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Sample records for big cypress swamp

  1. Evapotranspiration over spatially extensive plant communities in the Big Cypress National Preserve, southern Florida, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Lopez, Christian D.; Duever, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) was quantified over plant communities within the Big Cypress National Preserve (BCNP) using the eddy covariance method for a period of 3 years from October 2007 to September 2010. Plant communities selected for study included Pine Upland, Wet Prairie, Marsh, Cypress Swamp, and Dwarf Cypress. These plant communities are spatially extensive in southern Florida, and thus, the ET measurements described herein can be applied to other humid subtropical locations such as the Everglades.

  2. Status of exotic woody species in big cypress national preserve. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, L.H.

    1983-12-01

    The current status of exotic woody plants in Big Cypress National Preserve is documented. A map of the distribution of principal pest species, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Casuarina sp., is presented. Prognoses of population increases of these problem species are determined utilizing the current distributions and assessing environmental conditions. Some potential problem species are also identified.

  3. Methane evasion and oxidation in the Big Cypress National Preserve—a low relief carbonate wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N. D.; Bianchi, T. S.; Cohen, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Quintero, C.; Brown, A.; Osborne, T.; Sawakuchi, H. O.

    2016-12-01

    The Big Cypress National Preserve is a low relief carbonate wetland characterized by unique basin patterning known as "cypress domes." Here we examine the concentration and stable isotopic composition of methane in pore waters, surface waters, and bubbles from the sediment across horizontal gradients in four domes during three sampling campaigns. The proportion of methane oxidized in surface waters was estimated based on isotopic differences between surface water and pore waters/bubbles. Rates of methane evasion from surface waters, soils, and cypress knees to the atmosphere were also measured. Surface water CH4 concentrations ranged from 170 to 4,533 ppm with the highest levels generally being observed during wet periods. Pore water CH4 concentrations ranged from 748 to 75,213 ppm. The concentration of methane in bubbles ranged from 6.5 to 71%. The stable isotopic composition of CH4 ranged from -69.2 to -43.8‰ for all samples and was generally more enriched in surface waters compared to bubbles and porewaters, particularly in the two domes that were persistently inundated throughout the year. Based on these isotopic values, the average percentage of surface water CH4 that was oxidized was 37 ± 16% (maximum of 67%) and 19 ± 4% (maximum of 47%) in the two domes that are persistently inundated versus the two domes that are not inundated during the dry season, respectively. The average rate of CH4 evasion was 3.6 ± 1.6 mmol m-2 d-1 via diffusion, 7.6 ± 4.7 mmol m-2 d-1 via ebullition, 10.9 ± 11.4 mmol m-2 d-1­ from soil surfaces, and 34.3 ± 27.4 mmol m-2 d-1 from cypress knees. These results indicate that CH4 is produced in great quantities in inundated sediments, particularly in the center of the cypress domes. Diffusive fluxes from surface waters are suppressed by microbial oxidation in the water column, whereas ebullition from sediments and evasion through cypress knees, and likely other vascular vegetation, are the primary pathways for CH4 outgassing.

  4. Water Quality in Big Cypress National Preserve and Everglades National Park - Trends and Spatial Characteristics of Selected Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Sobczak, Robert; Clark, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal changes in water levels and flows in Big Cypress National Preserve (BICY) and Everglades National Park (EVER) affect water quality. As water levels and flows decline during the dry season, physical, geochemical and biological processes increase the breakdown of organic materials and the build-up of organic waste, nutrients, and other constituents in the remaining surface water. For example, concentrations of total phosphorus in the marsh are less than 0.01 milligram per liter (mg/L) during much of the year. Concentrations can rise briefly above this value during the dry season and occasionally exceed 0.1 mg/L under drought conditions. Long-term changes in water levels, flows, water management, and upstream land use also affect water quality in BICY and EVER, based on analysis of available data (1959-2000). During the 1980's and early 1990's, specific conductance and concentrations of chloride increased in the Taylor Slough and Shark River Slough. Chloride concentrations more than doubled from 1960 to 1990, primarily due to greater canal transport of high dissolved solids into the sloughs. Some apparent long-term trends in sulfate and total phosphorus were likely attributable, at least in part, to high percentages of less-than and zero values and to changes in reporting levels over the period of record. High values in nutrient concentrations were evident during dry periods of the 1980's and were attributable either to increased canal inflows of nutrient-rich water, increased nutrient releases from breakdown of organic bottom sediment, or increased build-up of nutrient waste from concentrations of aquatic biota and wildlife in remaining ponds. Long-term changes in water quality over the period of record are less pronounced in the western Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp; however, short-term seasonal and drought-related changes are evident. Water quality varies spatially across the region because of natural variations in geology, hydrology, and vegetation

  5. Forecasting in an integrated surface water-ground water system: The Big Cypress Basin, South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Feng, K.; Klinting, A.; Stewart, K.; Nath, A.; Manning, P.; Hazlett, T.; Jacobsen, T.

    2009-04-01

    The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) manages and protects the state's water resources on behalf of 7.5 million South Floridians and is the lead agency in restoring America's Everglades - the largest environmental restoration project in US history. Many of the projects to restore and protect the Everglades ecosystem are part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). The region has a unique hydrological regime, with close connection between surface water and groundwater, and a complex managed drainage network with many structures. Added to the physical complexity are the conflicting needs of the ecosystem for protection and restoration, versus the substantial urban development with the accompanying water supply, water quality and flood control issues. In this paper a novel forecasting and real-time modelling system is presented for the Big Cypress Basin. The Big Cypress Basin includes 272 km of primary canals and 46 water control structures throughout the area that provide limited levels of flood protection, as well as water supply and environmental quality management. This system is linked to the South Florida Water Management District's extensive real-time (SCADA) data monitoring and collection system. Novel aspects of this system include the use of a fully distributed and integrated modeling approach and a new filter-based updating approach for accurately forecasting river levels. Because of the interaction between surface- and groundwater a fully integrated forecast modeling approach is required. Indeed, results for the Tropical Storm Fay in 2008, the groundwater levels show an extremely rapid response to heavy rainfall. Analysis of this storm also shows that updating levels in the river system can have a direct impact on groundwater levels.

  6. Herpetofaunal Inventories of the National Parks of South Florida and the Caribbean: Volume III. Big Cypress National Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Crockett, Marquette E.; Jeffrey, Brian M.; Rice, Amanda N.; Percival, H. Franklin

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian declines and extinctions have been documented around the world, often in protected natural areas. Concern for this trend has prompted the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service to document all species of amphibians that occur within U.S. National Parks and to search for any signs that amphibians may be declining. This study, an inventory of amphibian species in Big Cypress National Preserve, was conducted from 2002 to 2003. The goals of the project were to create a georeferenced inventory of amphibian species, use new analytical techniques to estimate proportion of sites occupied by each species, look for any signs of amphibian decline (missing species, disease, die-offs, and so forth.), and to establish a protocol that could be used for future monitoring efforts. Several sampling methods were used to accomplish these goals. Visual encounter surveys and anuran vocalization surveys were conducted in all habitats throughout the park to estimate the proportion of sites or proportion of area occupied (PAO) by each amphibian species in each habitat. Opportunistic collections, as well as limited drift fence data, were used to augment the visual encounter methods for highly aquatic or cryptic species. A total of 545 visits to 104 sites were conducted for standard sampling alone, and 2,358 individual amphibians and 374 reptiles were encountered. Data analysis was conducted in program PRESENCE to provide PAO estimates for each of the anuran species. All of the amphibian species historically found in Big Cypress National Preserve were detected during this project. At least one individual of each of the four salamander species was captured during sampling. Each of the anuran species in the preserve was adequately sampled using standard herpetological sampling methods, and PAO estimates were produced for each species of anuran by habitat. This information serves as an indicator of habitat associations of the species and relative abundance of sites

  7. Characterizing spatial and temporal variability in methane gas-flux dynamics of subtropical wetlands in the Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, M.; Comas, X.; Shoemaker, B.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland methane emissions are highly variable both in space and time, and are controlled by changes in certain biogeochemical controls (i.e. organic matter availability; redox potential) and/or other environmental factors (i.e. soil temperature; water level). Consequently, hot spots (areas with disproportionally high emissions) may develop where biogeochemical and environmental conditions are especially conducive for enhancing certain microbial processes such as methanogenesis. The Big Cypress National Preserve is a collection of subtropical wetlands in southwestern Florida, including extensive forested (cypress, pine, hardwood) and sawgrass ecosystems that dry and flood annually in response to rainfall. In addition to rainfall, hydroperiod, fire regime, elevation above mean sea level, dominant vegetation type and underlying geological controls contribute to the development and evolution of organic and calcitic soils found throughout the Preserve. Currently, the U.S. Geological Survey employs eddy covariance methods within the Preserve to quantify carbon and methane exchanges over several spatially extensive vegetation communities. While eddy covariance towers are a convenient tool for measuring gas exchanges at the ecosystem scale, their spatially extensive footprint (hundreds of meters) may mask smaller scale spatial variabilities that may be conducive to the development of hot spots. Similarly, temporal resolution (i.e. sampling effort) at scales smaller that the eddy covariance measurement footprint is important since low resolution data may overlook rapid emission events and the temporal variability of discrete hot spots. In this work, we intend to estimate small-scale contributions of organic and calcitic soils to gas exchanges measured by the eddy covariance towers using a unique combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR), capacitance probes, gas traps, and time-lapse photography. By using an array of methods that vary in spatio-temporal resolution, we

  8. Saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system of the Big Cypress Basin, southwest Florida, and a proposed plan for improved salinity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    The installation of drainage canals, poorly cased wells, and water-supply withdrawals have led to saltwater intrusion in the primary water-use aquifers in southwest Florida. Increasing population and water use have exacerbated this problem. Installation of water-control structures, well-plugging projects, and regulation of water use have slowed saltwater intrusion, but the chloride concentration of samples from some of the monitoring wells in this area indicates that saltwater intrusion continues to occur. In addition, rising sea level could increase the rate and extent of saltwater intrusion. The existing saltwater intrusion monitoring network was examined and found to lack the necessary organization, spatial distribution, and design to properly evaluate saltwater intrusion. The most recent hydrogeologic framework of southwest Florida indicates that some wells may be open to multiple aquifers or have an incorrect aquifer designation. Some of the sampling methods being used could result in poor-quality data. Some older wells are badly corroded, obstructed, or damaged and may not yield useable samples. Saltwater in some of the canals is in close proximity to coastal well fields. In some instances, saltwater occasionally occurs upstream from coastal salinity control structures. These factors lead to an incomplete understanding of the extent and threat of saltwater intrusion in southwest Florida. A proposed plan to improve the saltwater intrusion monitoring network in the South Florida Water Management District’s Big Cypress Basin describes improvements in (1) network management, (2) quality assurance, (3) documentation, (4) training, and (5) data accessibility. The plan describes improvements to hydrostratigraphic and geospatial network coverage that can be accomplished using additional monitoring, surface geophysical surveys, and borehole geophysical logging. Sampling methods and improvements to monitoring well design are described in detail. Geochemical analyses

  9. Analysis of water-quality trends at two discharge stations; one within Big Cypress National Preserve and one near Biscayne Bay; southern Florida, 1966-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of water-quality trends was made at two U.S. Geological Survey daily discharge stations in southern Florida. The ESTREND computer program was the principal tool used for the determination of water-quality trends at the Miami Canal station west of Biscayne Bay in Miami and the Tamiami Canal station along U.S. Highway 41 in the Big Cypress National Preserve in Collier County. Variability in water quality caused by both seasonality and streamflow was compensated for by applying the nonparametric Seasonal Kendall trend test to unadjusted concentrations or flow-adjusted concentrations (residuals) determined from linear regression analysis. Concentrations of selected major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics; pH and dissolved oxygen; suspended sediment; nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon species; trace metals; and bacteriological and biological characteristics were determined at the Miami and Tamiami Canal stations. Median and maximum concentrations of selected constituents were compared to the Florida Class III freshwater standards for recreation, propagation, and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife. The median concentrations of the water-quality constituents and characteristics generally were higher at the Miami Canal station than at the Tamiami Canal station. The maximum value for specific conductance at the Miami Canal station exceeded the State standard. The median and maximum concentrations for ammonia at the Miami and Tamiami Canal stations exceeded the State standard, whereas median dissolved-oxygen concentrations at both stations were below the State standard. Trend results were indicative of either improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Improvement in water quality at the Miami Canal station was reflected by downward trends in suspended sediment (1987-94), turbidity, (1970-78), total ammonia (1971-94), total phosphorus (1987-94), barium (1978-94), iron (1969-94), and fecal coliform

  10. Relations between total phosphorus and orthophosphorus concentrations and rainfall, surface-water discharge, and groundwater levels in Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation, Florida, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, W. Scott; Sifuentes, Dorothy F.

    2018-02-06

    The Seminole Tribe of Florida (the Tribe) is partnering with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop a numeric phosphorus criterion for the 52,000-acre Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation (BCSIR), which is located downgradient of the Everglades Agricultural Area, and of other public and private lands, in southeastern Hendry County and northwestern Broward County in southern Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tribe, used water-quality data collected between October 2014 and September 2016 by the Tribe and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), along with data from rainfall gages, surface-water stage and discharge gages, and groundwater monitoring wells, to (1) examine the relations between local hydrology and measured total phosphorus (TP) and orthophosphorus (OP) concentrations and (2) identify explanatory variables for TP concentrations. Of particular concern were conditions when TP exceeded 10 parts per billion (ppb) (0.01 milligram per liter [mg/L]) given that the State of Florida and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians Alligator Alley Reservation (located downstream of the BCSIR) have adopted a 10-ppb maximum TP criterion for surface waters.From October 2014 to September 2016, the Tribe collected 47–52 samples at each of nine water-quality sites for analysis of TP and OP, except at one site where 28 samples were collected. For all sites sampled, concentrations of TP (as phosphorus [P]) ranged from less than 0.002 mg/L (2 ppb) to a maximum of nearly 0.50 mg/L (500 ppb), whereas concentrations of OP (as P), the reactive form of inorganic phosphorus readily absorbed by plants and (or) abiotically absorbed, ranged from less than 0.003 mg/L (3 ppb) to a maximum of 0.24 mg/L (240 ppb). The median and interquartile ranges of concentrations of TP and OP in the samples collected in 2014–16 by the Tribe were similar to the median and interquartile ranges of concentrations in samples collected by the SFWMD at

  11. New Evidence of an Ancient Bald Cypress Forest on the Inner Shelf of Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Obelcz, J.; Guilderson, T. P.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Climate models suggest cold-adapted trees grew in the southeastern United States (SE US) during glacial intervals yet there is a scarcity of paleoclimate records for marine isotope stages 3 to 5 in this region, limiting our understanding of early glacial oceanic-climatic conditions. Here we describe an offshore site with well-preserved in situ bald cypress stumps (Taxodium distichum) and woody remnants exposed in an eroding swale located 13.5 km from Orange Beach, Alabama in 18 m of seawater. T. distichum grows in warm and humid climates with low elevations (>0-50 m) preferring freshwater riparian environments with frequent flooding. Wood samples from exposed stumps and sediments have good preservation with cellular structure intact and smell like freshly cut cypress indicating preservation in anoxic conditions that suppressed biodegradation. Radiocarbon dating of eight wood subsamples, including an in situ stump, was inconclusive due to detection limits indicating the wood is older than 50,000 years. We conducted high-resolution geophysical surveys and coring operations in August 2015 recovering a total of 17.075 m of sediment cores. The base of these cores contain wood-bearing muddy peat sediments of the Pleistocene terrestrial wetlands. The geophysical surveys reveal the stumps are located around the eroding swale with possible river landforms visible in the side-scan sonar suggesting a paleochannel surrounded by bald cypress trees similar to modern swamps and bayous. Preliminary pollen analysis reveals an abundance of bald cypress (T. distichum), tupelo (Nyssa aquatic), and pine (Pinus spp.) similar to modern SE US wetlands. Ongoing sediment core analysis includes microfossil, palynology, and sedimentology analysis. Our preliminary results from this submerged glacial landscape suggest that coastal T. distichum wetlands were present in the early glacial interval along the northern Gulf Coast.

  12. Flooding effects on stand development in cypress-tupelo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Keim; Thomas J. Dean; Jim L. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inundation on growth of cypress (Taxodium spp.) and tupelo (Nyssa spp.) trees have been extensively researched, but conclusions are often complicated by attendant effects on stand development. Flooding affects development of cypress-tupelo stands by limiting seedling germination and survival, truncating species...

  13. 36 CFR 7.86 - Big Cypress National Preserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (37 FR 2877) as amended, and shall also consider factors such as other visitor uses, safety, wildlife management, noise, erosion, geography, vegetation, resource protection, and other management considerations... this chapter and applicable Florida law governing Cooperative Wildlife Management Areas. (2) The...

  14. Preliminary Facies Reconstruction of a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest Discovered on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Bentley, S. J.; DeLong, K. L.; Xu, K.; Caporaso, A.; Obelcz, J. B.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Truong, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    We are investigating the origin and preservation of an ancient bald cypress forest (Taxodium distichum) discovered on the continental shelf seafloor, offshore of Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA, in 20 m water depth. The forest was likely buried in the late Pleistocene, possibly exhumed by Hurricane Ivan in 2004, and is now exposed as stumps in life position with little evidence of decay before recent marine exposure. Radiocarbon analyses show that the forest age is near (and in some cases beyond) the limits of 14C dating, at least 41-45 ky BP. In August 2015 and July 2016, submersible vibracores (up to 5 m in length) were collected. Ongoing core analyses include: organic content (loss on ignition), granulometry, and core logging using a Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger to generate imagery, bulk density, and x-ray fluorescence data. To bolster 14C analyses, cores collected in 2016 are presently being dated using optically stimulated luminescence. Local stratigraphy consists of a surface facies of Holocene transgressive sands, underlain by possible estuarine sediments of interbedded sand and mud (potentially Holocene or Pleistocene), overlying a swamp or delta plain facies (likely Pleistocene) containing woody debris and mud. Deeper woody facies are thought to include the soil horizons of the ancient cypress forest. Cores collected in 2016 revealed a Pleistocene paleosol beneath Holocene sands in a nearby trough. Elevation differences between swamp and paleosol horizons will be evaluated from bathymetric and subbottom data, to help characterize the preserved ancient landscape. Initial interpretation based on close proximity of Pleistocene swamp and oxidized paleosol sediments, and regional geomorphic gradients suggest that this relatively diverse assemblage of facies developed up to tens of km from the glacial-age coastline, and relatively rapid burial prevented erosion by coastal processes during the Holocene transgression thus preserving the tree stumps and wood debris.

  15. Kennedy Space Center: Swamp Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Robert

    2013-01-01

    scaffold materials, 80/20, and massive panels of Lexan. Once the chamber is completed, it is be filled with 120 tons of regolith and dubbed the largest regolith test chamber in the world. Through my experiences with building "Big Bin" as we called it, I discovered my demand for engaging and hands on activities. Through all of my incredible experiences working with the Swamp Works at Kennedy Space Center; I have obtained crucial knowledge, insights, and experiences that have fuelled, shaped, and will continue to drive me toward my ultimate goal of obtaining not only a degree in Engineering, but obtaining a job that I can call a career. I want to give much thanks to all of those who mentored me along my journey, and to all who made this opportunity a reality.

  16. Magruder Park Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  17. Stratigraphic Reconstruction of a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest Discovered on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Bentley, S. J.; Obelcz, J.; Truong, J. T.; DeLong, K. L.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Caporaso, A.; Shen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A previously buried bald cypress forest (Taxodium distichum) was discovered on the continental shelf, offshore of Orange Beach, Alabama, USA, in 20 m water depth. The forest was possibly exhumed by Hurricane Ivan in 2004, and is now exposed as stumps in life position in a trough located in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf seafloor. We are investigating the local stratigraphy, paleo-landscape, and mode of forest preservation of this unique site. In August 2015 and July 2016, submersible vibracores (18 in total) were collected. Core analysis included: bulk density and imaging via Geotek multi sensor core logger, sediment grain size, structure, and organic content via loss-on-ignition. Selected samples have been dated using 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. Multibeam and CHIRP subbottom bathymetry provide context for litho- and chrono-stratigraphy of the site. Integration of core lithostratigraphy and modern shelf bathymetry reveal Holocene transgressive sands blanketing diverse sedimentary facies that are truncated by the late Pleistocene-early Holocene ravinement. Deposits below the ravinement surface include interbedded sand and mud (exact age unknown, but possibly pertaining to a shallow marine environment), overlying a floodplain/swamp facies of woody debris, peat, and mud (provisionally dated by 14C to 41-45 ka). These units grade laterally into paleosols that appear to be 10-15 ka older, based on recently obtained preliminary OSL dates. Occurrence of paleosols and swamp deposits of broadly similar age and elevation suggests that the ancient landscape possessed topographic relief that allowed wetland and upland habitats to develop in close proximity. These new OSL dates enhance our initial hypothesis that floodplain aggradation in the area was a key factor that might have allowed forest preservation. The timing of temporary sea level rises (SLR) ca. 40 and 60 ka. with our 14C and preliminary OSL dates, suggests that floodplain

  18. Federal conservation of western Cypress in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Boom

    2017-01-01

    It is important to identify and protect at risk and sensitive tree species before irreparable damage occurs to their genetic base. Western cypress (Hesperocyparis spp.) is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, competition from nonnative species, and susceptibility to current fire intervals and intensities. In an effort to safeguard the...

  19. Peat swamp forest of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyomdham, C.; Urapeepatanapong, C.; Pitayakajornwute, P. [Pikoolthong Royal Development Study Center, Bangkok (Thailand). Royal Forest Department

    1996-12-31

    Peat swamp forest in Thailand occurs extensively along coastal flatlands in the central and southern parts of the country and some small patches of topogenous peatland are present locally on several mountain tops of the northern region. Many have been deteriorated by recent extensive development programs. However, one large area, about 347.04 km{sup 2}, of ombrogenous peatland is still left intact in the Pru Toh Dang area where conservation activities are being strictly enforced under one of the Royal Initiative Projects. Pru Toh Dang peat consists of 5 metres of fibrous organic soil overlying pyritic marine clay. Despite an inhospitable, submerged and unstable forest floor, the floristic composition of the peat swamp forest is extremely complicated, consisting of 124 families and 470 species of which 109 families and 437 species of flowering plants, and 15 families and 33 species of ferns recorded between 1983-1989 by a team from the Forest Herbarium of the Royal Forest Department of Thailand. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  20. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  1. 75 FR 45011 - Olde Cypress Community Bank, Clewiston, FL; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Olde Cypress Community Bank, Clewiston, FL... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Olde Cypress Community Bank, Clewiston, Florida...

  2. Do bark beetle sprays prevent Phloeosinus species from attacking cypress and juniper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Hayes; Tom DeGomez; Karen Clancy; Joel McMillin; John Anhold

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Phloeosinus-caused mortality of Arizona cypress, (Cupressus arizonica), oneseed juniper, (Juniperus monosperma) and alligator juniper, (J. deppeana) has been observed at high levels in Arizona during the past 3 years. Currently, there are limited preventative measures to protect high-value cypress and juniper trees against...

  3. Cypress facts for the South, 2010—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Greis; Mark J. Brown; James W. Bentley

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of markets for cypress mulch, continued interest in cypress for use in construction and furniture manufacturing, and its prominence as a component of the South’s forested wetlands, it is important to understand the status of this uniquely southern resource. This factsheet is intended to provide a brief look at the geographic occurrence and extent of...

  4. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  5. Late-Holocene Environmental Reconstruction and Depositional History from a Taxodium Swamp near Lake Pontchartrain in Southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J.; Bianchette, T. A.; Liu, K. B.; Yao, Q.; Maiti, K.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrological and environmental history of estuarine wetlands in Louisiana is not well-documented. To better understand the depositional processes in coastal wetlands, this study aims to reconstruct the environmental changes and document the occurrence of event deposits found in a bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) swamp approximately 800 m west of Lake Pontchartrain, a site susceptible to wind-generated storm surges as well as inundation from other fluvial and lacustrine processes. 210Pb analysis of a 59 cm sediment core (WMA-1) suggests that it has a sedimentation rate of 0.39 cm/year, consistent with the detection of a 137Cs peak at 17 cm from the core top. Results of sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological analyses reveal that the core contains two distinct sediment facies: an organic-rich dark brown peat unit from 0 to 29 cm containing low concentrations of terrestrial elements (e.g., Ti, Fe, and K), and a clay unit from 30 to 59 cm with elevated concentrations of most elements. Two thin clay layers, at 3-5 cm and 14-19 cm, embedded in the upper peat section are probably attributed to two recent storm events, Hurricane Isaac (2012) and Hurricane Gustav (2008), because both hurricanes caused heavy rain and significant storm-surge flooding at the study site. The pollen assemblage in the clay section is dominated by TCT (mainly Taxodium), but it is replaced by Salix and wetland herbaceous taxa in the overlying peat section. The multi-proxy data suggest that a cypress swamp has been present at the site for at least several hundred years but Taxodium was being replaced by willow (Salix) and other bottomland hardwood trees and wetland herbs as the water level dropped. Human activities may have been an important factor causing the hydrological and ecological changes at the site during the past century.

  6. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P; Mathani, S; Mavinkurve, S

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  7. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  8. Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw-Swiatek Dorota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. In this study effects of cypress knees as vegetation resistance factor on Turkey Creek watershed discharge calculation were analyzed. The Turkey Creek watershed is a 3rd order stream system draining an approximate area of 5,240 ha. It is located at 33°08' N latitude and 79°47' W longitude, approximately 60 km north-west of City of Charleston in South Carolina (USA. Turkey Creek (WS 78 is typical of other watersheds in the south Atlantic coastal plain. In the case of Turkey Creek watershed, one of the main channels and riparian floodplain vegetation contains cypress trees. Cypress trees live in moist or swampy regions along the Atlantic coastal plain. The cypress trees are characterized by the unique root system called knees that appear just above the water line, up to 1.2 m above water surface. This study is conducted to examine the effects of roughness of cypress knee as related to its shape (diameter and height on discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. Hydraulic characteristics of the cypress knees were determined by field inventory in selected cross-section along the main stream channel. The Pasche method was used to calculate the total Darcy–Weisbach friction factor in discharge capacity calculation of the study watershed. The results of this study show that the effect of vegetation shape in the Pasche approach is significant. If the variability of vegetation stem diameter is taken into consideration in the calculations, an increase by 10–32% in the values of friction coefficients occurs.

  9. Basic repository environment assessment design basis, Cypress Creek Dome Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Gulf Interior Region at Cypress Creek Cone, Mississippi. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.66 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste from assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relatively easy access to the site. Construction would require an estimated 7 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 53 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  10. 76 FR 64102 - Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... agreement negotiated in 1995 between the Florida Biodiversity Project and several Federal agencies and... statutes, including the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the National Environmental Policy... public interest in connection with the performance of duties imposed on the Department of the Interior by...

  11. Fire history of Everglades National Park and Big Cypress National Preserve, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Fire occurs naturally in the environment on most continents, including Africa (Ryan and Williams, 2011), Asia (Kauhanen, 2008), Australia (Kutt and Woinarski, 2007), Europe (Eshel and others, 2000), South America (Fidelis and others, 2010), and North America (Van Auken, 2000). Antarctica appears to be the only continent that has no reported natural fires, although fire is common in grasslands of Patagonia and on islands in the Subantarctic region (Gonzalez and others, 2005; McGlone and others, 2007).

  12. Draft environmental assessment: Cypress Creek Dome site, Mississippi. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Cypress Creek dome site in Mississippi as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Cypress Creek dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Cypress Creek dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Gulf Interior Region of the Gulf Coastal Plain, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites - the Richton dome site and the Vacherie dome site. Although the Cypress Creek dome site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf Interior Region and is proposing to nominate the Richton dome site rather than the Cypress Creek dome site as one of the three sites suitable for characterization

  13. Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the Cypress Creek salt core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Law Engineering Testing Company supervised the drilling of a corehole into the stock of Cypress Creek Dome, located in Perry County, Mississippi. A total of 170 ft of caprock and 501 ft of salt stock was recovered for physical examination and chemical analysis. This report describes the types of analyses performed and summarizes the data developed. The entire caprock and salt core were described and photographed prior to selection of samples for petrologic and geochemical analysis. Transmitted light techniques were used to determine gross structural and compositional variations in the core. The core lithologies are presented graphically, at a scale of 1 in. to 2 ft. In addition to the detailed field descriptions and photographs, petrologic studies performed on selected caprock and salt samples included: thin-section examination, scanning-electron microscope studies, energy-dispersion analysis, and x-ray-diffraction analysis. Geochemical analyses were performed to determine the average elemental composition of the salt core and amounts of methane and carbon dioxide gases contained within the salt grains. Except for two thin (3 and 6 ft thick) gypsum zones in the top 27 ft of the caprock, the core is predominantly anhydrite (generally 80%). Minor amounts of dolomite and calcite are also present. The salt core consists predominantly of crystalline halite, fine- to medium-grained (0.25 to 1 in.) with few megacrysts. Anhydrite occurs in the salt core as disseminated grains, ranging in length from <0.1 in. to 12 in. Discrete zones exist within the salt core, distinguished from one another primarily by the character of the anhydrite inclusions

  14. Canopy transpiration for two Japanese cypress forests with contrasting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, K.; Komatsu, H.; Kume, T.; Shinohara, Y.; Otsuki, K.

    2012-12-01

    Canopy transpiration (EC) could have large variations among stands with different structures. To evaluate a difference in EC between stands with different structures for Japanese cypress, we observed EC using the sap flow technique in two stands with contrasting structures (age was 19 year and 99 year, mean diameter at breast height was 13.5 cm and 44.6 cm, stem density was 2100 trees ha-1 and 350 trees ha-1, respectively) for 5 months under the same meteorological condition. The mean stand sap flux density (JS) for measurement period and stand sapwood area (AS_stand) for the old stand (0.43 m3 m-2 day-1 and 15.2 m2 ha-1) were lower than those for the young stand (0.62 m3 m-2 day-1 and 20.4 m2 ha-1) by 31.1 % and 25.4 %, respectively. EC is calculated as a product of JS and AS_stand. Therefore the EC in the old stand was lower than that in the young stand by 50 %. We calculated the contribution of the reference JS for a given meteorological conditions (JSref) and the response of JS to the meteorological conditions (JSresp) in the two stands, and examined which is a primary factor for the difference of EC between the two studied stands. The JSresp for the young stand were not considerably different from that for the old stand, whereas JSref for the young stand was greater than that for the old stand. This indicates that JSref (not JSresp) was the primary cause for the difference of EC between the two stands. Further studies observing EC from stands with various structures are needed to generalize our conclusions.

  15. Integral handling of the swamps for indigenous communities - Caribbean of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro; Ulloa Delgado Giovanni, Andres; Tavera Escobar, Hector Arsenio

    2004-06-01

    The book includes topics like the ecosystems of swamps, zonification for its handling, growth of species of swamps, restoration and vegetation, integral plan of handling of swamps and its fauna among other topics

  16. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  17. Valencene synthase from the heartwood of Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis) for biotechnological production of valencene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Cankar, K.; Dijk, van A.D.J.; Jong, de R.; Stoopen, G.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Achkar, J.; Sonke, Th.; Bosch, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nootkatone is one of the major terpenes in the heartwood of the Nootka cypress Callitropsis nootkatensis. It is an oxidized sesquiterpene, which has been postulated to be derived from valencene. Both valencene and nootkatone are used for flavouring citrus beverages and are considered among the most

  18. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of swamp rice production among peasant farmers in the Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State for 2001 cropping year. A total of 50 swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from 5 villages using multistage sampling technique. The data collected, with the aid of ...

  19. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  20. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  1. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  2. Big universe, big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Stensbo-Smidt, Kristoffer; Gieseke, Fabian Cristian

    2017-01-01

    , modern astronomy requires big data know-how, in particular it demands highly efficient machine learning and image analysis algorithms. But scalability is not the only challenge: Astronomy applications touch several current machine learning research questions, such as learning from biased data and dealing......, and highlight some recent methodological advancements in machine learning and image analysis triggered by astronomical applications....

  3. The scientific value and potential of New Zealand swamp kauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Boswijk, Gretel; Hogg, Alan; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Christian S. M.; Fowler, Anthony M.; Ogden, John; Woolley, John-Mark

    2018-03-01

    New Zealand swamp kauri (Agathis australis) are relic trees that have been buried and preserved in anoxic bog environments of northern New Zealand for centuries through to hundreds of millennia. Kauri are massive in proportion to other native New Zealand trees and they can attain ages greater than 1000 years. The export market for swamp (subfossil) kauri has recently been driven by demand for a high-value workable timber, but there are concerns about the sustainability of the remaining resource, a situation exacerbated in recent years by the rapid extraction of wood. Economic exploitation of swamp kauri presents several unique opportunities for Quaternary science, however the scientific value of this wood is not well understood by the wider research community and public. Here, we summarise the history of scientific research on swamp kauri, and explore the considerable potential of this unique resource. Swamp kauri tree-ring chronologies are temporally unique, and secondary analyses (such as radiocarbon and isotopic analyses) have value for improving our understanding of Earth's recent geologic history and pre-instrumental climate history. Swamp kauri deposits that span the last interglacial-glacial cycle show potential to yield "ultra-long" multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies, and composite records spanning large parts of MIS3 (and most of the Holocene) may be possible. High-precision radiocarbon dating of swamp kauri chronologies can improve the resolution of the global radiocarbon calibration curve, while testing age modelling and chronologic alignment of other independent long-term high-resolution proxy records. Swamp kauri also has the potential to facilitate absolute dating and verification of cosmogenic events found in long Northern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. Future efforts to conserve these identified values requires scientists to work closely with swamp kauri industry operators, resource consent authorities, and export regulators to mitigate

  4. Big data, big responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big data refers to the collection and aggregation of large quantities of data produced by and about people, things or the interactions between them. With the advent of cloud computing, specialised data centres with powerful computational hardware and software resources can be used for processing and analysing a humongous amount of aggregated data coming from a variety of different sources. The analysis of such data is all the more valuable to the extent that it allows for specific patterns to be found and new correlations to be made between different datasets, so as to eventually deduce or infer new information, as well as to potentially predict behaviours or assess the likelihood for a certain event to occur. This article will focus specifically on the legal and moral obligations of online operators collecting and processing large amounts of data, to investigate the potential implications of big data analysis on the privacy of individual users and on society as a whole.

  5. Big science

    CERN Multimedia

    Nadis, S

    2003-01-01

    " "Big science" is moving into astronomy, bringing large experimental teams, multi-year research projects, and big budgets. If this is the wave of the future, why are some astronomers bucking the trend?" (2 pages).

  6. RAPD analysis of mutants obtained by ion beam irradiation to hinoki cypress shoot primordia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Yamada, Y.; Hase, Y.; Shikazono, N.; Tanaka, A.

    2003-01-01

    Mutants were induced by irradiation of the shoot primordia of Hinoki cypress with 50 MeV 4 He 2+ heavy ion beam. Fresh shoot primordia on the CD medium in the plastic Petri dish (35 x 10 mm) were irradiated. Xanta mutants were induced from 38 to 266 Gy irradiation. Waxy mutants were induced from 76 to 266 Gy irradiation. Xanta, waxy and control type of regenerated Hinoki cypress in vitro were checked for their DNA level difference using RAPD analysis. Among 81 primers used, 23 primers produced the 68 bands. Among them stable 44 bands produced by 15 primers were compared between mutants and control plant. So far, there is no variation among the RAPD analysis band patterns of those mutants. Bigger test size may detect the gene variation specific for mutants

  7. The fungal flora of the mangrove swamps of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahtani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Mangrove swamps of Goa (India) showed the presence of fungi belonging to 14 different genera, predominant ones being Monilia, Mucor, Syncephalastrum, Aspergillus and Trichothecium. Most of the isolates were found to be physiologically active...

  8. Determining Minimal Clinically Important Differences in Japanese Cedar/Cypress Pollinosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Takaya Higaki; Mitsuhiro Okano; Shin Kariya; Tazuko Fujiwara; Takenori Haruna; Haruka Hirai; Aya Murai; Minoru Gotoh; Kimihiro Okubo; Shuji Yonekura; Yoshitaka Okamoto; Kazunori Nishizaki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Statistically significant results of medical intervention trials are not always clinically meaningful. We sought to estimate the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) (the smallest change in a given endpoint that is meaningful to a patient) during seasonal alteration of Japanese cedar/cypress pollinosis (JCCP). Methods: Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of JCCP patients conducted between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed using an anchor-based method in wh...

  9. A Stratigraphic Pollen Record from a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest, Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, A.; Harley, G. L.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Truong, J. T.; Obelcz, J.; Caporaso, A.

    2017-12-01

    Stratigraphic pollen analysis was performed on a layer of preserved peat found near the bottom of a 4.75m vibracore taken in 18m of water off the coast of Orange Beach, Alabama. The core was taken from a site where the remains of a previously buried bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) forest was discovered after wave action, likely from Hurricane Ivan in 2004, scoured and removed the overlying Holocene/late Pleistocene sand sheet. Many of the cypress stumps found at the site are still in growth position, and rooted in the preserved terrestrial soils below. Radiocarbon dating of the peat recovered in core DF1 suggests that the sediment is likely Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), or earlier. We hypothesize that the site was quickly buried and preserved by floodplain aggradation associated with sea-level rise that occurred near the end of MIS 3. This rare find provides an opportunity to study in situ fossil pollen from a glacial refugium in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Pollen results from the lowermost sections within the peat layer show an assemblage consistent with a bald cypress/tupelo gum (Nyssa aquatica) backwater. This is eventually replaced by a more open, possibly brackish, environment, dominated by grasses (Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae). During this change however, there is a brief but very interesting period where the pollen assemblage is likely analogous to the modern day Atlantic Coastal Plain Blackwater Levee/Bar Forests of North and South Carolina. In this modern assemblage, as well as the core samples, birch (Betula), oak (Quercus) and bald cypress are the dominant taxa, along with a strong presence of alder (Alnus), grasses and sedges. We hypothesize that these bar forests formed on areas of higher ground, which resulted from floodplain aggradation that accompanied sea level rise at the end of MIS 3.

