WorldWideScience

Sample records for big blue bump

  1. Seeing the Unseen: MIR Spectroscopic Constraints on Quasar Big Blue Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah; Hines, Dean; Leighly, Karen; Ogle, Patrick; Richards, Gordon

    2008-03-01

    The IRS on Spitzer offers an exciting opportunity for detailed, mid-infrared spectroscopy of z~2 quasars for the first time. This epoch, sampling the peak of the quasar luminosity evolution, is particularly important for understanding the nature of quasar activity in the most massive galaxies. We aim to use this powerful tool to constrain the shape and power of the far-ultraviolet through soft-X-ray ionizing continuum of luminous quasars. Though these so-called `big blue bumps' dominate the power of quasar spectral energy distributions, they are largely unobservable as a result of hydrogen opacity in the Universe. However, we can determine the properties of the big blue bump by studying emission lines from ions in the coronal line region that emit in the mid-infrared and are created by those same energetic and elusive photons. We propose deep, high quality IRS observations of 5 luminous quasars with a range of HeII emission properties to investigate the mid-infrared spectral region in depth and constrain the shape of the ionizing continuum in each quasar. In addition, these high S/N spectra will provide templates for interpreting lower resolution, lower S/N IRS spectra.

  2. Eyelid bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It appears as a red, swollen bump that looks like a pimple. It is often tender to the touch. Causes A stye is caused by a blockage of one of the oil glands in the eyelids. This allows bacteria to grow inside the blocked gland. Styes are ...

  3. 78 FR 6316 - Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EG13-1-000, et al.] Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC EG13-1-000 Calpine Bosque Energy Center, LLC EG13-2-000 Homer City Generation, L.P...

  4. From Big Data to Big Displays High-Performance Visualization at Blue Brain

    KAUST Repository

    Eilemann, Stefan; Abdellah, Marwan; Antille, Nicolas; Bilgili, Ahmet; Chevtchenko, Grigory; Dumusc, Raphael; Favreau, Cyrille; Hernando, Juan; Nachbaur, Daniel; Podhajski, Pawel; Villafranca, Jafet; Schü rmann, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Blue Brain has pushed high-performance visualization (HPV) to complement its HPC strategy since its inception in 2007. In 2011, this strategy has been accelerated to develop innovative visualization solutions through increased funding and strategic

  5. From Big Data to Big Displays High-Performance Visualization at Blue Brain

    KAUST Repository

    Eilemann, Stefan

    2017-10-19

    Blue Brain has pushed high-performance visualization (HPV) to complement its HPC strategy since its inception in 2007. In 2011, this strategy has been accelerated to develop innovative visualization solutions through increased funding and strategic partnerships with other research institutions. We present the key elements of this HPV ecosystem, which integrates C++ visualization applications with novel collaborative display systems. We motivate how our strategy of transforming visualization engines into services enables a variety of use cases, not only for the integration with high-fidelity displays, but also to build service oriented architectures, to link into web applications and to provide remote services to Python applications.

  6. Nonlinear calculations for bump Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, S.W.; Cox, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrodynamic calculations to find strictly periodic solutions for the fundamental mode pulsations of 7 M/sub sun/ models were made using the von Sengbusch--Stellingwerf relaxation method. The models have a helium enrichment in the surface convection zones to Y = 0.78, which from the linear theory period ratio π 2 /π 0 and the Simon and Schmidt resonance hypothesis, should give the observed Hertzsprung progression of light and velocity curve bump phase with period. These surface helium enhanced models show the proper nonlinear bump phase behavior without resort to any mass loss before or during the blue loop phases of yellow giant evolution. At 6000 K and the evolution theory luminosity of 4744 L/sub sun/ for 7 M/sub sun/, that is, at a fundamental mode period of 8.5 day, the velocity curve bump is well after the maximum expansion velocity. At 5400 K and at the same luminosity (period of 12.5 days), there is a bump on the velocity curve well before maximum expansion velocity time. The latter case seems to exhibit the Christy echos but not the former. The echo interpretation may not be appropriate for these masses which are larger than the anomalous masses used by Christy, Stobie, and Adams. Resonance of the fundamental and second overtone modes should not necessarily show echos of surface disturbances from the center. The conclusion is that helium enrichment in the surface convection zones can adequately explain observations of bump Cepheids at evolution theory masses. 12 references

  7. The Online Big Blue Test for Promoting Exercise: Health, Self-Efficacy, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zúñiga, Beni; Pousada, Modesta; Hernandez, Manny M; Colberg, Sheri; Gabarrón, Elia; Armayones, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Recent articles have documented the influence of self-efficacy and social support on exercising. Simultaneously, insulin use is also related to the perception of self-efficacy and social support in patients with diabetes. We combine these two ideas through the Big Blue Test experience in a social networking site and propose to analyze whether a change in blood sugar levels after completion of the Big Blue Test and insulin use are related to the perception of self-efficacy and social support in patients with diabetes. To undergo the Big Blue Test, 3,926 participants voluntarily joined the Diabetes Hands Foundation. Responses were analyzed using descriptive analysis. The participants who reduced their blood glucose after exercise the least were those with lower self-efficacy and also with lower perceived social support. There seems to have been no relationship between changes in blood sugar level and the explicit intention of doing exercise in the future. Insulin-dependent participants demonstrated a lower perception of self-efficacy and social support than non-insulin-dependent participants. Change in blood glucose level or being insulin-dependent or not do not explain completely a health behavior such as exercise. Hence, self-efficacy and social support have an impact on behavioral change such as exercise to become a habit in people with diabetes, and this experience through a social networking site is an important tool for this behavioral change. For exercise to become a habit in people with diabetes, it is necessary to consider not only the crucial physiological variables, but also those psychological variables that clearly have an impact on behavioral change.

  8. New magic angle bumps and magic translation bumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.

    1983-01-01

    SLC beams of opposite charge can be transversely deflected in the same direction by RF fields in the accelerating cavities caused by girder tilts, coupler-asymmetries, or manufacturing errors. A symmetric deflection can be corrected by a magic angle bump if the deflection is located adjacent to one of the linac quadrupoles. However, if the deflection is located between quadrupoles, two magic angle bumps or a magic angle bump and a magic translation bump are needed for the correction. Several examples of translation bumps are included. A new magic angle bump is also presented which is longitudinally compressed and has significantly reduced particle excursions. Finally, if new correctors are added midway along the girders so that the number of correctors are doubled, then the longitudinal extent and the maximum particle excursion of these new magic bumps can be further reduced

  9. Gene expression changes induced by the tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid riddelliine in liver of Big Blue rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Liu, Ruqing; Fuscoe, James C; Chen, Tao

    2007-01-01

    Background Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are probably the most common plant constituents that poison livestock, wildlife, and humans worldwide. Riddelliine is isolated from plants grown in the western United States and is a prototype of genotoxic PAs. Riddelliine was used to investigate the genotoxic effects of PAs via analysis of gene expression in the target tissue of rats in this study. Previously we observed that the mutant frequency in the liver of rats gavaged with riddelliine was 3-fold higher than that in the control group. Molecular analysis of the mutants indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutational spectra from riddelliine-treated and control rats. Results Riddelliine-induced gene expression profiles in livers of Big Blue transgenic rats were determined. The female rats were gavaged with riddelliine at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight 5 days a week for 12 weeks. Rat whole genome microarray was used to perform genome-wide gene expression studies. When a cutoff value of a two-fold change and a P-value less than 0.01 were used as gene selection criteria, 919 genes were identified as differentially expressed in riddelliine-treated rats compared to the control animals. By analysis with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Network, we found that these significantly changed genes were mainly involved in cancer, cell death, tissue development, cellular movement, tissue morphology, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and cellular growth and proliferation. We further analyzed the genes involved in metabolism, injury of endothelial cells, liver abnormalities, and cancer development in detail. Conclusion The alterations in gene expression were directly related to the pathological outcomes reported previously. These results provided further insight into the mechanisms involved in toxicity and carcinogenesis after exposure to riddelliine, and permitted us to investigate the interaction of gene products inside the signaling networks

  10. Big is not always beautiful - small can be a short cut to blue oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Often it is claimed that big investments are the only way to success in tourism and the experience economy. Only by building some of the world's biggest hotels - like the ones in Dubai or Las Vegas where hotels with 3-4,000 rooms are not uncommon - success can be achieved. It is understandable...... that hotels have to be big in Las Vegas in order to secure a good return on investment. It is also understandable that they build big hotels when 37 million people came to visit and 22,000 conventions were held in Las Vegas in 2004 according to the official website of Las Vegas (www.lasvegasnevada.gov/factsstatistics/funfacts.htm)....

  11. A Journey of Change with a Big Blue Whale: A Theatre-in-Education (TIE) Programme on Disability and Dilemmas in the Inclusive Classroom in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Joo

    2009-01-01

    The article chronicles and discusses "A Big Blue Whale's Dream," one of the first major theatre-in-education (TIE) projects commissioned by local and governmental cultural foundations in South Korea. Designed specifically for the non-disabled fifth and sixth graders of Inclusive Classes to enhance their awareness and perception towards…

  12. Sequence analysis of laci mutations obtained from lung cells of radon-exposed big blue trademark transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, A.D.; Cross, F.T.; Steigler, G.L.; Stillwell, L.S.; Jostes, R.F.; Lutze, L.H.

    1994-01-01

    We have exposed Big Blue trademark transgenic mice by inhalation to 320, 640 and 960 Working Level Months (WLM) of radon progeny. Mice were sacrificed after 3, 6 and 9 days; the time periods required to obtain the exposures. Control mice were also sacrificed at each time interval. In each case all tissues were excised, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80 degrees C for further analysis. Twelve lacI mutations have been isolated from the lung tissue of a mouse from the 960-WLM exposure group; the lacI genes from these mutants have been sequenced. Sequence data indicate that three of the mutants have a C;G deletion at BP 978 and are possibly clonal in origin. Two mutants have multiple events within the gene: one has a an A:T to C:G transversion and a C:G insertion separated by 291 BPs; the second has a G:C to A:T transition as well as an A:T deletion followed by 6 base pairs downstream by a T:A insertion. Other mutations include a single G:C to A:T transition, a two base pair deletion, and a C:G to T:A transition. Mutant plaques are being evaluated from individual mice at other dose levels. Time course experiments are also planned. These studies will help define the molecular fine structure of mutations induced by high-LET radiation exposure

  13. Sequence analysis of LACI mutations obtained from lung cells of control and radon-exposed Big Blue trademark transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.; Stillwell, L.

    1995-01-01

    We have exposed Stratagene Big Blue trademark transgenic mice by inhalation to 310, 640 and 960 Working Level Months (WLM) of radon progency. Twelve LacI mutations have been isolated from the lung tissue of a mouse from the 960-WLM group and the LacI gene sequenced. Mutations are scored only if they occur unambiguously in both strands of the mutant gene; the entire gene is evaluated. In addition, sixteen LacI mutations were isolated from the lung tissue of a mouse from the 640-WLM group; seven have been completely sequenced. Nine LacI mutations from the lung tissue of unirradiated control mice have been sequenced. Sequence data from the unirradiated mice are similar to that found in lung tissue at Stratagene; predominately G:C to A:T transitions in the protein associated region. The mutation spectrum from radon-irradiated mice is markedly different from that obtained with the control, unirradiated mice. Small deletions and insertions compromise 53% of the mutations in the irradiated mice. No multiple events have been noted in the spontaneous mutations; six of the mutations obtained from radon-irradiated mice (26%) have multiple events within the gene. In some, deletions, insertions are base changes occur together. The mutational events in the irradiated mice are approximately equally distributed throughout the gene. The breakpoint rejoining regions of large deletions obtained from the radon-irradiated mice are being studied at the University of California, San Francisco

  14. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of hexavalent chromium in the duodenum of big blue® rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Dinesdurage, Harshini; Suh, Mina; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2017-09-01

    A cancer bioassay on hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in drinking water reported increased incidences of duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice at exposures of 30-180ppm, and oral cavity tumors in F344 rats at 180ppm. A subsequent transgenic rodent (TGR) in vivo mutation assay in Big Blue® TgF344 rats found that exposure to 180ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28days did not increase cII transgene mutant frequency (MF) in the oral cavity (Thompson et al., 2015). Herein, we extend our analysis to the duodenum of these same TgF344 rats. At study termination, duodenum chromium levels were below either the limit of detection or quantification in control rats, but were 24.6±3.8μg/g in Cr(VI)-treated rats. The MF in control (23.2×10 -6 ) and Cr(VI)-treated rats (22.7×10 -6 ) were nearly identical. In contrast, the MF in the duodenum of rats exposed to 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea for six days (study days 1, 2, 3, 12, 19, 26) increased 24-fold to 557×10 -6 . These findings indicate that mutagenicity is unlikely an early initiating event in Cr(VI)-induced intestinal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutagenicity of ultraviolet A radiation in the lacI transgene in Big Blue mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-in; Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Sunlight ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation has been implicated in the etiology of human skin cancer. A genotoxic mode of action for UVA radiation has been suggested that involves photosensitization reactions giving rise to promutagenic DNA lesions. We investigated the mutagenicity of UVA in the lacI transgene in Big Blue mouse embryonic fibroblasts. UVA irradiation of these cells at a physiologically relevant dose of 18 J/cm 2 caused a 2.8-fold increase in the lacI mutant frequency relative to control, i.e., 12.12 ± 1.84 versus 4.39 ± 1.99 x 10 -5 (mean ± S.D.). DNA sequencing analysis showed that of 100 UVA-induced mutant plaques and 54 spontaneously arisen control plaques, 97 and 51, respectively, contained a minimum of one mutation along the lacI transgene. The vast majority of both induced- and spontaneous mutations were single base substitutions, although less frequently, there were also single and multiple base deletions and insertions, and tandem base substitutions. Detailed mutation spectrometry analysis revealed that G:C → T:A transversions, the signature mutations of oxidative DNA damage, were significantly induced by UVA irradiation (P -5 ; P < 0.00001). These findings are in complete agreement with those previously observed in the cII transgene of the same model system, and reaffirm the notion that intracellular photosensitization reactions causing promutagenic oxidative DNA damage are involved in UVA genotoxicity

  16. HANFORD WASTE TANK BUMP ACCIDENT & CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2005-02-22

    Postulated physical scenarios leading to tank bumps were examined. A combination of a substantial supernatant layer depth, supernatant temperatures close to saturation, and high sludge temperatures are required for a tank bump to occur. Scenarios postulated at various times for sludge layers lacking substantial supernatant, such as superheat within the layer and fumarole formation leading to a bump were ruled out.

  17. Comparison of Off-Line IR Bump and Action-Angle Kick Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yun; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Trbojevic, Dejan; Wei, Jie

    2005-01-01

    The interaction region bump (IR bump) nonlinear correction method has been used for the sextupole and octupole field error on-line corrections in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Some differences were found for the sextupole and octupole corrector strengths between the on-line IR bump correction and the predictions from the action-angle kick minimization. In this report we compare the corrector strengths from these two methods based on the RHIC Blue ring lattice with the IR nonlinear modeling. The comparison confirms the differences between resulting corrector strengths. And the reason for the differences is found and discussed. It is followed by a further discussion of the operational IR bump applications to the octupole, and skew sextupole and skew quadrupole field error corrections.

  18. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  19. Recent advances in understanding the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Rubin, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the increased proportion of autobiographical memories from youth and early adulthood observed in adults over 40. It is one of the most robust findings in autobiographical-memory research. Although described as a single period from which there are more memories, a recent...... meta-analysis that reported the beginning and ending ages of the bump from individual studies found that different classes of cues produce distinct bumps that vary in size and temporal location. The bump obtained in response to cue words is both smaller and located earlier in the life span than...

  20. Effects of long-term use by big game and livestock in the Blue Mountains forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry L. Irwin; John G. Cook; Robert A. Riggs; Jon M. Skovlin

    1994-01-01

    The effects on eastside forest ecosystems from long-term grazing by large mammals are assessed, because long-term herbivory can reduce or increase ecosystem productivity. The assessment emphasizes elk and cattle in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon and southeast Washington. Histories of populations of large mammals and their effects in the Blue Mountains are...

  1. Running bumps from stealth bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    For the `stealth bosons' S, light boosted particles with a decay S → A A → q \\bar{q} q \\bar{q} into four quarks and reconstructed as a single fat jet, the groomed jet mass has a strong correlation with groomed jet substructure variables. Consequently, the jet mass distribution is strongly affected by the jet substructure selection cuts when applied on the groomed jet. We illustrate this fact by recasting a CMS search for low-mass dijet resonances and show a few representative examples. The mass distributions exhibit narrow and wide bumps at several locations in the 100-300 GeV range, between the masses of the daughter particles A and the parent particle S, depending on the jet substructure selection. This striking observation introduces several caveats when interpreting and comparing experimental results, for the case of non-standard signatures. The possibility that a single boosted particle decaying hadronically produces multiple bumps, at quite different jet masses, and depending on the event selection, brings the anomaly chasing game to the next level.

  2. Running bumps from stealth bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    For the 'stealth bosons' S, light boosted particles with a decay S → AA → q anti qq anti q into four quarks and reconstructed as a single fat jet, the groomed jet mass has a strong correlation with groomed jet substructure variables. Consequently, the jet mass distribution is strongly affected by the jet substructure selection cuts when applied on the groomed jet. We illustrate this fact by recasting a CMS search for low-mass dijet resonances and show a few representative examples. The mass distributions exhibit narrow and wide bumps at several locations in the 100-300 GeV range, between the masses of the daughter particles A and the parent particle S, depending on the jet substructure selection. This striking observation introduces several caveats when interpreting and comparing experimental results, for the case of non-standard signatures. The possibility that a single boosted particle decaying hadronically produces multiple bumps, at quite different jet masses, and depending on the event selection, brings the anomaly chasing game to the next level. (orig.)

  3. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  4. Discovery of an Unexplored Protein Structural Scaffold of Serine Protease from Big Blue Octopus (Octopus cyanea): A New Prospective Lead Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Subhamay; Kumari, Leena

    2017-01-01

    Serine proteases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyses the peptide bonds in proteins. In mammals, these enzymes help in the regulation of several major physiological functions such as digestion, blood clotting, responses of immune system, reproductive functions and the complement system. Serine proteases obtained from the venom of Octopodidae family is a relatively unexplored area of research. In the present work, we tried to effectively utilize comparative composite molecular modeling technique. Our key aim was to propose the first molecular model structure of unexplored serine protease 5 derived from big blue octopus. The other objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis and electrostatic potential analysis with the aid of different bioinformatic tools. In the present study, molecular model has been generated with the help of I-TASSER suite. Afterwards the refined structural model was validated with standard methods. For functional annotation of protein molecule we used Protein Information Resource (PIR) database. Serine protease 5 of big blue octopus was analyzed with different bioinformatical algorithms for the distribution of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis and electrostatic potential analysis. The functionally critical amino acids and ligand- binding site (LBS) of the proteins (modeled) were determined using the COACH program. The molecular model data in cooperation to other pertinent post model analysis data put forward molecular insight to proteolytic activity of serine protease 5, which helps in the clear understanding of procoagulant and anticoagulant characteristics of this natural lead molecule. Our approach was to investigate the octopus

  5. The Histopathological Investigation of Red and Blue Light Emitting Diode on Treating Skin Wounds in Japanese Big-Ear White Rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Li

    Full Text Available The biological effects of different wavelengths of light emitting diode (LED light tend to vary from each other. Research into use of photobiomodulation for treatment of skin wounds and the underlying mechanisms has been largely lacking. We explored the histopathological basis of the therapeutic effect of photobiomodulation and the relation between duration of exposure and photobiomodulation effect of different wavelengths of LED in a Japanese big-ear white rabbit skin-wound model. Skin wound model was established in 16 rabbits (three wounds per rabbit: one served as control, the other two wounds were irradiated by red and blue LED lights, respectively. Rabbits were then divided into 2 equal groups based on the duration of exposure to LED lights (15 and 30 min/exposure. The number of wounds that showed healing and the percentage of healed wound area were recorded. Histopathological examination and skin expression levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF, endothelial marker (CD31, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki67 and macrophagocyte (CD68 infiltration, and the proliferation of skin collagen fibers was assessed. On days 16 and 17 of irradiation, the healing rates in red (15 min and 30 min and blue (15 min and 30 min groups were 50%, 37.5%, 25% and 37.5%, respectively, while the healing rate in the control group was 12.5%. The percentage healed area in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups. Collagen fiber and skin thickness were significantly increased in both red light groups; expression of EGF, FGF, CD31 and Ki67 in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups; the expression of FGF in red (30 min group was not significantly different from that in the blue light and control groups. The effect of blue light on wound healing was poorer than that of red light. Red light appeared to hasten wound healing by promoting fibrous tissue, epidermal and

  6. The reminiscence bump reconsidered: Children's prospective life stories show a bump in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    showed a clear bump in young adulthood. In Study 2, children were prompted by word cues to write down events from their future lives. The events generated consisted mostly of non-life-script events, and those events did not show a bump in young adulthood. Our findings challenge prevailing explanations...

  7. Dietary low-dose sucrose modulation of IQ-induced genotoxicity in the colon and liver of Big Blue((TM)) rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Hansen, Max; Autrup, H.

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that sucrose increases 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced aberrant crypt foci in the colon. In this study, we investigated the role of sucrose in IQ-induced genotoxicity of the colon mucosa and liver. Big Blue(TM) rats were fed with IQ (20 ppm...... in feed) and/or sucrose (3.45 or 6.85 wt.% in feed) for 3 weeks. IQ increased DNA strand breaks in the colon, whereas the mutation frequency was increased in the liver. The level of IQ-induced DNA adducts was elevated in both colon mucosa cells and liver. In the liver, high sucrose intake increased...... the level of DNA adducts above that of IQ and low sucrose intake. Oxidative DNA damage detected in terms of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine by HPLC-EC, or endonuclease HI or formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites were unaltered in the colon and liver. Expression of ERCC1 and OGG1 mRNA levels...

  8. Bump masses for BL Her stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    The masses of classical Cepheids can be determined by using the phase of the Hertzsprung bump on the light or velocity curve, Cox-Stewart opacities, and nonlinear pulsation theory. The fact that these bump masses are some 60% lower than the evolutionary masses raises some questions about this approach. In support of our method, we calculate the light curve for BL Her, a population II Cepheid, with an observed bump on the declining portion of its light curve. The nonlinear hydrodynamic model we use (Davis and Davison - 1978) resolves the light curve by dynamic zoning and allows us the opportunity to make a direct comparison of the calculated light curve to the observations, using a prescribed mass, luminosity and effective temperature. The parameters for BL Her are from a linear model (Hodson, Cox, and King - 1982) that has nearly the correct period (1./sup d/2) and the correct period ratio from resonance theory (π 2 /π 0 = 0.53) for a bump to appear on the declining portion of the light curve as observed. These parameters are: M = 0.55 M, L = 95.0 L, and T/sub eff/ = 6500 K. This mass is near the evolutionary mass as described by Schwartzschild and Haerm (1970). The model results agree well with the observations and the color-T/sub eff/ relation has the same slope as that observed for RR Lyrae stars by the Oke, Giver and Searle (1965) relationship

  9. Reminiscence bump in memory for public events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.; Meeter, M.

    2008-01-01

    People tend to recall more personal events from adolescence and early adulthood than from other lifetime periods. Most evidence suggests that differential encoding causes this reminiscence bump. However, the question why personal events are encoded better in those periods is still unanswered. To

  10. Heart tissue of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice has elevated reactive oxygen species without significant impact on the frequency and nature of point mutations in nuclear DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabbe, Rory A. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Hill, Kathleen A., E-mail: khill22@uwo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2010-09-10

    Age is a major risk factor for heart disease, and cardiac aging is characterized by elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) with compromised mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. To assess links between increased ROS levels and mutations, we examined in situ levels of ROS and cII mutation frequency, pattern and spectrum in the heart of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice. The hq mouse is a model of premature aging with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased risk of oxidative stress-induced heart disease with the means for in vivo mutation detection. The hq mutation produces a significant downregulation in the X-linked apoptosis-inducing factor gene (Aif) impairing both the antioxidant and oxidative phosphorylation functions of AIF. Brain and skin of hq disease mice have elevated frequencies of point mutations in nuclear DNA and histopathology characterized by cell loss. Reports of associated elevations in ROS in brain and skin have mixed results. Herein, heart in situ ROS levels were elevated in hq disease compared to AIF-proficient mice (p < 0.0001) yet, mutation frequency and pattern were similar in hq disease, hq carrier and AIF-proficient mice. Heart cII mutations were also assessed 15 days following an acute exposure to an exogenous ROS inducer (10 mg paraquat/kg). Acute paraquat exposure with a short mutant manifestation period was insufficient to elevate mutation frequency or alter mutation pattern in the post-mitotic heart tissue of AIF-proficient mice. Paraquat induction of ROS requires mitochondrial complex I and thus is likely compromised in hq mice. Results of this preliminary survey and the context of recent literature suggest that determining causal links between AIF deficiency and the premature aging phenotypes of specific tissues is better addressed with assay of mitochondrial ROS and large-scale changes in mitochondrial DNA in specific cell types.

  11. Heart tissue of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice has elevated reactive oxygen species without significant impact on the frequency and nature of point mutations in nuclear DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabbe, Rory A.; Hill, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Age is a major risk factor for heart disease, and cardiac aging is characterized by elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) with compromised mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. To assess links between increased ROS levels and mutations, we examined in situ levels of ROS and cII mutation frequency, pattern and spectrum in the heart of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice. The hq mouse is a model of premature aging with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased risk of oxidative stress-induced heart disease with the means for in vivo mutation detection. The hq mutation produces a significant downregulation in the X-linked apoptosis-inducing factor gene (Aif) impairing both the antioxidant and oxidative phosphorylation functions of AIF. Brain and skin of hq disease mice have elevated frequencies of point mutations in nuclear DNA and histopathology characterized by cell loss. Reports of associated elevations in ROS in brain and skin have mixed results. Herein, heart in situ ROS levels were elevated in hq disease compared to AIF-proficient mice (p < 0.0001) yet, mutation frequency and pattern were similar in hq disease, hq carrier and AIF-proficient mice. Heart cII mutations were also assessed 15 days following an acute exposure to an exogenous ROS inducer (10 mg paraquat/kg). Acute paraquat exposure with a short mutant manifestation period was insufficient to elevate mutation frequency or alter mutation pattern in the post-mitotic heart tissue of AIF-proficient mice. Paraquat induction of ROS requires mitochondrial complex I and thus is likely compromised in hq mice. Results of this preliminary survey and the context of recent literature suggest that determining causal links between AIF deficiency and the premature aging phenotypes of specific tissues is better addressed with assay of mitochondrial ROS and large-scale changes in mitochondrial DNA in specific cell types.

  12. Analysis of gene expression changes in relation to toxicity and tumorigenesis in the livers of Big Blue transgenic rats fed comfrey (Symphytum officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Lu; Shi, Leming; Sun, Yongming Andrew; Fung, Chris; Moland, Carrie L; Dial, Stacey L; Fuscoe, James C; Chen, Tao

    2006-09-06

    Comfrey is consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea, and has been used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, is hepatotoxic in livestock and humans and carcinogenic in experimental animals. Our previous study suggested that comfrey induces liver tumors by a genotoxic mechanism and that the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant are responsible for mutation induction and tumor initiation in rat liver. In this study, we identified comfrey-induced gene expression profile in the livers of rats. Groups of 6 male transgenic Big Blue rats were fed a basal diet and a diet containing 8% comfrey roots, a dose that resulted in liver tumors in a previous carcinogenicity bioassay. The animals were treated for 12 weeks and sacrificed one day after the final treatment. We used a rat microarray containing 26,857 genes to perform genome-wide gene expression studies. Dietary comfrey resulted in marked changes in liver gene expression, as well as in significant decreases in the body weight and increases in liver mutant frequency. When a two-fold cutoff value and a P-value less than 0.01 were selected, 2,726 genes were identified as differentially expressed in comfrey-fed rats compared to control animals. Among these genes, there were 1,617 genes associated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis with particular functions, and the differentially expressed genes in comfrey-fed rat livers were involved in metabolism, injury of endothelial cells, and liver injury and abnormalities, including liver fibrosis and cancer development. The gene expression profile provides us a better understanding of underlying mechanisms for comfrey-induced hepatic toxicity. Integration of gene expression changes with known pathological changes can be used to formulate a mechanistic scheme for comfrey-induced liver toxicity and tumorigenesis.

  13. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    of public events. We did so between-subjects, through two cueing methods administered within-subjects, the cue word method and the important memories method. For word-cued memories, we found a similar bump from ages 5 to 19 for both types of memories. However, the bump was more pronounced...... for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised......The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories...

  14. Single bumps in a 2-population homogenized neuronal network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodina, Karina; Oleynik, Anna; Wyller, John

    2018-05-01

    We investigate existence and stability of single bumps in a homogenized 2-population neural field model, when the firing rate functions are given by the Heaviside function. The model is derived by means of the two-scale convergence technique of Nguetseng in the case of periodic microvariation in the connectivity functions. The connectivity functions are periodically modulated in both the synaptic footprint and in the spatial scale. The bump solutions are constructed by using a pinning function technique for the case where the solutions are independent of the local variable. In the weakly modulated case the generic picture consists of two bumps (one narrow and one broad bump) for each admissible set of threshold values for firing. In addition, a new threshold value regime for existence of bumps is detected. Beyond the weakly modulated regime the number of bumps depends sensitively on the degree of heterogeneity. For the latter case we present a configuration consisting of three coexisting bumps. The linear stability of the bumps is studied by means of the spectral properties of a Fredholm integral operator, block diagonalization of this operator and the Fourier decomposition method. In the weakly modulated regime, one of the bumps is unstable for all relative inhibition times, while the other one is stable for small and moderate values of this parameter. The latter bump becomes unstable as the relative inhibition time exceeds a certain threshold. In the case of the three coexisting bumps detected in the regime of finite degree of heterogeneity, we have at least one stable bump (and maximum two stable bumps) for small and moderate values of the relative inhibition time.

  15. Thermohydrodynamic analysis of airfoil bearing based on bump foil structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Maraiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The load carrying capacity of the gas foil bearing depends on the material properties and the configuration of the underlying bump strip’s structure. This paper presents three different cases for selecting the dimensions of the foil bearing to guarantee the highest possible load carrying capacity. It focuses on three main parameters that affect the compliance number; these parameters are the length of bump in θ direction, the pitch of bump foil, and the thickness of bump foil. It also studies the effect of changing these parameters on load carrying capacity according to both isothermal and thermohydrodynamic approaches.

  16. The reminiscence bump reconsidered: children's prospective life stories show a bump in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-02-01

    The reminiscence bump-the reporting of more memories from young adulthood than from other stages of life-is considered a hallmark of autobiographical memory research. The most prevalent explanations for this effect assume that events in young adulthood are favored because of the way they are encoded and maintained in long-term memory. Here we show that a similar increase of events in early adulthood is found when children narrate their personal futures. In Study 1, children wrote their future life stories. The events in these life stories were mostly life-script events, and their distribution showed a clear bump in young adulthood. In Study 2, children were prompted by word cues to write down events from their future lives. The events generated consisted mostly of non-life-script events, and those events did not show a bump in young adulthood. Our findings challenge prevailing explanations of the reminiscence bump and suggest that the cultural life script forms an overarching organizational principle for autobiographical memories and future representations across the life span.

  17. ICHEP 2016: to b(ump) or not to b(ump)

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    This week I’m in Chicago for the 38th International Conference on High Energy Physics, ICHEP 2016, hosted this year by the US particle physics community. While it became clear at the conference that the famous 750 GeV bump has flatlined, there’s been a wealth of physics from CERN and around the world.   Everyone in their heart felt that the bump would turn out to be no more than a statistical fluctuation, while secretly hoping that it would be something new. Even the designer of the ICHEP 2016 logo cleverly hid a bump with a subtle question mark in the Chicago skyline – appropriately enough in Anish Kapoor’s mysterious ‘Cloud Gate’ sculpture. That question mark has now been resolved. Kapoor’s sculpture returns to being just that, and the search for new physics goes on albeit further constrained as theorists revealed in the 400+ papers in the wake of the bump discussion. The highlight from CERN was undoubtedly the spectacular pe...

  18. NSRL Extraction Bump Control in the Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, L.

    2008-01-01

    Due to inadequacies in the user interface of the booster orbit control system, a number of new tools were developed. The first priority was an accurate calculation of the winding currents given specific displacements at each extraction septa. Next, the physical limits of the power supplies (±600 amps) needed to be taken into account. In light of this limit, a system is developed that indicates to the user what the allowed values of one bump parameter are once the other two have been specified. Finally, techniques are developed to account for the orbit behavior once power supplies are requested to exceed their ±600 amp limit. This includes a recalculation of bump parameters and a calculation of the amplitude of the residuals. Following this, possible areas for further development are outlined. These techniques were computationally developed in Mathematica and tested in the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) program before they were implemented into the control system. At the end, a description of the implementation of these techniques in a new interface is described. This includes a depiction of the appearance and functionality of the graphical user interface, a description of the input and output flow, and an outline of how each important calculation is performed

  19. Dropwise condensation on hydrophobic bumps and dimples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuehan; Aizenberg, Joanna; Park, Kyoo-Chul

    2018-04-01

    Surface topography plays an important role in promoting or suppressing localized condensation. In this work, we study the growth of water droplets on hydrophobic convex surface textures such as bumps and concave surface textures such as dimples with a millimeter scale radius of curvature. We analyze the spatio-temporal droplet size distribution under a supersaturation condition created by keeping the uniform surface temperature below the dew point and show its relationship with the sign and magnitude of the surface curvature. In particular, in contrast to the well-known capillary condensation effect, we report an unexpectedly less favorable condensation on smaller, millimeter-scale dimples where the capillary condensation effect is negligible. To explain these experimental results, we numerically calculated the diffusion flux of water vapor around the surface textures, showing that its magnitude is higher on bumps and lower on dimples compared to a flat surface. We envision that our understanding of millimetric surface topography can be applied to improve the energy efficiency of condensation in applications such as water harvesting, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems for buildings and transportation, heat exchangers, thermal desalination plants, and fuel processing systems.

