-Universe, Massive-Neutrino Yield) is under development at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with the goal of challenging one of the most fundamental predictions of the Big Bang – the present-day existence of relic neutrinos produced less than one second after the Big Bang. Using a gigantic graphene surface to hold 100 grams of a single-atomic layer of tritium, low noise antennas that sense the radio waves of individual electrons undergoing cyclotron motion, and a massive array of cryogenic sensors that sit at the transition between normal and superconducting states, the PTOLEMY project has the potential to challenge one of the most fundamental predictions of the Big Bang, to potentially uncover new interactions and properties of the neutrinos, and to search for the existence of a species of light dark matter known as sterile neutrinos.

  6. Big Data Issues: Performance, Scalability, Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Matei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Big Data is probably one of the most discussed topics not only in the area of data analysis, but, I believe, in the whole realm of information technology. The simple typing of the words „big data” on an online search engine like Google will retrieve approximately 1,660,000,000 results. Having such a buzz gathered around this term, I could not help but wonder what this phenomenon means.The ever greater portion that the combination of Internet, Cloud Computing and mobile devices has been occupying in our lives, lead to an ever increasing amount of data that must be captured, communicated, aggregated, stored, and analyzed. These sets of data that we are generating are called Big Data.

  7. Plant sulfur and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopriva, Stanislav; Calderwood, Alexander; Weckopp, Silke C; Koprivova, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur is an essential mineral nutrient for plants, therefore, the pathways of its uptake and assimilation have been extensively studied. Great progress has been made in elucidation of the individual genes and enzymes and their regulation. Sulfur assimilation has been intensively investigated by -omics technologies and has been target of several genome wide genetic approaches. This brought a significant step in our understanding of the regulation of the pathway and its integration in cellular metabolism. However, the large amount of information derived from other experiments not directly targeting sulfur has also brought new and exciting insights into processes affecting sulfur homeostasis. In this review we will integrate the findings of the targeted experiments with those that brought unintentional progress in sulfur research, and will discuss how to synthesize the large amount of information available in various repositories into a meaningful dissection of the regulation of a specific metabolic pathway. We then speculate how this might be used to further advance knowledge on control of sulfur metabolism and what are the main questions to be answered. PMID:26706053

  8. Big Bear Exploration Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first quarter of 1998 Big Bear completed a purchase of additional assets in the Rainbow Lake area of Alberta in which light oil purchase was financed with new equity and bank debt. The business plan was to immediately exploit these light oil assets, the result of which would be increased reserves, production and cash flow. Although drilling results in the first quarter on the Rainbow Lake properties was mixed, oil prices started to free fall and drilling costs were much higher than expected. As a result, the company completed a reduced program which resulted in less incremental loss and cash flow than it budgeted for. On April 29, 1998, Big Bear entered into agreement with Belco Oil and Gas Corp. and Moan Investments Ltd. for the issuance of convertible preferred shares at a gross value of $15,750,000, which shares were eventually converted at 70 cents per share to common equity. As a result of the continued plunge in oil prices, the lending value of the company's assets continued to fall, requiring it to take action in order to meet its financial commitments. Late in the third quarter Big Bear issued equity for proceeds of $11,032,000 which further reduced the company's debt. Although the company has been extremely active in identifying and pursuing acquisition opportunities, it became evident that Belco Oil and Gas Corp. and Big Bear did nor share common criteria for acquisitions, which resulted in the restructuring of their relationship in the fourth quarter. With the future of oil prices in question, Big Bear decided that it would change its focus to that of natural gas and would refocus ts efforts to acquire natural gas assets to fuel its growth. The purchase of Blue Range put Big Bear in a difficult position in terms of the latter's growth. In summary, what started as a difficult year ended in disappointment

  9. Big Bang riddles and their revelations

    OpenAIRE

    Magueijo, Joao; Baskerville, Kim

    1999-01-01

    We describe how cosmology has converged towards a beautiful model of the Universe: the Big Bang Universe. We praise this model, but show there is a dark side to it. This dark side is usually called ``the cosmological problems'': a set of coincidences and fine tuning features required for the Big Bang Universe to be possible. After reviewing these ``riddles'' we show how they have acted as windows into the very early Universe, revealing new physics and new cosmology just as the Universe came i...

  10. SQL Engines for Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The traditional relational database systems can not accommodate the need of analyzing data with large volume and various formats, i.e., Big Data. Apache Hadoop as the first generation of open-source Big Data solution provided a stable distributed data storage and resource management system. However, as a MapReduce framework, the only channel of utilizing the parallel computing power of Hadoop is the API. Given a problem, one has to code a corresponding MapReduce program in Java, which is time...

  11. Kansen voor Big data – WPA Vertrouwen

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, T.A. van den; Roosendaal, A.P.C.; Veenstra, A.F.E. van; Nunen, A.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Big data is expected to become a driver for economic growth, but this can only be achieved when services based on (big) data are accepted by citizens and consumers. In a recent policy brief, the Cabinet Office mentions trust as one of the three pillars (the others being transparency and control) for ePrivacy. As such, it is a requirement for realizing economic value of services based on (personal) data. Businesses play a role in guaranteeing data security and privacy of data subjects, but als...