  10. Regeneration potential of Taxodium distichum swamps and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Seed bank densities respond to factors across local to landscape scales, and therefore, knowledge of these responses may be necessary in forecasting the effects of climate change on the regeneration of species. This study relates the seed bank densities of species of Taxodium distichum swamps to local water regime and regional climate factors at five latitudes across the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley from southern Illinois to Louisiana. In an outdoor nursery setting, the seed banks of twenty-five swamps were exposed to non-flooded (freely drained) or flooded treatments, and the number and species of seeds germinating were recorded from each swamp during one growing season. Based on ANOVA analysis, the majority of dominant species had a higher rate of germination in non-flooded versus flooded treatments. Similarly, an NMS comparison, which considered the local water regime and regional climate of the swamps, found that the species of seeds germinating, almost completely shifted under non-flooded versus flooded treatments. For example, in wetter northern swamps, seeds of Taxodium distichum germinated in non-flooded conditions, but did not germinate from the same seed banks in flooded conditions. In wetter southern swamps, seeds of Eleocharis cellulosa germinated in flooded conditions, but did not germinate in non-flooded conditions. The strong relationship of seed germination and density relationships with local water regime and regional climate variables suggests that the forecasting of climate change effects on swamps and other wetlands needs to consider a variety of interrelated variables to make adequate projections of the regeneration responses of species to climate change. Because regeneration is an important aspect of species maintenance and restoration, climate drying could influence the species distribution of these swamps in the future. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

  12. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  13. Postpartum anoestrus in the suckled swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jainudeen, M.R.; Sharifuddin, W.; Yap, K.C.; Bakar Dahari, A.

    1984-01-01

    Postpartum anoestrus is a serious cause of infertility in the swamp buffalo. Our studies have revealed that it is due to a failure in the resumption of ovarian cyclicity. Parity was inversely related to the calving interval being longer in primiparous than multiparous suckled buffaloes. This effect may be partly due to the higher nutrient demands for growth as well as for lactation in the primiparous animal. The effects of suckling on ovarian and pituitary function of postpartum buffaloes were investigated with the aid of radioimmunoassays for progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as rectal palpation and laparoscopic inspection of the ovaries. The incidence of postpartum anoestrus was higher in suckled than non-suckled buffaloes. Weaning buffalo calves at 30 d postpartum resulted in the resumption of normal ovarian cycles within 60 d postpartum. LH release in response to a single injection of a synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) indicated that pituitary responsiveness to GnRH was restored by Day 30 postpartum in suckled buffaloes whereas anoestrous buffaloes were able to release levels of LH comparable to that of the preovulatory surge. A progesterone-releasing intra-vaginal device (PRID) induced an anovulatory oestrus in the anoestrous suckled buffalo which was partially overcome by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administered at the induced oestrus. However, a 72 h separation of the calf from its dam combined with PRID was the most effective substitute to weaning in initiating ovarian cycles in the suckled buffalo. Our data suggest that suckling inhibits ovarian function not by an effect on the pituitary gland but rather on GnRH release by the hypothalamus. (author)

  14. Benefits of Riverine Water Discharge into the Lorian Swamp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipporah Musyimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland used by pastoralists downstream. We first assess the abstractions and demands for water upstream and the river water supplies at the upper and the lower end of the Lorian Swamp. Further analysis of 12 years of monthly SPOT-VEGETATION satellite imagery reveals higher NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index values in the swamp than nearby rainfed areas, with the difference in NDVI between the two positively related to river water discharged into the swamp. The paper next reviews the benefits derived from water entering the swamp and the vulnerability to abstractions for three categories of water: (i the surface water used for drinking and sanitation; (ii the surface water that supports forage production; and (iii the water that recharges the Merti Aquifer. Our results suggest that benefits from surface water for domestic use and forage production are vulnerable to abstractions upstream whereas the benefits from the aquifer, with significant fossil water, are likely to be affected in the long run, but not the short term.

  15. Water-quality assessment of the Cypress Creek watershed, Warrick County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Linda L.; Peters, Charles A.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Conservation Service needs chemical, biological, microbiological, and hydrological data to prepare an environmental evaluation of the water quality in the Cypress Creek watershed, Warrick County, Ind., before plans can be devised to (1) improve water quality, (2) minimize flooding, (3) reduce sedimentation, and (4) provide adequate outlets for drainage in the watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey obtained these data for the Soil Conservation Service in a water-quality survey of the watershed from March to August 1979. Past and present surface coal mining is the factor having the greatest impact on water quality in the watershed. The upper reaches of Cypress Creek receive acid-mine drainage from a coal-mine waste slurry during periods of intense rainfall. All the remaining tributaries, except Summer Pecka ditch, drain mined or reclaimed lands. The general water type of Cypress Creek and most of its tributaries is calcium and magnesium sulfate. In contrast, the water type at background site 21 on Summer Pecka ditch is calcium sulfate. Specific conductance ranged from 470 to 4,730 micromhos per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, and pH ranged from 1.2 to 8.8. Specific conductance, hardness, and concentrations of major ions and dissolved solids were highest in tributaries affected by mining. The pH was lowest in the same tributaries. Concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate in water samples and chlordane, DDT, and PCB 's in streambed samples exceeded water-quality limits set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (USGS)

  16. Urbanising Big

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Development in China raises the question of how big a city can become, and at the same time be sustainable, writes Christer Ljungwall of the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.......Development in China raises the question of how big a city can become, and at the same time be sustainable, writes Christer Ljungwall of the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis....

  17. Basic repository source term and data sheet report, Cypress Creek Dome: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is one of a series describing studies undertaken in support of the US Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. This study contains the derivation of values for environmental source terms and resources consumed for a CRWM repository. Estimates include heavy construction equipment; support equipment; shaft-sinking equipment; transportation equipment; and consumption of fuel, water, electricity, and natural gas. Data are presented for construction and operation at an assumed site in Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. 2 refs., 6 tabs

  18. Sapwood Amount and its Predictive Equations for Young Hinoki Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) Trees

    OpenAIRE

    ADU-BREDU, Stephen; HAGIHARA, Akio; 萩原, 秋男

    1996-01-01

    Sapwood, which is peripheral to heartwood in tree trunks, serves as a water conduction and storage organ, and energy is needed to maintain the living ray parenchyma cells. The sapwood amount in hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.) was examined in relation to tree size on the basis of 14 sampled trees. The sapwood cross-sectional area was related to the over-bark stem cross-sectional area by a generalized allometric function, with an asymptotic value of 212.4 c㎡. The sa...

  19. Big Argumentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Faltesek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Big Data is nothing new. Public concern regarding the mass diffusion of data has appeared repeatedly with computing innovations, in the formation before Big Data it was most recently referred to as the information explosion. In this essay, I argue that the appeal of Big Data is not a function of computational power, but of a synergistic relationship between aesthetic order and a politics evacuated of a meaningful public deliberation. Understanding, and challenging, Big Data requires an attention to the aesthetics of data visualization and the ways in which those aesthetics would seem to depoliticize information. The conclusion proposes an alternative argumentative aesthetic as the appropriate response to the depoliticization posed by the popular imaginary of Big Data.

  20. Big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed; Flyverbom, Mikkel; Hilbert, Martin

    2016-01-01

    is to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations......The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments contained in any big data practice. Second, it suggests a research agenda built around a set of subthemes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay between big data...

  1. Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus carabanensis in Kalimantan . More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes . Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia . and trypanosomiasis (Surra, are some of the important diseases found in these animals . Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation . In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. novvi can be isolated from livers of normal healthy animals . In Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, the prevalence of fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica in swamp buffalo was 77% in 1991 . A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine . Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia . Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2 . The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in 1980s. The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area . Hulu Sungai Utara district . Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. multocida B2 bacterin have been used and provide good protection to the animals . Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation

  2. Palynology, sedimentology and environmental significance of Holocene swamps at northern Kaitoke, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analyses of two cores from coastal freshwater swamps at northern Kaitoke (Kaitoke Swamp and Police Station Swamp), Great Barrier Island, show that c. 7300 calibrated yr BP Kaitoke Swamp was an estuary with tidal flats. Avicennia, now absent from the swamp area, was present in the estuary. By c. 4500 yr BP fresh water conditions had developed at the Kaitoke Swamp site as marine influences decreased. Around the same time, fresh water swamp conditions commenced at the Police Station Swamp site on the surface of a low lying area of a Late Pleistocene dune. A sandy layer at Kaitoke may represent rapid infilling followed by a dry soil surface until c. 1000 yr BP. Conifer-hardwood forest on the hills surrounding the sites c. 7300-c. 1800 yr BP was dominated by Dacrydium and Metrosideros. During this period, environmental conditions were relatively stable, with little change in forest composition. Between 1800 yr and 800 yr BP Kaitoke Swamp was reflooded, and the Police Station Swamp extended as a shallow lake over the nearby dune flat. These new shallow swamps were invaded by swamp forest (mainly Dacrycaprus with some Laurelia). The presence of charcoal and Pteridium spores above the Kaharoa Tephra suggests that major Polynesian deforestation at northern Kaitoke began c. 600 calibrated yr BP. (author). 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Flux Related to Forest Type and Managed and Unmanaged Conditions in the Great Dismal Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenberg, L. W.; Krauss, K.; Qu, J. J.; Hogan, D. M.; Zhu, Z.; Xu, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia and North Carolina, USA, has been greatly impacted by human use and management for the last few hundred years through logging, ditching, and draining. Today, the once dominant cedar, cypress and pocosin forest types are fragmented due to logging and environmental change. Maple-gum forest has taken over more than half the remaining area of the swamp ecosystem, which is now a National Wildlife Refuge and State Park. The peat soils and biomass store a vast quantity of carbon compared with the size of the refuge, but this store is threatened by fire and drying. This study looks at three of the main forest types in the GDS— maple-sweet gum, tall pine pocosin, and Atlantic white cedar— in terms of their carbon dioxide and methane soil flux. Using static chambers to sample soil gas flux in locally representative sites, we found that cedar sites showed a higher carbon dioxide flux rate as the soil temperature increased than maple sites, and the rate of carbon dioxide flux decreased as soil moisture increased faster in cedar sites than in maple sites. Methane flux increased as temperature increased for pocosin, but decreased with temperature for cedar and maple. All of the methane fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. Cedar average carbon dioxide flux was statistically significantly different from both maple and pocosin. These results show that soil carbon gas flux depends on soil moisture and temperature, which are factors that are changing due to human actions, as well as on forest type, which is also the result of human activity. Some of these variables may be adjustable by the managers of the land. Variables other than forest type, temperature and soil moisture/inundation may also play a role in influencing soil flux, such as stand age, tree height, composition of the peat and nutrient availability, and source of moisture as some sites are more influenced by groundwater from ditches and some more by rainfall depending on the

  4. How Big Is Too Big?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  5. Impacts of air pollution exposure on the allergenic properties of Arizona cypress pollens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahali, Y; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M; Zare, A [Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Medical Sciences/ University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majd, A, E-mail: youcef.shahali@espci.f [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.

  6. The geography of conflict between elk and agricultural values in the Cypress Hills, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Troy M; Gates, C Cormack; Eslinger, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Complex ecological issues like depredation and its management are determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale and are interlinked with complex human social and economic behaviour. Depredation by wild herbivores can be a major obstacle to agricultural community support for wildlife conservation. For three decades, crop and fence damage, competition with livestock for native rangeland and tame pasture, and depredation of stored feed by elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) have been the cause of conflict with agricultural producers in the Cypress Hills, Alberta and Saskatchewan. Tolerance of elk presence on private lands is low because few benefits accrue to private landowners; rather they largely perceive elk as a public resource produced at their expense. Government management actions have focused on abatement inputs (e.g., population reduction; fencing) and compensation, but incentives to alter land use patterns (crop choice and location) in response to damages have not been considered. Nor has there been information on spatial structure of the elk population that would allow targeted management actions instead of attempting to manage the entire population. In this study we analysed the spatial structure of the Cypress Hills elk population, the distribution of the elk harvest in relation to agricultural conflicts, developed models of the spatial patterns of conflict fields, and evaluated compensation patterns for damage by wild herbivores. We propose modifications to current abatement and compensation programs and discuss alternative approaches involving changes to agricultural land use patterns that may reduce the intensity of conflicts with elk, and increase the acceptance capacity of landowners.

  7. Valencene synthase from the heartwood of Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis) for biotechnological production of valencene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekwilder, Jules; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Cankar, Katarina; van Dijk, Aalt D J; de Jong, René M; Stoopen, Geert; Bouwmeester, Harro; Achkar, Jihane; Sonke, Theo; Bosch, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Nootkatone is one of the major terpenes in the heartwood of the Nootka cypress Callitropsis nootkatensis. It is an oxidized sesquiterpene, which has been postulated to be derived from valencene. Both valencene and nootkatone are used for flavouring citrus beverages and are considered among the most valuable terpenes used at commercial scale. Functional evaluation of putative terpene synthase genes sourced by large-scale EST sequencing from Nootka cypress wood revealed a valencene synthase gene (CnVS). CnVS expression in different tissues from the tree correlates well with nootkatone content, suggesting that CnVS represents the first dedicated gene in the nootkatone biosynthetic pathway in C. nootkatensis The gene belongs to the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily of terpenes synthases and its protein sequence has low similarity to known citrus valencene synthases. In vitro, CnVS displays high robustness under different pH and temperature regimes, potentially beneficial properties for application in different host and physiological conditions. Biotechnological production of sesquiterpenes has been shown to be feasible, but productivity of microbial strains expressing valencene synthase from Citrus is low, indicating that optimization of valencene synthase activity is needed. Indeed, expression of CnVS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated potential for higher yields. In an optimized Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain, expression of CnVS increased valencene yields 14-fold to 352 mg/L, bringing production to levels with industrial potential. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Impacts of air pollution exposure on the allergenic properties of Arizona cypress pollens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahali, Y; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M; Zare, A; Majd, A

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.

  9. Characteristics of mangrove swamps managed for mosquito control in eastern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Devlin, D.; Proffitt, E.; McKee, K.; Cretini, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulations of the vegetation and hydrology of wetlands for mosquito control are common worldwide, but these modifications may affect vital ecosystem processes. To control mosquitoes in mangrove swamps in eastern Florida, managers have used rotational impoundment management (RIM) as an alternative to the worldwide practice of mosquito ditching. Levees surround RIM swamps, and water is pumped into the impoundment during the summer, a season when natural swamps have low water levels. In the New World, these mosquito-managed swamps resemble the mixed basin type of mangrove swamp (based on PCA analysis). An assessment was made of RIM, natural (control), and breached-RIM (restored) swamps in eastern Florida to compare their structural complexities, soil development, and resistance to invasion. Regarding structural complexity, dominant species composition differed between these swamps; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle occurred at a higher relative density in RIM and breached-RIM swamps, and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans had a higher relative density in natural swamps. Tree density and canopy cover were higher and tree height lower in RIM swamps than in natural and breached-RIM swamps. Soil organic matter in RIM swamps was twice that in natural or breached-RIM swamps. RIM swamps had a lower resistance to invasion by the Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius, which is likely attributable to the lower porewater salinity in RIM swamps. These characteristics may reflect differences in important ecosystem processes (primary production, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, decomposition). Comparative assessments of managed wetlands are vital for land managers, so that they can make informed decisions compatible with conservation objectives. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  10. Production Efficiency of Swamp Rice Production in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares profit maximization, output optimization and resource use efficiency in ... of two varieties of swamp rice by farmers in Cross River State of Nigeria. ... The result of the finding also shows that small-scale farmers were more ...

  11. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  12. Sequence Stratigraphic Appraisal: Coastal Swamp Depobelt In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mid-Lower Miocene Agbada sedimentary intercalations of “AB” Field in the coastal swamp depobelt, Western Niger-Delta, were evaluated to determine their sequence stratigraphic character. The analysis was based on a combination of data sets including logs of six wells to describe lithic variations of the Agbada Formation ...

  13. Biology and control of swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewick, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model predicting swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) emergence was developed. The model states that 0.1% of the cranberry seedlings will emerge after 150 to 170 GDD have accumulated after the winter ice has melted on the cranberry beds, using 0 C as the low temperature threshold. Experiments in cranberry showed that pronamide [3,5-dichloro-(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide] was effective in controlling swamp dodder when applied preemergence. Rates below 2.4 kg ai/ha appeared to be safe for cranberry plants and fruit. Experiments with 14 C glyphosate showed that the herbicide moved out of carrot leaves to the physiological sinks in the plant. In carrots parasitized by swamp dodder the dodder acted as one of the strongest sinks for photosynthates from the host. In cranberry glyphosate moved out of the leaves, but most remained in the stem to which the treated leaves were attached. The only physiological sinks that accumulated significant amounts of label were the stem apices. The concentration of the herbicide in this sink decreased with time. Swamp dodder stems were able to absorb glyphosate directly from solution

  14. SURVEY OF ECONOMIC TREES IN FRESH WATER SWAMP OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... availability because it determines the number of surviving individuals. This is true for all species of .... 2010). CRUTECH, Calabar forest is a pseudo forest having characteristics of rain and swamp forests. ... as reflected in the random and contiguous distribution. (clumped or aggregated population) of the ...

  15. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  16. Swamp tours in Louisiana post Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn J. Schaffer; Craig A. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in southern Louisiana during August and September 2005. Prior to these storms, swamp tours were a growing sector of nature-based tourism that entertained visitors while teaching about local flora, fauna, and culture. This study determined post-hurricane operating status of tours, damage sustained, and repairs made. Differences...

  17. Coatal salt marshes and mangrove swamps in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Lun; Chen, Ji-Yu

    1995-12-01

    Based on plant specimen data, sediment samples, photos, and sketches from 45 coastal crosssections, and materials from two recent countrywide comprehensive investigations on Chinese coasts and islands, this paper deals with China’s vegetative tidal-flats: salt marshes and mangrove swamps. There are now 141700 acres of salt marshes and 51000 acres of mangrove swamps which together cover about 30% of the mud-coast area of the country and distribute between 18°N (Southern Hainan Island) and 41 °N (Liaodong Bay). Over the past 45 years, about 1750000 acres of salt marshes and 49400 acres of mangrove swamps have been reclaimed. The 2.0×109 tons of fine sediments input by rivers into the Chinese seas form extensive tidal flats, the soil basis of coastal helophytes. Different climates result in the diversity of vegetation. The 3˜8 m tidal range favors intertidal zone development. Of over 20 plant species in the salt marshes, native Suaeda salsa, Phragmites australis, Aeluropus littoralis, Zoysia maerostachys, Imperata cylindrica and introduced Spartina anglica are the most extensive in distribution. Of the 41 mangrove swamps species, Kandelia candel, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Excoecaria agallocha and Avicennia marina are much wider in latitudinal distribution than the others. Developing stages of marshes originally relevant to the evolution of tidal flats are given out. The roles of pioneer plants in decreasing flood water energy and increasing accretion rate in the Changjiang River delta are discussed.

  18. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  19. 78 FR 61380 - Notice of Renewal of Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... settlement agreement negotiated in 1995 between the Florida Biodiversity Project and several Federal agencies... Federal statutes, including the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the National... Advisory Committee is necessary and in the public interest in connection with the performance of duties...

  20. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  1. Utilization of Swamp Forages from South Kalimantan on Local Goat Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rostini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Forages in swamp area consist of grass and legumes that have good productivity and nutrient quality. This research was aimed to evaluate the potency of swamp forage on digestibility and performance of goats. There were 24 local male goats aged 10-12 months with initial body weight of 13.10±1.55 kg, allocated into 6 treatments. Those were control (R0: 60% grass and 40% legumes; (R1: 60% swamp forages and 40% concentrate; (R2: 100% swamp forages; (R3: 100% swamp forage hay; (R4: 100% swamp forage silage; (R5: 100% haylage swamp forages. Results showed that silage treatment significantly increased (P<0.05 consumption and digestibility. Swamp forages could be utilized well by preservation (silage, hay, and haylage. Ensilage of swamp forages increased protein content from 13.72% to 14.02%, protein intake (74.62 g/d, dry matter intake (532.11 g/d, nitrogen free extract intake (257.39 g/d, with total body weight gain (3.5 kg in eight weeks and average daily gain (62.60 g/d. It is concluded that ensilage of swamp forages (R4 is very potential to be utilized as forage source for ruminants such as goats.

  2. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  3. Weathering of a petroleum spill in a tropical mangrove swamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I. [Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In August 1987, an indeterminate amount of petroleum condensate was released from a buried pipe leading to contamination of a tropical mangrove swamp surrounding a tidal creek in North Western Australia. Since no bioremediation was attempted at this site, we have monitored the natural weathering of the condensate by detailed analysis of the petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from sediment samples collected on 11 occasions over a 3 year period.

  4. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  5. Big Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  6. Big Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-05-15

    Astronomy, like particle physics, has become Big Science where the demands of front line research can outstrip the science budgets of whole nations. Thus came into being the European Southern Observatory (ESO), founded in 1962 to provide European scientists with a major modern observatory to study the southern sky under optimal conditions.

  7. Response of tropical peat swamp forest tree species seedlings to macro nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wira Yuwati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Efforts of restoration of degraded tropical peat swamp forest were facing constraints due to the low available nutrient level of peat. The transplanted peat swamp forest species seedlings experienced low survival rate and poor growth performance. This study aimed to demonstrate the response of ten tropical peat swamp forest species seedlings whether climax and pioneer species to macro-nutrients addition in the nursery. The growth performance of climax and pioneer tropical peat swamp species seedlings was recorded following addition of macro nutrients of Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus(P, Potassium(K and Dolomitic limestone (CaMg. The result showed that Alstonia spatulata and Parartocarpus venenosus showed positive growth response following macro nutrients addition. This study concluded that tropical peat swamp pioneer species has lower necessity for macro-nutrients addition than tropical peat swamp climax species.

  8. Big Egos in Big Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Jeppesen, Jacob

    In this paper we investigate the micro-mechanisms governing structural evolution and performance of scientific collaboration. Scientific discovery tends not to be lead by so called lone ?stars?, or big egos, but instead by collaboration among groups of researchers, from a multitude of institutions...

  9. Big Data and Big Science

    OpenAIRE

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Brief introduction to the challenges of big data in scientific research based on the work done by the HEP community at CERN and how the CERN openlab promotes collaboration among research institutes and industrial IT companies. Presented at the FutureGov 2014 conference in Singapore.

  10. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data ...

  11. Biophysics environmental conditions of swamp buffalo Bubalus bubalis Pampangan in district Rambutan South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Windusari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis is a germ plasm specific of Pampangan and endemic in South Sumatera with low productivity and limited distribution. The aims of this study was to obtain information regarding biophysical conditions in the central areas of swamp buffalo in South Sumatera. The method used is purposive sampling method. Data collected in the form of quantitative and qualitative. Primary data were obtained through direct observation, interviews breeders selected as respondents while secondary data obtained from various related. The data obtained are presented descriptively and data tabulation. Productivity of swamp buffalo Pampangan can be increased by managing and maintaining habitat conditions although traditional maintenance. The results of observations of the biophysical condition of swamp buffalo (B. bubalis Pampangan showed that habitat of swamp buffalo Pampangan consists of dominated by lowland swamp area is overgrown with shrubs and grass. The conclution of the research are productivity and population of swamp buffalo (B. bubalis pampangan as specific plasma nutfah of South Sumatra can be improved by studying the characteristics and preferred habitat of the buffalo, although developed in a traditional farms but is good enough and so need to be developed, grass is most preferred by swamp buffalo Pampangan derived from ‘Kumpai’ grass group, and ‘Kasur’grass and ‘Kumpai’ grass is the dominant grass type found in habitat swamp buffalo Pampangan.

  12. Comparison of the evapotranspiration and its components before and after thinning in Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Makiko; Xiang, Yang; Matsuda, Hiroki; Saito, Takami; Sun, Haotian; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Kasahara, Tamao; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Water source area of Japan is often covered by forest, and 40 % of forest cover is coniferous plantation. Thinning has become a major tool in the management of plantation in recent years, but its effects on water cycle and its components are yet to be evaluated well. In this study, we investigated the changes in evapotranspiration and its components, including stand transpiration and canopy interception loss, after thinning in 50 years old Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress plantation at Yayama experimental catchment in Fukuoka, Japan. We established study plot in each Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress stand. Sap flow measurement was conducted for evaluating stand transpiration in each plot. Through fall and stem flow were also monitored to estimate canopy interception loss. The experiments were conducted over two years. During the measurements, 50 % of trees were thinned randomly in entire catchment, which has an area of 2.98 ha. Stem density was changed from 3945 to 1977 trees per ha after thinning. The reduction of daily stand transpiration in the studied Japanese cedar and cypress stands after thinning were 31.6 % and 48.2 % under the same condition of microclimate, respectively. These values were comparable to the changes in total sapwood area, 34.2 % and 44.5 %, and sap flow density did not change after thinning. It implies that sapwood area is a primary determinant of stand transpiration. Canopy interception ratios were 27 % and 26 % for Japanese cedar and cypress before thinning, and the ratios decreased to 24 % and 21 % after thinning, respectively. Thus, we obtained the changes in annual evapotranspiration and its components at catchment scale by using observation and models. The changes in partitioning of evapotranspiration is also discussed. The evapotranspiration before and after thinning were also compared to water balance data in this study site.

  13. Big inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, B [Lancaster Univ. (UK)

    1979-06-28

    The recently published report entitled 'The Big Public Inquiry' from the Council for Science and Society and the Outer Circle Policy Unit is considered, with especial reference to any future enquiry which may take place into the first commercial fast breeder reactor. Proposals embodied in the report include stronger rights for objectors and an attempt is made to tackle the problem that participation in a public inquiry is far too late to be objective. It is felt by the author that the CSS/OCPU report is a constructive contribution to the debate about big technology inquiries but that it fails to understand the deeper currents in the economic and political structure of technology which so influence the consequences of whatever formal procedures are evolved.

  14. Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bútora, Matúš

    2017-01-01

    Cieľom bakalárskej práca je popísať problematiku Big Data a agregačné operácie OLAP pre podporu rozhodovania, ktoré sú na ne aplikované pomocou technológie Apache Hadoop. Prevažná časť práce je venovaná popisu práve tejto technológie. Posledná kapitola sa zaoberá spôsobom aplikovania agregačných operácií a problematikou ich realizácie. Nasleduje celkové zhodnotenie práce a možnosti využitia výsledného systému do budúcna. The aim of the bachelor thesis is to describe the Big Data issue and ...

  15. BIG DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Dubey

    2018-01-01

    The term 'Big Data' portrays inventive methods and advances to catch, store, disseminate, oversee and break down petabyte-or bigger estimated sets of data with high-speed & diverted structures. Enormous information can be organized, non-structured or half-organized, bringing about inadequacy of routine information administration techniques. Information is produced from different distinctive sources and can touch base in the framework at different rates. With a specific end goal to handle this...

  16. A rapid biosynthesis route for the preparation of gold nanoparticles by aqueous extract of cypress leaves at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noruzi, Masumeh; Zare, Davood; Davoodi, Daryoush

    In the present study, green synthesis of gold nanoparticles was reported using the aqueous extract of cypress leaves. The reduction of gold salt with the extract of cypress leaves resulted in the formation of gold nanoparticles. Effects of extract concentration and extract pH were investigated on the size of the nanoparticles. It was found that the average particle size of synthesized gold nanoparticles depends strongly on extract concentration and extract pH. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that bioorganic capping molecules were bound to the surface of particles. X-ray techniques confirmed the formation of gold nanoparticles and their crystalline structure. The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis displayed that the reaction progress is higher than 90% at room temperature. Gold nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape along with some irregular shapes. Cypress is an evergreen plant and its leaves are easily available in all four seasons. Also, the rate of the reaction was high and it was completed in only 10 min. For these reasons, this method is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Thus, it can be used in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles instead of chemical methods and other biosynthesis approaches.

  17. Keynote: Big Data, Big Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Borgman, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    The enthusiasm for big data is obscuring the complexity and diversity of data in scholarship and the challenges for stewardship. Inside the black box of data are a plethora of research, technology, and policy issues. Data are not shiny objects that are easily exchanged. Rather, data are representations of observations, objects, or other entities used as evidence of phenomena for the purposes of research or scholarship. Data practices are local, varying from field to field, individual to indiv...

  18. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  19. Different Response of Sap Flow at Different Measurement Depths after Thinning in a Japanese Cypress Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C. W.; Gomi, T.; Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Sakashita, W.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    Thinning experiments in forests can alter light conditions and further affect growth rate and transpiration of the remained trees. Previous studies suggested transpiration was increased one year after thinning experiment due to improved canopy light condition. On the other hand, the anatomical and morphological responses to thinning are not react immediately because of the tree adaptation to the new surrounding conditions. It has been hypothesized that lower crown is connected to the inner part of sapwood and need more years to adapt new light conditions after thinning. However, our knowledge for the relationship between tree crown development and water movement inside the trunk after several years from thinning experiment was still limited due to lack of long-term field measurement after thinning. Therefore, in this study, we aim to examine the interannual variability of water movement inside the trunk accompanied the development of tree crown after thinning experiment. To do that, we applied sap flow measurement and terrestrial LiDAR survey from 2011 to 2017 in a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation in Japan, where 50% strip thinning experiment was conducted in the end of 2011. Consequently, we found sap flow densities at different measurement depths were not always increased year by year and those may relate to the crown development after thinning.

  20. Effects of Essential Oil from Hinoki Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, on Physiology and Behavior of Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Phytoncides, which are volatile substances emitted from plants for protection against plant pathogens and insects, are known to have insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Essential oil from Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) is mostly used in commercial products such as air purifiers. However, the physiological/behavioral impact of essential oil from C. obtusa on insects is not established. In this study, we tested the effects of essential oil extracted from C. obtusa on the physiologies and behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. Exposure to essential oil from C. obtusa decreased the lifespan, fecundity, locomotive activity, and developmental success rate of D. melanogaster. In addition, both fruit flies and house flies showed strong repellent behavioral responses to the essential oil, with duration times of about 5 hours at 70 μg/ml. These results suggest that essential oil from C. obtusa can be used as a ‘human-friendly’ alternative insect repellent. PMID:26624577

  1. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to

  2. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  3. Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Jon; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    2016-01-01

    Big Data byder sig til som en af tidens mest hypede teknologiske innovationer, udråbt til at rumme kimen til nye, værdifulde operationelle indsigter for private virksomheder og offentlige organisationer. Mens de optimistiske udmeldinger er mange, er forskningen i Big Data i den offentlige sektor...... indtil videre begrænset. Denne artikel belyser, hvordan den offentlige sundhedssektor kan genanvende og udnytte en stadig større mængde data under hensyntagen til offentlige værdier. Artiklen bygger på et casestudie af anvendelsen af store mængder sundhedsdata i Dansk AlmenMedicinsk Database (DAMD......). Analysen viser, at (gen)brug af data i nye sammenhænge er en flerspektret afvejning mellem ikke alene økonomiske rationaler og kvalitetshensyn, men også kontrol over personfølsomme data og etiske implikationer for borgeren. I DAMD-casen benyttes data på den ene side ”i den gode sags tjeneste” til...

  4. 137Cs Transfer Factor from Latosol Soil to Swamp Gabbages (Ipomea Reptans Poir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli-Nirwani; Yurfida; Buchori

    2001-01-01

    A study of 137 Cs transfer factor from Latosol soil to swamp cabbages plant has been conducted using pot treatment system with complete random design. The aim of the research is to determine transfer factor of 137 Cs from latosol soil to swamp cabbages plant. Cs-137 concentration administered was 7.5287 kBq/pot. The number of swamp cabbages planted in 137 Cs treated soil and in cannot soil respectively was 12 pots filled with 1 kg soil/pot. After harvest, the weight of dried plant was measured. Transfer factor was determined according to the accumulation of 137 Cs concentration in swamp cabbages and soil and counted using Spectrometer Gamma. It was found that is a significant difference between 137 Cs concentration in swamp cabbages planted inthe treated soil and that of control soil. Transfer factor ranges between 0.02 and 0.13 with the averageof 0.08. (author)

  5. Recycling of phenolic compounds in Borneo's tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Catherine M; Lim, Yau Yan; Lim, Tse Yuen

    2018-02-07

    Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) are globally significant carbon stores, sequestering carbon mainly as phenolic polymers and phenolic compounds (particularly as lignin and its derivatives) in peat layers, in plants, and in the acidic blackwaters. Previous studies show that TPSF plants have particularly high levels of phenolic compounds which inhibit the decomposition of organic matter and thus promote peat accumulation. The studies of phenolic compounds are thus crucial to further understand how TPSF function with respect to carbon sequestration. Here we present a study of cycling of phenolic compounds in five forests in Borneo differing in flooding and acidity, leaching of phenolic compounds from senescent Macaranga pruinosa leaves, and absorption of phenolics by M. pruinosa seedlings. The results of the study show that total phenolic content (TPC) in soil and leaves of three species of Macaranga were highest in TPSF followed by freshwater swamp forest and flooded limestone forest, then dry land sites. Highest TPC values were associated with acidity (in TPSF) and waterlogging (in flooded forests). Moreover, phenolic compounds are rapidly leached from fallen senescent leaves, and could be reabsorbed by tree roots and converted into more complex phenolics within the leaves. Extreme conditions-waterlogging and acidity-may facilitate uptake and synthesis of protective phenolic compounds which are essential for impeded decomposition of organic matter in TPSF. Conversely, the ongoing drainage and degradation of TPSF, particularly for conversion to oil palm plantations, reverses the conditions necessary for peat accretion and carbon sequestration.

  6. Big data analytics turning big data into big money

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlhorst, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Unique insights to implement big data analytics and reap big returns to your bottom line Focusing on the business and financial value of big data analytics, respected technology journalist Frank J. Ohlhorst shares his insights on the newly emerging field of big data analytics in Big Data Analytics. This breakthrough book demonstrates the importance of analytics, defines the processes, highlights the tangible and intangible values and discusses how you can turn a business liability into actionable material that can be used to redefine markets, improve profits and identify new business opportuni

  7. Central Vietnam climate over the past five centuries from cypress tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Stahle, Daniel K.; Luu, Hong Truong; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Nguyen, Tran Quoc Trung; Thomas, Philip; Le, Canh Nam; Ton, That Minh; Bui, The Hoang; Nguyen, Van Thiet

    2017-06-01

    We present the first crossdated tree ring record from central Vietnam, derived from the growth rings of the rare cypress Fokienia hodginsii from the mountains of Quang Nam Province near the Laos border. The Quang Nam Fokienia hodginsii time series (QNFH), based on the crossdated sequences of 71 increment core samples from 37 mature trees, is the third published dendrochronological record from this species. The record extends 667 years from AD 1347 to 2013 and exhibits a mean series intercorrelation of 0.526, similarly significant with the first two published Fokienia hodginsii records: 0.474 for Mu Cang Chai (MCFH) and 0.578 for Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park (BDFH) in the north and south of Vietnam, respectively. The Expressed Population Signal (EPS) for the QNFH record exceeds the generally accepted threshold of 0.85 back to AD 1567, but remains above 0.8 back to 1550. Similar to the MCFH and BDFH records, QNFH expresses statistically significant linkages to regional hydroclimate metrics and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Here we present a reconstruction of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the month of April, averaged over a large region of Southeast Asia. As with prior studies we demonstrate that cool phase (La Niña) and warm phase (El Niño) events are linked to regional wet and dry conditions, respectively, with linkages to modulation of the surface water temperature over the adjacent sea to the east of Vietnam as well as the Indian Ocean. A late eighteenth century megadrought that is expressed widely across South and Southeast Asia, and notably from the MCFH and BDFH records described above, is not as pronounced in Central Vietnam and we explore the reasons why.

  8. The Analysis of Management and Timber Trade System of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi From Peat Swamp Forest in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Firmanul Ariffin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now the raw material of wood especially Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi available for supporting the construction of housing and other infrastructures is increasingly large in Indonesia. On the Island of Borneo that partly consists of swamps needs Gelam very large and continuous, particularly for residential development. However, areas of peat swamp forest habitat of this plant from year to year are degradation and shrinkage. This situation is a very big influence on the population of Gelam, while the management and timber trade systems are not well regulated. This study aims to analyze the management and timber trade systems of Gelam particularly in South Kalimantan to provide input to the policy holder in the preservation of Gelam. The method was used a field survey and interviews with traders and policy holders related regulations. The results showed in South Kalimantan the potency of Gelam is only 2,9-7,1 m3/ha and decreasing yearly. Normally Gelam with a diameter <4 cm have been cut down, as well as > 30 cm. These dimensions should not be cut because of <4 cm too young and > 30 cm can be used as seed sources. Gelam derived from peat swamp forest, which mostly comes from the Batola District and some came from Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan. Distributions of Gelam were starting gatherers logging in the forest then sold to small gatherers, next to the large gatherers and distributed to all districts/cities in South Kalimantan, wood processing industries, and some of them were sent to Java. The silviculture system of Gelam was using selective cutting. Classification of wood sizes traded by the diameter divided into 3-4cm, 5-6cm, 7-8cm, 9-10cm, 11-12cm, 13-14cm, 15-19cm and > 20cm to 4m long. Its use consists of a small diameter (3-10cm for foundry building and firewood, while the large diameter (10-20cm for the construction of houses in swampy areas, and waste as well as the stems are bent and deformed used for firewood. Until now Gelam

  9. Holocene mangrove swamps of West Africa sedimentology and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius, C.; Lucas, J.