  20. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  1. Tank Bump Accident Potential and Consequences During Waste Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides an evaluation of Hanford tank bump accident potential and consequences during waste retrieval operations. The purpose of this report is to consider the best available new information to support recommendations for safety controls. A new tank bump accident analysis for safe storage (Epstein et al. 2000) is extended for this purpose. A tank bump is a postulated event in which gases, consisting mostly of water vapor, are suddenly emitted from the waste and cause tank headspace pressurization. Tank bump scenarios, physical models, and frequency and consequence methods are fully described in Epstein et al. (2000). The analysis scope is waste retrieval from double-shell tanks (DSTs) including operation of equipment such as mixer pumps and air lift circulators. The analysis considers physical mechanisms for tank bump to formulate criteria for bump potential during retrieval, application of the criteria to the DSTs, evaluation of bump frequency, and consequence analysis of a bump. The result of the consequence analysis is the mass of waste released from tanks; radiological dose is calculated using standard methods (Cowley et al. 2000)

  2. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  3. The Physics of Bump Drafting in Car Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the…

  4. Decomposing the sales promotion bump with store data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, H.J.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sales promotions generate substantial short-term sales increases. To determine whether the sales promotion bump is truly beneficial from a managerial perspective, we propose a system of store-level regression models that decomposes the sales promotion bump into three parts: cross-brand effects

  5. Bump Bonding Using Metal-Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, James L.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Kowalczyk, Robert S.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Bump bonding hybridization techniques use arrays of indium bumps to electrically and mechanically join two chips together. Surface-tension issues limit bump sizes to roughly as wide as they are high. Pitches are limited to 50 microns with bumps only 8-14 microns high on each wafer. A new process uses oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a metal (indium) in a wicking process using capillary actions to increase the aspect ratio and pitch density of the connections for bump bonding hybridizations. It merges the properties of the CNTs and the metal bumps, providing enhanced material performance parameters. By merging the bumps with narrow and long CNTs oriented in the vertical direction, higher aspect ratios can be obtained if the metal can be made to wick. Possible aspect ratios increase from 1:1 to 20:1 for most applications, and to 100:1 for some applications. Possible pitch density increases of a factor of 10 are possible. Standard capillary theory would not normally allow indium or most other metals to be drawn into the oriented CNTs, because they are non-wetting. However, capillary action can be induced through the ability to fabricate oriented CNT bundles to desired spacings, and the use of deposition techniques and temperature to control the size and mobility of the liquid metal streams and associated reservoirs. This hybridization of two technologies (indium bumps and CNTs) may also provide for some additional benefits such as improved thermal management and possible current density increases.

  6. Down to earth with a bump

    CERN Multimedia

    Adam, D

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 both the ISS and the LHC project ran into serious financial difficulties. This could have serious repercussions for other 'big science' projects trying to attract funding from already nervous politicians (1 page).

  7. A flip chip process based on electroplated solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, J.; Salmi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Compared to wire bonding and TAB, flip chip technology using solder joints offers the highest pin count and packaging density and superior electrical performance. The chips are mounted upside down on the substrate, which can be made of silicon, ceramic, glass or - in some cases - even PCB. The extra processing steps required for chips are the deposition of a suitable thin film metal layer(s) on the standard Al pad and the formation of bumps. Also, the development of new fine line substrate technologies is required to utilize the full potential of the technology. In our bumping process, bump deposition is done by electroplating, which was chosen for its simplicity and economy. Sputter deposited molybdenum and copper are used as thin film layers between the aluminum pads and the solder bumps. A reason for this choice is that the metals can be selectively etched after bumping using the bumps as a mask, thus circumventing the need for a separate mask for etching the thin film metals. The bumps are electroplated from a binary Pb-Sn bath using a thick liquid photoresist. An extensively modified commercial flip chip bonder is used for alignment and bonding. Heat assisted tack bonding is used to attach the chips to the substrate, and final reflow joining is done without flux in a vacuum furnace.

  8. Visual Analysis of Speeding Bumps Using Floating Car Dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    measures, and also their influence on the driving behaviour of vehicles from a temporal perspective. To fill this gap and understand these aspects, in this research we propose visual analytics techniques. To explore the influence of the bumps on speed change behavior of vehicles, several use case studies...... in three different cities were selected with close cooperation of a traffic domain expert. The aim was first to study influence of the bumps on vehicle volume and speeding from a time perspective. And then, establish any connection between speed bump intervals and vehicle speeding in the selected use cases...

  9. Light and velocity curve bumps for BW Vulpeculae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesnell, W.D.; Cox, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Bumps in the light and radial velocity curves of the Beta Cephei star BW Vulpeculae were modeled. Two mechanisms, a resonance phenomena and non-linear pulsations, were investigated. The resonance condition was clearly not fulfilled, the calculated period ratio being approximately 0.60, where a value of 0.50 L +- 0.03 is required for resonance. In the non-linear calculation, the bump appears, with the correct phase, but was found at an amplitude that is too large. Further, the light curve does not show any bump-like feature. The cause of the bump is the large spurious boost given the star's velocity field by the solution methods. The calculated periods of the stellar models are shorter than those of previous calculations, enhancing the possibility that these stars pulsate in a radial fundamental mode

  10. New Pulsed Orbit Bump Magnets for the Fermilab Booster Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Lackey, James; John, Carson; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Makarov, Alexander; Prebys, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The beam from the Fermilab Linac is injected onto a bump in the closed orbit of the Booster Synchrotron where a carbon foil strips the electrons from the Linac’s negative ion hydrogen beam. Although the Booster itself runs at 15Hz, heat dissipation in the orbit bump magnets has been one limitation to the fraction of the cycles that can be used for beam. New, 0.28T pulsed window frame dipole magnets have been constructed that will fit into the same space as the old ones, run at the full repetition rate of the Booster, and provide a larger bump to allow a cleaner injection orbit. The new magnets use a high saturation flux density Ni-Zn ferrite in the yoke rather than laminated steel. The presented magnetic design includes two and three dimensional magnetic field calculations with eddy currents and ferrite nonlinear effects.

  11. Hanford Waste Tank Bump Accident and Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis and consequences for incorporation into the Authorization Basis. The analysis scope is for the safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell and double-shell tanks

  12. Do You Hear a Bump or a Hole?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Turchet, Luca; Nordahl, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a preliminary experiment whose goal is to assess the role of temporal aspects in sonically simulating the act of walking on a bump or a hole. In particular, we investigate whether the timing between heel and toe and the timing between footsteps affects the perception...

  13. Pressure bump instability in very large cold bore storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.

    1983-12-01

    Calculations have been done to estimate the circulating current necessary to induce the onset of a pressure bump instability in a cold bore storage ring. For a wide range of storage ring parameters, the instability threshold current is more than an order of magnitude higher than the operating current. 4 references, 2 tables

  14. Reading in Middle School: Bumps in the Literacy Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katrina Willard

    2008-01-01

    Certainly a major bump in the literacy road today is the apparent conflict between school literacies and the preferred literacy activities of students outside of school. After family conversation about a nephew who was getting poor grades in language arts, Hall shares her thinking on the dilemmas of what constitutes literacy, how literacies kids…

  15. Big universe, big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Stensbo-Smidt, Kristoffer; Gieseke, Fabian Cristian

    2017-01-01

    , modern astronomy requires big data know-how, in particular it demands highly efficient machine learning and image analysis algorithms. But scalability is not the only challenge: Astronomy applications touch several current machine learning research questions, such as learning from biased data and dealing......, and highlight some recent methodological advancements in machine learning and image analysis triggered by astronomical applications....

  16. Structural integrity of power generating speed bumps made of concrete foam composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, B.; Muttaqin, M.; Hastrino, D.; Sebayang, A.; Basuki, W. S.; Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper concrete foam composite speed bumps were designed to generate electrical power by utilizing the movements of commuting vehicles on highways, streets, parking gates, and drive-thru station of fast food restaurants. The speed bumps were subjected to loadings generated by vehicles pass over the power generating mechanical system. In this paper, we mainly focus our discussion on the structural integrity of the speed bumps and discuss the electrical power generating speed bumps in another paper. One aspect of structural integrity is its ability to support designed loads without breaking and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs. The concrete foam composites were used for the speed bumps; the reinforcement materials are selected from empty fruit bunch of oil palm. In this study, the speed bump materials and structure were subjected to various tests to obtain its physical and mechanical properties. To analyze the structure stability of the speed bumps some models were produced and tested in our speed bump test station. We also conduct a FEM-based computer simulation to analyze stress responses of the speed bump structures. It was found that speed bump type 1 significantly reduced the radial voltage. In addition, the speed bump is equipped with a steel casing is also suitable for use as a component component in generating electrical energy.

  17. Big data, big responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big data refers to the collection and aggregation of large quantities of data produced by and about people, things or the interactions between them. With the advent of cloud computing, specialised data centres with powerful computational hardware and software resources can be used for processing and analysing a humongous amount of aggregated data coming from a variety of different sources. The analysis of such data is all the more valuable to the extent that it allows for specific patterns to be found and new correlations to be made between different datasets, so as to eventually deduce or infer new information, as well as to potentially predict behaviours or assess the likelihood for a certain event to occur. This article will focus specifically on the legal and moral obligations of online operators collecting and processing large amounts of data, to investigate the potential implications of big data analysis on the privacy of individual users and on society as a whole.

  18. Endogenous estrogen status, but not genistein supplementation, modulates 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mutation in the liver cII gene of transgenic big blue rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Hutts, Robert C; Mei, Nan; Liu, Xiaoli; Bishop, Michelle E; Shelton, Sharon; Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Aidoo, Anane

    2005-06-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that isoflavones found in soybeans have estrogenic activity and may safely alleviate the symptoms of menopause. One of these isoflavones, genistein, is commonly used by postmenopausal women as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy. Although sex hormones have been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, there are limited data on the potential effects of the estrogens, including phytoestrogens, on chemical mutagenesis in liver. Because of the association between mutation induction and the carcinogenesis process, we investigated whether endogenous estrogen and supplemental genistein affect 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mutagenesis in rat liver. Intact and ovariectomized female Big Blue rats were treated with 80 mg DMBA/kg body weight. Some of the rats also received a supplement of 1,000 ppm genistein. Sixteen weeks after the carcinogen treatment, the rats were sacrificed, their livers were removed, and mutant frequencies (MFs) and types of mutations were determined in the liver cII gene. DMBA significantly increased the MFs in liver for both the intact and ovariectomized rats. While there was no significant difference in MF between the ovariectomized and intact control animals, the mutation induction by DMBA in the ovariectomized groups was significantly higher than that in the intact groups. Dietary genistein did not alter these responses. Molecular analysis of the mutants showed that DMBA induced chemical-specific types of mutations in the liver cII gene. These results suggest that endogenous ovarian hormones have an inhibitory effect on liver mutagenesis by DMBA, whereas dietary genistein does not modulate spontaneous or DMBA-induced mutagenesis in either intact or ovariectomized rats.

  19. Relatively high rates of G:C → A:T transitions at CpG sites were observed in certain epithelial tissues including pancreas and submaxillary gland of adult big blue® mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtenjaca, Anita; Tarnowski, Heather E; Marr, Alison M; Heney, Melanie A; Creamer, Laura; Sathiamoorthy, Sarmitha; Hill, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous mutation frequency and pattern are similar across tissue types and relatively constant in young to middle adulthood in wild type mice. Underrepresented in surveys of spontaneous mutations across murine tissues is the diversity of epithelial tissues. For the first time, spontaneous mutations were detected in pancreas and submaxillary gland and compared with kidney, lung, and male germ cells from five adult male Big Blue® mice. Mutation load was assessed quantitatively through measurement of mutant and mutation frequency and qualitatively through identification of mutations and characterization of recurrent mutations, multiple mutations, mutation pattern, and mutation spectrum. A total of 9.6 million plaque forming units were screened, 226 mutants were collected, and 196 independent mutations were identified. Four novel mutations were discovered. Spontaneous mutation frequency was low in pancreas and high in the submaxillary gland. The submaxillary gland had multiple recurrent mutations in each of the mice and one mutant had two independent mutations. Mutation patterns for epithelial tissues differed from that observed in male germ cells with a striking bias for G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites. A comprehensive review of lacI spontaneous mutation patterns in young adult mice and rats identified additional examples of this mutational bias. An overarching observation about spontaneous mutation frequency in adult tissues of the mouse remains one of stability. A repeated observation in certain epithelial tissues is a higher rate of G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites and the underlying mechanisms for this bias are not known. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bump formation in a binary attractor neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroutchev, Kostadin; Korutcheva, Elka

    2006-01-01

    The conditions for the formation of local bumps in the activity of binary attractor neural networks with spatially dependent connectivity are investigated. We show that these formations are observed when asymmetry between the activity during the retrieval and learning is imposed. An analytical approximation for the order parameters is derived. The corresponding phase diagram shows a relatively large and stable region where this effect is observed, although critical storage and information capacities drastically decrease inside that region. We demonstrate that the stability of the network, when starting from the bump formation, is larger than the stability when starting even from the whole pattern. Finally, we show a very good agreement between the analytical results and the simulations performed for different topologies of the network

  1. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...

  2. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 μm was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch

  3. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Fried, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Palmieri, V G; Pan, L S; Peitz, A; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Steuerer, J; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M; Charles, E; Ciocio, A; Dao, K; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fasching, D; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Richardson, J; Sinervo, P K; Zizka, G

    1999-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98565544f the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 mu m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch. (13 refs).

  4. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W. E-mail: william@physics.utoronto.ca; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 {mu}m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  5. The AGB bump: a calibrator for core mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossini Diego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of convection in stars affects many aspects of their evolution and remains one of the key-open questions in stellar modelling. In particular, the size of the mixed core in core-He-burning low-mass stars is still uncertain and impacts the lifetime of this evolutionary phase and, e.g., the C/O profile in white dwarfs. One of the known observables related to the Horizontal Branch (HB and Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB evolution is the AGB bump. Its luminosity depends on the position in mass of the helium-burning shell at its first ignition, that is affected by the extension of the central mixed region. In this preliminary work we show how various assumptions on near-core mixing and on the thermal stratification in the overshooting region affect the luminosity of the AGB bump, as well as the period spacing of gravity modes in core-He-burning models.

  6. TRACKING TESTS FOR THE SNS FAST INJECTION BUMP POWER SUPPLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENG, W.; CUTLER, R.; DEWAN, S.

    2004-01-01

    The tracking requirement of the SNS Fast Injection Bump power supplies is described. In addition to the usual tracking between the load current and the input reference of a power supply, these power supplies must also track between pairs of units under slightly different loads. This paper describes the use of a current-null test to measure tracking performances. For the actual tests, a single dummy magnet load was used to measure the tracking between the first two production units at the manufacturer's facility. Using the Yokogawa WE7000 waveform. PC-based measurement instrument, input and output waveforms are digitized and stored in data files. A program written for this application is then used to extract data from these files to construct, analyze the waveforms and characterize the power supply performance. Results of the measurements of two SNS Fast Injection Bump power supplies will be presented in this paper

  7. Big science

    CERN Multimedia

    Nadis, S

    2003-01-01

    " "Big science" is moving into astronomy, bringing large experimental teams, multi-year research projects, and big budgets. If this is the wave of the future, why are some astronomers bucking the trend?" (2 pages).

  8. Speed Bump Detection Using Accelerometric Features: A Genetic Algorithm Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya-Padilla, Jose M; Galván-Tejada, Carlos E; López-Monteagudo, F E; Alonso-González, O; Moreno-Báez, Arturo; Martínez-Torteya, Antonio; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I; Arceo-Olague, Jose G; Luna-García, Huizilopoztli; Gamboa-Rosales, Hamurabi

    2018-02-03

    Among the current challenges of the Smart City, traffic management and maintenance are of utmost importance. Road surface monitoring is currently performed by humans, but the road surface condition is one of the main indicators of road quality, and it may drastically affect fuel consumption and the safety of both drivers and pedestrians. Abnormalities in the road, such as manholes and potholes, can cause accidents when not identified by the drivers. Furthermore, human-induced abnormalities, such as speed bumps, could also cause accidents. In addition, while said obstacles ought to be signalized according to specific road regulation, they are not always correctly labeled. Therefore, we developed a novel method for the detection of road abnormalities (i.e., speed bumps). This method makes use of a gyro, an accelerometer, and a GPS sensor mounted in a car. After having the vehicle cruise through several streets, data is retrieved from the sensors. Then, using a cross-validation strategy, a genetic algorithm is used to find a logistic model that accurately detects road abnormalities. The proposed model had an accuracy of 0.9714 in a blind evaluation, with a false positive rate smaller than 0.018, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9784. This methodology has the potential to detect speed bumps in quasi real-time conditions, and can be used to construct a real-time surface monitoring system.

  9. Injection Bump Synchronization Study for the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Serluca, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Simone; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project the CERN PS injection kinetic energy will be upgraded from 1.4 to 2 GeV. The present injection bump is made by four bumpers in Straight Section (SS) 40, 42, 43, 44 and it will be converted in a five bumpers system to allow additional flexibility in the bump shape with a reduction of the proton losses during the bump closure. The injection section SS42 has being redesigned to accommodate a new eddy current septum which will host a new bumper magnet in the same vacuum vessel due to reduced longitudinal space availability. The synchronization and amplitude variation of the power converter of the in-vacuum bumper 42 with respect to the remaining outside vacuum bumpers 40, 41, 43, 44 can lead to orbit distortion and consequent losses during injection. In this note we present the experimental results from Machine Development (MD) studies along with simulations for the present system at 1.4 GeV to quantify the acceptable orbit distortion and the performance ...

  10. Speed Bump Detection Using Accelerometric Features: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Celaya-Padilla

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the current challenges of the Smart City, traffic management and maintenance are of utmost importance. Road surface monitoring is currently performed by humans, but the road surface condition is one of the main indicators of road quality, and it may drastically affect fuel consumption and the safety of both drivers and pedestrians. Abnormalities in the road, such as manholes and potholes, can cause accidents when not identified by the drivers. Furthermore, human-induced abnormalities, such as speed bumps, could also cause accidents. In addition, while said obstacles ought to be signalized according to specific road regulation, they are not always correctly labeled. Therefore, we developed a novel method for the detection of road abnormalities (i.e., speed bumps. This method makes use of a gyro, an accelerometer, and a GPS sensor mounted in a car. After having the vehicle cruise through several streets, data is retrieved from the sensors. Then, using a cross-validation strategy, a genetic algorithm is used to find a logistic model that accurately detects road abnormalities. The proposed model had an accuracy of 0.9714 in a blind evaluation, with a false positive rate smaller than 0.018, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9784. This methodology has the potential to detect speed bumps in quasi real-time conditions, and can be used to construct a real-time surface monitoring system.

  11. The peaks of life: The differential temporal locations of the reminiscence bump across disparate cueing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has generally been assessed through either (1) the cue word method, or (2) several related methods which we refer to under the umbrella of the important memories method. Here we provide a review of the literature demonstrating that the temporal location of the bump varies...... systematically according to cueing method, with the mean range of the bump located from 8.7 to 22.5 years of age for word-cued memories, versus 15.1 to 27.9 for important memories. This finding has hitherto been under-acknowledged, as existing theoretical accounts of the bump generally hold its location...... to be stable across cueing methods. We therefore re-evaluate existing theoretical accounts of the bump in light of these varying locations, addressing each account’s consistency with (1) the respective bumps found through each method taken individually, and (2) the sensitivity of the bump’s location to cueing...

  12. The Effects of Campus Bump on Drivers’ Fixation Dispersion and Speed Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of campus speed bumps on drivers’ speed and fixation distribution, a quasinaturalistic driving test was conducted on a Chinese campus. Seven randomly selected drivers, wearing the Dikablis eye tracking devices, were required to drive an OPEL SUV passing the speed bumps. The area close to the bump was divided into ten subsegments (15 m for each one. The degree of fixation dispersion within each subsegment was defined as the distance from each subcenter to the whole fixation center. All traffic data were recorded using mounted camera, and the trajectories were extracted in Matlab. The speed and trajectory data was divided into two groups: the before group for bump-free case and the after group for a 5 cm bump case. The observational before-after analysis shows statistical significance between the two cases. The individual vehicular speed analysis reveals that bump reduces nearly 60% of vehicles’ speeds to a certain extent within the distance from 30 m upstream to 15 m downstream. The drivers’ fixation points begin to disperse 30–45 m before they see the bump, and it falls back to normal level 15–30 m downstream of the bump. These findings will help engineers install speed bumps at the most appropriate locations.

  13. Effectiveness of Emittance Bumps in the NLC and US Cold LC Main Linear Accelerators (LCC-0138)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, P

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of studies on the effectiveness of closed orbit bumps in the linacs of the NLC and the USColdLC. In the first study, emittance dilutions of a pure-wakefield or pure-dispersion character are introduced in each linac, and a set of emittance bumps is tested to determine the most effective bump location in the linac, and the net effectiveness. In the second study, a more realistic set of dilutions are introduced and the wakefield bumps used in the first study are applied

  14. Aqueous-based thick photoresist removal for bumping applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C.; Brewer, Alex J.; Law, Alman; Pettit, Jared M.

    2015-03-01

    Cleaning processes account for over 25% of processing in microelectronic manufacturing [1], suggesting electronics to be one of the most chemical intensive markets in commerce. Industry roadmaps exist to reduce chemical exposure, usage, and waste [2]. Companies are encouraged to create a safer working environment, or green factory, and ultimately become certified similar to LEED in the building industry [3]. A significant step in this direction is the integration of aqueous-based photoresist (PR) strippers which eliminate regulatory risks and cut costs by over 50%. One of the largest organic solvent usages is based upon thick PR removal during bumping processes [4-6]. Using market projections and the benefits of recycling, it is estimated that over 1,000 metric tons (mt) of residuals originating from bumping processes are incinerated or sent to a landfill. Aqueous-based stripping would eliminate this disposal while also reducing the daily risks to workers and added permitting costs. Positive-tone PR dissolves in aqueous strippers while negative-tone systems are lifted-off from the substrate, bumps, pillars, and redistribution layers (RDL). While the wafers are further processed and rinsed, the lifted-off PR is pumped from the tank, collected onto a filter, and periodically back-flushed to the trash. The PR solids become a non-hazardous plastic waste while the liquids are mixed with the developer stream, neutralized, filtered, and in most cases, disposed to the sewer. Regardless of PR thickness, removal processes may be tuned to perform in <15min, performing at rates nearly 10X faster than solvents with higher bath lives. A balanced formula is safe for metals, dielectrics, and may be customized to any fab.

  15. Revised masses for the double-mode and bump Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.; Deupree, R.G.; King, D.S.; Hodson, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    We consider Population I Cepheids with two pulsation modes and those with a bump in the light and velocity curves. Model envelopes for these Cepheids have been altered in several ways in an attempt in remove the discrepancy between masses predicted from the evolution theory mass-luminosity relation an th masses predicted from pulsation theory. One of these ways, the inclusion of rotation, does not change the period ratio of the first overtone mode to the fundamental mode enough to resolve this mass discrepancy. Another way, the inclusion of a helium- (or metal-) rich layer mixed by convection and pulsation between the stellar surface and 70,000 K decreases this period ratio appreciably. The ratio of the second overtone period to the fundamental period is also reduced with this structure. The masses of the double-mode Cepheids U TrA and V367 Sct and the bump Cepheids U Sgr and β Dor are found to be much closer to the masses derived from stellar evolution theory

  16. Urbanising Big

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Development in China raises the question of how big a city can become, and at the same time be sustainable, writes Christer Ljungwall of the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.......Development in China raises the question of how big a city can become, and at the same time be sustainable, writes Christer Ljungwall of the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis....

  17. Big Argumentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Faltesek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Big Data is nothing new. Public concern regarding the mass diffusion of data has appeared repeatedly with computing innovations, in the formation before Big Data it was most recently referred to as the information explosion. In this essay, I argue that the appeal of Big Data is not a function of computational power, but of a synergistic relationship between aesthetic order and a politics evacuated of a meaningful public deliberation. Understanding, and challenging, Big Data requires an attention to the aesthetics of data visualization and the ways in which those aesthetics would seem to depoliticize information. The conclusion proposes an alternative argumentative aesthetic as the appropriate response to the depoliticization posed by the popular imaginary of Big Data.

  18. Big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed; Flyverbom, Mikkel; Hilbert, Martin

    2016-01-01

    is to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations......The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments contained in any big data practice. Second, it suggests a research agenda built around a set of subthemes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay between big data...

  19. On the persistence of unstable bump-on-tail electron velocity distributions in the earth's foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, A.J.; Fitzenreiter, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Further evidence for the persistence of bump-on-tail unstable reduced velocity distribution in the Earth's electron foreshock is presented. This persistence contradicts our understanding of quasi-linear saturation of the bump-on-tail instability; the distributions should be stabilized through velocity space diffusion too quickly to allow an observation of their unstable form. A modified theory for the saturation of the bump-on-tail instability in the Earth's foreshock is proposed and examined using numerical simulation and quasi-linear theoretical techniques. It is argued the mechanism due to Filbert and Kellogg and to Cairns which is responsible for the creation of the bump-on-tail velocity distribution in the foreshock is still operative during the evolution of the bump-on-tail instability. The saturated state of the plasma must represent a balance between this creation mechanism and velocity space diffusion; the saturated state is not determined by velocity space diffusion alone. Thus the velocity distribution of the saturated stat may still appear bump-on-tail unstable to standard linear analysis which does not take the creation mechanism into account. The bump-on-tail velocity distributions in the foreshock would then represent the state of the plasma after saturation of the bump-on-tail instability, not before

  20. Two-Dimensional Bumps in Piecewise Smooth Neural Fields with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2011-01-01

    instability leads to the formation of a traveling spot. The local stability of a bump is determined by solutions to a system of pseudolinear equations that take into account the sign of perturbations around the circular bump boundary. © 2011 Society

  1. Stability of bumps in piecewise smooth neural fields with nonlinear adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    associated with a bump solution means that bump stability cannot be analyzed by constructing the Evans function for a network with a sigmoidal gain function and then taking the high-gain limit. In the case of synaptic depression, we show that linear stability

  2. Shrinking of bumps by drawing scintillating fibres through a hot conical tool

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues Cavalcante, Ana Barbara; Gavardi, Laura; Joram, Christian; Kristic, Robert; Pierschel, Gerhard; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb SciFi tracker will be based on scintillating fibres with a nominal diameter of 250 $\\mu$m. A small length fraction of these fibres shows millimetre-scale fluctuations of the diameter, also known as bumps and necks. In particular, bumps exceeding a diameter of about 350 $\\mu$m are problematic as they can distort the winding pattern of the fibre mats over more extended regions. We present a method to reduce the diameter of large bumps to a diameter of 350 $\\mu$m by locally heating and pulling the fibre through a conical tool. The method has been proven to work for bumps up to 450 – 500 $\\mu$m diameter. Larger bumps need to be treated manually by a cut-and-glue technique which relies on UV-curing instant glue. The bump shrinking and cut-and-glue processes were integrated in a fibre diameter scanner at CERN. The central scanning and bump shrinking of all fibres is expected to minimise bump related issues at the four mat winding centres of the SciFi project.

  3. On the persistence of unstable bump-on-tail electron velocity distributions in the earth's foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Alexander J.; Fitzenreiter, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents further evidence for the persistence of bump-on-tail unstable reduced velocity distributions in the earth's electron foreshock, which contradicts the understanding of quasi-linear saturation of the bump-on-tail instability. A modified theory for the saturation of the bump-on-tail instability in the earth's foreshock is proposed to explain the mechanism of this persistence, and the predictions are compared to the results of a numerical simulation of the electron plasma in the foreshock. The results support the thesis that quasi-linear saturation of the bump-on-tail instability is modified in the foreshock, due to the driven nature of the region, so that at saturation the stabilized velocity distribution still appears bump-on-tail unstable to linear plasma analysis.

  4. A Metal Bump Bonding Method Using Ag Nanoparticles as Intermediate Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weixin; Nimura, Masatsugu; Kasahara, Takashi; Mimatsu, Hayata; Okada, Akiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Ishizuka, Shugo; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The future development of low-temperature and low-pressure bonding technology is necessary for fine-pitch bump application. We propose a bump structure using Ag nanoparticles as an intermediate layer coated on a fine-pitch Cu pillar bump. The intermediate layer is prepared using an efficient and cost-saving squeegee-coating method followed by a 100°C baking process. This bump structure can be easily flattened before the bonding process, and the low-temperature sinterability of the nanoparticles is retained. The bonding experiment was successfully performed at 250°C and 39.8 MPa and the bonding strength was comparable to that achieved via other bonding technology utilizing metal particles or porous material as bump materials.

  5. How Big Is Too Big?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  6. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  7. Development of an Indium Bump Bond Process for Silicon Pixel Detectors at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Brönnimann, C; Gobrecht, J; Heising, S; Horisberger, M; Horisberger, R P; Kästli, H C; Lehmann, J; Rohe, T; Streuli, S; Broennimann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high energy physics experiments currently under construction use a three dimensional connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100um, required in these applications, cannot be fullfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflown indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R&D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflown afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a seco...

  8. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  9. Ship Track for Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  10. Ship Sensor Observations for Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003" expedition sponsored by the National...

  11. Two-Dimensional Bumps in Piecewise Smooth Neural Fields with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze radially symmetric bumps in a two-dimensional piecewise-smooth neural field model with synaptic depression. The continuum dynamics is described in terms of a nonlocal integrodifferential equation, in which the integral kernel represents the spatial distribution of synaptic weights between populations of neurons whose mean firing rate is taken to be a Heaviside function of local activity. Synaptic depression dynamically reduces the strength of synaptic weights in response to increases in activity. We show that in the case of a Mexican hat weight distribution, sufficiently strong synaptic depression can destabilize a stationary bump solution that would be stable in the absence of depression. Numerically it is found that the resulting instability leads to the formation of a traveling spot. The local stability of a bump is determined by solutions to a system of pseudolinear equations that take into account the sign of perturbations around the circular bump boundary. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the solution from MrBUMP and BALBES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Ronan M.; Long, Fei; Fazio, Vincent J.; Winn, Martyn D.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Vagin, Alexei A.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular replacement is one of the key methods used to solve the problem of determining the phases of structure factors in protein structure solution from X-ray image diffraction data. Its success rate has been steadily improving with the development of improved software methods and the increasing number of structures available in the PDB for use as search models. Despite this, in cases where there is low sequence identity between the target-structure sequence and that of its set of possible homologues it can be a difficult and time-consuming chore to isolate and prepare the best search model for molecular replacement. MrBUMP and BALBES are two recent developments from CCP4 that have been designed to automate and speed up the process of determining and preparing the best search models and putting them through molecular replacement. Their intention is to provide the user with a broad set of results using many search models and to highlight the best of these for further processing. An overview of both programs is presented along with a description of how best to use them, citing case studies and the results of large-scale testing of the software. PMID:21460449

  14. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  15. Effect of wettability and topological features of Namib beetle inspired bumps on dropwise condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shakeel; Tang, Hui; Yao, Haimin

    2017-11-01

    The Stenocara beetle lives in arid desert environment where the only available source of water is fog droplets. The beetle contains many hydrophobic/hydrophilic bumps on its back. Water collection occurs on the hydrophilic patches. Once the droplet reaches the critical volume, it sheds down due to gravity. Although a number of studies on condensation and water collection on beetle inspired structures have been reported in literature, most of them were on micro/nano scale textures. However, in nature the beetle bumps are in millimeter scale. At this scale the role of topological features and gravity becomes crucial for early droplet shedding. Therefore, in this work we numerically investigated the effects of bump shape, wettability contrast, surface slope and hydrophilic patch to total area ratio on droplet shedding volume and time. A three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based numerical framework was used for the simulations. Compared with bumps of other shapes such a cube or a circular cylinder, faster droplet shedding was obtained over a hemispherical bump. Furthermore, it was found that larger hydrophilic patch to total area ratio for the hemispherical bump significantly increased the droplet shedding time.