  12. The big head and the long tail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how the advent of big data challenges established theories in Internet studies to redevelop existing explanatory strategies in order to incorporate the possibilities offered by this new empirical resource. The article suggests that established analytical procedures and...... theoretical frameworks used in Internet studies can be fruitfully employed to explain high–level structural phenomena that are only observable through the use of big data. The present article exemplifies this by offering a detailed analysis of how genre analysis of Web sites may be used to shed light on the...

  13. New physics and the new big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The old concept of the big bang is reviewed, and modifications that have recently occurred in the theory are described. The concept of the false vacuum is explained, and its role in the cosmic inflation scenario is shown. The way inflation solves critical problems of the old big bang scenario is indicated. The potential of supersymmetry and Kaluza-Klein theories for the development of a superunified theory of physical forces is discussed. Superstrings and their possible role in a superunified theory, including their usefulness in solving the problem of infinities, is considered

  14. Effective dynamics of the matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the leading quantum effects in the recently introduced matrix big bang model. This amounts to a study of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory compactified on the Milne orbifold. We find a one-loop potential that is attractive near the big bang. Surprisingly, the potential decays very rapidly at late times where it appears to be generated by D-brane effects. Usually, general covariance constrains the form of any effective action generated by renormalization group flow. However, the form of our one-loop potential seems to violate these constraints in a manner that suggests a connection between the cosmological singularity and long wavelength, late time physics

  15. Cognitive computing and big data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Bowles, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    MASTER THE ABILITY TO APPLY BIG DATA ANALYTICS TO MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF STRUCTURED AND UNSTRUCTURED DATA Cognitive computing is a technique that allows humans and computers to collaborate in order to gain insights and knowledge from data by uncovering patterns and anomalies. This comprehensive guide explains the underlying technologies, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, natural language processing, and big data analytics. It then demonstrates how you can use these technologies to transform your organization. You will explore how different vendors and different industries are a

  16. From big data to smart data

    CERN Document Server

    Iafrate, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    A pragmatic approach to Big Data by taking the reader on a journey between Big Data (what it is) and the Smart Data (what it is for). Today's decision making can be reached via information (related to the data), knowledge (related to people and processes), and timing (the capacity to decide, act and react at the right time). The huge increase in volume of data traffic, and its format (unstructured data such as blogs, logs, and video) generated by the "digitalization" of our world modifies radically our relationship to the space (in motion) and time, dimension and by capillarity, the enterpr

  17. Knowledge Management Based on Big Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Baoan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, many large enterprises, like oil industry accumulated a large amount of data with a range of potential value of knowledge in their value activities over the years. How to help them to put these data into wealth are common problems faced by IT industry and academia. This study analyzed the five key problems of big data processing and knowledge management in-depth and then explained the composition and technical characteristics of knowledge management system based on big data processing. It explored the new approach of knowledge management which can adapt to the ever-change demands of enterprises.

  18. Big bandin puhallinsoittimien haasteet sovittajan silmin

    OpenAIRE

    Soini, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Käsittelen opinnäytetyössäni big band –sovittamista puhallinsoittimien näkökulmasta, tarkoituksenani eritellä soittamisen haasteellisuutta lisääviä tekijöitä. Pyrin myös tarjoamaan ratkaisuja siihen kuinka sovittaja voi sovitustyössään nämä tekijät huomioida. Olen huomannut, että ilman omakohtaista puhallinsoitinkokemusta big bandin puhaltimien soittamiseen liittyvät haasteet ovat monelle hyvin vieraita. Lisäksi koen mielekkääksi opintojen lopuksi koota tulevien työtehtävieni kannalta oleelli...

  19. Effective Dynamics of the Matrix Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, B; Sethi, S; Craps, Ben; Rajaraman, Arvind; Sethi, Savdeep

    2006-01-01

    We study the leading quantum effects in the recently introduced Matrix Big Bang model. This amounts to a study of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory compactified on the Milne orbifold. We find a one-loop potential that decays near the Big Bang. More surprisingly, the potential decays very rapidly at late times where it appears to be generated by D-brane effects. Usually, general covariance constrains the form of any effective action generated by renormalization group flow. However, the form of our one-loop potential seems to violate these constraints in a manner that suggests a connection between the cosmological singularity and long wavelength, late time physics.

  20. Tuottojohtaminen Imatra Big Band Festival- ravintolatoiminnassa

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on tuottojohtaminen Imatra Big Band Festival- ravintolatoiminnassa, ja työn tarkoituksena oli tuottaa tietoa ja hyviä käytäntöjä siitä, miten tuottojohtamisen tärkeimpiä keinoja toteutetaan Imatra Big Band Festivaalin ravintolatoiminnassa: mikä meni hyvin ja mitä voisi kehittää. Tuottojohtaminen eli Revenue Management on ollut pitkään tunnettu hotellitoiminnassa ja lentoyhtiöillä, kun taas ravintola-alalla se ei ole vielä kovin laajalti käytössä. Tuottojohtamisesta ravin...