    The mangrove swamps of West African Coast belong to the Atlantic type which is characterized by a small number of species. They colonize tidal environments which are dissected by numerous meandering tidal channels and are presently subject to a low rate of sediment accumulation. The mangrove vegetation exhibits a characteristic zonation pattern that basically reflects the adaptation of the various species to saline conditions. The typical zonation sequence is: Rhizophora racemosa (or Rh. mangle), Rh. mangle + Avicennia africana, Avicennia, flooded tanne, barren tanne, herbaceous tanne. The tannes are generated by aridic climatic conditions, heavy soil and water salt content, and are, in a way a peculiar feature of mangrove swamps in West Africa. The sediment colonized by the mangroves is relatively homogenous. Mineralogically, they are dominated by quartz and clay to which are associated halite, pyrite and jarosite. The clay suite is mainly composed of smectite and kaolinite. Smectite is predominant in the inlet areas and is replaced inland by kaolinite. Chemically, the sediments contain very low amounts of Ca, bases and trace elements. The mangrove swamp floodwaters have a chemical composition similar to that of seawater. It is dominated by sodium and chloride. Morphologically, the ripening of the soils appears with a chestnut mash colour horizon and buttery consistency in relation with the decomposition of fibrous roots of Rhizophora and also with pale yellow jarosite mottles in the top horizons of the tanne profiles due to the oxidation of pyrine. The two main properties of the mangrove soils of West Africa are acidity and salinity; the first is related to the high content of sulphur and the second to the sea influence. The acidity has to be connected mainly to the Rhizophora vegetation whose the root system is a real trap for catching the pyrites resulting from the reduction of the sulphates of sea water by the sulphate reducing bacteria, in a reduced

  10. Neozygites osornensis sp. nov., a fungal species causing mortality to the cypress aphid Cinara cupressi in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Cristian Montalva; Barta, Marek; Pérez, Eladio Rojas; Flores, Eduardo Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    An entomophthoralean fungus causing epizootics in populations of the cypress aphid, Cinara cupressi Buckton, in Chile is described as a new species, Neozygites osornensis Montalva et Barta. The aphid pathogen is described based on morphological characters. An exhaustive description, illustrations and a comparison with closely related species are provided. The fungus differs from similar Neozygites species by smaller hyphal bodies, nuclei, primary conidia, capilliconidia and capilliphores and by noticeably different shape of capilliconidia. A key to aphid-pathogenic species of Neozygites is also included.

  11. Isolation of peat swamp forest foliar endophyte fungi as biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peatland restoration activity is facing many obstacles, particularly in planting techniques and poor nutrient in peat soil. Naturally, endophytic fungi are abundant and have great potential as biofertilizer. This research investigates the potential endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of peat swamp tree species for biofertilizer. Research activities include: exploration, in vitro test to examine the phosphate solubilization and identification. Result showed that there were 360 leave segments collected from 4 sampling locations. The colonization percentage of 222 isolates ranged from 52.17% - 60.17%. Fifty seven morphospecies were selected from 222 isolates. Twelve isolates demonstrated ability to produce clear zones and ten isolates were selected for identification. It is concluded that twelve isolated demonstrated potential ability to produce clear zone and Penicillum citrinum isolate P3.10 was identified as an isolate that show the highest potential ability as a biofertilizer

  12. SWAMP+: multiple subsequence alignment using associative massive parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Johnnie W [KENT STATE UNIV.

    2010-10-18

    A new parallel algorithm SWAMP+ incorporates the Smith-Waterman sequence alignment on an associative parallel model known as ASC. It is a highly sensitive parallel approach that expands traditional pairwise sequence alignment. This is the first parallel algorithm to provide multiple non-overlapping, non-intersecting subsequence alignments with the accuracy of Smith-Waterman. The efficient algorithm provides multiple alignments similar to BLAST while creating a better workflow for the end users. The parallel portions of the code run in O(m+n) time using m processors. When m = n, the algorithmic analysis becomes O(n) with a coefficient of two, yielding a linear speedup. Implementation of the algorithm on the SIMD ClearSpeed CSX620 confirms this theoretical linear speedup with real timings.

  13. Weeds optimally grow in peat swamp after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Susanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After clearing land by burning the peat, then the weeds and undergrowth will flourish. Even sometimes, the weeds are eventually burned again. Weed is known as a destroyer plant that has to be controlled. Through proper treatment, the existing weeds in peatlands can be potentiallly exploited. The purpose of this study was to determine the calorific value of briquettes as one of peatland weeds utilization. The results showed that the calorific value ranged from 2,492 cal/g to 5,230 cal/g. The lowest calorific value was on ‘teki kecil’ grass (Scirpus grossus Lf, while the highest calorific value was observed for ‘bantalaki grass’ (Hymenachne amplexicaulis Nees. The high calorific value of the peat weeds are potential for biomass briquettes raw materials. The utilization and use of peat weed briquettes as a raw materials expected can reduce land degradation due to peat swamp burning

  14. Ornithological aspects on the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GACHE Carmen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This ornithological notice present information on the avifauna recorded in the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia beginning with the 1998’s summer. We identified 132 species of birds. The reedbeds cover about 35% of the swamp’s surface, offering good conditions for the breeding season (Ixobrychus minutus, Botaurus stellaris, Cygnus olor, Himantopus himantopus, Recurvirostra avosetta and Sterna hirundo but also for migration period. The breeding population is low due the high level of the human pressure. Due the presence of sulphurous sources and peat bed, the water is not freezing during the winter, transforming this territory in an important wintering site in the southeastern Dobroudja. Interesting is also the presence in this area during the winter of some summer visitors’ species for Romania like: Phalacrocorax pygmeus, Botaurus stellaris and Rallus aquaticus.

  15. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  16. Geomorphic controls on fluvial carbon exports and emissions from upland swamps in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten; Looman, Arun; Maher, Damien T; Fryirs, Kirstie

    2018-03-15

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are upland wetlands, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage. To assess the effect of channelisation on carbon budgets in these ecosystems it is essential to identify and quantify differences in carbon export, emissions and stocks of carbon of intact swamps and those that have become channelised. We undertook seasonal sampling of the perched swamp aquifers and surface waters of two intact swamps and two channelised fills in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, to investigate differences in carbon exports and emissions between the two swamp types. We found that channelised fills' mean CO 2 emissions were almost four times higher than intact swamps with mean CH 4 emissions up to five times higher. Annual fluvial carbon exports for channelised fills were up to 18 times that of intact swamps. Channelised fill exports and emissions can represent up to 2% of the total swamp carbon stocks per annum which is 40 times higher than the intact swamps. This work clearly demonstrates that changes in geomorphic structure brought about by incision and channelisation results in profound changes to the carbon storage function of THPSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity ( p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality ( p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  18. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05) and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01). Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  19. Simulated effects of existing and proposed surface-water impoundments and gas-well pads on streamflow and suspended sediment in the Cypress Creek watershed, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rheannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Cypress Creek is located in central Arkansas and is the main tributary to Brewer Lake, which serves as the primary water supply for Conway, Arkansas, and the surrounding areas. A model of the Cypress Creek watershed was developed and calibrated in cooperation with Southwestern Energy Company using detailed precipitation, streamflow, and discrete suspended-sediment data collected from 2009 through 2012. These data were used with a Hydrologic Simulation Program—FORTRAN model to address different potential gas-extraction activities within the watershed.

  20. Effects of soil water decline on diurnal and seasonal variations in sap flux density for differently aged Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Tsuruta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of soil drought on transpiration are often neglected when predicting transpiration for forests in humid regions under the influence of the Asian monsoon. These effects have indeed been neglected for Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, a major plantation species in Japan and the surrounding area, probably because previous studies have reported no clear effects of soil drought on transpiration for Japanese cypress forests. However, a few studies have reported an apparent reduction in transpiration with soil drought for young Japanese cypress forests. It remains unclear whether such a reduction in transpiration is limited to young Japanese cypress forests or if it is not uncommon for mature Japanese cypress forests, which occupy a large area in Japan. To clarify this point, we conducted sap flux measurements in a year with soil drought on three differently aged Japanese cypress stands including mature (43 years old and relatively young (23 and 26 years old trees. In a diurnal time scale, a cross correlation analysis of sap flux density (Fd and vapor pressure deficit (VPD showed that the time lags between Fd and VPD were 1-3 h in dry soil conditions. These were larger than those of wet soil conditions (<1 h for all sample trees. Fd at a given VPD in dry soil conditions was smaller than that in wet soil conditions for all sample trees; a 28%–63% reduction in the rate of change in Fd was observed under dry soil conditions. Because our results were obtained when the non-exceedance probability of recorded monthly precipitation was 9%–18%, the results suggest the need to consider the effects of soil drought more extensively. Those effects should be considered for not only relatively young but also mature Japanese cypress when predicting diurnal and seasonal patterns of transpiration in years with soil drought, and when predicting inter-annual patterns of transpiration for Japanese cypress despite humid

  1. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  2. Hydrology and hydraulics of Cypress Creek watershed, Texas during Hurricane Harvey and Impact of Potential Mitigation Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassan, A.; Fares, A.; Risch, E.

    2017-12-01

    Rain resulting from Hurricane Harvey stated to spread into Harris County late in August 25 and continued until August 31 2017. This high intensity rainfall caused catastrophic flooding across the Greater Houston Area and south Texas. The objectives of this study are to use the USACE Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis model (GSSHA) to: i) simulate the hydrology and hydraulics of Cypress Creek watershed and quantify the impact of hurricane Harvey on it; and ii) test potential mitigation measures, e.g., construction of a third surface reservoir on the flooding and hydrology of this watershed. Cypress Creek watershed area is 733 km2. Simulations were conducted using precipitation from two sources a) the Multisensory Precipitation Estimator radar products (MPE) and Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Streamflow was downloaded from the USGS gauge at the outlet of the watershed. The models performance using both precipitation data was very reasonable. The construction of an 8 m high embankment at the south central part of the watershed resulted in over 22% reduction of the peak flow of the stream and also reduction of the depth of inundation across the east part of the watershed. These and other mitigation scenarios will be further discussed in details during the presentation.

  3. Second status report on regional and local ground-water flow modeling for Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    Regional and local ground-water flow within the principal geohydrologic units in the Mississippi salt-dome basin is evaluated by developing conceptual models of the flow regime at a regional and a local scale and testing these models using a three-dimensional, finite-difference flow code. Semiquantitative sensitivity analyses (a limited parametric study) are conducted to define the system response to changes in the conceptual models. The conceptual models are described in terms of their areal and vertical discretizations, aquifer properties, fluid properties, and hydrologic boundary conditions. The simulated ground-water flow fields are described with potentiometric surfaces, areas of upward and downward flow across aquitards, tables summarizing the real and vertical volumetric flows through the principal units, and Darcy velocities with specified finite-difference blocks. Ground-water travel paths and times from both Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome are provided. The regional scale simulation results are discussed with regard to measured field data. The reported work is the second state of an ongoing evaluation of Richton and Cypress Creek Domes as potential repositories for high-level radioactive wastes. The results and conclusions should thus be considered preliminary and subject to modification with the collection of additional data. However, the report does provide a useful basis for describing the sensitivity of the present conceptualization of ground-water flow to parameterization and, to a lesser extent, the uncertainties in the present conceptualization. 19 refs., 33 figs., 25 tabs

  4. Report of mortmorilloniticas clay in the Medina swamp (Cerro Largo district)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.; Heinzen, W.; Theune, C.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the prospect ion work for the montmorillonitics clay in the region of Medina swamp in Cerro Largo district. The existence of new deposits was detected by cartography and geological study.

  5. Long-term stand growth after helicopter and ground-based skidding in a tupelo-cypress wetland: 21-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Evans; W.M. Aust; J.A. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Three disturbance treatments were implemented on a tupelo-cypress forested wetland in southwestern Alabama on the Tensaw River in 1986: (1) clearcutting with helicopter log removal (HELI), (2) HELI followed by rubber-tired skidder traffic simulation (SKID), and (3) HELI followed by removal of all vegetation during the first two growing seasons via glyphosate herbicide...

  6. Swamp land optimization in supporting food security and enhancing farmers welfare in South Sumatra Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwenita; Hutapea, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Swamp land in Indonesia spread in Sumatra, Kalimantan and West Papua. In Sumatra the largest swamp land area is located in South Sumatera Province. Unfortunately only few of the areas have been utilized due to its fragility, in which farmers could only cultivate rice on it once a year. The purpose of this paper is to develop a feasible farming pattern in swamp land to help farmers and practitioners in optimizing it by managing its water level. Shallow and mid swamp land can be cultivated using rotation model of crops (rice, corn, cassava), horticulture (cucumber, long beans, watermelon etc), fish farming (catfish, snake head fish, tilapia), and duck farming, whereas submergence tolerant rice varieties can be cultivated alternating with fish farming in deep swamp land. This study shows that such swamp land management is financially feasible showing by its positive NPV value, BCR value is above 1.00, and IRR value is greater than the interest rate. Therefore, implementation of this farming pattern is expected to increase farmers’ income and household food supply as well as village food supply.

  7. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  8. Fish measurement using Android smart phone: the example of swamp eel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baisong; Fu, Zhuo; Ouyang, Haiying; Sun, Yingze; Ge, Changshui; Hu, Jing

    The body length and weight are critical physiological parameters for fishes, especially eel-like fishes like swamp eel(Monopterusalbus).Fast and accurate measuring of body length is significant for swamp eel culturing as well as its resource investigation and protection. This paper presents an Android smart phone-based photogrammetry technology for measuring and estimating the length and weight of swamp eel. This method utilizes the feature that the ratio of lengths of two objects within an image is equal to that of in reality to measure the length of swamp eels. And then, it estimates the weight via a pre-built length-weight regression model. Analysis and experimental results have indicated that this method is a fast and accurate method for length and weight measurements of swamp eel. The cross-validation results shows that the RMSE (root-mean-square error) of total length measurement of swamp eel is0.4 cm, and the RMSE of weight estimation is 11 grams.

  9. Big Data, Big Problems: A Healthcare Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa S; Aldosari, Bakheet; Alanazi, Abdullah; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written on the benefits of big data for healthcare such as improving patient outcomes, public health surveillance, and healthcare policy decisions. Over the past five years, Big Data, and the data sciences field in general, has been hyped as the "Holy Grail" for the healthcare industry promising a more efficient healthcare system with the promise of improved healthcare outcomes. However, more recently, healthcare researchers are exposing the potential and harmful effects Big Data can have on patient care associating it with increased medical costs, patient mortality, and misguided decision making by clinicians and healthcare policy makers. In this paper, we review the current Big Data trends with a specific focus on the inadvertent negative impacts that Big Data could have on healthcare, in general, and specifically, as it relates to patient and clinical care. Our study results show that although Big Data is built up to be as a the "Holy Grail" for healthcare, small data techniques using traditional statistical methods are, in many cases, more accurate and can lead to more improved healthcare outcomes than Big Data methods. In sum, Big Data for healthcare may cause more problems for the healthcare industry than solutions, and in short, when it comes to the use of data in healthcare, "size isn't everything."

  10. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  11. Stalin's Big Fleet Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauner, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Although Dr. Milan Hauner's study 'Stalin's Big Fleet program' has focused primarily on the formation of Big Fleets during the Tsarist and Soviet periods of Russia's naval history, there are important lessons...

  12. Big Data Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceravolo, Paolo; Azzini, Antonia; Angelini, Marco; Catarci, Tiziana; Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Damiani, Ernesto; Mazak, Alexandra; van Keulen, Maurice; Jarrar, Mustafa; Santucci, Giuseppe; Sattler, Kai-Uwe; Scannapieco, Monica; Wimmer, Manuel; Wrembel, Robert; Zaraket, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    Big Data technology has discarded traditional data modeling approaches as no longer applicable to distributed data processing. It is, however, largely recognized that Big Data impose novel challenges in data and infrastructure management. Indeed, multiple components and procedures must be

  13. Sunken wood habitat for thiotrophic symbiosis in mangrove swamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Mélina C Z; Gros, Olivier; Brulport, Jean-Pierre; Gaill, Françoise; Bris, Nadine Le

    2009-03-01

    Large organic falls to the benthic environment, such as dead wood or whale bones, harbour organisms relying on sulfide-oxidizing symbionts. Nothing is known however, concerning sulfide enrichment at the wood surface and its relation to wood colonization by sulfide-oxidizing symbiotic organisms. In this study we combined in situ hydrogen sulfide and pH measurements on sunken wood, with associated fauna microscopy analyses in a tropical mangrove swamp. This shallow environment is known to harbour thiotrophic symbioses and is also abundantly supplied with sunken wood. A significant sulfide enrichment at the wood surface was revealed. A 72h sequence of measurements emphasized the wide fluctuation of sulfide levels (0.1->100muM) over time with both a tidal influence and rapid fluctuations. Protozoans observed on the wood surface were similar to Zoothamnium niveum and to vorticellids. Our SEM observations revealed their association with ectosymbiotic bacteria, which are likely to be sulfide-oxidizers. These results support the idea that sunken wood surfaces constitute an environment suitable for sulfide-oxidizing symbioses.

  14. Characterizing Big Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Rossi; Kechi Hirama

    2015-01-01

    Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: t...

  15. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  16. Mineral uptake by taro (colocasla esculenta) in swamp agroecosystem following gramoxone paraquat herbicide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Mazleha Maskin; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2006-01-01

    Mineral elemental uptake by Colocasia esculenta growing in swamp agroecosystem was studied following 14, 18 or 28 months of field spraying (MAT, months after treatment) with herbicide Gramoxone paraquat. In overall, Al (68226.67 ± 24066.56 μ/g dw) was the major element in riverine alluvial swamp soil, followed by micronutrient Fe (22280.00 ± 6328.87 μ/g dw). Concentration of macronutrient K (20733.33 ± 7371.82, μ/g dw) was the highest in swamp taro leaf followed by macronutrient Ca (7050.00 ± 3767.26 μ/g dw). In overall, the order of importance of the average mineral concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Na > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. However at 14 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Al > Na > Mn > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. At 18 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Fe > Na > Zn > Br > Co. At 28 AMT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Fe > Al > Zn > Na > Br > Co. In overall, the average order of importance of mineral elemental uptake or the soil plant transfer coefficient was Mn > K > Na > Zn > Co > Fe > Al; similar with the order at 28 MAT However, at 14 MAT the order of importance of the soil plant transfer coefficient was different at Mn > K > Na > Co > Zn > Al > Fe. (Author)

  17. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  18. Big data computing

    CERN Document Server

    Akerkar, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Due to market forces and technological evolution, Big Data computing is developing at an increasing rate. A wide variety of novel approaches and tools have emerged to tackle the challenges of Big Data, creating both more opportunities and more challenges for students and professionals in the field of data computation and analysis. Presenting a mix of industry cases and theory, Big Data Computing discusses the technical and practical issues related to Big Data in intelligent information management. Emphasizing the adoption and diffusion of Big Data tools and technologies in industry, the book i

  19. Microsoft big data solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,

  20. Characterizing Big Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rossi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: technology, people and processes. Hence, this article discusses these dimensions: the technological dimension that is related to storage, analytics and visualization of big data; the human aspects of big data; and, in addition, the process management dimension that involves in a technological and business approach the aspects of big data management.

  1. Zoneamento ambiental em Pantanais (Banhados Environmental zoning in swamp regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. Kurtz

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O zoneamento ambiental em pantanais (Banhados permitiu avaliar a deterioração ambiental dos ecossistemas existentes na Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC/TAIM municípios de Rio Grande, RS, e Santa Vitória do Palmar, RS. Considerou-se dois tipos distintos de ecossistemas: o do Banhado (ECO1 = Ecossistema Límnico e o da Planície Marítima (ECO2 = Ecossistema Planície Marítima. A ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 apresentou 64% da classe APP (Área de Preservação Permanente, 27,6% de ACP (Área de Conservação Permanente, e 5,6% de AUO (Área de Uso e Ocupação, enquanto em menor porcentagem se encontra a classe AR (Área de Restauração com 2,8%. A deterioração ambiental da ESEC/TAIM (ECO TOTAL ficou em 13,65%. Com relação à análise fatorial, conclui-se que esta técnica permitiu conhecer a estrutura dos dados, mostrando as correlações entre cada variável (classes de exuberância e seu respectivo fator; entretanto, não foi possível separar grupos ou quantificar a influência de uma ou mais variáveis sobre outra de interesse (variável resposta. Recomenda-se que o zoneamento ambiental seja elaborado pelos órgãos públicos ambientais, nas demais estações ecológicas e nas unidades de conservação.The environmental zoning in swamp regions allowed the evaluation of the environmental deterioration of the ecosystems in the Ecological Station of Taim (ESEC/TAIM, in Rio Grande and Santa Vitória of Palmar (in the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. Two different types of ecosystems were considered: swamp regions (ECO1 = Límnico Ecosystem and the Marine Plain (ECO2 = Ecosystem Marine Plain. The ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 presented 64% of the class APP (Permanent Preservation Area, 27.6% of ACP (Permanent Conservation Area, 5.6% of AUO (Occupation and Use Area, and in a smaller percentage the class AR (Restoration Area with 2.8%. The environmental deterioration of ESEC/TAIM (ECO TOTAL was 13.65%. The factorial analysis technique permitted

  2. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF RICE FOR TIDAL SWAMP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Hairmansis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of rice varieties for tidal swamp areas is emphasized on the improvement of rice yield potential in specific environment. However, grain yield is a complex trait and highly dependent on the other agronomic characters; while information related to the relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield in the breeding program particularly for tidal swamp areas is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield of rice as a basis for selection of high yielding rice varieties for tidal swamp areas. Agronomic characters and grain yield of nine advanced rice breeding lines and two rice varieties were evaluated in a series of experiments in tidal swamp areas, Karang Agung Ulu Village, Banyuasin, South Sumatra, for four cropping seasons in dry season (DS 2005, wet season (WS 2005/2006, DS 2006, and DS 2007. Result from path analysis revealed that the following characters had positive direct effect on grain yield, i.e. number of productive tillers per hill (p = 0.356, number of filled grains per panicle (p = 0.544, and spikelet fertility (p = 0.215. Plant height had negative direct effect (p = -0.332 on grain yield, while maturity, number of spikelets per panicle, and 1000-grain weight showed negligible effect on rice grain yield. Present study suggests that indirect selection of high yielding tidal swamp rice can be done by selecting breeding lines which have many product tive tillers, dense filled grains, and high spikelet fertility.

  3. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  4. Floristic and phytosociological analysis of palm swamps in the central part of the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Lucia de Morais Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the floristics and phytosociology of three palm swamps in the municipality of Bela Vista de Goiás, located in the state of Goiás, Brazil, in the central part of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. The floristic surveys were conducted monthly from May 2008 to April 2009, and 310 species were recorded (seven bryophytes, 15 ferns and 288 angiosperms. Bryophytes belonged to five genera and five families; ferns belonged to nine genera and nine families; and angiosperms belonged to 134 genera and 45 families. The angiosperm families with the highest species richness were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae and Fabaceae. The palm swamps were divided into three zones of increasing humidity: edge, middle and core. The number of species was higher in the middle than at the edge and the core. The families with the highest cover values were Cyperaceae, Melastomataceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae. Although the palm swamps had been disturbed to varying degrees, those disturbances did not affect the flora in the middle or the core. Floristic similarity was high between these two zones within a given palm swamp and low between the edges of different palm swamps.

  5. Project conservation and handling for the multiple uses and the development of the swamps of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia the swamps are distributed in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts; they are located in areas with conditions of pluvial precipitation that varies from annual 200 mm in the Guajira department; nine species of mangroves have registered for Colombia, which are related following a zonation starting from the tide line, still when this pattern not always stays and it depends on the influence of diverse factors and local conditions. The project conservation and handling for the multiple use and the development of the swamps of Colombia, had as objectives; to watch and to control the parameters of salinity, level of water and flow to laminate and of strengthening the generation of alternative productive social and environmentally appropriate for the sustainable use, guaranteeing their conservation and preservation of the swamps. The project was developed in two phases, one of diagnostic and planning and the other of dynamics of growth, phenology and natural regeneration

  6. Influences of deforestation on radiation and heat balances in tropical peat swamp forest in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Ishida, T.; Nagano, T.; Matsukawa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The difference of radiation and heat balances between a natural peat swamp forest and a deforested secondary forest has been investigated in Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Micrometeorological measurements were conducted continuously on observation towers 38 m and 4 m in heights in the primary forest and the secondary forest respectively. Results show that the deforestation of peat swamp forest leads to an increase in the sensible heat flux in the secondary forest. The yearly average ratio of the sensible heat flux to the net radiation was 20.9% in the peat swamp forest, and 33.2% in the secondary forest from Aug. 1995 to Jul. 1996. A ratio more than 40% was observed only in the dry season in the secondary forest. The change in sensible heat flux seemed to be influenced by the change in ground water levels. (author)

  7. The Effects of Corrosive Chemicals on Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement Bars: II. Swamp Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henki Ashadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A polluted environment will influence the building age. The objective of this research was to find out the influence of corrosive chemicals within the sludge swamp area with the corrosion rate of steel concrete. Corrosion in steel concrete usually occur in acid area which contain of SO42-, Cl- and NO3-. The research treatment used by emerging ST 37 andST 60 within 60 days in 'polluted' sludge swamp area. Three variation of 'polluted' swamp sludge were made by increasing the concentration a corrosive unsure up to 1X, 5X and 10X. The corrosion rate measured by using an Immersion Method. The result of Immersion test showed that sulphate had a greatest influence to corrosion rate of ST 37 and ST 60 and followed by chloride and nitrate. Corrosion rate value for ST 37 was 17.58 mpy and for ST 60 was 12.47 mpy.

  8. The impact of the Suwannee River Sill on the surface hydrology of Okefenokee Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhi-Yong; Brook, George A.

    1992-08-01

    Okefenokee Swamp, located in southeastern Georgia and northeastern Florida, is one of the largest freshwater wetland complexes and a National Wildlife Refuge in the United States. A low earthen dam, the Suwannee River Sill, was built on the largest outlet stream of Okefenokee Swamp in the early 1960s. The purpose was to raise the water level and thus reduce fire frequency in this National Wildlife Refuge. In this study, hydrologic conditions in the swamp prior to (1937-1962) and after (1963-1986) sill construction were compared by statistical procedures. An average 9 cm increase in swamp water level at the Suwannee Canal Recreation Area was attributed to the sill. Increased precipitation and decreased evapotranspiration during the study period caused another 5 cm increase in water levels. Seasonal changes in climatic factors were also responsible for seasonal changes in water levels and streamflow in the pre- and post-sill periods. Although the effect of the sill on water level was more significant during dry periods, it is doubtful that the Suwannee River Sill actually prevented occurrence of severe fibres in the post-sill period, which was wetter than the period before sill construction. The sill diverted 2.6% of swamp outflow from the Suwannee River to the St. Mary's River. Diversion of flow was more marked during low flow periods. Therefore, the discharge of the St. Mary's River in the post-sill increased more than the discharge of the Suwannee River and its variability became lower that of the Suwannee River. The relationships between swamp water level, streamflow and precipitation were also changed due to construction of the sill.

  9. The Effects of Corrosive Chemicals on Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement Bars: I. Swamp Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyoweni Widanarko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of infrastructures using steel concrete to reinforce the strength of concrete. Steel concrete is so vulnerable to chemical compounds that can cause corrosion. It can happen due to the presence of chemical compounds in acid environment in low pH level. These chemical compounds are SO42-, Cl-, NO3-. There are many swamp area in Indonesia. The acid contents and the concentration of ion sulphate, chlorides, and nitrate are higher in the swamp water than in the ground water .The objective of this research was to find out the influence of corrosive chemicals in the swamp water to the steel concrete corrosion rate. There were two treatment used: (1 emerging ST 37 and ST 60 within 60 days in the 'polluted' swamp water, (2 moving the ST 37 up and down periodically in the ' polluted' swamp water. Three variation of 'polluted' swamp water were made by increasing the concentration of corrosive chemical up to 1X, 5X and 10X respectively. The corrosion rate was measured by using an Immersion Method. The result of Immersion test showed that chloride had the greatest influence to corrosion rate of ST 37 and ST 60 and followed by sulphate and Nitrate. Corrosion rate value for ST 37 is 24.29 mpy and for ST 60 is 22.76 mpy. By moving the sample up and down, the corrosion rate of ST 37 increase up to 37.59 mpy, and chloride still having the greatest influence, followed by sulphate and nitrate.

  10. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  11. Radionuclides distribution in artificial reservoir V-17 (old swamp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenkova, N. [Vernadsky Institute of geochemistry and analytical chemistry RAS (Russian Federation); Vlasova, I.; Sapozhnikov, Y.; Kalmykov, S. [Lomonosov MSU, Chemistry Dep. (Russian Federation); Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research center for radiation medicine (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Reservoir V-17 (Old Swamp) was formed as a result of the construction of dams in 1952 and 1954 (MAYAK Production Association),located in a natural depression relief. Intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes (ILLW) have been discharged to this reservoir since 1949. The water surface area of the lake is 0.13 km{sup 2} with the volume of 0.36 Mm{sup 3}. The maximum depth is 6.5 m with the average value of 2.8 m. Among 74 PBq deposited to the reservoir, the major portion is concentrated in the bottom sediments (as determined in 2007). The aim of this study is to determine radionuclide distribution among abiotic and biotic aquatic components, that includes study of various radionuclides distribution between water and bottom sediments, their speciation and evaluation of condition of zooplankton community. As a result of field research at the reservoir, 4 sampling locations were chosen from which bottom sediments, water samples and some hydrobionts were collected. Pore waters were separated from the wet sediments by high-speed centrifugation. All samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector Canberra GR 3818.The radioactivity of tritium in the pore and lake waters was determined by liquid-scintillation spectrometry. The strontium-90 was detected by Cherenkov counting of the daughter {sup 90}Y. The preliminary data show for sediments samples: for {sup 137}Cs amount varies from 75,5 KBq/g to 232 KBq/g, {sup 154}Eu - from 460 to 990 Bq/g, {sup 241}Am - from 1 to 4 KBq/g, {sup 134}Cs - from 50 to 220 Bq/g; for water samples: large contribution from strontium-90 and tritium (varies from 2 to 25 Bq/g). Pore water contains medium amount of radionuclides between sediments and water samples. For {sup 137}Cs varies between 160 to 1100 Bq/g, {sup 154}Eu - from 0,1 to 0,3 Bq/g, {sup 241}Am - from 0,3 to 11 Bq/g, {sup 134}Cs - from 0,1 to 1,7 Bq/g. Variation depends on the sampling place. Activity distribution among hydrobionts was studied by digital Radiography

  12. The big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chown, Marcus.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the 'Big Bang' theory of the creation of the Universe 15 thousand million years ago, and traces events which physicists predict occurred soon after the creation. Unified theory of the moment of creation, evidence of an expanding Universe, the X-boson -the particle produced very soon after the big bang and which vanished from the Universe one-hundredth of a second after the big bang, and the fate of the Universe, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c . 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c . 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c . 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5. Synthesis . Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude

  14. Biocontrol for Rhizoctonia Stem Rot Disease by Using Combination of Specific Endophyte in Paddy Tidal Swamp

    OpenAIRE

    Budi, Ismed Setya; Mariana, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was ap...

  15. Summary big data

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of Cukier the book: "Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How we Live, Work, and Think" by Viktor Mayer-Schonberg and Kenneth. Summary of the ideas in Viktor Mayer-Schonberg's and Kenneth Cukier's book: " Big Data " explains that big data is where we use huge quantities of data to make better predictions based on the fact we identify patters in the data rather than trying to understand the underlying causes in more detail. This summary highlights that big data will be a source of new economic value and innovation in the future. Moreover, it shows that it will

  16. Data: Big and Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. A Big Video Manifesto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcilvenny, Paul Bruce; Davidsen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    and beautiful visualisations. However, we also need to ask what the tools of big data can do both for the Humanities and for more interpretative approaches and methods. Thus, we prefer to explore how the power of computation, new sensor technologies and massive storage can also help with video-based qualitative......For the last few years, we have witnessed a hype about the potential results and insights that quantitative big data can bring to the social sciences. The wonder of big data has moved into education, traffic planning, and disease control with a promise of making things better with big numbers...

  18. Bliver big data til big business?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge.......Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge....

  19. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory

  20. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  1. Big data for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  2. Differential recovery of a deepwater swamp forest across a gradient of disturbance intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz

    1997-01-01

    On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, large areas of floodplain swamp forest of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) were destroyed by the cumulative impacts of cooling-water discharges over a 35-year period of nuclear reactor operations. In one floodplain area, four years after thermal...

  3. Potential roles of fish, birds, and water in swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata) seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan B. Adams; Paul B. Hamel; Kristina Connor; Bryce Burke; Emile S. Gardiner; David Wise

    2007-01-01

    Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) is a common wetland shrub/small tree native to the southeastern United States. We examined several possible dispersal avenues for the plant. We tested germination of seeds exposed to various treatments, including passage through Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh) guts, and conducted other...

  4. Composition and species diversity of pine-wiregrass savannas of the Green Swamp, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan Walker; Robert K. Peet

    1983-01-01

    Fire-maintained, species-rich pines wiregrass savannas in the Green Swamp, North Carolina were sampled over their natural range of environmental conditions and fire frequencies. Species composition, species richness, diversity (Exp H', I/ C), and aboveground production were documented and fertilization experiments conducted to assess possible mechanisms for the...

  5. Decline of the Maurepas Swamp, Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, and Approaches to Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P. Shaffer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maurepas swamp is the second largest contiguous coastal forest in Louisiana but it is highly degraded due to subsidence, near permanent flooding, nutrient starvation, nutria herbivory, and saltwater intrusion. Observed tree mortality rates at study sites in the Maurepas swamp are very high (up to 100% tree mortality in 11 years and basal area decreased with average salinities of <1 ppt. Habitat classification, vegetation productivity and mortality, and surface elevation changes show a clear trajectory from stagnant, nearly permanently flooded forests with broken canopy to degraded forests with sparse baldcypress and dominated by herbaceous species and open water to open water habitat for most of the Maurepas swamp without introduction of fresh water to combat saltwater intrusion and stimulate productivity and accretion. Healthy forests in the Maurepas are receiving fresh water containing nutrients and sediments from urban areas, high quality river water, or secondarily treated municipal effluent. Currently, two proposed diversions into the swamp are via Hope Canal (57 m3·s−1 and Blind River (142 m3·s−1. These diversions would greatly benefit their immediate area but they are too small to influence the entire Maurepas sub-basin, especially in terms of accretion. A large diversion (>1422 m3·s−1 is needed to deliver the adequate sediments to achieve high accretion rates and stimulate organic soil formation.

  6. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a primary tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Che Ing, A.; Stoy, P. C.; Melling, L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests are widely recognized as one of the world's most efficient ecosystems for the sequestration and storage of carbon through both their aboveground biomass and underlying thick deposits of peat. As the peat characteristics exhibit high spatial and temporal variability as well as the structural and functional complexity of forests, tropical peat ecosystems can act naturally as both carbon sinks and sources over their life cycles. Nonetheless, few reports of studies on the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange of tropical peat swamp forests are available to-date and their present roles in the global carbon cycle remain uncertain. To quantify CO2 exchange and unravel the prevailing factors and potential underlying mechanism regulating net CO2 fluxes, an eddy covariance tower was erected in a tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. We observed that the diurnal and seasonal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE)) varied between seasons and years. Rates of NEE declined in the wet season relative to the dry season. Conversely, both the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were found to be higher during the wet season than the dry season, in which GPP was strongly negatively correlated with NEE. The average annual NEE was 385 ± 74 g C m-2 yr-1, indicating the primary peat swamp forest functioned as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the observation period.

  7. 75 FR 8107 - Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Bibb and Twiggs Counties, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... impact. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our final comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental..., including upland mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland hardwood, and tupelo gum swamp forests. Creeks, beaver...

  8. Diversity and Antagonistic Activity of Actinomycete Strains From Myristica Swamp Soils Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Rlnoy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the present investigation Actinomycetes were isolated from the soils of Myristica swamps of southern Western Ghats and the antagonistic activity against different human bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Results of the present study revealed that Actinomycetes population in the soils of Myristica swamp was spatially and seasonally varied. Actinomycetes load was varied from 24×104 to 71×103, from 129×103 to 40×103 and from 31×104 to 84×103 in post monsoon, monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. A total of 23 Actinomycetes strains belonging to six genera were isolated from swamp soils. Identification of the isolates showed that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces (11, followed by Nocardia (6, Micromonospora (3, Pseudonocardia (1, Streptosporangium (1, and Nocardiopsis (1. Antagonistic studies revealed that 91.3% of Actinomycete isolates were active against one or more tested pathogens, of that 56.52% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 86.95% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. 39.13% isolates were active against all the bacterial pathogens selected and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. 69.5% of Actinomycetes were exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria followed by Bacillus cereus (65.21%, Staphylococcus (60.86%, Vibrio cholera (52.17%, Salmonella (52.17% and E. coli (39.13%. The results indicate that the Myristica swamp soils of Southern Western Ghats might be a remarkable reserve of Actinomycetes with potential antagonistic activity.

  9. Utilization of Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt Crop at Shallow Swamp Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midranisiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow lowland swamp area has significant potential for cultivation of sweet corn crop. This lowland swamp has rich natural resources such as organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC that are not maximally utilized yet by farmers. These organic fertilizers can be utilized to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop. The research objective was to determine organic fertilizer types that capable to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop at shallow lowland swamp area. This research had been conducted from January to April 2015 in Pulau Semambu Village, North Indralaya Subdistrict, Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra Province. The design used in this research was non-factorial Randomized Block Design (RBD with four treatments of organic fertilizer types with six replications for each treatment. The treatments were consisted of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC. The results showed that treatment of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk could increase the growth and production of sweet corn at shallow lowland swamp area with yield level of 4.37 kg.plot −1.