  16. Stability of bumps in piecewise smooth neural fields with nonlinear adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2010-06-01

    We study the linear stability of stationary bumps in piecewise smooth neural fields with local negative feedback in the form of synaptic depression or spike frequency adaptation. The continuum dynamics is described in terms of a nonlocal integrodifferential equation, in which the integral kernel represents the spatial distribution of synaptic weights between populations of neurons whose mean firing rate is taken to be a Heaviside function of local activity. Discontinuities in the adaptation variable associated with a bump solution means that bump stability cannot be analyzed by constructing the Evans function for a network with a sigmoidal gain function and then taking the high-gain limit. In the case of synaptic depression, we show that linear stability can be formulated in terms of solutions to a system of pseudo-linear equations. We thus establish that sufficiently strong synaptic depression can destabilize a bump that is stable in the absence of depression. These instabilities are dominated by shift perturbations that evolve into traveling pulses. In the case of spike frequency adaptation, we show that for a wide class of perturbations the activity and adaptation variables decouple in the linear regime, thus allowing us to explicitly determine stability in terms of the spectrum of a smooth linear operator. We find that bumps are always unstable with respect to this class of perturbations, and destabilization of a bump can result in either a traveling pulse or a spatially localized breather. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Big Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  18. Big Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-05-15

    Astronomy, like particle physics, has become Big Science where the demands of front line research can outstrip the science budgets of whole nations. Thus came into being the European Southern Observatory (ESO), founded in 1962 to provide European scientists with a major modern observatory to study the southern sky under optimal conditions.

  19. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  20. Big Egos in Big Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Jeppesen, Jacob

    In this paper we investigate the micro-mechanisms governing structural evolution and performance of scientific collaboration. Scientific discovery tends not to be lead by so called lone ?stars?, or big egos, but instead by collaboration among groups of researchers, from a multitude of institutions...

  1. Big Data and Big Science

    OpenAIRE

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Brief introduction to the challenges of big data in scientific research based on the work done by the HEP community at CERN and how the CERN openlab promotes collaboration among research institutes and industrial IT companies. Presented at the FutureGov 2014 conference in Singapore.

  2. Big inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, B [Lancaster Univ. (UK)

    1979-06-28

    The recently published report entitled 'The Big Public Inquiry' from the Council for Science and Society and the Outer Circle Policy Unit is considered, with especial reference to any future enquiry which may take place into the first commercial fast breeder reactor. Proposals embodied in the report include stronger rights for objectors and an attempt is made to tackle the problem that participation in a public inquiry is far too late to be objective. It is felt by the author that the CSS/OCPU report is a constructive contribution to the debate about big technology inquiries but that it fails to understand the deeper currents in the economic and political structure of technology which so influence the consequences of whatever formal procedures are evolved.

  3. Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bútora, Matúš

    2017-01-01

    Cieľom bakalárskej práca je popísať problematiku Big Data a agregačné operácie OLAP pre podporu rozhodovania, ktoré sú na ne aplikované pomocou technológie Apache Hadoop. Prevažná časť práce je venovaná popisu práve tejto technológie. Posledná kapitola sa zaoberá spôsobom aplikovania agregačných operácií a problematikou ich realizácie. Nasleduje celkové zhodnotenie práce a možnosti využitia výsledného systému do budúcna. The aim of the bachelor thesis is to describe the Big Data issue and ...

  4. BIG DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Dubey

    2018-01-01

    The term 'Big Data' portrays inventive methods and advances to catch, store, disseminate, oversee and break down petabyte-or bigger estimated sets of data with high-speed & diverted structures. Enormous information can be organized, non-structured or half-organized, bringing about inadequacy of routine information administration techniques. Information is produced from different distinctive sources and can touch base in the framework at different rates. With a specific end goal to handle this...

  5. Pain over speed bumps in diagnosis of acute appendicitis: diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, Helen F; D'Souza, Nigel; Karim, Diallah; Stevens, Richard J; Huang, Andrew; Harnden, Anthony

    2012-12-14

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of pain on travelling over speed bumps for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Prospective questionnaire based diagnostic accuracy study. Secondary care surgical assessment unit at a district general hospital in the UK. 101 patients aged 17-76 years referred to the on-call surgical team for assessment of possible appendicitis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for pain over speed bumps in diagnosing appendicitis, with histological diagnosis of appendicitis as the reference standard. The analysis included 64 participants who had travelled over speed bumps on their journey to hospital. Of these, 34 had a confirmed histological diagnosis of appendicitis, 33 of whom reported increased pain over speed bumps. The sensitivity was 97% (95% confidence interval 85% to 100%), and the specificity was 30% (15% to 49%). The positive predictive value was 61% (47% to 74%), and the negative predictive value was 90% (56% to 100%). The likelihood ratios were 1.4 (1.1 to 1.8) for a positive test result and 0.1 (0.0 to 0.7) for a negative result. Speed bumps had a better sensitivity and negative likelihood ratio than did other clinical features assessed, including migration of pain and rebound tenderness. Presence of pain while travelling over speed bumps was associated with an increased likelihood of acute appendicitis. As a diagnostic variable, it compared favourably with other features commonly used in clinical assessment. Asking about speed bumps may contribute to clinical assessment and could be useful in telephone assessment of patients.

  6. Keynote: Big Data, Big Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Borgman, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    The enthusiasm for big data is obscuring the complexity and diversity of data in scholarship and the challenges for stewardship. Inside the black box of data are a plethora of research, technology, and policy issues. Data are not shiny objects that are easily exchanged. Rather, data are representations of observations, objects, or other entities used as evidence of phenomena for the purposes of research or scholarship. Data practices are local, varying from field to field, individual to indiv...

  7. Investigation of Sn-Pb solder bumps of prototype photo detectors for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Delsante, M L; Arnau-Izquierdo, G

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). LHCb is one of the dedicated LHC experiments, allowing high energy proton-proton collisions to be exploited. This paper presents the results of the metallurgic studies carried out on Sn-Pb solder bumps of prototype vacuum photo detectors under development for LHCb, and in particular for the ring imaging Cherenkov-hybrid photo diode (RICH-HPD) project. These detectors encapsulate, in a vacuum tube, an assembly made of two silicon chips bonded together by a matrix of solder bumps. Each bump lies on a suitable system of under-bump metallic layers ensuring mechanical and electrical transition between the chip pad and the solder alloy. During manufacturing of the detector, bump-bonded (BB) assemblies are exposed to severe heat cycles up to 400 degree C inducing, in the present fabrication process, a clear degradation of electrical connectivity. Several investigations such as microstructural observati...

  8. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069357; Blank, Thomas; Colombo, Fabio; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Husemann, Ulrich; Kudella, Simon; Weber, M

    2016-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15 μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30 μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The sh...

  9. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  10. Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Jon; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    2016-01-01

    Big Data byder sig til som en af tidens mest hypede teknologiske innovationer, udråbt til at rumme kimen til nye, værdifulde operationelle indsigter for private virksomheder og offentlige organisationer. Mens de optimistiske udmeldinger er mange, er forskningen i Big Data i den offentlige sektor...... indtil videre begrænset. Denne artikel belyser, hvordan den offentlige sundhedssektor kan genanvende og udnytte en stadig større mængde data under hensyntagen til offentlige værdier. Artiklen bygger på et casestudie af anvendelsen af store mængder sundhedsdata i Dansk AlmenMedicinsk Database (DAMD......). Analysen viser, at (gen)brug af data i nye sammenhænge er en flerspektret afvejning mellem ikke alene økonomiske rationaler og kvalitetshensyn, men også kontrol over personfølsomme data og etiske implikationer for borgeren. I DAMD-casen benyttes data på den ene side ”i den gode sags tjeneste” til...

  11. Load Express Analysis of the Car Running Against the Bumps in the Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Baryshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many fields of technology when calculating the strength there are options available to choose design cases and loads in compliance with different operating conditions. In the automotive industry there are no such standards yet. This is due to both a variety of operating conditions, and a complexity of calculating the actual loads.K. Ert`s article is considered to be a pioneering work in this regard. There the author makes a hypothesis of the linear dependence of torque acting on the car, and of the height of bumps in the road. All formulas were obtained for vehicles with the leaf spring suspensions. An appearing entire class of new cars made it necessary to generalize the experience.This paper proposes an engineering method for calculating the vertical loads acting on the car when bumping in the road. We derive general formulas to calculate the height of the road bumps (irregularities on the way of a running car with various types of suspension. A dump truck BELAZ with various types nonlinear of suspension has been used to test the obtained formulas. The results analysis has shown that under equal conditions a car with dependent rear suspension will bear the lower loads than its prototype with a different type of suspension.The paper presents the relationships between the hights of bumps, which cause an equivalent load when different wheels bump against them. It shows a relation between the loads acting on the car when bumping against the same road irregularity by different wheels. The practical significance of the equations is the possibility to calculate loads in various cases in the road using the one-test results. A comparative results analysis of analytical calculation of loads and numerical experiments is based on the nonlinear model of the vehicle.The proposed method is an effective tool for the rapid analysis of loads in the design and fine-tuning the car.

  12. Fluxless flip-chip bonding using a lead-free solder bumping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Kousar, S.; Pitzl, D.; Arab, S.

    2017-09-01

    With the LHC exceeding the nominal instantaneous luminosity, the current barrel pixel detector (BPIX) of the CMS experiment at CERN will reach its performance limits and undergo significant radiation damage. In order to improve detector performance in high luminosity conditions, the entire BPIX is replaced with an upgraded version containing an additional detection layer. Half of the modules comprising this additional layer are produced at DESY using fluxless and lead-free bumping and bonding techniques. Sequential solder-jetting technique is utilized to wet 40-μm SAC305 solder spheres on the silicon-sensor pads with electroless Ni, Pd and immersion Au (ENEPIG) under-bump metallization (UBM). The bumped sensors are flip-chip assembled with readout chips (ROCs) and then reflowed using a flux-less bonding facility. The challenges for jetting low solder volume have been analyzed and will be presented in this paper. An average speed of 3.4 balls per second is obtained to jet about 67 thousand solder balls on a single chip. On average, 7 modules have been produced per week. The bump-bond quality is evaluated in terms of electrical and mechanical properties. The peak-bump resistance is about 17.5 mΩ. The cross-section study revealed different types of intermetallic compounds (IMC) as a result of interfacial reactions between UBM and solder material. The effect of crystalline phases on the mechanical properties of the joint is discussed. The mean shear strength per bump after the final module reflow is about 16 cN. The results and sources of yield loss of module production are reported. The achieved yield is 95%.

  13. Big data analytics turning big data into big money

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlhorst, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Unique insights to implement big data analytics and reap big returns to your bottom line Focusing on the business and financial value of big data analytics, respected technology journalist Frank J. Ohlhorst shares his insights on the newly emerging field of big data analytics in Big Data Analytics. This breakthrough book demonstrates the importance of analytics, defines the processes, highlights the tangible and intangible values and discusses how you can turn a business liability into actionable material that can be used to redefine markets, improve profits and identify new business opportuni

  14. Trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability and electrostatic harmonic excitation in earth's foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Alexander J.

    1990-01-01

    The Vlasov simulation is used to examine the trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability both with and without mode-mode coupling and subsequent harmonic excitation. It is found that adding the pumped harmonic modes leads to a significant difference in the behavior of the phase-space distribution function near the unstable bump at the saturation time of the instability. The pumped modes permit rapid plateau formation on the space-averaged velocity distribution, in effect preventing the onset of the quasi-linear velocity-diffusion saturation mechanism.

  15. Aging treatment characteristics of solder bump joint for high reliability optical module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Seob; Yu, Chung-Hee; Yang, Jun-Mo

    2004-01-01

    The joint strength and fracture surfaces of Sn-37 mass% Pb and Au stud bumps for photo diode packages after isothermal aging testing were studied experimentally. Al/Au stud bumps and Cu/Sn-37 mass% Pb solders were adopted, and aged for up to 900 h to analyze the effect of intermetallic compound (IMC). The joint strength decreased with aging time. The diffraction patterns of Cu 6 Sn 5 , scallop-shaped IMCs, and planar-shaped Cu 3 Sn were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The formation of Kirkendall voids and the growth of IMCs at the solder were found to be a possible mechanism for joint strength reduction

  16. Electrical characteristics for Sn-Ag-Cu solder bump with Ti/Ni/Cu under-bump metallization after temperature cycling tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I.; Lin, Y. C.; Duh, J. G.; Hsu, Tom

    2006-10-01

    Lead-free solder bumps have been widely used in current flip-chip technology (FCT) due to environmental issues. Solder joints after temperature cycling tests were employed to investigate the interfacial reaction between the Ti/Ni/Cu under-bump metallization and Sn-Ag-Cu solders. The interfacial morphology and quantitative analysis of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were obtained by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and field emission electron probe microanalysis (FE-EPMA). Various types of IMCs such as (Cu1-x,Agx)6Sn5, (Cu1-y,Agy)3Sn, and (Ag1-z,Cuz)3Sn were observed. In addition to conventional I-V measurements by a special sample preparation technique, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) internal probing system was introduced to evaluate the electrical characteristics in the IMCs after various test conditions. The electrical data would be correlated to microstructural evolution due to the interfacial reaction between the solder and under-bump metallurgy (UBM). This study demonstrated the successful employment of an internal nanoprobing approach, which would help further understanding of the electrical behavior within an IMC layer in the solder/UBM assembly.

  17. The reminiscence bump for public events: A review of its prevalence and taxonomy of alternative age distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark

    2013-01-01

    a legitimate effect, and (ii) the alternative age distributions that are otherwise seen in recall for public events. I conclude that, though the bump is frequently found, the legitimacy of the effect is contingent upon the strictness of the standard one employs. I also find significant exceptions to the bump...

  18. CO2laser-induced bump formation and growth on polystyrene for multi-depth soft lithography molds

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2012-10-19

    This paper reports the process of creating bumps on the surface of polystyrene (PS) induced by a CO2laser at low powers. The paper also outlines the procedure for growing bumps induced by multiple laser scans on the aforementioned bumps. These bumps result from the net volume gain of the laser heat-affected zone on the PS rather than from a deposition process, and the expansion of the heat-affected zone on PS was verified by measuring the hardness change using nanoindentation. The bumps have a much smoother surface than microchannels fabricated with laser cutting; depending on the laser power, they have heights ranging from hundreds of nanometers to 42m. The laser scanning speed and scan times along with this technique offer a fast and low-cost alternative for fabricating molds for multi-depth PDMS microfluidic devices. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. CO2 laser-induced bump formation and growth on polystyrene for multi-depth soft lithography molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Conchouso, David; Foulds, Ian G

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the process of creating bumps on the surface of polystyrene (PS) induced by a CO 2 laser at low powers. The paper also outlines the procedure for growing bumps induced by multiple laser scans on the aforementioned bumps. These bumps result from the net volume gain of the laser heat-affected zone on the PS rather than from a deposition process, and the expansion of the heat-affected zone on PS was verified by measuring the hardness change using nanoindentation. The bumps have a much smoother surface than microchannels fabricated with laser cutting; depending on the laser power, they have heights ranging from hundreds of nanometers to 42 µm. The laser scanning speed and scan times along with this technique offer a fast and low-cost alternative for fabricating molds for multi-depth PDMS microfluidic devices. (paper)

  20. Trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability and electrostatic harmonic excitation in Earth's foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability is discussed using electron plasma Vlasov simulation results. The role of electrostatic harmonic excitation is considered in detail and shown to play a decisive role in the saturation of the instability. An extensive discussion of the simulation results is given to show that the results are not significantly limited by the finite number of Fourier modes used nor by the discrete distribution of those modes in wave number. It is argued that in the leading edge of Earth's electron foreshock a narrow wave number band of unstable field modes leads to trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability while simultaneously exciting electrostatic plasma waves at harmonics of the plasma frequency in simialr narrow bands of shorter wavelengths. The argument is based (1) on the observations of Lacombe et al. (1985), who found intense plasma waves at the leading edge of the foreshock with a spectral distribution sufficiently narrow to trap particles in resonance with the waves, and (2) on numerical simulations of the foreshock electron plasma which indicate that trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability leads to phase space vortex formation with consequent excitation of electrostatic harmonics. Thus it is suggested that observations of electrostatic harmonics in the leading edge of the foreshock would strongly implicate trapping as the saturation mechanism for the bump-on-tail instability in that region

  1. Decomposing the sales promotion bump accounting for cross-category effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Selva, Josefa Parreno; Wittink, Dick R.; Dijk, Albertus Alard van

    Extant research on the decomposition of unit sales bumps due to price promotions considers these effects only within a single product category. This article introduces a framework that accommodates specific cross-category effects. Empirical results based on daily data measured at the item/SKU level

  2. Stress Distribution in a Coal Seam before and after Bump Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vacek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with to the behaviour of open rock that occurs, for example, during longwall mining in coal mines, in deep tunnel, or shaft excavation.Longwall instability leads to extrusion of rock mass into an open space. This effect is mostly referred to as a bump, or a rock burst. For bumps to occur, the rock has to possess certain particular rock burst properties leading to accumulation of energy and the potential to release this energy. Such materials may be brittle, or the bumps may arise at the interfacial zones of two parts of the rock, that have principally different material properties.The solution is based on experimental and mathematical modelling. These two methods have to allow the problem to be studied on the basis of three presumptions: – the solution must be time dependent – the solution must allow the creation of crack in the rock mass – the solution must allow an extrusion of rock into an open space (bump effect

  3. Cross-Validation of Survival Bump Hunting by Recursive Peeling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Choe, Michael; LeBlanc, Michael; Rao, J Sunil

    2014-08-01

    We introduce a survival/risk bump hunting framework to build a bump hunting model with a possibly censored time-to-event type of response and to validate model estimates. First, we describe the use of adequate survival peeling criteria to build a survival/risk bump hunting model based on recursive peeling methods. Our method called "Patient Recursive Survival Peeling" is a rule-induction method that makes use of specific peeling criteria such as hazard ratio or log-rank statistics. Second, to validate our model estimates and improve survival prediction accuracy, we describe a resampling-based validation technique specifically designed for the joint task of decision rule making by recursive peeling (i.e. decision-box) and survival estimation. This alternative technique, called "combined" cross-validation is done by combining test samples over the cross-validation loops, a design allowing for bump hunting by recursive peeling in a survival setting. We provide empirical results showing the importance of cross-validation and replication.

  4. The 1600 Å Emission Bump in Protoplanetary Disks: A Spectral Signature of H2O Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Roueff, Evelyne; Abgrall, Hervé

    2017-08-01

    The FUV continuum spectrum of many accreting pre-main sequence stars, Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), does not continue smoothly from the well-studied Balmer continuum emission in the NUV, suggesting that additional processes contribute to the short-wavelength emission in these objects. The most notable spectral feature in the FUV continuum of some CTTSs is a broad emission approximately centered at 1600 Å, which has been referred to as the “1600 Å Bump.” The origin of this feature remains unclear. In an effort to better understand the molecular properties of planet-forming disks and the UV spectral properties of accreting protostars, we have assembled archival FUV spectra of 37 disk-hosting systems observed by the Hubble Space Telescope-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Clear 1600 Å Bump emission is observed above the smooth, underlying 1100-1800 Å continuum spectrum in 19/37 Classical T Tauri disks in the HST-COS sample, with the detection rate in transition disks (8/8) being much higher than that in primordial or non-transition sources (11/29). We describe a spectral deconvolution analysis to separate the Bump (spanning 1490-1690 Å) from the underlying FUV continuum, finding an average Bump luminosity L(Bump) ≈ 7 × 1029 erg s-1. Parameterizing the Bump with a combination of Gaussian and polynomial components, we find that the 1600 Å Bump is characterized by a peak wavelength λ o = 1598.6 ± 3.3 Å, with FWHM = 35.8 ± 19.1 Å. Contrary to previous studies, we find that this feature is inconsistent with models of H2 excited by electron -impact. We show that this Bump makes up between 5%-50% of the total FUV continuum emission in the 1490-1690 Å band and emits roughly 10%-80% of the total fluorescent H2 luminosity for stars with well-defined Bump features. Energetically, this suggests that the carrier of the 1600 Å Bump emission is powered by Lyα photons. We argue that the most likely mechanism is Lyα-driven dissociation of H2O in the inner disk, r

  5. A novel method for direct solder bump pull testing using lead-free solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory Alan

    This thesis focuses on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a new method for testing the adhesion strength of lead-free solders, named the Isotraction Bump Pull method (IBP). In order to develop a direct solder joint-strength testing method that did not require customization for different solder types, bump sizes, specific equipment, or trial-and-error, a combination of two widely used and accepted standards was created. First, solder bumps were made from three types of lead free solder were generated on untreated copper PCB substrates using an in-house fabricated solder bump-on-demand generator, Following this, the newly developed method made use of a polymer epoxy to encapsulate the solder bumps that could then be tested under tension using a high precision universal vertical load machine. The tests produced repeatable and predictable results for each of the three alloys tested that were in agreement with the relative behavior of the same alloys using other testing methods in the literature. The median peak stress at failure for the three solders tested were 2020.52 psi, 940.57 psi, and 2781.0 psi, and were within one standard deviation of the of all data collected for each solder. The assumptions in this work that brittle fracture occurred through the Intermetallic Compound layer (IMC) were validated with the use of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and high magnification of the fractured surface of both newly exposed sides of the test specimens. Following this, an examination of the process to apply the results from the tensile tests into standard material science equations for the fracture of the systems was performed..

  6. The BUMP model of response planning: intermittent predictive control accounts for 10 Hz physiological tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Robin T; Neilson, Peter D

    2010-10-01

    Physiological tremor during movement is characterized by ∼10 Hz oscillation observed both in the electromyogram activity and in the velocity profile. We propose that this particular rhythm occurs as the direct consequence of a movement response planning system that acts as an intermittent predictive controller operating at discrete intervals of ∼100 ms. The BUMP model of response planning describes such a system. It forms the kernel of Adaptive Model Theory which defines, in computational terms, a basic unit of motor production or BUMP. Each BUMP consists of three processes: (1) analyzing sensory information, (2) planning a desired optimal response, and (3) execution of that response. These processes operate in parallel across successive sequential BUMPs. The response planning process requires a discrete-time interval in which to generate a minimum acceleration trajectory to connect the actual response with the predicted future state of the target and compensate for executional error. We have shown previously that a response planning time of 100 ms accounts for the intermittency observed experimentally in visual tracking studies and for the psychological refractory period observed in double stimulation reaction time studies. We have also shown that simulations of aimed movement, using this same planning interval, reproduce experimentally observed speed-accuracy tradeoffs and movement velocity profiles. Here we show, by means of a simulation study of constant velocity tracking movements, that employing a 100 ms planning interval closely reproduces the measurement discontinuities and power spectra of electromyograms, joint-angles, and angular velocities of physiological tremor reported experimentally. We conclude that intermittent predictive control through sequential operation of BUMPs is a fundamental mechanism of 10 Hz physiological tremor in movement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  8. BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY (BOS SEBAGAI PARADIGMA BARU MANAJEMEN PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwan Fuad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to describe the Blue Ocean Strategy as a new paradigm of Islamic education management. the author seeks to elaborate on how the adoption of the Blue Ocean strategy of the business world to the world of education and answered the principles of what is accepted and rejected away from the theory. Adoption of blue ocean strategy is done by applying the universal principles are : among others reconstruct market boundaries, focus on the big picture rather than numbers, reach beyond existing demand, perform a series of strategies with appropriate, efforts to overcome organizational constraints and integrate execution into strategy. The principles of Blue Ocean Strategy Indicators that can be absorbed is an indicator that focuses gave excellent service and were not absorbed is a strong indicator of economic motivation. Generally, Blue Ocean Strategy quite well applied as a management paradigm of Islamic education.

  9. Light curves for ''bump Cepheids'' computed with a dynamically zoned pulsation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.F.; Castor, J.E.; Davis, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamically zoned pulsation code developed by Castor, Davis, and Davison has been used to recalculate the Goddard model and to calculate three other Cepheid models with the same period (9.8 days). This family of models shows how the bumps and other features of the light and velocity curves change as the mass is varied at constant period. This study, with a code that is capable of producing reliable light curves, shows again that the light and velocity curves for 9.8-day Cepheid models with standard homogeneous compositions do not show bumps like those that are observed unless the mass is significantly lower than the ''evolutionary mass.'' The light and velocity curves for the Goddard model presented here are similar to those computed independently by Fischel, Sparks, and Karp. They should be useful as standards for future investigators

  10. Detection of bump-on-tail reduced electron velocity distributions at the electron foreshock boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzenreiter, R.J.; Klimas, A.J.; Scudder, J.D.

    1984-02-01

    Reduced velocity distributions are derived from three-dimensional measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons in the 7 to 500 eV range in the electron foreshock. Bump-on-tail reduced distributions are presented for the first time at the foreshock boundary consistent with Filbert and Kellogg's proposed time-of-flight mechanism for generating the electron beams. In a significant number of boundary crossings, bump-on-tail reduced distributions were found in consecutive 3 sec measurements made 9 sec apart. It is concluded that, although the beams are linearly unstable to plasma waves according to the Penrose criterion, they persist on a time scale of 3 to 15 sec

  11. Bumps, breathers, and waves in a neural network with spike frequency adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombes, S.; Owen, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a continuum model of neural tissue that includes the effects of spike frequency adaptation (SFA). The basic model is an integral equation for synaptic activity that depends upon nonlocal network connectivity, synaptic response, and the firing rate of a single neuron. We consider a phenomenological model of SFA via a simple state-dependent threshold firing rate function. As without SFA, Mexican-hat connectivity allows for the existence of spatially localized states (bumps). Importantly recent Evans function techniques are used to show that bumps may destabilize leading to the emergence of breathers and traveling waves. Moreover, a similar analysis for traveling pulses leads to the conditions necessary to observe a stable traveling breather. Simulations confirm our theoretical predictions and illustrate the rich behavior of this model

  12. Bumping structure of initial energy density distributions and peculiarities of pion spectra in A + A collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysova, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a fluctuating bumping structure of the initial conditions on spectra and the collective evolution of matter created in heavy-ion collisions in the frameworks of the Hydro-Kinetic Model is investigated. As motivated by the glasma-flux-tube scenario, the initial conditions are modeled by the set of four high energy-density tube-like fluctuations with longitudinally homogeneous structure within some space-rapidity region in a boost-invariant 2D geometry. It was found that the presence of transversally bumping tube-like fluctuations in initial conditions strongly affects the hydrodynamic evolution and leads to emergence of conspicuous structures in the calculated pion spectra. It was observed that the 4 tube initial configuration generates a four-peak structure in the final azimuthal distributions of one-particle spectra.

  13. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Backscatter, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  14. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  15. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Whiting - (2001), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 50x50 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  16. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Whiting - (2000), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 50x50 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  17. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Singlebeam Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Whiting - (2000), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 50x50 meter cell size representing the slope of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  18. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Singlebeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Whiting - (2000), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 50x50 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  19. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Whiting - (2001), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 50x50 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  20. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the 2006 multibeam bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  1. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Little Hales- (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of themultibeam bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the...

  2. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of the 2006 multibeam bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of...

  3. Multipole error analysis using local 3-bump orbit data in Fermilab Recycler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.J.; Xiao, M.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic harmonic errors of the Fermilab Recycler ring were examined using circulating beam data taken with closed local orbit bumps. Data was first parsed into harmonic orbits of first, second, and third order. Each of which was analyzed for sources of magnetic errors of corresponding order. This study was made possible only with the incredible resolution of a new BPM system that was commissioned after June of 2003

  4. Single-mode saturation of the bump-on-tail instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1976-01-01

    A slightly unstable plasma with only one or a few linear modes unstable is considered. Nonlinear saturation at small amplitudes has been treated by time-asymptotic analysis which is a generalization of the methods of Bogolyubov and co-workers. In this paper the method is applied to instability in a collisionless plasma governed by the vlasov equation. The bump-on-tail instability is considered for a one-dimensional plasma

  5. Big Data, Big Problems: A Healthcare Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa S; Aldosari, Bakheet; Alanazi, Abdullah; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written on the benefits of big data for healthcare such as improving patient outcomes, public health surveillance, and healthcare policy decisions. Over the past five years, Big Data, and the data sciences field in general, has been hyped as the "Holy Grail" for the healthcare industry promising a more efficient healthcare system with the promise of improved healthcare outcomes. However, more recently, healthcare researchers are exposing the potential and harmful effects Big Data can have on patient care associating it with increased medical costs, patient mortality, and misguided decision making by clinicians and healthcare policy makers. In this paper, we review the current Big Data trends with a specific focus on the inadvertent negative impacts that Big Data could have on healthcare, in general, and specifically, as it relates to patient and clinical care. Our study results show that although Big Data is built up to be as a the "Holy Grail" for healthcare, small data techniques using traditional statistical methods are, in many cases, more accurate and can lead to more improved healthcare outcomes than Big Data methods. In sum, Big Data for healthcare may cause more problems for the healthcare industry than solutions, and in short, when it comes to the use of data in healthcare, "size isn't everything."

  6. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  7. Stalin's Big Fleet Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauner, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Although Dr. Milan Hauner's study 'Stalin's Big Fleet program' has focused primarily on the formation of Big Fleets during the Tsarist and Soviet periods of Russia's naval history, there are important lessons...

  8. Big Data Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceravolo, Paolo; Azzini, Antonia; Angelini, Marco; Catarci, Tiziana; Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Damiani, Ernesto; Mazak, Alexandra; van Keulen, Maurice; Jarrar, Mustafa; Santucci, Giuseppe; Sattler, Kai-Uwe; Scannapieco, Monica; Wimmer, Manuel; Wrembel, Robert; Zaraket, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    Big Data technology has discarded traditional data modeling approaches as no longer applicable to distributed data processing. It is, however, largely recognized that Big Data impose novel challenges in data and infrastructure management. Indeed, multiple components and procedures must be

  9. Application of the adjoint optimisation of shock control bump for ONERA-M6 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, A.; Mazaheri, K.

    2017-11-01

    This article is devoted to the numerical investigation of the shock wave/boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) as the main factor influencing the aerodynamic performance of transonic bumped airfoils and wings. The numerical analysis is conducted for the ONERA-M6 wing through a shock control bump (SCB) shape optimisation process using the adjoint optimisation method. SWBLI is analyzed for both clean and bumped airfoils and wings, and it is shown how the modified wave structure originating from upstream of the SCB reduces the wave drag, by improving the boundary layer velocity profile downstream of the shock wave. The numerical simulation of the turbulent viscous flow and a gradient-based adjoint algorithm are used to find the optimum location and shape of the SCB for the ONERA-M6 airfoil and wing. Two different geometrical models are introduced for the 3D SCB, one with linear variations, and another with periodic variations. Both configurations result in drag reduction and improvement in the aerodynamic efficiency, but the periodic model is more effective. Although the three-dimensional flow structure involves much more complexities, the overall results are shown to be similar to the two-dimensional case.

  10. GIANT X-RAY BUMP IN GRB 121027A: EVIDENCE FOR FALL-BACK DISK ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xuefeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hou Shujin [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lei Weihua, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-04-20

    A particularly interesting discovery in observations of GRB 121027A is that of a giant X-ray bump detected by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope. The X-ray afterglow re-brightens sharply at {approx}10{sup 3} s after the trigger by more than two orders of magnitude in less than 200 s. This X-ray bump lasts for more than 10{sup 4} s. It is quite different from typical X-ray flares. In this Letter we propose a fall-back accretion model to interpret this X-ray bump within the context of the collapse of a massive star for a long-duration gamma-ray burst. The required fall-back radius of {approx}3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm and mass of {approx}0.9-2.6 M{sub Sun} imply that a significant part of the helium envelope should survive through the mass loss during the last stage of the massive progenitor of GRB 121027A.

  11. Characterizing Big Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Rossi; Kechi Hirama

    2015-01-01

    Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: t...

  12. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  13. Effects of PCB Pad Metal Finishes on the Cu-Pillar/Sn-Ag Micro Bump Joint Reliability of Chip-on-Board (COB) Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoon; Lee, Seyong; Shin, Ji-won; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2016-06-01

    While solder bumps have been used as the bump structure to form the interconnection during the last few decades, the continuing scaling down of devices has led to a change in the bump structure to Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bumps. Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bump interconnections differ from conventional solder bump interconnections in terms of their assembly processing and reliability. A thermo-compression bonding method with pre-applied b-stage non-conductive films has been adopted to form solder joints between Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps and printed circuit board vehicles, using various pad metal finishes. As a result, various interfacial inter-metallic compounds (IMCs) reactions and stress concentrations occur at the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps joints. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the influence of pad metal finishes on the structural reliability of fine pitch Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps flip chip packaging. In this study, four different pad surface finishes (Thin Ni ENEPIG, OSP, ENEPIG, ENIG) were evaluated in terms of their interconnection reliability by thermal cycle (T/C) test up to 2000 cycles at temperatures ranging from -55°C to 125°C and high-temperature storage test up to 1000 h at 150°C. The contact resistances of the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump showed significant differences after the T/C reliability test in the following order: thin Ni ENEPIG > OSP > ENEPIG where the thin Ni ENEPIG pad metal finish provided the best Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump interconnection in terms of bump joint reliability. Various IMCs formed between the bump joint areas can account for the main failure mechanism.