  10. The Productivity and Natural Increase of Swamp Buffalo in District Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, A.; Ciptadi, G.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect the basic information needed to develop a sustainable breeding program, which includes the potential for production and reproduction of buffaloes. This research was conducted on swamp buffalo in Malang Regency East Java. The research method used was survey method. Primary data was obtained from direct observation on 323 tails owned by 98 breeders. Variables observed were population growth and reproductive performance. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the initial population study of swamp Buffaloes in Malang as many as 1155 with male and female ratio 1: 2. The ratios of male and female swamp Buffalo 20 percent male and 80 percent female. Overall, the buffalo reproduction performance was still low. Service per conception 2.06 ± 0.88; Anestrus Postpartum 7.46 ± 3.83 months; calving interval distance 17.82 ± 4.86 months; 20.43 % birth rate and 4.33% mortality rate of Natural Increase (NI) population was about 16,1%. In conclusion, the value of NI of swamp Buffalo in Malang Regency is still low. To increase buffalo productivity, buffalo breeding program is continuously based on reproduction control.

  11. Skin disease affecting the conservation of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, J M; Kuchling, G; Burford, D; Boardman, W; Raidal, S R

    1998-11-01

    To review the present position of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) as an endangered species and significant health issues affecting efforts to save it from extinction. A retrospective analysis of the husbandry, hospital and pathology records of the western swamp tortoise captive breeding program at Perth Zoo. In 1987 a captive breeding project was developed to prevent the extinction of the western swamp tortoise but an outbreak of a necrotising dermatitis in 1989 threatened the survival of the captive bred hatchlings. Less severe outbreaks occurred in 1990 and 1993, with isolated cases in between. Of 283 tortoises that were born in captivity or came into captivity from the wild, 37 (13.1%) were affected, comprising 37% of all males, 26% of all females and 13% of animals of unknown gender. Of the affected animals, 70% were less than 2 years of age and 29% were older. Males were 1.6 times more likely to be infected than females but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.27). Culture of the lesions consistently yielded unidentified Pseudomonas sp. Improved husbandry, such as strict maintenance of water quality and temperature conditions similar to that of the animal's natural habitat, and monitoring the health of individual tortoises have successfully controlled skin disease in the captive breeding of the western swamp tortoise.

  12. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Kaiso” and “Supa” are the main local swamp-rice (Oryza Sativa) varieties currently grown in Uganda mainly by smallholder farmers on small gardens (0.5 – 2ha). Due to lack of mechanized drying equipment and owing to the low volumes of their harvests, these farmers use open-sun drying methods, where the paddy is ...

  13. Throughfall and stemflow dynamics in a riparian cedar swamp: possible ecohydrological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    Partitioning of rainfall through forest canopies as throughfall and stemflow have deservedly been the subject of much research in the past; however, very little is known about the fluxes of water and solutes through forested wetland communities. Temperate swamps are characterized by intermittent canopy coverage, with areas that are denser than upland forests of similar species, but also contain canopy gaps of meadow and marsh communities,. Understanding the role of vegetation on the distribution of precipitation in these ecosystems is necessary to effectively constrain water balance estimates and predict possible community responses to shifting climate regimes. This study examines throughfall, stemflow, and interception dynamics in a riparian cedar swamp in Alliston, Ontario, Canada over the 2012 growing season. Throughfall averaged 76 % of above-canopy rainfall; however, there were spatial-magnitude interaction variations within the swamp. For events less than 20 mm, between 17 and 75 % of the measured swamp floor received greater depth of rain than above the canopy, whereas for events greater than 20 mm only between 2 and 23 % of the sampled swamp floor received more water than the actual event. The observed spatial variability in throughfall was not related to leaf area index, suggesting remote sensing modelling efforts may not be an accurate method for quantification of wetland precipitation dynamics. Stemflow along the predominantly cedar trees averaged 5 %; therefore, net precipitation on a seasonal basis in this cedar swamp was 81 % of above canopy rainfall. Throughfall DOC and total nitrogen concentrations averaged 31 and 2.2 mg/L, respectively, with stemflow DOC and TN concentrations averaging 109 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than reported for upland forest species. In general, throughfall magnitudes increased and solute concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the existing forest boles. The delivery of high

  14. Phylogeography and allopatric divergence of cypress species (Cupressus L.) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Abbott, Richard J; Milne, Richard I; Mao, Kangshan; Du, Fang K; Wu, Guili; Ciren, Zhaxi; Miehe, Georg; Liu, Jianquan

    2010-06-22

    Although allopatric speciation is viewed as the most common way in which species originate, allopatric divergence among a group of closely related species has rarely been examined at the population level through phylogeographic analysis. Here we report such a case study on eight putative cypress (Cupressus) species, which each have a mainly allopatric distribution in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent regions. The analysis involved sequencing three plastid DNA fragments (trnD-trnT, trnS-trnG and trnL-trnF) in 371 individuals sampled from populations at 66 localities. Both phylogenetic and network analyses showed that most DNA haplotypes recovered or haplotype-clustered lineages resolved were largely species-specific. Across all species, significant phylogeographic structure (N(ST) > G(ST), P allopatric divergence in Cupressus by restricting gene flow and fixing local, species-specific haplotypes in geographically isolated populations. The low levels of intraspecific diversity present in most species might stem from population bottlenecks brought about by recurrent periods of unfavorable climate and more recently by the negative impacts of human activities on species' distributions. Our findings shed new light on the importance of geographical isolation caused by the uplift of the QTP on the development of high plant species diversity in the QTP biodiversity hotspot.

  15. From Big Data to Big Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Idea in Brief: Problem: There is an enormous profit potential for manufacturing firms in big data, but one of the key barriers to obtaining data-driven growth is the lack of knowledge about which capabilities are needed to extract value and profit from data. Solution: We (BDBB research group at C...

  16. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  17. Changes in Species Composition in Alder Swamp Forest Following Forest Dieback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Pielech

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally hypothesized that forest dieback is a characteristic of alder swamp forests (alder carrs, Alnion glutinosae alliance. Different internal and external factors may trigger this process, including human disturbance, changes in river discharge, unusually severe and prolonged flooding, terminal age of an even-aged alder forest (ca. 100–150 years and others. Although forest dieback in this type of forest may cause major changes in environmental conditions, the influence of this change on the floristic composition has not been well recognized. The study aimed to detect any possible changes in floristic variation in alder swamp forest following forest dieback. Vegetation plots in alder swamp forests affected by forest dieback were resurveyed 20 years after a previous study. PERMANOVA was used to test the significance of the compositional change and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS with passively fitted means of the Ellenberg’s Indicator Values were used to interpret its ecological meaning. In addition, different structural and diversity indices were compared, including species richness, percentage cover of vegetation layers, Shannon and Simpson diversity and evenness. Finally, we analyzed changes in the frequency of vascular plant species using Chi square tests. We recorded clear and significant compositional changes following alder swamp forest dieback. This change was most related to the gradient of moisture, followed by the gradients of light and temperature. The analysis of the individual species showed that the species of hummocks declined, while the species of hollows increased. Moreover, the current communities are dominated by some hydrophytes that were not recorded 20 years ago. Forest dieback resulted in profound changes in the hydrological regime. The observed changes are consistent with a model of cyclic succession as proposed for alder swamps. In addition, we conclude that the natural forest dynamics have to be

  18. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  19. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  20. Big Data in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  1. Big data a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Prachet; Chenthati, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of chapters written by experts on various aspects of big data. The book aims to explain what big data is and how it is stored and used. The book starts from  the fundamentals and builds up from there. It is intended to serve as a review of the state-of-the-practice in the field of big data handling. The traditional framework of relational databases can no longer provide appropriate solutions for handling big data and making it available and useful to users scattered around the globe. The study of big data covers a wide range of issues including management of heterogeneous data, big data frameworks, change management, finding patterns in data usage and evolution, data as a service, service-generated data, service management, privacy and security. All of these aspects are touched upon in this book. It also discusses big data applications in different domains. The book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing database and networking engineers.

  2. Recht voor big data, big data voor recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafarre, Anne

    Big data is een niet meer weg te denken fenomeen in onze maatschappij. Het is de hype cycle voorbij en de eerste implementaties van big data-technieken worden uitgevoerd. Maar wat is nu precies big data? Wat houden de vijf V's in die vaak genoemd worden in relatie tot big data? Ter inleiding van

  3. Assessing Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, big data has been one of the most controversially discussed technologies in terms of its possible positive and negative impact. Therefore, the need for technology assessments is obvious. This paper first provides, based on the results of a technology assessment study, an overview...... of the potential and challenges associated with big data and then describes the problems experienced during the study as well as methods found helpful to address them. The paper concludes with reflections on how the insights from the technology assessment study may have an impact on the future governance of big...... data....

  4. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Richard N.

    2001-01-01

    The precision of measurements in modern cosmology has made huge strides in recent years, with measurements of the cosmic microwave background and the determination of the Hubble constant now rivaling the level of precision of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis. However, these results are not necessarily consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model of big bang nucleosynthesis. Reconciling these discrepancies may require extensions of the basic tenets of the model, and possibly of the reaction rates that determine the big bang abundances

  5. Big data for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kaufman, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Find the right big data solution for your business or organization Big data management is one of the major challenges facing business, industry, and not-for-profit organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather patterns monitored by meteorologists, or social network activity can quickly outpace the capacity of traditional data management tools. If you need to develop or manage big data solutions, you'll appreciate how these four experts define, explain, and guide you through this new and often confusing concept. You'll learn what it is, why it m

  6. Big Data, indispensable today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ioan ENACHE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big data is and will be used more in the future as a tool for everything that happens both online and offline. Of course , online is a real hobbit, Big Data is found in this medium , offering many advantages , being a real help for all consumers. In this paper we talked about Big Data as being a plus in developing new applications, by gathering useful information about the users and their behaviour.We've also presented the key aspects of real-time monitoring and the architecture principles of this technology. The most important benefit brought to this paper is presented in the cloud section.

  7. Big Data in der Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)......Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)...

  8. Small Big Data Congress 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2017-01-01

    TNO, in collaboration with the Big Data Value Center, presents the fourth Small Big Data Congress! Our congress aims at providing an overview of practical and innovative applications based on big data. Do you want to know what is happening in applied research with big data? And what can already be

  9. Cryptography for Big Data Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Cryptography for Big Data Security Book Chapter for Big Data: Storage, Sharing, and Security (3S) Distribution A: Public Release Ariel Hamlin1 Nabil...Email: arkady@ll.mit.edu ii Contents 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1 1.1 Introduction...48 Chapter 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1.1 Introduction With the amount

  10. Big data opportunities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This ebook aims to give practical guidance for all those who want to understand big data better and learn how to make the most of it. Topics range from big data analysis, mobile big data and managing unstructured data to technologies, governance and intellectual property and security issues surrounding big data.

  11. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects...... shows that big data problematizes selected aspects of traditional ways to collect and analyze data for development (e.g. via household surveys). We also demonstrate that using big data analyses to address development challenges raises a number of questions that can deteriorate its impact....

  12. Big Data Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on key issues of our paper New games, new rules: big data and the changing context of strategy as a means of addressing some of the concerns raised by the paper’s commentators. We initially deal with the issue of social data and the role it plays in the current data revolution...... and the technological recording of facts. We further discuss the significance of the very mechanisms by which big data is produced as distinct from the very attributes of big data, often discussed in the literature. In the final section of the paper, we qualify the alleged importance of algorithms and claim...... that the structures of data capture and the architectures in which data generation is embedded are fundamental to the phenomenon of big data....

  13. The Big Bang Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  14. BigDansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair; Ilyas, Ihab F.; Jindal, Alekh; Madden, Samuel; Ouzzani, Mourad; Papotti, Paolo; Quiané -Ruiz, Jorge-Arnulfo; Tang, Nan; Yin, Si

    2015-01-01

    of the underlying distributed platform. BigDansing takes these rules into a series of transformations that enable distributed computations and several optimizations, such as shared scans and specialized joins operators. Experimental results on both synthetic

  15. Boarding to Big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Claudia BRATOSIN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today Big data is an emerging topic, as the quantity of the information grows exponentially, laying the foundation for its main challenge, the value of the information. The information value is not only defined by the value extraction from huge data sets, as fast and optimal as possible, but also by the value extraction from uncertain and inaccurate data, in an innovative manner using Big data analytics. At this point, the main challenge of the businesses that use Big data tools is to clearly define the scope and the necessary output of the business so that the real value can be gained. This article aims to explain the Big data concept, its various classifications criteria, architecture, as well as the impact in the world wide processes.

  16. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  17. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-01-01

    on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also

  18. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  19. Conociendo Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Camargo-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la importancia que ha adquirido el término Big Data, la presente investigación buscó estudiar y analizar de manera exhaustiva el estado del arte del Big Data; además, y como segundo objetivo, analizó las características, las herramientas, las tecnologías, los modelos y los estándares relacionados con Big Data, y por último buscó identificar las características más relevantes en la gestión de Big Data, para que con ello se pueda conocer todo lo concerniente al tema central de la investigación.La metodología utilizada incluyó revisar el estado del arte de Big Data y enseñar su situación actual; conocer las tecnologías de Big Data; presentar algunas de las bases de datos NoSQL, que son las que permiten procesar datos con formatos no estructurados, y mostrar los modelos de datos y las tecnologías de análisis de ellos, para terminar con algunos beneficios de Big Data.El diseño metodológico usado para la investigación fue no experimental, pues no se manipulan variables, y de tipo exploratorio, debido a que con esta investigación se empieza a conocer el ambiente del Big Data.

  20. Big Bang baryosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures I briefly review Big Bang baryosynthesis. In the first lecture I discuss the evidence which exists for the BAU, the failure of non-GUT symmetrical cosmologies, the qualitative picture of baryosynthesis, and numerical results of detailed baryosynthesis calculations. In the second lecture I discuss the requisite CP violation in some detail, further the statistical mechanics of baryosynthesis, possible complications to the simplest scenario, and one cosmological implication of Big Bang baryosynthesis. (orig./HSI)

  1. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  2. Big data need big theory too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Peter V; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R

    2016-11-13

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their 'depth' and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote 'blind' big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Big Data and medicine: a big deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Schönberger, V; Ingelsson, E

    2018-05-01

    Big Data promises huge benefits for medical research. Looking beyond superficial increases in the amount of data collected, we identify three key areas where Big Data differs from conventional analyses of data samples: (i) data are captured more comprehensively relative to the phenomenon under study; this reduces some bias but surfaces important trade-offs, such as between data quantity and data quality; (ii) data are often analysed using machine learning tools, such as neural networks rather than conventional statistical methods resulting in systems that over time capture insights implicit in data, but remain black boxes, rarely revealing causal connections; and (iii) the purpose of the analyses of data is no longer simply answering existing questions, but hinting at novel ones and generating promising new hypotheses. As a consequence, when performed right, Big Data analyses can accelerate research. Because Big Data approaches differ so fundamentally from small data ones, research structures, processes and mindsets need to adjust. The latent value of data is being reaped through repeated reuse of data, which runs counter to existing practices not only regarding data privacy, but data management more generally. Consequently, we suggest a number of adjustments such as boards reviewing responsible data use, and incentives to facilitate comprehensive data sharing. As data's role changes to a resource of insight, we also need to acknowledge the importance of collecting and making data available as a crucial part of our research endeavours, and reassess our formal processes from career advancement to treatment approval. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. Big data uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugis, Pierre-André G

    2018-07-01

    Big data-the idea that an always-larger volume of information is being constantly recorded-suggests that new problems can now be subjected to scientific scrutiny. However, can classical statistical methods be used directly on big data? We analyze the problem by looking at two known pitfalls of big datasets. First, that they are biased, in the sense that they do not offer a complete view of the populations under consideration. Second, that they present a weak but pervasive level of dependence between all their components. In both cases we observe that the uncertainty of the conclusion obtained by statistical methods is increased when used on big data, either because of a systematic error (bias), or because of a larger degree of randomness (increased variance). We argue that the key challenge raised by big data is not only how to use big data to tackle new problems, but to develop tools and methods able to rigorously articulate the new risks therein. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Preliminary Micropaleontological Investigation of a Preserved, Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, J. T.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, A.; Gonzalez, S.; Obelcz, J.; Caporaso, A.

    2017-12-01

    Exposed at the bottom of a trough 13 km offshore Orange Beach, AL on the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf in 18 m water depth are exceptionally preserved in situ bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) stumps. Preserved seeds (T. distichum, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Hibiscus lasiocarpos, Liquidambar styraciflua) discovered in core catcher samples illustrate the exceptional preservation of the site. Woody debris samples have come back radiocarbon dead with an exception to samples located in the upper peat layer with 14C ages from 37,350-41,830 years BP. Optically stimulated luminescence and 14C dates, in combination with GOM eustatic sea level curves, suggest the forest was located 30 m above the paleoshoreline. How the forest remained preserved during subaerial exposure of the continental shelf through the Last Glacial Maximum lowstand until ensuing Holocene sea level transgression remains unknown. The R/V Coastal Profiler collected 7 vibracores from the study site in 2015 and an additional 11 in 2016. A single core (DF1) contains facies identified as the Holocene Mississippi-Alabama-Florida sand sheet, a transitional facies of interbedded sand and mud, and a basal floodplain facies in which the stumps reside. This study seeks to identify the location of the Pleistocene-Holocene unconformity and to assist in stratigraphy of the area. Foraminiferal assemblages found within the transitional facies are of a shallow marine environment that suggests Holocene in age. It is hypothesized that a pulse of sea level rise during Marine Isotope Stages 3-4 caused subsequent rapid aggradation of the paleovalley system allowing for preservation through >30 kyrs of subaerial exposure. One of the ultimate goals of this study is to serve as a guide for identification of other possible sites along the gulf coast.

  6. Geologic Setting and Preservation of a Late Pleistocene Bald Cypress Forest Discovered on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Bentley, S. J.; DeLong, K. L.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Obelcz, J.

    2016-02-01

    Following landfall of Hurricane Ivan in 2004, a previously buried bald cypress forest (Taxodium distichum) was discovered on the continental shelf seafloor, offshore of Orange Beach, Alabama, USA, in 20 m of water. The forest is preserved as stumps in life position with little evidence of decay and large pieces of trunks, roots, and branches. Analysis shows the forest is older than can be dated with conventional C-14 methods. Comparison of Pleistocene sea level curves with the study area depth suggests that the forest developed and was likely buried during marine isotope stage 3 or 4, or perhaps older stages. Condition of sampled wood suggests that the forest was buried and preserved in anoxic sediments for millennia, prior to recent exhumation. To better understand the puzzling geological conditions that could allow forest preservation during sea level fall and shelf exposure spanning >30,000 years, submersible vibracores (to 6 m length) and geophysical data (swath bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom) were collected in August 2015. Cores are being analyzed using a Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger, granulometric and sediment composition analyses, and a wide range of paleoenvironmental observations. This presentation focuses on the geological setting and mode of forest preservation. Preliminary analysis of sediment types and stratigraphy in cores shows that the local stratigraphy is broadly consistent with previous regional shelf-stratigraphic studies, consisting of (top to bottom) a surface layer of Holocene transgressive sands (to 3 m thick) unconformably overlying Pleistocene terrestrial and coastal deposits. However, the Pleistocene lithofacies (fluvial, backswamp, or possibly delta plain muds) differ considerably in both depositional environment and degree of environmental preservation compared to previous studies. Ongoing analysis will focus on elucidating the succession of events that allows preservation of this unique Pleistocene sedimentary archive.

  7. Phylogeography and allopatric divergence of cypress species (Cupressus L. in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciren Zhaxi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although allopatric speciation is viewed as the most common way in which species originate, allopatric divergence among a group of closely related species has rarely been examined at the population level through phylogeographic analysis. Here we report such a case study on eight putative cypress (Cupressus species, which each have a mainly allopatric distribution in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and adjacent regions. The analysis involved sequencing three plastid DNA fragments (trnD-trnT, trnS-trnG and trnL-trnF in 371 individuals sampled from populations at 66 localities. Results Both phylogenetic and network analyses showed that most DNA haplotypes recovered or haplotype-clustered lineages resolved were largely species-specific. Across all species, significant phylogeographic structure (NST >GST, P C. duclouxiana and C. chengiana, which are distributed in the eastern QTP region, contained more haplotypes and higher diversity than five species with restricted distributions in the western highlands of the QTP. The remaining species, C. funebris, is widely cultivated and contained very little cpDNA diversity. Conclusions It is concluded that the formation of high mountain barriers separating deep valleys in the QTP and adjacent regions caused by various uplifts of the plateau since the early Miocene most likely promoted allopatric divergence in Cupressus by restricting gene flow and fixing local, species-specific haplotypes in geographically isolated populations. The low levels of intraspecific diversity present in most species might stem from population bottlenecks brought about by recurrent periods of unfavorable climate and more recently by the negative impacts of human activities on species' distributions. Our findings shed new light on the importance of geographical isolation caused by the uplift of the QTP on the development of high plant species diversity in the QTP biodiversity hotspot.

  8. Difference of stand-scale transpiration between ridge and riparian area in a watershed with Japanese cypress plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, T.; Tsuruta, K.; Komatsu, H.; Shinohara, Y.; Otsuki, K.

    2011-12-01

    Several different methods to assess water use are available, and the sap flux measurement technique is one of the most promising methods, especially in monotonous watershed. Previously, three spatial levels of scaling have been used to obtain bottom-up transpiration estimates based on the sap flux technique: from within-tree to tree, from tree to stand, and from stand to watershed or landscape. Although there are considerable variations that must be taken into account at each step, few studies have examined plot-to-plot variability of stand-scale transpirations. To design optimum sampling method to accurately estimate transpiration at the watershed-scale, it is indispensable to understand heterogeneity of stand-scale transpiration in a forested watershed and the factors determining the heterogeneity. This study was undertaken to clarify differences of stand-scale transpirations within a watershed and the factors determining the differences. To this aim, we conducted sap flux-based transpiration estimates in two plots such as a lower riparian (RZ) and an upper ridge (UZ) zone in a watershed with Japanese cypress plantation, Kyushu, Japan in two years. Tree height and diameter of breast height (DBH) were lager in RZ than those of UZ. The stand sapwood area (As) was lager in RZ than UZ (21.9 cm2h a-1, 16.8 cm2ha-1, respectively). Stand mean sap flux (Js) in RZ was almost same as that of UZ when relatively lower Js, while, Js in RZ was higher than that of UZ when relatively higher Js (i.e., bright days in summer season). Consequently, daily stand-scale transpiration (E), which is the multiple of As and Js, differed by two times between RZ and UZ in summer season. This study found significant heterogeneity of stand-scale transpiration within the watershed and that the differences could be caused by two aspects such as stand structure and sap flux velocity.

  9. Isolation of vibrio spp. In oysters (crassostrea rhizophorea) caught in the ‘de la virgen’ swamp

    OpenAIRE

    López Gutiérrez, Lercy; Autor; Manjarrez Pava, Ganiveth; Autor; Herrera Rodríguez, Lilibeth; Autor; Montes Payares, Ana Elena; Autor; Olascuaga Ruíz, Yuranis Paola; Autor; Ortega Quiroz, Rolando José; Autor

    2015-01-01

    Objective:  To establish contamination by Vibrio in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) caught in De La Virgen Swamp, in order to alert entities in charge or protecting consumer health in Cartagena city. Methods: Between February and April 2006, 67 oysters from 5 strategic sites along De La Virgen Swamp, were analyzed. Insulation and identification of Vibrio was performed through a culture and biochemical tests.Results.  Predominant species were V. alginolyticus (23%),V fluvialis  (20%),V. para...

  10. [Amphibians and reptiles in the swamps dominated by the palm Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Beneyto, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The herpetofauna that inhabits Caribbean Costa Rica has received considerable attention in the last two decades. This assemblage includes a total of 141 species of reptiles and 95 amphibians mostly distributed in tropical wet and moist lowland forests. While most information available came from primary and secondary forest sites, little is known about the amphibians and reptiles that inhabit more open habitats, such as wetlands and swamps. For instances, swaps dominated by the yolillo palm Raphia taedigera extend through much of the northeastern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua, but information about the herpetological community that uses such environments remains practically unknown. This situation reflects the little research conducted in such inhospitable environments. Here, we report the results of an intensive survey conducted to assess the herpetological community that inhabit R. taedigera palm-swamps. A total of 14 species of amphibians and 17 of reptiles have been recorded from these swamps. Amphibians and reptiles that inhabit yolillo swamps have wide distributions along much of Middle America and are considered common species throughout their range. In general, yolillo swamps are poor environments for herpetofauna: richness of reptiles and amphibians is almost two times higher in the adjacent forest than in the palm dominated swamps. Furthermore, most species observed in this swamps can be considered habitat generalists that are well adapted to the extreme conditions imposed by the changes in hydroperiods, reduce understory cover, low tree diversity and simple forest architecture of these environments. Despite similarities in the herpetofauna, it is clear that not all forest species use yolillo habitat, a characteristic that is discussed in terms of physical stress driven by the prolonged hydroperiod and reduced leaflitter in the ground, as these features drive habitat structure and herpetofaunal complexity. Our list of species using

  11. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  12. The hydrological function of upland swamps in eastern Australia: The role of geomorphic condition in regulating water storage and discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten L.; Fryirs, Kirstie A.; Hose, Grant C.

    2018-06-01

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are a type of wetland found in low-order streams on the plateaus of eastern Australia. They are sediment and organic matter accumulation zones, which combined with a climate of high rainfall and low evaporation function as water storage systems. Changes to the geomorphic structure of these systems via incision and channelisation can have profound impacts on their hydrological function. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of how changes to the geomorphic structure of these systems alter their hydrological function, measured as changes and variability in swamp water table levels and discharge. We monitored the water table levels and discharges of three intact and three channelised THPSS in the Blue Mountains between March 2015 and June 2016. We found that water levels in intact swamps were largely stable over the monitoring period. Water levels rose only in high rainfall events, returned quickly to antecedent levels after rain, and drawdown during dry periods was not significant. In contrast, the water table levels in channelised THPSS were highly variable. Water levels rose quickly after almost all rainfall events and declined significantly during dry periods. Discharge also showed marked differences with the channelised THPSS discharging 13 times more water than intact swamps, even during dry periods. Channelised THPSS also had flashier storm hydrographs than intact swamps. These results have profound implications for the capacity of these swamps to act as water storage reservoirs in the headwaters of catchments and for their ability to maintain base flow to downstream catchments during dry times. Changes to geomorphic structure and hydrological function also have important implications for a range of other swamp functions such as carbon storage, emission and exports, contaminant sorption, downstream water quality and biodiversity, as well as the overall fate of these swamps under a changing

  13. Behavioural and hormonal aspects of the oestrous cycle in swamp buffaloes reared under temperate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Shimizu, H.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out using a small herd of swamp buffaloes raised in Japan under temperate conditions at 36 deg. N latitude, with a view to determining whether they exhibit peculiar characteristics in their oestrous cycles. The studies on the oestrous behaviour revealed that under adequate feeding and management conditions, buffaloes regularly display oestrous throughout the year, with the cycle length, duration of oestrous and time of ovulation all falling within ranges similar to those reported in cattle. External signs of oestrus were generally less evident, as previously reported. Hormonal analysis showed that there were no remarkable differences between swamp buffaloes and cattle in terms of the secretory patterns of pituitary gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids during the oestrous cycle. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs

  14. Polyancora globosa gen. sp. nov., an aeroaquatic fungus from Malaysian peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Yule, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear.

  15. Mapping Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems in the Peruvian Amazon: a Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmerman, R.; Horna, V.

    2012-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems are prevalent in the Amazon basin, especially in northern Peru. Of specific interest are palm swamp wetlands because they are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. This combination of constantly saturated soils and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, it is critical to develop methods to quantify their spatial extent and inundation state in order to assess their carbon dynamics. Spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We developed a remote sensing methodology using multi-sensor remote sensing data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM, and Landsat to derive maps at 100 meter resolution of palm swamp extent and inundation based on ground data collections; and combined active and passive microwave data from AMSR-E and QuikSCAT to derive inundation extent at 25 kilometer resolution on a weekly basis. We then compared information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products relative to the high-resolution datasets. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets allowed for characterization of palm swamps and assessment of their flooding status. This work has been undertaken partly within the framework of the JAXA ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data have been provided by JAXA. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  16. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...

  17. Studies on algea of Da′erbin lake and its surrounding swamps in daxing anling mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiaofei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports 234 taxa of algae (excluding diatomas and desmids in Da′erbin Lake and its surrounding swamps in the Great Xing′an Mountains.They were identified belong to 6 phylums 79 generas 197 species 31 varieties and 6 forms.Among them Characium ornithocephalum var.pringsheimii (A.Br. Kom.,Characium pluricoccum Kor.,Quadrigula korsikovii Kom.,Crucigeniella rectangularis (Ng. Kom.are newly reported in China.

  18. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Alexander N.; Albert, Stephanie L.; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Langellier, Brent A.; Glik, Deborah C.; Belin, Thomas R.; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Brookmeyer, Ron; Sharif, Mienah Z.; Prelip, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data ...

  19. Nariva Swamp Ramsar Site, Trinidad and Tobago (West Indies) Wetland Habitat Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat Carbonell; Nadra Nathai-Gyan

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago, a twin island nation, is the most southerly of the Caribbean islands and lies just 11 km off the coast of Venezuela, near the Orinoco delta. Trinidad, the larger of the two islands, is approximately 5,000 km² and the Nariva Swamp is located on its eastern coast (fig. 1). In 1993, this site was designated as a wetland of international...

  20. Producer farmer’s sovereignty in dry land and swamps areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaeti, RN; Wahyuni, S.

    2018-01-01

    Farmers could perform their farming if they have sovereignty on their farming production inputs and marketing. Suboptimal land, such as dry land and swamps areas have good prospect if applying appropriate technologies. A research in 2015, on status of farmers’ sovereignty, had been conducted in Piani and North Candi Laras Subdistricts, Tapin District, South Borneo Province, representing swamp land and dry land respectively. Data and information were obtained through interviewing related agencies at provincial and district levels and 30 units of farmer’s households. The primary and secondary data were analyzed descriptively. The research results showed that farmers in swamps and dry land were categorized as large farmers and had sovereignty over the land and production. Water shortage and excessive in both land types could be overcome by giving access on appropriate technology such as programs making farmers improve their farming techniques and providing levees. In addition, land certification program, farming expansion and constructing new irrigated lowland were also some efforts to improve farmers’ sovereignty. It was crucial to identify and improve farmer’s sovereignty indicators through research in larger sites and samples.

  1. Reproductive responses to climatic heat induced by management systems in swamp buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollah, M.A.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Nordin, Y.; Abdullah Sani, R.

    1990-01-01

    Climatic heat is one of the factors influencing the reproductive performance of swamp buffaloes. Any management system that imposes high climatic heat stress tends to reduce reproductive performance. Buffaloes grazing in an open hilly ranch system reached puberty later (at an age of 33 months) and at heavier body weight (365 kg) than animals raised in confinement (26 months and 289 kg). Physiological data (water metabolism and thyroid activity) indicated that grazing animals had to tolerate a higher heat load. High climatic temperatures were found to depress ovarian activity, especially during the dry season. The effect was observed only in cycling buffaloes denied wallow. Buffaloes having access to wallows were able to maintain their heat balance under various levels of heat load by adjusting their water requirements, mobilizing their body water and adjusting their metabolic rate (thyroid activity). It is concluded that stressful climatic temperatures can depress the reproductive performance of young heifers and adult swamp buffaloes, and that climatic heat stress directly depresses ovarian activity in swamp buffaloes. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Repeated drought alters resistance of seed bank regeneration in baldcypress swamps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Middleton, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Recurring drying and wetting events are likely to increase in frequency and intensity in predicted future droughts in the central USA and alter the regeneration potential of species. We explored the resistance of seed banks to successive droughts in 53 sites across the nine locations in baldcypress swamps in the southeastern USA. Along the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley and northern Gulf of Mexico, we investigated the capacity of seed banks to retain viable seeds after successive periods of drying and wetting in a greenhouse study. Mean differences in species richness and seed density were compared to examine the interactions of successive droughts, geographical location and water regime. The results showed that both species richness and total density of germinating seedlings decreased over repeated drought trials. These responses were more pronounced in geographical areas with higher annual mean temperature. In seed banks across the southeastern swamp region, most species were exhausted after Trial 2 or 3, except for semiaquatic species in Illinois and Tennessee, and aquatic species in Texas. Distinct geographical trends in seed bank resistance to drought demonstrate that climate-induced drying of baldcypress swamps could influence the regeneration of species differently across their ranges. Despite the health of adult individuals, lack of regeneration may push ecosystems into a relict status. Seed bank depletion by germination without replenishment may be a major conservation threat in a future with recurring droughts far less severe than megadrought. Nevertheless, the protection of moist refugia might aid conservation.

  3. BIOCONTROL FOR RHIZOCTONIA STEM ROT DISEASE BY USING COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC ENDOPHYTE IN PADDY TIDAL SWAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismed Setya Budi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was applied in seeds in 7 days after planting (DAP. Observation on high intensity and plant diseases of planting stage on tidal swamps (taradak, ampak and lacak was conducted. The results showed that there was a reduction of disease ranging from 58.70 to 87.29%. The application of combination of two biocontrol agents (T. viride PS-2.1 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8, (Fusarium non-pathogenic PS-1.5 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8 and (T. viride PS-2.1+ FNP PS-1.5 isolate gave the best inhibition result, reduced disease intensity, and increased plant height. The result of soil analysis before and after application of endophytic showed that there was an increase in soil fertility with the element addition of N, P, K and pH.

  4. Approaches for the environmental evaluation of two swamp complexes of the Momposina depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, Humberto; Durango, Consuelo

    1998-01-01

    The swamp complexes of the Momposina depression in the lower Magdalena River have been submitted to irrational exploitation, transformation and contamination mainly since the beginning of the century, process that has be en getting worse in the last decade. The most evident manifestation of the environmental deterioration is expressed by the drastic reduction of fishing, with important socio-economic effects to the population that lives from this source. The most notorious causes of the actual state of the ecosystem were detected, and some preliminary considerations for its management are presented. However, due to the modifications that the complexes have suffered (closure of the natural sewer, construction of jarillones, modifications of the internal water flows and sediments, over exploitation, of fish and herpetofauna), the deterioration of the limnologic conditions is moderated, which allows to begin recuperation plans. The major impacts were observed in the fauna of birds and reptiles associated to the swamps; the decrease of the ictics populations seems to be related to the strong impact generated by the fishing action used and the interruption of the natural cycles of fish. The possibility of rebuilding the communication swamp-river should be studied with care because it seems the system has arrived to new conditions. The re-opening of the sewers could mean a new unbalanced condition represented mainly by the contamination coming from the Magdalena River

  5. Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Yeeli; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Thornton, Rachel L J; Pollack Porter, Keshia; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-11-21

    Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents' health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA) from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Over the study period, the average food swamp index increased from 93.5 to 95.3 percentage points across all neighborhoods. Among non-African American neighborhoods, increases in the vacancy rate were associated with statistically significant decreases in the food swamp index (b = -0.38; 90% CI, -0.64 to -0.12; p -value: 0.015), after accounting for changes in neighborhood SES, racial diversity, and population size. A positive association was found among low-SES neighborhoods (b = 0.15; 90% CI, 0.037 to 0.27; p -value: 0.031). Vacant homes may influence the composition of food outlets in urban neighborhoods. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms by which more distal, contextual factors, such as boarded-up vacant homes, may affect food choices and diet-related health outcomes.

  6. BigDansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2015-06-02

    Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to scaling to big datasets. This presents a serious impediment since data cleansing often involves costly computations such as enumerating pairs of tuples, handling inequality joins, and dealing with user-defined functions. In this paper, we present BigDansing, a Big Data Cleansing system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing. The system can run on top of most common general purpose data processing platforms, ranging from DBMSs to MapReduce-like frameworks. A user-friendly programming interface allows users to express data quality rules both declaratively and procedurally, with no requirement of being aware of the underlying distributed platform. BigDansing takes these rules into a series of transformations that enable distributed computations and several optimizations, such as shared scans and specialized joins operators. Experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets show that BigDansing outperforms existing baseline systems up to more than two orders of magnitude without sacrificing the quality provided by the repair algorithms.

  7. Big data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  8. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  9. Big data in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Big data bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Casey S; Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Moore, Jason H; Cheng, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Recent technological advances allow for high throughput profiling of biological systems in a cost-efficient manner. The low cost of data generation is leading us to the "big data" era. The availability of big data provides unprecedented opportunities but also raises new challenges for data mining and analysis. In this review, we introduce key concepts in the analysis of big data, including both "machine learning" algorithms as well as "unsupervised" and "supervised" examples of each. We note packages for the R programming language that are available to perform machine learning analyses. In addition to programming based solutions, we review webservers that allow users with limited or no programming background to perform these analyses on large data compendia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  12. Big ideas: innovation policy

    OpenAIRE

    John Van Reenen

    2011-01-01

    In the last CentrePiece, John Van Reenen stressed the importance of competition and labour market flexibility for productivity growth. His latest in CEP's 'big ideas' series describes the impact of research on how policy-makers can influence innovation more directly - through tax credits for business spending on research and development.

  13. Big Data ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with

  14. Big data in history

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Big Data in History introduces the project to create a world-historical archive, tracing the last four centuries of historical dynamics and change. Chapters address the archive's overall plan, how to interpret the past through a global archive, the missions of gathering records, linking local data into global patterns, and exploring the results.

  15. The Big Sky inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  16. Moving Another Big Desk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Gay

    1996-01-01

    New ways of thinking about leadership require that leaders move their big desks and establish environments that encourage trust and open communication. Educational leaders must trust their colleagues to make wise choices. When teachers are treated democratically as leaders, classrooms will also become democratic learning organizations. (SM)

  17. A Big Bang Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  18. New 'bigs' in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, Artyom V.; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper contains a detailed discussion on new cosmic solutions describing the early and late evolution of a universe that is filled with a kind of dark energy that may or may not satisfy the energy conditions. The main distinctive property of the resulting space-times is that they make to appear twice the single singular events predicted by the corresponding quintessential (phantom) models in a manner which can be made symmetric with respect to the origin of cosmic time. Thus, big bang and big rip singularity are shown to take place twice, one on the positive branch of time and the other on the negative one. We have also considered dark energy and phantom energy accretion onto black holes and wormholes in the context of these new cosmic solutions. It is seen that the space-times of these holes would then undergo swelling processes leading to big trip and big hole events taking place on distinct epochs along the evolution of the universe. In this way, the possibility is considered that the past and future be connected in a non-paradoxical manner in the universes described by means of the new symmetric solutions

  19. The Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Moods, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    How did the Universe begin? The favoured theory is that everything - space, time, matter - came into existence at the same moment, around 13.7 thousand million years ago. This event was scornfully referred to as the "Big Bang" by Sir Fred Hoyle, who did not believe in it and maintained that the Universe had always existed.

  20. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The volume and variety of data being generated using computersis doubling every two years. It is estimated that in 2015,8 Zettabytes (Zetta=1021) were generated which consistedmostly of unstructured data such as emails, blogs, Twitter,Facebook posts, images, and videos. This is called big data. Itis possible to analyse ...

  1. Identifying Dwarfs Workloads in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...

  2. Big Data and Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  3. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-07-31

    Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to big data scaling. This presents a serious impediment since identify- ing and repairing dirty data often involves processing huge input datasets, handling sophisticated error discovery approaches and managing huge arbitrary errors. With large datasets, error detection becomes overly expensive and complicated especially when considering user-defined functions. Furthermore, a distinctive algorithm is de- sired to optimize inequality joins in sophisticated error discovery rather than na ̈ıvely parallelizing them. Also, when repairing large errors, their skewed distribution may obstruct effective error repairs. In this dissertation, I present solutions to overcome the above three problems in scaling data cleansing. First, I present BigDansing as a general system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing for Big Data. It automatically parallelizes the user’s code on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also enables parallel execution of serial repair algorithms by exploiting the graph representation of discovered errors. The experimental results show that BigDansing outperforms existing baselines up to more than two orders of magnitude. Although BigDansing scales cleansing jobs, it still lacks the ability to handle sophisticated error discovery requiring inequality joins. Therefore, I developed IEJoin as an algorithm for fast inequality joins. It is based on sorted arrays and space efficient bit-arrays to reduce the problem’s search space. By comparing IEJoin against well- known optimizations, I show that it is more scalable, and several orders of magnitude faster. BigDansing depends on vertex-centric graph systems, i.e., Pregel

  4. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  5. Rich soil carbon and nitrogen but low atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes from North Sulawesi mangrove swamps in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang C; Ulumuddin, Yaya I; Pramudji, Sastro; Chen, Shun Y; Chen, Bin; Ye, Yong; Ou, Dan Y; Ma, Zhi Y; Huang, Hao; Wang, Jing K

    2014-07-15

    The soil to atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 and their relationships with soil characteristics were investigated in three tropical oceanic mangrove swamps (Teremaal, Likupang and Kema) in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Mangrove soils in North Sulawesi were rich in organic carbon and nitrogen, but the greenhouse gas fluxes were low in these mangroves. The fluxes ranged -6.05-13.14 μmol m(-2)h(-1), -0.35-0.61 μmol m(-2)h(-1) and -1.34-3.88 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. The differences in both N2O and CH4 fluxes among different mangrove swamps and among tidal positions in each mangrove swamp were insignificant. CO2 flux was influenced only by mangrove swamps and the value was higher in Kema mangrove. None of the measured soil parameters could explain the variation of CH4 fluxes among the sampling plots. N2O flux was negatively related to porewater salinity, while CO2 flux was negatively correlated with water content and organic carbon. This study suggested that the low gas emissions due to slow metabolisms would lead to the accumulations of organic matters in North Sulawesi mangrove swamps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own…

  7. Utilization of agro-industrial by-products by swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelan, Z.A.; Jalaludin, S.; Vijchulata, P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the factors affecting the utilization of palm press fibre (PPF) by swamp buffaloes. The nutritive values, fermentation and rumen kinetics, intake and growth responses to a PPF based diet with or without protein and energy supplementation were studied. Palm press fibre was considered a poor quality feed as it is low in crude protein (about 6%) and high in lignin content (about 21%). Dry matter (DM) disappearance from nylon bags at 48 h was low (about 40%) as compared with grass (47%), oaten hay (49%) and lucerne (64%). Sodium hydroxide (8% solution) was most effective as a treating agent as the DM disappearance of PPF from the nylon bags at 48 h was increased by 14%. Dry matter loss from the bags was greater in swamp buffaloes than in cattle. Rumen fluid volume and flow rate were not significantly (P>0.05) increased with fish meal supplementation, but the total dry matter intake (DMI) increased significantly (P<0.05) when 360 g DM/d fish meal was supplemented. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were low in unsupplemented animals and the molar proportions of the VFAs were typical of those seen in the rumen fluid of ruminants fed a fibre based diet. Rumen ammonia-nitrogen was high (40-70 mg/L) in fish meal supplemented animals. When urea treated PPF was supplemented with fish meal and cassava, the animals showed significant increases (P<0.05) in average daily gain and in both total DMI and in the DMI of a basal diet. The study concludes that supplementation with rumen undegradable protein and an energy source are essential to a PPF based diet and that untreated PPF is not a suitable basal diet for swamp buffaloes. (author)

  8. Landscape-scale changes in forest canopy structure across a partially logged tropical peat swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedeux, B. M. M.; Coomes, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Forest canopy structure is strongly influenced by environmental factors and disturbance, and in turn influences key ecosystem processes including productivity, evapotranspiration and habitat availability. In tropical forests increasingly modified by human activities, the interplay between environmental factors and disturbance legacies on forest canopy structure across landscapes is practically unexplored. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to measure the canopy of old-growth and selectively logged peat swamp forest across a peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, and quantified how canopy structure metrics varied with peat depth and under logging. Several million canopy gaps in different height cross-sections of the canopy were measured in 100 plots of 1 km2 spanning the peat dome, allowing us to describe canopy structure with seven metrics. Old-growth forest became shorter and had simpler vertical canopy profiles on deeper peat, consistent with previous work linking deep peat to stunted tree growth. Gap size frequency distributions (GSFDs) indicated fewer and smaller canopy gaps on the deeper peat (i.e. the scaling exponent of Pareto functions increased from 1.76 to 3.76 with peat depth). Areas subjected to concessionary logging until 2000, and illegal logging since then, had the same canopy top height as old-growth forest, indicating the persistence of some large trees, but mean canopy height was significantly reduced. With logging, the total area of canopy gaps increased and the GSFD scaling exponent was reduced. Logging effects were most evident on the deepest peat, where nutrient depletion and waterlogged conditions restrain tree growth and recovery. A tight relationship exists between canopy structure and peat depth gradient within the old-growth tropical peat swamp forest. This relationship breaks down after selective logging, with canopy structural recovery, as observed by ALS, modulated by environmental conditions. These findings improve our

  9. Galling arthropod diversity in adjacent swamp forests and restinga vegetation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Milton De S; Piccardi, Hosana M F; Jahnke, Simone M; Dalbem, Ricardo V

    2010-01-01

    Galling arthropods create plant structures inside which they find shelter. Factors acting on galler diversity are still being discussed, with this fauna considered more diverse in xeric than mesic environments (higrothermic stress hypothesis, HSH), and also in more plant diverse sites. Here we compare galler abundance (N), equitability (E), species richness (S) and composition between adjacent restinga (xeric) and swamp forests (mesic) in Parque Estadual de Itapeva (29°21' S, 49°45' W), Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Five trails, two in swamp forest and three in restingas, were sampled four times each (January/December 2005). After an effort of 60h/person, 621 galled plant individuals belonging to 104 gall morphotypes were recorded. This suggests a high galler diversity for the Park, comparable to the richest places known. No differences were found for N, E or S between restingas and swamp forests. However, faunal composition differs significantly between the vegetation types. The dominant (most abundant) species are different in either vegetation type, and are rare or absent on the other vegetation type. Such species composition analysis is still largely ignored for gallers, and stresses the fact that the HSH cannot explain this pattern, since the latter is based on preferences by the ovipositing galler for xeric sites instead of mesic ones. The two habitats differ in microclimate, but species richness, as would be predicted by the HSH, does not differ. This small scale pattern can perhaps be attributed to biogeographic processes on larger scales, as suggested by the resource synchronisation hypothesis.

  10. Mapping Upper Amazon Palm Swamps with Spaceborne L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Schroeder, R.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.

    2010-12-01

    Palm swamp ecosystems are widespread in the Amazon basin, forming where seasonal flooding is moderate and surface inundation persists. Recent studies suggest that palm swamps have a disproportional role on tropical biogeochemistry: the combination of persistently saturated soils, warm temperatures, and low oxygen soils can support significant land-atmosphere methane flux. Potential impacts of climate change on these ecosystems include changes in temperature and precipitation regimes that influence primary productivity and flood extent significantly, potentially reversing net land-atmosphere carbon exchanges regionally. Data acquired from Earth-orbiting satellites provides the opportunity to characterize vegetation structure and monitor surface inundation independently of cloud cover. Building on efforts under our NASA MEaSUREs project for assembly of a global-scale Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of inundated wetlands, we develop and evaluate a systematic approach to map the distribution and composition of palm swamps in the upper Amazon using data sets from JAXA’s Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band SAR (PALSAR). Our input dataset consists of HH backscatter images acquired in 2007 and 2009. Ground measurements for training were obtained from a study site near Loreto, Peru (4.43S 75.34W) containing the palm species Mauritia flexuosa. The ALOS PALSAR images are first averaged temporally and spatially. We then develop ancillary data layers of flood extent, distance from open water, and SAR image texture. The PALSAR data and derived ancillary layers are combined with MODIS Vegetation Indices and SRTM elevation and input in a classification framework. Since palm swamps are found in persistently flooded areas, we evaluate the potential of identifying and mapping these ecosystems using multi-temporal SAR-based flood extent maps. We conclude by comparing the performance between a decision-tree supervised vs. unsupervised approach and by

  11. Greenhouse gas efflux from an impacted Malaysian tropical peat swamp (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, S.; Vihermaa, L. E.; Evers, S.; Garnett, M.; Newton, J.; Padfield, R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~11% of global peatland area and ~12% of the global peat C pool. Malaysia alone contains 10% of tropical peats. Due to rising global demands for food and biofuels, SE-Asia peat swamp forest ecosystems are threatened by increasing amounts of drainage, fire and conversion to plantation. These processes can change the GHG emissions and thus net ecosystem C balance. However, in comparison to temperate and boreal peatlands, there is a lack of data on terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric carbon transfer from tropical peatlands, both those that are little disturbed and those facing anthropogenic pressures. Lateral transport of soil-respired carbon, and fluvial respiration or UV-oxidation of terrestrial DOC primes atmospheric carbon dioxide efflux. We now know that DOC lost from disturbed tropical peat swamp forests can be centuries to millennia old and originates deep within the peat column - this carbon may fuel efflux of old carbon dioxide and so anthropogenic land-use change renders the older, slower carbon cycles shorter and faster. Currently we have no knowledge of how significant ';older-slower' terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric cycles are in disturbed tropical peatlands. Further, in some areas for commercial reasons, or by conservation bodies trying to minimise peat habitat loss, logged peats have been left to regenerate. Consequently, unpicking the legacy of multiple land uses on magnitude, age and source of GHG emissions is challenging but required to support land management decisions and projections of response to a changing climate. Here, we present the results of our first field campaign in July 2013 to the Raja Musa and Sungai Karang Peat Swamp Forest Reserves in North Selangor, Malaysia. This is one of Malaysia's largest oceanic peat swamps, and has been selectively logged and drained for 80 years, but is now subject to a 30 year logging ban to aid forest regeneration and build up wood stocks. From sites subject to different land use

  12. Spatial analysis of Carbon-14 dynamics in a wetland ecosystem (Duke Swamp, Chalk River Laboratories, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; King-Sharp, K.J.; Carr, J.; Robertson, E.; Killey, R.W.D.; Beresford, N.A.; Wood, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed survey was conducted to quantify the spatial distribution of 14 C in Sphagnum moss and underlying soil collected in Duke Swamp. This wetland environment receives 14 C via groundwater pathways from a historic radioactive Waste Management Area (WMA) on Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. Trends in 14 C specific activities were evaluated with distance from the sampling location with the maximum 14 C specific activity (DSS-35), which was situated adjacent to the WMA and close to an area of groundwater discharge. Based on a spatial evaluation of the data, an east-to-west 14 C gradient was found, due to the influence of the WMA on 14 C specific activities in the swamp. In addition, it was possible to identify two groups of sites, each showing significant exponential declines with distance from the groundwater source area. One of the groups showed relatively more elevated 14 C specific activities at a given distance from source, likely due to their proximity to the WMA, the location of the sub-surface plume originating from the WMA, the presence of marsh and swamp habitat types, which facilitated 14 C transport to the atmosphere, and possibly, 14 C air dispersion patterns along the eastern edge of the swamp. The other group, which had lower 14 C specific activities at a given distance from the groundwater source area, included locations that were more distant from the WMA and the sub-surface plume, and contained fen habitat, which is known to act as barrier to groundwater flow. The findings suggest that proximity to source, groundwater flow patterns and habitat physical characteristics can play an important role in the dynamics of 14 C being carried by discharging groundwater into terrestrial and wetland environments. - Highlights: • Groundwater represents an important source of volatile radionuclides to wetlands. • Habitat type influenced 14 C transport from sub-surface to surface environments. • C-14 specific

  13. Study, using stable isotopes, of flow distribution, surface-groundwater relations and evapotranspiration in the Okavango Swamp, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, T.; Hutton, L.G.; Kupee, B.B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Stable isotope data collected in the Okavango Delta have confirmed that the central distributary system is more active at present than the peripheral systems. The data also show that there is no groundwater outflow at the western and southern margins of the delta. A salinity-isotope model of the deltaic swamp has been developed to study the relation between the salinity and isotopic composition of the swamp waters. An attempt has been made to separate the atmospheric losses from the swamp into its evapotranspiration components. The results indicate that in winter, when high water levels prevail, these losses are almost entirely due to evaporation whilst in summer, when the water levels are low, evaporation and transpiration contribute almost equally to the total atmospheric losses. (author)

  14. Big Data-Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.G. Aruna Sri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Big data is the term for any gathering of information sets, so expensive and complex, that it gets to be hard to process for utilizing customary information handling applications. The difficulties incorporate investigation, catch, duration, inquiry, sharing, stockpiling, Exchange, perception, and protection infringement. To reduce spot business patterns, anticipate diseases, conflict etc., we require bigger data sets when compared with the smaller data sets. Enormous information is hard to work with utilizing most social database administration frameworks and desktop measurements and perception bundles, needing rather enormously parallel programming running on tens, hundreds, or even a large number of servers. In this paper there was an observation on Hadoop architecture, different tools used for big data and its security issues.

  15. Finding the big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Lyman A; Partridge, R Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Cosmology, the study of the universe as a whole, has become a precise physical science, the foundation of which is our understanding of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) left from the big bang. The story of the discovery and exploration of the CMBR in the 1960s is recalled for the first time in this collection of 44 essays by eminent scientists who pioneered the work. Two introductory chapters put the essays in context, explaining the general ideas behind the expanding universe and fossil remnants from the early stages of the expanding universe. The last chapter describes how the confusion of ideas and measurements in the 1960s grew into the present tight network of tests that demonstrate the accuracy of the big bang theory. This book is valuable to anyone interested in how science is done, and what it has taught us about the large-scale nature of the physical universe.

  16. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Klinkby Madsen, Anders; Rasche, Andreas

    data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects......This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... of international development agendas to algorithms that synthesize large-scale data, (3) novel ways of rationalizing knowledge claims that underlie development efforts, and (4) shifts in professional and organizational identities of those concerned with producing and processing data for development. Our discussion...

  17. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.; Billingon, D.E.; Cameron, R.F.; Curl, S.J.

    1983-09-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but just imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the risks of nuclear power. The paper reviews the way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past and makes recommendations for the future, including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'loss of life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and 'equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking'. The paper presents mathematical arguments, which show the derivation and validity of the proposed methods of presenting the consequences of imaginable big nuclear accidents. (author)

  18. Big Bounce and inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizuela, David; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A; Pawlowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of an inhomogeneous universe is studied with the methods of loop quantum cosmology, via a so-called hybrid quantization, as an example of the quantization of vacuum cosmological spacetimes containing gravitational waves (Gowdy spacetimes). The analysis of this model with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, performed at the effective level, shows that (i) the initial Big Bang singularity is replaced (as in the case of homogeneous cosmological models) by a Big Bounce, joining deterministically two large universes, (ii) the universe size at the bounce is at least of the same order of magnitude as that of the background homogeneous universe and (iii) for each gravitational wave mode, the difference in amplitude at very early and very late times has a vanishing statistical average when the bounce dynamics is strongly dominated by the inhomogeneities, whereas this average is positive when the dynamics is in a near-vacuum regime, so that statistically the inhomogeneities are amplified. (fast track communication)

  19. Big Data and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Shaw

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequencers, Twitter, MRIs, Facebook, particle accelerators, Google Books, radio telescopes, Tumblr: what do these things have in common? According to the evangelists of “data science,” all of these are instruments for observing reality at unprecedentedly large scales and fine granularities. This perspective ignores the social reality of these very different technological systems, ignoring how they are made, how they work, and what they mean in favor of an exclusive focus on what they generate: Big Data. But no data, big or small, can be interpreted without an understanding of the process that generated them. Statistical data science is applicable to systems that have been designed as scientific instruments, but is likely to lead to confusion when applied to systems that have not. In those cases, a historical inquiry is preferable.

  20. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  1. Big Bang Circus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Big Bang Circus is an opera I composed in 2001 and which was premiered at the Venice Biennale Contemporary Music Festival in 2002. A chamber group, four singers and a ringmaster stage the story of the Universe confronting and interweaving two threads: how early man imagined it and how scientists described it. Surprisingly enough fancy, myths and scientific explanations often end up using the same images, metaphors and sometimes even words: a strong tension, a drumskin starting to vibrate, a shout…

  2. Big Bang 5

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 5 RG behandelt die Grundlagen (Maßsystem, Größenordnungen) und die Mechanik (Translation, Rotation, Kraft, Erhaltungssätze).

  3. Big Bang 8

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Band 8 vermittelt auf verständliche Weise Relativitätstheorie, Kern- und Teilchenphysik (und deren Anwendungen in der Kosmologie und Astrophysik), Nanotechnologie sowie Bionik.

  4. Big Bang 6

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 6 RG behandelt die Gravitation, Schwingungen und Wellen, Thermodynamik und eine Einführung in die Elektrizität anhand von Alltagsbeispielen und Querverbindungen zu anderen Disziplinen.

  5. Big Bang 7

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. In Band 7 werden neben einer Einführung auch viele aktuelle Aspekte von Quantenmechanik (z. Beamen) und Elektrodynamik (zB Elektrosmog), sowie die Klimaproblematik und die Chaostheorie behandelt.

  6. Big Bang Darkleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaic, Gordan; Sigurdson, Kris

    2014-01-01

    In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis , a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD , which generica...

  7. Big³. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C U; Séroussi, B; Jaulent, M-C

    2014-05-22

    To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. 'Big Data' has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that 'Big Data' will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics - some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of 'Big Data' today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016.

  8. Recent big flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Fumio; Miyazawa, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Yoshisuke

    1978-01-01

    The features of three big solar flares observed at Tokyo Observatory are described in this paper. The active region, McMath 14943, caused a big flare on September 16, 1977. The flare appeared on both sides of a long dark line which runs along the boundary of the magnetic field. Two-ribbon structure was seen. The electron density of the flare observed at Norikura Corona Observatory was 3 x 10 12 /cc. Several arc lines which connect both bright regions of different magnetic polarity were seen in H-α monochrome image. The active region, McMath 15056, caused a big flare on December 10, 1977. At the beginning, several bright spots were observed in the region between two main solar spots. Then, the area and the brightness increased, and the bright spots became two ribbon-shaped bands. A solar flare was observed on April 8, 1978. At first, several bright spots were seen around the solar spot in the active region, McMath 15221. Then, these bright spots developed to a large bright region. On both sides of a dark line along the magnetic neutral line, bright regions were generated. These developed to a two-ribbon flare. The time required for growth was more than one hour. A bright arc which connects two ribbons was seen, and this arc may be a loop prominence system. (Kato, T.)

  9. Big Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Dagliati, Arianna; Sacchi, Lucia; Segagni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The so-called big data revolution provides substantial opportunities to diabetes management. At least 3 important directions are currently of great interest. First, the integration of different sources of information, from primary and secondary care to administrative information, may allow depicting a novel view of patient’s care processes and of single patient’s behaviors, taking into account the multifaceted nature of chronic care. Second, the availability of novel diabetes technologies, able to gather large amounts of real-time data, requires the implementation of distributed platforms for data analysis and decision support. Finally, the inclusion of geographical and environmental information into such complex IT systems may further increase the capability of interpreting the data gathered and extract new knowledge from them. This article reviews the main concepts and definitions related to big data, it presents some efforts in health care, and discusses the potential role of big data in diabetes care. Finally, as an example, it describes the research efforts carried on in the MOSAIC project, funded by the European Commission. PMID:25910540

  10. Residu Gula Glikokonjugat pada Lambung Depan Kerbau Rawa (Bubalus bubalis Kalimantan Selatan (SUGAR RESIDU OF GLYCOCONJUGATES IN FORESTOMACH OF SOUTH KALIMANTAN SWAMP BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Nurliani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of swamp buffaloes to adapt with swamp environment was suggested to be supported bytheir digestive system efficiency. The research was done to obtain scientific explanation about digestiveefficiency of swamp buffalo by identification on kinds and distribution of glycoconjugates in swamp buffaloforestomach. Six male swamp buffaloes aged more than 2.5 year old and had body weight between 300-400kg were used in this study. Samples were obtained from Regency of Banjar slaughter house, SouthKalimantan. Every parts of the forestomach included rumen, reticulum, and omasum was taken andprocessed for microscopic observation with hematoxyline eosin (HE and alcian blue-periodic acid schiff(AB-PAS stainings. Sugar residues of glycoconjugates were localized with lectin histochemistry wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA, ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA, ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, concanavalinagglutinin (Con A, and soybean agglutinin (SBA. Every part of swamp buffalo forestomach had kinds ofspecific glycoconjugates with special distribution pattern which were different with other ruminant, andwere suitable for their functions in that part. The existence of D mannose/D glucose glycoconjugates thatwas dominant in forestomach estimated that had important role in supporting fermentative digestionfunction in swamp buffalo, through its function as receptor bacteria attachment. This is suggested as aspecial characteristic in digestive system of swamp buffalo which causes high digestive efficiency inswamp buffalo.

  11. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-01-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb),...

  12. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C; Rodríguez-Gómez, D; Ward, J

    2007-01-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...

  13. Immunological responses of pregnant swamp and murrah buffalo cows and calves to Toxocara (Neoascaris) vitulorum infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerasinghe, P.; Masoodi, M.A.; Samarasinghe, B.; Sivanathan, S.; Gunawardana, V.K.; Fernando, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    Swamp buffalo cows from an area where T. vitulorum infection was heavy were examined for serum antibodies. Serum from all cows showed strongly positive precipitin reactions from the 4th to 6th months of pregnancy and after parturition using homologous larval, adult worm and adult excretory and secretory antigens; these precipitins were still being detected in the sera 4-6 months after calving. The sera of calves born to these cows were negative for T. vitulorum precipitins before feeding with colostrum but a precipitin reaction was evident from 24 hours of birth. Nevertheless, patent infections developed from 19-21 days after birth and one calf died with severe diarrhoea; the remainder revealed heavy faecal Toxocara egg counts. In six calves the infection was spontaneously eliminated between 40 and 60 days after birth suggesting a 'self-cure' reaction. In a similar study involving 30 Murrah cows sera precipitins were not observed during the first 4-6 months of pregnancy. In 14 calves born to these animals serum precipitins were never observed, but the animals had T. vitulorum egg counts comparable with those in swamp buffalo calves. After an initial natural infection a strong resistance to reinfection was acquired by most calves of both breeds in that larvae did not generally develop beyond the second stage. (author)

  14. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, C; Panprasert, P; Holtz, W; Moors, E; Jaturasitha, S; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (pbuffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes.

  15. AGRICULTURE PHENOMENA AND PERSPECTIVES OF LEBAK SWAMP IN JAKABARING SOUTH SUMATRA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Wildayana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to analyze agriculture phenomena and perspectives of lebak swamp in Jakabaring South Sumatra Indonesia. The research used mix methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches. The description of the research area was assisted with interpretation of Landsat images in 1987 and 2015. The research resulted that farmer’s groups living in Jakabaring are divided into four group, namely indigenous people (people of Ogan, Komering, Musi, Enim, and Palembang, new comers (Javanese, spontaneous migration (Buginese, Banjarnese, Bataknese and outside spontaneous migration (Chinese, Arabic. The total area of Jakabaring is approximately 5,525 ha, around 2,700 ha (48.87 % was already landfilled by the Government in 1990, while the remaining 2,825 ha (51.13 % is still not reclaimed. The landfill materials were directly sucked from mud, sand, silt and stones of the Musi River. Each lebak swamp typology shows specific soil characters, but after landfills all soils became homogenous because of uniform materials of landfills. Patterns of land degradation after landfills are classified into three groups, namely making layers of water impermeability, changing vegetation types of land cover, and decreasing type and density of vegetation.

  16. STRUCTURE OF NATURAL REGENERATION IN RELATION TO SOIL PROPERTIES AND DISTURBANCE IN TWO SWAMP FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Antonielle Ávila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Veredas (palm swamps is a type of vegetation associated with watercourses, characterized by the presence of Mauritia flexuosa palm trees. These systems are not well understood and suffer from high anthropogenic pressure. The aims of this study were to describe the natural regeneration of two swamp forests in vereda systems with different anthropogenic impacts and investigate if the variation in these plant communities are associated to edaphic conditions. The study was performed in preserved and impacted sites located in the Environmental Protection Area of the Pandeiros River in northern Minas Gerais. At each site, one hundred 25 m2 plots were established for surveying regenerating shrubs and trees (≥1 cm diameter at the base of the stem and < 3 cm diameter at breast height. Vegetation structure was evaluated by phytosociological parameters, similarity index, and size distribution of individuals. Regenerating strata was correlated with chemical and physical soil analyses. The vegetation at the preserved site was characterized by a higher number of individuals and a lower diversity but contained species that were typical of flooded areas. The results also showed differences in soil nutrient availability between sites that influenced the distribution of species at the two study sites.

  17. Disaggregating asthma: Big investigation versus big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Swamp Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The fields of anthropology, evironmental science, and "planetary health" are all speaking about the need to properly assess the relationships between human health and anthropogenic environmental influences. Using ethnographic data gathered from an NSF-funded research project in the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina after Hurricane Matthew, I will present the importance of specific, culturally-centered, historically contextualized studies of the environment as we are increasingly placed in highly important (but too general) global environmental discussions. I will focus on the importance of the Lumbee Tribe (one of the largest Native American communities in the U.S.) as a key research site to help us understand how to engage in global environmental debates. I will illustrate how we must take account particular communities as they fade into and out of one another in the past and present. As such, I will argue that "planetary health" and other environemental health discourses must be accountable through interdisciplinary/interprofessional/interclass relationships that place the power of academic work in the environment safely in the hands of the most vulnerable populations.

  19. Big data and educational research

    OpenAIRE

    Beneito-Montagut, Roser

    2017-01-01

    Big data and data analytics offer the promise to enhance teaching and learning, improve educational research and progress education governance. This chapter aims to contribute to the conceptual and methodological understanding of big data and analytics within educational research. It describes the opportunities and challenges that big data and analytics bring to education as well as critically explore the perils of applying a data driven approach to education. Despite the claimed value of the...

  20. The trashing of Big Green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature

  1. Big data in fashion industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.; Bruniaux, J.; Zeng, X.; Bruniaux, P.

    2017-10-01

    Significant work has been done in the field of big data in last decade. The concept of big data includes analysing voluminous data to extract valuable information. In the fashion world, big data is increasingly playing a part in trend forecasting, analysing consumer behaviour, preference and emotions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the term fashion data and why it can be considered as big data. It also gives a broad classification of the types of fashion data and briefly defines them. Also, the methodology and working of a system that will use this data is briefly described.

  2. Big Data Analytics An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Dwivedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a data beyond the storage capacity and beyond the processing power is called big data. Big data term is used for data sets its so large or complex that traditional data it involves data sets with sizes. Big data size is a constantly moving target year by year ranging from a few dozen terabytes to many petabytes of data means like social networking sites the amount of data produced by people is growing rapidly every year. Big data is not only a data rather it become a complete subject which includes various tools techniques and framework. It defines the epidemic possibility and evolvement of data both structured and unstructured. Big data is a set of techniques and technologies that require new forms of assimilate to uncover large hidden values from large datasets that are diverse complex and of a massive scale. It is difficult to work with using most relational database management systems and desktop statistics and visualization packages exacting preferably massively parallel software running on tens hundreds or even thousands of servers. Big data environment is used to grab organize and resolve the various types of data. In this paper we describe applications problems and tools of big data and gives overview of big data.

  3. Was there a big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, J.

    1981-01-01

    In discussing the viability of the big-bang model of the Universe relative evidence is examined including the discrepancies in the age of the big-bang Universe, the red shifts of quasars, the microwave background radiation, general theory of relativity aspects such as the change of the gravitational constant with time, and quantum theory considerations. It is felt that the arguments considered show that the big-bang picture is not as soundly established, either theoretically or observationally, as it is usually claimed to be, that the cosmological problem is still wide open and alternatives to the standard big-bang picture should be seriously investigated. (U.K.)

  4. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  5. Privacy and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri

  6. Visualizing big energy data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyndman, Rob J.; Liu, Xueqin Amy; Pinson, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Visualization is a crucial component of data analysis. It is always a good idea to plot the data before fitting models, making predictions, or drawing conclusions. As sensors of the electric grid are collecting large volumes of data from various sources, power industry professionals are facing th...... the challenge of visualizing such data in a timely fashion. In this article, we demonstrate several data-visualization solutions for big energy data through three case studies involving smart-meter data, phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, and probabilistic forecasts, respectively....

  7. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  8. Big data naturally rescaled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoop, Ruedi; Kanders, Karlis; Lorimer, Tom; Held, Jenny; Albert, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We propose that a handle could be put on big data by looking at the systems that actually generate the data, rather than the data itself, realizing that there may be only few generic processes involved in this, each one imprinting its very specific structures in the space of systems, the traces of which translate into feature space. From this, we propose a practical computational clustering approach, optimized for coping with such data, inspired by how the human cortex is known to approach the problem.

  9. A Matrix Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matr...

  10. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  11. Sustainable management of peat swamp forest of Sarawak with special reference to ramin (Gonystylus bancanus); development of a monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meer, van der P.J.; Chai, F.Y.C.; Tan, S.; Mohizah, M.; Liam, D.

    2004-01-01

    Peat swamp forests in Sarawak are valuable in terms of timber and biodiversity, but heavily degraded. In order to assess the current status, potential developments and possible management interventions, an adequate monitoring system is necessary. In this study a new monitoring system is proposed,

  12. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  13. Variation in flood tolerance of container-grown seedlings of swamp white oak, bur oak, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall

    2008-01-01

    How much variation in flood tolerance exists among seedlings within oak species, given the flood frequency of sites from which acorns are collected, has been largely unexplored. Our studies examined initial growth and flood tolerance for seedlings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa L.), and white...

  14. Growth Response and Tolerance to Heavy Metals of two Swamp Species inoculated with a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Labra-Cardon, D.; Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the sensitivity and the sequestration ability of the microbial communities to heavy metals, microbes have been used for bioremediation. Recently the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the bioremediation of this kind of contaminants has been done. This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to heavy metals of two swamp species. (Author)

  15. BIG Data - BIG Gains? Understanding the Link Between Big Data Analytics and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Niebel, Thomas; Rasel, Fabienne; Viete, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between firms’ use of big data analytics and their innovative performance for product innovations. Since big data technologies provide new data information practices, they create new decision-making possibilities, which firms can use to realize innovations. Applying German firm-level data we find suggestive evidence that big data analytics matters for the likelihood of becoming a product innovator as well as the market success of the firms’ product innovat...

  16. BIG data - BIG gains? Empirical evidence on the link between big data analytics and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Niebel, Thomas; Rasel, Fabienne; Viete, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between firms’ use of big data analytics and their innovative performance in terms of product innovations. Since big data technologies provide new data information practices, they create novel decision-making possibilities, which are widely believed to support firms’ innovation process. Applying German firm-level data within a knowledge production function framework we find suggestive evidence that big data analytics is a relevant determinant for the likel...

  17. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  18. [Big data in imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerin, Philipp; Ostendorf, Benedikt; Hueber, Axel J; Kleyer, Arnd

    2018-04-01

    Until now, most major medical advancements have been achieved through hypothesis-driven research within the scope of clinical trials. However, due to a multitude of variables, only a certain number of research questions could be addressed during a single study, thus rendering these studies expensive and time consuming. Big data acquisition enables a new data-based approach in which large volumes of data can be used to investigate all variables, thus opening new horizons. Due to universal digitalization of the data as well as ever-improving hard- and software solutions, imaging would appear to be predestined for such analyses. Several small studies have already demonstrated that automated analysis algorithms and artificial intelligence can identify pathologies with high precision. Such automated systems would also seem well suited for rheumatology imaging, since a method for individualized risk stratification has long been sought for these patients. However, despite all the promising options, the heterogeneity of the data and highly complex regulations covering data protection in Germany would still render a big data solution for imaging difficult today. Overcoming these boundaries is challenging, but the enormous potential advances in clinical management and science render pursuit of this goal worthwhile.

  19. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.

    2006-01-01

    We present an overview of the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), which describes the production of the light elements in the early universe. The theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, 3 He, 4 He, and 7 Li is discussed. We emphasize the role of key nuclear reactions and the methods by which experimental cross section uncertainties are propagated into uncertainties in the predicted abundances. The observational determination of the light nuclides is also discussed. Particular attention is given to the comparison between the predicted and observed abundances, which yields a measurement of the cosmic baryon content. The spectrum of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) now independently measures the baryon density to high precision; we show how the CMB data test BBN, and find that the CMB and the D and 4 He observations paint a consistent picture. This concordance stands as a major success of the hot big bang. On the other hand, 7 Li remains discrepant with the CMB-preferred baryon density; possible explanations are reviewed. Finally, moving beyond the standard model, primordial nucleosynthesis constraints on early universe and particle physics are also briefly discussed

  20. Nursing Needs Big Data and Big Data Needs Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary big data initiatives in health care will benefit from greater integration with nursing science and nursing practice; in turn, nursing science and nursing practice has much to gain from the data science initiatives. Big data arises secondary to scholarly inquiry (e.g., -omics) and everyday observations like cardiac flow sensors or Twitter feeds. Data science methods that are emerging ensure that these data be leveraged to improve patient care. Big data encompasses data that exceed human comprehension, that exist at a volume unmanageable by standard computer systems, that arrive at a velocity not under the control of the investigator and possess a level of imprecision not found in traditional inquiry. Data science methods are emerging to manage and gain insights from big data. The primary methods included investigation of emerging federal big data initiatives, and exploration of exemplars from nursing informatics research to benchmark where nursing is already poised to participate in the big data revolution. We provide observations and reflections on experiences in the emerging big data initiatives. Existing approaches to large data set analysis provide a necessary but not sufficient foundation for nursing to participate in the big data revolution. Nursing's Social Policy Statement guides a principled, ethical perspective on big data and data science. There are implications for basic and advanced practice clinical nurses in practice, for the nurse scientist who collaborates with data scientists, and for the nurse data scientist. Big data and data science has the potential to provide greater richness in understanding patient phenomena and in tailoring interventional strategies that are personalized to the patient. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Spatial differences in hydrologic characteristics and water chemistry of a temperate coastal plain peatland: The Great Dismal Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Gary K.; Wurster, Frederick C.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial differences in hydrologic processes and geochemistry across forested peatlands control the response of the wetland-community species and resiliency to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Knowing these controls is essential to effectively managing peatlands as resilient wetland habitats. The Great Dismal Swamp is a 45,325 hectare peatland in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia and North Carolina, USA, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The existing forest-species distribution is a product of timber harvesting, hydrologic alteration by canal and road construction, and wildfires. Since 2009, studies of hydrologic and geochemical controls have expanded knowledge of groundwater flow paths, water chemistry, response to precipitation events, and characteristics of the peat. Dominant hydrologic and geochemical controls include (1) the gradual slope in land surface, (2) vertical differences in the hydraulic characteristics of the peat, (3) the proximity of lateral groundwater and small stream inflows from uplands, (4) the presence of an extensive canal and road network, and (5) small, adjustable-height dams on the canals. Although upland sources provide some surface water and lateral groundwater inflow to western parts of the swamp, direct groundwater recharge by precipitation is the major source of water throughout the swamp and the only source in many areas. Additionally, the proximity and type of upland water sources affect water levels and nutrient concentrations in canal water and groundwater. Where streams are a dominant upland source, variations in groundwater levels and nutrient concentrations are greater than where recharge by precipitation is the primary water source. Where upland groundwater is a dominant source, water levels are more stable. Because the species distribution of forest communities in the Swamp is strongly influenced by these controls, swamp managers are beginning to incorporate this knowledge into forest, water, and fire

  3. Was the big bang hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The author considers experiments to confirm the substantial deviations from a Planck curve in the Woody and Richards spectrum of the microwave background, and search for conducting needles in our galaxy. Spectral deviations and needle-shaped grains are expected for a cold Big Bang, but are not required by a hot Big Bang. (Auth.)