  14. Big data computing

    CERN Document Server

    Akerkar, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Due to market forces and technological evolution, Big Data computing is developing at an increasing rate. A wide variety of novel approaches and tools have emerged to tackle the challenges of Big Data, creating both more opportunities and more challenges for students and professionals in the field of data computation and analysis. Presenting a mix of industry cases and theory, Big Data Computing discusses the technical and practical issues related to Big Data in intelligent information management. Emphasizing the adoption and diffusion of Big Data tools and technologies in industry, the book i

  15. Microsoft big data solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,

  16. The 1600 Å Emission Bump in Protoplanetary Disks: A Spectral Signature of H{sub 2}O Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, Kevin [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Roueff, Evelyne; Abgrall, Hervé, E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.edu [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-92190, Meudon (France)

    2017-08-01

    The FUV continuum spectrum of many accreting pre-main sequence stars, Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), does not continue smoothly from the well-studied Balmer continuum emission in the NUV, suggesting that additional processes contribute to the short-wavelength emission in these objects. The most notable spectral feature in the FUV continuum of some CTTSs is a broad emission approximately centered at 1600 Å, which has been referred to as the “1600 Å Bump.” The origin of this feature remains unclear. In an effort to better understand the molecular properties of planet-forming disks and the UV spectral properties of accreting protostars, we have assembled archival FUV spectra of 37 disk-hosting systems observed by the Hubble Space Telescope -Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Clear 1600 Å Bump emission is observed above the smooth, underlying 1100–1800 Å continuum spectrum in 19/37 Classical T Tauri disks in the HST -COS sample, with the detection rate in transition disks (8/8) being much higher than that in primordial or non-transition sources (11/29). We describe a spectral deconvolution analysis to separate the Bump (spanning 1490–1690 Å) from the underlying FUV continuum, finding an average Bump luminosity L (Bump) ≈ 7 × 10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1}. Parameterizing the Bump with a combination of Gaussian and polynomial components, we find that the 1600 Å Bump is characterized by a peak wavelength λ {sub o} = 1598.6 ± 3.3 Å, with FWHM = 35.8 ± 19.1 Å. Contrary to previous studies, we find that this feature is inconsistent with models of H{sub 2} excited by electron -impact. We show that this Bump makes up between 5%–50% of the total FUV continuum emission in the 1490–1690 Å band and emits roughly 10%–80% of the total fluorescent H{sub 2} luminosity for stars with well-defined Bump features. Energetically, this suggests that the carrier of the 1600 Å Bump emission is powered by Ly α photons. We argue that the most likely mechanism

  17. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  18. Characterizing Big Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rossi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: technology, people and processes. Hence, this article discusses these dimensions: the technological dimension that is related to storage, analytics and visualization of big data; the human aspects of big data; and, in addition, the process management dimension that involves in a technological and business approach the aspects of big data management.

  19. Terrain, BIG BLUE RIVER TRIBUTARY NO 44, GAGE COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. Big Blue Arrows: Lines of Information and the Transformation Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viall, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    .... Since future forces expect information superiority, the monograph seeks to determine whether future transformation forces can apply the lessons of history to better focus information support during operational maneuver...

  1. A new interpretation of luminous blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stothers, R.

    1976-01-01

    A major revision of current theoretical ideas about the brightest blue stars must be made if Carson's new radiative opacities are adopted in stellar models. Unlike earlier opacities, the new opacities exhibit a large ''bump'' due to CNO ionization, which leads to very strong central condensation, convective instability, and pulsational instability in hot, diffuse stellar envelopes (typically those in which L/M>10 3 solar units). Despite a number of theoretical uncertainties, the new picture of the structure of very luminous stars is reasonably successful in accounting for a variety of previously unexplained observations. Thus, the new stellar models for the phase of core hydrogen burning predict large radii and rather cool effective temperatures (which are yet to be observationally confirmed) for O stars, and a spreading out of the main-sequence band in the H-R diagram toward luminous cool supergiants for masses higher than approx.20 M/sub sun/, beginning at M/sub v/=-4.5 and Sp=B1. They also predict slower surface rotations for O stars compared with B stars; and, in binary systems, slower apsidal motions, closer rotational-revolutional synchronism, and smaller orbital eccentricities. In massive X-ray binary systems, circular orbits and supergiant-like visual companions are expected to be quite common. Radial pulsations of the models have been calculated by employing linearized nonadiabatic pulsation theory. Long-period variability is predicted to exist for massive blue supergiants of luminosity class Ia. The new models for helium stars predict large radii and rather cool effective temperatures for Wolf-Rayet stars, as well as multimodal pulsational instability and, possibly, surface turbulence for these stars. Ultrashort-period variability, observed in many classes of hot luminous stars, may be due, in part, to high radial overtone pulsations (or, possibly, to nonradial pulsation or convective modes)

  2. Generating ekpyrotic curvature perturbations before the big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Turok, Neil; McFadden, Paul; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze a general mechanism for producing a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological curvature perturbations during a contracting phase preceding a big bang, which can be entirely described using 4D effective field theory. The mechanism, based on first producing entropic perturbations and then converting them to curvature perturbations, can be naturally incorporated in cyclic and ekpyrotic models in which the big bang is modeled as a brane collision, as well as other types of cosmological models with a pre-big bang phase. We show that the correct perturbation amplitude can be obtained and that the spectral tilt n s tends to range from slightly blue to red, with 0.97 s <1.02 for the simplest models, a range compatible with current observations but shifted by a few percent towards the blue compared to the prediction of the simplest, large-field inflationary models

  3. Dermatoscopy of blue vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, L

    2009-07-01

    Blue vitiligo is a distinct variant of vitiligo characterized by a blue-grey appearance of the skin, which corresponds histologically with absence of epidermal melanocytes and presence of numerous dermal melanophages. A 23-year-old woman of Indian origin with Fitzpatrick skin type V presented with a 1-month history of normoaesthetic depigmented macules over the right forearm, dorsa of the hands and right areola. The macule over the right forearm had a bluish tinge. A clinical diagnosis of vitiligo vulgaris with blue vitiligo was made. Dermatoscopy of the interface between the blue macule and the hypopigmented macule revealed a linear depigmented macule in the centre with multiple blue dots and absence of epidermal melanin on the side of the blue macule, and reticular pigmentation with a few depigmented macules and scattered blue dots over the side of the hypopigmented macule. Blue vitiligo was described previously in a patient seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus, and believed to represent postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in areas bordering the vitiliginous patches as a result of psoralen ultraviolet A treatment. This case is unusual because of its rarity and the description of the associated dermatoscopical findings.

  4. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  5. Ultraviolet photometry from the orbiting astronomical observatory. XX. The ultraviolet extinction bump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    Interstellar extinction curves over the wavelength region 1800--3600 A are presented for 36 stars. The stars have E (B-V) in the range 0.03 to 0.55, and are mostly confined to the brighter OB associations distributed along the plane of the Galaxy. Every extinction curve exhibits a broad extinction bump peaking near 2175 A (4.6 μ -1 ). The position of the peak and the profile of the feature appear remarkably constant among the sample of stars. With only a few exceptions, E (lambda)-3320, a measure of the strength of the feature, correlates very well with E (B-V), implying that the bump has an interstellar rather than a circumstellar origin. The observation that the bump position and shape are constant, or very nearly constant, places severe restrictions on the grain geometrical parameters if the feature is to be explained by classical scattering theory employing bulk optical constants. In fact, the restrictions are so severe that an alternate explanation seems to be required unless the dust grains that exist in widely separated regions of space and under very different physical conditions have nearly identical size and shape distributions. Three extinction curves that extend to 1100 A are also presented. These curves show the same general extinction characteristics reported earlier. The curve for 22 Sco provides another example of a star that is []physically associated with nebulosity and that also has abnormally low far-ultraviolet extinction. We have searched the extinction curves for fine structure such as abrupt slope changes or new diffuse interstellar features. Unfortunately, there is no convincing evidence for such structure over the interval 1800--3600 A. (auth)

  6. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  7. Improved Switching Characteristics of Fast Power MOSFETs Applying Solder Bump Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Dieckerhoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a reduced package stray inductance on the switching performance of fast power MOSFETs is discussed applying advanced 3D packaging technologies. Starting from an overview over new packaging approaches, a solder bump technology using a flexible PI substrate is exemplarily chosen for the evaluation. Measurement techniques to determine the stray inductance are discussed and compared with a numerical solution based on the PEEC method. Experimental results show the improvement of the voltage utilization while there is only a slight impact on total switching losses.

  8. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.

  9. Investigation of turbulent boundary layer flow over 2D bump using highly resolved large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2011-01-01

    A large eddy simulation (LES) study of turbulent non-equilibrium boundary layer flow over 2 D Bump, at comparatively low Reynolds number Reh = U∞h/ν = 1950, was conducted. A well-known LES issue of obtaining and sustaining turbulent flow inside the computational domain at such low Re, is addresse...... partially confirm a close interdependency between generation and evolution of internal layers and the abrupt changes in the skin friction, previously reported in the literature. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers....

  10. Limit cycle behaviour of the bump-on-tail and ion-acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, P.A.E.M.; Rasmussen, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of the bump-on-tail and current-driven ion-acoustic instability is considered. The eigenmodes have discrete k because of finite periodic boundary conditions. Increasing a critical parameter (the number density and the electron drift velocity respectively) above its neutral stable value by a small fractional amount Δ 2 , one mode becomes unstable. The nonlinear dynamics of the unstable mode is determined by means of the multiple time scale method. Usually, limit cycle behaviour is found. A short comparison with quasi-linear theory is given, and the results are compared with experiment. (Auth.)

  11. Planetesimal formation by an axisymmetric radial bump of the column density of the gas in a protoplanetary disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Isamu K.; Sekiya, Minoru

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the effect of a radial pressure bump in a protoplanetary disk on planetesimal formation. We performed the two-dimensional numerical simulation of the dynamical interaction of solid particles and gas with an initially defined pressure bump under the assumption of axisymmetry. The aim of this work is to elucidate the effects of the stellar vertical gravity that were omitted in a previous study. Our results are very different from the previous study, which omitted the vertical gravity. Because dust particles settle toward the midplane because of the vertical gravity to form a thin dust layer, the regions outside of the dust layer are scarcely affected by the back-reaction of the dust. Hence, the gas column density keeps its initial profile with a bump, and dust particles migrate toward the bump. In addition, the turbulence due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability caused by the difference of the azimuthal velocities between the inside and outside of the dust layer is suppressed where the radial pressure gradient is reduced by the pressure bump. The dust settling proceeds further where the turbulence is weak, and a number of dust clumps are formed. The dust density in some clumps exceeds the Roche density. Planetesimals are considered to be formed from these clumps owing to the self-gravity.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. The big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chown, Marcus.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the 'Big Bang' theory of the creation of the Universe 15 thousand million years ago, and traces events which physicists predict occurred soon after the creation. Unified theory of the moment of creation, evidence of an expanding Universe, the X-boson -the particle produced very soon after the big bang and which vanished from the Universe one-hundredth of a second after the big bang, and the fate of the Universe, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Summary big data

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of Cukier the book: "Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How we Live, Work, and Think" by Viktor Mayer-Schonberg and Kenneth. Summary of the ideas in Viktor Mayer-Schonberg's and Kenneth Cukier's book: " Big Data " explains that big data is where we use huge quantities of data to make better predictions based on the fact we identify patters in the data rather than trying to understand the underlying causes in more detail. This summary highlights that big data will be a source of new economic value and innovation in the future. Moreover, it shows that it will

  14. Data: Big and Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. A Big Video Manifesto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcilvenny, Paul Bruce; Davidsen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    and beautiful visualisations. However, we also need to ask what the tools of big data can do both for the Humanities and for more interpretative approaches and methods. Thus, we prefer to explore how the power of computation, new sensor technologies and massive storage can also help with video-based qualitative......For the last few years, we have witnessed a hype about the potential results and insights that quantitative big data can bring to the social sciences. The wonder of big data has moved into education, traffic planning, and disease control with a promise of making things better with big numbers...

  16. Big Bear Exploration Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    During the first quarter of 1998 Big Bear completed a purchase of additional assets in the Rainbow Lake area of Alberta in which light oil purchase was financed with new equity and bank debt. The business plan was to immediately exploit these light oil assets, the result of which would be increased reserves, production and cash flow. Although drilling results in the first quarter on the Rainbow Lake properties was mixed, oil prices started to free fall and drilling costs were much higher than expected. As a result, the company completed a reduced program which resulted in less incremental loss and cash flow than it budgeted for. On April 29, 1998, Big Bear entered into agreement with Belco Oil and Gas Corp. and Moan Investments Ltd. for the issuance of convertible preferred shares at a gross value of $15,750,000, which shares were eventually converted at 70 cents per share to common equity. As a result of the continued plunge in oil prices, the lending value of the company's assets continued to fall, requiring it to take action in order to meet its financial commitments. Late in the third quarter Big Bear issued equity for proceeds of $11,032,000 which further reduced the company's debt. Although the company has been extremely active in identifying and pursuing acquisition opportunities, it became evident that Belco Oil and Gas Corp. and Big Bear did nor share common criteria for acquisitions, which resulted in the restructuring of their relationship in the fourth quarter. With the future of oil prices in question, Big Bear decided that it would change its focus to that of natural gas and would refocus ts efforts to acquire natural gas assets to fuel its growth. The purchase of Blue Range put Big Bear in a difficult position in terms of the latter's growth. In summary, what started as a difficult year ended in disappointment

  17. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  18. Numerical Analysis of Warpage Induced by Thermo-Compression Bonding Process of Cu Pillar Bump Flip Chip Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Oh Young; Jung, Hoon Sun; Lee, Jung Hoon; Choa, Sung-Hoon [Seoul Nat’l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In flip chip technology, the conventional solder bump has been replaced with a copper (Cu) pillar bump owing to its higher input/output (I/O) density, finer pitch, and higher reliability. However, Cu pillar bump technology faces several issues, such as interconnect shorting and higher low-k stress due to stiffer Cu pillar structure when the conventional reflow process is used. Therefore, the thermal compression bonding (TCB) process has been adopted in the flip chip attachment process in order to reduce the package warpage and stress. In this study, we investigated the package warpage induced during the TCB process using a numerical analysis. The warpage of the TCB process was compared with that of the reflow process.

  19. Miniaturization of Micro-Solder Bumps and Effect of IMC on Stress Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Soud Farhan; Ladani, Leila

    2016-07-01

    As the joints become smaller in more advanced packages and devices, intermetallic (IMCs) volume ratio increases, which significantly impacts the overall mechanical behavior of joints. The existence of only a few grains of Sn (Tin) and IMC materials results in anisotropic elastic and plastic behavior which is not detectable using conventional finite element (FE) simulation with average properties for polycrystalline material. In this study, crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulation is used to model the whole joint including copper, Sn solder and Cu6Sn5 IMC material. Experimental lap-shear test results for solder joints from the literature were used to validate the models. A comparative analysis between traditional FE, CPFE and experiments was conducted. The CPFE model was able to correlate the experiments more closely compared to traditional FE analysis because of its ability to capture micro-mechanical anisotropic behavior. Further analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of IMC thickness on stress distribution in micro-bumps using a systematic numerical experiment with IMC thickness ranging from 0% to 80%. The analysis was conducted on micro-bumps with single crystal Sn and bicrystal Sn. The overall stress distribution and shear deformation changes as the IMC thickness increases. The model with higher IMC thickness shows a stiffer shear response, and provides a higher shear yield strength.

  20. Biomimetic Water-Collecting Fabric with Light-Induced Superhydrophilic Bumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Wang, Xiaowen; Lai, Chuilin; Hu, Huawen; Kong, Yeeyee; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-02-10

    To develop an efficient water-collecting surface that integrates both fast water-capturing and easy drainage properties is of high current interest for addressing global water issues. In this work, a superhydrophobic surface was fabricated on cotton fabric via manipulation of both the surface roughness and surface energy. This was followed by a subsequent spray coating of TiO2 nanosol that created light-induced superhydrophilic bumps with a unique raised structure as a result of the interfacial tension of the TiO2 nanosol sprayed on the superhydrophobic fiber surface. These raised TiO2 bumps induce both a wettability gradient and a shape gradient, synergistically accelerating water coalescence and water collection. The in-depth study revealed that the quantity and the distribution of the TiO2 had a significant impact on the final water collection efficiency. This inexpensive and facilely fabricated fabric biomimicks the desert beetle's back and spider silk, which are capable of fog harvesting without additional energy consumption.

  1. Transonic buffet control research with two types of shock control bump based on RAE2822 airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun TIAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current research shows that the traditional shock control bump (SCB can weaken the intensity of shock and better the transonic buffet performance. The author finds that when SCB is placed downstream of the shock, it can decrease the adverse pressure gradient. This may prevent the shock foot separation bubble to merge with the trailing edge separation and finally improve the buffet performance. Based on RAE2822 airfoil, two types of SCB are designed according to the two different mechanisms. By using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS methods to analyze the properties of RAE2822 airfoil with and without SCB, the results show that the downstream SCB can better the buffet performance under a wide range of freestream Mach number and the steady aerodynamics characteristic is similar to that of RAE2822 airfoil. The traditional SCB can only weaken the intensity of the shock under the design condition. Under the off-design conditions, the SCB does not do much to or even worsen the buffet performance. Indeed, the use of backward bump can flatten the leeward side of the airfoil, and this is similar to the mechanism that supercritical airfoil can weaken the recompression of shock wave.

  2. Indium-bump-free antimonide superlattice membrane detectors on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamiri, M., E-mail: mzamiri@chtm.unm.edu, E-mail: skrishna@chtm.unm.edu; Klein, B.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Dahiya, V.; Cavallo, F. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Myers, S. [SKINfrared, LLC, Lobo Venture Lab, 801 University Blvd., Suite 10, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Krishna, S., E-mail: mzamiri@chtm.unm.edu, E-mail: skrishna@chtm.unm.edu [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); SKINfrared, LLC, Lobo Venture Lab, 801 University Blvd., Suite 10, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2016-02-29

    We present an approach to realize antimonide superlattices on silicon substrates without using conventional Indium-bump hybridization. In this approach, PIN superlattices are grown on top of a 60 nm Al{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}Sb sacrificial layer on a GaSb host substrate. Following the growth, the individual pixels are transferred using our epitaxial-lift off technique, which consists of a wet-etch to undercut the pixels followed by a dry-stamp process to transfer the pixels to a silicon substrate prepared with a gold layer. Structural and optical characterization of the transferred pixels was done using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. The interface between the transferred pixels and the new substrate was abrupt, and no significant degradation in the optical quality was observed. An Indium-bump-free membrane detector was then fabricated using this approach. Spectral response measurements provided a 100% cut-off wavelength of 4.3 μm at 77 K. The performance of the membrane detector was compared to a control detector on the as-grown substrate. The membrane detector was limited by surface leakage current. The proposed approach could pave the way for wafer-level integration of photonic detectors on silicon substrates, which could dramatically reduce the cost of these detectors.

  3. Bliver big data til big business?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge.......Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge....

  4. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory

  5. Ultra-fast Movies Resolve Ultra-short Pulse Laser Ablation and Bump Formation on Thin Molybdenum Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Huber, Heinz

    For the monolithic serial interconnection of CIS thin film solar cells, 470 nm molybdenum films on glass substrates must be separated galvanically. The single pulse ablation with a 660 fs laser at a wavelength of 1053 nm is investigated in a fluence regime from 0.5 to 5.0 J/cm2. At fluences above 2.0 J/cm2 bump and jet formation can be observed that could be used for creating microstructures. For the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the laser ablation process itself as well as of the bump or jet formation, pump probe microscopy is utilized to resolve the transient ablation behavior.

  6. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  7. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  8. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  9. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  10. Big data for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  11. Soldering-induced Cu diffusion and intermetallic compound formation between Ni/Cu under bump metallization and SnPb flip-chip solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng; Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2004-04-01

    Nickel-based under bump metallization (UBM) has been widely used as a diffusion barrier to prevent the rapid reaction between the Cu conductor and Sn-based solders. In this study, joints with and without solder after heat treatments were employed to evaluate the diffusion behavior of Cu in the 63Sn-37Pb/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structure. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated from the concentration profiles of Cu in solder joints. During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1015-1016 atoms/cm2s. However, in the assembly without solder, no Cu was detected on the surface of Ni even after ten cycles of reflow. The diffusion behavior of Cu during heat treatments was studied, and the soldering-process-induced Cu diffusion through Ni metallization was characterized. In addition, the effect of Cu content in the solder near the solder/intermetallic compound (IMC) interface on interfacial reactions between the solder and the Ni/Cu UBM was also discussed. It is evident that the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC might form as the concentration of Cu in the Sn-Cu-Ni alloy exceeds 0.6 wt.%.

  12. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autob...

  13. From Big Data to Big Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Idea in Brief: Problem: There is an enormous profit potential for manufacturing firms in big data, but one of the key barriers to obtaining data-driven growth is the lack of knowledge about which capabilities are needed to extract value and profit from data. Solution: We (BDBB research group at C...

  14. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  15. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Arcavi, Iair; Sand, David J.; Tartaglia, Leonardo; Valenti, Stefano; Bostroem, K. Azalee; Brown, Peter; Kasen, Daniel; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Davis, Scott; Shahbandeh, Melissa; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.

    2017-01-01

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U , B , and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R _☉ from the exploding white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C ii λ 6580) absorption up through day −13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.

  16. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Arcavi, Iair [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117-5575 (United States); Sand, David J.; Tartaglia, Leonardo [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Room N204, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Valenti, Stefano; Bostroem, K. Azalee [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-5270 (United States); Brown, Peter [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Kasen, Daniel [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8169 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y.; Davis, Scott; Shahbandeh, Melissa [Department of Physics, Florida State University, 77 Chieftain Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian D., E-mail: griffin@lco.global [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-08-20

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U , B , and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R {sub ☉} from the exploding white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C ii λ 6580) absorption up through day −13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.

  17. Big Data in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  18. Big data a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Prachet; Chenthati, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of chapters written by experts on various aspects of big data. The book aims to explain what big data is and how it is stored and used. The book starts from  the fundamentals and builds up from there. It is intended to serve as a review of the state-of-the-practice in the field of big data handling. The traditional framework of relational databases can no longer provide appropriate solutions for handling big data and making it available and useful to users scattered around the globe. The study of big data covers a wide range of issues including management of heterogeneous data, big data frameworks, change management, finding patterns in data usage and evolution, data as a service, service-generated data, service management, privacy and security. All of these aspects are touched upon in this book. It also discusses big data applications in different domains. The book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing database and networking engineers.

  19. Recht voor big data, big data voor recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafarre, Anne

    Big data is een niet meer weg te denken fenomeen in onze maatschappij. Het is de hype cycle voorbij en de eerste implementaties van big data-technieken worden uitgevoerd. Maar wat is nu precies big data? Wat houden de vijf V's in die vaak genoemd worden in relatie tot big data? Ter inleiding van

  20. Assessing Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, big data has been one of the most controversially discussed technologies in terms of its possible positive and negative impact. Therefore, the need for technology assessments is obvious. This paper first provides, based on the results of a technology assessment study, an overview...... of the potential and challenges associated with big data and then describes the problems experienced during the study as well as methods found helpful to address them. The paper concludes with reflections on how the insights from the technology assessment study may have an impact on the future governance of big...... data....

  1. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Richard N.

    2001-01-01

    The precision of measurements in modern cosmology has made huge strides in recent years, with measurements of the cosmic microwave background and the determination of the Hubble constant now rivaling the level of precision of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis. However, these results are not necessarily consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model of big bang nucleosynthesis. Reconciling these discrepancies may require extensions of the basic tenets of the model, and possibly of the reaction rates that determine the big bang abundances

  2. Big data for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kaufman, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Find the right big data solution for your business or organization Big data management is one of the major challenges facing business, industry, and not-for-profit organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather patterns monitored by meteorologists, or social network activity can quickly outpace the capacity of traditional data management tools. If you need to develop or manage big data solutions, you'll appreciate how these four experts define, explain, and guide you through this new and often confusing concept. You'll learn what it is, why it m

  3. Big Data, indispensable today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ioan ENACHE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big data is and will be used more in the future as a tool for everything that happens both online and offline. Of course , online is a real hobbit, Big Data is found in this medium , offering many advantages , being a real help for all consumers. In this paper we talked about Big Data as being a plus in developing new applications, by gathering useful information about the users and their behaviour.We've also presented the key aspects of real-time monitoring and the architecture principles of this technology. The most important benefit brought to this paper is presented in the cloud section.

  4. Temporal distribution of autobiographical memory: uncovering the reminiscence bump in Japanese young and middle-aged adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawasaki, Y.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Inoue, T.

    2011-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the effect that people recall more personal events from their teenage period than from adjacent lifetime periods. The effect is generally found in studies that divide the results of participants, who were at least 40 years old, into age bins of 10 years. In this study, the

  5. Design and Experimental Development of a Pneumatic Stiffness Adjustable Foot System for Biped Robots Adaptable to Bumps on the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xizhe Zang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Walking on rough terrains still remains a challenge that needs to be addressed for biped robots because the unevenness on the ground can easily disrupt the walking stability. This paper proposes a novel foot system with passively adjustable stiffness for biped robots which is adaptable to small-sized bumps on the ground. The robotic foot is developed by attaching eight pneumatic variable stiffness units to the sole separately and symmetrically. Each variable stiffness unit mainly consists of a pneumatic bladder and a mechanical reversing valve. When walking on rough ground, the pneumatic bladders in contact with bumps are compressed, and the corresponding reversing valves are triggered to expel out the air, enabling the pneumatic bladders to adapt to the bumps with low stiffness; while the other pneumatic bladders remain rigid and maintain stable contact with the ground, providing support to the biped robot. The performances of the proposed foot system, including the variable stiffness mechanism, the adaptability on the bumps of different heights, and the application on a biped robot prototype are demonstrated by various experiments.

  6. Misuse of speed-bumps on two-lane main rural roads. A generalized practice in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderas Volcanes, R.J.; Moreno Gonzalez, E.G.

    2016-07-01

    Settlements of uncontrolled population on side of road in Venezuela originate the excessive use of traffic speed reducers to mitigate accidents. Misuse of these speed control devices generate problem of functionality in the two-lane main rural roads which requires to be studied to demonstrate its effect on the capacity and level of service. Although other factors may occur (i.e, environmental problems and health), the disproportionate use of speed-bumps worsens circulation quality by increase of travel time as most sensitive parameter. Where this effect not can be reversed it should be made efforts to mitigate speed using another traffic-calming device. The studied stretches are selected according to particular characteristics such as: urban settlement, isolated speed-bump and its installation in series, including case without speed-bumps which guarantees the proper contrast. Video cameras to detect the travel time of vehicles are used in each road section, it allow the measures of other parameters. The travel time distribution with or without speed-bumps and probability distribution that characterizes vehicle movement in each stretch allows the simulation and modeling with the ARENA software. Travel time allows obtain the speed which, together with the volume of traffic, determines the level of service according to the Highway Capacity Manual criterion. The economic cost of substitute measures versus travel time is evaluated and may be useful in decision-making or implementation of better policies by transport governmental institutions. (Author)

  7. CO2laser-induced bump formation and growth on polystyrene for multi-depth soft lithography molds

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    result from the net volume gain of the laser heat-affected zone on the PS rather than from a deposition process, and the expansion of the heat-affected zone on PS was verified by measuring the hardness change using nanoindentation. The bumps have a much

  8. Thermal bump removal of a crystal monochromator by designing an optimal shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micha, Jean-Sébastien, E-mail: micha@esrf.fr [CRG-IF BM32 Beamline, ESRF, 6 rue J. Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); UMR SPrAM 5819, CEA-Grenoble/INAC/SPrAM, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Geaymond, Olivier [CRG-IF BM32 Beamline, ESRF, 6 rue J. Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Institut Néel, CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rieutord, Francois [CRG-IF BM32 Beamline, ESRF, 6 rue J. Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); CEA-Grenoble/INAC/NRS, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-05-11

    Thermal bump arising at illuminated area of a water cooled monochromator crystal can be considerably reduced by designing an appropriate shape. Temperature and deformation have been simulated by finite element analysis (FEA) computations as a function of few geometrical parameters describing the shape of the crystal. As a result, a new crystal shape has been found which optimizes the throughput of a double crystals monochromator (DCM). Performances of the initial rectangular crystal and the new designed crystal predicted by FEA-based calculations and measured during experimental tests on a synchrotron beamline are reported. General design principles to overcome heat load issues and the objective function using the slope errors derived from FEA results are detailed. Current and foreseen performances at higher load are presented. Finally, advantages and limits of this simple-to-design and cheap solution are discussed.

  9. IRON OPACITY BUMP CHANGES THE STABILITY AND STRUCTURE OF ACCRETION DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Davis, Shane W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes have regions where the Rosseland mean opacity can be larger than the electron scattering opacity due to the large number of bound–bound transitions in iron. We study the effects of this iron opacity “bump” on the thermal stability and vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disks, utilizing three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in the local shearing box approximation. The simulations self-consistently calculate the heating due to MHD turbulence caused by magneto-rotational instability and radiative cooling by using the radiative transfer module based on a variable Eddington tensor in Athena. For a 5 × 10{sup 8} solar mass black hole with ∼3% of the Eddington luminosity, a model including the iron opacity bump maintains its structure for more than 10 thermal times without showing significant signs of thermal runaway. In contrast, if only electron scattering and free–free opacity are included as in the standard thin disk model, the disk collapses on the thermal timescale. The difference is caused by a combination of (1) an anti-correlation between the total optical depth and the midplane pressure, and (2) enhanced vertical advective energy transport. These results suggest that the iron opacity bump may have a strong impact on the stability and structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion disks, and may contribute to a dependence of AGN properties on metallicity. Since this opacity is relevant primarily in UV emitting regions of the flow, it may help to explain discrepancies between observation and theory that are unique to AGNs.

  10. Cross-validation and Peeling Strategies for Survival Bump Hunting using Recursive Peeling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Choe, Michael; LeBlanc, Michael; Rao, J. Sunil

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a framework to build a survival/risk bump hunting model with a censored time-to-event response. Our Survival Bump Hunting (SBH) method is based on a recursive peeling procedure that uses a specific survival peeling criterion derived from non/semi-parametric statistics such as the hazards-ratio, the log-rank test or the Nelson--Aalen estimator. To optimize the tuning parameter of the model and validate it, we introduce an objective function based on survival or prediction-error statistics, such as the log-rank test and the concordance error rate. We also describe two alternative cross-validation techniques adapted to the joint task of decision-rule making by recursive peeling and survival estimation. Numerical analyses show the importance of replicated cross-validation and the differences between criteria and techniques in both low and high-dimensional settings. Although several non-parametric survival models exist, none addresses the problem of directly identifying local extrema. We show how SBH efficiently estimates extreme survival/risk subgroups unlike other models. This provides an insight into the behavior of commonly used models and suggests alternatives to be adopted in practice. Finally, our SBH framework was applied to a clinical dataset. In it, we identified subsets of patients characterized by clinical and demographic covariates with a distinct extreme survival outcome, for which tailored medical interventions could be made. An R package PRIMsrc (Patient Rule Induction Method in Survival, Regression and Classification settings) is available on CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network) and GitHub. PMID:27034730

  11. Big Data in der Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)......Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)...

  12. Small Big Data Congress 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2017-01-01

    TNO, in collaboration with the Big Data Value Center, presents the fourth Small Big Data Congress! Our congress aims at providing an overview of practical and innovative applications based on big data. Do you want to know what is happening in applied research with big data? And what can already be

  13. Cryptography for Big Data Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Cryptography for Big Data Security Book Chapter for Big Data: Storage, Sharing, and Security (3S) Distribution A: Public Release Ariel Hamlin1 Nabil...Email: arkady@ll.mit.edu ii Contents 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1 1.1 Introduction...48 Chapter 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1.1 Introduction With the amount

  14. Big data opportunities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This ebook aims to give practical guidance for all those who want to understand big data better and learn how to make the most of it. Topics range from big data analysis, mobile big data and managing unstructured data to technologies, governance and intellectual property and security issues surrounding big data.

  15. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  16. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  17. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects...... shows that big data problematizes selected aspects of traditional ways to collect and analyze data for development (e.g. via household surveys). We also demonstrate that using big data analyses to address development challenges raises a number of questions that can deteriorate its impact....

  18. Big Data Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on key issues of our paper New games, new rules: big data and the changing context of strategy as a means of addressing some of the concerns raised by the paper’s commentators. We initially deal with the issue of social data and the role it plays in the current data revolution...... and the technological recording of facts. We further discuss the significance of the very mechanisms by which big data is produced as distinct from the very attributes of big data, often discussed in the literature. In the final section of the paper, we qualify the alleged importance of algorithms and claim...... that the structures of data capture and the architectures in which data generation is embedded are fundamental to the phenomenon of big data....

  19. The Big Bang Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  20. BigDansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair; Ilyas, Ihab F.; Jindal, Alekh; Madden, Samuel; Ouzzani, Mourad; Papotti, Paolo; Quiané -Ruiz, Jorge-Arnulfo; Tang, Nan; Yin, Si

    2015-01-01

    of the underlying distributed platform. BigDansing takes these rules into a series of transformations that enable distributed computations and several optimizations, such as shared scans and specialized joins operators. Experimental results on both synthetic

  1. Boarding to Big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Claudia BRATOSIN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today Big data is an emerging topic, as the quantity of the information grows exponentially, laying the foundation for its main challenge, the value of the information. The information value is not only defined by the value extraction from huge data sets, as fast and optimal as possible, but also by the value extraction from uncertain and inaccurate data, in an innovative manner using Big data analytics. At this point, the main challenge of the businesses that use Big data tools is to clearly define the scope and the necessary output of the business so that the real value can be gained. This article aims to explain the Big data concept, its various classifications criteria, architecture, as well as the impact in the world wide processes.