  4. Ethische aspecten van big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. (Niek) van Antwerpen; Klaas Jan Mollema

    2017-01-01

    Big data heeft niet alleen geleid tot uitdagende technische vraagstukken, ook gaat het gepaard met allerlei nieuwe ethische en morele kwesties. Om verantwoord met big data om te gaan, moet ook over deze kwesties worden nagedacht. Want slecht datagebruik kan nadelige gevolgen hebben voor

  5. Fremtidens landbrug bliver big business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Landbrugets omverdensforhold og konkurrencevilkår ændres, og det vil nødvendiggøre en udvikling i retning af “big business“, hvor landbrugene bliver endnu større, mere industrialiserede og koncentrerede. Big business bliver en dominerende udvikling i dansk landbrug - men ikke den eneste...

  6. Human factors in Big Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J. de

    2016-01-01

    Since 2014 I am involved in various (research) projects that try to make the hype around Big Data more concrete and tangible for the industry and government. Big Data is about multiple sources of (real-time) data that can be analysed, transformed to information and be used to make 'smart' decisions.

  7. Passport to the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Le 2 juin 2013, le CERN inaugure le projet Passeport Big Bang lors d'un grand événement public. Affiche et programme. On 2 June 2013 CERN launches a scientific tourist trail through the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva known as the Passport to the Big Bang. Poster and Programme.

  8. Swamp plots for dynamic aperture studies of PEP-II lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.; Irwin, J.; Cai, Y.; Chen, T.; Ritson, D.

    1995-01-01

    With a newly developed algorithm using resonance basis Lie generators and their evaluation with action-angle Poisson bracket maps (nPB tracking) the authors have been able to perform fast tracking for dynamic aperture studies of PEP-II lattices as well as incorporate lattice nonlinearities in beam-beam studies. They have been able to better understand the relationship between dynamic apertures and the tune shift and resonance coefficients in the generators of the one-turn maps. To obtain swamp plots (dynamic aperture vs. working point) of the PEP-II lattices, they first compute a one-turn resonance basis map for a nominal working point and then perform nPB tracking by switching the working point while holding fixed all other terms in the map. Results have been spot-checked by comparing with element-by-element tracking

  9. Three approaches to the classification of inland wetlands. [Dismal Swamp, Tennessee, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, P. T.; Malone, D.; Brooks, P. D.; Carter, V.

    1977-01-01

    In the Dismal Swamp project, seasonal, color-infrared aerial photographs and LANDSAT digital data were interpreted for a detailed analysis of the vegetative communities in a large, highly altered wetland. In Western Tennessee, seasonal high altitude color-infrared aerial photographs provided the hydrologic and vegetative information needed to map inland wetlands, using a classification system developed for the Tennessee Valley Region. In Florida, color-infrared aerial photographs were analyzed to produce wetland maps using three existing classification systems to evaluate the information content and mappability of each system. The methods used in each of the three projects can be extended or modified for use in the mapping of inland wetlands in other parts of the United States.

  10. Modeling Flood Plain Hydrology and Forest Productivity of Congaree Swamp, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    An ecological field and modeling study was conducted to examine the flood relations of backswamp forests and park trails of the flood plain portion of Congaree National Park, S.C. Continuous water level gages were distributed across the length and width of the flood plain portion - referred to as 'Congaree Swamp' - to facilitate understanding of the lag and peak flood coupling with stage of the Congaree River. A severe and prolonged drought at study start in 2001 extended into late 2002 before backswamp zones circulated floodwaters. Water levels were monitored at 10 gaging stations over a 4-year period from 2002 to 2006. Historical water level stage and discharge data from the Congaree River were digitized from published sources and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) archives to obtain long-term daily averages for an upstream gage at Columbia, S.C., dating back to 1892. Elevation of ground surface was surveyed for all park trails, water level gages, and additional circuits of roads and boundaries. Rectified elevation data were interpolated into a digital elevation model of the park trail system. Regression models were applied to establish time lags and stage relations between gages at Columbia, S.C., and gages in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the river and backswamp within the park. Flood relations among backswamp gages exhibited different retention and recession behavior between flood plain reaches with greater hydroperiod in the lower reach than those in the upper and middle reaches of the Congaree Swamp. A flood plain inundation model was developed from gage relations to predict critical river stages and potential inundation of hiking trails on a real-time basis and to forecast the 24-hour flood In addition, tree-ring analysis was used to evaluate the effects of flood events and flooding history on forest resources at Congaree National Park. Tree cores were collected from populations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), water

  11. Primary production in a shallow water lake with special reference to a reed swamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, F.Oe.

    1976-01-01

    Phytoplankton gross primary production ( 14 C method) in the shallow, eutrophic Danish Lake Arresoe in 1973 was 980 g C m -2 . Calculated net primary production was near zero. Macrophyte net primary production was measured by harvesting the maximum biomass, and above ground values were between 420 and 1325 g ash free dry wt m -2 , while below ground values were between 2480 and 8570 g ash free dry wt m -2 . The reed swamps were mapped on aerial photographs, and the composition of the macrophyte vegetation was determined. A comparison of macrophyte vegetation in 1944 and 1972 showed a reduction in species diversity, especially of submerged species. The seasonal variations in physical and chemical data indicated strong eutrophication in Arresoe. (author)

  12. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  13. Autonomic control of the heart in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Nina Kerting; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an air-breathing teleost with very reduced gills that uses the buccal cavity for air-breathing. Here we characterise the cardiovascular changes associated with the intermittent breathing pattern in M. albus and we study the autonomic control of the heart.......3 cm H2O). The autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing was revealed by infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and muscarinic antagonist atropine (3 mg kg− 1) in eels instrumented with an arterial catheter. Inhibition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic...... innervations of the heart revealed a strong vagal tone on the heart of water-breathing eels and that the tachycardia during air-breathing is primarily mediated by withdrawal of cholinergic tone....

  14. Reproductive biology of the swamp racer Mastigodryas bifossatus (Serpentes: Colubridae in subtropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro T. Leite

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The swamp racer Mastigodryas bifossatus (Raddi, 1820 is a large snake of Colubrinae. It is widely distributed in open areas throughout South America. Dissection of 224 specimens of this species housed in herpetological collections of the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná provided information on its sexual dimorphism, reproductive cycle and fecundity in subtropical Brazil. Adult specimens of M. bifossatus average approximately 1190 mm in snout-vent length and females are larger than males. The reproductive cycle of females is seasonal, with secondary vitellogenesis occurring from July to December. However, examination of male gonads did not reveal signs of reproductive seasonality in this sex. Egg laying was recorded from November to January. The estimated recruitment period extends from February to April. The mean number of individuals per clutch is 15, and there is a positive correlation between female length and clutch size.

  15. Applications of Big Data in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Kalota

    2015-01-01

    Big Data and analytics have gained a huge momentum in recent years. Big Data feeds into the field of Learning Analytics (LA) that may allow academic institutions to better understand the learners' needs and proactively address them. Hence, it is important to have an understanding of Big Data and its applications. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to provide an overview of Big Data, the technologies used in Big Data, and some of the applications of Big Data in educa...

  16. Exploring complex and big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanowski Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how big data analysis opens a range of research and technological problems and calls for new approaches. We start with defining the essential properties of big data and discussing the main types of data involved. We then survey the dedicated solutions for storing and processing big data, including a data lake, virtual integration, and a polystore architecture. Difficulties in managing data quality and provenance are also highlighted. The characteristics of big data imply also specific requirements and challenges for data mining algorithms, which we address as well. The links with related areas, including data streams and deep learning, are discussed. The common theme that naturally emerges from this characterization is complexity. All in all, we consider it to be the truly defining feature of big data (posing particular research and technological challenges, which ultimately seems to be of greater importance than the sheer data volume.

  17. 由柏木制备纳米孔结构炭材料Ⅰ.制备与孔结构%Nanoporous carbons from cypress Ⅰ.Preparation and pore structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    柏木条经过热蒸气处理,成功地制备了纳米孔炭,无需另行活化,比表面积就可达1000m2/g以上.如果在800 ℃~870 ℃炭化,柏木炭外表面积可达400m2/g以上,与同样温度在氩气中炭化得到的柏木炭相比,后者微孔面积仅为30m2/g~40m2/g.在900℃以上炭化得到的柏木炭,微孔表面积高达800m2/g以上,外表面积约为150m2/g.柏木炭的孔结构可以通过调节过热蒸气的温度得到控制.%Nanoporous carbons were prepared from cypress chips under a flow of super-heated steam, and their surface area reached more than 1 000 m2/g without an additional activation process. Cypress charcoals prepared at a temperature of 800-870 ℃ had a large external surface area of more than 400 m2/g, comparable to the microporous surface area,even though only 30-40 m2/g was obtained by carbonization in a flow of Ar gas. Cypress charcoals prepared above 900 ℃ were microporous with a microporous surface area more than 800 m2/g and an external surface area of about 150 m2/g. The pore structure in cypress charcoals could be controlled by selecting the temperature of the steam.

  18. Ground survey of red lechwe in the Linyanti swamps and Chobe floodplains, northern Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phemelo Gadimang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A ground survey of red lechwe was carried out in the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains of northern Botswana in the dry and wet seasons of 2012 and 2013, respectively. We documented numbers, sex ratio and age structure of red lechwe within the linear strips of 25 km × 300 m along the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains. Results indicated a significant difference in the numbers of red lechwe between sites and seasons. About 66 and 755 red lechwe were estimated for Chobe in the dry and wet season, respectively, with 343 and 261 of them estimated for Linyanti in the dry and wet season, respectively. In Chobe, the red lechwe densities varied widely between seasons (9 red lechwe/km2 – 101 red lechwe/km2 compared with Linyanti, where the densities did not vary much between seasons (35 red lechwe/km2 – 46 red lechwe/km2 . The lower densities of red lechwe in Chobe in the dry season when compared with the wet season suggest a possible seasonal shift in the distribution of red lechwe to the nearby Zambezi floodplains in Namibia. Conservation implications: The higher number of red lechwe in the Chobe floodplains in the wet season indicates the potential of the floodplains as a habitat for this species in that season. The dry season shift in the distribution of red lechwe in Chobe presents an opportunity for local communities in Namibia to engage in tourism, whereas the return of the red lechwe to the floodplains in the wet season ensures protection of the animals as well as boosts the tourism potential of the Chobe National Park.

  19. Effect of day or night grazing on behaviour of swamp buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somparn, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of day or night grazing on behaviour by swamp buffaloes. A grazing trial was conducted over 42 days in the late rainy season, during September to November2005 at Surin Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Surin province. The experimental period was divided into two 21-day periods. Twelve 2-year-old swamp buffalo heifers were allocated to four groups, eachcontaining three heifers, with the mean group weights being as similar as possible. Each group was allowed to graze either from 06:20 to 18:00 h (daytime treatment or from 18:20 to 06:00 h (nighttime treatment infour separate paddocks, each of 5 rai, using a cross-over design. When not at pasture the animals in each group were kept in the common corral with free access to fresh drinking water and mineral blocks. Individualanimal activity was recorded by visual observation at 1-min intervals during the period at pasture. Individual groups within each period were treated as replicates. Differences between group means weretested using MIXED procedure of SAS.The buffaloes on daytime treatment spent longer (P<0.05 grazing than those on nighttime treatment (423 vs 332 min. The number of meals differed (P<0.05 between treatments, but overall mean meal durationswere similar (73 min. Buffaloes allowed to graze during daylight had a tendency (P<0.10 toward a higher bite and step rates than those grazing during the night. With the reduction in grazing activity duringthe night on nighttime treatment, the animals ruminated for longer during the period at pasture (327 and 191 min, P<0.001. Live-weight change over periods of 20 days did not differ significantly. The difference intemporal behaviour patterns between treatments indicated that animals have to adapt foraging strategies appropriate for different situations in order to maintain feed intake and subsequently production.

  20. Improvement of the productivity of the swamp buffalo of S.E. Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.E.; Vercoe, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The needs of an expanding human population necessitate an increase in numbers and efficiency of output if the swamp buffalo is to remain as a significant component of S.E. Asian agriculture. Biological constraints to an increase in numbers are associated mainly with high calf mortality and low reproductive rate. A combination of vaccination and deworming markedly increases calf survival and provides the simplest means for increasing buffalo numbers. However, methods for improvement of the low inherent fertility of buffaloes remain to be devised. A first step towards a genetic solution is to obtain accurate comparative data for reproductive rates of different buffalo breeds and measures of the magnitude of heterosis for reproductive rate. However, facilities to do this in the near future do not exist. Milk yield or draft power could be most rapidly increased by crossing to river breeds with the optimum proportion of river breed in the cross determined by that level of milk yield and size commensurate with the locally available feed. This is the only method currently available that allows genetic improvement to initially equal or exceed the rate of human population growth. The lack of both large, well-documented herds and efficient AI schemes at present rules against within-breed selection as a method of improvement for any productive trait. It is unrealistic to expect large amounts of high-quality feeds to ever become available for rearing swamp buffaloes and there is a need to develop the facilities and expertise to allow comparative evaluation of buffalo breeds, the exploitation of heterosis in crosses and ultimately, within-breed selection for higher productivity, on straw-based diets. (author)

  1. Clonal growth strategy, diversity and structure: A spatiotemporal response to sedimentation in tropical Cyperus papyrus swamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Addisie; Stiers, Iris; Sierens, Tim; Kefalew, Alemayehu; Triest, Ludwig

    2018-01-01

    Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets) and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus), in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 636 ramets from six permanent plots (18 x 30 m) in three Ethiopian papyrus swamps, each with discrete sedimentation regimes (high vs. low) were sampled for two years. We found that ramets under the high sedimentation regime (HSR) were significantly clumped and denser than the sparse and spreading ramets under the low sedimentation regime (LSR). The HSR resulted in significantly different ramets with short culm height and girth diameter as compared to the LSR. These results indicated that C. papyrus ameliorates the effect of sedimentation by shifting clonal growth strategy from guerrilla (in LSR) to phalanx (in HSR). Clonal richness, size, dominance, and clonal subrange differed significantly between sediment regimes and studied time periods. Each swamp under HSR revealed a significantly high clonal richness (R = 0.80) as compared to the LSR (R = 0.48). Such discrepancy in clonal richness reflected the occurrence of initial and repeated seedling recruitment strategies as a response to different sedimentation regimes. Overall, our spatial and short-term temporal observations highlighted that HSR enhances clonal richness and decreases clonal subrange owing to repeated seedling recruitment and genets turnover.

  2. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  3. The big data telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    On a flat, red mulga plain in the outback of Western Australia, preparations are under way to build the most audacious telescope astronomers have ever dreamed of - the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Next-generation telescopes usually aim to double the performance of their predecessors. The Australian arm of SKA will deliver a 168-fold leap on the best technology available today, to show us the universe as never before. It will tune into signals emitted just a million years after the Big Bang, when the universe was a sea of hydrogen gas, slowly percolating with the first galaxies. Their starlight illuminated the fledgling universe in what is referred to as the “cosmic dawn”.

  4. The Big Optical Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Simon, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the capabilities of the Naval Research Laboratory Big Optical Array (BOA), an interferometric optical array for high-resolution imaging of stars, stellar systems, and other celestial objects. There are four important differences between the BOA design and the design of Mark III Optical Interferometer on Mount Wilson (California). These include a long passive delay line which will be used in BOA to do most of the delay compensation, so that the fast delay line will have a very short travel; the beam combination in BOA will be done in triplets, to allow measurement of closure phase; the same light will be used for both star and fringe tracking; and the fringe tracker will use several wavelength channels

  5. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1983-01-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  6. Nonstandard big bang models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvao, M.O.; Lima, J.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The usual FRW hot big-bang cosmologies have been generalized by considering the equation of state ρ = Anm +(γ-1) -1 p, where m is the rest mass of the fluid particles and A is a dimensionless constant. Explicit analytic solutions are given for the flat case (ε=O). For large cosmological times these extended models behave as the standard Einstein-de Sitter universes regardless of the values of A and γ. Unlike the usual FRW flat case the deceleration parameter q is a time-dependent function and its present value, q≅ 1, obtained from the luminosity distance versus redshift relation, may be fitted by taking, for instance, A=1 and γ = 5/3 (monatomic relativistic gas with >> k B T). In all cases the universe cools obeying the same temperature law of the FRW models and it is shown that the age of the universe is only slightly modified. (author) [pt

  7. The Last Big Bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, Austin D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    As one of the very few people in the world to give the “go/no go” decision to detonate a nuclear device, Austin “Mac” McGuire holds a very special place in the history of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the world. As Commander of Joint Task Force Unit 8.1.1, on Christmas Island in the spring and summer of 1962, Mac directed the Los Alamos data collection efforts for twelve of the last atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted by the United States. Since data collection was at the heart of nuclear weapon testing, it fell to Mac to make the ultimate decision to detonate each test device. He calls his experience THE LAST BIG BANG, since these tests, part of Operation Dominic, were characterized by the dramatic displays of the heat, light, and sounds unique to atmospheric nuclear detonations – never, perhaps, to be witnessed again.

  8. A matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control

  9. A matrix big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Verlinde, Erik [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  10. DPF Big One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    At its latest venue at Fermilab from 10-14 November, the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields meeting entered a new dimension. These regular meetings, which allow younger researchers to communicate with their peers, have been gaining popularity over the years (this was the seventh in the series), but nobody had expected almost a thousand participants and nearly 500 requests to give talks. Thus Fermilab's 800-seat auditorium had to be supplemented with another room with a video hookup, while the parallel sessions were organized into nine bewildering streams covering fourteen major physics topics. With the conventionality of the Standard Model virtually unchallenged, physics does not move fast these days. While most of the physics results had already been covered in principle at the International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Dallas in August (October, page 1), the Fermilab DPF meeting had a very different atmosphere. Major international meetings like Dallas attract big names from far and wide, and it is difficult in such an august atmosphere for young researchers to find a receptive audience. This was not the case at the DPF parallel sessions. The meeting also adopted a novel approach, with the parallels sandwiched between an initial day of plenaries to set the scene, and a final day of summaries. With the whole world waiting for the sixth ('top') quark to be discovered at Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, the meeting began with updates from Avi Yagil and Ronald Madaras from the big detectors, CDF and DO respectively. Although rumours flew thick and fast, the Tevatron has not yet reached the top, although Yagil could show one intriguing event of a type expected from the heaviest quark

  11. DPF Big One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-01-15

    At its latest venue at Fermilab from 10-14 November, the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields meeting entered a new dimension. These regular meetings, which allow younger researchers to communicate with their peers, have been gaining popularity over the years (this was the seventh in the series), but nobody had expected almost a thousand participants and nearly 500 requests to give talks. Thus Fermilab's 800-seat auditorium had to be supplemented with another room with a video hookup, while the parallel sessions were organized into nine bewildering streams covering fourteen major physics topics. With the conventionality of the Standard Model virtually unchallenged, physics does not move fast these days. While most of the physics results had already been covered in principle at the International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Dallas in August (October, page 1), the Fermilab DPF meeting had a very different atmosphere. Major international meetings like Dallas attract big names from far and wide, and it is difficult in such an august atmosphere for young researchers to find a receptive audience. This was not the case at the DPF parallel sessions. The meeting also adopted a novel approach, with the parallels sandwiched between an initial day of plenaries to set the scene, and a final day of summaries. With the whole world waiting for the sixth ('top') quark to be discovered at Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, the meeting began with updates from Avi Yagil and Ronald Madaras from the big detectors, CDF and DO respectively. Although rumours flew thick and fast, the Tevatron has not yet reached the top, although Yagil could show one intriguing event of a type expected from the heaviest quark.

  12. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.

    2007-01-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe

  13. Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    2002-01-01

    Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads

  14. BigOP: Generating Comprehensive Big Data Workloads as a Benchmarking Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yuqing; Zhan, Jianfeng; Weng, Chuliang; Nambiar, Raghunath; Zhang, Jinchao; Chen, Xingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Big Data is considered proprietary asset of companies, organizations, and even nations. Turning big data into real treasure requires the support of big data systems. A variety of commercial and open source products have been unleashed for big data storage and processing. While big data users are facing the choice of which system best suits their needs, big data system developers are facing the question of how to evaluate their systems with regard to general big data processing needs. System b...

  15. From big bang to big crunch and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, Shmuel; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Giveon, Amit; Kutasov, David

    2002-01-01

    We study a quotient Conformal Field Theory, which describes a 3+1 dimensional cosmological spacetime. Part of this spacetime is the Nappi-Witten (NW) universe, which starts at a 'big bang' singularity, expands and then contracts to a 'big crunch' singularity at a finite time. The gauged WZW model contains a number of copies of the NW spacetime, with each copy connected to the preceding one and to the next one at the respective big bang/big crunch singularities. The sequence of NW spacetimes is further connected at the singularities to a series of non-compact static regions with closed timelike curves. These regions contain boundaries, on which the observables of the theory live. This suggests a holographic interpretation of the physics. (author)

  16. [Analysis of the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment of the patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea depending on the period of flowering of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V M; Belyaeva, S N; Govorun, M I; Pirogova, M E

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pollen of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) on the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment (SHRT) of the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea (SCC). This article presents the results of the analysis of the data on 122 patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology who received SHRT under the conditions of the Southern Coast of the Crimea. Fifty one (41.8%) of these patients suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 71 (58.2%) ones had bronchial asthma. The whole group was comprised of 44 men (36.1%) and 78 women (63.9%). The average (median) age of the patients was 55.8 years. All the participants of the study underwent the comprehensive examination including the general medical and physical examination, complete blood count, the study of sputum cytology and immunological properties of blood including the standard characteristics, IgE and lysozyme levels), evaluation of the respiratory and locomotor (physical) functions with the use of the 6-minute walking test. The aeropollenological study of the aerial environment of the southern coast of the Crimea in the region of Yalta showed that the «bloom» of the Mediterranean Cypress occurs during the period from February till April inclusive. The highest concentrations of cypress pollen are observed in March and early April. The overall effectiveness of SHRT for the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology arriving for the treatment at the southern coast of the Crimea from other Crimean localities does not depend on the period of «flowering» (the presence of pollen in the air) of the Mediterranean Cypress. In these patients, the termination of the spa and health resort-based treatment during the «flowering» of the Mediterranean Cypress resulted in nothing more than a strained adaptive response manifested as the altered blood leukocyte count. Such reaction

  17. Google BigQuery analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Tigani, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    How to effectively use BigQuery, avoid common mistakes, and execute sophisticated queries against large datasets Google BigQuery Analytics is the perfect guide for business and data analysts who want the latest tips on running complex queries and writing code to communicate with the BigQuery API. The book uses real-world examples to demonstrate current best practices and techniques, and also explains and demonstrates streaming ingestion, transformation via Hadoop in Google Compute engine, AppEngine datastore integration, and using GViz with Tableau to generate charts of query results. In addit

  18. Empathy and the Big Five

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Del Barrio et al. (2004) haben vor mehr als 10 Jahren versucht, eine direkte Beziehung zwischen Empathie und den Big Five herzustellen. Im Mittel hatten in ihrer Stichprobe Frauen höhere Werte in der Empathie und auf den Big Five-Faktoren mit Ausnahme des Faktors Neurotizismus. Zusammenhänge zu Empathie fanden sie in den Bereichen Offenheit, Verträglichkeit, Gewissenhaftigkeit und Extraversion. In unseren Daten besitzen Frauen sowohl in der Empathie als auch den Big Five signifikant höhere We...

  19. "Big data" in economic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Myron P; Merchant, Emily Klancher; Roberts, Evan

    2018-03-01

    Big data is an exciting prospect for the field of economic history, which has long depended on the acquisition, keying, and cleaning of scarce numerical information about the past. This article examines two areas in which economic historians are already using big data - population and environment - discussing ways in which increased frequency of observation, denser samples, and smaller geographic units allow us to analyze the past with greater precision and often to track individuals, places, and phenomena across time. We also explore promising new sources of big data: organically created economic data, high resolution images, and textual corpora.

  20. Big Data as Information Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers analysis of ‘Big Data’ which has been discussed over last 10 years. The reasons and factors for the issue are revealed. It has proved that the factors creating ‘Big Data’ issue has existed for quite a long time, and from time to time, would cause the informational barriers. Such barriers were successfully overcome through the science and technologies. The conducted analysis refers the “Big Data” issue to a form of informative barrier. This issue may be solved correctly and encourages development of scientific and calculating methods.

  1. Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behaviour is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

  2. Big Data in Space Science

    OpenAIRE

    Barmby, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    It seems like “big data” is everywhere these days. In planetary science and astronomy, we’ve been dealing with large datasets for a long time. So how “big” is our data? How does it compare to the big data that a bank or an airline might have? What new tools do we need to analyze big datasets, and how can we make better use of existing tools? What kinds of science problems can we address with these? I’ll address these questions with examples including ESA’s Gaia mission, ...

  3. Rate Change Big Bang Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The Rate Change Big Bang Theory redefines the birth of the universe with a dramatic shift in energy direction and a new vision of the first moments. With rate change graph technology (RCGT) we can look back 13.7 billion years and experience every step of the big bang through geometrical intersection technology. The analysis of the Big Bang includes a visualization of the first objects, their properties, the astounding event that created space and time as well as a solution to the mystery of anti-matter.

  4. Big Data is invading big places as CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Big Data technologies are becoming more popular with the constant grow of data generation in different fields such as social networks, internet of things and laboratories like CERN. How is CERN making use of such technologies? How machine learning is applied at CERN with Big Data technologies? How much data we move and how it is analyzed? All these questions will be answered during the talk.

  5. The ethics of big data in big agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell (Isabelle M.)

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the ethics of big data in agriculture, focusing on the power asymmetry between farmers and large agribusinesses like Monsanto. Following the recent purchase of Climate Corp., Monsanto is currently the most prominent biotech agribusiness to buy into big data. With wireless sensors on tractors monitoring or dictating every decision a farmer makes, Monsanto can now aggregate large quantities of previously proprietary farming data, enabling a privileged position with unique in...

  6. Identifying the best season for mapping evergreen swamp and mangrove species using leaf-level spectra in an estuarine system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available would provide the best discrimination of six evergreen tree species, associated with swamp (Ficus Trichopoda), mangrove (Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Hibiscus tiliaceus), wetlands in adjacent woodlands (Syzygium cordatum) and coastal...

  7. Hydrography - HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS: Lakes, Ponds, Reservoirs, Swamps, and Marshes in Watersheds of Indiana (U. S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains features of lakes, ponds, reservoirs, swamps and marshes in watersheds in and...

  8. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  9. Big climate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudelsee, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The Big Data era has begun also in the climate sciences, not only in economics or molecular biology. We measure climate at increasing spatial resolution by means of satellites and look farther back in time at increasing temporal resolution by means of natural archives and proxy data. We use powerful supercomputers to run climate models. The model output of the calculations made for the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report amounts to ~650 TB. The 'scientific evolution' of grid computing has started, and the 'scientific revolution' of quantum computing is being prepared. This will increase computing power, and data amount, by several orders of magnitude in the future. However, more data does not automatically mean more knowledge. We need statisticians, who are at the core of transforming data into knowledge. Statisticians notably also explore the limits of our knowledge (uncertainties, that is, confidence intervals and P-values). Mudelsee (2014 Climate Time Series Analysis: Classical Statistical and Bootstrap Methods. Second edition. Springer, Cham, xxxii + 454 pp.) coined the term 'optimal estimation'. Consider the hyperspace of climate estimation. It has many, but not infinite, dimensions. It consists of the three subspaces Monte Carlo design, method and measure. The Monte Carlo design describes the data generating process. The method subspace describes the estimation and confidence interval construction. The measure subspace describes how to detect the optimal estimation method for the Monte Carlo experiment. The envisaged large increase in computing power may bring the following idea of optimal climate estimation into existence. Given a data sample, some prior information (e.g. measurement standard errors) and a set of questions (parameters to be estimated), the first task is simple: perform an initial estimation on basis of existing knowledge and experience with such types of estimation problems. The second task requires the computing power: explore the hyperspace to

  10. Hey, big spender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2000-04-01

    Business to business electronic commerce is looming large in the future of the oil industry. It is estimated that by adopting e-commerce the industry could achieve bottom line savings of between $1.8 to $ 3.4 billion a year on annual gross revenues in excess of $ 30 billion. At present there are several teething problems to overcome such as inter-operability standards, which are at least two or three years away. Tying in electronically with specific suppliers is also an expensive proposition, although the big benefits are in fact in doing business with the same suppliers on a continuing basis. Despite these problems, 14 of the world's largest energy and petrochemical companies joined forces in mid-April to create a single Internet procurement marketplace for the industry's complex supply chain. The exchange was designed by B2B (business-to-business) software provider, Commerce One Inc., ; it will leverage the buying clout of these industry giants (BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell Group, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Phillips Petroleum, Unocal Corporation and Statoil among them), currently about $ 125 billion on procurement per year; they hope to save between 5 to 30 per cent depending on the product and the region involved. Other similar schemes such as Chevron and partners' Petrocosm Marketplace, Network Oil, a Houston-based Internet portal aimed at smaller petroleum companies, are also doing business in the $ 10 billion per annum range. e-Energy, a cooperative project between IBM Ericson and Telus Advertising is another neutral, virtual marketplace targeted at the oil and gas sector. PetroTRAX, a Calgary-based website plans to take online procurement and auction sales a big step forward by establishing a portal to handle any oil company's asset management needs. There are also a number of websites targeting specific needs: IndigoPool.com (acquisitions and divestitures) and WellBid.com (products related to upstream oil and gas operators) are just

  11. Hey, big spender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, G.

    2000-01-01

    Business to business electronic commerce is looming large in the future of the oil industry. It is estimated that by adopting e-commerce the industry could achieve bottom line savings of between $1.8 to $ 3.4 billion a year on annual gross revenues in excess of $ 30 billion. At present there are several teething problems to overcome such as inter-operability standards, which are at least two or three years away. Tying in electronically with specific suppliers is also an expensive proposition, although the big benefits are in fact in doing business with the same suppliers on a continuing basis. Despite these problems, 14 of the world's largest energy and petrochemical companies joined forces in mid-April to create a single Internet procurement marketplace for the industry's complex supply chain. The exchange was designed by B2B (business-to-business) software provider, Commerce One Inc., ; it will leverage the buying clout of these industry giants (BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell Group, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Phillips Petroleum, Unocal Corporation and Statoil among them), currently about $ 125 billion on procurement per year; they hope to save between 5 to 30 per cent depending on the product and the region involved. Other similar schemes such as Chevron and partners' Petrocosm Marketplace, Network Oil, a Houston-based Internet portal aimed at smaller petroleum companies, are also doing business in the $ 10 billion per annum range. e-Energy, a cooperative project between IBM Ericson and Telus Advertising is another neutral, virtual marketplace targeted at the oil and gas sector. PetroTRAX, a Calgary-based website plans to take online procurement and auction sales a big step forward by establishing a portal to handle any oil company's asset management needs. There are also a number of websites targeting specific needs: IndigoPool.com (acquisitions and divestitures) and WellBid.com (products related to upstream oil and gas operators) are just two examples. All in

  12. Functional Ecology Effect Aspect Geographic on the Cypress (Cupresuss sempervirens L.var horizontalis) Growth in the Abbas Abad Behshahr Planting Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantari, H.; Fallah, A.; Hojjati, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: To evaluate the growth of cypress in different aspects (North West, West, Northeast and Southwest) is a pure planting stand in the area of Abbas Abad Behshar was considered. Method: Using the inventory network 75 × 100 m and a stratified random method, 50 samples plot 2 R (200 square meters) in different geographical aspects was carried out. In each sample plots, diameters and height of four trees were measured. Excel and SPSS statistical software and statistical analyses and necessary calculations were performed. Findings: The results showed that there are significant differences between amplitude with different aspects of growth. So that the highest diameter increment in the West aspect (0.53 cm) and the lowest in the North East aspect (0.479 cm) were observed. The maximum height growth in the West and South-West aspects (0.53 m) and the lowest was in the northwest aspect (0.49 m) and for average basal area growth, the highest growth in the West aspect was 0.87 m square per ha and lowest in the North west aspect was 0.76 square meters per hectare respectively. The average volume growth to age, respectively, in the aspect of West aspect (4 sylve per ha) and Northeast aspect (6.3 sylve per hectare) were the highest and lowest values.

  13. Estimating Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH from Digital Surface Models and Orthophotos Obtained with an Unmanned Aerial System for a Japanese Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Iizuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for accurately measuring biophysical parameters are a key component for quantitative evaluation regarding to various forest applications. Conventional in situ measurements of these parameters take time and expense, encountering difficultness at locations with heterogeneous microtopography. To obtain precise biophysical data in such situations, we deployed an unmanned aerial system (UAS multirotor drone in a cypress forest in a mountainous area of Japan. The structure from motion (SfM method was used to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the forest (tree structures from aerial photos. Tree height was estimated from the 3D model and compared to in situ ground data. We also analyzed the relationships between a biophysical parameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, of individual trees with canopy width and area measured from orthorectified images. Despite the constraints of ground exposure in a highly dense forest area, tree height was estimated at an accuracy of root mean square error = 1.712 m for observed tree heights ranging from 16 to 24 m. DBH was highly correlated with canopy width (R2 = 0.7786 and canopy area (R2 = 0.7923, where DBH ranged from 11 to 58 cm. The results of estimating forest parameters indicate that drone-based remote-sensing methods can be utilized to accurately analyze the spatial extent of forest structures.

  14. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21

    were used to better understand porosity and permeability trends in the region and to characterize barriers and define flow units. Diagenetic alterations that impact porosity and permeability include development of quartz overgrowths, sutured quartz grains, dissolution of feldspar grains, formation of clay mineral coatings on grains, and calcite cementation. Many of these alterations are controlled by facies. Mapping efforts identified distinct flow units in the northern part of the field showing that the Pennsylvanian Bridgeport consists of a series of thick incised channel fill sequences. The sandstones are about 75-150 feet thick and typically consist of medium grained and poorly sorted fluvial to distributary channel fill deposits at the base. The sandstones become indistinctly bedded distributary channel deposits in the main part of the reservoir before fining upwards and becoming more tidally influenced near their top. These channel deposits have core permeabilities ranging from 20 md to well over 1000 md. The tidally influenced deposits are more compartmentalized compared to the thicker and more continuous basal fluvial deposits. Fine grained sandstones that are laterally equivalent to the thicker channel type deposits have permeabilities rarely reaching above 250 md. Most of the unrecovered oil in Lawrence Field is contained in Pennsylvanian Age Bridgeport sandstones and Mississippian Age Cypress sandstones. These reservoirs are highly complex and compartmentalized. Detailed reservoir characterization including the development of 3-D geologic and geocellular models of target areas in the field were completed to identify areas with the best potential to recover remaining reserves including unswept and by-passed oil. This project consisted of tasks designed to compile, interpret, and analyze the data required to conduct reservoir characterization for the Bridgeport and Cypress sandstones in pilot areas in anticipation of expanded implementation of ASP flooding in

  15. Methods and tools for big data visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Zubova, Jelena; Kurasova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, methods and tools for big data visualization have been investigated. Challenges faced by the big data analysis and visualization have been identified. Technologies for big data analysis have been discussed. A review of methods and tools for big data visualization has been done. Functionalities of the tools have been demonstrated by examples in order to highlight their advantages and disadvantages.

  16. Measuring the Promise of Big Data Syllabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alon

    2018-01-01

    Growing interest in Big Data is leading industries, academics and governments to accelerate Big Data research. However, how teachers should teach Big Data has not been fully examined. This article suggests criteria for redesigning Big Data syllabi in public and private degree-awarding higher education establishments. The author conducted a survey…

  17. The BigBOSS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT IN THE AREA OF THE ORNITHOLOGIC RESERVATION “THE SWAMPS FROM SATCHINEZ” (TIMIŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Török-Oance

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the anthropic impact within the Ornithologic Reservation Swamps from Satchinez is based on the field notes in the period 2003-2005, the air photos taken in 2004 and the reconstitution of past situations (1963-1973 using the photoplans from that period. Within the reservation and the buffer area a series of anthropic activities are taking place, allowed or not, which have a negative impact on the protected area: agricultural works (including agro-chemical treatments, grazing, mowing, hydrotechnical arrangements, illegal tree felling, cutting and burning the reed, poaching, hunting and fishing, collecting biological material, transport, tourism and petrol exploitation. All these lead to the deterioration of the habitat, affect the life of the birds, the water, the clogging of the swamp and cause the disappearance of the clean water spots thus endangering the reservation itself.

  19. Seed germination studies on Gymnacranthera canarica (King Warb. - a Vulnerable tree species of a highly threatened Myristica swamp ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Keshavachandra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gymnacranthera canarica (King Warb. is an exclusive Myristica swamp species endemic to the Western Ghats.  The Myristica swamp is a Critically Endangered ecosystem.  Studies were carried out to assess the viability, germination and storage behaviour of Gymnacranthera canarica seeds.  In the present study, it was observed that seeds have shown an initiation of germination after two weeks.  A maximum of 90% germination was recorded when the initial moisture content was 38.04 ± 1.75 %.  A decreased percentage (3% was observed when the moisture content reached 14.26 ± 2.3 after 70 days of storage.  Seeds failed to germinate beyond this moisture level.  A desiccation study showed recalcitrant behaviour and seeds can be stored in lab conditions for up to two and half months.