  2. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  3. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-01-01

    on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also

  4. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  5. Bump evolution driven by the x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov effect in plastic inertial confinement fusion Ablators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loomis Eric

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities are a primary concern for the ICF program. Recently, observed jetting and parasitic mix into the fuel were attributed to isolated defects on the outer surface of the capsule. Strategies for mitigation of these defects exist, however, they require reduced uncertainties in Equation of State (EOS models prior to invoking them. In light of this, we have begun a campaign to measure the growth of isolated defects (bumps due to x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov in plastic ablators to validate these models. Experiments used hohlraums with radiation temperatures near 70 eV driven by 15 beams from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY, which sent a ∼1.25Mbar shock into a planar CH target placed over one laser entrance hole. Targets consisted of 2-D arrays of quasi-gaussian bumps (10 microns tall, 34 microns FWHM deposited on the surface facing into the hohlraum. On-axis radiography with a saran (Cl Heα − 2.76keV backlighter was used to measure bump evolution prior to shock breakout. Shock speed measurements were also performed to determine target conditions. Simulations using the LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 models required the simulated laser power be turned down to 80 and 88%, respectively to match observed shock speeds. Both LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 simulations agreed with measured bump areal densities out to 6 ns where ablative RM oscillations were observed in previous laser-driven experiments, but did not occur in the x-ray driven case. The QEOS model, conversely, over predicted shock speeds and under predicted areal density in the bump.

  6. Conociendo Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Camargo-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la importancia que ha adquirido el término Big Data, la presente investigación buscó estudiar y analizar de manera exhaustiva el estado del arte del Big Data; además, y como segundo objetivo, analizó las características, las herramientas, las tecnologías, los modelos y los estándares relacionados con Big Data, y por último buscó identificar las características más relevantes en la gestión de Big Data, para que con ello se pueda conocer todo lo concerniente al tema central de la investigación.La metodología utilizada incluyó revisar el estado del arte de Big Data y enseñar su situación actual; conocer las tecnologías de Big Data; presentar algunas de las bases de datos NoSQL, que son las que permiten procesar datos con formatos no estructurados, y mostrar los modelos de datos y las tecnologías de análisis de ellos, para terminar con algunos beneficios de Big Data.El diseño metodológico usado para la investigación fue no experimental, pues no se manipulan variables, y de tipo exploratorio, debido a que con esta investigación se empieza a conocer el ambiente del Big Data.

  7. Big Bang baryosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures I briefly review Big Bang baryosynthesis. In the first lecture I discuss the evidence which exists for the BAU, the failure of non-GUT symmetrical cosmologies, the qualitative picture of baryosynthesis, and numerical results of detailed baryosynthesis calculations. In the second lecture I discuss the requisite CP violation in some detail, further the statistical mechanics of baryosynthesis, possible complications to the simplest scenario, and one cosmological implication of Big Bang baryosynthesis. (orig./HSI)

  8. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  9. Big data need big theory too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Peter V; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R

    2016-11-13

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their 'depth' and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote 'blind' big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. Big Data and medicine: a big deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Schönberger, V; Ingelsson, E

    2018-05-01

    Big Data promises huge benefits for medical research. Looking beyond superficial increases in the amount of data collected, we identify three key areas where Big Data differs from conventional analyses of data samples: (i) data are captured more comprehensively relative to the phenomenon under study; this reduces some bias but surfaces important trade-offs, such as between data quantity and data quality; (ii) data are often analysed using machine learning tools, such as neural networks rather than conventional statistical methods resulting in systems that over time capture insights implicit in data, but remain black boxes, rarely revealing causal connections; and (iii) the purpose of the analyses of data is no longer simply answering existing questions, but hinting at novel ones and generating promising new hypotheses. As a consequence, when performed right, Big Data analyses can accelerate research. Because Big Data approaches differ so fundamentally from small data ones, research structures, processes and mindsets need to adjust. The latent value of data is being reaped through repeated reuse of data, which runs counter to existing practices not only regarding data privacy, but data management more generally. Consequently, we suggest a number of adjustments such as boards reviewing responsible data use, and incentives to facilitate comprehensive data sharing. As data's role changes to a resource of insight, we also need to acknowledge the importance of collecting and making data available as a crucial part of our research endeavours, and reassess our formal processes from career advancement to treatment approval. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  11. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  12. Big data uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugis, Pierre-André G

    2018-07-01

    Big data-the idea that an always-larger volume of information is being constantly recorded-suggests that new problems can now be subjected to scientific scrutiny. However, can classical statistical methods be used directly on big data? We analyze the problem by looking at two known pitfalls of big datasets. First, that they are biased, in the sense that they do not offer a complete view of the populations under consideration. Second, that they present a weak but pervasive level of dependence between all their components. In both cases we observe that the uncertainty of the conclusion obtained by statistical methods is increased when used on big data, either because of a systematic error (bias), or because of a larger degree of randomness (increased variance). We argue that the key challenge raised by big data is not only how to use big data to tackle new problems, but to develop tools and methods able to rigorously articulate the new risks therein. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. ARE ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS CAUSED BY BLUE SUPERGIANT COLLAPSARS, NEWBORN MAGNETARS, OR WHITE DWARF TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioka, Kunihito [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hotokezaka, Kenta; Piran, Tsvi, E-mail: kunihito.ioka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-12-10

    Ultra-long gamma-ray bursts (ulGRBs) are a new population of GRBs with extreme durations of ∼10{sup 4} s. Leading candidates for their origin are blue supergiant collapsars, magnetars, and white dwarf tidal disruption events (WD-TDEs) caused by massive black holes (BHs). Recent observations of supernova-like (SN-like) bumps associated with ulGRBs challenged both the WD-TDE and the blue supergiant models because of the detection of SNe and the absence of hydrogen lines, respectively. We propose that WD-TDEs can accommodate the observed SN-like bumps if the fallback WD matter releases energy into the unbound WD ejecta. The observed ejecta energy, luminosity, and velocity are explained by the gravitational energy, Eddington luminosity, and escape velocity of the formed accretion disk, respectively. We also show that the observed X-rays can ionize the ejecta, eliminating lines. The SN-like light curves (SN 2011kl) for the ulGRB 111209A are consistent with all three models, although a magnetar model is unnatural because the spin-down time required to power the SN-like bump is a hundred times longer than the GRB. Our results imply that TDEs are a possible energy source for SN-like events in general and for ulGRBs in particular.

  14. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  15. BigDansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2015-06-02

    Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to scaling to big datasets. This presents a serious impediment since data cleansing often involves costly computations such as enumerating pairs of tuples, handling inequality joins, and dealing with user-defined functions. In this paper, we present BigDansing, a Big Data Cleansing system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing. The system can run on top of most common general purpose data processing platforms, ranging from DBMSs to MapReduce-like frameworks. A user-friendly programming interface allows users to express data quality rules both declaratively and procedurally, with no requirement of being aware of the underlying distributed platform. BigDansing takes these rules into a series of transformations that enable distributed computations and several optimizations, such as shared scans and specialized joins operators. Experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets show that BigDansing outperforms existing baseline systems up to more than two orders of magnitude without sacrificing the quality provided by the repair algorithms.

  16. Maximal loads acting on legs of powered roof support unit in longwalls with bumping hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StanislawSzweda

    2001-01-01

    In the article the results of measurements of the resultant force in the legs of a powered roof support unit, caused by a dynamic interaction bf the rock mass, are discussed. The measurements have been taken in the Iongwalls mined with a roof fall, characterized by the highest degree of bumping hazard. It has been stated that the maximal force in the legs Fro, recorded during a dynamic interaction of the rock mass, is proportional to the initial static force in the legs Fst.p Therefore a need for a careful selection of the initial load of the powered roof support, according to the local mining and geological conditions, results from such a statement. Setting the legs with the supporting load exceeding the indispensable value for keeping the direct roof solids in balance, deteriorating the operational parameters of a Iongwall system also has a disadvantageous influence on the value of the force in the legs and the rate of its increase, caused by a dynamic interaction of the rock mass. A correct selection of the initial load causes a decrease in the intensity of a dynamic interaction of the rock mass on powered roof supports, which also has an advanta igeous influence on their life, Simultaneously with the measurements of the resultant force in the legs, the vertical acceleration of the canopy was also recorded. It has enabled to prove that the external dynamic forces may act on the unit both from the roof as well as from the floor. The changes of the force in the legs caused by dynamic phenomena intrinsically created in the roof and changes of the force in the legs caused by blasting explosives in the roof of the working, have been analyzed separately. It has been stated that an increase in the loads of legs, caused by intrinsic phenomena is significantly higher than a force increase in the legs caused by blasting. It means that powered roof supports, to be operated in the workings, where the bumping hazard occurs, will also transmit the loads acting on a unit

  17. Big data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  18. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  19. Big data in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Big data bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Casey S; Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Moore, Jason H; Cheng, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Recent technological advances allow for high throughput profiling of biological systems in a cost-efficient manner. The low cost of data generation is leading us to the "big data" era. The availability of big data provides unprecedented opportunities but also raises new challenges for data mining and analysis. In this review, we introduce key concepts in the analysis of big data, including both "machine learning" algorithms as well as "unsupervised" and "supervised" examples of each. We note packages for the R programming language that are available to perform machine learning analyses. In addition to programming based solutions, we review webservers that allow users with limited or no programming background to perform these analyses on large data compendia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. THE TRANSATLANTIC BLUE DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The international diplomatic environment has reached to an unprecedented development, involving one of the newly specialized diplomatic types, namely the economic diplomacy. At the core of the fast movements in the diplomatic spheres across the Globe are the international agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP that determined diplomacy to dissolve into new subtypes, evolving from ground to the ocean and implementing new ways of achieving economic and climate sustainability. One of the newly created diplomatic spheres, is the blue ocean diplomacy that acts mainly in accordance with the rules and regulations that are being applied to the transatlantic economy. Even though TTIP encourages the increase of trade flows across the Atlantic, it will also ease the foreign investment procedures that, under the approach of keeping a sustainable environment, will represent one of the most important initiatives in implementing the blue economy concept within the framework of the transatlantic diplomacy.

  2. High-order integral equation methods for problems of scattering by bumps and cavities on half-planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Arancibia, Carlos; Bruno, Oscar P

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents high-order integral equation methods for the evaluation of electromagnetic wave scattering by dielectric bumps and dielectric cavities on perfectly conducting or dielectric half-planes. In detail, the algorithms introduced in this paper apply to eight classical scattering problems, namely, scattering by a dielectric bump on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane, and scattering by a filled, overfilled, or void dielectric cavity on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane. In all cases field representations based on single-layer potentials for appropriately chosen Green functions are used. The numerical far fields and near fields exhibit excellent convergence as discretizations are refined-even at and around points where singular fields and infinite currents exist.

  3. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Backscatter, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  4. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Little Hales - (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  5. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  6. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  7. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - R/V Maurice Ewing - (1997), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  8. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Backscatter, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  9. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - R/V Maurice Ewing - (1997), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  10. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - R/V Maurice Ewing - (1997), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  11. GRB 110530A: Peculiar Broad Bump and Delayed Plateau in Early Optical Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shu-Qing; Xin, Li-Ping; Liang, En-Wei; Wei, Jian-Yan; Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kui-Yun; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Deng, Can-Min; Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Deng, Jin-Song

    2016-11-01

    We report our very early optical observations of GRB 110530A and investigate its jet properties together with its X-ray afterglow data. A peculiar broad onset bump followed by a plateau is observed in its early R band afterglow light curve. The optical data in the other bands and the X-ray data are well consistent with the temporal feature of the R band light curve. Our joint spectral fits of the optical and X-ray data show that they are in the same regime, with a photon index of ∼1.70. The optical and X-ray afterglow light curves are well fitted with the standard external shock model by considering a delayed energy injection component. Based on our modeling results, we find that the radiative efficiency of the gamma-ray burst jet is ∼ 1 % and the magnetization parameter of the afterglow jet is \\lt 0.04 with a derived extremely low {ε }B (the ratio of shock energy to the magnetic field) of (1.64+/- 0.25)× {10}-6. These results indicate that the jet may be matter dominated. A discussion on delayed energy injection from the accretion of the late fall-back material of its pre-supernova star is also presented.

  12. A Two Species Bump-On-Tail Model With Relaxation for Energetic Particle Driven Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanyan, V.; Porkolab, M.; Sharapov, S. E.; Spong, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Energetic particle driven Alfvén Eigenmodes (AEs) observed in present day experiments exhibit various nonlinear behaviours varying from steady state amplitude at a fixed frequency to bursting amplitudes and sweeping frequency. Using the appropriate action-angle variables, the problem of resonant wave-particle interaction becomes effectively one-dimensional. Previously, a simple one-dimensional Bump-On-Tail (BOT) model has proven to be one of the most effective in describing characteristic nonlinear near-threshold wave evolution scenarios. In particular, dynamical friction causes bursting mode evolution, while diffusive relaxation may give steady-state, periodic or chaotic mode evolution. BOT has now been extended to include two populations of fast particles, with one dominated by dynamical friction at the resonance and the other by diffusion; the relative size of the populations determines the temporal evolution of the resulting wave. This suggests an explanation for recent observations on the TJ-II stellarator, where a transition between steady state and bursting occured as the magnetic configuration varied. The two species model is then applied to burning plasma with drag-dominated alpha particles and diffusion-dominated ICRH accelerated minority ions. This work was supported by the US DoE and the RCUK Energy Programme [Grant Number EP/P012450/1].

  13. Does recall of a past music event invoke a reminiscence bump in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-08-01

    Many studies of the reminiscence bump (RB) in music invoke memories from different autobiographical times by using stimulus specific prompts (SSPs). This study investigated the utility of a non-SSP paradigm to determine whether the RB would emerge when participants were asked to recall a single memorable musical event from "a time long ago". The presence of a RB in response to music has not been obtained in such a manner for younger participants. Eighty-eight 20-22 year olds reported music episodes that peaked when their autobiographical age was 13-14 years. Self-selected stimuli included a range of musical styles, including classical and non-Western pop forms, such as J-pop and K-pop, as well as generational pop music, such as the Beatles. However, most participants reported pop/rock music that was contemporaneous with encoding age, providing support for the utility of published SSP paradigms using pop music. Implications for and limitations of SSP paradigms are discussed. Participants were also asked to relate the selected musical piece to current musical tastes. Most participants liked the music that they selected, with many continuing to like the music, but most also reported a general broadening of their taste, consistent with developmental literature on open-earedness.

  14. Effect of surfactant on electrodeposited Ni-P layer as an under bump metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yung-Chi; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2007-01-01

    In the microelectronic industry, the nickel plating has been used as the under bump metallization (UBM). The electroplated process was demonstrated to be a favorable alternative approach to produce the Ni-P layer as UBM. In this study, the role of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) addition in electrodeposition was investigated. The variations on surface morphology and surface roughness in the SDS-added process of electroplated Ni-P were revealed with both field emission scanning electronic microscope and atomic force microscope. The influence of SDS addition process in wettability of several commercial solder pastes, including Sn-37Pb, Sn-3.5Ag, and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, on electroplated Ni-P with various phosphorous contents was evaluated. The surface morphology and the surface roughness of Ni-P layer were affected by SDS addition. It was demonstrated that modified surface morphology and surface roughness acted to enhance the wettability of electroplated Ni-P. In addition, the interfacial reactions between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu and electroplated Ni-P UBM with SDS addition during deposition was also probed and discussed

  15. Speed Bumps on the Road to Sustainability - Energy Technology and Geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C.; Taylor, P.; Van Der Linde, C.; Buchner, B.; Ramsay, W.C.; Lipponen, J.; Meier, A.; Berkeley, L.; Di Paola-Galloni, J.L.; Jaureguy-Naudin, M.; Charpin, J.M.; Segar, Ch.; Zaleski, P.; Lesourne, J.; Pires Santos, A.; Menard, D.; Neuhoff, K.; Oettinger, G.

    2011-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given at the 2011 issue of the annual Conference of the Ifri (French Institute of International Relations) Energy Program: 1 - An Energy revolution under way (Peter Taylor, Head of the Energy Technology Division, International Energy Agency); 2 - A look back at Cancun: 'top down' versus 'bottom up' (Barbara Buchner, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Venice office; 3 - CCS: Still in the Starting Blocks? (Juho Lipponen, Head of CCS Unit, International Energy Agency); 4 - Energy Efficiency: Does Anyone Care? (Alan Meier, Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); 5 - The Transport Sector: Anything Goes? (Jean-Luc di Paola-Galloni, Corporate Vice-President, Sustainable Development and External Affairs, Valeo Group); 6 - The Mediterranean Ring: Power or Politics? (Jean-Michel Charpin, Inspecteur General des Finances); 7 - Iran gas and Iraq oil (Chris Segar, Regional Analyst/Middle East and North Africa, International Energy Agency); 8 - Nuclear Power: New Players, New Game, New Rules (Pierre Zaleski, General delegate for the Center of Geopolitics of Energy and Raw Materials, Universite Paris-Dauphine); 9 - The Grid: a Generic Speed Bump (Antonio Pires Santos, Energy and Utilities Industry Leader, Southwest Europe, IBM); 10 - Intellectual Property Rights/Technology transfer (Dominique Menard, Partner, Hogan Lovells (Paris) LLP); 11 - Energy Markets: Conducive to Sustainability (Karsten Neuhoff, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Berlin office, German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin)

  16. Speed Bumps on the Road to Sustainability - Energy Technology and Geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Taylor, P.; Van Der Linde, C.; Buchner, B.; Ramsay, W.C.; Lipponen, J.; Meier, A.; Berkeley, L.; Di Paola-Galloni, J.L.; Jaureguy-Naudin, M.; Charpin, J.M.; Segar, Ch.; Zaleski, P.; Lesourne, J.; Pires Santos, A.; Menard, D.; Neuhoff, K.; Oettinger, G.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given at the 2011 issue of the annual Conference of the Ifri (French Institute of International Relations) Energy Program: 1 - An Energy revolution under way (Peter Taylor, Head of the Energy Technology Division, International Energy Agency); 2 - A look back at Cancun: 'top down' versus 'bottom up' (Barbara Buchner, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Venice office; 3 - CCS: Still in the Starting Blocks? (Juho Lipponen, Head of CCS Unit, International Energy Agency); 4 - Energy Efficiency: Does Anyone Care? (Alan Meier, Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); 5 - The Transport Sector: Anything Goes? (Jean-Luc di Paola-Galloni, Corporate Vice-President, Sustainable Development and External Affairs, Valeo Group); 6 - The Mediterranean Ring: Power or Politics? (Jean-Michel Charpin, Inspecteur General des Finances); 7 - Iran gas and Iraq oil (Chris Segar, Regional Analyst/Middle East and North Africa, International Energy Agency); 8 - Nuclear Power: New Players, New Game, New Rules (Pierre Zaleski, General delegate for the Center of Geopolitics of Energy and Raw Materials, Universite Paris-Dauphine); 9 - The Grid: a Generic Speed Bump (Antonio Pires Santos, Energy and Utilities Industry Leader, Southwest Europe, IBM); 10 - Intellectual Property Rights/Technology transfer (Dominique Menard, Partner, Hogan Lovells (Paris) LLP); 11 - Energy Markets: Conducive to Sustainability (Karsten Neuhoff, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Berlin office, German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin)

  17. Carbon Isotopes in Globular Clusters Down to the Bump in the Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetrone, Matthew D.

    2003-03-01

    We find that the 12C/13C ratio evolves from high values (>20) below the bump in the luminosity function (BLF) to near the equilibrium value of the CNO cycle above the BLF in the globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6528 and M4. This is the first time that the predicted decline of the 12C/13C ratios due to the extra mixing at the BLF is detected in a GC. In M4, a slight decline from 12C/13C = 10 just above the BLF at MV=+0.5 to 12C/13C = 4 at MV=-0.6 is detected, suggesting that some additional mixing may occur beyond the BLF in this cluster. Isotope ratios are measured and found to be constant in the GCs NGC 6553 and 47 Tucanae down to just above the BLF of those GCs. Based on observations made in part at the W. M. Keck Observatory by the Gemini staff, supported by the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities of Research in Astronomy, Inc., on behalf of the international Gemini partnership of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, the UK, and the US. The W. M. Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  18. Geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic particles with bump-on-tail distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haijun; Wang, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Energetic-particle-driven geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) is analytically investigated by adopting the bump-on-tail distribution for energetic particles (EPs), which is created by the fact that the charge exchange time (τcx ) is sufficiently shorter than the slowing down time (τsl ). The dispersion relation is derived in the use of gyro-kinetic equations. Due to the finite ratio of the critical energy and the initial energy of EPs, defined as τc , the dispersion relation is numerically evaluated and the effect of finite τc is examined. Following relative simulation and experimental work, we specifically considered two cases: τsl/τcx = 3.4 and τsl/τcx = 20.4 . The pitch angle is shown to significantly enhance the growth rate and meanwhile, the real frequency is dramatically decreased with increasing pitch angle. The excitation of high-frequency EGAM is found, and this is consistent with both the experiment and the simulation. The number density effect of energetic particles, represented by \

  19. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  20. Big ideas: innovation policy

    OpenAIRE

    John Van Reenen

    2011-01-01

    In the last CentrePiece, John Van Reenen stressed the importance of competition and labour market flexibility for productivity growth. His latest in CEP's 'big ideas' series describes the impact of research on how policy-makers can influence innovation more directly - through tax credits for business spending on research and development.

  1. Big Data ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with

  2. Big data in history

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Big Data in History introduces the project to create a world-historical archive, tracing the last four centuries of historical dynamics and change. Chapters address the archive's overall plan, how to interpret the past through a global archive, the missions of gathering records, linking local data into global patterns, and exploring the results.

  3. The Big Sky inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  4. Moving Another Big Desk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Gay

    1996-01-01

    New ways of thinking about leadership require that leaders move their big desks and establish environments that encourage trust and open communication. Educational leaders must trust their colleagues to make wise choices. When teachers are treated democratically as leaders, classrooms will also become democratic learning organizations. (SM)

  5. A Big Bang Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  6. New 'bigs' in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, Artyom V.; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper contains a detailed discussion on new cosmic solutions describing the early and late evolution of a universe that is filled with a kind of dark energy that may or may not satisfy the energy conditions. The main distinctive property of the resulting space-times is that they make to appear twice the single singular events predicted by the corresponding quintessential (phantom) models in a manner which can be made symmetric with respect to the origin of cosmic time. Thus, big bang and big rip singularity are shown to take place twice, one on the positive branch of time and the other on the negative one. We have also considered dark energy and phantom energy accretion onto black holes and wormholes in the context of these new cosmic solutions. It is seen that the space-times of these holes would then undergo swelling processes leading to big trip and big hole events taking place on distinct epochs along the evolution of the universe. In this way, the possibility is considered that the past and future be connected in a non-paradoxical manner in the universes described by means of the new symmetric solutions

  7. The Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Moods, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    How did the Universe begin? The favoured theory is that everything - space, time, matter - came into existence at the same moment, around 13.7 thousand million years ago. This event was scornfully referred to as the "Big Bang" by Sir Fred Hoyle, who did not believe in it and maintained that the Universe had always existed.

  8. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The volume and variety of data being generated using computersis doubling every two years. It is estimated that in 2015,8 Zettabytes (Zetta=1021) were generated which consistedmostly of unstructured data such as emails, blogs, Twitter,Facebook posts, images, and videos. This is called big data. Itis possible to analyse ...

  9. Identifying Dwarfs Workloads in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...

  10. Big Data and Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  11. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-07-31

    Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to big data scaling. This presents a serious impediment since identify- ing and repairing dirty data often involves processing huge input datasets, handling sophisticated error discovery approaches and managing huge arbitrary errors. With large datasets, error detection becomes overly expensive and complicated especially when considering user-defined functions. Furthermore, a distinctive algorithm is de- sired to optimize inequality joins in sophisticated error discovery rather than na ̈ıvely parallelizing them. Also, when repairing large errors, their skewed distribution may obstruct effective error repairs. In this dissertation, I present solutions to overcome the above three problems in scaling data cleansing. First, I present BigDansing as a general system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing for Big Data. It automatically parallelizes the user’s code on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also enables parallel execution of serial repair algorithms by exploiting the graph representation of discovered errors. The experimental results show that BigDansing outperforms existing baselines up to more than two orders of magnitude. Although BigDansing scales cleansing jobs, it still lacks the ability to handle sophisticated error discovery requiring inequality joins. Therefore, I developed IEJoin as an algorithm for fast inequality joins. It is based on sorted arrays and space efficient bit-arrays to reduce the problem’s search space. By comparing IEJoin against well- known optimizations, I show that it is more scalable, and several orders of magnitude faster. BigDansing depends on vertex-centric graph systems, i.e., Pregel

  12. The Blue Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  13. Classical propagation of strings across a big crunch/big bang singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    One of the simplest time-dependent solutions of M theory consists of nine-dimensional Euclidean space times 1+1-dimensional compactified Milne space-time. With a further modding out by Z 2 , the space-time represents two orbifold planes which collide and re-emerge, a process proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang [J. Khoury, B. A. Ovrut, P. J. Steinhardt, and N. Turok, Phys. Rev. D 64, 123522 (2001).][P. J. Steinhardt and N. Turok, Science 296, 1436 (2002).][N. Turok, M. Perry, and P. J. Steinhardt, Phys. Rev. D 70, 106004 (2004).]. When the two planes are near, the light states of the theory consist of winding M2-branes, describing fundamental strings in a particular ten-dimensional background. They suffer no blue-shift as the M theory dimension collapses, and their equations of motion are regular across the transition from big crunch to big bang. In this paper, we study the classical evolution of fundamental strings across the singularity in some detail. We also develop a simple semiclassical approximation to the quantum evolution which allows one to compute the quantum production of excitations on the string and implement it in a simplified example

  14. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own…

  15. Maximal loads acting on legs of powered roof support unit in longwalls with bumping hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw Szweda

    2001-01-01

    In the article the results of measurements of the resultant force in th e legs of a powered roof support unit, caused by a dynamic interaction of the ro ck mass, are discussed. The measurements have been taken in the longwalls mined with a roof fall, characterized by the highest degree of bumping hazard. It has been stated that the maximal force in the legs Fm, recorded during a dynam ic interaction of the rock mass, is proportional to the initial static force in the legs Fst,p. Th erefore a need for a careful selection of the initial load of the powered roof s upport, according to the local mining and geological conditions, results from su ch a statement. Setting the legs with the supporting load exceeding the indispen sable value for keeping the direct roof solids in balance, deteriorating the ope rational parameters of a longwall system also has a disadvantageous influence on the value of the force in the legs and the rate of its increase, caused by a dy namic interaction of the rock mass. A correct selection of the initial load caus es a decrease in the intensity of a dynamic interaction of the rock mass on powe red roof supports, which also has an advantageous influence on their life.   Simultaneously with the measurements of the resultant force in the legs, the vertical acceleration of the canopy was also recorded. It has enabled to prove that the exte rnal dynamic forces may act on the unit both from the roof as well as from the f loor. The changes of the force in the legs caused by dynamic phenomena intrinsic ally created in the roof and changes of the force in the legs caused by blasting explosives in the roof of the working, have been analyzed separately. It has been stated that an increase in the loads of legs, caused by intrinsi c phenomena is significantly higher than a force increase in the legs caused by blasting. It means that powered roof supports, to be operated in the workings, w here the bumping hazard occurs, will also transmit the loads

  16. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  17. Big Data-Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.G. Aruna Sri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Big data is the term for any gathering of information sets, so expensive and complex, that it gets to be hard to process for utilizing customary information handling applications. The difficulties incorporate investigation, catch, duration, inquiry, sharing, stockpiling, Exchange, perception, and protection infringement. To reduce spot business patterns, anticipate diseases, conflict etc., we require bigger data sets when compared with the smaller data sets. Enormous information is hard to work with utilizing most social database administration frameworks and desktop measurements and perception bundles, needing rather enormously parallel programming running on tens, hundreds, or even a large number of servers. In this paper there was an observation on Hadoop architecture, different tools used for big data and its security issues.

  18. Finding the big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Lyman A; Partridge, R Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Cosmology, the study of the universe as a whole, has become a precise physical science, the foundation of which is our understanding of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) left from the big bang. The story of the discovery and exploration of the CMBR in the 1960s is recalled for the first time in this collection of 44 essays by eminent scientists who pioneered the work. Two introductory chapters put the essays in context, explaining the general ideas behind the expanding universe and fossil remnants from the early stages of the expanding universe. The last chapter describes how the confusion of ideas and measurements in the 1960s grew into the present tight network of tests that demonstrate the accuracy of the big bang theory. This book is valuable to anyone interested in how science is done, and what it has taught us about the large-scale nature of the physical universe.

  19. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Klinkby Madsen, Anders; Rasche, Andreas

    data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects......This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... of international development agendas to algorithms that synthesize large-scale data, (3) novel ways of rationalizing knowledge claims that underlie development efforts, and (4) shifts in professional and organizational identities of those concerned with producing and processing data for development. Our discussion...

  20. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.; Billingon, D.E.; Cameron, R.F.; Curl, S.J.

    1983-09-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but just imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the risks of nuclear power. The paper reviews the way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past and makes recommendations for the future, including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'loss of life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and 'equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking'. The paper presents mathematical arguments, which show the derivation and validity of the proposed methods of presenting the consequences of imaginable big nuclear accidents. (author)

  1. Big Bounce and inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizuela, David; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A; Pawlowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of an inhomogeneous universe is studied with the methods of loop quantum cosmology, via a so-called hybrid quantization, as an example of the quantization of vacuum cosmological spacetimes containing gravitational waves (Gowdy spacetimes). The analysis of this model with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, performed at the effective level, shows that (i) the initial Big Bang singularity is replaced (as in the case of homogeneous cosmological models) by a Big Bounce, joining deterministically two large universes, (ii) the universe size at the bounce is at least of the same order of magnitude as that of the background homogeneous universe and (iii) for each gravitational wave mode, the difference in amplitude at very early and very late times has a vanishing statistical average when the bounce dynamics is strongly dominated by the inhomogeneities, whereas this average is positive when the dynamics is in a near-vacuum regime, so that statistically the inhomogeneities are amplified. (fast track communication)

  2. Big Data and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Shaw

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequencers, Twitter, MRIs, Facebook, particle accelerators, Google Books, radio telescopes, Tumblr: what do these things have in common? According to the evangelists of “data science,” all of these are instruments for observing reality at unprecedentedly large scales and fine granularities. This perspective ignores the social reality of these very different technological systems, ignoring how they are made, how they work, and what they mean in favor of an exclusive focus on what they generate: Big Data. But no data, big or small, can be interpreted without an understanding of the process that generated them. Statistical data science is applicable to systems that have been designed as scientific instruments, but is likely to lead to confusion when applied to systems that have not. In those cases, a historical inquiry is preferable.

  3. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  4. Big Bang Circus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Big Bang Circus is an opera I composed in 2001 and which was premiered at the Venice Biennale Contemporary Music Festival in 2002. A chamber group, four singers and a ringmaster stage the story of the Universe confronting and interweaving two threads: how early man imagined it and how scientists described it. Surprisingly enough fancy, myths and scientific explanations often end up using the same images, metaphors and sometimes even words: a strong tension, a drumskin starting to vibrate, a shout…

  5. Big Bang 5

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 5 RG behandelt die Grundlagen (Maßsystem, Größenordnungen) und die Mechanik (Translation, Rotation, Kraft, Erhaltungssätze).

  6. Big Bang 8

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Band 8 vermittelt auf verständliche Weise Relativitätstheorie, Kern- und Teilchenphysik (und deren Anwendungen in der Kosmologie und Astrophysik), Nanotechnologie sowie Bionik.

  7. Big Bang 6

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 6 RG behandelt die Gravitation, Schwingungen und Wellen, Thermodynamik und eine Einführung in die Elektrizität anhand von Alltagsbeispielen und Querverbindungen zu anderen Disziplinen.

  8. Big Bang 7

    CERN Document Server

    Apolin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. In Band 7 werden neben einer Einführung auch viele aktuelle Aspekte von Quantenmechanik (z. Beamen) und Elektrodynamik (zB Elektrosmog), sowie die Klimaproblematik und die Chaostheorie behandelt.

  9. Big Bang Darkleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaic, Gordan; Sigurdson, Kris

    2014-01-01

    In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis , a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD , which generica...

  10. Big³. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C U; Séroussi, B; Jaulent, M-C

    2014-05-22

    To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. 'Big Data' has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that 'Big Data' will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics - some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of 'Big Data' today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016.

  11. Recent big flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Fumio; Miyazawa, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Yoshisuke

    1978-01-01

    The features of three big solar flares observed at Tokyo Observatory are described in this paper. The active region, McMath 14943, caused a big flare on September 16, 1977. The flare appeared on both sides of a long dark line which runs along the boundary of the magnetic field. Two-ribbon structure was seen. The electron density of the flare observed at Norikura Corona Observatory was 3 x 10 12 /cc. Several arc lines which connect both bright regions of different magnetic polarity were seen in H-α monochrome image. The active region, McMath 15056, caused a big flare on December 10, 1977. At the beginning, several bright spots were observed in the region between two main solar spots. Then, the area and the brightness increased, and the bright spots became two ribbon-shaped bands. A solar flare was observed on April 8, 1978. At first, several bright spots were seen around the solar spot in the active region, McMath 15221. Then, these bright spots developed to a large bright region. On both sides of a dark line along the magnetic neutral line, bright regions were generated. These developed to a two-ribbon flare. The time required for growth was more than one hour. A bright arc which connects two ribbons was seen, and this arc may be a loop prominence system. (Kato, T.)

  12. Big Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Dagliati, Arianna; Sacchi, Lucia; Segagni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The so-called big data revolution provides substantial opportunities to diabetes management. At least 3 important directions are currently of great interest. First, the integration of different sources of information, from primary and secondary care to administrative information, may allow depicting a novel view of patient’s care processes and of single patient’s behaviors, taking into account the multifaceted nature of chronic care. Second, the availability of novel diabetes technologies, able to gather large amounts of real-time data, requires the implementation of distributed platforms for data analysis and decision support. Finally, the inclusion of geographical and environmental information into such complex IT systems may further increase the capability of interpreting the data gathered and extract new knowledge from them. This article reviews the main concepts and definitions related to big data, it presents some efforts in health care, and discusses the potential role of big data in diabetes care. Finally, as an example, it describes the research efforts carried on in the MOSAIC project, funded by the European Commission. PMID:25910540

  13. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C; Rodríguez-Gómez, D; Ward, J

    2007-01-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...

  14. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  15. Thermal cycling reliability of Cu/SnAg double-bump flip chip assemblies for 100 μm pitch applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ho-Young; Kim, Ilho; Lee, Soon-Bok; Jung, Gi-Jo; Park, Byung-Jin; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2009-01-01

    A thick Cu column based double-bump flip chip structure is one of the promising alternatives for fine pitch flip chip applications. In this study, the thermal cycling (T/C) reliability of Cu/SnAg double-bump flip chip assemblies was investigated, and the failure mechanism was analyzed through the correlation of T/C test and the finite element analysis (FEA) results. After 1000 thermal cycles, T/C failures occurred at some Cu/SnAg bumps located at the edge and corner of chips. Scanning acoustic microscope analysis and scanning electron microscope observations indicated that the failure site was the Cu column/Si chip interface. It was identified by a FEA where the maximum stress concentration was located during T/C. During T/C, the Al pad between the Si chip and a Cu column bump was displaced due to thermomechanical stress. Based on the low cycle fatigue model, the accumulation of equivalent plastic strain resulted in thermal fatigue deformation of the Cu column bumps and ultimately reduced the thermal cycling lifetime. The maximum equivalent plastic strains of some bumps at the chip edge increased with an increased number of thermal cycles. However, equivalent plastic strains of the inner bumps did not increase regardless of the number of thermal cycles. In addition, the z-directional normal plastic strain ɛ22 was determined to be compressive and was a dominant component causing the plastic deformation of Cu/SnAg double bumps. As the number of thermal cycles increased, normal plastic strains in the perpendicular direction to the Si chip and shear strains were accumulated on the Cu column bumps at the chip edge at low temperature region. Thus it was found that the Al pad at the Si chip/Cu column interface underwent thermal fatigue deformation by compressive normal strain and the contact loss by displacement failure of the Al pad, the main T/C failure mode of the Cu/SnAg flip chip assembly, then occurred at the Si chip/Cu column interface shear strain deformation

  16. Disaggregating asthma: Big investigation versus big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Big data and educational research

    OpenAIRE

    Beneito-Montagut, Roser

    2017-01-01

    Big data and data analytics offer the promise to enhance teaching and learning, improve educational research and progress education governance. This chapter aims to contribute to the conceptual and methodological understanding of big data and analytics within educational research. It describes the opportunities and challenges that big data and analytics bring to education as well as critically explore the perils of applying a data driven approach to education. Despite the claimed value of the...

  18. The trashing of Big Green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature

  19. Big data in fashion industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.; Bruniaux, J.; Zeng, X.; Bruniaux, P.

    2017-10-01

    Significant work has been done in the field of big data in last decade. The concept of big data includes analysing voluminous data to extract valuable information. In the fashion world, big data is increasingly playing a part in trend forecasting, analysing consumer behaviour, preference and emotions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the term fashion data and why it can be considered as big data. It also gives a broad classification of the types of fashion data and briefly defines them. Also, the methodology and working of a system that will use this data is briefly described.

  20. Big Data Analytics An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Dwivedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a data beyond the storage capacity and beyond the processing power is called big data. Big data term is used for data sets its so large or complex that traditional data it involves data sets with sizes. Big data size is a constantly moving target year by year ranging from a few dozen terabytes to many petabytes of data means like social networking sites the amount of data produced by people is growing rapidly every year. Big data is not only a data rather it become a complete subject which includes various tools techniques and framework. It defines the epidemic possibility and evolvement of data both structured and unstructured. Big data is a set of techniques and technologies that require new forms of assimilate to uncover large hidden values from large datasets that are diverse complex and of a massive scale. It is difficult to work with using most relational database management systems and desktop statistics and visualization packages exacting preferably massively parallel software running on tens hundreds or even thousands of servers. Big data environment is used to grab organize and resolve the various types of data. In this paper we describe applications problems and tools of big data and gives overview of big data.

  1. Was there a big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, J.

    1981-01-01

    In discussing the viability of the big-bang model of the Universe relative evidence is examined including the discrepancies in the age of the big-bang Universe, the red shifts of quasars, the microwave background radiation, general theory of relativity aspects such as the change of the gravitational constant with time, and quantum theory considerations. It is felt that the arguments considered show that the big-bang picture is not as soundly established, either theoretically or observationally, as it is usually claimed to be, that the cosmological problem is still wide open and alternatives to the standard big-bang picture should be seriously investigated. (U.K.)

  2. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  3. Privacy and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri

  4. Visualizing big energy data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyndman, Rob J.; Liu, Xueqin Amy; Pinson, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Visualization is a crucial component of data analysis. It is always a good idea to plot the data before fitting models, making predictions, or drawing conclusions. As sensors of the electric grid are collecting large volumes of data from various sources, power industry professionals are facing th...... the challenge of visualizing such data in a timely fashion. In this article, we demonstrate several data-visualization solutions for big energy data through three case studies involving smart-meter data, phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, and probabilistic forecasts, respectively....

  5. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  6. Big data naturally rescaled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoop, Ruedi; Kanders, Karlis; Lorimer, Tom; Held, Jenny; Albert, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We propose that a handle could be put on big data by looking at the systems that actually generate the data, rather than the data itself, realizing that there may be only few generic processes involved in this, each one imprinting its very specific structures in the space of systems, the traces of which translate into feature space. From this, we propose a practical computational clustering approach, optimized for coping with such data, inspired by how the human cortex is known to approach the problem.

  7. A Matrix Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matr...

  8. BIG Data - BIG Gains? Understanding the Link Between Big Data Analytics and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Niebel, Thomas; Rasel, Fabienne; Viete, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between firms’ use of big data analytics and their innovative performance for product innovations. Since big data technologies provide new data information practices, they create new decision-making possibilities, which firms can use to realize innovations. Applying German firm-level data we find suggestive evidence that big data analytics matters for the likelihood of becoming a product innovator as well as the market success of the firms’ product innovat...

  9. BIG data - BIG gains? Empirical evidence on the link between big data analytics and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Niebel, Thomas; Rasel, Fabienne; Viete, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between firms’ use of big data analytics and their innovative performance in terms of product innovations. Since big data technologies provide new data information practices, they create novel decision-making possibilities, which are widely believed to support firms’ innovation process. Applying German firm-level data within a knowledge production function framework we find suggestive evidence that big data analytics is a relevant determinant for the likel...

  10. [Big data in imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerin, Philipp; Ostendorf, Benedikt; Hueber, Axel J; Kleyer, Arnd

    2018-04-01

    Until now, most major medical advancements have been achieved through hypothesis-driven research within the scope of clinical trials. However, due to a multitude of variables, only a certain number of research questions could be addressed during a single study, thus rendering these studies expensive and time consuming. Big data acquisition enables a new data-based approach in which large volumes of data can be used to investigate all variables, thus opening new horizons. Due to universal digitalization of the data as well as ever-improving hard- and software solutions, imaging would appear to be predestined for such analyses. Several small studies have already demonstrated that automated analysis algorithms and artificial intelligence can identify pathologies with high precision. Such automated systems would also seem well suited for rheumatology imaging, since a method for individualized risk stratification has long been sought for these patients. However, despite all the promising options, the heterogeneity of the data and highly complex regulations covering data protection in Germany would still render a big data solution for imaging difficult today. Overcoming these boundaries is challenging, but the enormous potential advances in clinical management and science render pursuit of this goal worthwhile.

  11. Big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.

    2006-01-01

    We present an overview of the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), which describes the production of the light elements in the early universe. The theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, 3 He, 4 He, and 7 Li is discussed. We emphasize the role of key nuclear reactions and the methods by which experimental cross section uncertainties are propagated into uncertainties in the predicted abundances. The observational determination of the light nuclides is also discussed. Particular attention is given to the comparison between the predicted and observed abundances, which yields a measurement of the cosmic baryon content. The spectrum of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) now independently measures the baryon density to high precision; we show how the CMB data test BBN, and find that the CMB and the D and 4 He observations paint a consistent picture. This concordance stands as a major success of the hot big bang. On the other hand, 7 Li remains discrepant with the CMB-preferred baryon density; possible explanations are reviewed. Finally, moving beyond the standard model, primordial nucleosynthesis constraints on early universe and particle physics are also briefly discussed

  12. Expanding Medicaid Access without Expanding Medicaid: Why Did Some Nonexpansion States Continue the Primary Care Fee Bump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Adam S; Evans, Leigh C; Jones, David K

    2018-02-01

    Six states that have rejected the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Medicaid expansion nonetheless extended the primary care "fee bump," by which the federal government increased Medicaid fees for primary care services up to 100 percent of Medicare fees during 2013-14. We conducted semistructured interviews with leaders in five of these states, as well as in three comparison states, to examine why they would continue a provision of the ACA that moderately expands access at significant state expense while rejecting the expansion and its large federal match, focusing on relevant economic, political, and procedural factors. We found that fee bump extension proposals were more successful where they were dissociated from major national policy debates, actionable with the input of relatively few stakeholder entities, and well aligned with preexisting policy-making structures and decision trends. Republican proposals to cap or reduce federal funding for Medicaid, if enacted, would compel states to contain program costs. In this context, states' established decision-making processes for updating Medicaid fee schedules, which we elucidate in this study, may shape the future of the Medicaid program. Copyright © 2018 by Duke University Press 2018.

  13. Nursing Needs Big Data and Big Data Needs Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary big data initiatives in health care will benefit from greater integration with nursing science and nursing practice; in turn, nursing science and nursing practice has much to gain from the data science initiatives. Big data arises secondary to scholarly inquiry (e.g., -omics) and everyday observations like cardiac flow sensors or Twitter feeds. Data science methods that are emerging ensure that these data be leveraged to improve patient care. Big data encompasses data that exceed human comprehension, that exist at a volume unmanageable by standard computer systems, that arrive at a velocity not under the control of the investigator and possess a level of imprecision not found in traditional inquiry. Data science methods are emerging to manage and gain insights from big data. The primary methods included investigation of emerging federal big data initiatives, and exploration of exemplars from nursing informatics research to benchmark where nursing is already poised to participate in the big data revolution. We provide observations and reflections on experiences in the emerging big data initiatives. Existing approaches to large data set analysis provide a necessary but not sufficient foundation for nursing to participate in the big data revolution. Nursing's Social Policy Statement guides a principled, ethical perspective on big data and data science. There are implications for basic and advanced practice clinical nurses in practice, for the nurse scientist who collaborates with data scientists, and for the nurse data scientist. Big data and data science has the potential to provide greater richness in understanding patient phenomena and in tailoring interventional strategies that are personalized to the patient. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Was the big bang hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The author considers experiments to confirm the substantial deviations from a Planck curve in the Woody and Richards spectrum of the microwave background, and search for conducting needles in our galaxy. Spectral deviations and needle-shaped grains are expected for a cold Big Bang, but are not required by a hot Big Bang. (Auth.)

  15. Ethische aspecten van big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. (Niek) van Antwerpen; Klaas Jan Mollema

    2017-01-01

    Big data heeft niet alleen geleid tot uitdagende technische vraagstukken, ook gaat het gepaard met allerlei nieuwe ethische en morele kwesties. Om verantwoord met big data om te gaan, moet ook over deze kwesties worden nagedacht. Want slecht datagebruik kan nadelige gevolgen hebben voor

  16. Fremtidens landbrug bliver big business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Landbrugets omverdensforhold og konkurrencevilkår ændres, og det vil nødvendiggøre en udvikling i retning af “big business“, hvor landbrugene bliver endnu større, mere industrialiserede og koncentrerede. Big business bliver en dominerende udvikling i dansk landbrug - men ikke den eneste...

  17. Human factors in Big Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J. de

    2016-01-01

    Since 2014 I am involved in various (research) projects that try to make the hype around Big Data more concrete and tangible for the industry and government. Big Data is about multiple sources of (real-time) data that can be analysed, transformed to information and be used to make 'smart' decisions.

  18. Passport to the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Le 2 juin 2013, le CERN inaugure le projet Passeport Big Bang lors d'un grand événement public. Affiche et programme. On 2 June 2013 CERN launches a scientific tourist trail through the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva known as the Passport to the Big Bang. Poster and Programme.

  19. Applications of Big Data in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Kalota

    2015-01-01

    Big Data and analytics have gained a huge momentum in recent years. Big Data feeds into the field of Learning Analytics (LA) that may allow academic institutions to better understand the learners' needs and proactively address them. Hence, it is important to have an understanding of Big Data and its applications. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to provide an overview of Big Data, the technologies used in Big Data, and some of the applications of Big Data in educa...

  20. Exploring complex and big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanowski Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how big data analysis opens a range of research and technological problems and calls for new approaches. We start with defining the essential properties of big data and discussing the main types of data involved. We then survey the dedicated solutions for storing and processing big data, including a data lake, virtual integration, and a polystore architecture. Difficulties in managing data quality and provenance are also highlighted. The characteristics of big data imply also specific requirements and challenges for data mining algorithms, which we address as well. The links with related areas, including data streams and deep learning, are discussed. The common theme that naturally emerges from this characterization is complexity. All in all, we consider it to be the truly defining feature of big data (posing particular research and technological challenges, which ultimately seems to be of greater importance than the sheer data volume.

  1. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.

    1977-01-01

    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  2. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  3. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  4. The big data telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    On a flat, red mulga plain in the outback of Western Australia, preparations are under way to build the most audacious telescope astronomers have ever dreamed of - the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Next-generation telescopes usually aim to double the performance of their predecessors. The Australian arm of SKA will deliver a 168-fold leap on the best technology available today, to show us the universe as never before. It will tune into signals emitted just a million years after the Big Bang, when the universe was a sea of hydrogen gas, slowly percolating with the first galaxies. Their starlight illuminated the fledgling universe in what is referred to as the “cosmic dawn”.

  5. The Big Optical Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Simon, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the capabilities of the Naval Research Laboratory Big Optical Array (BOA), an interferometric optical array for high-resolution imaging of stars, stellar systems, and other celestial objects. There are four important differences between the BOA design and the design of Mark III Optical Interferometer on Mount Wilson (California). These include a long passive delay line which will be used in BOA to do most of the delay compensation, so that the fast delay line will have a very short travel; the beam combination in BOA will be done in triplets, to allow measurement of closure phase; the same light will be used for both star and fringe tracking; and the fringe tracker will use several wavelength channels

  6. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1983-01-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  7. Nonstandard big bang models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvao, M.O.; Lima, J.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The usual FRW hot big-bang cosmologies have been generalized by considering the equation of state ρ = Anm +(γ-1) -1 p, where m is the rest mass of the fluid particles and A is a dimensionless constant. Explicit analytic solutions are given for the flat case (ε=O). For large cosmological times these extended models behave as the standard Einstein-de Sitter universes regardless of the values of A and γ. Unlike the usual FRW flat case the deceleration parameter q is a time-dependent function and its present value, q≅ 1, obtained from the luminosity distance versus redshift relation, may be fitted by taking, for instance, A=1 and γ = 5/3 (monatomic relativistic gas with >> k B T). In all cases the universe cools obeying the same temperature law of the FRW models and it is shown that the age of the universe is only slightly modified. (author) [pt

  8. The Last Big Bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, Austin D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    As one of the very few people in the world to give the “go/no go” decision to detonate a nuclear device, Austin “Mac” McGuire holds a very special place in the history of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the world. As Commander of Joint Task Force Unit 8.1.1, on Christmas Island in the spring and summer of 1962, Mac directed the Los Alamos data collection efforts for twelve of the last atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted by the United States. Since data collection was at the heart of nuclear weapon testing, it fell to Mac to make the ultimate decision to detonate each test device. He calls his experience THE LAST BIG BANG, since these tests, part of Operation Dominic, were characterized by the dramatic displays of the heat, light, and sounds unique to atmospheric nuclear detonations – never, perhaps, to be witnessed again.

  9. A matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control

  10. A matrix big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Verlinde, Erik [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  11. DPF Big One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    At its latest venue at Fermilab from 10-14 November, the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields meeting entered a new dimension. These regular meetings, which allow younger researchers to communicate with their peers, have been gaining popularity over the years (this was the seventh in the series), but nobody had expected almost a thousand participants and nearly 500 requests to give talks. Thus Fermilab's 800-seat auditorium had to be supplemented with another room with a video hookup, while the parallel sessions were organized into nine bewildering streams covering fourteen major physics topics. With the conventionality of the Standard Model virtually unchallenged, physics does not move fast these days. While most of the physics results had already been covered in principle at the International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Dallas in August (October, page 1), the Fermilab DPF meeting had a very different atmosphere. Major international meetings like Dallas attract big names from far and wide, and it is difficult in such an august atmosphere for young researchers to find a receptive audience. This was not the case at the DPF parallel sessions. The meeting also adopted a novel approach, with the parallels sandwiched between an initial day of plenaries to set the scene, and a final day of summaries. With the whole world waiting for the sixth ('top') quark to be discovered at Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, the meeting began with updates from Avi Yagil and Ronald Madaras from the big detectors, CDF and DO respectively. Although rumours flew thick and fast, the Tevatron has not yet reached the top, although Yagil could show one intriguing event of a type expected from the heaviest quark

  12. DPF Big One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-01-15

    At its latest venue at Fermilab from 10-14 November, the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields meeting entered a new dimension. These regular meetings, which allow younger researchers to communicate with their peers, have been gaining popularity over the years (this was the seventh in the series), but nobody had expected almost a thousand participants and nearly 500 requests to give talks. Thus Fermilab's 800-seat auditorium had to be supplemented with another room with a video hookup, while the parallel sessions were organized into nine bewildering streams covering fourteen major physics topics. With the conventionality of the Standard Model virtually unchallenged, physics does not move fast these days. While most of the physics results had already been covered in principle at the International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Dallas in August (October, page 1), the Fermilab DPF meeting had a very different atmosphere. Major international meetings like Dallas attract big names from far and wide, and it is difficult in such an august atmosphere for young researchers to find a receptive audience. This was not the case at the DPF parallel sessions. The meeting also adopted a novel approach, with the parallels sandwiched between an initial day of plenaries to set the scene, and a final day of summaries. With the whole world waiting for the sixth ('top') quark to be discovered at Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, the meeting began with updates from Avi Yagil and Ronald Madaras from the big detectors, CDF and DO respectively. Although rumours flew thick and fast, the Tevatron has not yet reached the top, although Yagil could show one intriguing event of a type expected from the heaviest quark.

  13. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.

    2007-01-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe

  14. BigOP: Generating Comprehensive Big Data Workloads as a Benchmarking Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yuqing; Zhan, Jianfeng; Weng, Chuliang; Nambiar, Raghunath; Zhang, Jinchao; Chen, Xingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Big Data is considered proprietary asset of companies, organizations, and even nations. Turning big data into real treasure requires the support of big data systems. A variety of commercial and open source products have been unleashed for big data storage and processing. While big data users are facing the choice of which system best suits their needs, big data system developers are facing the question of how to evaluate their systems with regard to general big data processing needs. System b...

  15. Self-similar bumps and wiggles: Isolating the evolution of the BAO peak with power-law initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orban, Chris; Weinberg, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by cosmological surveys that demand accurate theoretical modeling of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in galaxy clustering, we analyze N-body simulations in which a BAO-like Gaussian bump modulates the linear theory correlation function ξ L (r)=(r 0 /r) n+3 of an underlying self-similar model with initial power spectrum P(k)=Ak n . These simulations test physical and analytic descriptions of BAO evolution far beyond the range of most studies, since we consider a range of underlying power spectra (n=-0.5, -1, -1.5) and evolve simulations to large effective correlation amplitudes (equivalent to σ 8 =4-12 for r bao =100h -1 Mpc). In all cases, nonlinear evolution flattens and broadens the BAO bump in ξ(r) while approximately preserving its area. This evolution resembles a diffusion process in which the bump width σ bao is the quadrature sum of the linear theory width and a length proportional to the rms relative displacement Σ pair (r bao ) of particle pairs separated by r bao . For n=-0.5 and n=-1, we find no detectable shift of the location of the BAO peak, but the peak in the n=-1.5 model shifts steadily to smaller scales, following r peak /r bao =1-1.08(r 0 /r bao ) 1.5 . The perturbation theory scheme of McDonald (2007) [P. McDonald, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043514 (2007).] and, to a lesser extent, standard 1-loop perturbation theory are fairly successful at explaining the nonlinear evolution of the Fourier power spectrum of our models. Analytic models also explain why the ξ(r) peak shifts much more for n=-1.5 than for n≥-1, though no ab initio model we have examined reproduces all of our numerical results. Simulations with L box =10r bao and L box =20r bao yield consistent results for ξ(r) at the BAO scale, provided one corrects for the integral constraint imposed by the uniform density box.

  16. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. From big bang to big crunch and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, Shmuel; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Giveon, Amit; Kutasov, David

    2002-01-01

    We study a quotient Conformal Field Theory, which describes a 3+1 dimensional cosmological spacetime. Part of this spacetime is the Nappi-Witten (NW) universe, which starts at a 'big bang' singularity, expands and then contracts to a 'big crunch' singularity at a finite time. The gauged WZW model contains a number of copies of the NW spacetime, with each copy connected to the preceding one and to the next one at the respective big bang/big crunch singularities. The sequence of NW spacetimes is further connected at the singularities to a series of non-compact static regions with closed timelike curves. These regions contain boundaries, on which the observables of the theory live. This suggests a holographic interpretation of the physics. (author)

  18. Putting Together a Blue Sky: Laying the Foundation for Staff Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Jeny

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation time can be like putting together a 5,000-piece jigsaw puzzle that is all sky--what, exactly, is the point? When all is said and done, one ends up with a big blue blob--nothing to show for all the effort. However, it doesn't have to be that way. Performance reviews can and should be an effective means of communication for both parties…

  19. Google BigQuery analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Tigani, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    How to effectively use BigQuery, avoid common mistakes, and execute sophisticated queries against large datasets Google BigQuery Analytics is the perfect guide for business and data analysts who want the latest tips on running complex queries and writing code to communicate with the BigQuery API. The book uses real-world examples to demonstrate current best practices and techniques, and also explains and demonstrates streaming ingestion, transformation via Hadoop in Google Compute engine, AppEngine datastore integration, and using GViz with Tableau to generate charts of query results. In addit

  20. Empathy and the Big Five

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Del Barrio et al. (2004) haben vor mehr als 10 Jahren versucht, eine direkte Beziehung zwischen Empathie und den Big Five herzustellen. Im Mittel hatten in ihrer Stichprobe Frauen höhere Werte in der Empathie und auf den Big Five-Faktoren mit Ausnahme des Faktors Neurotizismus. Zusammenhänge zu Empathie fanden sie in den Bereichen Offenheit, Verträglichkeit, Gewissenhaftigkeit und Extraversion. In unseren Daten besitzen Frauen sowohl in der Empathie als auch den Big Five signifikant höhere We...

  1. "Big data" in economic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Myron P; Merchant, Emily Klancher; Roberts, Evan

    2018-03-01

    Big data is an exciting prospect for the field of economic history, which has long depended on the acquisition, keying, and cleaning of scarce numerical information about the past. This article examines two areas in which economic historians are already using big data - population and environment - discussing ways in which increased frequency of observation, denser samples, and smaller geographic units allow us to analyze the past with greater precision and often to track individuals, places, and phenomena across time. We also explore promising new sources of big data: organically created economic data, high resolution images, and textual corpora.

  2. Big Data as Information Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers analysis of ‘Big Data’ which has been discussed over last 10 years. The reasons and factors for the issue are revealed. It has proved that the factors creating ‘Big Data’ issue has existed for quite a long time, and from time to time, would cause the informational barriers. Such barriers were successfully overcome through the science and technologies. The conducted analysis refers the “Big Data” issue to a form of informative barrier. This issue may be solved correctly and encourages development of scientific and calculating methods.

  3. Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behaviour is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

  4. Big Data in Space Science

    OpenAIRE

    Barmby, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    It seems like “big data” is everywhere these days. In planetary science and astronomy, we’ve been dealing with large datasets for a long time. So how “big” is our data? How does it compare to the big data that a bank or an airline might have? What new tools do we need to analyze big datasets, and how can we make better use of existing tools? What kinds of science problems can we address with these? I’ll address these questions with examples including ESA’s Gaia mission, ...

  5. Rate Change Big Bang Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The Rate Change Big Bang Theory redefines the birth of the universe with a dramatic shift in energy direction and a new vision of the first moments. With rate change graph technology (RCGT) we can look back 13.7 billion years and experience every step of the big bang through geometrical intersection technology. The analysis of the Big Bang includes a visualization of the first objects, their properties, the astounding event that created space and time as well as a solution to the mystery of anti-matter.

  6. Big Data is invading big places as CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Big Data technologies are becoming more popular with the constant grow of data generation in different fields such as social networks, internet of things and laboratories like CERN. How is CERN making use of such technologies? How machine learning is applied at CERN with Big Data technologies? How much data we move and how it is analyzed? All these questions will be answered during the talk.

  7. The ethics of big data in big agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell (Isabelle M.)

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the ethics of big data in agriculture, focusing on the power asymmetry between farmers and large agribusinesses like Monsanto. Following the recent purchase of Climate Corp., Monsanto is currently the most prominent biotech agribusiness to buy into big data. With wireless sensors on tractors monitoring or dictating every decision a farmer makes, Monsanto can now aggregate large quantities of previously proprietary farming data, enabling a privileged position with unique in...

  8. Effect of Joint Scale and Processing on the Fracture of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints: Application to Micro-bumps in 3D Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebanpour, B.; Huang, Z.; Chen, Z.; Dutta, I.

    2016-01-01

    In 3-dimensional (3D) packages, a stack of dies is vertically connected to each other using through-silicon vias and very thin solder micro-bumps. The thinness of the micro-bumps results in joints with a very high volumetric proportion of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), rendering them much more brittle compared to conventional joints. Because of this, the reliability of micro-bumps, and the dependence thereof on the proportion of IMC in the joint, is of substantial concern. In this paper, the growth kinetics of IMCs in thin Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu joints attached to Cu substrates were analyzed, and empirical kinetic laws for the growth of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn in thin joints were obtained. Modified compact mixed mode fracture mechanics samples, with adhesive solder joints between massive Cu substrates, having similar thickness and IMC content as actual micro-bumps, were produced. The effects of IMC proportion and strain rate on fracture toughness and mechanisms were investigated. It was found that the fracture toughness G C decreased with decreasing joint thickness ( h Joint). In addition, the fracture toughness decreased with increasing strain rate. Aging also promoted alternation of the crack path between the two joint-substrate interfaces, possibly proffering a mechanism to enhance fracture toughness.

  9. Simulation studies of plasma waves in the electron foreshock - The generation of Langmuir waves by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    Particle simulation experiments were used to study the basic physical ingredients needed for building a global model of foreshock wave phenomena. In particular, the generation of Langmuir waves by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution is analyzed. It is shown that, with appropriately designed simulations experiments, quasi-linear theory can be quantitatively verified for parameters corresponding to the electron foreshock.

  10. Transient and steady state behaviour of elasto–aerodynamic air foil bearings, considering bump foil compliance and top foil inertia and flexibility: A numerical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2017-01-01

    utilise two types of eight-node isoparametric elements. The rotor is modelled as a rigid body without rotational inertia, i.e. as a journal. The bump foil is included via a bilinear version of the simple elastic foundation model. This paper introduces the bilinear simple elastic foundation model, which...

  11. Big climate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudelsee, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The Big Data era has begun also in the climate sciences, not only in economics or molecular biology. We measure climate at increasing spatial resolution by means of satellites and look farther back in time at increasing temporal resolution by means of natural archives and proxy data. We use powerful supercomputers to run climate models. The model output of the calculations made for the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report amounts to ~650 TB. The 'scientific evolution' of grid computing has started, and the 'scientific revolution' of quantum computing is being prepared. This will increase computing power, and data amount, by several orders of magnitude in the future. However, more data does not automatically mean more knowledge. We need statisticians, who are at the core of transforming data into knowledge. Statisticians notably also explore the limits of our knowledge (uncertainties, that is, confidence intervals and P-values). Mudelsee (2014 Climate Time Series Analysis: Classical Statistical and Bootstrap Methods. Second edition. Springer, Cham, xxxii + 454 pp.) coined the term 'optimal estimation'. Consider the hyperspace of climate estimation. It has many, but not infinite, dimensions. It consists of the three subspaces Monte Carlo design, method and measure. The Monte Carlo design describes the data generating process. The method subspace describes the estimation and confidence interval construction. The measure subspace describes how to detect the optimal estimation method for the Monte Carlo experiment. The envisaged large increase in computing power may bring the following idea of optimal climate estimation into existence. Given a data sample, some prior information (e.g. measurement standard errors) and a set of questions (parameters to be estimated), the first task is simple: perform an initial estimation on basis of existing knowledge and experience with such types of estimation problems. The second task requires the computing power: explore the hyperspace to

  12. Hey, big spender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2000-04-01

    Business to business electronic commerce is looming large in the future of the oil industry. It is estimated that by adopting e-commerce the industry could achieve bottom line savings of between $1.8 to $ 3.4 billion a year on annual gross revenues in excess of $ 30 billion. At present there are several teething problems to overcome such as inter-operability standards, which are at least two or three years away. Tying in electronically with specific suppliers is also an expensive proposition, although the big benefits are in fact in doing business with the same suppliers on a continuing basis. Despite these problems, 14 of the world's largest energy and petrochemical companies joined forces in mid-April to create a single Internet procurement marketplace for the industry's complex supply chain. The exchange was designed by B2B (business-to-business) software provider, Commerce One Inc., ; it will leverage the buying clout of these industry giants (BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell Group, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Phillips Petroleum, Unocal Corporation and Statoil among them), currently about $ 125 billion on procurement per year; they hope to save between 5 to 30 per cent depending on the product and the region involved. Other similar schemes such as Chevron and partners' Petrocosm Marketplace, Network Oil, a Houston-based Internet portal aimed at smaller petroleum companies, are also doing business in the $ 10 billion per annum range. e-Energy, a cooperative project between IBM Ericson and Telus Advertising is another neutral, virtual marketplace targeted at the oil and gas sector. PetroTRAX, a Calgary-based website plans to take online procurement and auction sales a big step forward by establishing a portal to handle any oil company's asset management needs. There are also a number of websites targeting specific needs: IndigoPool.com (acquisitions and divestitures) and WellBid.com (products related to upstream oil and gas operators) are just

  13. Hey, big spender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, G.

    2000-01-01

    Business to business electronic commerce is looming large in the future of the oil industry. It is estimated that by adopting e-commerce the industry could achieve bottom line savings of between $1.8 to $ 3.4 billion a year on annual gross revenues in excess of $ 30 billion. At present there are several teething problems to overcome such as inter-operability standards, which are at least two or three years away. Tying in electronically with specific suppliers is also an expensive proposition, although the big benefits are in fact in doing business with the same suppliers on a continuing basis. Despite these problems, 14 of the world's largest energy and petrochemical companies joined forces in mid-April to create a single Internet procurement marketplace for the industry's complex supply chain. The exchange was designed by B2B (business-to-business) software provider, Commerce One Inc., ; it will leverage the buying clout of these industry giants (BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell Group, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Phillips Petroleum, Unocal Corporation and Statoil among them), currently about $ 125 billion on procurement per year; they hope to save between 5 to 30 per cent depending on the product and the region involved. Other similar schemes such as Chevron and partners' Petrocosm Marketplace, Network Oil, a Houston-based Internet portal aimed at smaller petroleum companies, are also doing business in the $ 10 billion per annum range. e-Energy, a cooperative project between IBM Ericson and Telus Advertising is another neutral, virtual marketplace targeted at the oil and gas sector. PetroTRAX, a Calgary-based website plans to take online procurement and auction sales a big step forward by establishing a portal to handle any oil company's asset management needs. There are also a number of websites targeting specific needs: IndigoPool.com (acquisitions and divestitures) and WellBid.com (products related to upstream oil and gas operators) are just two examples. All in

  14. Methods and tools for big data visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Zubova, Jelena; Kurasova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, methods and tools for big data visualization have been investigated. Challenges faced by the big data analysis and visualization have been identified. Technologies for big data analysis have been discussed. A review of methods and tools for big data visualization has been done. Functionalities of the tools have been demonstrated by examples in order to highlight their advantages and disadvantages.