  20. Stable carbon isotope composition of organic material and carbonate in sediment of a swamp and lakes in Honshu island, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Toshio

    1978-01-01

    Recent sediments from a swamp and lakes in Honshu were analyzed for organic carbon and carbonate contents, and stable isotope ratios of carbon in the organic materials and carbonate. delta C 13 values of the carbonate tend to be distinctly larger than those of organic carbon in reducing condition as natural gas field, whereas in oxidizing SO 4 -reducing conditions, they are slightly larger than those of organic carbon within the limited range of a few per mil. Carbon isotopic compositions of organic carbon in sediment of the swamp, Obuchi-numa, were analyzed and compared with habitat analysis of associated fossil diatoms. deltaC 13 values of organic carbon in the sediment vary in correlation with the species abundance in habitat of the associated fossil diatoms, ranging from fresh-water (-0.0282) to coastal marine (-0.0236) via brackish. (auth.)

  1. Biophotonics: the big picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Popp, Jürgen; Wilson, Brian C.

    2018-02-01

    The 5th International Conference on Biophotonics (ICOB) held April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia, brought together opinion leaders to discuss future directions for the field and opportunities to consider. The first session of the conference, "How to Set a Big Picture Biophotonics Agenda," was focused on setting the stage for developing a vision and strategies for translation and impact on society of biophotonic technologies. The invited speakers, panelists, and attendees engaged in discussions that focused on opportunities and promising applications for biophotonic techniques, challenges when working at the confluence of the physical and biological sciences, driving factors for advances of biophotonic technologies, and educational opportunities. We share a summary of the presentations and discussions. Three main themes from the conference are presented in this position paper that capture the current status, opportunities, challenges, and future directions of biophotonics research and key areas of applications: (1) biophotonics at the nano- to microscale level; (2) biophotonics at meso- to macroscale level; and (3) biophotonics and the clinical translation conundrum.

  2. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  3. Big bang darkleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Krnjaic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis, a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN, in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD, which generically yields large (≫MeV/dark-nucleon binding energies. These bounds further suggest the mediator is relatively weakly coupled, so repulsive forces between dark-sector nuclei are much weaker than Coulomb repulsion between standard-model nuclei, which results in an exponential barrier-tunneling enhancement over standard BBN. Thus, darklei are easier to make and harder to break than visible species with comparable mass numbers. This process can efficiently yield a dominant population of states with masses significantly greater than the confinement scale and, in contrast to dark matter that is a fundamental particle, may allow the dominant form of dark matter to have high spin (S≫3/2, whose discovery would be smoking gun evidence for dark nuclei.

  4. Predicting big bang deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, N.; Scherrer, R.J.; Steigman, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, T.P. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    We present new upper and lower bounds to the primordial abundances of deuterium and {sup 3}He based on observational data from the solar system and the interstellar medium. Independent of any model for the primordial production of the elements we find (at the 95{percent} C.L.): 1.5{times}10{sup {minus}5}{le}(D/H){sub {ital P}}{le}10.0{times}10{sup {minus}5} and ({sup 3}He/H){sub {ital P}}{le}2.6{times}10{sup {minus}5}. When combined with the predictions of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, these constraints lead to a 95{percent} C.L. bound on the primordial abundance deuterium: (D/H){sub best}=(3.5{sup +2.7}{sub {minus}1.8}){times}10{sup {minus}5}. Measurements of deuterium absorption in the spectra of high-redshift QSOs will directly test this prediction. The implications of this prediction for the primordial abundances of {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li are discussed, as well as those for the universal density of baryons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  5. Big bang darkleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnjaic, Gordan; Sigurdson, Kris

    2015-12-01

    In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis, a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD, which generically yields large (≫MeV /dark-nucleon) binding energies. These bounds further suggest the mediator is relatively weakly coupled, so repulsive forces between dark-sector nuclei are much weaker than Coulomb repulsion between standard-model nuclei, which results in an exponential barrier-tunneling enhancement over standard BBN. Thus, darklei are easier to make and harder to break than visible species with comparable mass numbers. This process can efficiently yield a dominant population of states with masses significantly greater than the confinement scale and, in contrast to dark matter that is a fundamental particle, may allow the dominant form of dark matter to have high spin (S ≫ 3 / 2), whose discovery would be smoking gun evidence for dark nuclei.

  6. The role of big laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Heuer, Rolf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward.

  7. The role of big laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, R-D

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward. (paper)

  8. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  9. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of plant species in the peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya, Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM status of plants growing on peat soil, a study was carried out inthe peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Out of 146 plant root samples belonging to 48 plantspecies from 25 families examined, all plants colonized by VAM fungi namely 14 (29.2% high level, 32 (66.7% medium level, and 2(4.1% low level respectively.

  10. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of plant species in the peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya, Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2003-01-01

    In order to describe the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) status of plants growing on peat soil, a study was carried out inthe peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Out of 146 plant root samples belonging to 48 plantspecies from 25 families examined, all plants colonized by VAM fungi namely 14 (29.2%) high level, 32 (66.7%) medium level, and 2(4.1%) low level respectively.

  11. The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Nijkamp

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation Since the 1980s, many initiatives have attempted to tackle the deprivation currently experienced in South Rotterdam. Efforts have been made to attract creative workers and, in a counter-reaction, other initiatives have aimed to encourage the creative talents of poorer residents to strengthen their economic position. One example of this is Freehouse, which has established projects in the Afrikaanderwijk, including a neighbourhood cooperative. Our article addresses two questions: 1 What are the effects of the Freehouse projects on the economic position of residents of the Afrikaanderwijk? and 2 Which insights do our results provide into the possible effects of local government policies that rely on citizens playing an active role? Although the economic effects of the projects were limited, our study reveals that citizens’ initiatives, such as the Afrikaander Cooperative, can help residents gain employment. In order to succeed, these initiatives should not be hindered by obstructive regulations, and they should include input from the residents who function as staff. However, in deprived neighbourhoods, many residents require support to be able to contribute to citizens’ initiatives, and cannot be expected to act like Baron Münchausen and pull themselves out of the swamp of deprivation by their own hair. Het Münchausen paradigma voor achterstandswijken: jezelf uit het moeras van achterstand trekken Sinds de jaren 80 hebben veel initiatieven geprobeerd het achterstandsniveau in Rotterdam Zuid te verminderen. Verschillende initiatieven waren gericht op het aantrekken van creatieve professionals. Als tegenreactie stimuleerden andere initiatieven de creatieve talenten van arme wijkbewoners teneinde hun economische positie te versterken. Een voorbeeld hiervan is Freehouse, dat projecten in de Afrikaanderwijk startte, waaronder de oprichting van

  12. Generalized formal model of Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhovska, N.; Veres, O.; Hirnyak, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article dwells on the basic characteristic features of the Big Data technologies. It is analyzed the existing definition of the “big data” term. The article proposes and describes the elements of the generalized formal model of big data. It is analyzed the peculiarities of the application of the proposed model components. It is described the fundamental differences between Big Data technology and business analytics. Big Data is supported by the distributed file system Google File System ...

  13. Structure of the tree stratum of three swamp forest communities in southern Brazil under different soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carla Mancino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga forests are commonly known to be plant communities rather poor in tree species. This study aimed to describe and explain the association between the floristic-structural similarities and the environmental conditions in three Swamp Restinga Forest communities in southern Brazil. In 13 plots of 100 m2 each, we sampled all individual trees (circumference at breast height >12 cm and height ≥3 m. We collected soil samples in each plot for chemical and textural analyses. Phytosociological parameters were calculated and different structural variables were compared between areas. The density of individuals did not differ between areas; however, the maximum height and abundance of species differed between the site with Histosols and the other two sites with Gleysols. Further, a canonical correspondence analysis based on a matrix of vegetation and that of environmental characteristics explained 31.5% of the total variation. The high floristic and environmental heterogeneity indicate that swamp-forests can shelter many species with low frequency. Most species were generalists that were not exclusive to this type of forest. Overall, our study showed that swamp-forests within the same region can show considerable differences in composition and structure and can include species-rich communities, mostly due to the presence of species with a broader distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest domain on sites with less stressful environmental conditions and without waterlogged conditions.

  14. Prevalence and intensity of third stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae in swamp eels sold in three large markets in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Nuchprayoon, Surang; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2002-01-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is a common human tissue parasite in Thailand. The swamp eel is the major intermediate or paratenic host for this parasite. The high prevalence of the infective third stage larvae (L3) of this parasite in the rainy season has been noted in previous studies. During June 1999 (rainy season), we performed a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence and the intensity of G. spinigerum L3s in the livers of swamp eels that were obtained from three large Bangkok markets (Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej). Of a total of 785 livers, G. spinigerum L3s were found in 97: an infection rate of 12%. The prevalence rates in Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej markets were 13%, 10% and 14% respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of infected eels between the markets (p > 0.05). The intensity of L3 burden in the livers ranged from 1-17 larvae, with an average of 2.60 +/- 0.24 larvae (mean +/- SE). In this study a high prevalence of G. spinigerum L3s was found; there was no significant difference in the intensity of larvae in swamp eels between markets. These findings emphasize the importance of public health education: people need to be aware of the dangers of consuming raw or undercooked food.

  15. Assessment of semen quality in Swamp Buffalo AI Bulls in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koonjaenak

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Thai swamp buffalo bulls semen used for artificial insemination (AI in Thailand, aspects relevance in freezing and thawing of semen are review. Semen and sperm characteristics were evaluated included sperm count, motility (assessed subjectively and by CASA, morphology (using phase-contrast light microscopy and SEM, plasma membrane integrity (PMI (using a hypo-osmotic swelling test [HOST] and SYBR- 14/propidium iodide [PI], plasma membrane stability (PMS (using Annexin-V/PI and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity (using SCSA and flow cytometry [FCM]. The average ejaculate volume was about 3.0–4.0 mL, with good viability (PMI measured by the HOST and motility (>65% and >70%, respectively. Sperm concentration ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 billion/mL, being also affected by bull age. Whereas semen quality (including sperm output, pH and initial sperm motility did not differ between the seasons. Few spermatozoa (<15%/ ejaculate had abnormal morphology with abnormalities resembling those in other bovidae. In FT semen, PMI (using SYBR-14/PI and PMS were highest in winter. Across seasons, ~50% of post-thaw spermatozoa depicted linear motility, a proportion that decreased to ~35% during incubation (38oC for 60 minutes, without marking any seasonal difference. The sperm DNA was hardly damaged (with <3% fragmentation, expressed as DNA fragmentation index [DFI], among seasons.

  16. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  17. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data (n = 1686 were collected at baseline and 12- to 24-months post-intervention among residents surrounding eight stores, three of which implemented a multi-faceted intervention and five of which were comparisons. Bivariate analyses and logistic and linear regressions were employed to assess differences in time, treatment, and the interaction between time and treatment to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. Results Improvements were found in perceived healthy food accessibility and perceptions of corner stores. No changes were found, however, in store patronage, purchasing, or consumption of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Results suggest limited effectiveness of food retail interventions on improving health behaviors. Future research should focus on other strategies to reduce community-level obesity.

  18. Characterization of Population Genetic Structure of red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shaokui; Li, Yanhe; Shi, Linlin; Zhang, Long; Li, Qingbin; Chen, Jing

    2018-04-03

    The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) is one of the most economically important farmed aquatic species in China. However, it is also a famous invasive species in the world. This invasive species was dispersed most via human activities including intentional or unintentional carry in China. Thus, P. clarkii naturally distributed in China provides us a desirable mode to investigate the genetic structure of an invasive species dispersed mainly by human-mediated factors. To reveal the impact of human-mediated dispersal on genetic structure of P. clarkii in China, a total of 22,043 genome-wide SNPs were obtained from approximately 7.4 billion raw reads using 2b-RAD technique in this study. An evident pattern of population genetic structure and the asymmetrical migrational rates between different regions were observed with 22 populations based on these SNPs. This study provide a better understanding of the population genetic structure and demographic history of P. clarkii populations in China, inferring that anthropogenic factors (aquaculture or by accident) and ecological factors (e.g., complicated topography and climatic environment), as well as its special biological traits could account for the current population structure pattern and dispersal history of P. clarkii.

  19. Determination of endocrine patterns and their applications in the swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamonpatana, M.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of AI in swamp buffalo breeding has made hormonal measurement and treatment an important area of research. Hormonal regulation of buffalo reproduction is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring genetic progress and productivity. The development of immunoassay techniques for measuring progesterone was quickly identified as a suitable tool for monitoring the reproductive status of the water buffalo. Progesterone profiles during the oestrous cycle, pregnancy, parturition and post partum have been established. A knowledge of progesterone levels has helped to improve clinical skills in determining reproductive status. Attempts have been made to understand the role of gonadotrophins during these reproductive stages, to advance the onset of postpartum cyclicity, and to characterize the weak signs of oestrus. Peripartal changes of oestrone and prostaglandin have been monitored. Endocrinological methods for oestrus synchronization have been developed and applied and oestrone sulphate and progesterone have been used to assess pregnancy status and a rapid pregnancy test has been utilized to maximize reproductive efficiency in ranch-type breeding herds. In the male attempts have been made to clarify the testicular testosterone secretory capacity and the possible relationships between testosterone secretion, libido, semen characteristics and the influence of season. Within the context of long-term improvement, these studies should help to decrease calving intervals, improve heat and non-pregnancy detection, and allow for subfertility discrimination and sire selection with consequent increases in milk and meat production and draught power. (author)

  20. Firing Room Remote Application Software Development & Swamp Works Laboratory Robot Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Janette

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is creating a way to send humans beyond low Earth orbit, and later to Mars. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is working to make this possible by developing a Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) which will allow the launch of Space Launch System (SLS). This paper's focus is on the work performed by the author in her first and second part of the internship as a remote application software developer. During the first part of her internship, the author worked on the SCCS's software application layer by assisting multiple ground subsystems teams including Launch Accessories (LACC) and Environmental Control System (ECS) on the design, development, integration, and testing of remote control software applications. Then, on the second part of the internship, the author worked on the development of robot software at the Swamp Works Laboratory which is a research and technology development group which focuses on inventing new technology to help future In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) missions.

  1. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  2. Is the herb-shrub composition of veredas (Brazilian palm swamps distinguishable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Pereira da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vereda (Brazilian palm swamp is a poorly known savannic phytophysiognomy that occurs on moist soils with high herb-shrub floristic richness. This study aimed to document the herb-shrub species of veredas of the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins - EESGTO, and compare this flora with other veredas in Brazil. Furthermore, we assessed the similarity of the herb-shrub flora of the studied veredas with that of inventories of other savannas and grasslands in order to evaluate whether veredas possess an exclusive flora. Ordination analysis was performed to understand the floristic relationship among these areas. We recorded 213 species, 105 genera and 49 families at EESGTO, including five new floral records for the Cerrado and 78 for the state of Tocantins. The floristic similarity among veredas at EESGTO and the other sites was low. For all sites, a total of 1,324 species were recorded, of which 342 were unique to veredas and 187 unique to moist grasslands (campos limpos úmidos. After reviewing databases, 14.3 % of these species remained exclusive to veredas and moist grasslands. The ordination analysis indicated a gradient in floristic composition from wet to dry phytophysiognomies. In conclusion, we recognize a flora that distinguishes veredas from other Cerrado phytophysiognomies.

  3. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP, N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2, and gem-associated protein (GEMIN8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71, hemoglobin subunit α (HBA, and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K, were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes.

  4. A pilot village study to improve Philippine swamp buffalo production using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejandrino, A.L.; Alcantara, J.; Eduardo, S.

    1990-01-01

    An integrated Philippine village study on carabao (swamp buffalo) production was conducted in a pilot village. The quasi-experimental design was adopted in two areas designated 'with project' (W/P) and 'without project' (W/OP). The farmers' demographic and socio-economic characteristics, livestock management practices and carabao production were monitored during the baseline phase (18 months) and the intervention phase (24 months). The progesterone levels in milk and serum were measured by radioimmunoassay to assess the reproductive status of the carabaos. The improved management scheme for the intervention period consisted of urea + molasses in drinking water, a routine health programme of deworming and vaccination, and breeding by artificial insemination or natural mating. The level of parasitism was low and was mainly caused by infection with Fasciola sp. and amphistomes. Intermediate snail hosts infected with these parasites were found in the study area. Coccidial oocysts and eggs of Mecistocirrus digitatus were occasionally present in the faecal samples. Reproductive traits were improved in both areas during the intervention phase, with the animals in the W/OP area showing a higher increase in pregnancy rate (57.6%) than those in the W/P area (53.7%); however, the increase in the calving rate and calf survival were greater in the W/P area (45.5% and 100%, respectively) than those in the W/OP area (37% and 94.1%, respectively). (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  5. Nitrogen fate in a subtropical mangrove swamp: Potential association with seawater-groundwater exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai; Wu, Jiapeng; Li, Hailong; Hong, Yiguo; Wilson, Alicia M; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Shananan, Meghan

    2018-04-18

    Coastal mangrove swamps play an important role in nutrient cycling at the land-ocean boundary. However, little is known about the role of periodic seawater-groundwater exchange in the nitrogen cycling processes. Seawater-groundwater exchange rates and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were investigated along a shore-perpendicular intertidal transect in Daya Bay, China. The intertidal transect comprises three hydrologic subzones (tidal creek, mangrove and bare mudflat zones), each with different physicochemical characteristics. Salinity and hydraulic head measurements taken along the transect were used to estimate the exchange rates between seawater and groundwater over a spring-neap tidal cycle. Results showed that the maximum seawater-groundwater exchange occurred within the tidal creek zone, which facilitated high-oxygen seawater infiltration and subsequent nitrification. In contrast, the lowest exchange rate found in the mangrove zone caused over-loading of organic matter and longer groundwater residence times. This created an anoxic environment conducive to nitrogen loss through the anammox and denitrification processes. Potential oxidation rates of ammonia and nitrite were measured by the rapid and high-throughput method and rates of denitrification and anammox were measured by the modified membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) with isotope pairing, respectively. In the whole transect, denitrification accounted for 90% of the total nitrogen loss, and anammox accounted for the remaining 10%. The average nitrogen removal rate was about 2.07g per day per cubic meter of mangrove sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A. [Benin Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

    1995-12-31

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  7. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR HOMING IN THE RED SWAMP CRAYFISH, PROCAMBARUS CLARKII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBARESI S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is an efficient burrower, but its burrow fidelity has been recently questioned. In this study, we aimed at investigating whether individuals of this species are capable to learn the position of a goal (a wet burrow hidden to their sight in experimental tanks and to make more efficient with time their oriented movement towards it. We also analyzed crayfish behavior after having closed one of the two accesses to the goal. Indeed, in successive trials we recorded the crayfish tendency to reduce the distance covered to reach the goal and the time taken, except when they were already familiar to the experimental setting. Memory of the spatial configuration lasted for 16 hours at least and crayfish learned and maintained individual trajectories. The interruption of their usual path always caused a drastic increase of distance and time that however decreased in the successive trials. This study provided also some information of the sensory channels used by P. clarkii to orient. This crayfish, which can be active also during daytime, seemed to adopt a combination of tactile and visual information, together with the possible use of cues (i.e. humidity cues emitted by the goal. Future studies should clarify the paradox of a crayfish species whose individuals, although being physiologically capable to home, seem not to return to the previously occupied burrows at the end of their foraging excursions, notwithstanding the time and energy expended to excavate them.

  8. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in South Mexico: cost / benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tovilla Hernández

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day. A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2 555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD. Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented. After logging, temperatures increased 13 °C in the soil and 11°C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3 000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246: 1. There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

  9. Draining the swamp while making America great: senior dissonance in the age of Trump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Robert B

    2018-04-13

    In his surprise election as President, Donald Trump enjoyed disproportionate electoral support from older voters, many of whom saw in Trump a person who would work to reverse demographic, economic, and cultural forces that had transformed American life as they had long seen it. Yet, Trump's campaign and incumbency has also been very much about gutting the Washington policy establishment of officials, bureaucrats, and lobbyists (aka, the Swamp) which, for over half a century, has been instrumental in enacting and expanding legislation that has benefitted older Americans, far more than any other social policy constituency in the country. This article contrasts the value-oriented electoral support Trump enjoyed from older Americans with their interest concerns centered on policies such as the Affordable Care Act, Medicaid, and a host of smaller grant-in-aid programs. It then reviews the strong institutional base seniors and their advocates have in Washington, posing whether interest-oriented concerns may outweigh ideological ones as policy options emerge from a Republican-controlled government prior to the 2018 elections.

  10. Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. (Cestoda: Monticelliidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Synbranchiformes) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; de Chambrier, A; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2001-12-01

    Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. is described from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen and Greenwood (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is placed into Monticellia because of the cortical position of the testes, ovary, and uterus. It differs from other Monticellia species (with the exception of Monticellia magna (Rego, Santos and Silva, 1974)) in the position of longitudinal musculature that crosses the vitelline follicles, making them paramuscular. The new species can be distinguished from M. magna--which possesses a similar number of testes (107-139), paramuscular vitelline follicles, and numerous gland cells distributed between the apex of the scolex and suckers--in the position of the genital pore (8-21% vs. 19-27%), in the presence of a weak internal longitudinal musculature, in the arrangement of the testes in the median field, and in the absence of a vaginal sphincter. This is the first proteocephalidean tapeworm reported from a synbranchid fish and the first species of Monticellia found in North America.

  11. Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems of the Upper Amazon: Characterizing their Distribution and Inundation State Using Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schröder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.

    2011-12-01

    Palm swamp wetlands are prevalent in the Amazon basin, including extensive regions in northern Peru. These ecosystems are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. The combination of constantly saturated soils, giving rise to low oxygen conditions, and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, knowledge of their spatial extent and inundation state is crucial for assessing the associated land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Precise spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are developing a remote sensing methodology using multiple resolution microwave remote sensing data to determine palm swamp distribution and inundation state over focus regions in the Amazon basin in northern Peru. For this purpose, two types of multi-temporal microwave data are used: 1) high-resolution (100 m) data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to derive maps of palm swamp extent and inundation from dual-polarization fine-beam and multi-temporal HH-polarized ScanSAR, and 2) coarse resolution (25 km) combined active and passive microwave data from QuikSCAT and AMSR-E to derive inundated area fraction on a weekly basis. We compare information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products to the PALSAR-based datasets to ensure information harmonization. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets will allow for characterization of palm swamps and

  12. [Big data in official statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany.

  13. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  14. Official statistics and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Struijs

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Big Data changes the context in which organisations producing official statistics operate. Big Data provides opportunities, but in order to make optimal use of Big Data, a number of challenges have to be addressed. This stimulates increased collaboration between National Statistical Institutes, Big Data holders, businesses and universities. In time, this may lead to a shift in the role of statistical institutes in the provision of high-quality and impartial statistical information to society. In this paper, the changes in context, the opportunities, the challenges and the way to collaborate are addressed. The collaboration between the various stakeholders will involve each partner building on and contributing different strengths. For national statistical offices, traditional strengths include, on the one hand, the ability to collect data and combine data sources with statistical products and, on the other hand, their focus on quality, transparency and sound methodology. In the Big Data era of competing and multiplying data sources, they continue to have a unique knowledge of official statistical production methods. And their impartiality and respect for privacy as enshrined in law uniquely position them as a trusted third party. Based on this, they may advise on the quality and validity of information of various sources. By thus positioning themselves, they will be able to play their role as key information providers in a changing society.

  15. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  16. Quantum fields in a big-crunch-big-bang spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolley, Andrew J.; Turok, Neil

    2002-01-01

    We consider quantum field theory on a spacetime representing the big-crunch-big-bang transition postulated in ekpyrotic or cyclic cosmologies. We show via several independent methods that an essentially unique matching rule holds connecting the incoming state, in which a single extra dimension shrinks to zero, to the outgoing state in which it reexpands at the same rate. For free fields in our construction there is no particle production from the incoming adiabatic vacuum. When interactions are included the particle production for fixed external momentum is finite at the tree level. We discuss a formal correspondence between our construction and quantum field theory on de Sitter spacetime

  17. Poker Player Behavior After Big Wins and Big Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Smith; Michael Levere; Robert Kurtzman

    2009-01-01

    We find that experienced poker players typically change their style of play after winning or losing a big pot--most notably, playing less cautiously after a big loss, evidently hoping for lucky cards that will erase their loss. This finding is consistent with Kahneman and Tversky's (Kahneman, D., A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47(2) 263-292) break-even hypothesis and suggests that when investors incur a large loss, it might be time to take ...

  18. Turning big bang into big bounce: II. Quantum dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: pmalk@fuw.edu.p, E-mail: piech@fuw.edu.p [Theoretical Physics Department, Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-11-21

    We analyze the big bounce transition of the quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model in the setting of the nonstandard loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Elementary observables are used to quantize composite observables. The spectrum of the energy density operator is bounded and continuous. The spectrum of the volume operator is bounded from below and discrete. It has equally distant levels defining a quantum of the volume. The discreteness may imply a foamy structure of spacetime at a semiclassical level which may be detected in astro-cosmo observations. The nonstandard LQC method has a free parameter that should be fixed in some way to specify the big bounce transition.

  19. TEMPORAL VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN PEAT SWAMP AREA USING MODIS TIME-SERIES IMAGERY: A MONITORING APPROACH OF HIGH-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM IN REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp area is an essential ecosystem due to high vulnerability of functions and services. As the change of forest cover in peat swamp area has increased considerably, many studies on peat swamp have focused on forest conversion or forest degradation. Meanwhile, in the context of changes in the forestlands are the sum of several processes such as deforestation, reforestation/afforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest boundary. Remote sensing technology seems to be a powerful tool to provide information required following that concerns. A comparison imagery taken at the different dates over the same locations for assessing those changes tends to be limited by the vegetation phenology and land-management practices. Consequently, the simultaneous analysis seems to be a way to deal with the issues above, as a means for better understanding of the dynamics changes in peat swamp area. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using MODIS images during the last 14 years for detecting and monitoring the changes in peat swamp area. We identified several significant patterns that have been assigned as the specific peat swamp ecosystem. The results indicate that a different type of ecosystem and its response to the environmental changes can be portrayed well by the significant patterns. In understanding the complex situations of each pattern, several vegetation dynamics patterns were characterized by physical land characteristics, such as peat depth, land use, concessions and others. Characterizing the pathways of dynamics change in peat swamp area will allow further identification for the range of proximate and underlying factors of the forest cover change that can help to develop useful policy interventions in peatland management.

  20. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  1. Genetic variation in seedling water-use efficiency of Patagonian Cypress populations from contrasting precipitation regimes assessed through carbon isotope discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorino, M. J.; Aparicio, A. G.; Marchelli, P.; Gallo, L. A.

    2012-11-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE) is a physiological parameter that plays a significant role in the evolutionary dynamics of many forest tree species. It can be estimated indirectly through carbon isotope discrimination (A). In general, plants of more arid origins have lower values of A. In order to study the degree of genetic control of this parameter and the genetic variation in A of Patagonian Cypress seedlings, three Argentinean natural populations chosen to represent two contrasting precipitation regimes were sampled in a common garden trial. The dry situation was represented by two neighboring marginal forest patches from the steppe, while the humid condition was represented by a population with 1,200 mm higher mean annual precipitation. Height (H) and A were measured in 246 five-year-old seedlings from 41 open-pollinated families. The factor family had a significant effect on both variables; however heritability for A was found not to be significant in two out of the three populations. This could be explained by low sample size in one of them and by a real evolutionary effect in the other. An inverse association between H and A was verified, which is interpreted as evidence of an adaptation process at the intra-population level. The studied populations were not shown to discriminate carbon isotopes differently; hence evidence of adaptation to current environmental conditions could not be obtained. On the other hand, the arid populations proved to be quite different in terms of genetic variation, which seems to be the consequence of genetic drift and isolation. (Author) 49 refs.

  2. Big Data Analytics in Medicine and Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevski, Blagoj; Chen, Ming

    2018-05-10

    This paper surveys big data with highlighting the big data analytics in medicine and healthcare. Big data characteristics: value, volume, velocity, variety, veracity and variability are described. Big data analytics in medicine and healthcare covers integration and analysis of large amount of complex heterogeneous data such as various - omics data (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, interactomics, pharmacogenomics, diseasomics), biomedical data and electronic health records data. We underline the challenging issues about big data privacy and security. Regarding big data characteristics, some directions of using suitable and promising open-source distributed data processing software platform are given.

  3. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  4. The challenges of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  6. Sosiaalinen asiakassuhdejohtaminen ja big data

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Topi-Antti

    2015-01-01

    Tässä tutkielmassa käsitellään sosiaalista asiakassuhdejohtamista sekä hyötyjä, joita siihen voidaan saada big datan avulla. Sosiaalinen asiakassuhdejohtaminen on terminä uusi ja monille tuntematon. Tutkimusta motivoi aiheen vähäinen tutkimus, suomenkielisen tutkimuksen puuttuminen kokonaan sekä sosiaalisen asiakassuhdejohtamisen mahdollinen olennainen rooli yritysten toiminnassa tulevaisuudessa. Big dataa käsittelevissä tutkimuksissa keskitytään monesti sen tekniseen puoleen, eikä sovellutuk...

  7. Do big gods cause anything?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2014-01-01

    Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere.......Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere....

  8. Big Data and Social Media

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    A critical analysis of the "keep everything" Big Data era, the impact on our lives of the information, at first glance "convenient for future use" that we make known about ourselves on the network. NB! The lecture will be recorded like all Academic Training lectures. Lecturer's biography: Father of the Internet, see https://internethalloffame.org/inductees/vint-cerf or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vint_Cerf The video on slide number 9 is from page https://www.gapminder.org/tools/#$state$time$value=2018&value;;&chart-type=bubbles   Keywords: Big Data, Internet, History, Applications, tools, privacy, technology, preservation, surveillance, google, Arpanet, CERN, Web  

  9. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)

  10. Release plan for Big Pete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    This release plan is to provide instructions for the Radiological Control Technician (RCT) to conduct surveys for the unconditional release of ''Big Pete,'' which was used in the removal of ''Spacers'' from the N-Reactor. Prior to performing surveys on the rear end portion of ''Big Pete,'' it shall be cleaned (i.e., free of oil, grease, caked soil, heavy dust). If no contamination is found, the vehicle may be released with the permission of the area RCT Supervisor. If contamination is found by any of the surveys, contact the cognizant Radiological Engineer for decontamination instructions

  11. Small quarks make big nuggets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deligeorges, S.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief recall on the classification of subatomic particles, this paper deals with quark nuggets, particle with more than three quarks, a big bag, which is called ''nuclearite''. Neutron stars, in fact, are big sacks of quarks, gigantic nuggets. Now, physicists try to calculate which type of nuggets of strange quark matter is stable, what has been the influence of quark nuggets on the primordial nucleosynthesis. At the present time, one says that if these ''nuggets'' exist, and in a large proportion, they may be candidates for the missing mass [fr

  12. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-06

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented.

  13. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  14. The Inverted Big-Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Vaas, Ruediger

    2004-01-01

    Our universe appears to have been created not out of nothing but from a strange space-time dust. Quantum geometry (loop quantum gravity) makes it possible to avoid the ominous beginning of our universe with its physically unrealistic (i.e. infinite) curvature, extreme temperature, and energy density. This could be the long sought after explanation of the big-bang and perhaps even opens a window into a time before the big-bang: Space itself may have come from an earlier collapsing universe tha...

  15. Big Cities, Big Problems: Reason for the Elderly to Move?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, T.; de Jong-Gierveld, J.; Nijkamp, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many European countries, data on geographical patterns of internal elderly migration show that the elderly (55+) are more likely to leave than to move to the big cities. Besides emphasising the attractive features of the destination areas (pull factors), it is often assumed that this negative

  16. Big-Eyed Bugs Have Big Appetite for Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of arthropod natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) inhabit crop fields in Arizona and can have a large negative impact on several pest insect species that also infest these crops. Geocoris spp., commonly known as big-eyed bugs, are among the most abundant insect predators in field c...

  17. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Dispositions of enrofloxacin and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin in Thai swamp buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUENNARONG, Nitwarat; WONGPANIT, Kannika; SAKULTHAEW, Chainarong; GIORGI, Mario; KUMAGAI, Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Amnart; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    Given the limited information available in this species, the aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of enrofloxacin (ER) and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin (CP) in buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis. ER was administered intravenously (i.v.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) to buffaloes at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, and plasma, urine and fecal samples were collected until 48 hr post-administration. The concentrations of ER and CP in the plasma, urine and feces were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. The plasma concentrations of ER and CP could be determined up to 24 hr and 32 hr after i.v. and s.c. administrations at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. CP concentrations were always lower than those of parental drug. The s.c. bioavailability of ER was 52.36 ± 4.24% and 72.12 ± 5.39% at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. Both ER and CP were detectable in urine and feces up to 24 hr. ER and CP were mainly excreted via the urine. Based on the pharmacokinetic data and PK-PD indices, s.c. administration of ER at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW might be appropriate for the treatment of susceptible bacterial diseases in Thai swamp buffaloes. PMID:26596287

  19. A case study on fuel oil contamination in a mangrove swamp in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, N.F.Y.; Wong, T.W.Y.; Wong, Y.S. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Department of Biology

    2005-07-01

    Mangroves commonly found along tropical and subtropical coastlines are susceptible to oil pollution. In December 2000, around 500 1 m tall Kandelia candel saplings at the age of 3-5 years old located at the foreshore region of Sheung Pak Nai swamp, Hong Kong SAR, were found to be damaged by oil pollution. More than 80% of the saplings were either dead or washed away and leaving less than 5% healthy saplings with dense green leaves. Elevated concentrations of light n-alkanes (ranging from n-C{sub 14} to n-C{sub 20}), pristane and phytane were recorded in surface sediments collected in December 2000. The ratio between light and total n-alkanes was 0.4. The total petroleum hydrocarbons (60-80 {mu}g g{sup -1} TPH) and unresolved complex mixtures (60-70 {mu}g g{sup -1} UCM) were higher than the background values of other mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, which were 40 and 20 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. In certain root zone sediments, TPH concentrations were above 1000 {mu}g g{sup -1}. These results suggest that surface sediments in Sheung Pak Nai were contaminated by petroleum oil, most likely by illegal discharge of fuel oil which occurred between 1998 and 2002. One year later, in December 2001, unhealthy saplings had recovered and re-grown. The concentrations of TPH and UCM in sediments declined to around 40 {mu}g g{sup -1}, pristane and phytane dropped by 80%, and the ratio of light to total n-alkanes was 0.15, suggesting that residual oil in sediments was weathered leading to a remarkable recovery of the unhealthy saplings. (author)

  20. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2002-07-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O₂ transport system to secure adequate O₂ delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O₂ binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O₂ equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O₂ binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O₂ carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O₂ with an unusually high affinity (P₅₀=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O₂ affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ∙ g wet tissue⁻¹, respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O₂ affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O₂ flux from the blood to the muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sedimentology and ichnology of Neogene Coastal Swamp deposits in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeh Sunny C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Often analyses of depositional environments from sparse data result in poor interpretation, especially in multipartite depositional settings such as the Niger Delta. For instance, differentiating channel sandstones, heteroliths and mudstones within proximal environments from those of distal facies is difficult if interpretations rely solely on well log signatures. Therefore, in order to achieve an effective and efficient interpretation of the depositional conditions of a given unit, integrated tools must be applied such as matching core descriptions with wireline log signature. In the present paper cores of three wells from the Coastal Swamp depositional belt of the Niger Delta are examined in order to achieve full understanding of the depositional environments. The well sections comprise cross-bedded sandstones, heteroliths (coastal and lower shoreface and mudstones that were laid down in wave, river and tidal processes. Interpretations were made from each data set comprising gamma ray logs, described sedimentological cores showing sedimentary features and ichnological characteristics; these were integrated to define the depositional settings. Some portions from one of the well sections reveal a blocky gamma ray well log signature instead of a coarsening-upward trend that characterises a shoreface setting while in other wells the signatures for heteroliths at some sections are bell blocky in shaped rather than serrated. Besides, heteroliths and mudstones within the proximal facies and those of distal facies were difficult to distinguish solely on well log signatures. However, interpretation based on sedimentology and ichnology of cores from these facies was used to correct these inconsistencies. It follows that depositional environment interpretation (especially in multifarious depositional environments such as the Niger Delta should ideally be made together with other raw data for accuracy and those based solely on well log signatures should

  3. How could a freshwater swamp produce a chemical signature characteristic of a saltmarsh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Terrence; Smith, Christopher G.; Liu, Kam-biu; Marot, Marci E.; Haller, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Reduction–oxidation (redox) reaction conditions, which are of great importance for the soil chemistry of coastal marshes, can be temporally dynamic. We present a transect of cores from northwest Florida wherein radical postdepositional changes in the redox regime has created atypical geochemical profiles at the bottom of the sedimentary column. The stratigraphy is consistent along the transect, consisting of, from the bottom upward, carbonate bedrock, a gray clay, an organic mud section, a dense clay layer, and an upper organic mud unit representing the current saltwater marsh. However, the geochemical signature of the lower organic mud unit suggests pervasive redox reactions, although the interval has been identified as representing a freshwater marsh, an unlikely environment for such conditions. Analyses indicate that this discrepancy results from postdepositional diagenesis driven by millennial-scale environmental parameters. Rising sea level that led to the deposition of the capping clay layer, created anaerobic conditions in the freshwater swamp interval, and isolated it hydrologically from the rest of the sediment column. The subsequent infiltration of marine water into this organic material led to sulfate reduction, the buildup of H2S and FeS, and anoxic conditions. Continued sulfidation eventually resulted in euxinic conditions, as evidenced by elevated levels of Fe, S, and especially Mo, the diagnostic marker of euxinia. Because this chemical transformation occurred long after the original deposition the geochemical signature does not reflect soil chemistry at the time of deposition and cannot be used to infer syn-depositional environmental conditions, emphasizing the importance of recognizing diagenetic processes in paleoenvironmental studies.