  15. Measuring the Promise of Big Data Syllabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alon

    2018-01-01

    Growing interest in Big Data is leading industries, academics and governments to accelerate Big Data research. However, how teachers should teach Big Data has not been fully examined. This article suggests criteria for redesigning Big Data syllabi in public and private degree-awarding higher education establishments. The author conducted a survey…

  16. Investigation Of The Effects Of Reflow Profile Parameters On Lead-free Solder Bump Volumes And Joint Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalu, E. H.; Lui, Y. T.; Ekere, N. N.; Bhatti, R. S.; Takyi, G.

    2011-01-01

    The electronics manufacturing industry was quick to adopt and use the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) assembly technique on realization of its huge potentials in achieving smaller, lighter and low cost product implementations. Increasing global customer demand for miniaturized electronic products is a key driver in the design, development and wide application of high-density area array package format. Electronic components and their associated solder joints have reduced in size as the miniaturization trend in packaging continues to be challenged by printing through very small stencil apertures required for fine pitch flip-chip applications. At very narrow aperture sizes, solder paste rheology becomes crucial for consistent paste withdrawal. The deposition of consistent volume of solder from pad-to-pad is fundamental to minimizing surface mount assembly defects. This study investigates the relationship between volume of solder paste deposit (VSPD) and the volume of solder bump formed (VSBF) after reflow, and the effect of reflow profile parameters on lead-free solder bump formation and the associated solder joint integrity. The study uses a fractional factorial design (FFD) of 24-1 Ramp-Soak-Spike reflow profile, with all main effects and two-way interactions estimable to determine the optimal factorial combination. The results from the study show that the percentage change in the VSPD depends on the combination of the process parameters and reliability issues could become critical as the size of solder joints soldered on the same board assembly vary greatly. Mathematical models describe the relationships among VSPD, VSBF and theoretical volume of solder paste. Some factors have main effects across the volumes and a number of interactions exist among them. These results would be useful for R&D personnel in designing and implementing newer applications with finer-pitch interconnect.

  17. The BigBOSS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  18. Evaluation of Blue Gum Chalid Infestation Woodlots in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuoma, J.; Muchiri, M.N

    2007-01-01

    Blue gum chalcid (BGC) Leptocybe invasa is a gall-forming wasp that belongs to the insect order Hymenoptera, family Eulophidae. It attacks a wide range of Eucalyptus species mostly between the seedling stage and five years of age. BGC causes damage to eucalyptus by forming bump-shaped galls on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems.Twisted and knobbed leaves manifest severe infestation. The aim of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of BGC and extent of host plant damage in Eucalyptus woodlots in Western Kenya. The study was carried out in six permanent sampling plots in Eucalyptus woodlots in Busia, Bungoma, Kakamega and Nyando. Trees were assessed for crown damage by estimating and classifying the density of galls on the leaves into four levels of infestation: low (greater than 50% of foliage canopy with galls and no twisted or knobbed leaves), moderate (greater than 50% of foliage with galls and less than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed), high (greater than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed, galls on the twigs and some twigs deformed and severe (greater than 50% of the twigs deformed and regeneration foliage observed). An evaluation of the pests' infestation and the extent of host plant damage indicated that, 4% of the trees and severe infestation; 5% high; 20% moderate and 70% low. Approximately 1% of trees died as a result of loss of foliage attributable to severe infestation. Other observations from the study were that the severity of BGC infestation tended to decline as trees grew older and BGC infestation retarded tree growth

  19. Biophotonics: the big picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Popp, Jürgen; Wilson, Brian C.

    2018-02-01

    The 5th International Conference on Biophotonics (ICOB) held April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia, brought together opinion leaders to discuss future directions for the field and opportunities to consider. The first session of the conference, "How to Set a Big Picture Biophotonics Agenda," was focused on setting the stage for developing a vision and strategies for translation and impact on society of biophotonic technologies. The invited speakers, panelists, and attendees engaged in discussions that focused on opportunities and promising applications for biophotonic techniques, challenges when working at the confluence of the physical and biological sciences, driving factors for advances of biophotonic technologies, and educational opportunities. We share a summary of the presentations and discussions. Three main themes from the conference are presented in this position paper that capture the current status, opportunities, challenges, and future directions of biophotonics research and key areas of applications: (1) biophotonics at the nano- to microscale level; (2) biophotonics at meso- to macroscale level; and (3) biophotonics and the clinical translation conundrum.

  20. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  1. Big bang darkleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Krnjaic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis, a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN, in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD, which generically yields large (≫MeV/dark-nucleon binding energies. These bounds further suggest the mediator is relatively weakly coupled, so repulsive forces between dark-sector nuclei are much weaker than Coulomb repulsion between standard-model nuclei, which results in an exponential barrier-tunneling enhancement over standard BBN. Thus, darklei are easier to make and harder to break than visible species with comparable mass numbers. This process can efficiently yield a dominant population of states with masses significantly greater than the confinement scale and, in contrast to dark matter that is a fundamental particle, may allow the dominant form of dark matter to have high spin (S≫3/2, whose discovery would be smoking gun evidence for dark nuclei.

  2. Predicting big bang deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, N.; Scherrer, R.J.; Steigman, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, T.P. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    We present new upper and lower bounds to the primordial abundances of deuterium and {sup 3}He based on observational data from the solar system and the interstellar medium. Independent of any model for the primordial production of the elements we find (at the 95{percent} C.L.): 1.5{times}10{sup {minus}5}{le}(D/H){sub {ital P}}{le}10.0{times}10{sup {minus}5} and ({sup 3}He/H){sub {ital P}}{le}2.6{times}10{sup {minus}5}. When combined with the predictions of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, these constraints lead to a 95{percent} C.L. bound on the primordial abundance deuterium: (D/H){sub best}=(3.5{sup +2.7}{sub {minus}1.8}){times}10{sup {minus}5}. Measurements of deuterium absorption in the spectra of high-redshift QSOs will directly test this prediction. The implications of this prediction for the primordial abundances of {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li are discussed, as well as those for the universal density of baryons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  3. Big bang darkleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnjaic, Gordan; Sigurdson, Kris

    2015-12-01

    In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis, a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD, which generically yields large (≫MeV /dark-nucleon) binding energies. These bounds further suggest the mediator is relatively weakly coupled, so repulsive forces between dark-sector nuclei are much weaker than Coulomb repulsion between standard-model nuclei, which results in an exponential barrier-tunneling enhancement over standard BBN. Thus, darklei are easier to make and harder to break than visible species with comparable mass numbers. This process can efficiently yield a dominant population of states with masses significantly greater than the confinement scale and, in contrast to dark matter that is a fundamental particle, may allow the dominant form of dark matter to have high spin (S ≫ 3 / 2), whose discovery would be smoking gun evidence for dark nuclei.

  4. The role of big laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Heuer, Rolf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward.

  5. The role of big laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, R-D

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward. (paper)

  6. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  7. Crystalline liquids: the blue phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David C.; Mermin, N. David

    1989-04-01

    The blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals are liquids that exhibit orientational order characterized by crystallographic space-group symmetries. We present here a pedagogical introduction to the current understanding of the equilibrium structure of these phases accompanied by a general overview of major experimental results. Using the Ginzburg-Landau free energy appropriate to the system, we first discuss in detail the character and stability of the usual helical phase of cholesterics, showing that for certain parameter ranges the helical phase is unstable to the appearance of one or more blue phases. The two principal models for the blue phases are two limiting cases of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. We explore each limit and conclude with some general considerations of defects in both models and an exact minimization of the free energy in a curved three-dimensional space.

  8. Generalized formal model of Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhovska, N.; Veres, O.; Hirnyak, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article dwells on the basic characteristic features of the Big Data technologies. It is analyzed the existing definition of the “big data” term. The article proposes and describes the elements of the generalized formal model of big data. It is analyzed the peculiarities of the application of the proposed model components. It is described the fundamental differences between Big Data technology and business analytics. Big Data is supported by the distributed file system Google File System ...

  9. Origin of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.; Iungelson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The origin of field faint blue stars that are placed in the HR diagram to the left of the main sequence is discussed. These include degenerate dwarfs and O and B subdwarfs. Degenerate dwarfs belong to two main populations with helium and carbon-oxygen cores. The majority of the hot subdwarfs most possibly are helium nondegenerate stars that are produced by mass exchange close binaries of moderate mass cores (3-15 solar masses). The theoretical estimates of the numbers of faint blue stars of different types brighter than certain stellar magnitudes agree with star counts based on the Palomar Green Survey. 28 references

  10. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  11. [Big data in official statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany.

  12. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  13. Official statistics and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Struijs

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Big Data changes the context in which organisations producing official statistics operate. Big Data provides opportunities, but in order to make optimal use of Big Data, a number of challenges have to be addressed. This stimulates increased collaboration between National Statistical Institutes, Big Data holders, businesses and universities. In time, this may lead to a shift in the role of statistical institutes in the provision of high-quality and impartial statistical information to society. In this paper, the changes in context, the opportunities, the challenges and the way to collaborate are addressed. The collaboration between the various stakeholders will involve each partner building on and contributing different strengths. For national statistical offices, traditional strengths include, on the one hand, the ability to collect data and combine data sources with statistical products and, on the other hand, their focus on quality, transparency and sound methodology. In the Big Data era of competing and multiplying data sources, they continue to have a unique knowledge of official statistical production methods. And their impartiality and respect for privacy as enshrined in law uniquely position them as a trusted third party. Based on this, they may advise on the quality and validity of information of various sources. By thus positioning themselves, they will be able to play their role as key information providers in a changing society.

  14. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  15. Quantum fields in a big-crunch-big-bang spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolley, Andrew J.; Turok, Neil

    2002-01-01

    We consider quantum field theory on a spacetime representing the big-crunch-big-bang transition postulated in ekpyrotic or cyclic cosmologies. We show via several independent methods that an essentially unique matching rule holds connecting the incoming state, in which a single extra dimension shrinks to zero, to the outgoing state in which it reexpands at the same rate. For free fields in our construction there is no particle production from the incoming adiabatic vacuum. When interactions are included the particle production for fixed external momentum is finite at the tree level. We discuss a formal correspondence between our construction and quantum field theory on de Sitter spacetime

  16. Poker Player Behavior After Big Wins and Big Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Smith; Michael Levere; Robert Kurtzman

    2009-01-01

    We find that experienced poker players typically change their style of play after winning or losing a big pot--most notably, playing less cautiously after a big loss, evidently hoping for lucky cards that will erase their loss. This finding is consistent with Kahneman and Tversky's (Kahneman, D., A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47(2) 263-292) break-even hypothesis and suggests that when investors incur a large loss, it might be time to take ...

  17. Turning big bang into big bounce: II. Quantum dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: pmalk@fuw.edu.p, E-mail: piech@fuw.edu.p [Theoretical Physics Department, Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-11-21

    We analyze the big bounce transition of the quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model in the setting of the nonstandard loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Elementary observables are used to quantize composite observables. The spectrum of the energy density operator is bounded and continuous. The spectrum of the volume operator is bounded from below and discrete. It has equally distant levels defining a quantum of the volume. The discreteness may imply a foamy structure of spacetime at a semiclassical level which may be detected in astro-cosmo observations. The nonstandard LQC method has a free parameter that should be fixed in some way to specify the big bounce transition.

  18. Big Data Analytics in Medicine and Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevski, Blagoj; Chen, Ming

    2018-05-10

    This paper surveys big data with highlighting the big data analytics in medicine and healthcare. Big data characteristics: value, volume, velocity, variety, veracity and variability are described. Big data analytics in medicine and healthcare covers integration and analysis of large amount of complex heterogeneous data such as various - omics data (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, interactomics, pharmacogenomics, diseasomics), biomedical data and electronic health records data. We underline the challenging issues about big data privacy and security. Regarding big data characteristics, some directions of using suitable and promising open-source distributed data processing software platform are given.

  19. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  20. The challenges of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  2. Sosiaalinen asiakassuhdejohtaminen ja big data

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Topi-Antti

    2015-01-01

    Tässä tutkielmassa käsitellään sosiaalista asiakassuhdejohtamista sekä hyötyjä, joita siihen voidaan saada big datan avulla. Sosiaalinen asiakassuhdejohtaminen on terminä uusi ja monille tuntematon. Tutkimusta motivoi aiheen vähäinen tutkimus, suomenkielisen tutkimuksen puuttuminen kokonaan sekä sosiaalisen asiakassuhdejohtamisen mahdollinen olennainen rooli yritysten toiminnassa tulevaisuudessa. Big dataa käsittelevissä tutkimuksissa keskitytään monesti sen tekniseen puoleen, eikä sovellutuk...

  3. Do big gods cause anything?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2014-01-01

    Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere.......Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere....

  4. Big Data and Social Media

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    A critical analysis of the "keep everything" Big Data era, the impact on our lives of the information, at first glance "convenient for future use" that we make known about ourselves on the network. NB! The lecture will be recorded like all Academic Training lectures. Lecturer's biography: Father of the Internet, see https://internethalloffame.org/inductees/vint-cerf or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vint_Cerf The video on slide number 9 is from page https://www.gapminder.org/tools/#$state$time$value=2018&value;;&chart-type=bubbles   Keywords: Big Data, Internet, History, Applications, tools, privacy, technology, preservation, surveillance, google, Arpanet, CERN, Web  

  5. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)

  6. Release plan for Big Pete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    This release plan is to provide instructions for the Radiological Control Technician (RCT) to conduct surveys for the unconditional release of ''Big Pete,'' which was used in the removal of ''Spacers'' from the N-Reactor. Prior to performing surveys on the rear end portion of ''Big Pete,'' it shall be cleaned (i.e., free of oil, grease, caked soil, heavy dust). If no contamination is found, the vehicle may be released with the permission of the area RCT Supervisor. If contamination is found by any of the surveys, contact the cognizant Radiological Engineer for decontamination instructions

  7. Small quarks make big nuggets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deligeorges, S.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief recall on the classification of subatomic particles, this paper deals with quark nuggets, particle with more than three quarks, a big bag, which is called ''nuclearite''. Neutron stars, in fact, are big sacks of quarks, gigantic nuggets. Now, physicists try to calculate which type of nuggets of strange quark matter is stable, what has been the influence of quark nuggets on the primordial nucleosynthesis. At the present time, one says that if these ''nuggets'' exist, and in a large proportion, they may be candidates for the missing mass [fr

  8. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-06

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented.

  9. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  10. The Inverted Big-Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Vaas, Ruediger

    2004-01-01

    Our universe appears to have been created not out of nothing but from a strange space-time dust. Quantum geometry (loop quantum gravity) makes it possible to avoid the ominous beginning of our universe with its physically unrealistic (i.e. infinite) curvature, extreme temperature, and energy density. This could be the long sought after explanation of the big-bang and perhaps even opens a window into a time before the big-bang: Space itself may have come from an earlier collapsing universe tha...

  11. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice... former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division...

  12. Big Cities, Big Problems: Reason for the Elderly to Move?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, T.; de Jong-Gierveld, J.; Nijkamp, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many European countries, data on geographical patterns of internal elderly migration show that the elderly (55+) are more likely to leave than to move to the big cities. Besides emphasising the attractive features of the destination areas (pull factors), it is often assumed that this negative

  13. Big-Eyed Bugs Have Big Appetite for Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of arthropod natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) inhabit crop fields in Arizona and can have a large negative impact on several pest insect species that also infest these crops. Geocoris spp., commonly known as big-eyed bugs, are among the most abundant insect predators in field c...

  14. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  15. A survey on Big Data Stream Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Big Data can be static on one machine or distributed ... decision making, and process automation. Big data .... Concept Drifting: concept drifting mean the classifier .... transactions generated by a prefix tree structure. EstDec ...

  16. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  17. The theory of the anti-bouncer of dynamic bumping on the plough at forced oscillations of the framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Tarverdyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the work the problem of the use of the external revolting factors is considered which arise from fluctuation of traction resistance of between each other pair-connected yoke and the hulls of the plow, within 27÷98%, with average coefficient of unevenness 3÷5 as power source for irrevocable performance of technological process with due quality.For execution of the principal condition of support of normal operation of the conjugate casing - supports of identity of parameters of their oscillations and congestion avoidance and deviation prefir-trees of admissible amplitude in the case of accidental collision with a hindrance, on the middle of a balance the shock-absorber of dynamic shock is provided.The solution of the task of optimization of parameters of the shock-absorber is based on value of admissible maximum amplitude of oscillations of the slave housing is made in three versions: plough share edge meeting with a motionless obstacle; case meeting with a mobile obstacle; operation of the fluctuating case in non-uniform, on specific resistance, soil conditions with unevenness coefficient to δ=2,9. After the analysis of results of the theory of calculation for three options is established: rigidity, C″ springs of an udarogasitel should be calculated by option at which the difference of resistance of forward and back cases is maximum. Keywords: Plough, Framework, Oscillation, Anti-bouncer, Bumping, Dynamics

  18. Vibrational Comfort on Board the Vehicle: Influence of Speed Bumps and Comparison between Different Categories of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Barone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a study conducted on five different categories of vehicles in a specific test site. The aim was to investigate how the effect of the test site discontinuity determines variations of comfort related to the increase in speed and to the five selected road vehicles of different classes. Measurements were obtained by combining data relating to vibrations in the three reference axes, detected through a vibration dosimeter (VIB-008, and geolocation data (latitude, longitude, and speed identified by the GPS inside a smartphone. This procedure, through the synchronization between dosimeter and GPS location, has been helpful in postprocessing to eliminate any measurement anomalies generated by the operator. After the survey campaign it was determined that a formulation allows defining a Comfort Index (CI depending on velocity and five vehicles of different classes. This study showed that the presence of speed bumps, in the test site investigated, appears to be uncomfortable even at speeds well below those required by the Highway Code.

  19. Regeneration in United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service mixed conifer partial cuttings in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel; S. Conrade. Head

    1983-01-01

    A survey in the Blue Mountains of north-eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington showed that, on the average, partial cuts in the grand fir/big huckleberry community were well stocked with a mixture of advance, natural post-harvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Partial cuts in the mixed conifer/pinegrass community had considerably fewer seedlings...

  20. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-08-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined 'most important' autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61-70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump is largely driven by constructive, schematic factors at retrieval, thereby challenging most existing theoretical accounts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. IS THE LATE NEAR-INFRARED BUMP IN SHORT-HARD GRB 130603B DUE TO THE LI-PACZYNSKI KILONOVA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming; Xu, Dong; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be produced by the merger of two binary compact objects, specifically by two neutron stars or by a neutron star orbiting a black hole. According to the Li-Paczynski kilonova model, the merger would launch sub-relativistic ejecta and a near-infrared/optical transient would then occur, lasting up to days, which is powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements synthesized in the ejecta. The detection of a late bump using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the near-infrared afterglow light curve of the short-hard GRB 130603B is indeed consistent with such a model. However, as shown in this Letter, the limited HST near-infrared light curve behavior can also be interpreted as the synchrotron radiation of the external shock driven by a wide mildly relativistic outflow. In such a scenario, the radio emission is expected to peak with a flux of ∼100 μJy, which is detectable for current radio arrays. Hence, the radio afterglow data can provide complementary evidence on the nature of the bump in GRB 130603B. It is worth noting that good spectroscopy during the bump phase in short-hard bursts can test the validity of either model above, analogous to spectroscopy of broad-lined Type Ic supernova in long-soft GRBs

  2. USING THE 1.6 μm BUMP TO STUDY REST-FRAME NEAR-INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorba, Robert; Sawicki, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    We explore the feasibility and limitations of using the 1.6 μm bump as a photometric redshift indicator and selection technique, and use it to study the rest-frame H-band galaxy luminosity and stellar mass functions (SMFs) at redshift z ∼ 2. We use publicly available Spitzer/IRAC images in the GOODS fields and find that color selection in the IRAC bandpasses alone is comparable in completeness and contamination to BzK selection. We find that the shape of the 1.6 μm bump is robust, and photometric redshifts are not greatly affected by choice of model parameters. Comparison with spectroscopic redshifts shows photometric redshifts to be reliable. We create a rest-frame NIR-selected catalog of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and construct a galaxy SMF. Comparisons with other SMFs at approximately the same redshift but determined using shorter wavelengths show good agreement. This agreement suggests that selection at bluer wavelengths does not miss a significant amount of stellar mass in passive galaxies. Comparison with SMFs at other redshifts shows evidence for the downsizing scenario of galaxy evolution. We conclude by pointing out the potential for using the 1.6 μm bump technique to select high-redshift galaxies with the JWST, whose λ>0.6 μm coverage will not be well suited to selecting galaxies using techniques that require imaging at shorter wavelengths.

  3. BIG DATA-DRIVEN MARKETING: AN ABSTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Suoniemi, Samppa; Meyer-Waarden, Lars; Munzel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Customer information plays a key role in managing successful relationships with valuable customers. Big data customer analytics use (BD use), i.e., the extent to which customer information derived from big data analytics guides marketing decisions, helps firms better meet customer needs for competitive advantage. This study addresses three research questions: What are the key antecedents of big data customer analytics use? How, and to what extent, does big data customer an...

  4. Big data in Finnish financial services

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, M. (Mikko)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aims to explore the concept of big data, and create understanding of big data maturity in the Finnish financial services industry. The research questions of this thesis are “What kind of big data solutions are being implemented in the Finnish financial services sector?” and “Which factors impede faster implementation of big data solutions in the Finnish financial services sector?”. ...

  5. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  6. Big data and urban governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, L.; Richter, C.; Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, K.; Verrest, H.; Ros-Tonen, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the ways in which big data is involved in the rise of smart cities. Mobile phones, sensors and online applications produce streams of data which are used to regulate and plan the city, often in real time, but which presents challenges as to how the city’s functions are seen and

  7. Big Data for personalized healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemons, Liseth; Sieverink, Floor; Vollenbroek, Wouter; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Braakman-Jansen, Annemarie; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette

    2016-01-01

    Big Data, often defined according to the 5V model (volume, velocity, variety, veracity and value), is seen as the key towards personalized healthcare. However, it also confronts us with new technological and ethical challenges that require more sophisticated data management tools and data analysis

  8. Big data en gelijke behandeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; Blok, P.H.; Blok, P.H.

    2017-01-01

    In dit hoofdstuk bekijken we allereerst de voornaamste basisbegrippen inzake gelijke behandeling en discriminatie (paragraaf 6.2). Vervolgens kijken we haar het Nederlandse en Europese juridisch kader inzake non-discriminatie (paragraaf 6.3-6.5) en hoe die regels moeten worden toegepast op big

  9. Research Ethics in Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2017-05-01

    The ethical conduct of research includes, in part, patient agreement to participate in studies and the protection of health information. In the evolving world of data science and the accessibility of large quantities of web-based data created by millions of individuals, novel methodologic approaches to answering research questions are emerging. This article explores research ethics in the context of big data.

  10. Big data e data science

    OpenAIRE

    Cavique, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Neste artigo foram apresentados os conceitos básicos de Big Data e a nova área a que deu origem, a Data Science. Em Data Science foi discutida e exemplificada a noção de redução da dimensionalidade dos dados.

  11. The Case for "Big History."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  12. Finding errors in big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puts, Marco; Daas, Piet; de Waal, A.G.

    No data source is perfect. Mistakes inevitably creep in. Spotting errors is hard enough when dealing with survey responses from several thousand people, but the difficulty is multiplied hugely when that mysterious beast Big Data comes into play. Statistics Netherlands is about to publish its first

  13. Sampling Operations on Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-29

    gories. These include edge sampling methods where edges are selected by a predetermined criteria; snowball sampling methods where algorithms start... Sampling Operations on Big Data Vijay Gadepally, Taylor Herr, Luke Johnson, Lauren Milechin, Maja Milosavljevic, Benjamin A. Miller Lincoln...process and disseminate information for discovery and exploration under real-time constraints. Common signal processing operations such as sampling and

  14. The International Big History Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  15. NASA's Big Data Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. P.; Kinter, J. L.; Beebe, R. F.; Feigelson, E.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Mentzel, C.; Smith, G.; Tino, C.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Two years ago NASA established the Ad Hoc Big Data Task Force (BDTF - https://science.nasa.gov/science-committee/subcommittees/big-data-task-force), an advisory working group with the NASA Advisory Council system. The scope of the Task Force included all NASA Big Data programs, projects, missions, and activities. The Task Force focused on such topics as exploring the existing and planned evolution of NASA's science data cyber-infrastructure that supports broad access to data repositories for NASA Science Mission Directorate missions; best practices within NASA, other Federal agencies, private industry and research institutions; and Federal initiatives related to big data and data access. The BDTF has completed its two-year term and produced several recommendations plus four white papers for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This presentation will discuss the activities and results of the TF including summaries of key points from its focused study topics. The paper serves as an introduction to the papers following in this ESSI session.

  16. Big Math for Little Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, Carole; Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Balfanz, Robert

    2004-01-01

    "Big Math for Little Kids," a comprehensive program for 4- and 5-year-olds, develops and expands on the mathematics that children know and are capable of doing. The program uses activities and stories to develop ideas about number, shape, pattern, logical reasoning, measurement, operations on numbers, and space. The activities introduce the…

  17. BIG DATA IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dealing with a lot of data originating from social media sites and mobile communications among data from business environments and institutions, lead to the definition of a new concept, known as Big Data. The economic impact of the sheer amount of data produced in a last two years has increased rapidly. It is necessary to aggregate all types of data (structured and unstructured in order to improve current transactions, to develop new business models, to provide a real image of the supply and demand and thereby, generate market advantages. So, the companies that turn to Big Data have a competitive advantage over other firms. Looking from the perspective of IT organizations, they must accommodate the storage and processing Big Data, and provide analysis tools that are easily integrated into business processes. This paper aims to discuss aspects regarding the Big Data concept, the principles to build, organize and analyse huge datasets in the business environment, offering a three-layer architecture, based on actual software solutions. Also, the article refers to the graphical tools for exploring and representing unstructured data, Gephi and NodeXL.

  18. From Big Bang to Eternity?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    at different distances (that is, at different epochs in the past) to come to this ... that the expansion started billions of years ago from an explosive Big Bang. Recent research sheds new light on the key cosmological question about the distant ...

  19. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  20. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  1. Big data: een zoektocht naar instituties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, H.G.; Crompvoets, J

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a well-known phenomenon, even a buzzword nowadays. It refers to an abundance of data and new possibilities to process and use them. Big data is subject of many publications. Some pay attention to the many possibilities of big data, others warn us for their consequences. This special

  2. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  3. Data, Data, Data : Big, Linked & Open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Krukkert, D.; Eckartz, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    De gehele business en IT-wereld praat op dit moment over Big Data, een trend die medio 2013 Cloud Computing is gepasseerd (op basis van Google Trends). Ook beleidsmakers houden zich actief bezig met Big Data. Neelie Kroes, vice-president van de Europese Commissie, spreekt over de ‘Big Data

  4. A survey of big data research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Chanpaul Jin; Daneshmand, Mahmoud; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Honggang

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions. PMID:26504265

  5. The BigBoss Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  6. Big Data - Smart Health Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To select best papers published in 2013 in the field of big data and smart health strategies, and summarize outstanding research efforts. Methods A systematic search was performed using two major bibliographic databases for relevant journal papers. The references obtained were reviewed in a two-stage process, starting with a blinded review performed by the two section editors, and followed by a peer review process operated by external reviewers recognized as experts in the field. Results The complete review process selected four best papers, illustrating various aspects of the special theme, among them: (a) using large volumes of unstructured data and, specifically, clinical notes from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) for pharmacovigilance; (b) knowledge discovery via querying large volumes of complex (both structured and unstructured) biological data using big data technologies and relevant tools; (c) methodologies for applying cloud computing and big data technologies in the field of genomics, and (d) system architectures enabling high-performance access to and processing of large datasets extracted from EHRs. Conclusions The potential of big data in biomedicine has been pinpointed in various viewpoint papers and editorials. The review of current scientific literature illustrated a variety of interesting methods and applications in the field, but still the promises exceed the current outcomes. As we are getting closer towards a solid foundation with respect to common understanding of relevant concepts and technical aspects, and the use of standardized technologies and tools, we can anticipate to reach the potential that big data offer for personalized medicine and smart health strategies in the near future. PMID:25123721

  7. Lidar quantification of bank erosion in Blue Earth County, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, A C; Gupta, S C; Dolliver, H A S; Thoma, D P

    2012-01-01

    Sediment and phosphorus (P) transport from the Minnesota River Basin to Lake Pepin on the upper Mississippi River has garnered much attention in recent years. However, there is lack of data on the extent of sediment and P contributions from riverbanks vis-à-vis uplands and ravines. Using two light detection and ranging (lidar) data sets taken in 2005 and 2009, a study was undertaken to quantify sediment and associated P losses from riverbanks in Blue Earth County, Minnesota. Volume change in river valleys as a result of bank erosion amounted to 1.71 million m over 4 yr. Volume change closely followed the trend: the Blue Earth River > the Minnesota River at the county's northern edge > the Le Sueur River > the Maple River > the Watonwan River > the Big Cobb River > Perch Creek > Little Cobb River. Using fine sediment content (silt + clay) and bulk density of 37 bank samples representing three parent materials, we estimate bank erosion contributions of 48 to 79% of the measured total suspended solids at the mouth of the Blue Earth and the Le Sueur rivers. Corresponding soluble P and total P contributions ranged from 0.13 to 0.20% and 40 to 49%, respectively. Although tall banks (>3 m high) accounted for 33% of the total length and 63% of the total area, they accounted for 75% of the volume change in river valleys. We conclude that multitemporal lidar data sets are useful in estimating bank erosion and associated P contributions over large scales, and for riverbanks that are not readily accessible for conventional surveying equipment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Big-Leaf Mahogany on CITES Appendix II: Big Challenge, Big Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAMES GROGAN; PAULO BARRETO

    2005-01-01

    On 15 November 2003, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae), the most valuable widely traded Neotropical timber tree, gained strengthened regulatory protection from its listing on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species ofWild Fauna and Flora (CITES). CITES is a United Nations-chartered agreement signed by 164...

  9. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  10. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  11. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2535 (United States); Chen, Shih-Hung [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Department of Physics and Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Turok, Neil [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2012-08-29

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  12. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  13. Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, Paul L.; Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c) 2 . At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios

  14. The ethics of big data in big agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M. Carbonell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of big data in agriculture, focusing on the power asymmetry between farmers and large agribusinesses like Monsanto. Following the recent purchase of Climate Corp., Monsanto is currently the most prominent biotech agribusiness to buy into big data. With wireless sensors on tractors monitoring or dictating every decision a farmer makes, Monsanto can now aggregate large quantities of previously proprietary farming data, enabling a privileged position with unique insights on a field-by-field basis into a third or more of the US farmland. This power asymmetry may be rebalanced through open-sourced data, and publicly-funded data analytic tools which rival Climate Corp. in complexity and innovation for use in the public domain.

  15. Big Data – Big Deal for Organization Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Janne J. Korhonen

    2014-01-01

    Analytics is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage. It has even been posited that big data will be the next strategic emphasis of organizations and that analytics capability will be manifested in organizational structure. In this article, I explore how analytics capability might be reflected in organizational structure using the notion of  “requisite organization” developed by Jaques (1998). Requisite organization argues that a new strategic emphasis requires the addition ...

  16. Nowcasting using news topics Big Data versus big bank

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsrud, Leif Anders

    2016-01-01

    The agents in the economy use a plethora of high frequency information, including news media, to guide their actions and thereby shape aggregate economic fluctuations. Traditional nowcasting approches have to a relatively little degree made use of such information. In this paper, I show how unstructured textual information in a business newspaper can be decomposed into daily news topics and used to nowcast quarterly GDP growth. Compared with a big bank of experts, here represented by o cial c...

  17. Evaluation of Code Blue Implementation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Özütürk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to emphasize the importance of Code Blue implementation and to determine deficiencies in this regard. Methods: After obtaining the ethics committee approval, 225 patient’s code blue call data between 2012 and 2014 January were retrospectively analyzed. Age and gender of the patients, date and time of the call and the clinics giving Code Blue, the time needed for the Code Blue team to arrive, the rates of false Code Blue calls, reasons for Code Blue calls and patient outcomes were investigated. Results: A total of 225 patients (149 male, 76 female were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.1 years. 142 (67.2% Code Blue calls occurred after hours and by emergency unit. The mean time for the Code Blue team to arrive was 1.10 minutes. Spontaneous circulation was provided in 137 patients (60.8%; 88 (39.1% died. The most commonly identified possible causes were of cardiac origin. Conclusion: This study showed that Code Blue implementation with a professional team within an efficient and targeted time increase the survival rate. Therefore, we conclude that the application of Code Blue carried out by a trained team is an essential standard in hospitals. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:204-8

  18. Big Data in Medicine is Driving Big Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspoor, K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarise current research that takes advantage of “Big Data” in health and biomedical informatics applications. Methods Survey of trends in this work, and exploration of literature describing how large-scale structured and unstructured data sources are being used to support applications from clinical decision making and health policy, to drug design and pharmacovigilance, and further to systems biology and genetics. Results The survey highlights ongoing development of powerful new methods for turning that large-scale, and often complex, data into information that provides new insights into human health, in a range of different areas. Consideration of this body of work identifies several important paradigm shifts that are facilitated by Big Data resources and methods: in clinical and translational research, from hypothesis-driven research to data-driven research, and in medicine, from evidence-based practice to practice-based evidence. Conclusions The increasing scale and availability of large quantities of health data require strategies for data management, data linkage, and data integration beyond the limits of many existing information systems, and substantial effort is underway to meet those needs. As our ability to make sense of that data improves, the value of the data will continue to increase. Health systems, genetics and genomics, population and public health; all areas of biomedicine stand to benefit from Big Data and the associated technologies. PMID:25123716

  19. Big data is not a monolith

    CERN Document Server

    Ekbia, Hamid R; Mattioli, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Big data is ubiquitous but heterogeneous. Big data can be used to tally clicks and traffic on web pages, find patterns in stock trades, track consumer preferences, identify linguistic correlations in large corpuses of texts. This book examines big data not as an undifferentiated whole but contextually, investigating the varied challenges posed by big data for health, science, law, commerce, and politics. Taken together, the chapters reveal a complex set of problems, practices, and policies. The advent of big data methodologies has challenged the theory-driven approach to scientific knowledge in favor of a data-driven one. Social media platforms and self-tracking tools change the way we see ourselves and others. The collection of data by corporations and government threatens privacy while promoting transparency. Meanwhile, politicians, policy makers, and ethicists are ill-prepared to deal with big data's ramifications. The contributors look at big data's effect on individuals as it exerts social control throu...

  20. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can...

  1. Markkinointisuunnitelma Case: Ringetteseura Blue Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, Minna

    2012-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on markkinointisuunnitelman laatiminen ringetteseura Blue Ringsin edustusjoukkueelle. Lähtökohtana on pidetty suunnitelman toteutuskelpoisuutta käytännössä sekä suunnitelman reaalisuutta. Opinnäytetyö on toteutettu projektityönä, jossa on käytetty benchmarkkauksen lisäksi sekä kvalitatiivisia että empiirisiä tutkimusmenetelmiä. Opinnäytetyö koostuu kahdesta osiosta; teoreettinen viitekehys sekä empiirinen osio. Teoriana opinnäytetyössä on käytetty markkinoinn...

  2. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - XII. The RGB bumps of multiple stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A. J.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; Barbuy, B.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T.; D'Antona, F.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Renzini, A.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.; van der Marel, R.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-04-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters is providing a major breakthrough in our knowledge of globular clusters (GCs) and their stellar populations. Among the main results, we discovered that all the studied GCs host two main discrete groups consisting of first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) stars. We exploit the multiwavelength photometry from this project to investigate, for the first time, the Red Giant Branch Bump (RGBB) of the two generations in a large sample of GCs. We identified, with high statistical significance, the RGBB of 1G and 2G stars in 26 GCs and found that their magnitude separation as a function of the filter wavelength follows comparable trends. The comparison of observations to synthetic spectra reveals that the RGBB luminosity depends on the stellar chemical composition and that the 2G RGBB is consistent with stars enhanced in He and N and depleted in C and O with respect to 1G stars. For metal-poor GCs the 1G and 2G RGBB relative luminosity in optical bands mostly depends on helium content, Y. We used the RGBB observations in F606W and F814W bands to infer the relative helium abundance of 1G and 2G stars in 18 GCs, finding an average helium enhancement ΔY = 0.011 ± 0.002 of 2G stars with respect to 1G stars. This is the first determination of the average difference in helium abundance of multiple populations in a large number of clusters and provides a lower limit to the maximum internal variation of helium in GCs.

  3. Safety and efficacy of the bumped kinase inhibitor BKI-1553 in pregnant sheep experimentally infected with Neospora caninum tachyzoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, and recent studies have highlighted its relevance as an abortifacient in small ruminants. Vaccines or drugs for the control of neosporosis are lacking. Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs, which are ATP-competitive inhibitors of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1, were shown to be highly efficacious against several apicomplexan parasites in vitro and in laboratory animal models. We here present the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of BKI-1553 in pregnant ewes and foetuses using a pregnant sheep model of N. caninum infection. BKI-1553 showed exposure in pregnant ewes with trough concentrations of approximately 4 μM, and of 1  μM in foetuses. Subcutaneous BKI-1553 administration increased rectal temperatures shortly after treatment, and resulted in dermal nodules triggering a slight monocytosis after repeated doses at short intervals. BKI-1553 treatment decreased fever in infected pregnant ewes already after two applications, resulted in a 37–50% reduction in foetal mortality, and modulated immune responses; IFNγ levels were increased early after infection and IgG levels were reduced subsequently. N. caninum was abundantly found in placental tissues; however, parasite detection in foetal brain tissue decreased from 94% in the infected/untreated group to 69–71% in the treated groups. In summary, BKI-1553 confers partial protection against abortion in a ruminant experimental model of N. caninum infection during pregnancy. In addition, reduced parasite detection, parasite load and lesions in foetal brains were observed. Keywords: Neospora caninum, Sheep, Pregnancy, Treatment, Protein kinase inhibitor, BKI-1553

  4. Big Data for Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Richard Leff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the potential impact of big data analysis to improve health, prevent and detect disease at an earlier stage, and personalize interventions. The role that big data analytics may have in interrogating the patient electronic health record toward improved clinical decision support is discussed. We examine developments in pharmacogenetics that have increased our appreciation of the reasons why patients respond differently to chemotherapy. We also assess the expansion of online health communications and the way in which this data may be capitalized on in order to detect public health threats and control or contain epidemics. Finally, we describe how a new generation of wearable and implantable body sensors may improve wellbeing, streamline management of chronic diseases, and improve the quality of surgical implants.

  5. Big Data hvor N=1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2017-01-01

    Forskningen vedrørende anvendelsen af ’big data’ indenfor sundhed er kun lige begyndt, og kan på sigt blive en stor hjælp i forhold til at tilrettelægge en mere personlig og helhedsorienteret sundhedsindsats for multisyge. Personlig sundhedsteknologi, som kort præsenteres i dette kapital, rummer et...... stor potentiale for at gennemføre ’big data’ analyser for den enkelte person, det vil sige hvor N=1. Der er store teknologiske udfordringer i at få lavet teknologier og metoder til at indsamle og håndtere personlige data, som kan deles, på tværs på en standardiseret, forsvarlig, robust, sikker og ikke...

  6. George and the big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2012-01-01

    George has problems. He has twin baby sisters at home who demand his parents’ attention. His beloved pig Freddy has been exiled to a farm, where he’s miserable. And worst of all, his best friend, Annie, has made a new friend whom she seems to like more than George. So George jumps at the chance to help Eric with his plans to run a big experiment in Switzerland that seeks to explore the earliest moment of the universe. But there is a conspiracy afoot, and a group of evildoers is planning to sabotage the experiment. Can George repair his friendship with Annie and piece together the clues before Eric’s experiment is destroyed forever? This engaging adventure features essays by Professor Stephen Hawking and other eminent physicists about the origins of the universe and ends with a twenty-page graphic novel that explains how the Big Bang happened—in reverse!

  7. Did the Big Bang begin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy-Leblond, J.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that the age of the universe may well be numerically finite (20 billion years or so) and conceptually infinite. A new and natural time scale is defined on a physical basis using group-theoretical arguments. An additive notion of time is obtained according to which the age of the universe is indeed infinite. In other words, never did the Big Bang begin. This new time scale is not supposed to replace the ordinary cosmic time scale, but to supplement it (in the same way as rapidity has taken a place by the side of velocity in Einsteinian relativity). The question is discussed within the framework of conventional (big-bang) and classical (nonquantum) cosmology, but could easily be extended to more elaborate views, as the purpose is not so much to modify present theories as to reach a deeper understanding of their meaning

  8. Big Data in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nathan; Cambruzzi, Jean; Cox, Peter J; Davies, Mark; Dunbar, James; Plumbley, Dean; Sellwood, Matthew A; Sim, Aaron; Williams-Jones, Bryn I; Zwierzyna, Magdalena; Sheppard, David W

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation of Big Data in the drug discovery community should enhance project timelines and reduce clinical attrition through improved early decision making. The issues we encounter start with the sheer volume of data and how we first ingest it before building an infrastructure to house it to make use of the data in an efficient and productive way. There are many problems associated with the data itself including general reproducibility, but often, it is the context surrounding an experiment that is critical to success. Help, in the form of artificial intelligence (AI), is required to understand and translate the context. On the back of natural language processing pipelines, AI is also used to prospectively generate new hypotheses by linking data together. We explain Big Data from the context of biology, chemistry and clinical trials, showcasing some of the impressive public domain sources and initiatives now available for interrogation. © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. String theory and pre-big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, M.; Veneziano, G.

    2016-09-01

    In string theory, the traditional picture of a Universe that emerges from the inflation of a very small and highly curved space-time patch is a possibility, not a necessity: quite different initial conditions are possible, and not necessarily unlikely. In particular, the duality symmetries of string theory suggest scenarios in which the Universe starts inflating from an initial state characterized by very small curvature and interactions. Such a state, being gravitationally unstable, will evolve towards higher curvature and coupling, until string-size effects and loop corrections make the Universe "bounce" into a standard, decreasing-curvature regime. In such a context, the hot big bang of conventional cosmology is replaced by a "hot big bounce" in which the bouncing and heating mechanisms originate from the quantum production of particles in the high-curvature, large-coupling pre-bounce phase. Here we briefly summarize the main features of this inflationary scenario, proposed a quarter century ago. In its simplest version (where it represents an alternative and not a complement to standard slow-roll inflation) it can produce a viable spectrum of density perturbations, together with a tensor component characterized by a "blue" spectral index with a peak in the GHz frequency range. That means, phenomenologically, a very small contribution to a primordial B-mode in the CMB polarization, and the possibility of a large enough stochastic background of gravitational waves to be measurable by present or future gravitational wave detectors.

  10. Big Data and central banks

    OpenAIRE

    David Bholat

    2015-01-01

    This commentary recaps a Centre for Central Banking Studies event held at the Bank of England on 2–3 July 2014. The article covers three main points. First, it situates the Centre for Central Banking Studies event within the context of the Bank’s Strategic Plan and initiatives. Second, it summarises and reflects on major themes from the event. Third, the article links central banks’ emerging interest in Big Data approaches with their broader uptake by other economic agents.

  11. Big Bang or vacuum fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some general properties of vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theory are described. The connection between the ''energy dominance'' of the energy density of vacuum fluctuations in curved space-time and the presence of singularity is discussed. It is pointed out that a de-Sitter space-time (with the energy density of the vacuum fluctuations in the Einstein equations) that matches the expanding Friedman solution may describe the history of the Universe before the Big Bang. (P.L.)

  12. Big bang is not needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, A.D.

    1976-02-01

    Recent computer simulations indicate that a system of n gravitating masses breaks up, even when the total energy is negative. As a result, almost any initial phase-space distribution results in a universe that eventually expands under the Hubble law. Hence Hubble expansion implies little regarding an initial cosmic state. Especially it does not imply the singularly dense superpositioned state used in the big bang model.

  13. Electronic properties of blue phosphorene/graphene and blue phosphorene/graphene-like gallium nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minglei; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng

    2017-07-05

    Blue phosphorene (BlueP) is a graphene-like phosphorus nanosheet which was synthesized very recently for the first time [Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 4903-4908]. The combination of electronic properties of two different two-dimensional materials in an ultrathin van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructure has been proved to be an effective approach to the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Therefore, we used density functional theory to investigate the structural and electronic properties of two BlueP-based heterostructures - BlueP/graphene (BlueP/G) and BlueP/graphene-like gallium nitride (BlueP/g-GaN). Our results showed that the semiconducting nature of BlueP and the Dirac cone of G are well preserved in the BlueP/G vdW heterostructure. Moreover, by applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to tune the position of the Dirac cone of G with respect to the band edge of BlueP, resulting in the ability to control the Schottky barrier height. For the BlueP/g-GaN vdW heterostructure, BlueP forms an interface with g-GaN with a type-II band alignment, which is a promising feature for unipolar electronic device applications. Furthermore, we discovered that both G and g-GaN can be used as an active layer for BlueP to facilitate charge injection and enhance the device performance.

  14. Big data: the management revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Andrew; Brynjolfsson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Big data, the authors write, is far more powerful than the analytics of the past. Executives can measure and therefore manage more precisely than ever before. They can make better predictions and smarter decisions. They can target more-effective interventions in areas that so far have been dominated by gut and intuition rather than by data and rigor. The differences between big data and analytics are a matter of volume, velocity, and variety: More data now cross the internet every second than were stored in the entire internet 20 years ago. Nearly real-time information makes it possible for a company to be much more agile than its competitors. And that information can come from social networks, images, sensors, the web, or other unstructured sources. The managerial challenges, however, are very real. Senior decision makers have to learn to ask the right questions and embrace evidence-based decision making. Organizations must hire scientists who can find patterns in very large data sets and translate them into useful business information. IT departments have to work hard to integrate all the relevant internal and external sources of data. The authors offer two success stories to illustrate how companies are using big data: PASSUR Aerospace enables airlines to match their actual and estimated arrival times. Sears Holdings directly analyzes its incoming store data to make promotions much more precise and faster.

  15. Big Data Comes to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Cope

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of “big data” at once evokes optimistic views of an information-rich future and concerns about surveillance that adversely impacts our personal and private lives. This overview article explores the implications of big data in education, focusing by way of example on data generated by student writing. We have chosen writing because it presents particular complexities, highlighting the range of processes for collecting and interpreting evidence of learning in the era of computer-mediated instruction and assessment as well as the challenges. Writing is significant not only because it is central to the core subject area of literacy; it is also an ideal medium for the representation of deep disciplinary knowledge across a number of subject areas. After defining what big data entails in education, we map emerging sources of evidence of learning that separately and together have the potential to generate unprecedented amounts of data: machine assessments, structured data embedded in learning, and unstructured data collected incidental to learning activity. Our case is that these emerging sources of evidence of learning have significant implications for the traditional relationships between assessment and instruction. Moreover, for educational researchers, these data are in some senses quite different from traditional evidentiary sources, and this raises a number of methodological questions. The final part of the article discusses implications for practice in an emerging field of education data science, including publication of data, data standards, and research ethics.

  16. Starbursts in Blue compact dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize all the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies. We show in particular how spectral synthesis of far ultraviolet spectra of Blue compact dwarf galaxy constitutes a powerful way for studying the star formation history in these galaxies. Blue compact dwarf galaxy luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, helping us to count and date the bursts

  17. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  18. DNA damage in lung after oral exposure to diesel exhaust particles in Big Blue (R) rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Farombi, E.O.; Møller, P.

    2004-01-01

    Several chemical mutagens and carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs, are adsorbed to the surface of diesel exhaust particles (DEP). DEP can induce formation of reactive oxygen species and cause oxidative DNA damage as well as bulky carcinogen DNA adducts....... Lung tissue is a target organ for DEP induced cancer following inhalation. Recent studies have provided evidence that the lung is also a target organ for DNA damage and cancer after oral exposure to other complex mixtures of PAHs. The genotoxic effect of oral administration of DEP was investigated...

  19. Women taking the “blue pill” (sildenafil citrate: such a big deal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Monte G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Lo Monte, Angela Graziano, Isabella Piva, Roberto Marci Department of Morphology, Surgery, and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy Abstract: For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra® in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate should be kept as the last option. Keywords: phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD, sildenafil citrate

  20. Women taking the "blue pill" (sildenafil citrate): such a big deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Graziano, Angela; Piva, Isabella; Marci, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra(®)) in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate) should be kept as the last option.

  1. Women taking the “blue pill” (sildenafil citrate): such a big deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Graziano, Angela; Piva, Isabella; Marci, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate) should be kept as the last option. PMID:25422584

  2. On the evolutionary status and pulsations of the recently discovered blue large-amplitude pulsators (BLAPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alejandra D.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Pelisoli, I.; Kepler, S. O.

    2018-06-01

    The blue large-amplitude pulsators (BLAPs) constitute a new class of pulsating stars. They are hot stars with effective temperatures of ˜30 000 K and surface gravities of log g ˜ 4.9, that pulsate with periods in the range 20-40 min. Until now, their origin and evolutionary state, as well as the nature of their pulsations, were not been unveiled. In this paper, we propose that the BLAPs are the hot counterpart of the already known pulsating pre-extremely low mass (pre-ELM) white dwarf (WD) stars, that are He-core low-mass stars resulting from interacting binary evolution. Using fully evolutionary sequences, we show that the BLAPs are well represented by pre-ELM WD models with high effective temperature and stellar masses ˜0.34 M⊙. From the analysis of their pulsational properties, we find that the observed variabilities can be explained by high-order non-radial g-mode pulsations or, in the case of the shortest periods, also by low-order radial modes, including the fundamental radial mode. The theoretical modes with periods in the observed range are unstable due to the κ mechanism associated with the Z-bump in the opacity at log T ˜ 5.25.

  3. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, H.C.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.W.; Nemec, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  4. Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Why are blue-collar blacks less likely to help jobseekers than jobholders from other ethnoracial groups or even than more affluent blacks? Drawing from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 97 black and Latino workers at one large, public sector employer, we find that blue-collar black workers both helped less proactively and rejected more requests for assistance than did blue-collar Latino and white-collar black workers. We attribute blue-collar blacks’ more passive engagement to their...

  5. The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention, Kimberly MackMy dissertation examines representations of black American blues musicians in contemporary American fiction, drama, and popular music, and it argues that blues music can be examined as a narrative art rooted in the tradition of fictionalized autobiographical self-fashioning. I contend that the contemporary, multi-racial, literary and musical characters in my project who participate in so-called...

  6. Forming mechanism and avoiding measures of blue-ring on electronic beam welding sample after water corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Defang; Luo Xiandian; Tong Shenxiu; Guo Xulin; Peng Haiqing

    2001-01-01

    After water corrosion in compliance with ASTM G2, the blue ring appears on the nuclear fuel rod samples of AFA 2G welded by using a Big Chamber Electron Beam Welder made in Russia. The characteristics, appearance, chemical composition, microstructure of b lue ring a nd some condition test are described. The mechanism of forming blue ring may be depicted as following: welding metal vapor and the splash produced by secondary and scatter electrons on metal clamp and gun body deposit in the area between HAZ and substrate because of the water cooling down effects on the clamp; these deposits, after water corrosion, appears as blue ring on the fuel rod surface. Avoiding measure is that the side of the clamp closing to weld seal is chamfered, while making the welding chamber cleaner

  7. Turning big bang into big bounce. I. Classical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierżak, Piotr; Małkiewicz, Przemysław; Piechocki, Włodzimierz

    2009-11-01

    The big bounce (BB) transition within a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model is analyzed in the setting of loop geometry underlying the loop cosmology. We solve the constraint of the theory at the classical level to identify physical phase space and find the Lie algebra of the Dirac observables. We express energy density of matter and geometrical functions in terms of the observables. It is the modification of classical theory by the loop geometry that is responsible for BB. The classical energy scale specific to BB depends on a parameter that should be fixed either by cosmological data or determined theoretically at quantum level, otherwise the energy scale stays unknown.

  8. Recent developments in MrBUMP: better search-model preparation, graphical interaction with search models, and solution improvement and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Ronan M; McNicholas, Stuart J; Thomas, Jens M H; Simpkin, Adam J; Simkovic, Felix; Uski, Ville; Ballard, Charles C; Winn, Martyn D; Wilson, Keith S; Rigden, Daniel J

    2018-03-01

    Increasing sophistication in molecular-replacement (MR) software and the rapid expansion of the PDB in recent years have allowed the technique to become the dominant method for determining the phases of a target structure in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. In addition, improvements in bioinformatic techniques for finding suitable homologous structures for use as MR search models, combined with developments in refinement and model-building techniques, have pushed the applicability of MR to lower sequence identities and made weak MR solutions more amenable to refinement and improvement. MrBUMP is a CCP4 pipeline which automates all stages of the MR procedure. Its scope covers everything from the sourcing and preparation of suitable search models right through to rebuilding of the positioned search model. Recent improvements to the pipeline include the adoption of more sensitive bioinformatic tools for sourcing search models, enhanced model-preparation techniques including better ensembling of homologues, and the use of phase improvement and model building on the resulting solution. The pipeline has also been deployed as an online service through CCP4 online, which allows its users to exploit large bioinformatic databases and coarse-grained parallelism to speed up the determination of a possible solution. Finally, the molecular-graphics application CCP4mg has been combined with MrBUMP to provide an interactive visual aid to the user during the process of selecting and manipulating search models for use in MR. Here, these developments in MrBUMP are described with a case study to explore how some of the enhancements to the pipeline and to CCP4mg can help to solve a difficult case.

  9. Big Data Knowledge in Global Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, Olaniyi; Kekeh, Michele; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    The ability to synthesize and analyze massive amounts of data is critical to the success of organizations, including those that involve global health. As countries become highly interconnected, increasing the risk for pandemics and outbreaks, the demand for big data is likely to increase. This requires a global health workforce that is trained in the effective use of big data. To assess implementation of big data training in global health, we conducted a pilot survey of members of the Consortium of Universities of Global Health. More than half the respondents did not have a big data training program at their institution. Additionally, the majority agreed that big data training programs will improve global health deliverables, among other favorable outcomes. Given the observed gap and benefits, global health educators may consider investing in big data training for students seeking a career in global health. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction of blue tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, T.; Wert, C.; Woodhouse, J.; Morcom, W.

    1975-01-01

    A significant portion of commercial tungsten is produced by hydrogen reduction of oxides. Although several modes of reduction are possible, hydrogen reduction is used where high purity tungsten is required and where the addition of other elements or compounds is desired for modification of the metal, as is done for filaments in the lamp industry. Although several investigations of the reduction of oxides have been reported (1 to 5), few principles have been developed which can aid in assessment of current commercial practice. The reduction process was examined under conditions approximating commercial practice. The specific objectives were to determine the effects of dopants, of water vapor in the reducing atmosphere, and of reduction temperature upon: (1) the rate of the reaction by which blue tungsten oxide is reduced to tungsten metal, (2) the intermediate oxides associated with reduction, and (3) the morphology of the resulting tungsten powder

  11. Big Data Strategy for Telco: Network Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    F. Amin; S. Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Big data has the potential to improve the quality of services; enable infrastructure that businesses depend on to adapt continually and efficiently; improve the performance of employees; help organizations better understand customers; and reduce liability risks. Analytics and marketing models of fixed and mobile operators are falling short in combating churn and declining revenue per user. Big Data presents new method to reverse the way and improve profitability. The benefits of Big Data and ...

  12. Big Data in Shipping - Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Rødseth, Ørnulf Jan; Perera, Lokukaluge Prasad; Mo, Brage

    2016-01-01

    Big Data is getting popular in shipping where large amounts of information is collected to better understand and improve logistics, emissions, energy consumption and maintenance. Constraints to the use of big data include cost and quality of on-board sensors and data acquisition systems, satellite communication, data ownership and technical obstacles to effective collection and use of big data. New protocol standards may simplify the process of collecting and organizing the data, including in...

  13. Big Data in Action for Government : Big Data Innovation in Public Services, Policy, and Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Governments have an opportunity to harness big data solutions to improve productivity, performance and innovation in service delivery and policymaking processes. In developing countries, governments have an opportunity to adopt big data solutions and leapfrog traditional administrative approaches

  14. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  15. Blue jay attacks and consumes cedar waxwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Joshua B. Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are known to be common predators on bird nests (Wilcove 1985, Picman and Schriml 1994). In addition to predation on eggs and nestlings, Blue Jays occasionally prey on fledgling and adult birds (Johnson and Johnson 1976, Dubowy 1985). A majority of reports involve predation on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and other small birds (...

  16. The secret of the blue fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Oliver; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Why certain liquids turn blue when cooled was a mystery that stumped scientists for more than a century. As Oliver Henrich and Davide Marenduzzo explain, solving the secret of the “blue fog” proved to be an intellectual tour de force - and one that could lead to new types of display devices

  17. Big data optimization recent developments and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to provide the necessary background to work with big data by introducing some novel optimization algorithms and codes capable of working in the big data setting as well as introducing some applications in big data optimization for both academics and practitioners interested, and to benefit society, industry, academia, and government. Presenting applications in a variety of industries, this book will be useful for the researchers aiming to analyses large scale data. Several optimization algorithms for big data including convergent parallel algorithms, limited memory bundle algorithm, diagonal bundle method, convergent parallel algorithms, network analytics, and many more have been explored in this book.

  18. Medical big data: promise and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Ho Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  19. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  20. Medical big data: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  1. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  2. Big Data's Role in Precision Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Shawn

    2018-01-01

    Precision public health is an emerging practice to more granularly predict and understand public health risks and customize treatments for more specific and homogeneous subpopulations, often using new data, technologies, and methods. Big data is one element that has consistently helped to achieve these goals, through its ability to deliver to practitioners a volume and variety of structured or unstructured data not previously possible. Big data has enabled more widespread and specific research and trials of stratifying and segmenting populations at risk for a variety of health problems. Examples of success using big data are surveyed in surveillance and signal detection, predicting future risk, targeted interventions, and understanding disease. Using novel big data or big data approaches has risks that remain to be resolved. The continued growth in volume and variety of available data, decreased costs of data capture, and emerging computational methods mean big data success will likely be a required pillar of precision public health into the future. This review article aims to identify the precision public health use cases where big data has added value, identify classes of value that big data may bring, and outline the risks inherent in using big data in precision public health efforts.

  3. Big data analytics with R and Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Prajapati, Vignesh

    2013-01-01

    Big Data Analytics with R and Hadoop is a tutorial style book that focuses on all the powerful big data tasks that can be achieved by integrating R and Hadoop.This book is ideal for R developers who are looking for a way to perform big data analytics with Hadoop. This book is also aimed at those who know Hadoop and want to build some intelligent applications over Big data with R packages. It would be helpful if readers have basic knowledge of R.

  4. Big Data; A Management Revolution : The emerging role of big data in businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Blasiak, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Big data is a term that was coined in 2012 and has since then emerged to one of the top trends in business and technology. Big data is an agglomeration of different technologies resulting in data processing capabilities that have been unreached before. Big data is generally characterized by 4 factors. Volume, velocity and variety. These three factors distinct it from the traditional data use. The possibilities to utilize this technology are vast. Big data technology has touch points in differ...

  5. BigDataBench: a Big Data Benchmark Suite from Internet Services

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Jianfeng; Luo, Chunjie; Zhu, Yuqing; Yang, Qiang; He, Yongqiang; Gao, Wanling; Jia, Zhen; Shi, Yingjie; Zhang, Shujie; Zheng, Chen; Lu, Gang; Zhan, Kent; Li, Xiaona; Qiu, Bizhu

    2014-01-01

    As architecture, systems, and data management communities pay greater attention to innovative big data systems and architectures, the pressure of benchmarking and evaluating these systems rises. Considering the broad use of big data systems, big data benchmarks must include diversity of data and workloads. Most of the state-of-the-art big data benchmarking efforts target evaluating specific types of applications or system software stacks, and hence they are not qualified for serving the purpo...

  6. The faces of Big Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Gottfried

    2014-06-01

    Fifty years ago, academic science was a calling with few regulations or financial rewards. Today, it is a huge enterprise confronted by a plethora of bureaucratic and political controls. This change was not triggered by specific events or decisions but reflects the explosive 'knee' in the exponential growth that science has sustained during the past three-and-a-half centuries. Coming to terms with the demands and benefits of 'Big Science' is a major challenge for today's scientific generation. Since its foundation 50 years ago, the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) has been of invaluable help in meeting this challenge.

  7. Big Data and central banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bholat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This commentary recaps a Centre for Central Banking Studies event held at the Bank of England on 2–3 July 2014. The article covers three main points. First, it situates the Centre for Central Banking Studies event within the context of the Bank’s Strategic Plan and initiatives. Second, it summarises and reflects on major themes from the event. Third, the article links central banks’ emerging interest in Big Data approaches with their broader uptake by other economic agents.

  8. Inhomogeneous Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, J. F.; Kajino, T.; Mathews, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We reanalyze the allowed parameters for inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis in light of the WMAP constraints on the baryon-to-photon ratio and a recent measurement which has set the neutron lifetime to be 878.5 +/- 0.7 +/- 0.3 seconds. For a set baryon-to-photon ratio the new lifetime reduces the mass fraction of He4 by 0.0015 but does not significantly change the abundances of other isotopes. This enlarges the region of concordance between He4 and deuterium in the parameter space of the b...

  9. Comparative validity of brief to medium-length Big Five and Big Six personality questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalmayer, A.G.; Saucier, G.; Eigenhuis, A.

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five

  10. Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are…

  11. Big Data en surveillance, deel 1 : Definities en discussies omtrent Big Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk

    2016-01-01

    Naar aanleiding van een (vrij kort) college over surveillance en Big Data, werd me gevraagd iets dieper in te gaan op het thema, definities en verschillende vraagstukken die te maken hebben met big data. In dit eerste deel zal ik proberen e.e.a. uiteen te zetten betreft Big Data theorie en

  12. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N069; FXRS1265030000S3-123-FF03R06000] Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and... plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR) for...

  13. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  14. Constraints on pre-big-bang parameter space from CMBR anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozza, V.; Gasperini, M.; Giovannini, M.; Veneziano, G.

    2003-01-01

    The so-called curvaton mechanism--a way to convert isocurvature perturbations into adiabatic ones--is investigated both analytically and numerically in a pre-big-bang scenario where the role of the curvaton is played by a sufficiently massive Kalb-Ramond axion of superstring theory. When combined with observations of CMBR anisotropies at large and moderate angular scales, the present analysis allows us to constrain quite considerably the parameter space of the model: in particular, the initial displacement of the axion from the minimum of its potential and the rate of evolution of the compactification volume during pre-big-bang inflation. The combination of theoretical and experimental constraints favors a slightly blue spectrum of scalar perturbations, and/or a value of the string scale in the vicinity of the SUSY GUT scale

  15. Constraints on pre-big bang parameter space from CMBR anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, Valerio; Giovannini, Massimo; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2003-01-01

    The so-called curvaton mechanism --a way to convert isocurvature perturbations into adiabatic ones-- is investigated both analytically and numerically in a pre-big bang scenario where the role of the curvaton is played by a sufficiently massive Kalb--Ramond axion of superstring theory. When combined with observations of CMBR anisotropies at large and moderate angular scales, the present analysis allows us to constrain quite considerably the parameter space of the model: in particular, the initial displacement of the axion from the minimum of its potential and the rate of evolution of the compactification volume during pre-big bang inflation. The combination of theoretical and experimental constraints favours a slightly blue spectrum of scalar perturbations, and/or a value of the string scale in the vicinity of the SUSY-GUT scale.

  16. An analysis of cross-sectional differences in big and non-big public accounting firms' audit programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokdijk, J.H. (Hans); Drieenhuizen, F.; Stein, M.T.; Simunic, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant body of prior research has shown that audits by the Big 5 (now Big 4) public accounting firms are quality differentiated relative to non-Big 5 audits. This result can be derived analytically by assuming that Big 5 and non-Big 5 firms face different loss functions for "audit failures"

  17. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  18. Georges et le big bang

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Georges et Annie, sa meilleure amie, sont sur le point d'assister à l'une des plus importantes expériences scientifiques de tous les temps : explorer les premiers instants de l'Univers, le Big Bang ! Grâce à Cosmos, leur super ordinateur, et au Grand Collisionneur de hadrons créé par Éric, le père d'Annie, ils vont enfin pouvoir répondre à cette question essentielle : pourquoi existons nous ? Mais Georges et Annie découvrent qu'un complot diabolique se trame. Pire, c'est toute la recherche scientifique qui est en péril ! Entraîné dans d'incroyables aventures, Georges ira jusqu'aux confins de la galaxie pour sauver ses amis...Une plongée passionnante au coeur du Big Bang. Les toutes dernières théories de Stephen Hawking et des plus grands scientifiques actuels.

  19. Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaelian Areg M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ-rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc., proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia, variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS, and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA. An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  20. Big data in oncologic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regge, Daniele; Mazzetti, Simone; Giannini, Valentina; Bracco, Christian; Stasi, Michele

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is a complex disease and unfortunately understanding how the components of the cancer system work does not help understand the behavior of the system as a whole. In the words of the Greek philosopher Aristotle "the whole is greater than the sum of parts." To date, thanks to improved information technology infrastructures, it is possible to store data from each single cancer patient, including clinical data, medical images, laboratory tests, and pathological and genomic information. Indeed, medical archive storage constitutes approximately one-third of total global storage demand and a large part of the data are in the form of medical images. The opportunity is now to draw insight on the whole to the benefit of each individual patient. In the oncologic patient, big data analysis is at the beginning but several useful applications can be envisaged including development of imaging biomarkers to predict disease outcome, assessing the risk of X-ray dose exposure or of renal damage following the administration of contrast agents, and tracking and optimizing patient workflow. The aim of this review is to present current evidence of how big data derived from medical images may impact on the diagnostic pathway of the oncologic patient.