  4. Deforestation projections for carbon-rich peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Douglas O; Hardiono, Martin; Meijaard, Erik

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated three spatially explicit land use and cover change (LUCC) models to project deforestation from 2005-2020 in the carbon-rich peat swamp forests (PSF) of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Such models are increasingly used to evaluate the impact of deforestation on carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. We considered both business-as-usual (BAU) and a forest protection scenario to evaluate each model's accuracy, sensitivity, and total projected deforestation and landscape-level fragmentation patterns. The three models, Dinamica EGO (DE), GEOMOD and the Land Change Modeler (LCM), projected similar total deforestation amounts by 2020 with a mean of 1.01 million ha (Mha) and standard deviation of 0.17 Mha. The inclusion of a 0.54 Mha strict protected area in the LCM simulations reduced projected loss to 0.77 Mha over 15 years. Calibrated parameterizations of the models using nearly identical input drivers produced very different landscape properties, as measured by the number of forest patches, mean patch area, contagion, and Euclidean nearest neighbor determined using Fragstats software. The average BAU outputs of the models suggests that Central Kalimantan may lose slightly less than half (45.1%) of its 2005 PSF by 2020 if measures are not taken to reduce deforestation there. The relatively small reduction of 0.24 Mha in deforestation found in the 0.54 Mha protection scenario suggests that these models can identify potential leakage effects in which deforestation is forced to occur elsewhere in response to a policy intervention.

  5. A survey on Big Data Stream Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Big Data can be static on one machine or distributed ... decision making, and process automation. Big data .... Concept Drifting: concept drifting mean the classifier .... transactions generated by a prefix tree structure. EstDec ...

  6. Comparing Avocado, Swamp Bay, and Camphortree as Hosts of Raffaelea lauricola Using a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Labeled Strain of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A S; Ploetz, R C; Rollins, J A

    2017-01-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the Lauraceae plant family. North American species in the family, such as avocado (Persea americana) and swamp bay (P. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the Asian camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. To determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of R. lauricola was generated and used to inoculate avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree. Trees were harvested 3, 10, and 30 days after inoculation (DAI), and disease severity was rated on a 1-to-10 scale. By 30 DAI, avocado and swamp bay developed significantly more severe disease than camphortree (mean severities of 6.8 and 5.5 versus 1.6, P < 0.003). The extent of xylem colonization was recorded as the percentage of lumena that were colonized by the pathogen. More xylem was colonized in avocado than camphortree (0.9% versus 0.1%, P < 0.03) but colonization in swamp bay (0.4%) did not differ significantly from either host. Although there were significant correlations between xylem colonization and laurel wilt severity in avocado (r = 0.74), swamp bay (r = 0.82), and camphortree (r = 0.87), even severely affected trees of all species were scarcely colonized by the pathogen.

  7. BIG DATA-DRIVEN MARKETING: AN ABSTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Suoniemi, Samppa; Meyer-Waarden, Lars; Munzel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Customer information plays a key role in managing successful relationships with valuable customers. Big data customer analytics use (BD use), i.e., the extent to which customer information derived from big data analytics guides marketing decisions, helps firms better meet customer needs for competitive advantage. This study addresses three research questions: What are the key antecedents of big data customer analytics use? How, and to what extent, does big data customer an...

  8. Big data in Finnish financial services

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, M. (Mikko)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aims to explore the concept of big data, and create understanding of big data maturity in the Finnish financial services industry. The research questions of this thesis are “What kind of big data solutions are being implemented in the Finnish financial services sector?” and “Which factors impede faster implementation of big data solutions in the Finnish financial services sector?”. ...

  9. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  10. Big data and urban governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, L.; Richter, C.; Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, K.; Verrest, H.; Ros-Tonen, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the ways in which big data is involved in the rise of smart cities. Mobile phones, sensors and online applications produce streams of data which are used to regulate and plan the city, often in real time, but which presents challenges as to how the city’s functions are seen and

  11. Big Data for personalized healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemons, Liseth; Sieverink, Floor; Vollenbroek, Wouter; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Braakman-Jansen, Annemarie; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette

    2016-01-01

    Big Data, often defined according to the 5V model (volume, velocity, variety, veracity and value), is seen as the key towards personalized healthcare. However, it also confronts us with new technological and ethical challenges that require more sophisticated data management tools and data analysis

  12. Big data en gelijke behandeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; Blok, P.H.; Blok, P.H.

    2017-01-01

    In dit hoofdstuk bekijken we allereerst de voornaamste basisbegrippen inzake gelijke behandeling en discriminatie (paragraaf 6.2). Vervolgens kijken we haar het Nederlandse en Europese juridisch kader inzake non-discriminatie (paragraaf 6.3-6.5) en hoe die regels moeten worden toegepast op big

  13. Research Ethics in Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2017-05-01

    The ethical conduct of research includes, in part, patient agreement to participate in studies and the protection of health information. In the evolving world of data science and the accessibility of large quantities of web-based data created by millions of individuals, novel methodologic approaches to answering research questions are emerging. This article explores research ethics in the context of big data.

  14. Big data e data science

    OpenAIRE

    Cavique, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Neste artigo foram apresentados os conceitos básicos de Big Data e a nova área a que deu origem, a Data Science. Em Data Science foi discutida e exemplificada a noção de redução da dimensionalidade dos dados.

  15. The Case for "Big History."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  16. Finding errors in big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puts, Marco; Daas, Piet; de Waal, A.G.

    No data source is perfect. Mistakes inevitably creep in. Spotting errors is hard enough when dealing with survey responses from several thousand people, but the difficulty is multiplied hugely when that mysterious beast Big Data comes into play. Statistics Netherlands is about to publish its first

  17. Sampling Operations on Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-29

    gories. These include edge sampling methods where edges are selected by a predetermined criteria; snowball sampling methods where algorithms start... Sampling Operations on Big Data Vijay Gadepally, Taylor Herr, Luke Johnson, Lauren Milechin, Maja Milosavljevic, Benjamin A. Miller Lincoln...process and disseminate information for discovery and exploration under real-time constraints. Common signal processing operations such as sampling and

  18. The International Big History Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  19. NASA's Big Data Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. P.; Kinter, J. L.; Beebe, R. F.; Feigelson, E.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Mentzel, C.; Smith, G.; Tino, C.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Two years ago NASA established the Ad Hoc Big Data Task Force (BDTF - https://science.nasa.gov/science-committee/subcommittees/big-data-task-force), an advisory working group with the NASA Advisory Council system. The scope of the Task Force included all NASA Big Data programs, projects, missions, and activities. The Task Force focused on such topics as exploring the existing and planned evolution of NASA's science data cyber-infrastructure that supports broad access to data repositories for NASA Science Mission Directorate missions; best practices within NASA, other Federal agencies, private industry and research institutions; and Federal initiatives related to big data and data access. The BDTF has completed its two-year term and produced several recommendations plus four white papers for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This presentation will discuss the activities and results of the TF including summaries of key points from its focused study topics. The paper serves as an introduction to the papers following in this ESSI session.

  20. Big Math for Little Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, Carole; Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Balfanz, Robert

    2004-01-01

    "Big Math for Little Kids," a comprehensive program for 4- and 5-year-olds, develops and expands on the mathematics that children know and are capable of doing. The program uses activities and stories to develop ideas about number, shape, pattern, logical reasoning, measurement, operations on numbers, and space. The activities introduce the…

  1. BIG DATA IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dealing with a lot of data originating from social media sites and mobile communications among data from business environments and institutions, lead to the definition of a new concept, known as Big Data. The economic impact of the sheer amount of data produced in a last two years has increased rapidly. It is necessary to aggregate all types of data (structured and unstructured in order to improve current transactions, to develop new business models, to provide a real image of the supply and demand and thereby, generate market advantages. So, the companies that turn to Big Data have a competitive advantage over other firms. Looking from the perspective of IT organizations, they must accommodate the storage and processing Big Data, and provide analysis tools that are easily integrated into business processes. This paper aims to discuss aspects regarding the Big Data concept, the principles to build, organize and analyse huge datasets in the business environment, offering a three-layer architecture, based on actual software solutions. Also, the article refers to the graphical tools for exploring and representing unstructured data, Gephi and NodeXL.

  2. From Big Bang to Eternity?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    at different distances (that is, at different epochs in the past) to come to this ... that the expansion started billions of years ago from an explosive Big Bang. Recent research sheds new light on the key cosmological question about the distant ...

  3. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  4. Identifying food deserts and swamps based on relative healthy food access: a spatio-temporal Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hui; Law, Jane; Quick, Matthew

    2015-12-30

    Obesity and other adverse health outcomes are influenced by individual- and neighbourhood-scale risk factors, including the food environment. At the small-area scale, past research has analysed spatial patterns of food environments for one time period, overlooking how food environments change over time. Further, past research has infrequently analysed relative healthy food access (RHFA), a measure that is more representative of food purchasing and consumption behaviours than absolute outlet density. This research applies a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyse the spatio-temporal patterns of RHFA in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, from 2011 to 2014 at the small-area level. RHFA is calculated as the proportion of healthy food outlets (healthy outlets/healthy + unhealthy outlets) within 4-km from each small-area. This model measures spatial autocorrelation of RHFA, temporal trend of RHFA for the study region, and spatio-temporal trends of RHFA for small-areas. For the study region, a significant decreasing trend in RHFA is observed (-0.024), suggesting that food swamps have become more prevalent during the study period. For small-areas, significant decreasing temporal trends in RHFA were observed for all small-areas. Specific small-areas located in south Waterloo, north Kitchener, and southeast Cambridge exhibited the steepest decreasing spatio-temporal trends and are classified as spatio-temporal food swamps. This research demonstrates a Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach to analyse RHFA at the small-area scale. Results suggest that food swamps are more prevalent than food deserts in the Region of Waterloo. Analysing spatio-temporal trends of RHFA improves understanding of local food environment, highlighting specific small-areas where policies should be targeted to increase RHFA and reduce risk factors of adverse health outcomes such as obesity.

  5. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  6. Big data: een zoektocht naar instituties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, H.G.; Crompvoets, J

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a well-known phenomenon, even a buzzword nowadays. It refers to an abundance of data and new possibilities to process and use them. Big data is subject of many publications. Some pay attention to the many possibilities of big data, others warn us for their consequences. This special

  7. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  8. Data, Data, Data : Big, Linked & Open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Krukkert, D.; Eckartz, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    De gehele business en IT-wereld praat op dit moment over Big Data, een trend die medio 2013 Cloud Computing is gepasseerd (op basis van Google Trends). Ook beleidsmakers houden zich actief bezig met Big Data. Neelie Kroes, vice-president van de Europese Commissie, spreekt over de ‘Big Data

  9. A survey of big data research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Chanpaul Jin; Daneshmand, Mahmoud; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Honggang

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions. PMID:26504265

  10. The BigBoss Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  11. Nitrogen Dynamics Along a Headwater Stream Draining a Fen, Swamp, and Marsh in a Fractured Dolomite Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.; Waddington, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Stream-wetland interaction has been shown to have a significant effect on nutrient cycling and downstream water quality. Additionally, connection to regional groundwater systems can dilute or enrich stream water with a number of dissolved constituents. This study demonstrates the resultant downstream change in dissolved nitrogen species as a hardwater stream emerges from a calcareous aquifer and traverses a calcareous fen, a cedar swamp, and a cattail marsh over two growing seasons, a very dry 2006 and a very wet 2007. Upon emergence at a number of groundwater seeps, the water contained appreciable nitrate levels averaging 2.72±0.42 mg NO3-N L-1, minimal organic nitrogen, and ammonium below detectable levels. Through the gently sloping calcareous fen, with a stream residence time of ~ 5 hours, NO3-N concentration decreases of 0.35 mg L-1 were observed. Concomitantly, stream recharge into the dolomite bedrock depressed stream discharge values significantly, further removing nitrate from the stream system. This resulted in the fen-bedrock system acting as an estimated net sink of 432 kg of NO3-N in the early summer of 2007, for example. In contrast, the hydrological-biogeochemical systems became decoupled through the swamp during the same period, where concentrations increased from 2.58±0.34 mg L-1 entering the swamp to 2.65±0.58 mg L-1 exiting, but streamflow decreased in general by 5 L s- 1. This resulted in the swamp, with its large depression storage, acting as a small net sink of nitrate (75 kg through the early summer), which would not be detected simply from concentration changes. The concentration-discharge relation realigned through the marsh, where significant groundwater entered the wetland, increasing both concentration and discharge, yielding a small export of 93 kg over the same time period. A series of tracer injections in each wetland type will be presented to compare the streamflow- concentration patterns with the measured nutrient spiralling

  12. Food habitats of the Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Coswine Swamps (French Guiana, South America)

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegelberger, Thomas; Ganslosser, Udo

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyse the habitat of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758) in the Coswine Swamps of northwest French Guiana, South America. Water parameters were similar to those described in other studies: water depth varied from 2.5 m to more than 20 m; water temperature was between 24.5 °C and 30.3 °C and pH varied between 5.5 and 6.9. Salinity was low (0.0‰ to 1.3‰) with 86.9% of all samples taken in fresh water. No submerged aquatic vegetation was found in...

  13. Productivity of Indonesian swamp buffaloes in relation to nutrition, reproduction and draught use in the wet tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamualim, A.; Liem, C.; Ffoulkes, D.

    1990-01-01

    Buffaloes in Indonesian villages fulfil a valuable function in providing the major source of draught power for cultivation. However, in wet irrigated areas, the continuous work of buffaloes and the low to medium quality of the available feed result in low growth rates and low reproductive performance. Results from buffalo feeding trials using similar feeds to those given in the villages indicated that high usage for draught would ultimately reduce body weight gains and might reduce the ovarian activity of buffalo cows. Use of supplements is recommended to improve the growth rates and fertility of swamp buffalo cows subjected to high work loads. (author). 14 refs, 7 tabs

  14. Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillaria) ophisterni sp. n. (Nematoda : Capillariidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Pisces) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G; Jiménez-García, I

    2000-04-01

    A new nematode species, Pseudocapillaria ophisterni sp. n., is described from the intestine and rarely from the stomach of the swamp-eel, Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen et Greenwood, from Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, Mexico. In having both caudal lobes in the male interconnected by a distinct dorsal membrane, it belongs to the subgenus Ichthyocapillaria. It differs from the three species in this subgenus mainly in possessing either a distinctly longer spicule or a smaller length of oesophagus relative to body length. It also differs in host type and geographical distribution. P. ophisterni is the first capillariid species reported from synbranchiform fishes.

  15. Big Data - Smart Health Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To select best papers published in 2013 in the field of big data and smart health strategies, and summarize outstanding research efforts. Methods A systematic search was performed using two major bibliographic databases for relevant journal papers. The references obtained were reviewed in a two-stage process, starting with a blinded review performed by the two section editors, and followed by a peer review process operated by external reviewers recognized as experts in the field. Results The complete review process selected four best papers, illustrating various aspects of the special theme, among them: (a) using large volumes of unstructured data and, specifically, clinical notes from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) for pharmacovigilance; (b) knowledge discovery via querying large volumes of complex (both structured and unstructured) biological data using big data technologies and relevant tools; (c) methodologies for applying cloud computing and big data technologies in the field of genomics, and (d) system architectures enabling high-performance access to and processing of large datasets extracted from EHRs. Conclusions The potential of big data in biomedicine has been pinpointed in various viewpoint papers and editorials. The review of current scientific literature illustrated a variety of interesting methods and applications in the field, but still the promises exceed the current outcomes. As we are getting closer towards a solid foundation with respect to common understanding of relevant concepts and technical aspects, and the use of standardized technologies and tools, we can anticipate to reach the potential that big data offer for personalized medicine and smart health strategies in the near future. PMID:25123721

  16. Big-Leaf Mahogany on CITES Appendix II: Big Challenge, Big Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAMES GROGAN; PAULO BARRETO

    2005-01-01

    On 15 November 2003, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae), the most valuable widely traded Neotropical timber tree, gained strengthened regulatory protection from its listing on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species ofWild Fauna and Flora (CITES). CITES is a United Nations-chartered agreement signed by 164...

  17. Response of understory vegetation over 10 years after thinning in an old-growth cedar and cypress plantation overgrazed by sika deer in eastern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Tamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest management strategies such as thinning have long been used to enhance ecosystem functions, especially in plantations. Thinning in plantations with high deer density, however, may not yield a desired increase in understory vegetation because deer graze on germinating plants after thinning. Here, we examine the changes in understory vegetation after thinning in plantations that have been overgrazed by sika deer to provide insight into the effects of thinning on ecosystem functions such as soil conservation and biological diversity. Methods We conducted our survey in the Tanzawa Mountains of eastern Japan. We surveyed the change in understory vegetation within and outside of three deer exclosures on a single slope with three levels of understory vegetation cover: sparse (1%, exclosure “US”, moderate (30%, exclosure “MM”, and dense (80%, exclosure “LD” over 10 years after a 30% thinning of an old-growth cedar and cypress plantation which was overgrazed by sika deer. Results Understory vegetation cover, biomass and species richness increased within and outside the “US” and “MM” exclosures after thinning, and biomass was greater within than outside the exclosures at 10 years after thinning. Unpalatable species dominated both “US” and “MM” exclosures before thinning, and trees and shrubs dominated within the exclosures over time after thinning. In contrast, unpalatable, grazing-tolerant, perennial, and annual species increased outside the “US” and “MM” exclosures. No noticeable changes were observed within and outside the “LD” exclosure when compared with the “US” and “MM” exclosures. Conclusions Our results suggest that thinning a stand by 30% based on volume resulted in an increase in understory vegetation cover mainly composed of both unpalatable and grazing-tolerant species in a plantation forest where understory vegetation is sparse or moderate and sika deer density is high. We

  18. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  19. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  20. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2535 (United States); Chen, Shih-Hung [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Department of Physics and Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Turok, Neil [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2012-08-29

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  1. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  2. Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, Paul L.; Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c) 2 . At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios

  3. The ethics of big data in big agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M. Carbonell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of big data in agriculture, focusing on the power asymmetry between farmers and large agribusinesses like Monsanto. Following the recent purchase of Climate Corp., Monsanto is currently the most prominent biotech agribusiness to buy into big data. With wireless sensors on tractors monitoring or dictating every decision a farmer makes, Monsanto can now aggregate large quantities of previously proprietary farming data, enabling a privileged position with unique insights on a field-by-field basis into a third or more of the US farmland. This power asymmetry may be rebalanced through open-sourced data, and publicly-funded data analytic tools which rival Climate Corp. in complexity and innovation for use in the public domain.

  4. The palynology and sedimentology of a coastal swamp at Awana, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, from c. 7000 yr B.P. to present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analysis of two Holocene cores from Awana, Great Barrier Island, shows that at 7000 calibrated yr B.P. the local swamp was an estuarine salt marsh dominated by Restionaceae. By c. 6000 yr B.P. the water table was lower, and a fresh water swamp (Gleichenia-Leptospermum) had replaced the salt marsh. Regional conifer-hardwood forest c. 7000 yr B.P. was initially co-dominated by Libocedrus and Dacrydium cupressinum. Libocedrus declined from c. 6000 yr B.P. During the period c. 6000-c. 2500 yr B.P., relatively stable environmental conditions ensued with little change in local or regional vegetation. Around 2500 yr B.P., the swamp surface became drier and was invaded by Dacrycarpus and Laurelia swamp forest. This forest was subsequently repeatedly disturbed (not by fire), indicating climatic change to drier and windier conditions. Ascarina lucida was periodically a major component of swamp forest. Disturbance is also recorded in the clastic (mineral) sediments, where beds of sand within finer-grained sediment and peat are interpreted as wind blown material derived from partly devegetated dunes to seaward. The presence of the Kaharoa Tephra allows the timing of major Polynesian deforestation at Awana to be reliably dated to c. 600 calibrated yr B.P. In contrast, we see no evidence in the clastic sediment record of disturbance at Awana since Kaharoa time. We attribute this to the maintenance of stable dunes by a herb/scrub cover despite nearby fires, or to the presence of scrub or forest buffering the swamp from ablating dunes. (author). 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Big Data – Big Deal for Organization Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Janne J. Korhonen

    2014-01-01

    Analytics is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage. It has even been posited that big data will be the next strategic emphasis of organizations and that analytics capability will be manifested in organizational structure. In this article, I explore how analytics capability might be reflected in organizational structure using the notion of  “requisite organization” developed by Jaques (1998). Requisite organization argues that a new strategic emphasis requires the addition ...

  6. Nowcasting using news topics Big Data versus big bank

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsrud, Leif Anders

    2016-01-01

    The agents in the economy use a plethora of high frequency information, including news media, to guide their actions and thereby shape aggregate economic fluctuations. Traditional nowcasting approches have to a relatively little degree made use of such information. In this paper, I show how unstructured textual information in a business newspaper can be decomposed into daily news topics and used to nowcast quarterly GDP growth. Compared with a big bank of experts, here represented by o cial c...

  7. Recent benthic foraminifera assemblages from mangrove swamp and channels of Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Paul, Andreas; Song, Jianfeng; Freeman, Mark; Michel, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations from mangrove swamps and channels located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels). A 100 m transect across a natural channel in a mangal on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island was sampled in detail for sedimentological and foraminiferal analysis. Forty-seven samples were collected at 2 meter intervals along the transect in a number of different sedimentary facies including; fine sediment in areas exposed during low tide and close to mangrove trees (Avicennia marina), fine sediment rich in leaf material, coarse sediment in channels, and coarse sediments with a shell lag. At each sampling location environmental parameters were recorded, including water depth, salinity, temperature and pH. Samples collected for foraminiferal analysis were stained in rose Bengal in order to identify living specimens. Samples collected on the mud flat at the margin of the channel show a living foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Cribroelphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Sigmoilinita, Spiroloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicennia marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising small-sized opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Cribroelphidium along with rare Triloculina and

  8. Big Data in Medicine is Driving Big Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspoor, K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarise current research that takes advantage of “Big Data” in health and biomedical informatics applications. Methods Survey of trends in this work, and exploration of literature describing how large-scale structured and unstructured data sources are being used to support applications from clinical decision making and health policy, to drug design and pharmacovigilance, and further to systems biology and genetics. Results The survey highlights ongoing development of powerful new methods for turning that large-scale, and often complex, data into information that provides new insights into human health, in a range of different areas. Consideration of this body of work identifies several important paradigm shifts that are facilitated by Big Data resources and methods: in clinical and translational research, from hypothesis-driven research to data-driven research, and in medicine, from evidence-based practice to practice-based evidence. Conclusions The increasing scale and availability of large quantities of health data require strategies for data management, data linkage, and data integration beyond the limits of many existing information systems, and substantial effort is underway to meet those needs. As our ability to make sense of that data improves, the value of the data will continue to increase. Health systems, genetics and genomics, population and public health; all areas of biomedicine stand to benefit from Big Data and the associated technologies. PMID:25123716

  9. Big data is not a monolith

    CERN Document Server

    Ekbia, Hamid R; Mattioli, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Big data is ubiquitous but heterogeneous. Big data can be used to tally clicks and traffic on web pages, find patterns in stock trades, track consumer preferences, identify linguistic correlations in large corpuses of texts. This book examines big data not as an undifferentiated whole but contextually, investigating the varied challenges posed by big data for health, science, law, commerce, and politics. Taken together, the chapters reveal a complex set of problems, practices, and policies. The advent of big data methodologies has challenged the theory-driven approach to scientific knowledge in favor of a data-driven one. Social media platforms and self-tracking tools change the way we see ourselves and others. The collection of data by corporations and government threatens privacy while promoting transparency. Meanwhile, politicians, policy makers, and ethicists are ill-prepared to deal with big data's ramifications. The contributors look at big data's effect on individuals as it exerts social control throu...

  10. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  11. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  12. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-12-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution.

  13. Chronological Reorganization of Microtubules, Actin Microfilaments, and Chromatin during the First Cell Cycle in Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibuntita Chankitisakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P>.05. At 12 h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18 h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30 h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate.

  14. Big Data for Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Richard Leff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the potential impact of big data analysis to improve health, prevent and detect disease at an earlier stage, and personalize interventions. The role that big data analytics may have in interrogating the patient electronic health record toward improved clinical decision support is discussed. We examine developments in pharmacogenetics that have increased our appreciation of the reasons why patients respond differently to chemotherapy. We also assess the expansion of online health communications and the way in which this data may be capitalized on in order to detect public health threats and control or contain epidemics. Finally, we describe how a new generation of wearable and implantable body sensors may improve wellbeing, streamline management of chronic diseases, and improve the quality of surgical implants.

  15. Big Data hvor N=1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2017-01-01

    Forskningen vedrørende anvendelsen af ’big data’ indenfor sundhed er kun lige begyndt, og kan på sigt blive en stor hjælp i forhold til at tilrettelægge en mere personlig og helhedsorienteret sundhedsindsats for multisyge. Personlig sundhedsteknologi, som kort præsenteres i dette kapital, rummer et...... stor potentiale for at gennemføre ’big data’ analyser for den enkelte person, det vil sige hvor N=1. Der er store teknologiske udfordringer i at få lavet teknologier og metoder til at indsamle og håndtere personlige data, som kan deles, på tværs på en standardiseret, forsvarlig, robust, sikker og ikke...

  16. George and the big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2012-01-01

    George has problems. He has twin baby sisters at home who demand his parents’ attention. His beloved pig Freddy has been exiled to a farm, where he’s miserable. And worst of all, his best friend, Annie, has made a new friend whom she seems to like more than George. So George jumps at the chance to help Eric with his plans to run a big experiment in Switzerland that seeks to explore the earliest moment of the universe. But there is a conspiracy afoot, and a group of evildoers is planning to sabotage the experiment. Can George repair his friendship with Annie and piece together the clues before Eric’s experiment is destroyed forever? This engaging adventure features essays by Professor Stephen Hawking and other eminent physicists about the origins of the universe and ends with a twenty-page graphic novel that explains how the Big Bang happened—in reverse!

  17. Did the Big Bang begin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy-Leblond, J.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that the age of the universe may well be numerically finite (20 billion years or so) and conceptually infinite. A new and natural time scale is defined on a physical basis using group-theoretical arguments. An additive notion of time is obtained according to which the age of the universe is indeed infinite. In other words, never did the Big Bang begin. This new time scale is not supposed to replace the ordinary cosmic time scale, but to supplement it (in the same way as rapidity has taken a place by the side of velocity in Einsteinian relativity). The question is discussed within the framework of conventional (big-bang) and classical (nonquantum) cosmology, but could easily be extended to more elaborate views, as the purpose is not so much to modify present theories as to reach a deeper understanding of their meaning

  18. Big Data in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nathan; Cambruzzi, Jean; Cox, Peter J; Davies, Mark; Dunbar, James; Plumbley, Dean; Sellwood, Matthew A; Sim, Aaron; Williams-Jones, Bryn I; Zwierzyna, Magdalena; Sheppard, David W

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation of Big Data in the drug discovery community should enhance project timelines and reduce clinical attrition through improved early decision making. The issues we encounter start with the sheer volume of data and how we first ingest it before building an infrastructure to house it to make use of the data in an efficient and productive way. There are many problems associated with the data itself including general reproducibility, but often, it is the context surrounding an experiment that is critical to success. Help, in the form of artificial intelligence (AI), is required to understand and translate the context. On the back of natural language processing pipelines, AI is also used to prospectively generate new hypotheses by linking data together. We explain Big Data from the context of biology, chemistry and clinical trials, showcasing some of the impressive public domain sources and initiatives now available for interrogation. © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Big Data and central banks

    OpenAIRE

    David Bholat

    2015-01-01

    This commentary recaps a Centre for Central Banking Studies event held at the Bank of England on 2–3 July 2014. The article covers three main points. First, it situates the Centre for Central Banking Studies event within the context of the Bank’s Strategic Plan and initiatives. Second, it summarises and reflects on major themes from the event. Third, the article links central banks’ emerging interest in Big Data approaches with their broader uptake by other economic agents.

  20. Big Bang or vacuum fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some general properties of vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theory are described. The connection between the ''energy dominance'' of the energy density of vacuum fluctuations in curved space-time and the presence of singularity is discussed. It is pointed out that a de-Sitter space-time (with the energy density of the vacuum fluctuations in the Einstein equations) that matches the expanding Friedman solution may describe the history of the Universe before the Big Bang. (P.L.)

  1. Big bang is not needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, A.D.

    1976-02-01

    Recent computer simulations indicate that a system of n gravitating masses breaks up, even when the total energy is negative. As a result, almost any initial phase-space distribution results in a universe that eventually expands under the Hubble law. Hence Hubble expansion implies little regarding an initial cosmic state. Especially it does not imply the singularly dense superpositioned state used in the big bang model.

  2. Big data: the management revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Andrew; Brynjolfsson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Big data, the authors write, is far more powerful than the analytics of the past. Executives can measure and therefore manage more precisely than ever before. They can make better predictions and smarter decisions. They can target more-effective interventions in areas that so far have been dominated by gut and intuition rather than by data and rigor. The differences between big data and analytics are a matter of volume, velocity, and variety: More data now cross the internet every second than were stored in the entire internet 20 years ago. Nearly real-time information makes it possible for a company to be much more agile than its competitors. And that information can come from social networks, images, sensors, the web, or other unstructured sources. The managerial challenges, however, are very real. Senior decision makers have to learn to ask the right questions and embrace evidence-based decision making. Organizations must hire scientists who can find patterns in very large data sets and translate them into useful business information. IT departments have to work hard to integrate all the relevant internal and external sources of data. The authors offer two success stories to illustrate how companies are using big data: PASSUR Aerospace enables airlines to match their actual and estimated arrival times. Sears Holdings directly analyzes its incoming store data to make promotions much more precise and faster.

  3. Big Data Comes to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Cope

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of “big data” at once evokes optimistic views of an information-rich future and concerns about surveillance that adversely impacts our personal and private lives. This overview article explores the implications of big data in education, focusing by way of example on data generated by student writing. We have chosen writing because it presents particular complexities, highlighting the range of processes for collecting and interpreting evidence of learning in the era of computer-mediated instruction and assessment as well as the challenges. Writing is significant not only because it is central to the core subject area of literacy; it is also an ideal medium for the representation of deep disciplinary knowledge across a number of subject areas. After defining what big data entails in education, we map emerging sources of evidence of learning that separately and together have the potential to generate unprecedented amounts of data: machine assessments, structured data embedded in learning, and unstructured data collected incidental to learning activity. Our case is that these emerging sources of evidence of learning have significant implications for the traditional relationships between assessment and instruction. Moreover, for educational researchers, these data are in some senses quite different from traditional evidentiary sources, and this raises a number of methodological questions. The final part of the article discusses implications for practice in an emerging field of education data science, including publication of data, data standards, and research ethics.

  4. Turning big bang into big bounce. I. Classical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierżak, Piotr; Małkiewicz, Przemysław; Piechocki, Włodzimierz

    2009-11-01

    The big bounce (BB) transition within a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model is analyzed in the setting of loop geometry underlying the loop cosmology. We solve the constraint of the theory at the classical level to identify physical phase space and find the Lie algebra of the Dirac observables. We express energy density of matter and geometrical functions in terms of the observables. It is the modification of classical theory by the loop geometry that is responsible for BB. The classical energy scale specific to BB depends on a parameter that should be fixed either by cosmological data or determined theoretically at quantum level, otherwise the energy scale stays unknown.

  5. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal

  6. Testate amoebae analysis in the peat deposits of the swamp Dolgon’koye in the south of Western Siberia and peatland paleohydrology for last 3100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurina, Irina V.; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.

    2018-03-01

    Our research is devoted to paleohydrological reconstruction in the swamp located in the river valley on the piedmont of the Altai Mountains in the south of Western Siberia. The reconstruction was carried out based on rhizopod analysis for the last 3100 cal yr. A large amount of different testate amoebae was found in the peat. Total 64 testate amoebae taxa were recorded in the peat core with the most abundant being: Trinema lineare, Centropyxis aculeata, C. aerophila, Euglypha rotunda, Cryptodifflugia sp. Decrease of surface wetness in the swamp are observed 2280, 2140, 1900–600 cal yr BP and increase – in 2700, 2500–1900, 230–215 cal yr BP. The results of our reconstruction of the swamp paleohydrology agrees well with the paleoclimatic data obtained earlier for the central area of the south of Western Siberia Plain. It indicates a high sensitivity of the swamp to climatic changes in the Holocene. The rhizopod analysis proved to be very effective when used for paleohydrology reconstruction in minerotrophic peat.

  7. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  8. Yellow perch larval survival in the Zekiah Swamp watershed (Wicomico River, Maryland) relative to the potential effects of a coal ash storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.H.; Pinkney, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    A coordinated program of in situ and laboratory bioassays supported by water quality analyses was used to evaluate the potential effect of a coal ash storage facility on a yellow perch (Perca flavescens) spawning area. The facility is located in the Zekiah Swamp watershed, a tributary of the Wicomico River, MD. In situ bioassays were conducted in Zekiah Swamp Run and reference locations in 1989 and 1990. Larval mortality was high in non-tidal areas of Zekiah Swamp Run, both at a site upstream and beyond the influence of the facility, and at a site downstream of the facility. Mortality was significantly less at a nearby reference stream and at a station in the tidal area of Zekiah Swamp Run. Analysis of water samples for metals (including inorganic monomeric aluminum), organic contaminants, and pH, as well as measurements of stream flow, did not identify a specific cause for the mortality. The field and laboratory bioassays showed that, although leachate from the ash facility contributed to local contamination of ground water, the facility does not appear to be responsible for the poor survival of larval yellow perch. 16 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Big Data Knowledge in Global Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, Olaniyi; Kekeh, Michele; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    The ability to synthesize and analyze massive amounts of data is critical to the success of organizations, including those that involve global health. As countries become highly interconnected, increasing the risk for pandemics and outbreaks, the demand for big data is likely to increase. This requires a global health workforce that is trained in the effective use of big data. To assess implementation of big data training in global health, we conducted a pilot survey of members of the Consortium of Universities of Global Health. More than half the respondents did not have a big data training program at their institution. Additionally, the majority agreed that big data training programs will improve global health deliverables, among other favorable outcomes. Given the observed gap and benefits, global health educators may consider investing in big data training for students seeking a career in global health. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Big Data Strategy for Telco: Network Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    F. Amin; S. Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Big data has the potential to improve the quality of services; enable infrastructure that businesses depend on to adapt continually and efficiently; improve the performance of employees; help organizations better understand customers; and reduce liability risks. Analytics and marketing models of fixed and mobile operators are falling short in combating churn and declining revenue per user. Big Data presents new method to reverse the way and improve profitability. The benefits of Big Data and ...

  11. Big Data in Shipping - Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Rødseth, Ørnulf Jan; Perera, Lokukaluge Prasad; Mo, Brage

    2016-01-01

    Big Data is getting popular in shipping where large amounts of information is collected to better understand and improve logistics, emissions, energy consumption and maintenance. Constraints to the use of big data include cost and quality of on-board sensors and data acquisition systems, satellite communication, data ownership and technical obstacles to effective collection and use of big data. New protocol standards may simplify the process of collecting and organizing the data, including in...

  12. Big Data in Action for Government : Big Data Innovation in Public Services, Policy, and Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Governments have an opportunity to harness big data solutions to improve productivity, performance and innovation in service delivery and policymaking processes. In developing countries, governments have an opportunity to adopt big data solutions and leapfrog traditional administrative approaches

  13. Big data optimization recent developments and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to provide the necessary background to work with big data by introducing some novel optimization algorithms and codes capable of working in the big data setting as well as introducing some applications in big data optimization for both academics and practitioners interested, and to benefit society, industry, academia, and government. Presenting applications in a variety of industries, this book will be useful for the researchers aiming to analyses large scale data. Several optimization algorithms for big data including convergent parallel algorithms, limited memory bundle algorithm, diagonal bundle method, convergent parallel algorithms, network analytics, and many more have been explored in this book.

  14. Medical big data: promise and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Ho Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  15. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  16. Medical big data: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  17. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  18. Big Data's Role in Precision Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Shawn

    2018-01-01

    Precision public health is an emerging practice to more granularly predict and understand public health risks and customize treatments for more specific and homogeneous subpopulations, often using new data, technologies, and methods. Big data is one element that has consistently helped to achieve these goals, through its ability to deliver to practitioners a volume and variety of structured or unstructured data not previously possible. Big data has enabled more widespread and specific research and trials of stratifying and segmenting populations at risk for a variety of health problems. Examples of success using big data are surveyed in surveillance and signal detection, predicting future risk, targeted interventions, and understanding disease. Using novel big data or big data approaches has risks that remain to be resolved. The continued growth in volume and variety of available data, decreased costs of data capture, and emerging computational methods mean big data success will likely be a required pillar of precision public health into the future. This review article aims to identify the precision public health use cases where big data has added value, identify classes of value that big data may bring, and outline the risks inherent in using big data in precision public health efforts.

  19. Big data analytics with R and Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Prajapati, Vignesh

    2013-01-01

    Big Data Analytics with R and Hadoop is a tutorial style book that focuses on all the powerful big data tasks that can be achieved by integrating R and Hadoop.This book is ideal for R developers who are looking for a way to perform big data analytics with Hadoop. This book is also aimed at those who know Hadoop and want to build some intelligent applications over Big data with R packages. It would be helpful if readers have basic knowledge of R.

  20. Big Data; A Management Revolution : The emerging role of big data in businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Blasiak, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Big data is a term that was coined in 2012 and has since then emerged to one of the top trends in business and technology. Big data is an agglomeration of different technologies resulting in data processing capabilities that have been unreached before. Big data is generally characterized by 4 factors. Volume, velocity and variety. These three factors distinct it from the traditional data use. The possibilities to utilize this technology are vast. Big data technology has touch points in differ...